Pearce, Dr Bruce
Overall Aim To develop a robust system for identifying, testing, multiplying and marketing cereal varieties, lines, mixtures and populations best suited to organic production in different parts of the country. Objectives 1. Develop a participatory research and development methodology for UK organic farmers using variety trialling and the management of seed-borne disease as examples. 2. Collect information on the range of cereal varieties currently grown by organic farmers to ...
Singh, R.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kumar, R.; Visser, R.G.F.; Yadvac, R.C.
From the last few years a debate has been continuing over the issue of malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries. The present article investigates the importance of participatory varietal selection in the development of a suitable cultivar of mungbean along with the nutritional content and
This paper examines the influence of gender relations and gendered domains on maize and squash varietal selection in a village in Yucatán State, southeast Mexico. Results of the exploratory study indicate that the traditional production spaces of homegardens and agricultural fields are complementary
The Sino-Japan cooperation project of "Vegetation Rehabilitation Demonstration and Planning in Sandstorm Jeopardized Area around Beijing" introduced participatory method to select the project area. Through investigating the socioeconomic indicators of 9 villages in Beijing and Hebei Province as well as the farmers’ willingness to participate in forestry operation activities, the vegetation restoration demonstration areas were selected, including Hantai Village, Baicaowa Village and Xiabachi Village, respect...
Full Text Available The action research project reported in this article used a participatory approach to select trees for sloping-land agroforestry as a key strategy for forest ecosystem restoration and local livelihood development. It was the first such project in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea to use a participatory approach, empowering local user groups to develop their preferences for agroforestry species. Local knowledge of the multiple functions of agroforestry species ensured that the tree selection criteria included the value of timber, fruit, fodder, oil, medicines, fuelwood, and erosion control. Involving 67 farmers from 3 counties, this participatory selection process resulted in Prunus armeniaca, Castanea crenata, and Ziziphus jujuba being selected as the top 3 species for the development of sloping-land agroforestry in North Hwanghae Province. These trees embody what the region’s farmers value most: erosion control, production of fruit, and economic value. The participatory approach in agroforestry could help to meet both local needs for food security and the national objective of environmental conservation and has great potential for wide adaptation in North Korea and beyond.
Gizaw, S.; Lemma, S.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
A farmer participatory approach was used to define breeding objectives and selection indexes for short-fat-tailed sheep in sheep–barley systems and Black Head Somali sheep in pastoral systems in Ethiopia. Breeding-objective traits were identified based on producers' preferences for traits collected
Full Text Available Ongoing global climate changes imply new challenges for agriculture. Whether plants and crops can adapt to such rapid changes is still a widely debated question. We previously showed adaptation in the form of earlier flowering in pearl millet at the scale of a whole country over three decades. However, this analysis did not deal with variability of year to year selection. To understand and possibly manage plant and crop adaptation, we need more knowledge of how selection acts in situ. Is selection gradual, abrupt, and does it vary in space and over time? In the present study, we tracked the evolution of allele frequency in two genes associated with pearl millet phenotypic variation in situ. We sampled 17 populations of cultivated pearl millet over a period of two years. We tracked changes in allele frequencies in these populations by genotyping more than seven thousand individuals. We demonstrate that several allele frequencies changes are compatible with selection, by correcting allele frequency changes associated with genetic drift. We found marked variation in allele frequencies from year to year, suggesting a variable selection effect in space and over time. We estimated the strength of selection associated with variations in allele frequency. Our results suggest that the polymorphism maintained at the genes we studied is partially explained by the spatial and temporal variability of selection. In response to environmental changes, traditional pearl millet varieties could rapidly adapt thanks to this available functional variability.
Hassenforder, Emeline; Ducrot, Raphaëlle; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Anne Daniell, Katherine; Pittock, Jamie
Participatory approaches are now increasingly recognized and used as an essential element of policies and programs, especially in regards to natural resource management (NRM). Most practitioners, decision-makers and researchers having adopted participatory approaches also acknowledge the need to monitor and evaluate such approaches in order to audit their effectiveness, support decision-making or improve learning. Many manuals and frameworks exist on how to carry out monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for participatory processes. However, few provide guidelines on the selection and implementation of M&E methods, an aspect which is also often obscure in published studies, at the expense of the transparency, reliability and validity of the study. In this paper, we argue that the selection and implementation of M&E methods are particularly strategic when monitoring and evaluating a participatory process. We demonstrate that evaluators of participatory processes have to tackle a quadruple challenge when selecting and implementing methods: using mixed-methods, both qualitative and quantitative; assessing the participatory process, its outcomes, and its context; taking into account both the theory and participants' views; and being both rigorous and adaptive. The M&E of a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori Region, Uganda, is used as an example to show how these challenges unfold on the ground and how they can be tackled. Based on this example, we conclude by providing tools and strategies that can be used by evaluators to ensure that they make utile, feasible, coherent, transparent and adaptive methodological choices when monitoring and evaluating participatory processes for NRM.
Keywords: Agro-biodiversity, farmer varieties, indigenous knowledge, farmer-participatory research, genetic diversity, genotype-by-environment interaction, germplasm collection, Ipomoea batatas , specific adaptation, yield stability, sweetpotato, variance component estimates.
This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical...... experiences document that participatory communication adds value to a development project or program? Many communication practitioners and development workers face obstacles and challenges in their practical work. A participatory communication strategy offers a very specific perspective on how to articulate......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....
... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1906 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to color, i.e., bright...
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... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1154 Section 51.1154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container...
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... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.567 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.567 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any package have the same general appearance...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3202 Section 51.3202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the onions in any...
Penrose, B; Beresford, N A; Broadley, M R; Crout, N M J
Radiocaesium and radiostrontium enter the foodchain primarily via plant root uptake. Selecting varieties of crop that display low accumulation of these radionuclides has been suggested as an economically and socially acceptable remediation strategy for radiologically contaminated land. However, there is insufficient information available to assess the feasibility of this remediation approach. This paper presents a comprehensive literature-based evaluation of inter-varietal variation in accumulation of Cs and Sr in crop plants. Thirty-seven publications studying 27 plant species were identified as appropriate for these analyses. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed concentrations for a given crop species and element and ranged from 1.0 to 6.3 and from 1.0 to 4.5 for Cs and Sr respectively. This variation suggests that exploitation of inter-varietal variation could be used in some crop species to reduce the transfer of these radionuclides to a similar extent to existing remediation strategies. Low-Sr accumulating varieties were also found to have lower concentrations of Ca, whereas low Cs-accumulating varieties were not shown to have low K accumulation. Concentrations of Cs and Sr in plants were not related, suggesting that finding varieties displaying low accumulation of both Sr and Cs may not be feasible. Varietal selection could be an effective remediation strategy, and could be used in combination with other existing methods, such as fertilisation and ploughing. However, a thorough investigation of species contributing the most to ingestion doses is recommended to fully determine the feasibility of varietal selection as a remediation strategy. The reproducibility of inter-varietal variation between sites and growing seasons should be the focus of future research.
Adrienne C. Shelton
Full Text Available Organic growers face unique challenges when raising sweet corn, and benefit from varieties that maintain high eating quality, germinate consistently, deter insect pests, and resist diseases. Genotype by environment rank changes can occur in the performance of cultivars grown on conventional and organic farms, yet few varieties have been bred specifically for organic systems. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the changes made to open-pollinated sweet corn populations using recurrent selection and a participatory plant breeding (PPB methodology. From 2008 to 2011, four cycles of two open-pollinated (OP sweet corn populations were selected on a certified organic farm in Minnesota using a modified ear-to-row recurrent selection scheme. Selections were made in collaboration with an organic farmer, with selection criteria based on traits identified by the farmer. In 2012 and 2013, the population cycles were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in two certified organic locations in Wisconsin, with multiple replications in each environment. Significant linear trends were found among cycles of selection for quantitative and qualitative traits, suggesting the changes were due to recurrent selection and PPB methodology for these populations. However, further improvement is necessary to satisfy the requirements for a useful cultivar for organic growers.
... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1864 Similar varietal characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the tomatoes are alike as to firmness of flesh and shade of color (for example, soft-fleshed, early maturing varieties are not mixed with...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.603 Section 51.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the stalks in any container have the same...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.1550 Section 51.1550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the potatoes in any lot have the same general...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2756 Section 51.2756 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2714 Section 51.2714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the peanut kernels in the lot are not of...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.763 Section 51.763 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are similar in color...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2116 Section 51.2116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the kernels are similar in shape and appearance....
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.2650 Section 51.2650 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the cherries in any container are similar in...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Similar varietal characteristics. 51.3057 Section 51.3057 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... characteristics. Similar varietal characteristics means that the avocados in any container are similar in...
Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper
The aim of this book is to provide a current account of the commitments and contributions of research and practice in the Participatory Design of information technologies. An overview of the central concepts that have defined and shaped the field is provided as an introduction to the more detailed...... focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter...... concludes with some guidance and recommendations for further reading. An introduction to Participatory Design is followed by explanations of how practitioners and researchers in the field understand participation and practice and how design is approached as a process driven by social interaction...
Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben
In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must...... be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation....
De Cristofaro, Emiliano
Participatory Sensing is an emerging computing paradigm that enables the distributed collection of data by self-selected participants. It allows the increasing number of mobile phone users to share local knowledge acquired by their sensor-equipped devices, e.g., to monitor temperature, pollution level or consumer pricing information. While research initiatives and prototypes proliferate, their real-world impact is often bounded to comprehensive user participation. If users have no incentive, or feel that their privacy might be endangered, it is likely that they will not participate. In this article, we focus on privacy protection in Participatory Sensing and introduce a suitable privacy-enhanced infrastructure. First, we provide a set of definitions of privacy requirements for both data producers (i.e., users providing sensed information) and consumers (i.e., applications accessing the data). Then, we propose an efficient solution designed for mobile phone users, which incurs very low overhead. Finally, we di...
Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen
is to show that a participatory approach can unintentionally create new hierarchies or reinforce existing ones, thus leading to the exclusion of certain employees (or action researchers) in terms of voice and/or choice. Second, the theoretical purpose is to show how participation in OAR projects can......This article focuses on employee participation in organisational action research (OAR), presenting three examples of OAR in one private and two public organisations in Denmark, respectively. Each of these examples shows how participatory hierarchies between employees and between them and action...... researchers are constructed in OAR projects, leading in these cases to the exclusion of silent pedagogues, elderly foremen, and a critical employee. Based on these examples, the article has three mutually connected purposes, an empirical, theoretical, and methodological purpose. First, the empirical purpose...
Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.
We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.
Pesch, U.; Quist, J.N.
Participatory intervention methods can be seen as tools to solve the problems that are the results of locked-in institutional practices. To repair such institutional problems, participatory tools have to address three sets of questions.First, who to select as a participant, and what is the function
Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben
An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September...
Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Olesen, Merete Halkjær
Abstract: Multispectral imaging is an emerging non-destructive technology. In this work its potential for varietal discrimination and identification of tomato cultivars of Nepal was investigated. Two sample sets were used for the study, one with two parents and their crosses and other with eleven...
Adolf, V I; Shabala, S; Andersen, Mathias Neumann
Aims This study aimed to assess varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity and to investigate physiological mechanisms conferring these differences. Methods Production of biomass in fourteen varieties grown under saline conditions was analysed in a pot experiment. For two contrasting...
The book tells the story of the music hall, The Varieté, in Aalborg from the time of its establishment to the present day, focusing primarily on the years from 1898 to the early 1970s. An effort has been made to contribute both to local history and to the history of popular entertainment....
...) Muscatel. An American wine which derives its predominant taste, aroma, characteristics and at least 75... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.28 Type designations of varietal significance. The following are type designations...
Full Text Available Background. Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. Objective. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. Methods. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6–8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days each month; in January a menu was offered in the usual manner without calorie labels; the same menu was prepared in February with the addition of calorie labels at point-of-purchase. Gross calories served per student were measured each day allowing for matched comparison by menu. In March/April of 2010, 32 students who ate in the cafeteria 3 or more times per week were interviewed regarding their views on menu labeling. Results. Calorie consumption decreased by an average of 47 calories/day; fat intake reduced by 2.1 grams/day. Five main themes were consistent throughout the interviews. Conclusion. Point-of-purchase calorie labels can play a role in reducing the number of calories consumed by middle school age children at the lunch. The majority of students interviewed found the calorie labels helped them choose healthier food.
Câmara, José de Sousa; Herbert, Paulo; Marques, José Carlos; Alves, Maria Arminda
Boal, Malvasia, Sercial and Verdelho are the main white grape varieties used in Madeira wine production. To estimate the free fraction of varietal aroma compounds of these varieties, 39 samples of musts were analysed to determine their content of monoterpenols and C13 norisoprenoids (terpenoids), using dynamic headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The r-values for linearity studies of the analytical method used, varied between 0.977 (nerolido...
This paper makes a case for the use of participatory ergonomics by and for ergonomists. A strategy for using participatory ergonomics in a conference workshop format is described. The process could be used as a tool for issues of common concern among ergonomists. it would also offer an experience of the participatory ergonomics process. An example workshop on quantifying costs and benefits of ergonomics is discussed.
Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer
his paper focuses on evaluation in Participatory Design (PD), and especially upon how the central aims of mutual learning, empowerment, democracy and workplace quality have been assessed. We surveyed all Participatory Design Conference papers (1990-2014) and papers from special journal issues on PD...
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille
Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to select priority hotspots for environment and health research in Flanders (Belgium, an open procedure was organized. Environment and health hotspots are strong polluting point sources with possible health effects for residents living in the vicinity of the hot spot. The selection procedure was part of the work of the Flemish Centre of Expertise for Environment and Health, which investigates the relation between environmental pollution and human health. The project is funded and steered by the Flemish government. Methods The involvement of other actors than merely experts is inspired by the 'analytical-deliberative' approach of the National Research Council in the United States and the extended peer community approach. These approaches stress the importance of involving different expert- and social perspectives in order to increase the knowledge base on complex issues. In the procedure used in the project a combination of expert and stakeholder input was essential. The final decision was supported by a multi-criteria analysis of expert assessment and stakeholder advice. Results The endeavour was challenging from the start because of the complicated ambition of including a diversity of actors, potential hotspots, concerns and assessment criteria, but nevertheless the procedure proved its value in both structuring and informing the decision-making process. Moreover the process gained the support of most actors participating in the process, even though the final selection could not satisfy all preferences. Conclusions Opening the research agenda exemplifies the value of inter- and transdisciplinary cooperation as well as the need for a well-structured and negotiated procedure that combines relevant factors and actors with pragmatism. The value of such a process also needs to prove itself in practice after the procedure has been completed: the tension between an ambition of openness on the one hand and a more closed
In this chapter, the field of Participatory Design is introduced, including the description of a number of its specific approaches. After an introduction in some of the issues in Participatory Design, approaches within the field of Participatory Design and relevant for the field of Participatory...
Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars
This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....
Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel; C Smith, Anthony
with a participatory mindset that will ensure genuine participation throughout the project. Challenges associated with the use of PD include: the time required to properly engage with participants; language and culture barriers amongst participants; the selection of participants to ensure good representation...
Andersen, Tariq Osman
This paper introduces the concept of the “participatory patient” as a vehicle to promote attention to patients¿ dual enactment of participation on participatory design (PD) projects in healthcare. By an empirical case-story from an ongoing PD project in healthcare, I illustrate the relationship...... between a patient¿s work on the project as a co-designer and his work of being a patient using a prototype. I conclude by arguing for the importance of being aware of the ways in which patients inscribe patient work and non-work and thinking of what kind of working or non-working patients it implies....
Buur, Jacob; de Lille, Christine
of product development companies. The mentioned companies like for example Microsoft (Sanders, 2004) are in a privileged position, having the possibilities to spend time, manpower and budget on extensive user studies and explore participatory design projects. But how does the Small-to-Medium sized Enterprise......Several case studies in literature and handbooks about participatory design (PD) suggest that the use of emerging methods to generate user information is common practice. However, these authors address practices in academia or in leading companies and not necessarily the practice of the majority...
Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared
across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines......Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely...... for provotypes for participatory innovation....
HUANG; Li; YIN; Yongyuan; DU; De-Bin
The necessity of mainstreaming climate adaptation strategies or policies into natural resource management plans has been recognized by the UNFCCC.The IPCC AR5 report suggests a growing demand for research to provide information for a deeper and more useful understanding of climate adaptation options,and indicates a lack of effective methods to meet this increasing demand of policymakers.In this respect,a participatory integrated assessment(PIA) approach is presented in this paper to provide an effective means to mainstream wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development strategies,and thus to reduce climate vulnerability and to enhance rural community livelihood.The PIA approach includes a series of research activities required to assess climate impacts on wetland ecosystems,and to prioritize adaptation responses.A range of adaptation options that address key aspects of the wetland ecosystem resilience and concerns are evaluated against community based on sustainable development indicators.The PIA approach is able to identify desirable adaptation options which can then be implemented to improve wetland ecosystem health and to enhance regional sustainable development in a changing climate.For illustration purpose,the PIA was applied in a case study in Poyang Lake(PYL) region,a critical wetland and water ecosystem in central China with important international biodiversity linkages,and a locale for key policy experiments with ecosystem rehabilitation.The PIA was used to facilitate the integration of wetland climate change adaptation in rural sustainable development actions with multi-stakeholders participation.In particular,the case shows how the PIA can be designed and implemented to select effective and practical climate change adaptation options to enhance ecosystem services management and to reduce resource use conflicts and rural poverty.Worked in partnership with multi-stakeholders and assisted with a multi-criteria decision making tool
This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm
This paper presents a soft project management paradigm approach based on participatory design to assuring values and benefits in public projects. For more than a decade, quality development in the Danish healthcare sector has been managed with an accreditation system known as the Danish Quality...
Full Text Available The use of participatory sensing in relation to the capture of health-related data is rapidly becoming a possibility due to the widespread consumer adoption of emerging mobile computing technologies and sensing platforms. This has the potential to revolutionize data collection for population health, aspects of epidemiology, and health-related e-Science applications and as we will describe, provide new public health intervention capabilities, with the classifications and capabilities of such participatory sensing platforms only just beginning to be explored. Such a development will have important benefits for access to near real-time, large-scale, up to population-scale data collection. However, there are also numerous issues to be addressed first: provision of stringent anonymity and privacy within these methodologies, user interface issues, and the related issue of how to incentivize participants and address barriers/concerns over participation. To provide a step towards describing these aspects, in this paper we present a first classification of health participatory sensing models, a novel contribution to the literature, and provide a conceptual reference architecture for health participatory sensing networks (HPSNs and user interaction example case study.
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten
iterative process of mutual learning by designers and domain experts (users), who aim to change the users’ work practices through the introduction of information systems. We provide an illustrative case example with an ethnographic study of clinicians experimenting with a new electronic patient record......The theoretical background in this chapter is information systems development in an organizational context. This includes theories from participatory design, human-computer interaction, and ethnographically inspired studies of work practices. The concept of design is defined as an experimental...... system, focussing on emergent and opportunity-based change enabled by appropriating the system into real work. The contribution to a general core of design research is a reconstruction of the iterative prototyping approach into a general model for sustained participatory design....
Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta
Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...... in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key...
Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer
This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...... status. We illustrate our theoretical argument for a relational expertise with a running example from a participatory design process engaging an interprofessional group of participants in a project on future technology enabled learning environments....
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev
This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....
Campbell, Pat, Ed.; Burnaby, Barbara, Ed.
Participatory education is a collective effort in which the participants are committed to building a just society through individual and socieoeconomic transformation and to ending domination through changing power relations. This book describes participatory practices in many environments, including educational and penal institutions,…
Rezaee, S.A.; Oey, M.A.; Nevejan, C.I.M.; Brazier, F.M.
Introducing the notion of Participatory Demand-Supply (PDS) systems as socio-technical systems, this paper focuses on a new approach to coordinating demand and supply in dynamic environments. A participatory approach to demand and supply provides a new frame of reference for system design, for which
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte
As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian......, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize...
Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan
We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them.
... Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under... of M. domestica apples from Japan to be imported into the United States while continuing to...
Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) has two distinct varietal groups identified as the indica and japonica subspecies. With the advent of molecular markers the indica subspecies was divided into the indica and aus subpopulation groups and the japonica subspecies into the aromatic, tropical japon...
Full Text Available Maize is one of the worlds’ three primary cereal crops, sustainable increasing production of this crop is important to farmers to be able to meet the ever increasing consumption of maize which is one of the major reasons for the development of Drought tolerant maize variety (DTMA. The study analyses farmers’ varietal preference of drought tolerant maize in Southern Guinea Savannah region of Nigeria. It specifically determined the socioeconomic characteristics of farmers, identified their gender based preference for Drought Tolerant maize variety and elucidated the reasons for preference. Three-stage stratified sampling technique was used. Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from a total of 48 farmers. Descriptive, Ranking and LSD were used to analyse the data collected. The result of the analysis showed that majority of the male and female farmers have primary education and are youths. The result of varietal preference differs between genders in some locations Male farmers identified big cobs with full grains, big seed, and multiple cobs as the main reasons for their preference while female farmers identified yellow colour of seed, nutrient fortified seed and big cobs with full grains as the main reasons for their preference. It is therefore recommended that effort should be made to involve male and female farmers in the varietal selection procedure as to facilitate easy adoption of hybrid maize. The women are more concerned with the food security of their family and hence are important segment in maize innovation that improve the food security of farming households and policies should not exclude female farmers.
Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole
Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design...... process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study...... where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually...
Brian J. McNely
Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.
Nelson, G; Ochocka, J; Griffin, K; Lord, J
Participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors is reviewed. We begin by tracing the origins of and defining both participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid. In so doing, the degree of correspondence between the assumptions/values of participatory action research and those of self-help/mutual aid for psychiatric consumer/survivors is examined. We argue that participatory action research and self-help/mutual aid share four values in common: (a) empowerment, (b) supportive relationships, (c) social change, and (d) learning as an ongoing process. Next, selected examples of participatory action research with psychiatric consumer/survivor-controlled self-help/mutual aid organizations which illustrate these shared values are provided. We conclude with recommendations of how the key values can be promoted in both the methodological and substantive aspects of future participatory action research with self-help/mutual aid organizations for psychiatric consumer/survivors.
Ho, Wai Kuan; Muchugi, Alice; Muthemba, Samuel; Kariba, Robert; Mavenkeni, Busiso Olga; Hendre, Prasad; Song, Bo; Van Deynze, Allen; Massawe, Festo; Mayes, Sean
Maximizing the research output from a limited investment is often the major challenge for minor and underutilized crops. However, such crops may be tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses and are adapted to local, marginal, and low-input environments. Their development through breeding will provide an important resource for future agricultural system resilience and diversification in the context of changing climates and the need to achieve food security. The African Orphan Crops Consortium recognizes the values of genomic resources in facilitating the improvement of such crops. Prior to beginning genome sequencing there is a need for an assessment of line varietal purity and to estimate any residual heterozygosity. Here we present an example from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), an underutilized drought tolerant African legume. Two released varieties from Zimbabwe, identified as potential genotypes for whole genome sequencing (WGS), were genotyped with 20 species-specific SSR markers. The results indicate that the cultivars are actually a mix of related inbred genotypes, and the analysis allowed a strategy of single plant selection to be used to generate non-heterogeneous DNA for WGS. The markers also confirmed very low levels of heterozygosity within individual plants. The application of a pre-screen using co-dominant microsatellite markers is expected to substantially improve the genome assembly, compared to a cultivar bulking approach that could have been adopted.
the cultivation of new GM plants in Denmark. Furthermore, through this illustration, the term Participatory Technology Assessment (PTA) is redefined, thereby suggesting two additional aspects to assessing new technologies – following and evaluating policy making – to be considered in the conduct of PTA....
Penet, Laurent; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Alleyne, Angela; Barthe, Emilie; Bussière, François; Guyader, Sébastien; Pavis, Claudie; Pétro, Dalila
Loss of varietal diversity is a worldwide challenge to crop species at risk for genetic erosion, while the loss of biological resources may hinder future breeding objectives. Loss of varieties has been mostly investigated in traditional agricultural systems where variety numbers are dramatically high, or for most economically important crop species for which comparison between pre-intensive and modern agriculture was possible. Varietal dynamics, i.e., turnover, or gains and losses of varieties by farmers, is nevertheless more rarely studied and while we currently have good estimates of genetic or varietal diversity for most crop species, we have less information as to how on farm agro-diversity changes and what cause its dynamics. We therefore investigated varietal dynamics in the agricultural yam system in the Caribbean island of Guadeloupe. We interviewed producers about varieties they cultivated in the past compared to their current varieties, in addition to characterizing yam cropping characteristics and both farm level and producers socio-economic features. We then used regression tree analyses to investigate the components of yam agro-diversity, varietal dynamics and impact of anthracnose on varieties. Our data demonstrated that no dramatic loss of varieties occurred within the last decades. Cultivation changes mostly affected widespread cultivars while frequency of uncommon varieties stayed relatively stable. Varietal dynamics nevertheless followed sub-regional patterns, and socio-economic influences such as producer age or farm crop diversity. Recurrent anthracnose epidemics since the 1970s did not alter varietal dynamics strongly, but sometimes translated into transition from Dioscorea alata to less susceptible species or into a decrease of yam cultivation. Factors affecting changes in agro-diversity were not relating to agronomy in our study, and surprisingly there were different processes delineating short term from long term varietal dynamics
This article gives an introduction to (participatory) design games in three rounds. Firstly it argues that designing design games is a particular and very productive genre for formatting participation and design dialogues during ongoing design projects. Secondly it presents some of the main...
Rose, Jeremy; Rios, Jesus; Lippa, Barbara
Participatory budgeting is a reasonably well-established governance practice, particularly in South America. It is information and communication rich - making it well suited for modern technology support; in addition, the widespread participation of many citizens is difficult to achieve without...
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah
Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant...
perspective on innovation. Then, a similar development in the field of knowledge and knowing is presented, where the perspective changes from a divisional systemthinking towards a more relational view of complementing combinations of knowledge and knowing, recognizing the challenge of boundaries. Further......A conceptual framework for a coherent understanding of knowledge as a socially constructed resource in flux over boundaries when innovating with others is constructed. Starting with an overview of different perspectives on innovation, showing a development towards a more iterative social process......, relating, cognitive social capital and the justification of knowledge are described as different but interdependent dimensions of transforming knowledge across boundaries in participatory innovation. A multi-level concept of social dynamics of participatory innovation is proposed, and a model...
Health Information Technology (HIT) continues to increase in importance as a component of healthcare provision, but designing HIT is complex. The creation of cooperative learning processes for future HIT users is not a simple task. The importance of engaging end users such as health professionals......, in collaboration with a wide range of people, a broad repertoire of methods and techniques to apply PD within multiple domains has been established. This book, Participatory Design & Health Information Technology, presents the contributions of researchers from 5 countries, who share their experience and insights......, patients and relatives in the design process is widely acknowledged, and Participatory Design (PD) is the primary discipline for directly involving people in the technological design process. Exploring the application of PD in HIT is crucial to all those involved in engaging end users in HIT design and...
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette
In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....
Pardo-García, A I; de la Hoz, K Serrano; Zalacain, A; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R
The effects of four vine treatments, comprising the application of eugenol and guaiacol (individually or as a mixture) or whiskey lactones on the concentration of glycosidically bound aroma precursors, determined as glycosyl glucose content by HPLC-IR, in Monastrell grapes and their wines were studied. The impact of treatments on the free varietal wine aroma determined by SBSE-GC-MS and descriptive analysis after alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and six months of ageing were also determined. A synergistic effect was observed between the eugenol and guaiacol on the glycosidically bound aroma precursor fraction. The rate of release of such aroma precursors was time and treatment dependent. The impact on wines varietal aroma at the end of the alcoholic fermentation was reduced by treatments, whereas the opposite effect was observed in the following samplings. At a sensory level, the wood/oak notes were appreciated in all wines; however, the typicity of the Monastrell variety was especially enhanced at the end of the malolactic fermentation, in the wines from whiskey lactone treatment.
Full Text Available This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.
... pursuant to a weight dockage system. 989.210 Section 989.210 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... Regulations § 989.210 Handling of varietal types of raisins acquired pursuant to a weight dockage system....
Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard
Purpose From collection to connection has been a buzzword in the library world for more than a decade. This catchy phrase indicates that users are seen not only as borrowers, but as active participants. The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyse three questions in relation to user...... participation in public libraries in a Nordic perspective. How can participation in public libraries be characterised? Why should libraries deal with user participation? What kinds of different user participation can be identified in public libraries? Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a selection...... of theoretical approaches and practical examples to obtain a varied understanding of user participation in public libraries. Research fields outside library and information science have developed a wide range of theoretical approaches on user participation. Examples from cultural policy, museum studies...
Rasmussen, Casper Hvenegaard
of theoretical approaches and practical examples to obtain a varied understanding of user participation in public libraries. Research fields outside library and information science have developed a wide range of theoretical approaches on user participation. Examples from cultural policy, museum studies......Purpose From collection to connection has been a buzzword in the library world for more than a decade. This catchy phrase indicates that users are seen not only as borrowers, but as active participants. The aim of this paper is to investigate and analyse three questions in relation to user...... participation in public libraries in a Nordic perspective. How can participation in public libraries be characterised? Why should libraries deal with user participation? What kinds of different user participation can be identified in public libraries? Design/methodology/approach The paper uses a selection...
Savin-Baden, Maggi; Wimpenny, Katherine
This paper explores the research method of participatory action research, first by examining the roots of this approach and then analysing the shift to using more participatory approaches than in former years. It begins by considering the reasoning and theoretical underpinning for adopting this approach and provides an overview of the steps to be…
Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi
This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…
R. David Lankes
• a set of recommendations to foster greater discussion and action on the topic of participatory networks and, more broadly, participatory librarianship. This summary will highlight the discussions in each of these four topics. For consistency, the section numbers and titles from the full brief are used.
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah
The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities...... in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding....
Summative Statement: A preliminary framework for participatory design projects (PDP) was developed based on a retrospective analysis of five PDPs across different industries. The framework may serve as a guidance for planning and conducting PDPs. Problem statement: A growing number of experiences...... with participatory design or participatory ergonomics projects have been gained within the field of macro-ergonomics. It is suggested that the Participatory Ergonomics Framework (PEF) validated by Haines et al. (2002) needs to be updated based on these experiences and hence more focussed on design activities....... Research Objective / Question: The objective of this study was to update and design-orient the PEF based on experiences with PDPs within the last ten years. Methodology: Five participatory design projects across different industries were systematically analyzed and compared in order to develop a framework...
Ahsyee Salem R.
Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is an important forage legume in Libya. The genetic diversity of nine alfalfa domesticated varietal populations was studied using thirteen RAPD primer combinations. The number of polymorphic fragments detected per primer combination ranged from 8 to 46 bands with an average of 24 bands. The number of polymorphic bands detected was from 6 (Atalia population to 37 (Gabsia population. The lowest genetic distance was 0.058 and the highest was 0.655. The average genetic distance was (0.356. The dendrogram based on Ward’s minimum variance clustering method grouped the nine populations into the two main clusters. The first group included Fazania, Atalia, Masratia, Zawia, Denamo Ferade and Arezona. The second group was composed of Tagoria, Gabsia and Wade Alrabeh. The simplicity of RAPD assays for detection of genetic polymorphisms is confirmed in our study, and results can be utilized in breeding practice.
Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves
Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation.
Full Text Available This paper considers the social and scientific requirements for a citizen science monitoring programme on biodiversity in Arcachon Bay (France. The sociological study reveals tensions between different conceptions of what a citizen science programme should be: a means for storing oriented-data; a new way to co-create scientific knowledge; a political communication tool; a way to develop citizen stewardship; or a place for expressing activist environmental demands. Citizen science programmes also tend to reveal tensions between participatory governance and classical management of environmental issues. Despite a seeming consensus amongst actors on biodiversity conservation, in practice contests over different citizen science conceptions have the potential to re-define environmental issues, to re-specify relationships between science and society and outline new management priorities.
Modern organizations need to be able to change to seize opportunities and meet challenges, which are ever more rapidly presenting themselves. In doing so, they need to make use of the creativity and innovations of their employees. At the same time Information Technology applications today...... the following contributions: (1) Shop floor IT management is a core capability for innovation, and is a driver for sustained PD in the organization. Users on the shop floor trigger infrastructure development when their IT applications need to be technically and organizationally integrated. (2) A flexible...... IT management in order to relate the development of their local software support in an integrated infrastructure. The results of the action research report four interlinked improvements to sustain Participatory Design in the organization concerning structuring end-user influence in the organizational arena...
Mena, Pedro; Martí, Nuria; García-Viguera, Cristina
Anthocyanins are unstable compounds prone to degradation during storage of pomegranates juices, leading to disadvantageous color changes. Blending varietal pomegranate juices could be useful not only to preserve the genuine characteristics of fresh juices but also to study different factors affecting anthocyanin stability while maintaining to the utmost the matrix studied. The effects of critical factors such as anthocyanin concentration, pH, and endogenous ascorbic acid on pigment integrity were assessed through the study of the degradation kinetics of pomegranate phytochemicals in blended juices made from two distinct cultivars ('Wonderful' and 'Mollar de Elche'). Pigment concentration and pH were the factors affecting anthocyanin stability, whereas ascorbic acid did not alter the degradation of anthocyanins. These results contributed to the definition of the so-called "cultivar effect" and to preserving to a great extent the anthocyanin load and color characteristics of fresh varietal juices, avoiding phytochemical degradation and browning development during storage.
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Select Sheller Run. 51.2108 Section 51.2108... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Grades § 51.2108 U.S. Select Sheller Run. “U.S. Select Sheller Run” consists of shelled almonds of similar varietal characteristics which...
Mulenga, Derek C.
Critically examines community development assumptions through historical analysis and mapping of political discourse. Using the methods of Foucault, Said, and Gramsci, demonstrates how participatory research, concerned with releasing people's knowledge through transformation, can expose and resist dominant discourses. (SK)
Applies Lev Vygotsky's concept of developmental learning to youth-led evaluation projects and discusses the role of participatory evaluation in supporting youth to move beyond socially determined roles to become active participants in evaluation and their own growth. (SLD)
This book investigates the notion of beauty in participatory art, an interdisciplinary form that necessitates the audience’s agential participation and that is often seen in interactive art and technology-driven media installations. After considering established theories of beauty, for example......, Plato, Alison, Hume, Kant, Gadamer and Santayana through to McMahon and Sartwell, Heinrich argues that the experience of beauty in participatory art demands a revised notion of beauty; a conception that accounts for the performative and ludic turn within various art forms and which is, in a broader...... sense, a notion of beauty suited to a participatory and technology-saturated culture. Through case studies of participatory art, he provides an art-theoretical approach to the concept of performative beauty; an approach that is then applied to the wider context of media and design artefacts....
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian
of a design technique for pursuing aesthetic inquiry by using fictional narratives to temporarily by-pass the existing structures of meaning and expectations within a given practice. We illustrate how Fictional Inquiry was utilized in a participatory design project in which two design concepts......We introduce aesthetic inquiry as an important perspective to pursue in Participatory Design. Within the scope of tradition and transcendence we pursue aesthetic inquiry by tipping the scale towards transcendence and by staging offline loops for detached reflection by use of imaginative artefacts....... Although aesthetic inquiry to some extent resides in most Participatory Design practice, we see the need for elaborating this perspective and to further build Participatory Design practice, tools and techniques that address this issue. The Fictional Inquiry technique is presented as an illustrating example...
Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel
This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre
Rousseaux, M. C.
Full Text Available The olive industry in Northwestern Argentina has experienced substantial growth during the past two decades to produce virgin olive oil for export. To assess the fatty acid profiles of the main varietal olive oils, 563 oil samples from 17 varieties cultivated in the province of La Rioja were analyzed from 2005-2008. Olive varieties were ranked according to oleic acid content as low (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Using data from this study and the literature, the fatty acid composition of Spanish (Arbequina, Picual and Italian (Coratina, Frantoio varieties indicated consistently lower oleic acid contents when grown in NW Argentina versus the Mediterranean. For Arbequina, the oleic content decreased with increasing temperature during oil accumulation (-2% per °C. The classification of varieties should be useful in the selection of virgin olive oils for corrective blending and for choosing varieties for new orchards in order to meet IOOC requirements. The differences in fatty acid composition between NW Argentina and the Mediterranean Basin are most likely to be related to a genotype produced by environmental interaction, and the negative effect of the high seasonal mean temperature during oil accumulation will need further research.La industria oleícola del noroeste de Argentina creció sustancialmente durante las últimas dos décadas para producir aceite de oliva virgen exportable. Para evaluar el perfil de ácidos grasos de los principales aceites varietales, se analizaron 563 muestras de aceite de 17 variedades en la provincia de La Rioja durante 2005-2008. Las variedades se clasificaron de acuerdo a su contenido de ácido oleico en bajo (65%; Manzanilla, Empeltre, Leccino, Coratina, Changlot, Picual. Utilizando datos de este trabajo y de la literatura, los aceites de variedades de origen español (Arbequina y Picual e italiano (Coratina y Frantoio mostraron consistentemente menor contenido de ácido oleico
Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...
ZENGYa-wen; LIUJia-fu; WANGLu-xiang; SHENShi-quan; LIZi-chao; WANGXiangkun; WENGuo-song; YANGZhong-yi
Eight-element contents of 653 unpolished rice samples harvested from Xingping experiment farm, Yunnan Province under thc same ecological conditions were analyzed by ICP-AES method. The mineral elements content were closely related to low diversity, high-yielding, and multi-resistance breeding; The K, Mg, Ca and Mn content in high-yielding and resistant varieties were high, and other nutrients such as P, Fe, Zn and Cu were low, which was connected with the heredity and physiological mechanism of mineral nutrients. There is zonal distribution of mineral elements content from Yunnan rice, especially for P, Fe, Zn and Cu co-related with the diversity center, paddy versus upland, glutinous and non-glutinous, glumc-hair versus nuda, rice color, rice flavor, soft rice versus non-soft rice, but it did not find any association with indica-japonica types. The results supported the ecological variety group view of 5-grade taxonomic system "species-subspecies-ccological groups-ecological variety groups - varietal types" .
Grettenberger, Ian M; Tooker, John F
Much research has explored the effects of plant species diversity on herbivore populations, but far less has considered effects of plant genotypic diversity, or how abiotic stressors, like drought, can modify effects. Mechanisms by which plant genotypic diversity affects herbivore populations remain largely unresolved. We used greenhouse studies with a model system of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) to determine whether the genotypic diversity of a plant's neighborhood influences performance and fitness of herbivores on a focal plant and if drought changes the influence of neighborhood diversity. Taken across all varieties we tested, plant-plant interactions in diverse neighborhoods reduced aphid performance and generated associational resistance, although effects on aphids depended on variety identity. In diverse mixtures, drought stress greatly diminished the genotypic diversity-driven reduction in aphid performance. Neighborhood diversity influenced mother aphid size, and appeared to partially explain how plant-plant interactions reduced the number of offspring produced in mixtures. Plant size did not mediate effects on aphid performance, although neighborhood diversity reduced plant mass across varieties and watering treatments. Our results suggest inter-varietal interactions in genotypic mixtures can affect herbivore performance in the absence of herbivore movement and that abiotic stress may diminish any effects. Accounting for how neighborhood diversity influences resistance of an individual plant to herbivores will help aid development of mixtures of varieties for managing insect pests and clarify the role of plant genotypic diversity in ecosystems.
Full Text Available Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels, it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties, which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices.
Escudero, Leticia B; Martinis, Estefanía M; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G
A highly efficient separation and pre-concentration method for arsenic species determination, based on ionic liquid (IL) dispersive microextraction technique implemented in a flow analysis system, is proposed. Highly selective separation of arsenite species [As(III)] was achieved by chelation with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) followed by dispersion with 40 mg of 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(8)mim][PF(6)]) IL. Analyte extraction, retention and separation of IL phase were achieved with a packed microcolumn and As(III) was determined in eluent solution by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Concentration of As(V) was deduced by the difference between total inorganic arsenic and As(III). Thus, determination of total arsenic was performed by previous degradation of organo-arsenic species, followed by a reduction. Under optimal conditions, As(III) extraction efficiency was 100% and a sensitivity enhancement factor of 46 was obtained with only 4.0 ml of sample The method was successfully applied for arsenic speciation studies in mono-varietal wines.
Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.
Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…
Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.; Böhlen, M.
Although many observations in the hydrologic sciences are easy to obtain, requiring very little training or equipment, spatial and temporally-distributed data collection is hindered by associated personnel and telemetry costs. Lack of data increases the uncertainty and can limit applications of both field and modeling studies. However, modern society is much more digitally connected than the past, which presents new opportunities to collect real-time hydrologic data through the use of participatory sensing. Participatory sensing in this usage refers to citizens contributing distributed observations of physical phenomena. Real-time data streams are possible as a direct result of the growth of mobile phone networks and high adoption rates of mobile users. In this research, we describe an example of the development, methodology, barriers to entry, data uncertainty, and results of mobile phone based participatory sensing applied to groundwater and surface water characterization. Results are presented from three participatory sensing experiments that focused on stream stage, surface water temperature, and water quality. Results demonstrate variability in the consistency and reliability across the type of data collected and the challenges of collecting research grade data. These studies also point to needed improvements and future developments for widespread use of low cost techniques for participatory sensing.
Recent experiences in using participatory methods for ergonomic workplace improvement are reviewed to know how these methods can be effective in different settings. The review covered participatory programmes for managers and workers in small enterprises, home workers, construction workers and farmers in Asian countries. To meet diversifying ergonomic needs, participatory steps reviewed are found to usually follow a good-practice approach easily adjustable according to local needs. These steps are found to usually focus on low-cost improvements. They can thus lead to concrete results particularly by addressing multiple technical areas together. Typical areas include materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Further, the review confirms that the participatory methods are always modified according to each local situation. This is done by developing a group-work toolkit comprising action checklists and illustrated manuals and by building a support network of trained trainers. It is suggested that participatory methods taking a good-practice approach by multi-area low-cost improvements through the group use of locally adjusted toolkits are effective for improving small-scale workplaces including those in developing countries.
Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel
Introduction: Healthcare systems need a paradigm shift in the way health care services are provided in order to respond to the global trend with focus upon patient involvement within healthcare services in general. Thus, it becomes necessary to re-organise the way we offer healthcare services...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies...... of the user group. Conclusions: Participation is the core of Participatory Design as it offers participants a chance to be legitimate participants, which is supported by the use of the participatory methods and activities that support telling, making and enacting. Telemedicine can gain from Participatory...
Johansen, Pia Heike; Chandler, Thomas Lund
This paper explores the specific mechanisms of power in participatory rural planning projects. It follows up on suggestions in planning literature about directing focus at the relational level in the assessment of power, rather than on who has power and who doesn't. The paper argues...... by the urban privilege to define the rural qualities and creation of local conflicts and that mechanisms of power that cause such unintended outcomes of rural planning projects should be uncovered. Inspired by Foucault's interpretation of power the paper carries out a grounded theory inspired analysis...... of a Danish rural participatory planning project. The paper concludes that rural planning literature and analysis will benefits from paying attention to the three – in rural participatory planning projects – specific mechanisms of power ‘Institutionalising knowledge and competencies’; ‘Structuring...
Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens
The key element in participatory innovation is to understand innovation as a social problem solving process between different stakeholders. The social dynamics amongst stakeholders are fundamental to the participatory process and outcome, and it’s therefore beneficial for facilitators......-opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics...... and stakeholders themselves to understand their relations and what it means to participate. We argue that we can grasp these social dynamics of participatory innovation through play. From a management perspective we study how playing games helps us to understand these dynamics, while from an interaction design...
Full Text Available This issue of Footprint examines the recent participatory turn in urban planning and urban design. It discusses the co-opting of participatory processes by planning departments, the systematic disregard of inequalities, and the empowering of the market resulting from the ‘anti-statism’ present in many participatory schemes.What is the relationship between the institutionalisation of participation and the practices of autonomy, self-organisation, and inclusion? When and how does genuine empowerment of collectives take place? Does the demand for the empowerment of local organisations and communities strengthen the market forces at the expense of central government?This issue attempts to problematise ‘participation’, to call attentions to some of its shortcomings, deficits, and limitations, not in order to necessarily bypass the demand for the democratisation of the urban, but in order to rectify and strengthen it.
In 2003, Peru adopted the "Framework Law on participatory budgeting". It requires all the municipal and regional governments to institutionalize a yearly "participatory budgeting process". The Peruvian Participatory Budgeting (PB) is inspired on the PB-experiment in Porto Alegre, Brazil, but differs
Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian; Hansen, Elin
Engaging children in the design of digital technology is one of the core strands in Child-Computer Interaction literature. Nevertheless, only few studies explore how teenagers as a distinct user group are engaged in Participatory Design activities. Based on a case study comprising ten Participatory......-established PD tools and techniques, a deeper understanding of teenagers’ motivation and motives is essential to understand how tools and techniques can made to support teenagers motivation. We outline a Cultural Historical Activity Theoretical approach to teenagers’ motives and motivation as a frame...
Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant; Punekar, Ravi
In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use...... information from participatory research takes a form manifestation in collective form conceptualization by a set of designers....... of the same in the collective form generation session with a set of designers (vehicle design students) where designers use sketching as a tool to discuss, conceptualise and negotiate concepts towards the final vehicle form. Further, this paper attempts to demonstrate how deep and tacit context sensitive...
Sedlacko, Michal; Martinuzzi, Andre; Røpke, Inge
and policy makers. The paper presents and discusses examples of how different types of participatory interaction with causal loop diagrams (‘system maps’) produced different insights on issues related to sustainable consumption and enabled participatory reflection and sharing of knowledge. Together......, these insights support a systemic understanding of the issues and Thus the method provides instruments for coping with complexity when formulating policies for sustainable consumption. Furthermore the paper discusses the ability of the method—and its limits—to connect mental models of participants through...
Buur, Jacob; Larsen, Henry
) organizations that embark on participatory activities, and the barriers that prevent them. By analysing improvised scenes and the way the audience reacts, we characterize the quality of conversations that seems to allow new meaning to emerge and thus stimulates innovation. We suggest that we need to develop new...... about new product and service ideas. Conflict belonged to the 'old days' when participatory design played a part in the struggle between workers and management. Based on the theory of complex responsive processes of relating, we suggest a new way of understanding innovation as the emergence of new...
Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.
Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…
Green, Kathryn E.; Lund, Jens Friis
residents, only the exclusive and antidemocratic consequences of the way it comes to be reproduced. Based on our study, we call for a careful reconsideration of the framing of participatory forestry approaches as professionalization to strike a balance between the need for expertise and the costs...
Rodil, Kasper; Koch Kapuire, Gereon; Stanley, Colin
This paper describes a joint investigation of a Herero wedding ceremony as a sample of cultural content to be digitalized. We have through participatory exploration scrutinized embodied media bias and representation with Herero elders in Namibia. One finding is that this method has enabled...
This article adds to the research on teachers' writing pedagogy. It reviews and challenges the research literature on scaffolding as an instructional practice and presents a more inclusive framework for analysis. As student participation and voice were absent from much of the literature, a participatory scaffolding framework was developed to…
Cain, B. J.; Comings, John P.
On the assumption that client-centered participatory education is pedagogically superior to other methods designed for adults of low reading ability, this manual outlines classroom-tested techniques for developing "fotonovelas"--printed media in which photos are arranged in the sequence of a dramatic story and the plot is conveyed through dialogue…
Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.
A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) brings young people together with adult researchers to identify, study, and act on relevant social problems. In this chapter, the author draws on examples from a recent YPAR project, called Tracing Transitions, whose aim was to study the impact of school closure on students. After defining YPAR in terms…
Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran
There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…
Simmons, Nicola; Barnard, Michelle; Fennema, Wendy
In the Fall 2009 term, we participated as students and instructor in a graduate education course modeled after participatory pedagogy. Siemens (2008) defines this approach as "one that does not fully define all curricular needs in advance of interacting with learners...Multiple perspectives, opinions, and active creation on the part of…
Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight characteristics of boundary objects and their use, which make them particularly useful in PE design processes. These characteristics go beyond the object itself and extend into the context of their use. We argue that the selection of boundary objects in PE processes is of great importance, since different objects enable workers' participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic practitioners that are based on the framework.
Miguez, S A; Hallbeck, M S; Vink, P
A participatory ergonomics approach is used to create a new work environment, which is aimed at reducing neck complaints in a cell phone assembly. The participatory ergonomics program included an initiative, problem identification, a selection of solutions, an implementation and evaluation. Twenty-eight women, all operators on an assembly line of cell phone boards, voluntarily participated in the design and evaluation of a device before implementing the device to all 215 employees performing that job. Prior to and after the intervention, RULA, comfort experiences and interviews were used. After introducing an adjustable angled small counter, these measurements showed both posture and comfort improvements. 90% of the 215 workers preferred the new work station and the neck complaints were reduced in 75% of the group. It also showed that the initial prototype needed to be modified as to reduce its sharp edges/compression points for the forearm. This project shows the importance of iterative testing and that an initiative by workers enlarges the chance of successful implementation.
Fortin, Rebecca; Jackson, Suzanne F; Maher, Jessica; Moravac, Catherine
Inspired by Photovoice, a participatory research methodology, I WAS HERE was a photoblogging workshop in Toronto, Canada, for young mothers who, when they joined, were either homeless or had past experience of homelessness. A participatory qualitative analysis process was developed to support workshop participants in collectively conducting qualitative analysis on a selection of their photoblogs exploring how they view their lives. Five mothers engaged in the participatory qualitative analysis process to categorize their photoblogs into themes. Participants selected over 70 of their personal photoblogs, discussed the meaning of their photoblogs, and categorized them into qualitative themes. One of the mothers continued work on the research by contributing to the write-up of the themes for publication. Participants, through the reflective dialogue, developed nine themes from the photoblogs that describe how they experience motherhood. The resulting nine themes were as follows: 'Family', 'Reality Check', 'Sacrifice for Positive Change', 'Support', 'Guidance', 'Growth and Transition', 'Proud of Becoming/Being a Mother', 'Passing on/Teaching Values' and 'Cherished Moments/Reward for Being a Mother'. These themes illustrate the satisfaction that comes from motherhood, strengths and goals for the future, and the desire for support and guidance. The themes developed from this participatory analysis illustrate that young mothers have a positive view of themselves and their ability to be mothers. This constructive view of young mothers provides an alternative to the negative stereotypes commonly attributed to them. This paper also discusses the strengths and challenges of using a participatory analysis approach. As a research methodology, incorporating procedures for participatory qualitative analysis into the Photovoice process provides an effective mechanism to meaningfully engage participants in qualitative analysis. From a health promotion perspective, using the
Jønsson, Thomas; Jeppesen, Hans Jeppe
and behaviour. This study takes the opposite approach by looking at a decrease in influence. The study was undertaken in a production company with 480 employees. The work was organized in production lines and semi-autonomous working groups. Data was compiled via interviews with selected employees from three...
In terms of current life style, living and production conditions and hygienic and educational condition, we select 8 indices, such as annual net income of farmers per capita, annual grain yield per capita, total power of agricultural machinery per capita, dropout rate of school children and so on, to establish index system of determining the poor village in North Jiangsu. By selecting Lianqun Village in Suining County of Xuzhou City, Mawa Village in Siyang County of Suqian City, Chuanxing Village in Guanyun County of Lianyungang City, Xiaozhu Village in Hongze County of Huai’an City, Fengda Village in Xiangshui County of Yancheng City as the representative villages, after the discussion and consultation of the masses and the village cadres of all villages, we get the measuring results of weight. Through the field survey, investigation and interview in the selected regions, we get the relevant data, and then we conduct standardization processing, so as to get the index value that can comprehensively reflect the characteristics of poverty. According to the index data that have been standardized, by using participatory poverty index formula for calculation, we get the values that can explain the poverty degree of the respondents. We sequence the representative poor villages in this region according to the poverty degree from high to low, and the result is as follows: Mawa Village, ianqun Village, Chuanxing Village, Xiaozhu Village, and Fengda Village. It indicates that in terms of the operability of theory and technique, the participatory poverty index can better recognize the poor villages, so that it lays solid foundation for rationally and effectively using the limited poverty alleviation resources.
Esperanza Gómez Hernández
Full Text Available Since the nineties, participatory planning has emerged as a linking strategy for various social, political, economic and cultural sectors that assessed it as a potential for building consensus in the making of local processes forsocial improvement. Similarly, it was legitimized as a setting for practice for professionals trained in the social sciences, mainly Social Work. This article, from a geopolitical and geo-cultural perspective, presents contextual elements that determined the configuration of participatory planning in Latin America. These elements shall be staged in order to redefine diversity and the intercultural perspective that has been linked to this mobilizing strategy, against the institutionalized discourse of development and for the emergence of crisis and ruptures with this social paradigm from other practices and worldviews of life in the territories.
Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens
and stakeholders themselves to understand their relations and what it means to participate. We argue that we can grasp these social dynamics of participatory innovation through play. From a management perspective we study how playing games helps us to understand these dynamics, while from an interaction design...... perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co......-opetition where individual and group goals are conflicting. Drawing on observations and video data of the game being played by the participants of the conference, we study how different group compositions deal with novelty. From here we explain how the process of play can help to grasp the social dynamics...
Draffan, E A; Kadous, Amatullah; Idris, Amal; Banes, David; Zeinoun, Nadine; Wald, Mike; Halabi, Nawar
The purpose of the Arabic Symbol Dictionary research discussed in this paper, is to provide a resource of culturally, environmentally and linguistically suitable symbols to aid communication and literacy skills. A participatory approach with the use of online social media and a bespoke symbol management system has been established to enhance the process of matching a user based Arabic and English core vocabulary with appropriate imagery. Participants including AAC users, their families, carers, teachers and therapists who have been involved in the research from the outset, collating the vocabularies, debating cultural nuances for symbols and critiquing the design of technologies for selection procedures. The positive reaction of those who have voted on the symbols with requests for early use have justified the iterative nature of the methodologies used for this part of the project. However, constant re-evaluation will be necessary and in depth analysis of all the data received has yet to be completed.
Patricia Lora L.
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the potential of participatory research and social planning methodologies for a participatory management of knowledge and for promoting social innovation. In this context, we resume participatory planning and research methodologies implemented in different initiatives of the Social Innovation Science Park at Universidad Minuto de Dios, including the logical framework methodology and tools developed in the field of participatory action research (particularly the participatory rural appraisal and social mapping. We believe that their inclusiveness and their ability to integrate the knowledge and experience of different social and institutional actors encourage the promotion and development of strategies incorporating the different social actors in knowledge management. These methodologies are approaches to knowledge management and to the collective formulation and participatory development of social initiatives, and they therefore are becoming key raw materials for any social innovation initiative.
Forest policy decisions are often a source of debate, conflict, and tension in many countries. The debate over forest land-use decisions often hinges on disagreements about societal values related to forest resource use. Disagreements on social value positions are fought out repeatedly at local, regional, national, and international levels at an enormous social cost. Forest policy problems have some inherent characteristics that make them more difficult to deal with. On the one hand, forest policy decisions involve uncertainty, long time scales, and complex natural systems and processes. On the other hand, such decisions encompass social, political, and cultural systems that are evolving in response to forces such as globalization. Until recently, forest policy was heavily influenced by the scientific community and various economic models of optimal resource use. However, growing environmental awareness and acceptance of participatory democracy models in policy formulation have forced the public authorities to introduce new participatory mechanisms to manage forest resources. Most often, the efforts to include the public in policy formulation can be described using the lower rungs of Arnstein’s public participation typology. This paper presents an approach that incorporates stakeholder preferences into forest land-use policy using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). An illustrative case of regional forest-policy formulation in Australia is used to demonstrate the approach. It is contended that applying the AHP in the policy process could considerably enhance the transparency of participatory process and public acceptance of policy decisions.
Mohammadi, E.; Hunter, A. J. S.
We propose that participatory GIS (PGIS) activities including participatory urban planning can be made more efficient and effective if spatial reasoning rules are integrated with PGIS tools to simplify engagement for public contributors. Spatial reasoning is used to describe relationships between spatial entities. These relationships can be evaluated quantitatively or qualitatively using geometrical algorithms, ontological relations, and topological methods. Semantic web services utilize tools and methods that can facilitate spatial reasoning. GeoSPARQL, introduced by OGC, is a spatial reasoning standard used to make declarations about entities (graphical contributions) that take the form of a subject-predicate-object triple or statement. GeoSPARQL uses three basic methods to infer topological relationships between spatial entities, including: OGC's simple feature topology, RCC8, and the DE-9IM model. While these methods are comprehensive in their ability to define topological relationships between spatial entities, they are often inadequate for defining complex relationships that exist in the spatial realm. Particularly relationships between urban entities, such as those between a bus route, the collection of associated bus stops and their overall surroundings as an urban planning pattern. In this paper we investigate common qualitative spatial reasoning methods as a preliminary step to enhancing the capabilities of GeoSPARQL in an online participatory GIS framework in which reasoning is used to validate plans based on standard patterns that can be found in an efficient/effective urban environment.
Vejarano, Gilberto M., Comp.
The following papers (titles are translated into English) were presented at a conference on participatory research: "Participatory Research, Popular Knowledge, and Power"; "Participatory Research and Adult Literacy"; "Developments and Perspectives on Participatory Research"; "Popular Education and Participatory…
This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....
R. Siddappa Setty
Full Text Available Enhancing incomes from the sustainable harvest of nontimber forest products can help to maintain local livelihoods and provide local communities with economic incentives to conserve biodiversity. A key feature of a successful enterprise approach to the conservation of these products is a sound monitoring and evaluation program that involves all concerned stakeholders and leads to adaptive management. However, few studies have presented any of the approaches, successes, or challenges involved in participatory monitoring initiatives for nontimber forest products. We present our experiences using a participatory research model that we developed and used over a 10-yr (1995-2005 period for the wild harvesting of Phyllanthus spp. fruits (amla by indigenous Soliga harvesters in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary, South India. We describe the establishment and evolution of our participatory resource monitoring activities, compare some of the results of our activities to those obtained from monitoring using standard ecological approaches, and evaluate some of the successes and challenges associated with our participatory resource model. An initial step in this work was the establishment of Soliga-run enterprises for the processing and value addition of amla and other nontimber forest products. Participatory resource monitoring activities consisted of participatory mapping and assessments of fruit production, fruit harvest and regeneration combined with pre- and postharvesting meetings for sharing information, and adaptive management. Over the years, harvesters rejected, changed, and adapted various participatory resource monitoring methods to select those most appropriate for them. Visual estimates of fruit production made by harvesters at the forest level were very similar to estimates obtained using standard scientific monitoring protocols. Participatory research monitoring techniques that were effective included strategies for
Auerbach, R H; Kenan, D; Davidson, G
A supercritical fluid chromatographic method combined with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy detection (SFC-FTIR) was developed for determination of varietal differences in essential oil constituents in hops (Humulus lupulus). Infrared spectra (IR) of the major constituents of essential oil of hops were taken as films deposited on AgCl discs and compared with those obtained after chromatographic separation in the IR flow-cell with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Spectra from AgCl discs were comparable to those in scCO2, but in scCO2 most of the bands appeared approximately 8-10 cm-1 to higher wave numbers. Open-tubular SFC-FTIR analysis of the essential oil of 4 different hop varieties was performed. The SFC-FTIR chromatograms showed differences in the location and relative intensity of the peaks depending on the variety, which was further confirmed by consideration of their FTIR spectra.
Coghlan, A; Kabandu, M; Musungu, M J
A field test combined participatory evaluation methods with more traditional techniques to assess the progress of The AIDS Service Organization (TASO) Community Initiatives program in Uganda to encourage greater community involvement in improving the program. Approximately 1.5 million people in Uganda are infected with the HIV virus. Estimated HIV prevalence ranges from 25 to 30% in the capital city of Kampala and is as high as 50% in some trading centers along the main highway, but as low as 1% in some rural areas. To empower people within their own communities to prevent the further spread of HIV and better support people with AIDS, TASO launched The Community Initiatives program in 1990. Under this program, TASO trainers help community leaders form a village AIDS committee and identify community needs and objectives. Local leaders then select community AIDS workers, who receive training from TASO in AIDS prevention, education, counseling, and care. These community volunteers conduct formal and informal educational sessions with groups and individuals, visit homes to provide counseling and assistance with care, distribute condoms, and refer people for HIV testing and medical treatment. During 1993 an evaluation plan in 2 of the 17 TCI-supported communities was field tested. The primary data collection methods were a knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey, followed by focus group discussions, and individual interviews with key informants. Several participatory methods also involved community members in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. More than 300 people gathered in the trading center of Biharwe to comment on the evaluation results from a community-based AIDS program. Through this process of encouraging audience participation and eliciting feedback, the evaluation sessions armed the work of the community implementors, disseminated more knowledge about changing sexual norms, and fostered greater community support for the program.
Rothmann, Mette Juel; Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Myhre Jensen, Charlotte;
-established science tradition, language, culture and biomedical approach in health science. This workshop will be an opportunity to share our experiences in using participatory design in healthcare and research, or experiences in applying participatory design activities across different healthcare systems......, particularly addressing dilemmas on knowledge, power and participation....
Bloemmen, M.H.I.; Fransen, H.; Hoogerwerf, T.C.; Ligtenberg, A.; Lammeren, van R.J.A.
The use of geo-visualization for participatory planning purposes is a challenging field of research. Reason for this is that researchers involved with the subject currently lack a common rationale for the integration of the two complementary domains: participatory planning and geo-visualization. Con
Gallacher, Lesley-Anne; Gallagher, Michael
Much of the recent literature on social research with children advocates the use of participatory techniques. This article attempts to rethink such techniques in several ways. The authors argue that participatory approaches, in their insistence that children should take part in research, may in fact involve children in processes that aim to…
Irizarry, Jason G.
This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and…
Fuller, David; Johnson, Steven B.
Participatory research is a useful technique for collecting basic data over a large geographic area. Garlic production was chosen as a participatory research study focus in Maine. Project participants (285) received bulbs to plant, monitored their crop, and reported data online. Participants received a monthly educational newsletter to improve…
Full Text Available This article outlines the development of a beginner English course called 'Speak Out' for adults in Adult Basic Education and Training classes in the early 1990s. The course uses an innovative roleplay methodology which builds on the experiences and language knowledge of the adult learners. It was conceptualised and developed within a participatory approach to adult learning and materials development. The article explores the tension between the ideals of the participatory approach and the constraints exerted by contextual and other factors. The article begins with an introduction of the context within which the materials were conceptualised, then offers a brief overview of the participatory approach, and then considers the following aspects of the 'Speak Out' course: the language learning methodology, issues of teacher competence and development, and lastly, the materials development process itself. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n beginnerskursus vir Engels, getitel 'Speak Out'. Dit is ontwerp vir volwassenes in klasse binne 'n Volwasse Basiese Onderrig en Opleiding-program in die vroee 1990s. Die kursus maak gebruik van innoverende rolspel as 'n metode wat spesifiek aansluit by die ervarings en taalkennis van volwasse leerders. Dit is gekonseptualiseer en ontwikkel as deel van 'n deelnemende benadering tot die opleiding van volwassenes en die ontwikkeling van hulpmiddels. Die artikel ondersoek die spanning tussen die ideale van 'n deelnemende benadering en die beperkinge wat opgele word deur kontekstuele en ander faktore. Die inleiding van die artikel gee 'n uiteensetting van die konteks waarbinne die hulpmiddels gekonseptualiseer is. Dan volg 'n kort oorsig oor die deelnemende benadering, en die volgende aspekte van die 'Speak Out'-kursus word oorweeg: die metodologie van taalaanleer, kwessies rondom onderwysers se vaardighede en ontwikkeling, en laastens, die proses van hulpmiddel-ontwikkeling self.
Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.
Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in
Ergonomic interventions must be a local process that responds to the particular needs of local people. In view of the many constraints, a special attention is drawn to participatory ergonomics as an effective means of finding locally workable solutions. Recent experiences show that the best way to utilize its practical advantage is to focus on solutions. The practical steps in providing necessary support for participatory ergonomics should include (1) a good starting point for group discussion and subsequent participatory action based on locally achieved examples; (2) prioritizing different elements of the workplace by means of checklists of available solutions; and (3) making small improvements with a view to learning-by-doing through small wins. Good local examples that have been achieved in the given local conditions can show how improvements can be done in the local conditions and thus motivate people in making improvements. The next important step is to help the participants determine priority solutions by means of "action checklists" that list the available solutions. It is necessary to concentrate on those aspects in which both better working conditions and higher productivity are accessible simultaneously. They include operational, cognitive and organizational aspects. Through learning-by-doing, the participants must be able to base their judgement on the results of relative assessment of locally available solutions and to implement the chosen solutions. To sustain active initiatives of the participants, support and advice must be provided which are suitable for working in small groups, sharing experiences and identifying workable solutions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa
Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions.
Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper; Bødker, Keld
We address design of computer support for work and its coordination at the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. We propose design solutions based upon participatory design techniques and ethnographically inspired analysis within a full scale design project. The project exemplifies an ambitious, yet...... realistic, design practice, that provides a sound basis for organisational decision making and for technical and organizational development and implementation. We focus on cooperative aspects within and among the editorial units, and between editorial units and the editorial board. We discuss technical...... and organisational aspects of the design, seen in light of recent CSCW concepts, including coordination and computational coordination mechanisms, technologies of accountability, and workflow from within and without....
Mutune, Jane Mutheu; Lund, Jens Friis
We evaluate the livelihoods of member and non-members of Community Forestry Associations under Kenya's participatory forest management (PFM) programme. We use propensity score matching of households based on recall based data from before implementation of PFM from 286 households and comparison...... of current incomes (2012), as well as review of records and interviews. Results reveal that members have higher total and forest-related incomes than non-members and indicate that impacts derive from labour and market opportunities supported by donor institutions, more than from differential access to forest...
Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester; Finnan, Craig
as there are numerous challenges for enabling participation, e.g. power distance, cultural barriers, low educational levels and geographical distances. However, participatory design offers substantial opportunities for developing countries, regarding empowerment in local communities and democratisation of change...... African context, based on two case studies. In the first case, concepts for new information technology were developed for a small-scale wine farm in the Western Cape, engaging multiple stakeholders on the farm. In the second case, hyper-local storytelling distributed through Bluetooth technology...
Trocas gasosas em videira sob regime de estresse hídrico. II. fotorrespiração e comportamento varietal Gas exchanges in grapevines under water stress regime. II. photorespiration and varietal behavior
Murillo de Albuquerque Regina
Full Text Available Analisou-se a fotorrespiração em folhas de videira (Vitis vinifera L. submetidas a um regime de estresse hídrico, com o objetivo de caracterizar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares. Foram utilizadas plantas de dois anos, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto Fercal, plantadas em vasos plásticos e cultivadas em ambiente controlado. A fotorrespiração foi calculada a partir de medidas das trocas gasosas foliares. Os valores absolutos da fotorrespiração variaram pouco entre cultivares e nível de irrigação; já a eficiência da carboxilação e o ponto de compensação ao CO2 foram bastante afetados pelo estresse hídrico, o que revela diferentes níveis de sensibilidade varietal. Foi verificada a ocorrência de inibição não-estomática da fotossíntese, afetando diferencialmente as cultivares analisadas. Destacou-se, ainda, a maior adaptação da Chardonnay às condições de estresse hídrico, em oposição à grande sensibilidade da Sémillon e da Ugni blanc.The photorespiration in grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. leaves subjected to a water stress regime was analysed with the purpose of characterizing the behavior of different cultivars. Two-year old plants were used, grafted on Fercal, planted in plastic pots and cultivated in controlled environment. The photorespiration was calculated from leaf gas exchange measurements taken by means of a portable infrared CO2 analyser (LCA3-ADC, working in an open circuit. The absolute photorespiration values varied little among cultivars and level of irrigation, whereas the carboxylation efficiency and the CO2 compensation point were highly affected by the water stress, thereby evidencing different varietal sensitivity levels. The occurrence of a nonstomatal inhibition of the photosynthesis was verified affecting in a specific way the cultivars analysed. The Chardonnay adapted itself better to the water stress conditions as opposed to the high sensitivity on the part of Sémillon and Ugni blanc.
Jensen, Per Langaa
Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way...
Employing the pot experiment of the complete random block design with 6 replications,four varieties of japonica rice (Fujisaka 5,Honenwase,Akitakomachi and Taichung 65) were used to study the varietal differ- ences in leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area during mature period,their relation and effects to the ripen ing rate. The results showed that(1) thee were varietal differences in LNC at the heading stage and the LNC decrease rate during the matue period,the high LNC at the heading stage was related to the rapid LNC de- crease. (2) There were two phases of the leaf area changing process during the mature period,first was the stable,and second was the decreased phase. There was varietal difference in the critical time of phase 1 and phase 2. The hign leaf area in the phase 1 was in relation to the rapid leaf area decrease in the phase 2. It was not found that there was relation between the leaf quality and quantity. (3)It wa unfavorable to the ripening rate for the high leaf area at the heading stage and the rapid decrease of the leaf area during the mature peri- od. (4)It was put forward that the super high yield rice variety should possess the not very high leaf area and high LNC at the heading stage,slow senescence in the leaf area during the mature period.
LiRong－tian; KojimaNobuyoshi; 等
Employing the pot experiment of the complete random block design with 6 replications,four varieties of japonica rice (Fujisaka 5,Honenwase,Akitakomachi and Taichung 65) were used to study the varietal differences in leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area during mature period,their relation and effects to the ripening rate.The results showed that (1) thee were varietal differences in LNC at the heading stage and the LNC decrease rate during the matur period,the high LNC at the heading stage was related to the rapid LNC decrease.(2) There were two phases of the leaf area changing process during the mature period,first was the stable,and second was the decreased phase.There was varietal difference in the critical time of phase 1 and phase 2.The hign leaf area in the phase 1 was in relation to the rapid leaf area decrease in the phase 2.It was not found that there was relation between the leaf quality and quantity.(2)It wa unfavorable to the ripening rate for the high leaf area at the heading stage and the rapid decrease of the leaf area during the mature period.(4)It was put forward that the super high yield rice variety should possess the not very high leaf area and high LNC at the heading stage,slow senescence in the leaf area during the mature period.
Full Text Available Website redesigns can be contentious and fraught in any type of organization, and libraries are no exception. Coming to consensus on priorities and design decisions is nearly impossible, as different groups compete to ensure their subject or specialty area is represented. To keep projects on track and on time, libraries may give a few staff members the authority to make all of the decisions, while keeping user research limited to a small number of usability tests. While these tactics are sometimes necessary, at best they can leave many feeling left out of the process, and at worst, can result in major oversights in the final design. Participatory design methods can bring users and stakeholders into the design process and ultimately lead to a better design and less friction in the project. The authors share their experience and lessons learned using participatory design techniques in a website redesign project at a large, multi-location academic library, and how these techniques facilitated communication, shaped design decisions, and kept a complex, difficult project on track.
Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new contribu......Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... contributions. As regards conceptual efforts are made but further exploration of methodological combinations and their practical implications are called for. This paper argues 1) to combine methodologies by approaching this as scholarly subjectification processes, and 2) to perform combinations in both......-and practices by dealing with challenges of methodological overview, responsive creativity and identity-struggle. The potentials hereof are demonstrated and discussed with cases of two both critical and co-creative practices, namely ‘organizational modelling’ and ‘fixed/unfixed positioning’ from fieldwork...
Full Text Available In the area of youth health, peers education is an approach to health promotion. Assess the training needs of peers educators clarifies the components, values, and quality of training protocols. Aim to that we conducted a participatory educational needs assessment of youth peer educators.Involving youth and key informants in direct collaboration with research team, a qualitative approach was planned based on grounded theory. For data collection a semi-structured guide questioning was designed. Sixteen focus group discussions and 8 in depth interview were held.The majority of participants emphasized on the importance of mental health, life skills, AIDS prevention, contraception methods, and healthy nutrition as the main training topics. They were extremely interested into the comprehensive educational material among their participatory role in peer programs.The training programs should be well defined based on the knowledge, skills and behavior of peers. During the implementation, training programs should be followed to meet the ongoing educational needs of service providers.
This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…
Full Text Available Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha. All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant.
Anna Planas Lladó
Full Text Available Participatory evaluation (PE is frequently used to assess community plans and actions. But how is a PE process designed and carried out? Which methodological elements differentiate PE from other assessment practices? And what kind of tools and instruments are used? This article attempts to answer these questions, though a review of the most recent literature and guidebooks on the EP methodology. Some methodological reflections on the EP process conducted in three community plans are given and described. In this paper we analyze the most relevant methodological aspects observed during entry into the community (1, context analysis (2, the formation of the steering group (3, the application of participatory techniques and dynamics to evaluate community actions, their multiplication (4, and the evaluation and closure of the three processes of EP (5. Results allow identifying relevant methodological contributions to theimplementation of future processes of Participatory Evaluation in community settings, as the key stakeholders to the process of entry into the community, some elements to consider in order to encourage participation, and the role of the professional evaluators team.
Andersen, Simone Nyholm
When ergonomic considerations are integrated into the design of work systems, both overall system performance and employee well-being improve. A central part of integrating ergonomics in work system design is to benefit from emplo y-ees’ knowledge of existing work systems. Participatory simulation...... (PS) is a method to access employee knowledge; namely employees are involved in the simulation and design of their own future work systems through the exploration of models representing work system designs. However, only a few studies have investigated PS and the elements of the method. Yet...... understanding the elements is essential when analyzing and planning PS in research and practice. This PhD study investigates PS and the method elements in the context of the Danish hospital sector, where PS is applied in the renewal and design of public hospitals and the work systems within the hospitals...
Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways to d...... practice-based methods where "social experiments with technology" and "dialogue research" are the key-words. ......Interdisciplinary research with stakeholders and users challenge the research methodologies to be used. These have to provide a shared language for all the participants, to build up trust, and to offer insights into the diverse perspectives of the participants. Further more it challenge ways...... to discuss and validate contributions from each others - across different criteria for each discipline, and crosswise different agendas for stakeholders, politicians, practitioners and researchers. Participatory research and social experiments are methodologies which have been developed to cope...
Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... in collaborative governance processes in Denmark. The paper contributes to refining methodologies of organizational discourse analysis by elaborating method-mixing that embraces multimodal organizational discourses. Furthermore it discusses practical implications of the struggling subjectification processes......-and practices by dealing with challenges of methodological overview, responsive creativity and identity-struggle. The potentials hereof are demonstrated and discussed with cases of two both critical and co-creative practices, namely ‘organizational modelling’ and ‘fixed/unfixed positioning’ from fieldwork...
Ertner, Sara Marie; Kragelund, Anne Mie; Malmborg, Lone
Participatory design has been defined as having 'user's democratic participation and empowerment at its core' (Correia and Yusop, 2008). The PD discourse has a strong moral and rhetorical claim by its emphasis on users' empowerment. This paper is a result of a student project, guided by a curiosity...... about how empowerment is enunciated in the PD field today. In a literature-review of academic papers from the proceedings of PDC 2008 we found that empowerment is enunciated in five different ways which can be translated into 5 categories: 1) Specific user groups 2) Direct democracy 3) The users......' position 4) Researchers' practice 5) Reflexive practice. These categories exist conjointly in the literature and suggest that empowerment is not just a moral and politically correct design goal, but a challenged and complex activity....
Full Text Available By using active and participatory methods it is hoped that pupils will not only come to a deeper understanding of the issues involved, but also that their motivation will be heightened. Pupil involvement in their learning is essential. Moreover, by using a variety of teaching techniques, we can help students make sense of the world in different ways, increasing the likelihood that they will develop a conceptual understanding. The teacher must be a good facilitator, monitoring and supporting group dynamics. Modeling is an instructional strategy in which the teacher demonstrates a new concept or approach to learning and pupils learn by observing. In the teaching of biology the didactic materials are fundamental tools in the teaching-learning process. Reading about scientific concepts or having a teacher explain them is not enough. Research has shown that modeling can be used across disciplines and in all grade and ability level classrooms. Using this type of instruction, teachers encourage learning.
Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.
Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)
Keywords: permanent land use, weeds, indigenous knowledge, integrated crop and soil management, participatory learning, co-researchWeeds constitute a major constraint to agricultural production in the Republic of Benin. Agricultural intensification and the evolution towards permanent cropping system
This training handbook is a result of the Environment and Urban Development Training Project. This project introduced participatory environmental planning for sustainable development of small and intermediate towns in Kenya. The human living environment was taken as the entry point.
In this essay, I explore how virtue ethics can help to better understand design processes. Three virtues are discussed that people need in order to become participatory design virtuosos: cooperation, curiosity and creativity.
Adrienne C. Shelton
Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.
Kendal, Sarah; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Welsby, Hannah; Milnes, Linda
Introduction\\ud \\ud Youth mental health is a global concern. Emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness. Youth value self-care for emotional health, but we need better understanding of how to help them look after their emotional health. Participatory research is relevant, since meaningful engagement with youth via participatory research enhances the validity and relevance of research findings and supports young people's rights to involvement in decisions that ...
Wang, Wendong; Xi, Teng; Ngai, Edith C-H; Song, Zheng
Location information is a key element of participatory sensing. Many mobile and sensing applications require location information to provide better recommendations, object search and trip planning. However, continuous GPS positioning consumes much energy, which may drain the battery of mobile devices quickly. Although WiFi and cell tower positioning are alternatives, they provide lower accuracy compared to GPS. This paper solves the above problem by proposing a novel localization scheme through the collaboration of multiple mobile devices to reduce energy consumption and provide accurate positioning. Under our scheme, the mobile devices are divided into three groups, namely the broadcaster group, the location information receiver group and the normal participant group. Only the broadcaster group and the normal participant group use their GPS. The location information receiver group, on the other hand, makes use of the locations broadcast by the broadcaster group to estimate their locations. We formulate the broadcaster set selection problem and propose two novel algorithms to minimize the energy consumption in collaborative localization. Simulations with real traces show that our proposed solution can save up to 68% of the energy of all of the participants and provide more accurate locations than WiFi and cellular network positioning.
García, Ana M; Sevilla, María José; Gadea, Rafael; Casañ, Consuelo
We describe a participatory ergonomics program that started in April 2010 in a chemical company located in the autonomous region of Valencia, Spain. The program was introduced in the company, the intervention level was agreed (two working lines, 24 workers) and a working group was established (Ergo Group, including managers, technicians and safety representatives in the company) with the aim of leading the intervention. A questionnaire was applied to collect information on ergonomic injuries and exposures in workers at the selected working lines. This information was analyzed by the Ergo Group and was later discussed at prevention circles with the direct participation of affected workers. When the present article was being drafted, 16 improvements to working conditions had already been proposed. Some of these improvements had been implemented and, in the opinion of some of the participants, were effective. To develop this kind of program, which could benefit a substantial number of workers in Spain, a firm commitment to prevention by companies is required.
Full Text Available The article deals with drug use by young Roma as members of a marginalized population. It reflects on the use of collages and of metaphor analysis on images produced by participants within an action-research approach. Additionally, various stakeholders were involved in a participatory manner in defining research questions, priorities and strategies. In order to understand young Roma's perceptions on drugs, 23 visual focus groups and 58 life-story interviews were conducted in five European countries. In the focus groups, young people built collages to represent drugs and then explained their meanings. Metaphor analysis was used to analyze the data. With the biographical interviews, histories of consumption from drug users were gathered. Among the trends identified are the early onset of tobacco use, exposure to consumption of alcohol by adults, underestimation of the consequences of many drugs, addiction to injecting drug use in specific areas. Gender roles are strongly associated with patterns of consumption. Roma young people also express belonging and reclaim positive social status by using certain types of drugs and by sharing consumption patterns with non-minority young people. The research process also illustrates how qualitative research can contribute to selective prevention programs. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs160155
Full Text Available Location information is a key element of participatory sensing. Many mobile and sensing applications require location information to provide better recommendations, object search and trip planning. However, continuous GPS positioning consumes much energy, which may drain the battery of mobile devices quickly. Although WiFi and cell tower positioning are alternatives, they provide lower accuracy compared to GPS. This paper solves the above problem by proposing a novel localization scheme through the collaboration of multiple mobile devices to reduce energy consumption and provide accurate positioning. Under our scheme, the mobile devices are divided into three groups, namely the broadcaster group, the location information receiver group and the normal participant group. Only the broadcaster group and the normal participant group use their GPS. The location information receiver group, on the other hand, makes use of the locations broadcast by the broadcaster group to estimate their locations. We formulate the broadcaster set selection problem and propose two novel algorithms to minimize the energy consumption in collaborative localization. Simulations with real traces show that our proposed solution can save up to 68% of the energy of all of the participants and provide more accurate locations than WiFi and cellular network positioning.
Full Text Available By collecting data via sensors embedded personal smart devices, sensing participants play a key role in participatory sensor networks. Using information provided by reputable sensing participants ensures the reliability of participatory sensing data. Setting a threshold for the reputation, and those whose reputations are bigger than this value are regarded as reputable. The bigger the threshold value is, the more reliable the extracted reputable sensing participant is. However, if the threshold value is too big, only very limited participatory sensing data can be involved. This may cause unexpected bias in information collection. Existing works did not consider the relationship between the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants and the ratio of usable participatory sensing data. In this work, we propose a criterion for optimized reputable sensing participant extraction in participatory sensor networks. This is achieved based on the mathematical analysis on the ratio of available participatory sensing data and the reliability of extracted reputable sensing participants. Our suggested threshold value for reputable sensing participant extraction is only related to the power of sensing participant’s reputation distribution. It is easy to be applied in real applications. Simulation results tested on real application data further verified the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Trimble, Micaela; Lázaro, Marila
Participatory research in which experts and non-experts are co-researchers in addressing local concerns (also known as participatory action research or community-based research) can be a valuable approach for dealing with the uncertainty of social-ecological systems because it fosters learning among stakeholders and co-production of knowledge. Despite its increased application in the context of natural resources and environmental management, evaluation of participatory research has received little attention. The objectives of this research were to define criteria to evaluate participatory research processes and outcomes, from the literature on participation evaluation, and to apply them in a case study in an artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay. Process evaluation criteria (e.g., problem to be addressed of key interest to local and additional stakeholders; involvement of interested stakeholder groups in every research stage; collective decision making through deliberation; and adaptability through iterative cycles) should be considered as conditions to promote empowering participatory research. Our research contributes to knowledge on evaluation of participatory research, while also providing evidence of the positive outcomes of this approach, such as co-production of knowledge, learning, strengthened social networks, and conflict resolution.
Yaowaluk Chanbang; Frank H Arthur; Gerald E. Wilde; James E. Throne
Adults of Rhyzopertha dominica(F.),the lesser grain borer, were exposed on four varieties of rough rice with Dobie indices of susceptibility of 1.1 to 1.1 (low), and four varieties with Dobie indices of susceptibility of 3.4 to 3.8 (high). The varieties with low and high Dobie indices were classified as resistant and susceptible, respectively, to R. dominica.The purpose of the study was to evaluate control of R. dominica through the use of diatomaceous earth (DE) in combination with rice varieties that were either susceptible or resistant to R. dominica. The rice was treated with varying rates of the commercial DE lnsecto(R), up to a maximum of 1000 mg DE/kg of rice. Adult mortality at each application rate of DE was generally greater on three of four resistant varieties compared to three of four susceptible varieties. Progeny production from the parental generation exposed on the rice was also greater in 3 of the 4 resistant varieties compared to 3 of the 4 susceptible varieties at DE rates of 500 mg/kg or more. Progeny production in rice treated with a maximum rate of 1000 mg/kg DE ranged from 7-44 adults on the resistant varieties compared to 75-155adults on the susceptible varieties. At DE rates of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg, the percentage of insect-damaged kernels (IDK) was also greater in 3/4 resistant varieties than in the susceptible varieties. Results show combining the use of DE with varietal resistance of rough rice to R. dominica could be used to limit populations of this insect in stored rice and help prevent economic damage.
Full Text Available After immersing myself in The Research Planner: Doing Critical Participatory Action Research, I believe I have a better understanding of participatory action research and its relationship to the work of Habermas. I feel it has enabled me to align my values and beliefs with Habermas and action research’s philosophical underpinnings within the critical theory paradigm. For me this book has clarified how communicative spaces, the theory of communicative action and public spheres are related to participatory methodologies. At the start of the book, Kemmis and co-authors (2013, pp 2-3 define the purpose of critical participatory action research as ‘to change social practices, including research itself, to make them more rational and reasonable, more productive and sustainable and more just and inclusive’. ‘Rational’ in this context conveys a sense of being more reasonable, comprehensible, coherent and sensible. Carr and Kemmis (1986 critique the positivist and interpretivist paradigms and argue that for critical participatory action research to bring about social change, it needs to reject the premise of objectivity whereby the researcher is viewed as a ‘distant observer’. They further advocate that self-reflection is essential, for the individual and the collective, to ensure the critical aspect and validity of the research. Overall, they say participatory forms of research methodology create the conditions for practitioners to be activity involved and have a voice in all aspects of the research process (Kemmis et al., 2013.
Soit K le corps des fractions d'une surface projective et lisse, g\\'eom\\'etriquement int\\`egre, d\\'efinie sur un corps fini F. Soit C/K une conique. Parimala et Suresh ont montr\\'e que le groupe de cohomologie non ramifi\\'ee en degr\\'e trois de K(C) \\`a coefficients de torsion est nul. Dans cette note on \\'etend leur r\\'esultat aux vari\\'et\\'es de Severi-Brauer associ\\'ees \\`a une alg\\`ebre centrale simple dont d'indice l est premier et diff\\'erent de char F.
Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.
Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved
Full Text Available The New Public Management movement regards citizens as customers and, accordingly, focuses on the quality of services provided by public-sector organizations. Since this approach negatively affected democratic values, there has been a shift of the focus from consumer satisfaction and quality of services to quality of governance. The latter implies the improvement of the relationship between government and citizens as active members of the community. Over the last twenty years, participatory budgeting (PB has become a popular form of co-production intended to improve the quality of local governance. The aim of the article is to provide a comparative analysis of the use and role of PB in Croatia, Poland and Slovakia and to identify the models of PB used in selected countries. In order to compare the case studies of municipalities in selected countries, a qualitative analysis has been used and the classification of PB models applied. Most analyzed local units use the “Porto Alegre adapted for Europe” model, but the “Consultation on public finances”, “Representation of Organized Interest” and “Proximity participation” models are also represented. The main findings are that PB indeed enables better allocation of public sources according to citizens’ needs (various public services were delivered following the trend of social innovation and co-creation, but the problem lies in the low amount assigned for PB from public budgets and the relatively low interest of citizens to participate in the PB processes. PB might also bring certain risks linked with its implementation, e.g. misuse of the idea for political reasons or additional costs of projects delivered in the PB process.
Full Text Available The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples and subjective (opinions, feelings data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments.
Full Text Available Interest-Free/Islamic Banking or Participatory Banking has been increasing its share in the world financial market. Although many researches about the reasons for preference of interest-free banks abroad Turkey have been conducted so far, the number of the studies related to the reasons for preference of participatory banks in Turkey is comparatively very low. This study is intended to contribute to the literature in question. To this effect; a sample of 217 participants was selected among the customers of three participatory banks in Bolu province in Turkey. The data was collected through conducting a survey. An exploratory factor analysis was run on the data. According to our findings, the principal factor affecting the participants’ preference of participatory banks is “Product/Service Quality”. “Image and Trust”, “Personnel Quality”, “Religious/Environmental Motivations” are the succeeding ones.
Palaigeorgiou, George; Triantafyllakos, George; Tsinakos, Avgoustos
The participatory culture of Web 2.0 and the implicit empowerment of the learners have not been yet associated with participatory design projects that involve learners in the design and development of the new mediating tools. In this paper, we examine students' projections of Web 2.0 in higher education. Ninety seven undergraduate students participated in 20 design sessions exploiting two needs' elicitation techniques with the aim of envisioning of a course website that meets their learning particularities, that incorporates and exploits their new technological habits and which can be harmoniously situated in the daily routine of a modern, active student. 583 needs were produced and their abstract categorization is presented. Students proved that they had refined views about the elements that can render successful the next wave of e-learning applications and provided directions that can help designers and researchers in developing more informed designs. Students are the main agents of educational change and, hence, they deserve a more active and contributive role in the knowledge society.
Beall, A.; Fiedler, F.; Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Harris, C.
In March 2008, The University of Idaho Waters of the West, the Palouse Basin Aquifer Committee and its Citizen Advisory Group undertook a pilot project to explore the use of participatory modeling to assist with water resource management decisions. The Palouse basin supplies Moscow, Idaho, Pullman, Washington, and surrounding communities with high quality groundwater. However, water levels in the major aquifer systems have been declining since records have been kept. Solutions are complicated by jurisdictional considerations and limited alternatives for supply. We hope that by using a participatory approach major conflicts will be avoided. Group system dynamics modeling has been used for various environmental concerns such as air quality, biological management, water quality and quantity. These models create a nexus of science, policy, and economic and social concerns, which enhances discussion of issues surrounding the use of natural resources. Models may be developed into educational and or decision support tools which can be used to assist with planning processes. The long-term goal of the Palouse basin project is to develop such a model. The pilot project participants include hydrologists, facility operators, policy makers and local citizens. The model they have developed integrates issues such as scientific uncertainty, groundwater volumes, and potential conservation measures and costs. Preliminary results indicate that participants are satisfied with the approach and are looking to use the model for education and to help direct potential research. We will present the results of the pilot project, including the developed model and insights from the process.
Wijk-Siebesma, van C.
Keywords: domestic water supply, community management, gender, poverty, program planning, program evaluation, monitoring, water policy, participatory methods, sustainability, useThe Methodology for Participatory Assessment, or MPA, is a new, multi-level instrument to combine sustainability analysis
Nanjo, Yohei; Jang, Hee-Young; Kim, Hong-Sig; Hiraga, Susumu; Woo, Sun-Hee; Komatsu, Setsuko
Flooding of fields due to heavy and/or continuous rainfall influences soybean production. To identify soybean varieties with flooding tolerance at the seedling emergence stage, 128 soybean varieties were evaluated using a flooding tolerance index, which is based on plant survival rates, the lack of apparent damage and lateral root development, and post-flooding radicle elongation rate. The soybean varieties were ranked according to their flooding tolerance index, and it was found that the tolerance levels of soybean varieties exhibit a continuum of differences between varieties. Subsequently, tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive varieties were selected and subjected to comparative proteomic analysis to clarify the tolerance mechanism. Proteomic analysis of the radicles, combined with correlation analysis, showed that the ratios of RNA binding/processing related proteins and flooding stress indicator proteins were significantly correlated with flooding tolerance index. The RNA binding/processing related proteins were positively correlated in untreated soybeans, whereas flooding stress indicator proteins were negatively correlated in flooded soybeans. These results suggest that flooding tolerance is regulated by mechanisms through multiple factors and is associated with abundance levels of the identified proteins.
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten
We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes...... specifying, realizing, and measuring effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic inherent in accreditation and it supports challenging parts of the accreditation process. Effects-driven IT development furthermore might support effects related to clinical evidence......-based thinking. We describe and compare effects- driven IT development with accreditation and discuss the prospects and challenges for this approach to participatory design within the healthcare domain....
This paper explores the creation of fictional space in participatory design and relates the notion of fictional space to the more general conception of design space as a space created through the situated practices of participants. The notion of fictional space provides insights for understanding...... the process through which participants in participatory design create a design space in which established conventions of everyday practice are altered or suspended. With inspiration from literary theory, it is argued that the production of fictional space may be understood in terms of participants practicing...... games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props...
Full Text Available At the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries we have included users in technology development with great success. "Participatory design" entails collaboration among designers, developers, and users from the earliest stages of conception through to implementation of websites and other technology. Using participatory methods, a project to redesign the library website began with workshops to identify user needs and preferences. The results of these workshops led to the identification of key tasks for the main page. They also generated a hierarchy of tasks for sub-pages and rich information about how students and faculty members use current websites in their work. In our article, we explain our reasons for running participatory design workshops, describe our methods, review participants and recruitment, and summarize key findings. We also include information about our local implementation and general conclusions about the value of design workshops for website design and development.
In this article I describe my personal journey from working as private practitioner to participating in the wider South African society. Post-apartheid South African society struggles with overwhelming problems related to poverty, illness, violence, sexism, and racism. Moreover, in those communities where the trauma is most severe, professional resources are scarce. I propose a participatory approach which invites therapists to respond to these socio-economic and political challenges and the problems that arise from them by thinking and acting outside the constraints of their consultation rooms and of traditional therapeutic conversations, into active participation in ways that might support healing and social transformation. I use two examples to illustrate and discuss the participatory approach with which I have engaged for over 10 years. The illustrative examples show how a participatory approach can create ripples that impact communities in healing and transformative ways.
Full Text Available The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR. The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of ‘Zero-acreage farming’ (ZFarming, which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article “Application and evaluation of a participatory “open innovation” approach (ROIR: the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin” (Specht et al., 2016 .
Zoll, Felix; Specht, Kathrin; Siebert, Rosemarie
The data in this article represent an evaluation of a participatory process called Regional Open Innovation Roadmapping (ROIR). The approach aims at the promotion of regional development. In this case, it was carried out to develop a specific innovation in the field of 'Zero-acreage farming' (ZFarming), which is a building-related subtype of urban agriculture. For the evaluation of the process, an online survey was sent to the 58 participants of the ROIR on March 4, 2014. The survey ended on April 8, 2014, and a response rate of 53.54% resulted in a sample size of 31 respondents. The survey was divided into seven different blocks. We analyzed the ROIR process׳s contribution to knowledge generation, the establishment of networks among the participants, the implementation of new projects related to ZFarming, and the increase of acceptance of ZFarming and the selected ZFarming innovation. Furthermore, other remarks, and personal information were collected. Hence, the objective of the survey was to assess whether ROIR is a useful tool to promote the aforementioned innovation drivers, and thereby, the selected innovation, which was developed throughout the process. The data were used in the research article "Application and evaluation of a participatory "open innovation" approach (ROIR): the case of introducing zero-acreage farming in Berlin" (Specht et al., 2016) .
Full Text Available The vehicular participatory sensing network (VPSN is now becoming more and more prevalent, and additionally has shown its great potential in various applications. A general VPSN consists of many tasks from task, publishers, trading platforms and a crowd of participants. Some literature treats publishers and the trading platform as a whole, which is impractical since they are two independent economic entities with respective purposes. For a trading platform in markets, its purpose is to maximize the profit by selecting tasks and recruiting participants who satisfy the requirements of accepted tasks, rather than to improve the quality of each task. This scheduling problem for a trading platform consists of two parts: which tasks should be selected and which participants to be recruited? In this paper, we investigate the scheduling problem in vehicular participatory sensing with the predictable mobility of each vehicle. A genetic-based trading scheduling algorithm (GTSA is proposed to solve the scheduling problem. Experiments with a realistic dataset of taxi trajectories demonstrate that GTSA algorithm is efficient for trading platforms to gain considerable profit in VPSN.
Shi, Heyuan; Song, Xiaoyu; Gu, Ming; Sun, Jiaguang
The vehicular participatory sensing network (VPSN) is now becoming more and more prevalent, and additionally has shown its great potential in various applications. A general VPSN consists of many tasks from task, publishers, trading platforms and a crowd of participants. Some literature treats publishers and the trading platform as a whole, which is impractical since they are two independent economic entities with respective purposes. For a trading platform in markets, its purpose is to maximize the profit by selecting tasks and recruiting participants who satisfy the requirements of accepted tasks, rather than to improve the quality of each task. This scheduling problem for a trading platform consists of two parts: which tasks should be selected and which participants to be recruited? In this paper, we investigate the scheduling problem in vehicular participatory sensing with the predictable mobility of each vehicle. A genetic-based trading scheduling algorithm (GTSA) is proposed to solve the scheduling problem. Experiments with a realistic dataset of taxi trajectories demonstrate that GTSA algorithm is efficient for trading platforms to gain considerable profit in VPSN.
Kaplan, Ian; Miles, Susie; Howes, Andy
Participatory research methods directly engage with the topics that they set out to address. It is therefore no surprise that participatory research practice on the topic of educational inclusion and exclusion raises ethical issues for the participatory researcher that are themselves about inclusion and exclusion. This paper describes and analyses…
Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens; Buur, Jacob
how the stakeholders engaged in activities such as sense-making, co-analysis, and cross-comparison of the ethnographic materials, and the specification and mapping of innovation opportunities. We argue that these activities served to establish a shared understanding and ownership of the participatory......In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustrate...
Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Palen, Leysia Ann
We describe our research—its approach, results and prod-ucts—on Danish emergency medical service (EMS) field or “pre-hospital” work in minor and major incidents. We dis-cuss how commitments to participatory design and attention to the qualitative differences between minor and major incidents...... address challenges identified by disaster sociologists when designing for major incidents. Through qualitative research and participatory design, we have ex-amined the features of EMS work and technology use in different emergency situations from the perspective of mul-tiple actors. We conceptualize...
Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Lyng, Karen Marie; Jensen, Sanne
In the Capital Region of Denmark a full-scale pilot project on IT-supported nursing documentation is - after running for two months at one full university hospital - showing promising results. In this paper we discuss participatory design as a method to design clinical documentation templates...... that support guideline-based highly structured standard documentation in a large organization with many stakeholders. Applying a participatory design (PD) approach at many organizational levels has involved the stakeholders actively in the design process. Developing a set of design principles has concurrently...
Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille; Madsen, Jacob Østergaard
This paper presents an analysis of walking methods and their relation to participatory design (PD). The paper includes a study of walking methods found in the literature and an empirical study of transect walks in a PD project. From this analysis, we identify central attributes of, and challenges...... to, PD walks. Walking with people in the context of design is a natural activity for the participatory designer, who acknowledges the importance of immersion and relationships in design. However, the various intentions of walking approaches indicate an underacknowledged awareness of walking methods....... With this study, we take a step towards a methodological framework for "design with the feet" in PD....
Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system
Full Text Available Background: The chronic care model provides a framework for improving the management of chronic diseases. Participatory research could be useful in developing a chronic care model–based program of interventions, but no one has as yet offered a description of precisely how to apply the approach. Objectives: An innovative, structured, multi-step participatory process was applied to select and develop (1 chronic care model–based interventions program to improve cardiovascular disease prevention that can be adapted to a particular regional context and (2 a set of indicators to monitor its implementation. Methods: Primary care clinicians (n = 16, administrative staff (n = 2, patients and family members (n = 4, decision makers (n = 5, researchers, and a research coordinator (n = 7 took part in the process. Additional primary care actors (n = 26 validated the program. Results: The program targets multimorbid patients at high or moderate risk of cardiovascular disease with uncontrolled hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes. It comprises interprofessional follow-up coordinated by case-management nurses, in which motivated patients are referred in a timely fashion to appropriate clinical and community resources. The program is supported by clinical tools and includes training in motivational interviewing. A set of 89 process and clinical indicators were defined. Conclusion: Through a participatory process, a contextualized interventions program to optimize cardiovascular disease prevention and a set of quality indicators to monitor its implementation were developed. Similar approach might be used to develop other health programs in primary care if program developers are open to building on community strengths and priorities.
This article draws on a participatory photography project conducted with 10 socioeconomically disadvantaged adult learners for six weeks within the framework of production pedagogy. Throughout the project, the participants took photographs about their lives in response to three prompts that I gave: (1) take photographs of people that are important…
Grushka, Kathryn Meyer; Bellette, Aaron; Holbrook, Allyson
This article focuses on the use of Photographic Participatory Inquiry (PPI) in researching the teaching and learning of photography in the e-learning environment. It is an arts-informed method drawing on digital tools to capture collective information as digital artefacts, which can then be accessed and harnessed to build critical and reflective…
Hedges, Helen; Cullen, Joy
This paper continues scholarly conversations about appropriate theories of development to underpin early childhood pedagogy. It focuses on sociocultural theoretical perspectives and proposes that participatory learning theories (PLTs) underpin pedagogy built on principles specified in three curricular documents. Further, the paper argues that the…
Jaffari, Svenja; Boer, Laurens; Buur, Jacob
In this paper we describe how ongoing work with ethnographic material in a participatory innovation sets the scene for innovation to happen. We elaborate on how actionable formats of ethnographic material have been mediated to industrial partners with a stake in an innovation project. We illustra...
Participatory methodologies are increasingly employed in research with young people. These practices stem from a desire to reduce problematic distributions of power in research and to construct knowledge with young people rather than for them. This paper examines research conducted with a small group of young people experiencing exclusion from…
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten
In this article we discuss how to engage in large-scale information systems development by applying a participatory design (PD) approach that acknowledges the unique situated work practices conducted by the domain experts of modern organizations. We reconstruct the iterative prototyping approach...
Madsen, Mads Lægdsgaard; Noe, Egon
Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes...... in interest groups and organisations. On the basis of the theory of communities of practice, we suggest to integrate both knowledge production and knowledge implementation in the work-related social setting of each individual farm.......Participatory approaches in environmental regulation are expected to be a part of achieving environmental targets, but experiences show that it is difficult to implement knowledge in practice. The aim of the article is to achieve a better understanding of prerequisites for participatory processes...... for change in agricultural contexts. The hypothesis is that the processes in the case project can be analysed by applying concepts of the theory of communities of practice. The first analytical component is a test for learning prerequisites conducted by the concepts of domain, community and practice...
Zeng, Emily Jie; Silverstein, Louise Bordeaux
This article presents a community-focused participatory action project designed to promote children's resilience in the early aftermath of the cataclysmic May 2008 Earthquake in Beichuan, China. Thirty children aged 7- to 15-years-old participated in the project. The project encompassed four phases that evolved from adult-directed/initiated…
Tesfai, M.; Graaff, de J.
In the Sheeb area in eastern Eritrea a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was carried out in two villages, one upstream and one downstream of the ephemeral rivers Laba and Mai-ule. The objectives of the study were to obtain a better understanding of farmer-managed spate irrigation systems and to en
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem
This article traces the development of the "second" and arguably more well-known "genre" of participatory action research (PAR). The article argues that the origins of PAR are highly distributed and cannot really be traced back to the ideas of a single person or even a single group of researchers. Instead, the development of…
emerges from this reconfiguration? The small Swedish Biennale, Electrohype run an impressively straight line of investigations into the participatory spaces of art -- thereby also facilitating the dissemination of the, at that time, almost unnoticed field of media art. It appears, from the Electrohype...
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and base
McIntyre, Alice; Chatzopoulos, Nikolaos; Politi, Anastasia; Roz, Julieta
The focus of this article is the experiences of three undergraduate students who engaged in a participatory action research (PAR) project with a group of preadolescent Latina girls attending a public school in Boston, MA, USA. The aim of the 2-year project was to explore how the girls constructed knowledge about girlhood and other gender-related…
Projects using innovative concepts in coastal defence -like ComCoast- can benefit greatly from participatory action. It can lead to innovative solutions with a broad societal support base, as is shown in the plan for water storage in the Overdiepse polder and the inundation compensation scheme for f
Van der Pol, C.; Glasius, A; Winnubst, M.
Projects using innovative concepts in coastal defence -like ComCoast- can benefit greatly from participatory action. It can lead to innovative solutions with a broad societal support base, as is shown in the plan for water storage in the Overdiepse polder and the inundation compensation scheme for f
Duke, Adrienne M.; Sollie, Donna L.; Silva, Kelcie
We conducted a youth participatory evaluation of a bullying prevention curriculum before the curriculum was implemented in communities. We partnered with youths from a young women leaders' program to reduce the number of lessons in an existing curriculum and determine which activities were likely to have the greatest impact. To evaluate the…
Ashton, Carolyn; Arnold, Mary E.; Wells, Elissa E.
4-H has long emphasized the importance of civic engagement and community service for positive youth development. One pathway to this ideal is youth action research and evaluation. This article demonstrates how participatory youth research and evaluation can lead to the successful implementation of community action projects. It describes the…
Fox, Janet; Cater, Melissa
This article provides a critical perspective on the increasing involvement of young people in participatory evaluation as well as identifies the factors to consider when designing a youth-led evaluation project. Through this avenue, young people will increase their participation in organizational development and community change. Youth-led…
In this contribution, the design game as a method in Participatory Design is discussed. The focus lies on the organizational design game. For using the design game relations of power, socio-technical textures and forms of work and organization are treated as concerns that need to be addressed...
Tan, Jean Lee; Goh, Dion Hoe-Lian; Ang, Rebecca P.; Huan, Vivien S.
This paper reports a study conducted to formally evaluate a social problem-solving skills game during the start of the development to ensure that the desired game attributes were successfully embodied in the final game. Two methods, heuristic evaluation and participatory design, were adopted to assess whether the features of the game pose…
Full Text Available The article seeks to specify the requirements of the framework for public participation in policy making on the governmental level aiming to elaborate a substantial content of the participatory policy. The research methodology engages both qualitative and quantitative approaches based on document analysis and interviews. We analysed a range of documents, issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Lithuania, where participatory groups are nominated for the annual terms of 2007 and 2010. Results of the research testify that, notwithstanding the considerable number of participatory facts, public administrators hold more than a half of the places in the participatory groups. Stakeholders other than public administrators are considered to be rather consultants than partners in policy development. We suggest that for a substantial, effective and efficient participation framework, several requirements should be met including a correct arena for stakes’ expression; completeness of the stake representation; balanced stake representation; sensitivity to research based evidence; monitoring and evaluation of participation quality.
Teaching math to reflect values of democracy has to begin with some consideration of how democracy is conceptualized. A review of various theories of democracy conducted by Hagen (1992) provides everyone with a good starting point as it identifies three primary forms of democracy: competitive, participatory, and dialogue. In this essay, the author…
Sander van den Burg
Full Text Available European oceans are subject to rapid development. New activities such as aquaculture and ocean energy have gained importance. This triggers interest in “multi-use platforms at sea” (MUPS, i.e., areas at sea in which different activities are combined. MUPS are complex features with regards to technology, governance, and financial, socioeconomic, and environmental aspects. To identify realistic and sustainable solutions and designs for MUPS, the MERMAID project applied a participatory design process (PDP involving a range of stakeholders representing companies, authorities, researchers, and NGOs. This paper evaluates if and how the participatory design process contributed to the design of multi-use platforms. It is based on interviews with the managers of the case study sites and a questionnaire administered to all stakeholders participating in the PDP workshops. Analyzing the four case studies, we conclude that the participatory design process has had a valuable contribution to the development of the four different designs of MUPS, even though the preconditions for carrying out a participatory design process differed between sites. In all four cases, the process has been beneficial in generating new and shared knowledge. It brought new design issues to the table and increased knowledge and understanding among the different stakeholders.
Ruechakul, Prayad; Erawan, Prawit; Siwarom, Manoon
The participatory learning and action: PLA was the process used for empowering in this program. This process has four steps: 1) create awareness, 2) specify problems or needs, 3) act and 4) present and reflect or monitor. The purposes of this study were: 1) to investigate the conditions of communities in terms of context and problems or needs in…
Narcis Eduard Mitu
Full Text Available In this article, we study a different way to manage public money, and to engage people in government. Participatory budgeting is a democratic process in which community members directly decide how to spend part of a public budget. It enables taxpayers to work with government to make the budget decisions that affect their lives.
Rowsell, Jennifer; Wohlwend, Karen
Building on existing research applying app maps (Israelson, 2015), the authors take an ideological orientation to broaden app evaluations and consider participatory literacies, social and communicational practices relevant to children's everyday digitally mediated lives. Drawing from their North American elementary classroom studies on children's…
Bocci, Melissa Cochrane
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) requires students to use language in myriad ways as they define a problem, design and conduct an original research project, disseminate their findings, and take change-seeking actions in their community. YPAR embeds language development in community-centered and cross-disciplinary work and empowers youth…
de Reuck, John; Joseph, Richard
Discusses universal service policy in telecommunications in Australia in an historical context. Maintains that given the dynamic growth in information technologies, universal service should be reconceptualized within a knowledge-based discourse critically linked to considerations for deepening participatory democracy and that funding should be…
Disterheft, Antje; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M.; Filho, Walter Leal; Caeiro, Sandra
Purpose: This paper aims to connect participatory sustainability implementation with sustainability assessment, exploring learning theories, the principles of Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD) and respective indicators applied in the university context. Even though participation is partly considered in existing assessment…
Johansson, Martin; Linde, Per
Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic…
This thesis studies the emergence, process and politics of the Andhra Pradesh reform policy of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM). The reform has been labeled as the 'A? model' of irrigation reforms and supported by external aid agencies like World Bank. Within a short span of time Andhra Pra
Discusses user participation and participatory design in the context of formal education for computing professionals. Topics include the current curriculum debate; mathematical- and engineering-based education; traditional system-development training; and an example of a course program that includes computers and society, and prototyping. (53…
Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.; Denis, E.; Scott, D.; Sydenstricker-Neto, J.
Different types of spatial knowledge (expert, sectoral, tacit and community) are strategic resources in urban planning and management. Participatory spatial knowledge management is a major method for eliciting various types of knowledge, providing a platform for knowledge integration and informing l
Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry
Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…
Smith, Justin G.; DuBois, Bryce; Corwin, Jason
This article presents a method for using mind mapping to assess social learning outcomes in collaborative environmental restoration and participatory natural resource management initiatives. Using mind mapping for preassessment and postassessment can reveal changes in individual and collective thinking about critical social and ecological issues.…
Panagea, I. S.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Schwilch, G.
Soil salinity management can be complex, expensive, and time demanding, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Besides taking no action, possible management strategies include amelioration and adaptation measures. Here we apply the World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) framework for the systematic analysis and evaluation and selection of soil salinisation amelioration technologies in close collaboration with stakeholders. The participatory approach is applied in the RECARE (Preventing and Remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care) project case study of Timpaki, a semi-arid region in south-central Crete (Greece) where the main land use is horticulture in greenhouses irrigated by groundwater. Excessive groundwater abstractions have resulted in a drop of the groundwater level in the coastal part of the aquifer, thus leading to seawater intrusion and in turn to soil salinisation. The documented technologies are evaluated for their impacts on ecosystem services, cost, and input requirements using a participatory approach and field evaluations. Results show that technologies which promote maintaining existing crop types while enhancing productivity and decreasing soil salinity are preferred by the stakeholders. The evaluation concludes that rainwater harvesting is the optimal solution for direct soil salinity mitigation, as it addresses a wider range of ecosystem and human well-being benefits. Nevertheless, this merit is offset by poor financial motivation making agronomic measures more attractive to users.
Full Text Available The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS is a village-level randomised controlled trial of an advanced cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under the age of 5 in rural Malawi (www.capstudy.org. The trial offers a unique opportunity to gain understanding about the social and cultural factors that may facilitate sustained use of improved cookstoves. In January 2015, the use of Photovoice as a participatory research methodology was piloted at the CAPS Chikhwawa site. Photovoice is a photographic technique that allows communities (including women and marginalised groups to share knowledge about their perspectives and priorities. Four households were given digital cameras and asked to collect images over 24-48 hours and were then interviewed on film about their selection. This resulted in over 400 images and a one hour long film that revealed community concerns and could be thematically analysed. The collection of interview data through film was useful for capturing discussion and was acceptable to participants. Photovoice is a feasible participatory research methodology that can play a valuable role in qualitative studies of improved cookstove adoption in challenging resource poor settings.
Ardrey, Jane; Desmond, Nicola; Tolhurst, Rachel; Mortimer, Kevin
The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) is a village-level randomised controlled trial of an advanced cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under the age of 5 in rural Malawi (www.capstudy.org). The trial offers a unique opportunity to gain understanding about the social and cultural factors that may facilitate sustained use of improved cookstoves. In January 2015, the use of Photovoice as a participatory research methodology was piloted at the CAPS Chikhwawa site. Photovoice is a photographic technique that allows communities (including women and marginalised groups) to share knowledge about their perspectives and priorities. Four households were given digital cameras and asked to collect images over 24-48 hours and were then interviewed on film about their selection. This resulted in over 400 images and a one hour long film that revealed community concerns and could be thematically analysed. The collection of interview data through film was useful for capturing discussion and was acceptable to participants. Photovoice is a feasible participatory research methodology that can play a valuable role in qualitative studies of improved cookstove adoption in challenging resource poor settings.
Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Sando, David; Mwanyika-Sando, Mary; Chalamilla, Guerino; Langer, Ana; McDonald, Kathleen P
Disrespect and abuse (D&A) during facility-based childbirth is a topic of growing concern and attention globally. Several recent studies have sought to quantify the prevalence of D&A, however little evidence exists about effective interventions to mitigate disrespect and abuse, and promote respectful maternity care. In an accompanying article, we describe the process of selecting, implementing, and evaluating a package of interventions designed to prevent and reduce disrespect and abuse in a large urban hospital in Tanzania. Though that study was not powered to detect a definitive impact on reducing D&A, the results showed important changes in intermediate outcomes associated with this goal. In this commentary, we describe the factors that enabled this effect, especially the participatory approach we adopted to engage key stakeholders throughout the planning and implementation of the program. Based on our experience and findings, we conclude that a visible, sustained, and participatory intervention process; committed facility leadership; management support; and staff engagement throughout the project contributed to a marked change in the culture of the hospital to one that values and promotes respectful maternity care. For these changes to translate into dignified care during childbirth for all women in a sustainable fashion, institutional commitment to providing the necessary resources and staff will be needed.
Brammer, Jeremy R; Brunet, Nicolas D; Burton, A Cole; Cuerrier, Alain; Danielsen, Finn; Dewan, Kanwaljeet; Herrmann, Thora Martina; Jackson, Micha V; Kennett, Rod; Larocque, Guillaume; Mulrennan, Monica; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Saint-Arnaud, Marie; Scott, Colin; Humphries, Murray M
Many argue that monitoring conducted exclusively by scientists is insufficient to address ongoing environmental challenges. One solution entails the use of mobile digital devices in participatory monitoring (PM) programs. But how digital data entry affects programs with varying levels of stakeholder participation, from nonscientists collecting field data to nonscientists administering every step of a monitoring program, remains unclear. We reviewed the successes, in terms of management interventions and sustainability, of 107 monitoring programs described in the literature (hereafter programs) and compared these with case studies from our PM experiences in Australia, Canada, Ethiopia, Ghana, Greenland, and Vietnam (hereafter cases). Our literature review showed that participatory programs were less likely to use digital devices, and 2 of our 3 more participatory cases were also slow to adopt digital data entry. Programs that were participatory and used digital devices were more likely to report management actions, which was consistent with cases in Ethiopia, Greenland, and Australia. Programs engaging volunteers were more frequently reported as ongoing, but those involving digital data entry were less often sustained when data collectors were volunteers. For the Vietnamese and Canadian cases, sustainability was undermined by a mismatch in stakeholder objectives. In the Ghanaian case, complex field protocols diminished monitoring sustainability. Innovative technologies attract interest, but the foundation of effective participatory adaptive monitoring depends more on collaboratively defined questions, objectives, conceptual models, and monitoring approaches. When this foundation is built through effective partnerships, digital data entry can enable the collection of more data of higher quality. Without this foundation, or when implemented ineffectively or unnecessarily, digital data entry can be an additional expense that distracts from core monitoring objectives
Carrivick, Philip J W; Lee, Andy H; Yau, Kelvin K W; Stevenson, Mark R
Manual handling is the greatest contributor to non-fatal injury and disease in the workplace, commonly accounting for one-third of national injury counts. Interventional strategies that have focused on selecting or modifying the worker have been ineffective in reducing injury risk. In recent times, participatory ergonomics has been widely adopted as a process to reduce the risk of injury from manual handling but it is not well validated as an intervention. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics risk assessment approach in reducing the rate and severity of injuries from manual and non-manual handling sustained by a cohort of 137 cleaners within a hospital setting. The date of injury and the workers' compensation claim cost and hours lost from work were obtained for each injury incurred during the 4-year pre-intervention and 3-year intervention period. The age, gender and hours worked were ascertained for every cleaner whether injured or not. Using generalized linear mixed modelling analysis, reductions of rate of injury by two-thirds, workers' compensation claim costs by 62% and hours lost by 35% for manual handling injuries were found to be associated with the intervention period. Although the cleaners experienced a significant intervention period reduction in non-manual handling injury rate, the corresponding changes in severity of injury were not significant. The success of the intervention supports the adoption of a participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the rate and consequence of injuries in the workplace.
Boef, de W.S.; Thijssen, M.H.
Outline to the guide Within our training programmes on local management of agrobiodiversity, participatory crop improvement and the support of local seed supply participatory tools get ample attention. Tools are dealt with theoretically, are practised in class situations, but are also applied in fie
Wang, Xing-Chen; Li, Ai-Hua; Dizy, Marta; Ullah, Niamat; Sun, Wei-Xuan; Tao, Yong-Sheng
To improve the aroma profile of Ecolly dry white wine, the simultaneous and sequential inoculations of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed in wine making of this work. The two yeasts were mixed in various ratios for making the mixed inoculum. The amount of volatiles and aroma characteristics were determined the following year. Mixed fermentation improved both the varietal and fermentative aroma compound composition, especially that of (Z)-3-hexene-1-ol, nerol oxide, certain acetates and ethyls group compounds. Citrus, sweet fruit, acid fruit, berry, and floral aroma traits were enhanced by mixed fermentation; however, an animal note was introduced upon using higher amounts of R. mucilaginosa. Aroma traits were regressed with volatiles as observed by the partial least-square regression method. Analysis of correlation coefficients revealed that the aroma traits were the multiple interactions of volatile compounds, with the fermentative volatiles having more impact on aroma than varietal compounds.
Full Text Available Research initiatives and practical experiences have demonstrated that forest-related data collected by local communities can play an essential role in the development of national REDD+ programs and its' measurement, reporting, verification (MRV systems. In Tanzania, the national REDD+ Strategy aims to reward local communities participating in forest management under Participatory Forest Management (PFM. Accessing carbon finances requires among other things, accurate measurements of carbon stock changes through conventional forest inventories, something which is rarely done in PFM forests due to its high cost and limited resources. The main objective of this paper is to discuss experiences of Participatory Forest Carbon Assessment (PFCA in Tanzania. The study revealed that villagers who participated in PFCA were able to perform most steps for carbon assessment in the field. A key challenge in future is how to finance PFCA and ensure the technical capacity at local level.
Muhammad Shakil Ahmad
Full Text Available Most of the developing nations are still struggling for efficient use of their resources. In order to overcome physical and administrative constraints of the development, it is necessary to transfer the power from the central government to local authorities. Distribution of power from improves the management of resources and community participation which is considered key to sustainable development. Advocates of decentralization argue that decentralized government is source to improve community participation in rural development. Decentralized government is considered more responsive towards local needs and development of poor peoples. There are many obstacles to expand the citizen participation in rural areas. There are many approaches for participatory development but all have to face the same challenges. Current paper highlights the literature about Decentralization and participatory rural development. Concept and modalities of Decentralization, dimensions of participation, types of rural participation and obstacles to participation are also the part of this paper.
Knudsen, Anne-Marie Sanvig; Kahila, Maarit
Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is rising rapidly. This paper investi- gates the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context. What kind of VGI was considered useful......, employing volunteered GPS tracking to capture everyday uses of the urban environment. The second case study was carried out in Finland, employing SoftGIS as a tool to identify and quantify place values.......Due to developments in pervasive computing and the diffusion of digital media technologies, the amount of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) is rising rapidly. This paper investi- gates the potential of applying VGI to a participatory planning context. What kind of VGI was considered useful...
This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition.
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten
We revisit the role of participatory design approaches in the light of the accreditation regime currently imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes specifying......, realizing, and measuring the effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic in accreditation but is distinguished by its focus on effects, whereas current accreditation approaches focus on processes. Thereby, effects-driven IT development might support challenging...... parts of the accreditation process and fit well with clinical evidence-based thinking. We describe and compare effects-driven IT development with accreditation, in terms of the Danish Quality Model which is used throughout the Danish healthcare sector, and we discuss the prospects and challenges...
Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten
parts of the accreditation process and fit well with clinical evidence-based thinking. We describe and compare effects-driven IT development with accreditation, in terms of the Danish Quality Model which is used throughout the Danish healthcare sector, and we discuss the prospects and challenges......We revisit the role of participatory design approaches in the light of the accreditation regime currently imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes specifying......, realizing, and measuring the effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic in accreditation but is distinguished by its focus on effects, whereas current accreditation approaches focus on processes. Thereby, effects-driven IT development might support challenging...
that changes the material and socio-economic contexts of production. At the same time, centralization of the Internet, big data and large-scale infrastructuring challenge the core democratic ideals of PD. The Participatory Design Conferences (PDC) continue to be the main gathering point of the PD community...... and communication technology. Held every two years since 1990, PDC brings together a multidisciplinary and international group of researchers and practitioners from multiple fields. These include, but are not limited to, Human-Computer Interaction, CSCW (computer supported cooperative work), Co-Design, Design...... Research, CSCL (computer supported collaborative learning), ICT4D (information and communication technology for development), design anthropology, design psychology, design Industry and the Arts. The conference has helped to broaden participatory approaches in design around a variety of arenas including...
Ozer, Emily J
Youth-led participatory action research (YPAR) is an approach to scientific inquiry and social change grounded in principles of equity that engages young people in identifying problems relevant to their own lives, conducting research to understand the problems, and advocating for changes based on research evidence. This chapter provides an introduction to YPAR followed by consideration of the (a) developmental relevance of YPAR for marginalized youth, (b) implications of YPAR for developmental science research on inequities experienced by youth, and (c) potential opportunities and impact of YPAR for improving key developmental settings such as schools and youth-serving organizations. Resources for conducting YPAR projects are discussed, as well as the need for potential integration of YPAR and other participatory approaches to engaging youth and their expertise-at a significant enough scale to have a meaningful impact on policies and practices that affect youth development.
Gender-based discrimination is found in all economies in the world. Women's unpaid work accounts for about half of the world GDP, yet women remain under-valued and under-represented in national policies worldwide. The question of gender budgeting and citizens' participation in budgeting and governance processes has gained attention in recent years, but Russia is far from implementing these. Instead, blindness to gender issues dominates in national strategies and budgets. This paper explores these issues and looks in-depth at them in the decentralisation process in Bashkortostan, a central Russian republic. Civil society institutions whose role is to strengthen the links between government, civil society and the community in Bashkortostan, such as Public Chambers and Municipalities, lack the capacity to introduce participatory gender budgeting. As a result, no systematic participatory planning, let alone planning that is gender-sensitive, has taken place there.
Reininger, Belinda M; Barroso, Cristina S; Mitchell-Bennett, Lisa; Cantu, Ethel; Fernandez, Maria E; Gonzalez, Dora Alicia; Chavez, Marge; Freeberg, Diamantina; McAlister, Alfred
To address obesity and related morbidities, community-based participatory research (CBPR) strategies were employed to design and evaluate a Spanish-language media campaign promoting physical activity and healthful food choices among Mexican Americans. Process evaluation including content analyses on types and focus of media messages was conducted. Focus groups assessed appeal and trustworthiness of messages. All media campaign products featured role models and experts. Campaign messages primarily (91%) appeared in TV morning show segments. Newsletters presented individual and family role model stories. A majority of newsletters (68%) were distributed through churches and "promotora" outreach efforts. CBPR lends itself to the selection and tailoring of evidence-based media campaigns. Moreover, CBPR guidance resulted in media messages that were credible and appealing to audience. Process evaluation strategies that gather information from the community provide solid evidence for how to modify the campaign to best meet audience expectations.
Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine
While knowledge intensive SMEs have recognized the need for change with respect to productivity and wellbeing, and to some extend have access to tools and methods for enabling this, they still lack process competences and are uncertain about how to approach primary stress interventions and initiate...... facilitators are important drivers of the change process and that easy-to-use tools are requested from the involved company actors. Given that the interventions in the selected companies are conducted successfully we argue that a new organizational capability to address work-related stress in a collective...... relevant change processes. This paper presents the outline of our research and development project on participatory primary stress management interventions in knowledge intensive SMEs, as well as the preliminary results and related implications. The research and development project is conducted in order...
To learn more about the motivations of individuals who scan and distribute comic books, this study reports findings from a content analysis of 389 scanner tags extracted from comic books posted on the torrent network Pirate Bay. Coded according to four categories linked to the literature on comic fandom and participatory culture, tags were analyzed in terms of recognition, aesthetic style, textual signifiers, and visual signifiers. Though comic book pirates seek recognition from their peers, ...
Kusaga Mukama; Irmeli Mustalahti; Eliakimu Zahabu
Research initiatives and practical experiences have demonstrated that forest-related data collected by local communities can play an essential role in the development of national REDD+ programs and its' measurement, reporting, verification (MRV) systems. In Tanzania, the national REDD+ Strategy aims to reward local communities participating in forest management under Participatory Forest Management (PFM). Accessing carbon finances requires among other things, accurate measurements of carbon s...
de Almeida, Cristiane Andrea Locatelli; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze scopes and limits of the use of participatory methodology of evaluation with municipal health managers and administrators. METHODS Qualitative research with health policymakers and managers of the Comissão Intergestores Regional (CIR – Regional Interagency Commission) of a health region of the state of Sao Paulo in Brazil. Representatives from seven member cities participated in seven workshops facilitated by the researchers, with the aim of assessing a specific problem of the care line, which would be used as a tracer of the system integrality. The analysis of the collected empirical material was based on the hermeneutic-dialectic methodology and aimed at the evaluation of the applied participatory methodology, according to its capacity of promoting a process of assessment capable to be used as a support for municipal management. RESULTS With the participatory approach of evaluation, we were able to promote in-depth discussions with the group, especially related to the construction of integral care and to the inclusion of the user’s perspective in decision-making, linked to the search for solution to concrete problems of managers. By joint exploration, the possibility of using data from electronic information systems was opened, as well as information coming directly from the users of the services, to enhance discussions and negotiations between partners. The participants were disbelievers of the replication potential of this type of evaluation without the direct monitoring of the academy, given the difficulty of organizing the process in everyday life, already taken by emergency and political issues. CONCLUSIONS Evaluations of programs and services carried out within the Regional Interagency Commission, starting from the local interest and facilitating the involvement of its members by the use of participatory methodologies, can contribute to the construction of integral care. To the extent that the act of evaluating stay
Andersen, Simone Nyholm
Participatory ergonomics simulations, taking place in simulation labs, have the tendency to get detached from the surrounding design process, resulting in a knowledge gap. Few studies in the human factors and ergonomics field have applied knowledge management based object concepts in the study...... in generation of ergonomics knowledge and transfer of this knowledge to actors in the surrounding design process. Design actors receiving simulation documenting objects interpret and transform the represented knowledge according to their local context and experiences....
This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.
Mathabathe, Nkhensani C; Rudolph, Michael J; Ogunbodede, Eyitope O; Smuts, Bridget
A course in Public Oral Health is currently offered by the Division of Public Oral Health (POH) to students in their final (6th year) of study for the degree of Bachelor of Dental Science. A fundamental aspect of this project was to shift the teaching methods from didactic to a participatory, student-centred approach, based on current local and international trends in medical, dental and general education. In 1999 the course covering core Public Health topics was presented over a period of 20 weeks to 49 students who were divided into three groups. Staff members were trained in participatory, student-centred teaching methods. An evaluation of students and staff was conducted at the end of the course. Results show that students were satisfied with the teaching methods employed and commended the Division on the organisation of the course. Students were unhappy with the amount of reading required in preparation for weekly seminars. They felt that the course was inappropriately positioned in their final year of study, due to pressure of achieving quotas for the clinical courses. Nevertheless, the main objectives of the Public Oral Health course were achieved through the adoption of a participatory, student-centred teaching approach.
Allyson Lucinda Benton
Research on the impact of participatory institutions in Latin America has not yet examined how they work in authoritarian settings. National autocrats in Mexico implemented participatory reforms during that country’s national electoral authoritarian regime. Building on research on political decentralization in authoritarian regimes, I argue that participatory institutions can be used to channel citizen demands and to incorporate citizens into authoritarian systems, thereby strengthening autho...
Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte; Misfeldt, Morten
seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities...... of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating...
Jorge Herman BEHRENS
Full Text Available Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, materiais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado.Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and
of the conditions necessary for estab-lishing urban social networks, and different methodologies for doing so are examined. As part of this, a study is done on electronic democracy, i.e., different forms of information and communi-cation technologies (IT/ICT, Internet) that are actually and potentially applicable...... to innovative urban community development. The project combines theories of communication, dialogue and innovation with theories of systems, information, media and decision making. The project involves a comparative study of selected projects in the capital regions of Den-mark (Copenhagen) and Japan (Tokyo......). Theoretical inspiration comes from, e.g., Richard Sennett, Raymond Williams, Iris Marion Young, Johan Asplund, Oskar Negt, Hannah Arendt, Carole Pateman, Donald Schön, and Peter Checkland....
Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N
Production diseases have an important negative effect on the health and welfare of dairy cows. Although organic animal production systems aim for high animal health levels, compliance with European organic farming regulations does not guarantee that this is achieved. Herd health and production management (HHPM) programs aim at optimizing herd health by preventing disease and production problems, but as yet they have not been consistently implemented by farmers. We hypothesize that one reason is the mismatch between what scientists propose as indicators for herd health monitoring and what farmers would like to use. Herd health monitoring is a key element in HHPM programs as it permits a regular assessment of the functioning of the different components of the production process. Planned observations or measurements of these components are indispensable for this monitoring. In this study, a participatory approach was used to create an environment in which farmers could adapt the indicators proposed by scientists for monitoring the five main production diseases on dairy cattle farms. The adaptations of the indicators were characterized and the farmers' explanations for the changes made were described. The study was conducted in France and Sweden, which differ in terms of their national organic regulations and existing advisory services. In both countries, twenty certified organic dairy farmers and their animal health management advisors participated in the study. All of the farmers adapted the initial monitoring plan proposed by scientists to specific production and animal health situation on their farm. This resulted in forty unique and farm-specific combinations of indicators for herd health monitoring. All but three farmers intended to monitor five health topics simultaneously using the constructed indicators. The qualitative analysis of the explanations given by farmers for their choices enabled an understanding of farmers' reasons for selecting and adapting
Tsurkan, Marina V.; Sotskova, Svetlana I.; Aksinina, Olga S.; Lyubarskaya, Maria A.; Tkacheva, Oksana N.
The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need for the advancing of participatory budgeting practice in the Russian Federation. Due to insufficient development of theoretical, scientific, and methodological aspects of the participatory budgeting, very few territories in the Russian Federation use this tool effectively. The most…
Vink, Peter; van Rhijn, Gu; Seim, Rikke
In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design...
Full Text Available Participatory sensing is the process in which individuals or communities collect and analyze systematic data using mobile phones and cloud services. To efficiently develop participatory sensing services, some server-side technologies have been proposed. Although they provide a good platform for participatory sensing, they are not optimized for spatial data management and processing. For the purpose of spatial data collection and management, many web GIS approaches have been studied. However, they still have not focused on the optimal framework for participatory sensing services. This paper presents a web GIS framework for participatory sensing service (FPSS. The proposed FPSS enables an integrated deployment of spatial data capture, storage, and data management functions. In various types of participatory sensing experiments, users can collect and manage spatial data in a unified manner. This feature is realized by the optimized system architecture and use case based on the general requirements for participatory sensing. We developed an open source GIS-based implementation of the proposed framework, which can overcome financial difficulties that are one of the major problems of deploying sensing experiments. We confirmed with the prototype that participatory sensing experiments can be performed efficiently with the proposed FPSS.
Miguez, S.A.; Vink, P.; Hallbeck, M.S.
The purpose of this paper is to show that the conjunction of participatory ergonomics and outside consulting can be the link among professionals from different areas. This association can result in improvements in the workplace as well as in the production process. Employing participatory ergonomics
Peppler, Kylie; Danish, Joshua; Zaitlen, Benjamin; Glosson, Diane; Jacobs, Alexander; Phelps, David
New technologies have enabled students to become active participants in computational simulations of dynamic and complex systems (called Participatory Simulations), providing a "first-person"perspective on complex systems. However, most existing Participatory Simulations have targeted older children, teens, and adults assuming that such concepts…
With the introduction of participatory approaches in development programs, it has become essential for planners to build and implement land use strategies based on the objectives, perceptions and knowledge of local people. Despite the richness of participatory rural appraisal (PRA) information used
Tobias, Evan S.
Knowing how students engage with music outside school music programs can help music educators and their programs evolve. This article offers a look at music teaching and learning in terms of how people are increasingly interacting with music in participatory ways that involve digital technologies and media. This participatory culture offers a…
Kahne, Joseph; Hodgin, Erica; Eidman-Aadahl, Elyse
The digital revolution has enabled important changes in political life. Opportunities to engage in "participatory politics" have expanded significantly. Participatory politics differ from institutional politics in that they are peer-based, interactive, and not guided by deference to traditional elites and institutions. These changes…
The recent study Polling for Justice (PFJ) used a multigenerational participatory action research approach with embodied methodologies to document youth experiences of education, criminal justice, and public health in New York City. Through an exploration of the PFJ project, this column demonstrates how participatory action research and embodied…
4. Participatory Approach Although it originated in the early sixties with the work of Paulo Freire, and therefore antedates modern versions of content-based and task-based approaches, it was not until the 1980s that the participatory approach started being widely discussed in the language teaching literature.
Lwin, May O.; Vijaykumar, Santosh; Lim, Gentatsu; Fernando, Owen Noel Newton; Rathnayake, Vajira Sampath; Foo, Schubert
Challenges posed by infectious disease outbreaks have led to a range of participatory mobile phone-based innovations that use the power of crowdsourcing for disease surveillance. However, the dynamics of participatory behavior by crowds in such interventions have yet to be examined. This article reports results from a baseline evaluation of one…
An emphasis on personal narratives characterises a great deal of participatory theatre practice with refugee groups. It is important to understand how these narratives are conditioned by bureaucratic performance if practitioners are to avoid re-enactments of victimhood in participatory projects. Bureaucratic performance concerns the legal and…
Imanuel-Noy, Dalia; Wagner, Tili
The research presents a Residency Math teacher education program that has been developed in Israel in search of transforming initial teacher preparation on the Clinical-Participatory continuum. It is a "multi-phase" mixed-method research aiming to present the clinical and participatory dimensions of the TMR: the way in which they are…
Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin
There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…
Veletsianos, George; Kimmons, Royce
We examine the relationship between scholarly practice and participatory technologies and explore how such technologies invite and reflect the emergence of a new form of scholarship that we call "Networked Participatory Scholarship": scholars' participation in online social networks to share, reflect upon, critique, improve, validate, and…
Goins, R. Turner; Garroutte, Eva Marie; Fox, Susan Leading; Geiger, Sarah Dee; Manson, Spero M.
Models for community-based participatory research (CBPR) urge academic investigators to collaborate with communities to identify and pursue research questions, processes, and outcomes valuable to both partners. The tribal participatory research (TPR) conceptual model suggests modifications to CBPR to fit the special needs of American Indian…
In "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture" Henry Jenkins defines participatory culture as having "relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement, strong support for creating and sharing with others, and informal mentorship whereby experienced participants pass along knowledge to novices. Members believe their…
Katsui, Hisayo; Koistinen, Mari
This paper focuses on the application of the participatory research approach in non-Western contexts. The aim is to provide critical insights into the participatory research discourse through an examination of its theory and practice based on our own experiences of using this approach in our doctoral research in five Central Asian countries and…
Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.
Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…
Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainable management of reef fisheries, it is necessary to obtain data about the effects of these fisheries on both fish resources and the ecosystems that sustain them. Ecosystem-based surveys provide this information, but are difficult to implement because of technical, financial and human resources requirements. In this regard participatory assessment methods have the potential to increase the amount of data collected at low cost, while taking advantage of local traditional ecological knowledge. In order to investigate the reef fishery of Toliara Bay, southwest Madagascar, we used participatory fish survey and interview data collected on site. These methods included: (i monitoring of catch landings during six months by wholesale fish merchants, (ii household surveys of fishing catch and effort and fish consumption conducted by school children, and (iii semi-structured interviews of reef users. One thousand five hundred and eighty six fishing trips were sampled between September 2006 and February 2007, 326 households were surveyed by trained school children in January 2007, and 70 reef users were interviewed in July/August 2006. Data collected by participants have been compiled and compared to reference values when available, allowing an assessment of the sustainability of the reef fishery. The results of this study confirm the unsustainable nature of resource exploitation and underline the need for rapid management responses in order to reverse this trend. It also highlights the great potential of participatory assessment methods for gathering large amounts of relevant information on the status and evolution of the ecosystem upon which the fishery depends, while promoting education and awareness about the protection and sustainable use of natural resources.
Bhandari, K. P.
Participatory Geographic Information Systems (PGIS) can integrate participatory methodologies with geo-spatial technologies for the representation of characteristic of particular place. Over the last decade, researchers use this method to integrate the local knowledge of community within a GIS and Society conceptual framework. Participatory GIS are tailored to answer specific geographic questions at the local level and their modes of implementation vary considerably across space, ranging from field-based, qualitative approaches to more complex web-based applications. These broad ranges of techniques, PGIS are becoming an effective methodology for incorporating community local knowledge into complex spatial decision-making processes. The objective of this study is to reduce the soil erosion by formulating the general rule for the soil conservation by participation of the stakeholders. The poster was prepared by satellite image, topographic map and Arc GIS software including the local knowledge. The data were collected from the focus group discussion and the individual questionnaire for incorporate the local knowledge and use it to find the risk map on the basis of economic, social and manageable physical factors for the sensitivity analysis. The soil erosion risk map is prepared by the physical factors Rainfall-runoff erosivity, Soil erodibility, Slope length, Slope steepness, Cover-management, Conservation practice using RUSLE model. After the comparison and discussion among stakeholders, researcher and export group, and the soil erosion risk map showed that socioeconomic, social and manageable physical factors management can reduce the soil erosion. The study showed that the preparation of the poster GIS map and implement this in the watershed area could reduce the soil erosion in the study area compared to the existing national policy.
Full Text Available Introduction: In India, medical undergraduates think that statistics is difficult to understand. Often, it is taught just before final assessment examination using didactic lectures, with little use of medical examples and less focus on application. Hence, we prepared interactive, participatory sessions for teaching biostatistics to medical undergraduate. Methods: The sessions were delivered by a facilitator. It had clearly specified objectives and teaching learning strategies. A needs assessment was done by interviewing the students who had undergone traditional biostatistics teaching methodology. Specific learning objectives for the sessions were finalized using the Delphi technique and review of University syllabus. Two trained Community Medicine faculties designed the lesson plans ‘backwards’ from desired outcome to content, teaching/learning strategies, assessment and evaluation process (Outcomes-based lesson planning. Forty, third-semester (Para-clinical phase of the second year medical undergraduates undertook these seven teaching sessions. The session followed adult learning principles and included group discussions, games and reflections. We evaluated the impact of the sessions using in-depth interviews, retrospective post-then-preself- assessment and a pre-announced written test. Results: With traditional statistics teaching methodology, students perceived it as a standalone subject and were not interested in statistics. Students who underwent the sessions commented that the sessions were enjoyable, interesting, and participatory and more than %90 of them felt they were engaged throughout the session. They also narrated various instances where they could apply the biostatistics learning. In the post-then-pre-assessment median post-session scores for all the objectives were significantly higher (p <0.050. Conclusion: Use of interactive, participatory sessions for teaching biostatistics to medical undergraduates resulted in a
Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications of participatory urban design in Belgrade, namely of the series of recent unsolicited activities that has contributed to setting up a specific micro environment in the neighbourhood of Savamala. Its main aim is to promote bottom-up urban development, surpass current profit-oriented trends, and benefit from sociospatial contradictions as opportunities for creativity and participation. The Savamala neighbourhood is among the most important landmarks in Belgrade. Endowed with rich historical heritage and extraordinary spatial potential, Savamala is now a traffic bottleneck with intense pollution, urban noise and socio-spatial conflicts. In order to set up an engine for urban development, several streams of participatory activities have been launched by NGOs and IOs, such as: online campaigns and networking, informal research activities, pop-up events and instant actions for societal progress and bottom-up economic activities. The Actor-network theory (ANT methodological approach demystifies the circumstances of participation and the role of various actors in building pathways of urban transformations in Savamala, while the Multi-agent system (MAS proposes the framework for tracing their behaviour at the neighbourhood level. A complex post-socialist framework presents a challenge for these participatory activities to provide opportunities for urban transformations, based on social interest rather than on real estate speculations. In the lack of official strategies and institutionalised support, the MAS-ANT method involves estimating whether an economy of social exchange could contribute to improving the quality of life and functionality of urban systems.
Summative Statement: This study compared three participatory simulation methods using different simulation objects: Low resolution table-top setup using Lego figures, full scale mock-ups, and blueprints using Lego figures. It was concluded the three objects by differences in fidelity and affordance...... scenarios using the objects. Results: Full scale mock-ups significantly addressed the local space and technology/tool elements of a work system. In contrast, the table-top simulation object addressed the organizational issues of the future work system. The blueprint based simulation addressed...
Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik;
Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...
Nørgaard, Betty; Johannessen, Helle; Fenger-Grøn, Jesper
BACKGROUND: In neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) health care professionals typically give most of their attention to the infants and the mothers while many fathers feel uncertain and have an unmet need for support and guidance. This paper describes and discusses participatory action research...... of the father friendly NICU. CONCLUSIONS: This paper contributed new knowledge of how PAR can be used to ensure that participants engaged in the field are involved in the entire process; consequently, this will ensure that the changes are feasible and sustainable....
Marta Rios Alves Nunes da Costa
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2013v12n2p301 What does it mean to be a citizen today? In an era where boundaries are being questioned, where identities are being transformed, where social and political claims are being updated from the traditional ‘recognition’ or ‘redistribution’ discourse to a more globalized discourse supported by a theoretical appeal to human rights, it is important to clarify where the ‘citizen’ stands, morally and politically speaking.This paper is supported by a a strong moral and political reading of citizenship, echoing some republican tradition where citizenship is associated with virtue; and b the assumption that there is a strong correlation between virtuous citizens and a virtuous republic or ‘democracy’. In order to reflect upon the transformations of the concept of citizenship I will look at some of the practices it involves, more precisely, I will look into the participatory budgeting experience in Portugal trying to show how the progressive implementation of such measure promises to bring Portuguese’s democracy to a new level with a more robust practice of citizenship.This paper has three moments: first, I will situate myself from a theoretical standpoint, regarding the concept of citizenship I want to defend. I will show how the way in which we conceive citizenship a will determine the forms and shapes democracy can take and b will influence the future of democracy, insofar it can contribute, enhance or undermine democratic aspirations and goals. Second, after arguing for an active sense of citizenship I will advance the argument that the future of democracy lies in participatory practices, in which the citizen plays a key role. Third, I will turn to a case study in order to illuminate my theoretical argument. Having participatory budgeting experiment in Portugal as paradigmatic case of analysis, I will identify some elements present in the Portuguese case that corroborate our hypothesis
Full Text Available Motivational aspects are core to successful knowledge sharing and collaborative learning experiences. However, it still remains one of the great challenges to overcome motivational barriers when it comes to introducing information systems for collaborative learning at the workplace. In the context of an international research project we have taken motivational aspects into account during the design phase and started a participatory process involving researchers, end-users, managers, designers and developers. As initial findings show, a continuous dialogue with end-users may contribute to creating a sense of ownership amongst them and become a motivational driver for the future use of the system.
Souza da Conceição, Carolina
practices as a platform for a desired change. There is a need of tool that manages to travel into a well-defined design work-practice and merge with it. Research Objective: We developed a resource material to merge user involvement within current designers’ practices when designing new workspaces. The aim......, the resource material was well accepted during a training section and some participants were happy they in fact used the time during the session to solve some planning issues for their projects. The material became an asset that streamlined the planning of a participatory process while putting the key themes...
Morales-Campos, Daisy Y; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura A
Hispanic girls are burdened with high levels of obesity and are less active than the general adolescent population, highlighting the need for creative strategies developed with community input to improve physical activity behaviors. Involving girls, parents, and the community in the intervention planning process may improve uptake and maintenance of physical activity. The purpose of this article was to describe how we engaged adolescent girls as partners in community-based intervention planning research. We begin with an overview of the research project and then describe how we used Participatory Photo Mapping to engage girls in critical reflection and problems solving.
María Lourdes Sánchez
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to interpret the social phenomenon in participatory processes of Community Councils of Carabobo State, centering participation within these organizations is an indispensable condition to conceive citizens as active subjects in management public affairs. It is inserted into a document type from the qualitative approach. Eventually you will reach a reflection that the success of citizen participation in these organizations rely on training, degree of commitment, teamwork, sense of belonging, responsibility and communication from their cultural worldview.
Wattar, Laila; Fanous, Sandrine; Berliner, Peter
community mobilisation programme Paamiut Asasara. The challenges of youth participation in PYV are investigated in order to explore the implications of youth participation in PAR projects. The discussion of challenges is based on a methodological account of experiences from the research process clarifying......Paamiut Youth Voice (PYV) is a Participatory Action Research (PAR) project, exploring youth perceptions, experiences, and the promotion of well-being in Paamiut, Greenland. Active youth participation remained a key challenge in the development of the local community through the locally initiated...
Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.
Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L
The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.
Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J
Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential.
Full Text Available Background: This article describes the efforts of a group of donors and activists to collectively develop a national base line on organisations working for human rights in relation to sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI in Kenya to develop an ongoing monitoring and evaluation process.Objectives: The purpose of the base line was to support both activist strategising and ongoing reflection, and more effective donor collaboration and grant making.Method: Drawing on interviews with key stakeholders, the authors examined the dominant approach to funding and evaluation on social change globally. They analysed the impact of this dominant approach on developing and sustaining a SOGI movement in Kenya. They developed an alternative theory of change and participatory methodology and worked with a range of donors and SOGI organisations to conceptualise and support the collaborative collection of information on four themes: legislation and policy, organisational mapping, political and cultural context, and lived experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people.Results: This was a useful process and tool for activists and donors to develop a shared understanding of the current context and capacities influencing efforts to promote SOGI rights. It served as a basis for improved strategising and participants expected it to prove useful for monitoring progress in the longer term.Conclusion: This theory of change and participatory approach to base line development could be helpful to donors, activists and monitoring and evaluation specialists concerned with supporting social change in the region and globally.
Cristancho, María Yanire León
The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems.
Laura Schmitt Olabisi
Full Text Available Abstract Participatory scenario processes are associated with positive social learning outcomes, including consensus-building and shifts toward more systemic thinking. However, these claims have not been assessed quantitatively in diverse cultural and socio-ecological settings. We convened three stakeholder workshops around the future of agricultural development and rural livelihoods in Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Malawi, using a participatory scenario generation process to examine proposed research and action priorities under conditions of uncertainty. We administered pre- and post-workshop surveys, and used a paired t-test to assess how stakeholders’ rankings of research priorities changed after participating in the scenario visioning exercise. Workshop participants also listed their own priorities for research and implementation on both the pre- and post-survey forms. We found indications that the workshops promoted consensus-building around the research priorities, including a reduction in standard deviation of priority rankings post-workshop compared to pre-workshop; and a higher incidence of identical volunteered responses. We did not find evidence to support shifts in thinking to more systemic views of agricultural development. However, participants viewed themselves as having learned throughout the process. We conclude that scenario visioning does have the potential to foster consensus-building (one element of social learning among diverse stakeholder groups. We urge researchers to continue to monitor and measure systems thinking outcomes from scenario visioning so that these processes may be designed to be more effective.
Wilson, Eric A.
Resource consumption continues to increase as the population grows. In order to secure a sustainable future, society must educate the next generation to become "sustainability natives." Schools play a pivotal role in educating a sustainability-literate society. However, a disconnect exists between the hidden curriculum of the built environment and the enacted curriculum. This study employs a transformative participatory professional development model to instruct teachers on how to use their school grounds as teaching tools for the purpose of helping students make explicit choices in energy consumption, materials use, and sustainable living. Incorporating a phenomenological perspective, this study considers the lived experience of two sustainability coordinators. Grounded theory provides an interpretational context for the participants' interactions with each other and the professional development process. Through a year long professional development experience - commencing with an intense, participatory two-day workshop -the participants discussed challenges they faced with integrating facilities into school curriculum and institutionalizing a culture of sustainability. Two major needs were identified in this study. For successful sustainability initiatives, a hybrid model that melds top-down and bottom-up approaches offers the requisite mix of administrative support, ground level buy-in, and excitement vis-a-vis sustainability. Second, related to this hybrid approach, K-12 sustainability coordinators ideally need administrative capabilities with access to decision making, while remaining connected to students in a meaningful way, either directly in the classroom, as a mentor, or through work with student groups and projects.
Baas, Niels; de Jong, Menno D T; Drossaert, Constance H C
Cyberbullying is an emerging problem among youngsters. Although the current body of knowledge about cyberbullying is expanding rapidly, it lacks a more in-depth research approach honoring adolescents' perspectives on the problem. Moreover, very few studies have focused on cyberbullying among elementary school children. The purpose of this study therefore, was to explore children's perspectives on the problem of cyberbullying. A participatory research design was used in which 28 children (aged 11-12 from four elementary schools) actively participated for 6 weeks in weekly scheduled group sessions. In these sessions, different aspects of cyberbullying were discussed using various enabling techniques. Between sessions, the children were given preparation assignments. The research revealed several ambiguities that should be addressed in interventions against cyberbullying. First, it appears difficult for all parties involved to distinguish cyberbullying from innocent pranks. Frequency and intention are key variables, but these are ambiguous in the context of cyberbullying. Second, cyberbullies may have very different motives, not all of which have to do with their relationship with the victim. Third, the expectations children have of the way their parents or teachers will react to incidents of cyberbullying are an obstacle for seeking help. Children are particularly afraid of overreaction and the subsequent loss of their Internet privileges. These results confirm earlier insights from research on cyberbullying, and examine the ambiguities in more detail. In addition, the research demonstrates the usefulness of participatory research to investigate cyberbullying among younger children and demonstrates that the research led to mutual learning.
Aya H. Kimura
Full Text Available Citizen science is an increasingly popular activity, from bird counts to amateur water sample collection to air quality monitoring. Researchers and theorists in the field of science and technology studies (STS have typically applauded these efforts because they make science more participatory, providing an example of the democratization of science, or, at least, more equitable engagement between experts and the lay public. However, a broader review of the literature on citizen science suggests that participation is but one of many virtues that practitioners and observers find in the practices of citizen science. This literature review makes two interventions. First, we discuss the dimensions of citizen science that do not easily fit in a typology or spectrum of participatory practices. We identify seven different virtues claimed of citizen science: increasing scientific data; increasing citizens' scientific literacy and awareness; building community capacity for environmental protection; building more equal relationship between scientists and citizens; filling knowledge gaps and challenging official accounts; driving policy change; and catching polluters. Second, we consider the social and political contexts that often create contradictory situations or dilemmas for citizen scientists. Going forward, a robust framework for the analysis of citizen science would not only address the ways scientific data is collected and put to a particular use, but also situate the project in relation to broader structural forces of scientization, neocolonialism, globalization, and neoliberalization.
Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils
Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.
Sonia M. N. Felipone
Full Text Available Although informal waste collectors are sometimes organized in cooperatives, their working conditions remain extremely precarious and unsafe. The paper discusses the findings of action oriented, participatory qualitative research with several recycling groups in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. During workshops with the recyclers mapping, acting, and drawing methods helped reveal health hazards from collection, separation and transportation of recyclable materials. Major health problems relate to chemical and biological hazards, musculoskeletal damage, mechanical trauma and poor emotional wellbeing. The recent federal legislation on solid waste management opens new avenues for the inclusion of recycling cooperatives in selective waste collection. Nevertheless, we express the need to consider the distinctive characteristics and vulnerabilities of recycling groups, when developing safer work environments in these social businesses. We also suggest that the workspace be ergonomically organized and that public awareness campaigns about selective waste collection are conducted regularly to increase the quality of source separation. The introduction of electric hand pushed carts can further reduce health strains. This research has produced a better understanding of the work of the recyclers and related health risks. The interactive qualitative research methodology has allowed for the co-creation and mobilization of specific knowledge on health and safety in recycling cooperatives.
Knibbe, Mare; de Vries, Marten; Horstman, Klasien
Community-based participatory media projects form a promising new strategy for mental health promotion that can help address the mental health-gap identified by the World Health Organization. (2008b) mhGAP, Mental Health Gap Action Programme: Scaling Up Care for Mental, Neurological and Substance Use Disorders. World Health Organization, Geneva. In this article we present an ethnographic study about a participatory media project that was developed to promote mental health in selected Dutch low socio-economic status neighborhoods. Through narrowcastings (group film viewings), participant observation and interviews we mapped the ways in which the media project effected and facilitated the collective sense-making process of the audience with regard to sources of stress impacting mental health and opportunities for action. These determinants of mental health are shaped by cultural dimensions, since the cultural context shapes everyday experiences of stress as well as the resources and skills to manage them. Our analysis shows that the media project engaged cultural resources to challenge stressful social scripts. We conclude that more attention should be paid to cultural narratives in a community to understand how health promotion strategies can support social resilience.
Igras, Susan; Diakité, Mariam; Lundgren, Rebecka
In West Africa, social factors influence whether couples with unmet need for family planning act on birth-spacing desires. Tékponon Jikuagou is testing a social network-based intervention to reduce social barriers by diffusing new ideas. Individuals and groups judged socially influential by their communities provide entrée to networks. A participatory social network mapping methodology was designed to identify these diffusion actors. Analysis of monitoring data, in-depth interviews, and evaluation reports assessed the methodology's acceptability to communities and staff and whether it produced valid, reliable data to identify influential individuals and groups who diffuse new ideas through their networks. Results indicated the methodology's acceptability. Communities were actively and equitably engaged. Staff appreciated its ability to yield timely, actionable information. The mapping methodology also provided valid and reliable information by enabling communities to identify highly connected and influential network actors. Consistent with social network theory, this methodology resulted in the selection of informal groups and individuals in both informal and formal positions. In-depth interview data suggest these actors were diffusing new ideas, further confirming their influence/connectivity. The participatory methodology generated insider knowledge of who has social influence, challenging commonly held assumptions. Collecting and displaying information fostered staff and community learning, laying groundwork for social change.
Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.
Full Text Available This work evaluated the physicochemical composition of 171 red Brazilian wines from the 2006 vintage, which were represented by 21 varietals. These wines were produced by 58 Brazilian wineries in different regions of the country, with latitudes varying from 9º to 31º South. Physicochemical wine analysis was performed in the same year and discrimination in the viticultural regions, varietal wines, and wineries was performed by means of the principal component analysis (PCA. The main results show that wines from São Joaquim had higher values of A420, A520, A620, color intensity, total phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and dry extracts, while those from Toledo had lower values of these variables; those from Vale do São Francisco had higher values of potassium, pH, density, and volatile acidity; from Serra do Nordeste A, they had higher titratable acidity; and from Planalto Superior B, higher hue. Regarding the varietal wines, PCA mainly discriminated the wines produced from the varieties Ancellotta, Teroldego, Egiodola, Refosco, Marselan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinotage, Pinot Noir, Malbec, Arinarnoa, Barbera, and Alfrocheiro. In relation to wineries, twenty two of them were discriminated by their higher values of some variables, i.e., three were characterized by color intensity; three by hue; eight by alcohol content; six by potassium, dry extract, density, and pH; and two by titratablel acidity.O trabalho avaliou a composição físico-química de 171 vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados na safra de 2006, representados por 21 varietais. Os vinhos foram elaborados por 58 vinícolas localizadas em sete regiões vitícolas do País com latitudes variando de 9º a 31º Sul. A análise físico-química foi feita em 2006 e a discriminação entre as regiões vitícolas, os vinhos varietais e as vinícolas foi realizada através da análise de componentes principais (ACP. Os principais resultados mostram que ao se considerar as regiões vitícolas, os
Peters, R M H; Zweekhorst, M B M; van Brakel, W H; Bunders, J F G; Irwanto
The Stigma Assessment and Reduction of Impact project aims to assess the effectiveness of stigma-reduction interventions in the field of leprosy. Participatory video seemed to be a promising approach to reducing stigma among stigmatized individuals (in this study the video makers) and the stigmatisers (video audience). This study focuses on the video makers and seeks to assess the impact on them of making a participatory video and to increase understanding of how to deal with foreseeable difficulties. Participants were selected on the basis of criteria and in collaboration with the community health centre. This study draws on six qualitative methods including interviews with the video makers and participant observation. Triangulation was used to increase the validity of the findings. Two videos were produced. The impact on participants ranged from having a good time to a greater sense of togetherness, increased self-esteem, individual agency and willingness to take action in the community. Concealment of leprosy is a persistent challenge, and physical limitations and group dynamics are also areas that require attention. Provided these three areas are properly taken into account, participatory video has the potential to address stigma at least at three levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and community - and possibly more.
Repede, Elizabeth J
Dreaming is a universal phenomenon in human experience and one that carries multiple meanings in the narrative discourse across disciplines. Dreams can be collective, communal, and emancipatory, as well as individual. While individual dreaming has been extensively studied in the literature, the participatory nature of dreaming as a unitary phenomenon is limited. The concept of participatory dreaming within a unitary appreciative framework for healing is explored from perspectives in anthropology, psychology, and nursing. A participatory model of dreaming is proposed from a synthesis of the literature for use in future research using unitary appreciative inquiry.
Unitary appreciative inquiry was used to explore healing in the lives of 11 women abused as children using a model of participatory dreaming. Aesthetics, imagery, and journaling were used in a participatory design aimed at the appreciation of healing in the lives of the participants as it related to the abuse. Using Cowling's theory of unitary healing, research and practice were combined within a unitary-transformative framework. Participatory dreaming was useful in illuminating the life patterning in the lives of the women and promoted the development of new knowledge and skills that led to change and transformation, both individually and collectively.
Jesús M. Sánchez
Full Text Available Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.
Sánchez, Jesús M; Carrera, Álvaro; Iglesias, Carlos Á; Serrano, Emilio
Indoor evacuation systems are needed for rescue and safety management. One of the challenges is to provide users with personalized evacuation routes in real time. To this end, this project aims at exploring the possibilities of Google Glass technology for participatory multiagent indoor evacuation simulations. Participatory multiagent simulation combines scenario-guided agents and humans equipped with Google Glass that coexist in a shared virtual space and jointly perform simulations. The paper proposes an architecture for participatory multiagent simulation in order to combine devices (Google Glass and/or smartphones) with an agent-based social simulator and indoor tracking services.
Lima, Juliano de Carvalho; Faveret, Ana Cecília; Grabois, Victor
This article presents the experience with participatory planning in the Bonsucesso General Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2003 to 2004. The participatory and communicative characteristics and the resulting institutional format are identified for guaranteeing the implementation of collective decisions from the planning workshops. The limits of implementation in participatory planning and management proposals are argued from the perspective of change and power relations in these institutions. The results support the notion that projects involving changes in hospitals and failing to take into account the different internal rationalities and power relations end up having reduced potential for implementation.
Ddamba, Joshua; Dittrich, Yvonne
planners today use data to inform the participatory process. Looking at the participation process as collaboration between planners and citizens allows us to see the participation process itself as generating data that informs future decisions and processes. Based on a case study of a participatory process...... process, and the data used in this process are mapped out. Besides the need to accommodate heterogeneous data and to allow for integrated analysis of data specific to the neighborhood under development, the important result is that the participatory process itself generates data that informs the further...
Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T; Williams, Rhonda M; Ephraim, Patti L; Stevenson, Jennifer E; Isenberg, Patricia J; MacKenzie, Ellen J
Few published intervention studies in the rehabilitation literature have included consumers in the research process other than as study participants. This lack of consumer involvement in intervention research may contribute to the challenges encountered developing, translating, disseminating, and sustaining evidence-based rehabilitation interventions in clinical practice. The overall objective of this article is to promote the integration of participatory action research (PAR) into rehabilitation intervention research as a mechanism for addressing these gaps. First, we outline essential components of a PAR model across 5 key phases of intervention research, specifically: agenda setting, methods, implementation, diffusion/dissemination, and sustainability. Second, we describe the use of PAR in rehabilitation intervention research within each of these phases by reviewing relevant literature and by providing an illustrative research example from a randomized controlled trial that integrated PAR throughout the research process. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of 5 specific recommendations for promoting the integration of PAR into rehabilitation intervention research.
Andersen, Lars Bo; Danholt, Peter; Halskov, Kim
This article starts from the paradox that, although participation is a defining trait of participatory design (PD), there are few explicit discussions in the PD literature of what constitutes participation. Thus, from a point of departure in Actor-Network Theory (ANT), this article develops...... by individuals and (2) that participation partially exists in all elements of a project. These traits are explicated in a design project called ‘Teledialogue’, where the participants are unfolded as networks of reports, government institutions, boyfriends, social workers and so on. The argument is synthesised...... as three challenges for PD: (1) participants are network configurations, (2) participation is an aspect of all project activities and (3) there is no gold standard for participation....
Caglio, Agnese; Buur, Jacob
In this position paper we suggest that design material with dynamic behaviour is particularly suited to scaffold groups of diverse participants in discussing the ‘if – then’ causalities of business models. Based on video data from a number of innovation project workshops we present a comparison m...... matrix of five different material types for participatory business modeling. The comparison matrix highlights patterns in the use of materials, and how they allow people to participate, negotiate and make meaning.......In this position paper we suggest that design material with dynamic behaviour is particularly suited to scaffold groups of diverse participants in discussing the ‘if – then’ causalities of business models. Based on video data from a number of innovation project workshops we present a comparison...
Madsen, Vibeke Thøis
More and more organizations develop the social media features on their intranet and encourage coworkers to communicate, connect with each other and share knowledge across departmental and geographical distance. The question is however how this internal social media (ISM) influences organizational...... communication and the organization, and the purpose of the dissertation is to explore internal social media and coworkers as communicators on internal social media from a communication perspective to answer the overall research question: Does internal social media create a new kind of participatory...... organizational communication? And if yes, in what way? And what are the dynamics driving coworker communication on internal social media? The dissertation builds on a social-constructivist approach and a communication constitutes organizations (CCO) understanding of organizations, and the theoretical framework...
Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten
homes. The challenges are (1) designing for, and negotiating knowledge about, the home, (2) ill, weak users and their participation in PD, (3) divergent interests of participants and (4) usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges have to be carefully addressed, and we use them......Participatory design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we identified four challenges when performing PD with ill, weak users in their private...... to reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process with non-workers, such as ours, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Indeed, differences do exist between traditional PD...
Scott R. Rosas
Full Text Available Concept Mapping (CM is a methodology designed for researching group processes;one its main features is the participatory nature of the technique and its use in new contexts, using methods rooted in traditional applied research. A strong feature of CM is the inclusion of different groups of people interested inreaching meanings and consensus to generate commitment oriented to the development of the communities involved. Another strength, is the overcoming of the shortcomings of ethnographic techniques, because it includes all groups of interest (stakeholders to combine knowledge, actions and change. Its use (CMrequires to develop of multilevel relationships among the groups, and the valuing of different perspectives, as well as the balancing of the researcher´s approach and that of the participants, using robust models and analytics that yield objective data.
Yang, K Wayne
This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context.
Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane
. Methods The presented model works at two levels - the classroom and the organizational level – and is based on four phases, namely: Investigation – Vision – Action – Change, viewed as an iterative process. Pupil perspectives and learning is the basis in all four phases based on a set of health education......Introduction: Research has suggested various school health policy models aimed at promoting children’s health through policy processes. The models present some overall phases in the process, but also different barriers calling for more in-depth qualitative studies (1). With education as the school...... research process, combined with interviews and participatory observation with teachers, school nurses, and the pupils, with the purpose of exploring the applicability and value of the model. Hereafter the model will be tested at four interventions schools based on qualitative studies. Results Pupils...
Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten
With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...... approach applied throughout design and organizational implementation. To pursue this aim we extend the iterative PD prototyping approach by (1) emphasizing PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporating...... improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extending initial design and development into a sustained and ongoing stepwise implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. The extended approach is exemplified through...
Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing the concept of participatory democracy in the European context. In the era of globalization, tools such as Internet filled the gap between civil society and political institutions. The new information and communication technologies contribute to the involvement of citizens in decision-making process. The democratic deficit is bridged through increasingly active participation of civil society at various levels of policy. Through e-democracy tools is realized a direct action of citizens, or even certain categories, which for various reasons do not have the possibility to be informed or have voice on political decisions. In addition, the European institutions, through mechanisms of “better regulation”, promote processes of simplification rules to find a remedy for an excessive law-making.
Full Text Available Increasing availability and access to health information has been a paradigm shift in healthcare provision as it empowers both patients and practitioners alike. Besides awareness, significant time savings and process efficiencies can be achieved through effective summarisation of healthcare information. Relevance and accuracy are key concerns when generating summaries for such documents. Despite advances in automated summarisation approaches, the role of participation has not been explored. In this paper, we propose a new model for multi-document health information summarisation that takes into account the role of participation. The updated IS user participation theory was extended to explicate these roles. The proposed model integrates both extractive and abstractive summarisation processes with continuous participatory inputs to each phase. The model was implemented as a client-server application and evaluated by both domain experts and health information consumers. Results from the evaluation phase indicates the model is successful in generating relevant and accurate summaries for diverse audiences.
Gronvall, Erik; Verdezoto, Nervo; Bagalkot, Naveen L.;
, patient roles and care contexts transforms, for example when care activities move into non-clinical contexts. Concordance is an alternative model proposed by the medical field that favours an equal and collaborative patient-doctor relationship in the negotiation of care. Similarly, HCI researchers have...... applied diverse models of engagement in IT design ranging from authoritative models (e.g. perceiving people as human factors to design for) to more democratic design processes (e.g. Participatory Design). IT design has also been crafted as on-going processes that are integrated parts of everyday use....... Based on the best practice of participation from the medical and the HCI fields, we identify critical alternatives for healthcare design. These alternatives highlight opportunities with ongoing design processes in which the design of care regimens and care IT are perceived as one process....
Zubaida Faridi, MBBS, MPH
Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is gaining increasing credence among public health researchers and practitioners. However, there is no standardization in assessing the quality of research methods, the effectiveness of the interventions, and the reporting requirements in the literature. The absence of standardization precludes meaningful comparisons of CBPR studies. Several authors have proposed a broad set of competencies required for CBPR research for both individuals and organizations, but the discussion remains fragmented. The Prevention Research Centers (PRC Program recently began a qualitative assessment of its national efforts, including an evaluation of how PRCs implement CBPR studies. Topics of interest include types of community partnerships; community capacity for research, evaluation, and training; and factors that help and hinder partner relationships. The assessment will likely contribute to the development of a standard set of competencies and resources required for effective CBPR.
de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens
It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and
Steekelenburg, van M.G.N.
The CGI (GeoInformation Centre) is constructing a new digital tool, called Maptalk, which can be used in the processes of participatory spatial planning projects. The project "speelruimte" aims at testing the Maptalk
Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study. Educational Research, 52(1), 45-59.
Full Text Available Despite the ambition to involve people on more equal terms, participation often still means that the audience is involved in clearly demarcated parts of the process and attempts to develop more deliberative democratic processes in urban planning often fail due to unequal representation in the participatory process.While sharing the general idea of the value of participatory processes, we will investigate some problematic features involved and suggest how some of these can be remedied. We employ the concept of recognition to analyse the conditions for public participation in a recent case of urban planning in the Stockholm suburb of Husby. This case is particularly interesting as it clearly demonstrates the impact of globalisation on local participatory processes.The results show the importance of broad recognition for equal representation in participatory processes, and the need for a plurality of public spheres to support long-term participation in the development of the common urban space.
Salmon, Amy; Browne, Annette J; Pederson, Ann
In this paper, we discuss and analyse the strategies employed and challenges encountered when conducting a recent feminist participatory action research study with highly marginalized women who were illicit drug users in an inner city area of Vancouver, Canada. Through an analysis of the political economy of participatory praxis within current neoliberal contexts, we focus on three main areas: (i) reconceptualizing the pragmatics of participation; (ii) the microeconomic implications of participatory research, including ethical issues in payment for research participation; and (iii) the value and limits of using research as a tool for activism and empowerment. We conclude with a brief discussion of what we see to be some of the most salient social justice implications arising from feminist and participatory approaches to health research within neoliberal political spaces.
Staa, A.L. van; Jedeloo, S.; Latour, J.M.; Trappenburg, J.M.
Adolescents with chronic conditions are major users of paediatric hospitals, but seldom participate in the evaluation of services or in research. Little is known about the usefulness of the participatory approach in adolescent health research.
Volkery, Axel; Ribeiro, Teresa; Henrichs, Thomas;
Participatory processes in scenario development have received increasing attention throughout the last years. Combining qualitative stakeholder and quantitative expert information (i.e. modelling) offers unique opportunities to mix good data, scientific rigour, imagination and expertise from...
Jager, de A.
Keywords: soil nutrient balances, soil fertility degradation, East Africa , participatory innovation, experiential learning, farmer field schools, smallholder agriculture Maintaining and improving soil fertility is crucial for Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals. Fertile soil and bal
Kraaijeveld, R. A.; Schaafsma, F. G.; Ketelaar, S.M.; Boot, C. R. L.; Bultmann, U.; Anema, J. R.
To perform a process evaluation of a multifaceted strategy to implement the participatory approach for supervisors to prevent sick leave in three organisations. The implementation strategy incorporated a working group meeting with stakeholder representatives, supervisor training, and optional superv
Min QIAN; Bo NING; Shicai SHEN; Rui CHEN; Dantong LI; Ziyun PENG; Hongbin LU
[Objective] This study aimed to provide references for the application of participatory monitoring and evaluation in the development of animal husbandry tech- nology. [Method] With the livelihood improvement program for agricultural and pas- toral area in northern Yunnan as the example, the development process of partici- patory animal husbandry was overviewed. And the monitoring and evaluation pro- cesses of participatory animal husbandry were introduced and analyzed. [Result] The monitoring and evaluation indicator system of participatory animal husbandry technol- ogy included 4 layers, namely technology, institutional system, personnel ability con- struction and effectiveness, and 11 third-level indicators, namely, technical characteristics, superiority-inferiority comparison, community and farmers, technical personnel, project personnel, economic indicators and social indicators. [Conclusion] This study provided the references for the application of participatory monitoring and evaluation in the development of animal husbandry technology.
Türkes, Okan; Seraj, Fatjon; Scholten, Hans; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.
This study introduces an ad-hoc opportunistic data dissemination protocol, called VADISS, that facilitates participatory traffic monitoring applications with smartphones. As a ubiquitous alternative to existing vehicular networking methods, VADISS uses the default WiFi interfaces universally adopted
Full Text Available Broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes intended to aid collective decision making and learning are rarely initiated, designed, implemented, and managed by one person. These processes mostly emerge from some form of collective planning and organization activities because of the stakes, time, and budgets involved in their implementation. Despite the potential importance of these collective processes for managing complex water-related social–ecological systems, little research focusing on the project teams that design and organize participatory water management processes has ever been undertaken. We have begun to fill this gap by introducing and outlining the concept of a co-engineering process and examining how it impacts the processes and outcomes of participatory water management. We used a hybrid form of intervention research in two broad-scale, multi-governance level, participatory water management processes in Australia and Bulgaria to build insights into these co-engineering processes. We examined how divergent objectives and conflict in the project teams were negotiated, and the impacts of this co-engineering on the participatory water management processes. These investigations showed: (1 that language barriers may aid, rather than hinder, the process of stakeholder appropriation, collective learning and skills transferal related to the design and implementation of participatory water management processes; and (2 that diversity in co-engineering groups, if managed positively through collaborative work and integrative negotiations, can present opportunities and not just challenges for achieving a range of desired outcomes for participatory water management processes. A number of areas for future research on co-engineering participatory water management processes are also highlighted.
Participatory evaluation models that invite community coalitions to take an active role in developing evaluations of their programs are a natural fit with Healthy Communities initiatives. The author describes the development of a participatory evaluation model for New Mexico's Healthier Communities program. She describes evaluation principles, research questions, and baseline findings. The evaluation model shows the links between process, community-level system impacts, and population health changes.
Büscher, Monika; Hartswood, Mark; Mogensen, Preben Holst
While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope...... and responsibilities. We compare and discuss the different strategies, methods we have devised to achieve this within the local politics of each setting....
Full Text Available New regulatory water management requirements on an international level increasingly challenge the capacity of regional water managers to adapt. Stakeholder participation can contribute to dealing with these challenges because it facilitates the incorporation of various forms of knowledge and interests into policy-making and decision-making processes. Also, by providing space for informal multi-stakeholder platforms, management experiments can be established more easily in rigid regulatory settings, allowing for social learning to take place. Stakeholder participation is currently stipulated by several legal provisions, such as the Water Framework Directive, which plays an increasingly important role in European water management. Drawing on recent experiences in a participatory process in the German Dhuenn basin, a sub-basin of the river Rhine, we explored the interplay of informal and formal settings in a participatory process. To what degree can we allow for openness and catalyze social learning in participatory processes grounded in formal management structures? To what degree can results of informal processes have an impact on practice? We analyzed three major challenges related to this interplay: (1 the niche-finding process to establish a participatory platform; (2 the co-design process by water management practitioners, researchers and consultants; and (3 the tangible outputs and learning. We found that niches for the establishment of informal participatory platforms can occur even in a rigid and strongly structured administrative environment. Further, our case study shows that collaborative process design fosters dealing with uncertainties. We conclude that in an effective participatory process, a balance should be struck between informality and formal institutional structures to catalyze experimentation and learning and to ensure that process results have an impact on management decisions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC. The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion
Chen, Donna T; Jones, Loretta; Gelberg, Lillian
Recommendations for reducing racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care suggest that clinical researchers try community-based participatory research (CBPR). While the body of literature discussing the ethics of CBPR continues to grow, we are not aware of a specific attempt to provide a structure for analyzing the ethics of clinical research using a CBPR approach. We adapt a framework developed by Emanuel, Wendler, and Grady articulating seven requirements for ethical clinical research to clinical research using a CBPR approach. We incorporate findings from the literature on CBPR and identify some of the ethical and practical challenges from our experiences working in CBPR as academics and community members. We find Emanuel et al's framework easily adaptable for CBPR. Six of the requirements are flexible enough to accommodate the needs of CBPR; they are: social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject selection, favorable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent. We suggest that the seventh requirement, respect for potential and enrolled participants, be amended to respect for potential and enrolled participants, community, and research partners to acknowledge that separate attention should be paid to relationships on these three levels. This adapted framework can guide community-academic partnerships as they evaluate whether to proceed with potential clinical research studies and as they work to enhance the ethics of clinical research studies using a CBPR approach.
Silva e Santos, Marcello
The discipline and practice of human factors and ergonomics is quite rich in terms of the availability of analysis, development and evaluation tools and methods for its various processes. However, we lack effective instruments to either map or regulate comprehensively and effectively, cognitive and organizational related impacts, especially the environmental ones. Moreover, when ergonomic transformations through design - such as a new workstation design or even an entire new facility - is at play, ergonomics professionals tend to stay at bay, relying solely on design professionals and engineers. There is vast empirical evidence showing that participation of ergonomists as project facilitators, may contribute to an effective professional synergy amongst the various stakeholders in a multidisciplinary venue. When that happens, everyone wins - users and designers alike -because eventual conflicts, raised up in the midst of options selection, are dissipated in exchange for more convergent design alternatives. This paper presents a method for participatory design, in which users are encouraged to actively participate in the whole design process by sharing their real work activities with the design team. The negotiated results inferred from the ergonomic action and translated into a new design, are then compiled into a "Ergonomic Pattern Manual". This handbook of ergonomics-oriented design guidelines contains essential guidelines to be consulted in recurrent design project situations in which similar patterns might be used. The main drive is simple: nobody knows better than workers themselves what an adequate workplace design solution (equipment, workstation, office layout) should be.
Full Text Available This paper presents a typology of stakeholders for effective participatory processes and co-design of solutions to complex social-environmental issues and a roadmap stepwise methodology for balanced and productive stakeholder engagement. Definitions are given of terminology that is frequently used interchangeably such as stakeholders, social actors and interested parties. Eleven research questions about participative processes are addressed, based on more than 30 years of experience in water, estuarine, coastal and marine management. A stepwise roadmap, supported by illustrative tables based on case-studies, shows how a balanced stakeholder selection and real engagement maybe achieved. The paper brings these together in the context of several up-to-date concepts such as complex, nested governance, the 10 tenets for integrated, successful and sustainable marine management, the System Approach Framework and the evolution of DPSIR into DAPSI(WR(M framework. Examples given are based on the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, the Water Framework Directive, the Environmental Impact Assessment Directive, the Framework for Marine Spatial Planning Directive, as well as for Regional Sea Conventions. The paper also shows how tools that have been developed in recent projects can be put to use to implement policy and maximize the effectiveness of stakeholder participation.
García, Ana M; Gadea, Rafael; Sevilla, Maria José; Genís, Susana; Ronda, Elena
Participatory ergonomics is an intervention strategy acting on physical load exposures occurring in occupational settings, scarcely known in Spain but with a number of experiences and evidences coming from other countries. There are several reasons justifying the interest of this approach. First, participatory ergonomics focuses on one of the categories of occupational exposures with the largest impact on workers' health in a majority of countries all over the world, in terms of incidence, prevalence and disability. Secondly, basic principle in participatory ergonomics is empowerment of workers for them to participate identifying risks and injuries caused by physical exposures at work as well as proposing and evaluating proper control measures for each situation. Thirdly, it allows dealing and solving a number of problems without the use of complex technical protocols. From a public health perspective, participatory ergonomics is a largely tried model of community empowerment for the control of (occupational) factors affecting health and wellbeing. In this paper we revise some basic principles of participatory ergonomics, we comment on the keys leading to success or failing of the interventions and we present some main results coming from participatory ergonomics experiences developed for a long time in countries such as Canada, United Kingdom, Netherlands or Finland.
Simonds, Vanessa W; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia
The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009-2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research.
Transformational socio-economic changes during the last decades of the 20th century led to the abandonment of mountainous areas in western Mediterranean countries (Puigdefábregas and Mendizábal, 1998). This process was accelerated in the Ayora Valley (inland Valencia province, E Spain) by a major forest fire in 1979. Restoration and management actions were implemented through the 1990's to promote the recovery of the area affected by this fire. In 2010 these past actions were assessed using an integrated and participatory evaluation protocol (IAPro). The selected actions were shrubland regenerated after the fire (no-action); pine plantation over the shrubland; pine forest regenerated after the fire (no-action); and thinning of densely regenerated pines. The assessment involved the identification and engagement of a comprehensive and representative set of local and regional stakeholders who provided a baseline assessment, identified and prioritized essential indicators, considered data collected against those indicators, and participated in re-assessment of actions after an outranking multi-criteria decision aiding integration (MCDA) conducted by the expert team (Roy and Bertier, 1973). This process facilitated a collaborative integration of biophysical indicators (i.e. carbon sequestration, water and soil conservation, soil quality, biodiversity, fire risk and forest health) and socio-economic indicators (i.e. productive, recreational and touristic, aesthetic, and cultural values, cost of the actions, and impact on family finances). It was completed with activities for exchanging experiences and sharing knowledge with the platform of stakeholders. Stakeholder platform suggested that fire risk was the most important indicator, followed by water conservation and soil conservation. Least important indicators were cost of actions, aesthetic value, and recreational and touristic value. Data collected on each action showed the thinned pine forest action with the lowest
LoIacono Merves, Marni; Rodgers, Caryn R R; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Sclafane, Jamie Heather; Bauman, Laurie J
Community-Based Participatory Research partnerships typically do not include adolescents as full community partners. However, partnering with adolescents can enhance the success and sustainability of adolescent health interventions. We partnered with adolescents to address health disparities in a low-income urban community. In partnering with youth, it is important to consider their developmental stage and needs to better engage and sustain their involvement. We also learned the value of a Youth Development framework and intentionally structuring a youth-friendly Community-Based Participatory Research environment. Finally, we will raise some ethical responsibilities to consider when working with youth partners.
The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity.
Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy.
Vaughn, Lisa M; Lohmueller, MaryAnn
Group-level assessment (GLA) is a qualitative and participatory large group method in which timely and valid data are collaboratively generated and interactively evaluated with relevant stakeholders leading to the development of participant-driven data and relevant action plans. This method is useful across a wide range of evaluation purposes in many environments. GLA involves bringing a large group of participants together to build a common database through the co-identification of relevant needs, judgments, and priorities. The GLA process proceeds through the following seven steps: climate setting, generating, appreciating, reflecting, understanding, selecting, and action. This article describes the methodological development and process of conducting a GLA and its various applications across the evaluation spectrum. We highlight several exemplars where GLA was used in order to demonstrate the particular nuances of working with different sizes and types of groups and to elaborate on our learnings from the wide applicability of the method.
Dalsgaard, Peter; Eriksson, Eva
In this paper, we present a case study of a participatory project that focuses on interaction in large-scale design, namely, the development of the new Urban Mediaspace Aarhus. This project, which has been under way for ten years, embodies a series of issues that arise when participatory design a...... different paradigms of inquiry and practice in a project of this scale, and how to capture and anchor the insights from participatory events to inform the ongoing design process....
Full Text Available Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment, and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1 spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2 multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3 dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic
Hu, Mingyuan; Che, Weitao; Zhang, Qiuju; Luo, Qingli; Lin, Hui
Most simulation-based noise maps are important for official noise assessment but lack local noise characteristics. The main reasons for this lack of information are that official noise simulations only provide information about expected noise levels, which is limited by the use of large-scale monitoring of noise sources, and are updated infrequently. With the emergence of smart cities and ubiquitous sensing, the possible improvements enabled by sensing technologies provide the possibility to resolve this problem. This study proposed an integrated methodology to propel participatory sensing from its current random and distributed sampling origins to professional noise simulation. The aims of this study were to effectively organize the participatory noise data, to dynamically refine the granularity of the noise features on road segments (e.g., different portions of a road segment), and then to provide a reasonable spatio-temporal data foundation to support noise simulations, which can be of help to researchers in understanding how participatory sensing can play a role in smart cities. This study first discusses the potential limitations of the current participatory sensing and simulation-based official noise maps. Next, we explain how participatory noise data can contribute to a simulation-based noise map by providing (1) spatial matching of the participatory noise data to the virtual partitions at a more microscopic level of road networks; (2) multi-temporal scale noise estimations at the spatial level of virtual partitions; and (3) dynamic aggregation of virtual partitions by comparing the noise values at the relevant temporal scale to form a dynamic segmentation of each road segment to support multiple spatio-temporal noise simulations. In this case study, we demonstrate how this method could play a significant role in a simulation-based noise map. Together, these results demonstrate the potential benefits of participatory noise data as dynamic input sources for
Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.
LIU Zhi-qiang; DING Peng; SHENG Huan-ye
Lots of pervasive computing researchers are working on how to realize the user-centered intelligent pervasive computing environment as Mark Weiser figured out. Task abstraction is the fundamentation of configuration for pervasive application. Based on task-oriented and descriptive properties of scenario, a scenario-based participatory design model was proposed to realize the task abstraction. The design model provided users and domain experts a useful mechanism to build the customized applications by separating system model into domain model and design model. In this design model, domain experts, together with users, stakeholders focus on the logic rules (domain model) and programmers work on the implementation (design model). In order to formalize the model description, a human-agent interaction language to transform users' goals and domain rules into executable scenarios was also discussed. An agent platform - describer used to link design and implementation of scenarios was developed to realize the configuration of applications according to different requirements. The demand bus application showed the design process and the usability of this model.
Full Text Available This article discusses the photo interview method used in a participatory inter- and transdisciplinary research setting. The photo interview has proven particularly useful for sustainability and environmental studies in which eliciting community points of view is crucial to the research effort. Based on experiences in several countries, the author describes and analyses the photo interview process and its three phases—involving, sharing and analysing—and explores potential influences on data quality. In the first phase, researchers use the photo interview method to involve community residents from different levels of society in the research process. In the second phase, the photo interview method encourages community residents and scientists to share insights and perspectives and to partner in developing a common understanding of local structures, processes, and possible solutions. In the third phase, the photo interview method allows researchers to analyse visual and textual data as a representation of a local societal context. In decoding images, researchers ground the analysis in subjective perspectives, use residents' visual codes along with other methods to further analyse community data, and explore the wider societal context in which the study is embedded. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803127
Higgitt, D. L.
Singapore is a highly urbanised environment experiencing tropical monsoon hydrological regimes. A heavily engineered fluvial system has been developed over time to provide efficient drainage and reduce the area subject to flood risk. However, recent interest in ecosystem-based approaches to river management and the enhancement of the aesthetic and ecological 'quality' of riverine landscape, coupled with concerns about climate change, has challenged the prevailing engineering view. This is reflected in the Public Utility Board (PUB) ABC Waters Programme, which also seeks to develop community interest in riverine environments and engagement with water-related concerns. As part of a programme developing participatory GIS (PGIS) with school and university students, we have undertaken applications involving participant observation, reporting and analysis of water quality data and habitat quality based on a simplified version of the UK Environment Agency's River Habitat Survey. From an educational perspective, there is evidence that these PGIS initiatives raise environmental awareness and enhance geospatial thinking, particularly in relation to catchment management concepts. The extent to which participant-derived data can contribute to a citizen science of urban water quality and hence deliver some aspects of the community engagement sought after by the authorities, is a topic of debate.
In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.
Full Text Available In Madagascar – a biodiversity hotspot of international importance – the villagers depend on the forest first for its soil as a reserve of arable land as well as a shelter and a pasture for the herds, and second for the production of timber, charcoal and other forest products. Most of the currently proposed conservation management systems for forests do not take into consideration villagers’ needs, in Madagascar too; indeed degradation and deforestation have continuously occurred in places where the forest is under great pressure. In targeting the improvement of the livelihood of local populations and the maintenance of “multifunctionality”, especially the ecological value of the forest, the present project aims at developing scientific criteria for a sustainable management of forest landscapes in western Madagascar at a regional scale. A detailed inventory of resources and a specific understanding of stakeholder requirements and strategies will allow drawing an accurate picture of the human-forest interface. A participatory approach paves the way for realistic management criteria that are really adequate to the ecological and social situations. The management criteria will provide a tool for further discussions on landscape management in central Menabe.
Full Text Available The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010 enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006 can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false DE-AT X-NONE X-NONE The understanding of participation as a political matter has changed back and forth over the years. The latest twist back to appreciative attributions towards participation is fuelled by the development of the Internet, and especially the Social Web. Citizen participation is unanimously seen as an essential precondition for Deliberative-Collaborative eDemocracy (Petrik, 2010 enabled by Web 2.0. This paper considers participatory culture and its specific political, cultural, societal, and educational characteristics as a prerequisite for e-participation and argues that social media literacy is indispensable for e-participation to be sustainable. Young people’s affinity spaces (Jenkins, et.al., 2006 can only lay down the foundations for social media literacy, but their further development depends on education. Political Education would be well advised to adapt innovative pedagogical approaches to the acquirement of new media literacy. This paper introduces an exemplary educational tool – predominately but not exclusively for political/civic education – namely the website PoliPedia.at. Teachers can use it to deliberately create a balanced space for collaboration between Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives. PoliPedia – as a participative online tool – has the potential to facilitate participation experience in political/civic education and supports social media education. Thereby the embedding of technology in pedagogical and societal conceptualizations is crucial.
Storch, Janet; Rodney, Patricia; Varcoe, Colleen; Pauly, Bernadette; Starzomski, Rosalie; Stevenson, Lynne; Best, Lynette; Mass, Heather; Fulton, Thomas Reilly; Mildon, Barbara; Bees, Fiona; Chisholm, Anne; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra; McCutcheon, Amy Sanchez; Shamian, Judith; Thompson, Charlotte; Makaroff, Kara Schick; Newton, Lorelei
Within Canada's fast-paced, ever-changing healthcare environment, providers are experiencing difficulty practising according to their professional ethical standards, leading many to experience moral or ethical distress. Limited attention has been paid to improvements in the ethical climate in healthcare settings in research focusing on nurses' workplaces. In this three-year study, we focused on how the ethical climate in healthcare delivery can be improved and how the use of participatory action research methods can lead to continued enhancements and lasting changes in services delivery. Together, we developed strategies for taking action, aimed at improving the quality of the work environment. This action involved both nurses in direct care and those in key leadership positions (CNOs or their equivalents). Through the active participation of those for whom the research-based change was intended, these strategies were tested in various sites across British Columbia and can be used as templates or designs for use in other settings. A key component of the success of the projects and action plans that were created was the integral involvement of nurse leaders through all phases.
Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of sensor data verification in Participatory Sensing (PS systems using an air quality/pollution monitoring application as a validation example. Data verification, in the context of PS, consists of the process of detecting and removing spatial outliers to properly reconstruct the variables of interest. We propose, implement, and test a hybrid neighborhood-aware algorithm for outlier detection that considers the uneven spatial density of the users, the number of malicious users, the level of conspiracy, and the lack of accuracy and malfunctioning sensors. The algorithm utilizes the Delaunay triangulation and Gaussian Mixture Models to build neighborhoods based on the spatial and non-spatial attributes of each location. This neighborhood definition allows us to demonstrate thatit is not necessary to apply accurate but computationally expensive estimators to the entire dataset to obtain good results, as equally accurate but computationally cheaper methods can also be applied to part of the data and obtain good results as well. Our experimental results show that our hybrid algorithm performs as good as the best estimator while reducing the execution time considerably.
Sîrbu, Alina; Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; De Baets, Bernard; Elen, Bart; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Hotho, Andreas; Ingarra, Stefano; Loreto, Vittorio; Molino, Andrea; Mueller, Juergen; Peters, Jan; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Saracino, Fabio; Servedio, Vito D P; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca; Van den Bossche, Joris
The issue of sustainability is at the top of the political and societal agenda, being considered of extreme importance and urgency. Human individual action impacts the environment both locally (e.g., local air/water quality, noise disturbance) and globally (e.g., climate change, resource use). Urban environments represent a crucial example, with an increasing realization that the most effective way of producing a change is involving the citizens themselves in monitoring campaigns (a citizen science bottom-up approach). This is possible by developing novel technologies and IT infrastructures enabling large citizen participation. Here, in the wider framework of one of the first such projects, we show results from an international competition where citizens were involved in mobile air pollution monitoring using low cost sensing devices, combined with a web-based game to monitor perceived levels of pollution. Measures of shift in perceptions over the course of the campaign are provided, together with insights into participatory patterns emerging from this study. Interesting effects related to inertia and to direct involvement in measurement activities rather than indirect information exposure are also highlighted, indicating that direct involvement can enhance learning and environmental awareness. In the future, this could result in better adoption of policies towards decreasing pollution.
Full Text Available Long-term forest management planning often involves several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, creating a complex decision process. Multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA presents a promising framework for finding solutions in terms of suitable trade-offs among the objectives. However, many of the MCDA methods that have been implemented in forest management planning can only be used to compare and evaluate a limited number of management plans, which increases the risk that the most suitable plan is not included in the decision process. The aim of this study is to test whether the combination of two MCDA methods can facilitate the evaluation of a large number of strategic forest management plans in a situation with multiple objectives and several stakeholders. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP was used to set weights for objectives based on stakeholder preferences and the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS was used to produce an overall ranking of alternatives. This approach was applied to a case study of the Vilhelmina municipality, northern Sweden. The results show that the combination of AHP and TOPSIS is easy to implement in participatory forest planning and takes advantage of the capacity of forest decision support systems to create a wide array of management plans. This increases the possibility that the most suitable plan for all stakeholders will be identified.
Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.
Ethical principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR)— specifically, community engagement, mutual learning, action-reflection, and commitment to sustainability—stem from the work of Kurt Lewin and Paulo Freire. These are particularly relevant in cancer disparities research because vulnerable populations are often construed to be powerless, supposedly benefiting from programs over which they have no control. The long history of exploiting minority individuals and communities for research purposes (the U.S. Public Health Service Tuskegee Syphilis Study being the most notorious) has left a legacy of mistrust of research and researchers. The purpose of this article is to examine experiences and lessons learned from community health workers (CHWs) in the 10-year translation of an educational intervention in the research-to-practice-to-community continuum. We conclude that the central role played by CHWs enabled the community to gain some degree of control over the intervention and its delivery, thus operationalizing the ethical principles of CBPR. PMID:23124502
Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to establish the sensory characteristics of wines made from old and newly introduced red grape varieties. To attain this objective, 16 Brazilian red varietal wines were evaluated by a sensory panel of enologists who assessed wines according to their aroma and flavor descriptors. A 90 mm unstructured scale was used to quantify the intensity of 26 descriptors, which were analyzed by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA showed that three important components represented 74.11% of the total variation. PC 1 discriminated Tempranillo, Marselan and Ruby Cabernet wines, with Tempranillo being characterized by its equilibrium, quality, harmony, persistence and body, as well as by, fruity, spicy and oaky characters. The other two varietals were defined by vegetal, oaky and salty characteristics; PC 2 discriminated Pinot Noir, Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon and Arinarnoa, where Pinot Noir was characterized by its floral flavor; PC 3 discriminated only Malbec, which had weak, floral and fruity characteristics. The other varietal wines did not show important discriminating effects.Conduziu-se este trabalho, com o objetivo de determinar as características sensoriais de vinhos tintos brasileiros elaborados com cultivares de uva introduzidos no país há algum tempo e outros, mais recentemente. Para tanto, as características de 16 vinhos tintos varietais brasileiros foram determinadas por um painel formado por enólogos que avaliaram os vinhos de acordo com suas características de aroma e sabor. Isso foi realizado utilizando-se uma escala não estruturada de 90 mm, a qual apresentava a intensidade de 26 descritores que foram analisados pela Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A ACP mostrou três importantes componentes, os quais representaram 74,11% da variação total. De fato, o CP 1 discriminou os vinhos Tempranillo, Marselan e Ruby Cabernet, o primeiro deles sendo caracterizado pelos descritores equil
Full Text Available The diminished trust of citizens in the public sector, the increased complexity of policy issues and the reforms in accordance with the new public management principles generate the need of focusing more extensively on participatory governance. Participatory governance can be defined as the genuine engagement of citizens and other organizations in the formulation of policies and strategies, in the decision-making process from the public sector and in the implementation of the decisions. The present paper's objectives are to define the concept of participatory governance, to argue in favor of implementing it in the public sector and to find to what extent public healthcare institutions from Scandinavian and Baltic countries publish information on participatory governance and how they perceive community engagement. The research findings are that the information on participatory governance disclosed on the websites of relevant institutions from within the Scandinavian and Baltic public healthcare systems is scarce. The countries with the greatest concern for community engagement are Denmark and Sweden. It is argued that there should be a shift in focus within the public sector in general and within the healthcare system in particular, so that citizens are genuinely involved in the relevant processes and their satisfaction is indeed at an adequate level.
Transformation process to Audience-centered Communication Theory is introduced,as well as the basic idea of the theory in China.It is believed that using Audience-centered Communication theory can help to consolidate the theoretical basis of participatory agricultural extension.The communication essence of agricultural extension activity is studied,which is spreaders send information to farmers;then,farmers filter and process the information,transform it into their own experiences and feed back on time.Internal logical relationship between audience-centered communication and participatory agricultural extension is studied.Effects of Audience-centered Communication Theory on participatory agricultural extension are analyzed.One is that the Audience-centered Communication Theory defines the guidance and implementation basis of agricultural extension activities;the other is that bringing Audience-centered Communication Theory into agricultural extension research can help to expend the agricultural extension.Several enlightenments of the theory to participatory agricultural extension are obtained.Firstly,take audience as the orientation and focus on the needs of the audience.Secondly,advocate the participatory approach of process;and emphasize the importance of internal audience participation.Thirdly,establish two-way interaction mechanism;and make the promoters understand the implementation and performance status on time.Fourthly,develop vernacular knowledge;and better integrate the innovation and practice.
Navinder J. Singh
Full Text Available Monitoring of species and their ecosystem attributes is a fundamental requirement in applied ecology and conservation. However, landscape scale monitoring requires an immense effort and commitment, especially when species have a wide distribution or are migratory in nature. Participatory monitoring, whereby local communities are engaged, is increasingly being proposed to address landscape scale monitoring. Its implementation is met with many challenges related to finances, motivation of the local people, lack of trained manpower, and nondirect legal use of the species in question. It is of interest to determine what makes a participatory monitoring program interesting for locals to ensure their long term engagement. Using the unique 26-year program of hunters' observations of moose (Alces alces in Sweden as a case study, we present the evolution of this highly successful participatory monitoring program and show that tackling the motivation to monitor, early involvement of local NGOs, social activities revolving around use of the resource, the biology and economic value of the species, and technical and practical aspects related to the monitoring, together create a successful participatory monitoring program. When users benefit directly from the resource, participate in conservation/management decision making, socialize with other participants, and get rewards for their commitment and effective monitoring, participatory monitoring schemes can then become rewarding and sustainable.
The participation of nonscientists in modeling projects/studies is increasingly employed to fulfill different functions. However, it is not well investigated if and how explicitly these functions and the dynamics of a participatory process are reflected by modeling projects in particular. In this review study, I explore participatory modeling projects from a functional-dynamic process perspective. The main differences among projects relate to the functions of participation-most often, more than one per project can be identified, along with the degree of explicit reflection (i.e., awareness and anticipation) on the dynamic process perspective. Moreover, two main approaches are revealed: participatory modeling covering diverse approaches and companion modeling. It becomes apparent that the degree of reflection on the participatory process itself is not always explicit and perfectly visible in the descriptions of the modeling projects. Thus, the use of common protocols or templates is discussed to facilitate project planning, as well as the publication of project results. A generic template may help, not in providing details of a project or model development, but in explicitly reflecting on the participatory process. It can serve to systematize the particular project's approach to stakeholder collaboration, and thus quality management.
Kraaijvanger, Richard; Veldkamp, Tom; Almekinders, C.J.M.
Participatory approaches are advocated as being more effective in supporting rural development processes than traditional top-down extension approaches. Participatory experimentation involving both farmers and researchers is often expected to result in processes of experiential learning. Assuming th
Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David
The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach
Brovelli, M. A.; Minghini, M.; Zamboni, G.
The dawn of GeoWeb 2.0, the geographic extension of Web 2.0, has opened new possibilities in terms of online dissemination and sharing of geospatial contents, thus laying the foundations for a fruitful development of Participatory GIS (PGIS). The purpose of the study is to investigate the extension of PGIS applications, which are quite mature in the traditional bi-dimensional framework, up to the third dimension. More in detail, the system should couple a powerful 3D visualization with an increase of public participation by means of a tool allowing data collecting from mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets). The PGIS application, built using the open source NASA World Wind virtual globe, is focussed on the cultural and tourism heritage of Como city, located in Northern Italy. An authentication mechanism was implemented, which allows users to create and manage customized projects through cartographic mash-ups of Web Map Service (WMS) layers. Saved projects populate a catalogue which is available to the entire community. Together with historical maps and the current cartography of the city, the system is also able to manage geo-tagged multimedia data, which come from user field-surveys performed through mobile devices and report POIs (Points Of Interest). Each logged user can then contribute to POIs characterization by adding textual and multimedia information (e.g. images, audios and videos) directly on the globe. All in all, the resulting application allows users to create and share contributions as it usually happens on social platforms, additionally providing a realistic 3D representation enhancing the expressive power of data.
Full Text Available Participation is a prominent feature of many decision-making and planning processes. Among its proclaimed benefits is its potential to strengthen public support and involvement. However, participation is also known for having unintended consequences which lead to failures in meeting its objectives. This article takes a critical perspective on participation by discussing how participation may influence the ways in which citizens can become involved. Participation unavoidably involves (1 restrictions about who should be involved and about the space for negotiation, (2 assumptions about what the issue at stake is, and (3 expectations about what the outcome of participation should be and how the participants are expected to behave. This is illustrated by a case study about the Dutch nature area, the Drentsche Aa. The case study demonstrates how the participatory process that took place and the restrictions, assumptions, and expectations that were involved resulted in six forms of citizen involvement, both intended and unintended, which ranged between creativity, passivity, and entrenchment. Based on these findings, the article argues that participation does not merely serve as a neutral place in which citizens are represented, but instead creates different categories of citizens. Recognizing this means reconceiving participation as performative practice. Such a perspective goes beyond overly optimistic views of participation as a technique whose application can be perfected, as well as pessimistic views of participation as repression or domination. Instead, it appreciates both intended and unintended forms of citizen involvement as meaningful and legitimate, and recognizes citizenship as being constituted in interaction in the context of participation.
Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Greenberg, Daphne; Roach, Andrew T.
The Participatory Culture-Specific Model of Course Development (PCSMCD), adapted from the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model, is a proposed framework to address challenges to social justice education by addressing the following four course variables: instructor characteristics, instructor experiences, student characteristics, and…
Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume
This study focuses on Kenyan student-teachers' professional learning and development in health education in a participatory action research project conducted in one Kenyan teacher training college. The aim was to explore the potential of participatory action research to instigate change in student-teachers' health education practices in a…
This mixed method participatory action research study investigated the relationships of effective teaching strategies and gender based learning environments to pre-adolescent females' self-efficacy of mathematical ability, classroom participatory behaviors, and academic achievement in the area of mathematics. Research-based teaching…
Mathews, Sarah A.
Digital Participatory Research (DPR) combines grass-roots participatory research and photojournalism, asks students to investigate assets and issues within their community, and facilitates civic participation by using problem-posing and praxis-orientated methods. Although there is a vast amount of research documenting the impact of DPR at the…
Souza, de H.N.; Cardoso, I.M.; Mendonca, E.D.; Carvalho, A.F.; Oliveira, de G.B.; Gjorup, D.F.; Bonfim, V.R.
Participatory research methods have helped scientists to understand how farmers experiment and to seek partnerships with farmers in developing technologies with enhanced relevance and adoption. This paper reports on the development of a participatory methodology to systematize long-term experimentat
MacQueen, Kathleen M; Eley, Natalie T; Frick, Mike; Mingote, Laia Ruiz; Chou, Alicia; Seidel, Stephanie S; Hannah, Stacey; Hamilton, Carol
Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for TB Drug Trials (GPP-TB) were issued in 2012, based on similar guidelines for HIV prevention and reflecting growing acceptance of the importance of community engagement and participatory strategies in clinical research. Though the need for such strategies is clear, evaluation of the benefits and burdens are needed. Working with a diverse group of global TB stakeholders including advocates, scientists, and ethicists, we used a Theory of Change approach to develop an evaluation framework for GPP-TB that includes a clearly defined ethical goal, a set of powerful strategies derived from GPP-TB practices for achieving the goal, and outcomes connecting strategies to goal. The framework is a first step in systematically evaluating participatory research in clinical trials.
Ddamba, Joshua; Dittrich, Yvonne
process, and the data used in this process are mapped out. Besides the need to accommodate heterogeneous data and to allow for integrated analysis of data specific to the neighborhood under development, the important result is that the participatory process itself generates data that informs the further......Current literature on urban planning explores how to use ICT to support citizen participation. Advances in open data and its possibility to easily represent data on maps, opens up new opportunities to support participation and decision making in urban projects. This article investigates how spatial...... planners today use data to inform the participatory process. Looking at the participation process as collaboration between planners and citizens allows us to see the participation process itself as generating data that informs future decisions and processes. Based on a case study of a participatory process...
Full Text Available Participatory-action research encourages the involvement of all key stakeholders in the research process and is especially well suited to mental health research. Previous literature outlines the importance of engaging stakeholders in the development of research questions and methodologies, but little has been written about ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders (especially non-academic members in dissemination opportunities such as publication development. The Article Idea Chart was developed as a specific methodology for engaging all stakeholders in data analysis and publication development. It has been successfully utilised in a number of studies and is an effective tool for ensuring the dissemination process of participatory-action research results is both inclusive and transparent to all team members, regardless of stakeholder group. Keywords: participatory-action research, mental health, dissemination, community capacity building, publications, authorship
Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.
Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas
This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors were physical ergonomic, 24% were organisational and 7% were psychosocial risk factors. Most solutions were organisational (55%), followed by physical (43%) and psychosocial solutions (2%). Internal factors (e.g. team or management) constituted 47% of the barriers and 75% of the facilitators. External factors (e.g. time, financial resources, collaboration with resident or relatives) constituted 53% of the barriers and 25% of the facilitators. This study revealed the processes and implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. The findings can be transferred to workers, workplaces, health and safety professionals, and researchers to improve future participatory ergonomics programs.
Chukwudozie, Oge; Feinstein, Clare; Jensen, Celina;
While the principles behind community-based participatory research are firmly established, the process of taking community-based participatory research with children and youth to scale and integrating it into the programming of non-governmental organizations has been scarcely documented....... This article reflects on the experiences of Save the Children in implementing a multicountry community-based participatory research program to increase understanding of kinship care in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone. The article discusses challenges faced and lessons learned...... and highlights how the research process enabled action and advocacy initiatives at different levels-leading to an increase in support and policy attention for children living in kinship care....
Wright, M T; Kilian, H; Block, M; von Unger, H; Brandes, S; Ziesemer, M; Gold, C; Rosenbrock, R
Community participation, recognised as a central feature of successful health promotion and prevention, is often difficult to implement. In this research project internationally recognised methods of participatory health research were applied to demonstrate ways in which community members can be engaged. Participatory health research is characterised by a close collaboration between academic researchers, practitioners and community members in order to generate common knowledge. It is not a question of translating knowledge from research into practice, but rather a question of promoting a collective learning process on the part of all participants for the purpose of developing solutions which address the interests and needs of local people. The result of the project is a new approach for strengthening the quality of prevention and health promotion interventions: participatory quality development (PQD).
Hujala, T.; Khadka, C.; Wolfslehner, B.; Vacik, H.
Aim of study: This review presents the state-of-art of using computerized techniques for problem structuring (PS) in participatory forest planning. Frequency and modes of using different computerized tool types and their contribution for planning processes as well as critical observations are described, followed by recommendations on how to better integrate PS with the use of forest decision support systems. Area of study: The reviewed research cases are from Asia, Europe, North-America, Africa and Australia. Material and methods: Via Scopus search and screening of abstracts, 32 research articles from years 2002-2011 were selected for review. Explicit and implicit evidence of using computerized tools for PS was recorded and assessed with content-driven qualitative analysis. Main results: GIS and forest-specific simulation tools were the most prevalent software types whereas cognitive modelling software and spreadsheet and calculation tools were less frequently used, followed by multi-criteria and interactive tools. The typical use type was to provide outputs of simulation–optimization or spatial analysis to negotiation situations or to compile summaries or illustrations afterwards; using software during group negotiation to foster interaction was observed only in a few cases. Research highlights: Expertise in both decision support systems and group learning is needed to better integrate PS and computerized decision analysis. From the knowledge management perspective, it is recommended to consider how the results of PS —e.g. conceptual models— could be stored into a problem perception database, and how PS and decision making could be streamlined by retrievals from such systems. (Author)
Catherine Grant; Giovanni Lo lacono; Vupenyu Dzingirai; Bernard Bett; Thomas R.A.Winnebah; Peter M.Atkinson
This review outlines the benefits of using multiple approaches to improve model design and facilitate multidisciplinary research into infectious diseases,as well as showing and proposing practical examples of effective integration.It looks particularly at the benefits of using participatory research in conjunction with traditional modelling methods to potentially improve disease research,control and management.Integrated approaches can lead to more realistic mathematical models which in turn can assist with making policy decisions that reduce disease and benefit local people.The emergence,risk,spread and control of diseases are affected by many complex bio-physical,environmental and socio-economic factors.These include climate and environmental change,land-use variation,changes in population and people's behaviour.The evidence base for this scoping review comes from the work of a consortium,with the aim of integrating modelling approaches traditionally used in epidemiological,ecological and development research.A total of five examples of the impacts of participatory research on the choice of model structure are presented.Example 1 focused on using participatory research as a tool to structure a model.Example 2 looks at identifying the most relevant parameters of the system.Example 3 concentrates on identifying the most relevant regime of the system (e.g.,temporal stability or otherwise),Example 4 examines the feedbacks from mathematical models to guide participatory research and Example 5 goes beyond the so-far described two-way interplay between participatory and mathematical approaches to look at the integration of multiple methods and frameworks.This scoping review describes examples of best practice in the use of participatory methods,illustrating their potential to overcome disciplinary hurdles and promote multidisciplinary collaboration,with the aim of making models and their predictions more useful for decision-making and policy formulation.
Many health professions education programs in high-income countries (HICs) have adopted a competency-based approach to learning. Although global health programs have followed this trend, defining and assessing competencies has proven problematic, particularly in resource-constrained settings of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HIC students and trainees perform elective work. In part, this is due to programs failing to take sufficient account of local learning, cultural, and health contexts.A major divide between HIC and LMIC settings is that the learning contexts of HICs are predominantly individualist, whereas those of LMICs are generally collectivist. Individualist cultures view learning as something that the individual acquires independent of context and can possess; collectivist cultures view learning as arising dynamically from specific contexts through group participation.To bridge the individualist-collectivist learning divide, the author proposes that competencies be classified as either acquired or participatory. Acquired competencies can be transferred across contexts and assessed using traditional psychometric approaches; participatory competencies are linked to contexts and require alternative assessment approaches. The author proposes assessing participatory competencies through the approach of self-directed assessment seeking, which includes multiple members of the health care team as assessors.The proposed classification of competencies as acquired or participatory may apply across health professions. The author suggests advancing participatory competencies through mental models of sharing. In global health education, the author recommends developing three new competency domains rooted in participatory learning, collectivism, and sharing: resourceful learning; transprofessionalism and transformative learning; and social justice and health equity.
Full Text Available Many current water planning and management problems are riddled with high levels of complexity, uncertainty, and conflict, so-called “messes” or “wicked problems.” The realization that there is a need to consider a wide variety of values, knowledge, and perspectives in a collaborative decision making process has led to a multitude of new methods and processes being proposed to aid water planning and management, which include participatory forms of modeling, planning, and decision aiding processes. However, despite extensive scientific discussions, scholars have largely been unable to provide satisfactory responses to two pivotal questions: (1 What are the benefits of using participatory approaches?; (2 How exactly should these approaches be implemented in complex social-ecological settings to realize these potential benefits? In the study of developing social-ecological system sustainability, the first two questions lead to a third one that extends beyond the one-time application of participatory approaches for water management: (3 How can participatory approaches be most appropriately used to encourage transition to more sustainable ecological, social, and political regimes in different cultural and spatial contexts? The answer to this question is equally open. This special feature on participatory water management attempts to propose responses to these three questions by outlining recent advances in theory, practice, and evaluation related to the implementation of participatory water management. The feature is largely based on an extensive range of case studies that have been implemented and analyzed by cross-disciplinary research teams in collaboration with practitioners, and in a number of cases in close cooperation with policy makers and other interested parties such as farmers, fishermen, environmentalists, and the wider public.
Trimble, Micaela; Berkes, Fikret
Participatory research has become increasingly common in natural resources management. Even though participatory research is considered a strategy to facilitate co-management, there is little empirical evidence supporting this. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the contributions of participatory research to help encourage the emergence of co-management, based on a case study in Piriápolis artisanal fishery in coastal Uruguay (where management has been top-down). We argue that participatory research involving artisanal fishers, government, and other stakeholders (university scientists and NGOs) can be a key stimulus towards co-management. We build this argument by considering "seven faces" by which co-management can be analyzed: (1) as power sharing; (2) as institution building; (3) as trust building; (4) as process; (5) as learning and knowledge co-production; (6) as problem solving; and (7) as governance. Our findings show that participatory research had an impact on these various faces: (1) power was shared when making research decisions; (2) a multi-stakeholder group (POPA), with a common vision and goals, was created; (3) trust among participants increased; (4) the process of group formation was valued by participants; (5) stakeholders learned skills for participation; (6) two problem-solving exercises were conducted; and (7) a diversity of stakeholders of the initial problem identified by fishers (sea lions' impact on long-line fishery) participated in the process. The case shows that participatory research functions as a platform which enhances learning and knowledge co-production among stakeholders, paving the way towards future co-management.
Chin, George, Jr.
Educational technology research studies have found computer and software technologies to be underutilized in U.S. classrooms. In general, many teachers have had difficulty integrating computer and software technologies into learning activities and classroom curriculums because specific technologies are ill-suited to their needs, or they lack the ability to make effective use of these technologies. In the development of commercial and business applications, participatory design approaches have been applied to facilitate the direct participation of users in system analysis and design. Among the benefits of participatory design include mutual learning between users and developers, envisionment of software products and their use contexts, empowerment of users in analysis and design, grounding of design in the practices of users, and growth of users as designers and champions of technology. In the context of educational technology development, these similar consequences of participatory design may lead to more appropriate and effective education systems as well as greater capacities by teachers to apply and integrate educational systems into their teaching and classroom practices. We present a case study of a participatory design project that took place over a period of two and one half years, and in which teachers and developers engaged in the participatory analysis and design of a collaborative science learning environment. A significant aspect of the project was the development methodology we followed---Progressive Design. Progressive Design evolved as an integration of methods for participatory design, ethnography, and scenario-based design. In this dissertation, we describe the Progressive Design approach, how it was used, and its specific impacts and effects on the development of educational systems and the social and cognitive growth of teachers.
Full Text Available Oryza sativa or Asian cultivated rice is one of the major cereal grass species domesticated for human food use during the Neolithic. Domestication of this species from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon was accompanied by changes in several traits, including seed shattering, percent seed set, tillering, grain weight, and flowering time. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping has identified three genomic regions in chromosome 3 that appear to be associated with these traits. We would like to study whether these regions show signatures of selection and whether the same genetic basis underlies the domestication of different rice varieties. Fragments of 88 genes spanning these three genomic regions were sequenced from multiple accessions of two major varietal groups in O. sativa--indica and tropical japonica--as well as the ancestral wild rice species O. rufipogon. In tropical japonica, the levels of nucleotide variation in these three QTL regions are significantly lower compared to genome-wide levels, and coalescent simulations based on a complex demographic model of rice domestication indicate that these patterns are consistent with selection. In contrast, there is no significant reduction in nucleotide diversity in the homologous regions in indica rice. These results suggest that there are differences in the genetic and selective basis for domestication between these two Asian rice varietal groups.
Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg
(e.g. time, financial resources, collaboration with resident or relatives) constituted 53% of the barriers and 25% of the facilitators. This study revealed the processes and implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. The findings can be transferred to workers......This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors were...
Full Text Available As part of a project aiming to demonstrate feasibility and meaningfulness of on-line and blended P3BL (Problem, Process & Project Based design educational processes (Interaction Design, Design or the Experience, etc., in this paper we present and discuss a participatory-grading procedure that has been designed to assess the intermediate tests of a course on 'Multimodal Interface and Systems'. The results, characterized by lights and shadows, provide useful guidance for the future to achieve a participatory monitoring of the full educational experience.
Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C
Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health.
Vishnudas, Subha; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Anil, Kunnathu R.; Balan, Krishnan
This paper deals with participatory research on the introduction and use of coir geotextiles for soil and water conservation in a small community pond in a watershed in south India. The results demonstrate that a participatory approach enables the community to visualize and evaluate the impact of innovative technologies. As a result, farmers readily adapt a technology when they have experienced the positive research outcome. This reduces the adoption time, and can bring significant increase in yield, or decrease in labour costs, helping to enhance productivity, sustainability and improvement of livelihood.
Fernando M. Reimers
Full Text Available Experimental evaluation of three approaches to civic education with low income students in Mexico. Sixty eight grade teachers of ‘Civic Education’ and 2,529 students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Lesson Planning, Participatory Learning, Lesson Planning and Participatory Learning. All treatment groups had significant effects in a range of civic dimensions, such as conceptions of gender equity, trust in future, knowledge and skills, participation in school and in the community. There is limited evidence of transfer of impact to dimensions not explicitly targeted in the curriculum. There is no impact in attitudinal dimensions, tolerance and trust.
Joris de Vente
Full Text Available Although the design of participatory processes to manage social-ecological systems needs to be adapted to local contexts, it is unclear which elements of process design might be universal. We use empirical evidence to analyze the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes. To explore the role of design and minor variations in local context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed participants and facilitators from 11 case studies in which different process designs were used to select sustainable land management options in Spain and Portugal. We analyzed interview data using quantitative and qualitative approaches. Results showed that although some aspects of local context affected process outcomes, factors associated with process design were more significant. Processes leading to more beneficial environmental and social outcomes included the following: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for aggregating information and balancing power dynamics among participants; and provision of information and decision-making power to all participants. Although processes initiated or facilitated by government bodies led to significantly less trust, information gain, and learning, decisions in these processes were more likely to be accepted and implemented. To further test the role of context in determining the outcomes of participation, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, reflecting much greater national variations in context. The similarity of outcomes across these sites suggested that the socio-cultural context in which the process was replicated had little impact on its outcomes, as long as certain design principles were fulfilled. Overall, our findings provide a solid empirical basis for good
Scantlebury, C E; Zerfu, A; Pinchbeck, G P; Reed, K; Gebreab, F; Aklilu, N; Mideksa, K; Christley, R
Epizootic lymphangitis (EZL) is reported to have a significant impact upon livelihoods within resource-poor settings. This study used a participatory approach to explore peoples' experiences of EZL and examine the perceived impact of disease, owner knowledge and understanding of EZL, lay management of disease and, attitudes and strategies towards disease prevention. Focus-group discussions were held with 358 cart-horse owners and drivers recruited from 7 towns attended by SPANA (Society for the protection of animals abroad) mobile veterinary clinics and 2 unexposed towns where no SPANA clinics were available. Focus group discussions explored four main research questions: (1) Is EZL recognised by animal owners, and is this considered an important disease in equids? (2) What factors do animal owners associate with the development of disease? (3) What happens to an animal with clinical disease and how does this impact upon the owner/community? (4) Are measures taken to reduce disease occurrence? These key areas were explored using photographs, disease ranking, matrices and open discussion. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The results are presented thematically and include: recognition and descriptions of EZL, treatment strategies used, disease priorities and ranking, impact of disease, disease transmission and attitudes and approaches to disease prevention. EZL was widely recognised and ranked highly as an important disease of equids. However, there was uncertainty around identifying early cases of EZL, and this could impact upon the timing of initiating treatment and separating potentially infectious animals. People had varying knowledge of effective methods for disease prevention and reported particular difficulties with isolating infected animals. The impact of EZL was multi-dimensional and encompassed effects upon the horse, the individual owner and the wider society. Working equids provide a vital utility and source of income
Homan, Jacqueline; Petts, Judith [Univ. of Birmingham (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Research and Training; Pollard, Simon; Twigger-Ross, Clare [National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, London (United Kingdom)
Recent research, discussion and practice in the role environmental decision-making as an integral part of a democratic society have resulted in legislation, policy and guidance that encourage, and indeed may require, greater participation. The focus of this research paper is to explore these participatory ideas in the context of environmental risk assessment. Participation methods have generic application. However, the importance of fitting method to purpose requires that different contexts and issues relative to the objectives be addressed. In relation to environmental risk assessment these issues include: the complexity of risk issues per se; the inherent uncertainty that dominates any risk assessment; the quantitative nature of many risk assessments and the difficulty of dealing with low probability-high consequence outconies; the possibility of controversy in relation to decisions involving risk and thus the careful attention needed to the process and identification of participants; the traditional role and culture of experts in risk decisions and the challenge of reconciling this with the role of lay knowledge and the potential for the public to act as quality assurers in the risk decision process; the tendency for people to need reassurance when confronted with risk, even during a participation process; the need to acknowledge the public's ability to deal with complex technical issues and the need for information and data to respond to their questions, and the fact that 'risk' per se will often not be the only issue of public concern. The contributions to the risk debate from the social sciences are having considerable influence on the practice of environmental decision-making. Calls for increased stakeholder involvement in risk decisions are requiring greater access to and engagement with environmental risk assessments. Mechanisms for this level of involvement, however, are not well defined. For these aspirational calls to be realised in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different
Erp, J.B.F. van; Cremers, A.H.M.; Kessens, J.M.
The scope of 3D geo information applications is broadening to include for instance crises management and training. These new applications are no longer restricted to expert users, but aimed at involving a multitude of (non-professional) stakeholders in a participatory design and decision process. Th
Effing, Robin; Groot, Bert P.; Scholl, Hans Jochen; Glassey, Olivier; Janssen, Marijn; Klievink, Bram; Lindgren, Ida; Parycek, Peter; Tambouris, Efthimios; Wimmer, Maria A.; Janowski, Tomasz; Soares, Sa Delfina
Cities increasingly face challenges regarding participatory governance in order to become a “smart city”. The world’s best cities to live in are not the ones with the most advanced technological layers but cities that create an atmosphere where citizens, companies and government together build a vit
Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel
This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…
Buck, Gayle A.; Cook, Kristin L.; Quigley, Cassie F.; Prince, Pearl; Lucas, Yvonne
In this participatory action research study, we answered the question, How can we improve attitudes toward science education of the African American girls at an elementary school? Girls in grades 3-6 completed the Modified Attitudes toward Science Inventory. A purposeful sample of 30 girls participated in several focus-group interviews throughout…
This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to promote occupational health in the informal sector in Thailand by using a participatory approach. The success of the intervention is based on an evaluation of the informal sector workers' a knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in occupational health and safety, b work practice improvement, and c working condition improvement. METHODS: This study applies the Participatory Action Research (PAR method. The participants of the study consisted of four local occupations in different regions of Thailand, including a ceramic making group in the North, a plastic weaving group in the Central region, a blanket making group in the Northeast, and a pandanus weaving group in the South. Data was collected using both qualitative and quantitative methods through questionnaires, industrial hygiene instruments, and group discussions. RESULTS: The results showed that the working conditions of the informal sector were improved to meet necessary standards after completing the participatory process. Also, the post-test average scores on 1 the occupational health and safety knowledge, attitudes and behaviors measures and 2 the work practice improvement measures were significantly higher than the pre-test average scores (p=sig. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the participatory approach is an effective tool to use when promoting the health safety of the informal sector and when encouraging the workers to voluntarily improve the quality of their own lives.
Recently, many scholars in public administration have argued for a participatory turn: the introduction of deliberative arrangements to include citizens in policymaking. In this article, the arguments and likely consequences of these proposals are assessed by using Max Weber’s classical analysis of
Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun
The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…
Botha, Carolina S.; Hay, Johnnie
This article documents the (often counter-normative) narrative journey of four South African adolescent girls whose biological parents had divorced--and one (or both) parent(s) remarried. Through purposive sampling within a qualitative research paradigm of feminist participatory action research, they were supported in group context by the primary…
This thesis is the result of assessments on the extent of existing resource use and management practices using a Participatory Integrated Watershed Management (PIWM) as a viable approach to promote best soil water conservation (SWC) measures towards more sustainable land use. The study was conducted
Rozas, Elisa Oteros; Martín-López, Berta; Daw, Tim M.
Participatory scenario planning (PSP) is an increasingly popular tool in place-based environmental research for evaluating alternative futures of social-ecological systems. Although a range of guidelines on PSP methods are available in the scientific and grey literature, there is a need to reflect...
McMurray, Alan; Niens, Ulrike
Participatory citizenship education has been highlighted as a strategy to promote social cohesion in divided societies whereby collaborations with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and inter-school links have been proposed as tools to improve social networks between schools and communities. This article explores the role and meaning of…
Gagnon, Elizabeth; O'Sullivan, Tracey; Lane, Daniel E.; Paré, Nicole
Disasters happen worldwide, and it is necessary to engage emergency management agencies, health and social services, and community-based organizations in collaborative management activities to enhance community resilience. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been widely accepted in public health research as an approach to develop…
Anema, J.R.; Steenstra, I.A.; Urlings, I.J.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Vroome, E.M.M. de; Mechelen, W. van
Background: Participatory ergonomics (PE) are often applied for prevention of low back pain (LBP). In this pilot-study, a PE-program is applied to the disability management of workers sick listed due to LBP. Methods: The process, implementation, satisfaction, and barriers for implementation concerni
Randall, Ruth E.; DeLong, James
A school district in Rosemont, Minnesota, cut 2.4 million dollars from its general fund budget in 1982-83, a cut of almost 10 percent. Instead of splitting the community, the district emerged from the process stronger than before. This was accomplished through a 4-month participatory management process involving staff, citizens, parents, and…
Participatory development activities at local level in a sub-district located in the Central Plain of Thailand were studied employing the theoretical concept of the "linking loops" to analyze the related interactions among target group members and between the local level and superordinated organizat
This paper provides an example of an application of participatory action research (PAR) to the current crisis of arsenic poisoning in rural Bangladesh. The approach was used to link the author’s doctoral research with the work of the Arsenic Mitigation and Research Foundation (AMRF), a small group o
San Antonio, Diosdado M.; Gamage, David T.
This paper examines the impact of implementing Participatory School Administration, Leadership and Management (PSALM) on the levels of trust among the educational stakeholders in Philippine public secondary schools. After an introductory section, the research context is provided by briefly reviewing relevant literature on PSALM and on trust and by…
In this essay, I bring together Participatory Design's (PD) tradition of critical reflection on one's own practices, and Science and Technology Studies' focus on specific activities ('opening the black box'), in order to explore the ethics of PD. Three different forms of ethics—ethics-of-theother, p
Driessen, M.; Bosmans, J.; Proper, K.; Anema, J.; Bongers, P.; Beek, A. van der
This study was an economic evaluation conducted alongside a cluster randomised controlled trial with a follow-up of 12 months. The aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of the Stay@Work Participatory Ergonomics programme (PE) compared to a control group (no PE). In total, 37 de
Laing, A C; Cole, D C; Theberge, N; Wells, R P; Kerr, M S; Frazer, M B
A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory in which an ergonomics change team was formed, composed of members from management, the organized labour union and the research team. It was hypothesized that the participatory nature of this change process would result in enhanced worker perceptions of workplace communication dynamics, decision latitude and influence, which in conjunction with anticipated mechanical exposure reductions would lead to reduced worker pain severity. Utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group, a quasi-experimental design was employed with a longitudinal, repeat questionnaire approach to document pre-post intervention changes. Nine participatory activities (psychosocial interventions) were implemented as part of the process. Communication dynamics regarding ergonomics were significantly enhanced at the intervention plant compared to the referent plant. However, there were no significantly different changes in worker perceptions of decision latitude or influence between the two plants, nor did pain severity change. Possible explanations for these results include limited intervention intensity, context and co-intervention differences between the two plants, high plant turnover reducing the statistical power of the study and lack of sensitivity and specificity in the psychosocial measures used. Further research should include the development of psychosocial tools more specific to participatory ergonomic interventions and the assessment of the extent of change in psychosocial factors that might be associated with improvements in pain.
Balakrishnan, Vishalache; Cornforth, Sue
In this paper we propose that taking time before the work begins to develop agreements about how to work together in participatory action research enables researchers to directly address several ethical issues that can be problematic in this type of research: gaining fully informed consent; in-group confidentiality; cultural misconceptions; and…
The core empirical basis of this paper is based upon my recent participatory action research case study, sponsored by my university, conducted in a rural school in one of the most disadvantageous districts of Sindh, Pakistan. The paper argues that the current climate in most of the schools across the country reflects "apathy" and "ignorance".…
Drosatos, George; Efraimidis, Pavlos S.; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.; Stevens, Matthias; Hondt, D' Ellie
This paper presents a privacy-preserving system for participatory sensing, which relies on cryptographic techniques and distributed computations in the cloud. Each individual user is represented by a personal software agent, deployed in the cloud, where it collaborates on distributed computations
Full Text Available This paper focuses on measuring the capacity development within the participatory planning process of formulation of development strategy. It starts with the discussion of how individual, collaborative and governance capacities became a part of collaborative and consensus planning, and continues with proposing the mixed method approach. Quantitative methods have been used to measure the level of satisfaction/dissatisfaction that participatory approach had on the actors. Evaluation has shown significant increase in actors’ capacities during the planning process. Qualitative methods aim to reach understanding of the actors’ perception of the results of the participatory planning process they were engaged in. Local actors recognized results as the following: opportunity for gaining a new knowledge, understanding of problems, importance of information and cooperation exchange, recognition of ‘others’, capability for evaluation of plans, understanding of different roles and responsibilities, importance of team work and bundling of knowledge from different sources in problem solving, and collective action and interaction. Thus, the participatory planning holds potential as a continual process of developing the capacities of actors.
This article critically interrogates key assumptions in popular web discourse by revisiting an early example of web “participation.” Against the claim that Web 2.0 technologies ushered in a new paradigm of participatory media, I turn to the history of HotWired, Wired magazine’s ambitious web-only pu
G. Salinas Lanao (Gabriele)
textabstractParticipation in development claims to have a transformative potential. Does it really live up to such claim? To answer such question we must look at how change occurs in spaces where citizen participation is encouraged. This paper studies the case of participatory budgeting at local lev
Barnaud, C.; Paassen, van A.
Many papers in the recent literature on participatory approaches emphasize the need to take better account of the complexity of the social contexts in which they are conducted. Without attention to power asymmetries, there is a risk that the most powerful stakeholders will have greater influence on
This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) project carried out with three transnational Latina youth in northern California and how the university researcher incorporated Chicana feminist strategies in the study. PAR and Chicana feminism place at the heart of research the knowledge that ordinary people produce, referring to this…
Ponic, Pamela; Reid, Colleen; Frisby, Wendy
Feminist participatory action research integrates feminist theories and participatory action research methods, often with the explicit intention of building community-academic partnerships to create new forms of knowledge to inform women's health. Despite the current pro-partnership agenda in health research and policy settings, a lack of attention has been paid to how to cultivate effective partnerships given limited resources, competing agendas, and inherent power differences. Based on our 10+ years individually and collectively conducting women's health and feminist participatory action research, we suggest that it is imperative to intentionally develop power-with strategies in order to avoid replicating the power imbalances that such projects seek to redress. By drawing on examples from three of our recent feminist participatory action projects we reflect on some of the tensions and complexities of attempting to cultivate power-with research partnerships. We then offer skills and resources needed by academic researchers to effectively harness the collective resources, agendas, and knowledge that each partner brings to the table. We suggest that investing in the process of cultivating power-with research partnerships ultimately improves our collective ability to understand and address women's health issues.
Driessen, M.T.; Groenewoud, K.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der
Background: Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are common among workers. Participatory Ergonomics (PE) is used as an implementation strategy to prevent these symptoms. By following the steps of PE, working groups composed and prioritised ergonomic measures, and developed an implementation plan.
Jacobsen, Michele; Lock, Jennifer; Friesen, Sharon
Intellectual engagement is an absorbing, creatively energized focus resulting in a deep personal commitment to exploration, investigation, problem-solving and inquiry over a sustained period of time. In this article, the authors argue that participatory learning environments with a focus on knowledge building offer clear learning benefits to…
Numerous studies have been conducted examining leadership within community colleges, participatory governance and its role, as well as conditions that support organizational change. However, no analysis has been completed documenting the rebuilding of trust within a community college after a trauma is experienced on an institutional level. Broken…
Samuelson, Beth Lewis; Smith, Ross; Stevenson, Eleanor; Ryan, Caitlin
This paper examines the practice of participatory evaluation through an exploratory single case study of the Evaluation Team of Books & Beyond, a co-curricular service-learning program of the Global Village Living-Learning Center at Indiana University. The paper, which is authored by three undergraduate members of the evaluation team and their…
Krutka, Daniel G.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.
The microblogging service Twitter offers a platform that social studies educators increasingly use for professional development, communication, and class activities, but to what ends? The authors drew on Deweyan conceptions of participatory learning and citizenship aims of the field as lenses through which to consider social media activities. To…
Agarwal, Neelam; Moya, Eva M.; Yasui, Naoko Yura; Seymour, Corene
College students with disabilities face various barriers to academic and social engagement. The present project was conducted based on principles of participatory action research (PAR) using Photovoice method with six students, gathering images representing such barriers, and developing narratives to describe the problems as well as possible ways…
Verhoeven, F.; Cremers, A.; Schoone, M.; Dijk, J. van
Purpose Existing solutions facilitating mobility among older adults mainly focus on supporting physical disabilities. However, solutions are more likely to succeed when current activities and capabilities serve as a starting point. Participatory design is a suitable approach to detect these. We inve
Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan
Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study,…
Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete
Based on a Bakhtinian approach negotiations of knowledge in a workshop with health professionals at two psychiatric wards were analyzed. Our analysis reveals that there is a mismatch between the dialogical context we as participatory-oriented researchers want to invoke and the monological context...
Loeber, A.; Griessler, E.; Versteeg, W.
Alongside the gradual increase in use of participatory technology assessment (PTA), a tool to democratize decision-making on controversial technologies, a growing body of literature on how to assess the impact of PTA has developed. A distinction can be made between two generations of impact assessme
Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H
ergonomics intervention is the traditional strategy to reduce the workload. An alternative strategy could be to increase physical capacity of the worker through strength training. This study investigates the effect of two contrasting interventions, participatory ergonomics versus strength training on pain...
Heide, van der C.M.; Blaeij, de A.T.; Heijman, W.J.M.
In this paper, we develop a method for spatial decision support that combines economic efficiency Ã¢Â¿Â¿ measured by the concept op willingness to pay Ã¢Â¿Â¿ with a participatory planning tool, that allows for an active collaboration among the actors involved, in such a way that decision makers can
Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria
Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project…
Brown-Sica, Margaret S.
A data-gathering project using elements of Participatory Action Research was conducted at the Auraria Library, which serves the University of Colorado Denver, the Metropolitan State College of Denver and the Community College of Denver. The project was administered in order to shape a plan to develop a Learning Commons environment at the library.…
Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac
In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina diffusa"), a…
Rafiee, Marzieh; Keihaniyan, Mahbube
This mixed-method study investigated the language teachers' opinions on the inclusion of the principles of Participatory Approach in language classroom settings in Iran. Applying both quantitative and qualitative approaches of data collection procedures, the study explored the language teachers' attitude, on the perceived importance and use of the…
Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel
This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…
Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young
This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…
Bots, P.W.G.; Van Daalen, C.E.
In this article we propose a framework which can assist analysts in their reflection on the requirements for a participatory modelling exercise in natural resource management. Firstly, we distinguish different types of formal models which may be developed, ranging from models that focus on (bio)phys
Irby, Decoteau; Mawhinney, Lynnette; Thomas, Kristopher
This paper explores the concept of what a community-based participatory dropout prevention planning process might entail. Specifically, it looks at a year-long research project that brought together formerly incarcerated school non-completers, researchers, and local policy-makers (stakeholders) to address low high-school completion rates in the…
Hawkins, Karen A.
This article highlights the complexity of participatory action research (PAR) in that the study outlined was carried out with and by, as opposed to on, participants. The project was contextualised in two prior-to-school settings in Australia, with the early childhood professionals and, to some extent, the preschoolers involved in this PAR project…
Islam, K.K.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Ullah, M.O.; Sato, N.
In the Forest Department of Bangladesh, a Participatory Agroforestry Program (PAP) was initiated at a denuded Sal forests area to protect the forest resources and to alleviate poverty amongst the local poor population. We explored whether the PAP reduced poverty and what factors might be responsible
Sheppard, Lorraine A.; Jorgensen, Anna Maria S.; Crowe, Michael J.
Participatory action research (PAR) can be used in the health professions to redefine their roles. This study investigated a small health professional group, the members of The Chiropractic Association Singapore (TCAS), by using a PAR method; researchers and participants gained insights into the self-regulation of a health profession. A…
Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga
This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included...
Yefimova, Katya; Neils, Moriah; Newell, Bryce; Gomez, Ricardo
We present the results of a participatory photography approach to eliciting the life experiences and worldviews of undocumented Hispanic migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border. While offering a space for reflection, Fotohistorias explores how undocumented migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border express their
Ganpat, Wayne G.; Isaac, Wendy-Ann P.; Brathwaite, Richard A. I.; Bekele, Isaac
In this study, farmers were engaged in a participatory research project and their attitudes evaluated. The purpose was to identify the characteristics of farmers who are favourably predisposed towards meaningful participation in the process. Several cover crops were tested for possible use in the management of watergrass ("Commelina…
Sims, Laura; Sinclair, A. John
Based on an ongoing qualitative case study in Costa Rica, this article presents the participatory work that the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) is doing with farmers to protect watersheds from erosion and contamination. Specifically, it includes a description of ICE's Watershed Management Agricultural Programme and how farmers…
Participatory programmes for occupational risk reduction are gaining importance particularly in small workplaces in both industrially developing and developed countries. To discuss the types of effective support, participatory steps commonly seen in our "work improvement-Asia" network are reviewed. The review covered training programmes for small enterprises, farmers, home workers and trade union members. Participatory steps commonly focusing on low-cost good practices locally achieved have led to concrete improvements in multiple technical areas including materials handling, workstation ergonomics, physical environment and work organization. These steps take advantage of positive features of small workplaces in two distinct ways. First, local key persons are ready to accept local good practices conveyed through personal, informal approaches. Second, workers and farmers are capable of understanding technical problems affecting routine work and taking flexible actions leading to solving them. This process is facilitated by the use of locally adjusted training tools such as local good examples, action checklists and group work methods. It is suggested that participatory occupational health programmes can work in small workplaces when they utilize low-cost good practices in a flexible manner. Networking of these positive experiences is essential.
Light, Ann; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn;
This workshop asks participatory designers and researchers to consider how they write about their work and what role there is for novel approaches to expression, forms drawn from other disciplines, and open and playful texts. As we bring social science and humanities sensibilities to bear...
Könings, Karen; Van Zundert, Marjo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Könings, K. D., Van Zundert, M. J. Brand-Gruwel, S. & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Participatory design in secondary education: Its desirability and feasibility according to teachers and students. Educational Studies, 33, 445-465.
Röckmann, C.; Ulrich, Clara; Dreyer, M.
, and the lessons learnt. It is concluded that participatory modelling has the potential to facilitate and structure discussions between scientists and stakeholders about uncertainties and the quality of the knowledge base. It can also contribute to collective learning, increase legitimacy, and advance scientific...
María Laura Pagani
Full Text Available The conceptions of participatory phenomenon are wide and generate various positions. Several authors agree that municipal government, as the face of the State closer to its citizens, is the privileged place to develop participatory public policies, which contributes to make more transparent, efficient, inclusive and democratic the government management. This proximity would allow local actors to participate in communal development processes and would enable them to diagnose problems, participating in decision-making and public policies designing and its evaluation. Moreover, it is noticed that the State transfer its duties to the society through manipulation of participatory policies, which are used as artificial means to build consensus. This article explores the fundamentals, implementation methodologies and results in four cases of participatory budgeting (in La Plata, San Fernando, San Miguel and San Martín. The main lines of analysis focused on the characterization of the projects generated by this policy, the changes in local management and the type of social participation. This research used semi structured and in depth interviews, observations, documentary research with secondary sources of information generated by municipalities (website, laws, institutional documentation, brochures, statistics and academic works produced by other researchers.
Abma, Tineke A; Voskes, Yolande; Widdershoven, Guy
In this article we address the social value of bioethics research and show how a participatory approach can achieve social impact for a wide audience of stakeholders, involving them in a process of joint moral learning. Participatory bioethics recognizes that research co-produced with stakeholders is more likely to have impact on healthcare practice. These approaches aim to engage multiple stakeholders and interested partners throughout the whole research process, including the framing of ideas and research questions, so that outcomes are tailored to the interests and context, and the type of impact stakeholders envisage. There is an emphasis on realizing social change through the conduct (not merely the results) of the research, and it is believed that the engagement of stakeholders in the research process will promote their intrinsic motivation to change their practice. Another distinctive feature of participatory bioethics research is that its central normative commitment is to reflection and dialogue, not to a particular substantive ethical approach. In reflection and dialogue there is an emphasis on inclusion and the co-production of knowledge. Furthermore, empirical and normative research are combined, and there is a deliberate attempt to give voice to otherwise marginalized positions. This provides a model of social impact which is relevant not only for bioethics research, but also for other areas of health care research. We will show the merits of a participatory approach to bioethics research with a case example. It concerns the reduction of coercion and in particular seclusion in Dutch mental healthcare.
Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged.
Smith, Laura; Rosenzweig, Lisa; Schmidt, Marjorie
Participatory action research (PAR) represents an approach that is deeply consonant with counseling psychology's commitments to social equity and action. However, counseling psychologists who would like to study this literature, or who would like to write about a project of their own, may discover that the reporting of PAR is not straightforward:…
Almekinders, C.J.M.; Mertens, L.; Loon, van J.P.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.
Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) is mostly considered relevant to smallholder agriculture in developing countries. PPB involves getting farmers to participate in plant breeding to overcome shortcomings in the formal plant breeding system. The potato breeding system in the Netherlands has a long st
Bier, H.; Ku, Y.
Generative design processes have been the focus of current architectural research and practice largely due to the exploration of the phenomenon of emergence within self-organisation, generative grammars and evolutionary techniques. These techniques have been informing participatory urban design moda
Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce
This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…
Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty
This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…
Livingstone, Anne-Marie; Celemencki, Jacqueline; Calixte, Melissa
The article discusses the implementation and results of a youth participatory action research (YPAR) project carried out with black high school students in 2009 and 2010 in Montreal, QC. The aim of the project was to involve black youth in studying the factors that either enhance or impede their success in school and thereby have them identify…
In this article, Melanie Bertrand explores the potential of using the concept of intertextuality--which captures the way snippets of written or spoken text from one source become incorporated into other sources--in the study and practice of youth participatory action research (YPAR). Though this collective and youth-centered form of research…
Jones, Vanessa; Stewart, Carmine; Galletta, Anne; Ayala, Jennifer
The chapter examines youth participation within three intergenerational collectives using participatory action research (PAR) to address educational policies youth viewed as counterproductive to their education. Outlining the complexity of youth voice, the multiple vehicles within the arts through which youth voice is expressed, and the different…
Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah
Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…
Jacobson, Nora; Greenley, Dianne; Breedlove, Lynn; Roschke, Ruth; Koberstein, Jen
This brief report describes a participatory evaluation and planning process--a "guided reflection"--that mental health services agencies can use to examine the state of recovery awareness and implementation in their organizations. The process revolves around structured small group discussions, identification of agency strengths and weaknesses, and the formation of an agency "recovery action team" to set priorities and plan for change.
Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz
Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative nat...
Mäkelä, Tiina; Helfenstein, Sacha
The present study shows how the mixed-methods approach can be used in capturing and organising learning environment (LE) characteristics for the participatory design of psychosocial and physical LEs involving learners. Theoretical constructs were tested and further elaborated on in the analysis of two similar educational design research studies:…
Doyle, Rebekah; Krasny, Marianne
Describes the Cornell University Garden Mosaics program in which youth learn about ethnic gardening practices in urban community gardens using research methods adapted from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). Conducts a study to determine whether youth could effectively facilitate PRA activities with gardeners and to document any social and…
Mollenhorst, H.; Boer, de I.J.M.
The aim of this paper was to demonstrate how participatory strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis can be used to identify relevant economic, ecological and societal (EES) issues for the assessment of sustainable development. This is illustrated by the case of egg production
Yin, Chengjiu; Song, Yanjie; Tabata, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hwang, Gwo-Jen
This paper proposes a conceptual framework, scaffolding participatory simulation for mobile learning (SPSML), used on mobile devices for helping students learn conceptual knowledge in the classroom. As the pedagogical design, the framework adopts an experiential learning model, which consists of five sequential but cyclic steps: the initial stage,…
Sappington, Neil; Baker, Paul J.; Gardner, Dianne; Pacha, Joe
This study proposes participatory action research as a signature pedagogy for principal preparation programs. Signature pedagogies bring professional knowledge and core values together in distinctive teaching and learning arrangements. A rationale and learning results are presented that describe key components of action research intended to help…
Oldfather, Penny; Thomas, Sally; Eckert, Lizz; Garcia, Florencia; Grannis, Nicki; Kilgore, John; Newman-Gonchar, Andy; Petersen, Brian; Rodriguez, Paul; Tjioe, Marcel
Describes outcomes of a six-year study of students' participatory research on literacy motivations and schooling. Suggests the need for a fundamental shift of the dominant epistemology in society and schools to one based on trusting, listening to, and respecting the integrity of the minds of all participants in schooling. (NH)