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Sample records for participatory design principles

  1. Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Toni; Simonsen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    focus of later chapters. The target audience is identified, and the structure of the book explained. A short description of each chapter highlights its particular contributions as well as the associated challenges facing designers and researchers engaged in participatory approaches. The chapter...

  2. Queering Participatory Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a way forward for educators and researchers interested in drawing on the principles of "queer theory" to inform participatory design. In this article, I aim to achieve two related goals: To introduce new concepts within a critical conceptual practice of questioning and challenging the "heterosexual matrix"…

  3. Workspace Design: A case study applying participatory design principles of healthy workplaces in an industrial setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Workspace Design (WSD) research program is aimed to develop and trial a potential new concept for ergonomists and other workplace consultants who are to engage in socio-technical design processes. The objective of this paper is to report on the trial of the workspace design concept...... in a case involving the design and implementation of a new mixing technology in an industrial plant. The case showed how the WSD concept can contribute to an engineering design process. The WSD team took the role as workspace designer and by the participatory workshops achieved an impact on the technology...... project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents...

  4. Participatory Design with Dyslectics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangeli, Panagiota; Stage, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Participatory Design has been used successfully in many projects but the question is how participatory design works with people with a cognitive disorder like dyslexia. In this study, we analyzed observations of participatory design sessions with dyslectic participants for developing designs...... of a reading software application by applying two participatory design methods: the IDEAS and CI methods. Furthermore, we conducted online surveys to gather information on dyslectics participants’ and their special-education teachers’ opinion regarding the participatory design process, methods and final...... designs. The results indicate that participatory design works effectively with dyslectic people provided the participation of Proxy Users to represent dyslectics, when it is necessary, the participation of an experienced on dyslexia facilitator who has the knowledge to address incidents caused due...

  5. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Kjærsgaard, Mette Gislev

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  6. Evaluation in participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2016-01-01

    his paper focuses on evaluation in Participatory Design (PD), and especially upon how the central aims of mutual learning, empowerment, democracy and workplace quality have been assessed. We surveyed all Participatory Design Conference papers (1990-2014) and papers from special journal issues on PD...

  7. Participatory design based research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Bach Jensen, Louise; Falk, Lars

    This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus.......This poster reveal how participatory design based research by the use of a CoED inspired creative process can be used for designing solutions to problems regarding students study activities outside campus....

  8. Scandinavian Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian...

  9. Relational Expertise in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2014-01-01

    This paper positions relation expertise as a core competence in participatory design. It is an expertise that demands the participatory designer to stimulate the emergence of loosely coupled knotworks, and obtain symbiotic agreement between participants disregarding their professional and social...

  10. Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Gislev Kjærsgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we explore the opportunities of ethnography and design anthropology in Participatory Design (PD) as an approach to design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in PD to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to societal challenges, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in design that extends beyond the empirical....

  11. Accreditation and Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a soft project management paradigm approach based on participatory design to assuring values and benefits in public projects. For more than a decade, quality development in the Danish healthcare sector has been managed with an accreditation system known as the Danish Quality......-driven IT development and suggest how this approach may form a cornerstone of project management in a new quality-assurance program for the Danish healthcare sector....

  12. Participatory workspace design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design...... process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study...... where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually...

  13. Scandinavian Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian...... PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process......, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize...

  14. Sustaining Participatory Design Initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Dindler, Christian

    2014-01-01

    While many participatory design (PD) projects succeed in establishing new organisational initiatives or creating technology that is attuned to the people affected, the issue of how such results are sustained after the project ends remains an important challenge. We explore the challenge...... these various forms of sustainability may be pursued in PD practice and how they can become a resource in reflecting on PD activities. Finally, we discuss implications for PD practice, suggesting that a nuanced conception of sustainability and how it may relate to PD practice are useful resources for designers...... of sustaining PD initiatives beyond the individual project and discuss implications for PD practice. First, based on current PD literature, we distinguish between four ideal typical forms of sustainability: maintaining, scaling, replicating and evolving. Second, we demonstrate from a case study how...

  15. Program Theory for Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2018-01-01

    How does participatory design work and what are the links between investments in terms of time, people and skills, the processes and the resulting effects? This paper explores program theory as a way for Participatory Design (PD) to investigate and evaluate these issues. Program theory comes out...

  16. Introduction to (participatory) design games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an introduction to (participatory) design games in three rounds. Firstly it argues that designing design games is a particular and very productive genre for formatting participation and design dialogues during ongoing design projects. Secondly it presents some of the main contr...... contributions to the development of design games in a historical perspective, and thirdly it introduces three recent PhD dissertations that all but in very different ways have investigated design games in more detail....

  17. Participatory Design & Health Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Health Information Technology (HIT) continues to increase in importance as a component of healthcare provision, but designing HIT is complex. The creation of cooperative learning processes for future HIT users is not a simple task. The importance of engaging end users such as health professionals......, in collaboration with a wide range of people, a broad repertoire of methods and techniques to apply PD within multiple domains has been established. This book, Participatory Design & Health Information Technology, presents the contributions of researchers from 5 countries, who share their experience and insights......, patients and relatives in the design process is widely acknowledged, and Participatory Design (PD) is the primary discipline for directly involving people in the technological design process. Exploring the application of PD in HIT is crucial to all those involved in engaging end users in HIT design and...

  18. Participatory Workspace Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    The concept of ‘Workspace Design’ has been developed as a method to actively involve different actor groups in design processes. The purpose of this paper is to view the concept as a management concept and to explore its applicability in change processes. This is achieved by analysing a case study...

  19. Values-Led Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities...... in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding....

  20. Materials in Participatory Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen

    This dissertation presents three years of academic inquiry into the question of what role materials play in interaction design and participatory design processes. The dissertation aims at developing conceptual tools, based on Deweys pragmatism, for understanding how materials aid design reflection....... It has been developed using a research-through-design approach in which the author has conducted practical design work in order to investigate and experiment with using materials to scaffold design inquiry. The results of the PhD work is submitted as seven separate papers, submitted to esteemed journals...... and conferences within the field of interaction design and HCI. The work is motivated both by the growing interest in materials in interaction design and HCI and the interest in design processes and collaboration within those fields. At the core of the dissertation lies an interest in the many different materials...

  1. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne; Nyvang, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a stream of research that is relevant for development research generally and also in South Asia, but has hitherto remained outside the discourse of mainstream development research. It goes under the name "Participatory design", referring not only generally to participatory...... approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues...

  2. Rekindling Values in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from our PD projects, this paper shows how designers enact their appreciative judgment of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them, and supporting their grounding. The widespread of Participatory Design (PD), have meant...... that different approaches and conceptualization exist in this field today. We argue that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in PD—to return to one of the original tenets of PD. This requires focusing upon values as the engine that drives our activities in PD....

  3. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference Vol. II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and communication technology. Held every two years since 1990, PDC brings together a multidisciplinary and international group of researchers and practitioners from multiple fields. These include, but are not limited to, Human-Computer Interaction, CSCW (computer supported cooperative work), Co-Design, Design......Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 2 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participatory...... is ‘Participatory Design in an Era of Participation’. Over 25 years after the first PDC in 1990, participation and co-creation have become essential features of design and research into technology. Living in an era of participation prompts critical questions around the goals and practices of involving people...

  4. Architecting the "Third Teacher": Solid Foundations for the Participatory and Principled Design of Schools and (Built) Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tony

    2017-01-01

    This issue of the "European Journal of Education" examines a crucially important, though largely overlooked, area in educational design research: architecting and building physical educational environments. Effective policymaking in school design necessitates the negotiated, shared and timely input of key educational stakeholders,…

  5. Sustaining Participatory Design in the organization - Infrastructuring with Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolmsten, Johan

    Modern organizations need to be able to change to seize opportunities and meet challenges, which are ever more rapidly presenting themselves. In doing so, they need to make use of the creativity and innovations of their employees. At the same time Information Technology applications today...... are likely to take the form of complex, integrated infrastructures, supporting collaboration within and across organizations. This places requirements on the development of IT infrastructures. As the work practices within an organization change, the supporting infrastructure also needs to evolve. This Ph......D thesis is about sustaining Participatory Design in the organization to enable users to influence the development of the IT infrastructure that supports their work practices. The empirical research is based on a long-term action research study, where this researcher works as an embedded researcher...

  6. Learning from participatory design projects across industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Souza da Conceição, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Summative Statement: A preliminary framework for participatory design projects (PDP) was developed based on a retrospective analysis of five PDPs across different industries. The framework may serve as a guidance for planning and conducting PDPs. Problem statement: A growing number of experiences...... with participatory design or participatory ergonomics projects have been gained within the field of macro-ergonomics. It is suggested that the Participatory Ergonomics Framework (PEF) validated by Haines et al. (2002) needs to be updated based on these experiences and hence more focussed on design activities....... Research Objective / Question: The objective of this study was to update and design-orient the PEF based on experiences with PDPs within the last ten years. Methodology: Five participatory design projects across different industries were systematically analyzed and compared in order to develop a framework...

  7. Achieving IT-supported standardized nursing documentation through participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Lyng, Karen Marie; Jensen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    that support guideline-based highly structured standard documentation in a large organization with many stakeholders. Applying a participatory design (PD) approach at many organizational levels has involved the stakeholders actively in the design process. Developing a set of design principles has concurrently......In the Capital Region of Denmark a full-scale pilot project on IT-supported nursing documentation is - after running for two months at one full university hospital - showing promising results. In this paper we discuss participatory design as a method to design clinical documentation templates...

  8. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel; Smith, Anthony C.

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare systems require a paradigm shift in the way healthcare services are delivered to counteract demographic changes in patient populations, expanding technological developments and the increasing complexity of healthcare. Participatory design (PD) is a methodology that promotes the partici...

  9. Participatory Design in the Developing World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester; Finnan, Craig

    processes. Arguably, the appropriation of participatory design approaches and methods to developing world settings is an important priority in research cooperation between Nordic and Southern African universities. This work presents issues and opportunities for introducing participatory design in a South...... was explored in a socially challenged suburb in the Cape Flats area of Cape Town. Issues on appropriation of strategies and methods for participation are discussed, and directions for further research in the field are identified....

  10. Teaching ethical-participatory social design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia; Chimirri, Niklas Alexander

    2018-01-01

    , and by fostering ongoing mutual reflection. These workshops are inspired by participatory design, political theory, disability studies and psychological practice research. By drawing on empirical material from a design workshop with Bachelor students and external collaborators including psychologically vulnerable...... stakeholders, we argue for an adaptive framework of analytical-pedagogical inquiry that can be continuously co-designed. In particular, ethical design requires a broad and emergent definition of participation. Ethical design is participatory-democratic co-design, which acknowledges and bridges across...

  11. PDC 2016. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference - Volume II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Participatory Design in an Era of Participation : Introduction to volume 2 Participatory Design is a diverse collection of principles and practices aimed at making technologies, tools, environments, businesses and social institutions more responsive to human needs. A central tenet of Participatory...... is ‘Participatory Design in an Era of Participation’. Over 25 years after the first PDC in 1990, participation and co-creation have become essential features of design and research into technology. Living in an era of participation prompts critical questions around the goals and practices of involving people....... • In “Expanding the ‘How’ of Participatory Design”, five papers provide insights into techniques and methods that support novel perspectives on how participatory design activities might be practiced or reflected upon. This includes examples that should benefit practitioners and researchers who wish to think...

  12. Engaging older people with participatory design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iacono, I.; Marti, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present a design case focusing on participatory design (PD) with older people. We experimented with PD techniques to foster engagement with participants in development of a graphical user interface (GUI) for controlling a robotic system in a smart home environment. The tenet of our approach is

  13. Participatory design methods in telemedicine research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danbjørg, Dorthe Boe; Clemensen, Jane; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    together with the patients. Participatory design is a research design and methodology that encourages the participation of users in the design process of technological solutions. Therefore, it has a potential for designing technologies that actually reflect the needs of the users, why it is relevant within...... telemedicine. The aim of this presentation is to explain the process and theoretical framework of a PD project; give an example of a project including the applied methods, and to determine its application to telemedicine with focus on the rationale for genuine participation. Theory: Participation implies....... Methods: Key activities of a Participatory Design project comprise methods such as fieldwork; literature reviewing; development and testing, and user activities as workshops. Methods that support telling, making, enacting. For instance telling activities as drivers for participation, where practitioners...

  14. Focus Section on Design Anthropology in Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This focus section explores the opportunities of design anthropology in participatory design as an approach to research and design in an increasingly global and digital world. Traditionally, ethnography has been used in Participatory design to research real-life contexts and challenges, and as ways...... to involve people in defining user-needs and design opportunities. As the boundaries between diverse – material, digital and networked – spaces and experiences become increasingly blurred, so do the conventional distinctions between research and design. The papers presented in this focus section explore...... opportunities of using design anthropology as a holistic and critical approach to addressing societal challenges and change, and a way for anthropologists and designers to engage in participatory research and design that extend beyond the empirical....

  15. Participatory Design Methods for Collaboration and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Wood

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Website redesigns can be contentious and fraught in any type of organization, and libraries are no exception. Coming to consensus on priorities and design decisions is nearly impossible, as different groups compete to ensure their subject or specialty area is represented. To keep projects on track and on time, libraries may give a few staff members the authority to make all of the decisions, while keeping user research limited to a small number of usability tests. While these tactics are sometimes necessary, at best they can leave many feeling left out of the process, and at worst, can result in major oversights in the final design. Participatory design methods can bring users and stakeholders into the design process and ultimately lead to a better design and less friction in the project. The authors share their experience and lessons learned using participatory design techniques in a website redesign project at a large, multi-location academic library, and how these techniques facilitated communication, shaped design decisions, and kept a complex, difficult project on track.

  16. Participatory Design of Websites with Web Design Workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Bersani

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available At the University of Rochester's River Campus Libraries we have included users in technology development with great success. "Participatory design" entails collaboration among designers, developers, and users from the earliest stages of conception through to implementation of websites and other technology. Using participatory methods, a project to redesign the library website began with workshops to identify user needs and preferences. The results of these workshops led to the identification of key tasks for the main page. They also generated a hierarchy of tasks for sub-pages and rich information about how students and faculty members use current websites in their work. In our article, we explain our reasons for running participatory design workshops, describe our methods, review participants and recruitment, and summarize key findings. We also include information about our local implementation and general conclusions about the value of design workshops for website design and development.

  17. Design with the feet: walking methods and participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille; Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of walking methods and their relation to participatory design (PD). The paper includes a study of walking methods found in the literature and an empirical study of transect walks in a PD project. From this analysis, we identify central attributes of, and challenges...... to, PD walks. Walking with people in the context of design is a natural activity for the participatory designer, who acknowledges the importance of immersion and relationships in design. However, the various intentions of walking approaches indicate an underacknowledged awareness of walking methods...

  18. Participatory Design in Emergency Medical Service: Designing for Future Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Margit; Kyng, Morten; Palen, Leysia Ann

    2006-01-01

    address challenges identified by disaster sociologists when designing for major incidents. Through qualitative research and participatory design, we have ex-amined the features of EMS work and technology use in different emergency situations from the perspective of mul-tiple actors. We conceptualize...... victims in incidents—and particularly in major incidents, where on-site medical as-sessments is highly incomplete—as boundary objects over which the complex and imperfect work of coordination is done. As an outcome of our participatory design approach, we describe a set of designs in support of future EMS...

  19. Participatory simulation in hospital work system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    When ergonomic considerations are integrated into the design of work systems, both overall system performance and employee well-being improve. A central part of integrating ergonomics in work system design is to benefit from emplo y-ees’ knowledge of existing work systems. Participatory simulation...... (PS) is a method to access employee knowledge; namely employees are involved in the simulation and design of their own future work systems through the exploration of models representing work system designs. However, only a few studies have investigated PS and the elements of the method. Yet...... understanding the elements is essential when analyzing and planning PS in research and practice. This PhD study investigates PS and the method elements in the context of the Danish hospital sector, where PS is applied in the renewal and design of public hospitals and the work systems within the hospitals...

  20. Five Enunciations of Empowerment i Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ertner, Sara Marie; Kragelund, Anne Mie; Malmborg, Lone

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design has been defined as having 'user's democratic participation and empowerment at its core' (Correia and Yusop, 2008). The PD discourse has a strong moral and rhetorical claim by its emphasis on users' empowerment. This paper is a result of a student project, guided by a curiosity...... about how empowerment is enunciated in the PD field today. In a literature-review of academic papers from the proceedings of PDC 2008 we found that empowerment is enunciated in five different ways which can be translated into 5 categories: 1) Specific user groups 2) Direct democracy 3) The users...

  1. A Participatory Design Approach for a Mobile App-Based Personal Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Donggil; Oh, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on a participatory design approach including the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile app-based personal response system (PRS). The first cycle formulated initial design principles through context and needs analysis; the second utilized the collaboration with instructors and experts embodying specific…

  2. Ukraine and the Council of Europe common activity in implementation of key principles of participatory democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaliuk Nazar Yuriyovych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the main forms of mutual cooperation of Ukraine and the Council of Europe in order to implement basic principles of participatory democracy, to conform the legislation of Ukraine to standards of the European Union. The article examines the main legal documents, phases, and the main areas of cooperation between Ukraine and the Council of Europe. The author also assesses the processes of implementation of key principles of participatory democracy in Ukraine.

  3. Participatory Design in an Era of Participation, Special Issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This special issue on participatory design in an era of participation presents emerging topics and discussions from the thirteenth Participatory Design conference (PDC), held at Aarhus University in August 2016. The PDC 2016 marked the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Participatory Design conference...... series, which began in 1990 with the first biannual conference in Seattle. Since then, the PDC conferences have continued to bring together a multidisciplinary, international community of researchers and practitioners around issues of cooperative design. The theme for the 2016 PDC conference...... was ‘Participatory Design in an Era of Participation.’ Critical and constructive discussions were invited on the values, characteristics, politics and future practices of participatory design in an era in which participation has now become pervasive (Bossen, Smith, Kanstrup, McDonnell, et al. 2016, Bossen, Smith...

  4. Cooperation, curiosity and creativity as virtues in participatory design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I explore how virtue ethics can help to better understand design processes. Three virtues are discussed that people need in order to become participatory design virtuosos: cooperation, curiosity and creativity.

  5. RFID design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Lehpamer, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military

  6. Disentangling participation power and decision-making in participatory design

    CERN Document Server

    Bratteteig, Tone

    2014-01-01

    Providing a critical view on user participation in design, disentangling decision making and power in design, this book uses fieldwork material from two large participatory design projects: one experimental in the field of urban planning, the other a product development project within health care. Addressing power issues in participatory design is critical to providing a realistic view of the possibilities and limitations of participation. Design is decision-making: during a design process a huge number of decisions?taken before the designers end up with a design result - an artefact or system

  7. Defining stakeholder involvement in participatory design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, P.; Imada, A.S.; Zink, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    A participatory approach could be used to implement work place or organizational improvements. However, the question is which participants should be involved and how. In this paper the theoretical involvement in different steps of a linear stepwise approach is described and compared with the latest

  8. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  9. The construction of fictional space in participatory design practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props...... the process through which participants in participatory design create a design space in which established conventions of everyday practice are altered or suspended. With inspiration from literary theory, it is argued that the production of fictional space may be understood in terms of participants practicing...

  10. Accreditation and Participatory Design in the Health-Care Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Scheuer, John Damm; Hertzum, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the role of participatory design approaches emphasizing the current context of the accreditation regime imposed on the Danish healthcare sector. We describe effects-driven IT development as an instrument supporting sustained participatory design. Effects-driven IT development includes...... specifying, realizing, and measuring effects from using an information technology. This approach aligns with much of the logic inherent in accreditation and it supports challenging parts of the accreditation process. Effects-driven IT development furthermore might support effects related to clinical evidence......-based thinking. We describe and compare effects- driven IT development with accreditation and discuss the prospects and challenges for this approach to participatory design within the healthcare domain....

  11. The Role of Participatory Design in Mobile Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Almed

    2018-03-01

    Mobile devices are used by people worldwide. It becomes a common equipment to complete a day-to-day activity. Inside the devices, there are numerous mobile applications that have been built for various needs. Some of these are quite successful while the other are not. The development of successful mobile application faces several challenges. In this research, we want to explore the use of participatory design method in mobile application development. Particularly, the aim of the study is to answer the question whether participatory design method has a place in the realm of mobile application development. We established two sessions of workshop to accommodate the participant to take part in the development process of mobile application. The result shows that participatory design method can determine how the user will deal with the limitations of mobile devices. It helps user to create a particular form of interaction that meets mobile devices characteristics.

  12. Participatory Design of Multi-Use Platforms at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander van den Burg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European oceans are subject to rapid development. New activities such as aquaculture and ocean energy have gained importance. This triggers interest in “multi-use platforms at sea” (MUPS, i.e., areas at sea in which different activities are combined. MUPS are complex features with regards to technology, governance, and financial, socioeconomic, and environmental aspects. To identify realistic and sustainable solutions and designs for MUPS, the MERMAID project applied a participatory design process (PDP involving a range of stakeholders representing companies, authorities, researchers, and NGOs. This paper evaluates if and how the participatory design process contributed to the design of multi-use platforms. It is based on interviews with the managers of the case study sites and a questionnaire administered to all stakeholders participating in the PDP workshops. Analyzing the four case studies, we conclude that the participatory design process has had a valuable contribution to the development of the four different designs of MUPS, even though the preconditions for carrying out a participatory design process differed between sites. In all four cases, the process has been beneficial in generating new and shared knowledge. It brought new design issues to the table and increased knowledge and understanding among the different stakeholders.

  13. Virtues in participatory design : Cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2013-01-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and

  14. User Participation and Participatory Design: Topics in Computing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    1996-01-01

    Discusses user participation and participatory design in the context of formal education for computing professionals. Topics include the current curriculum debate; mathematical- and engineering-based education; traditional system-development training; and an example of a course program that includes computers and society, and prototyping. (53…

  15. Participatory Design and the Challenges of Large-Scale Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    With its 10th biannual anniversary conference, Participatory Design (PD) is leaving its teens and must now be considered ready to join the adult world. In this article we encourage the PD community to think big: PD should engage in large-scale information-systems development and opt for a PD...

  16. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  17. Principles and Criteria for Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beghin, D.; Cervetto, D.; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1997-01-01

    The mandate of ISSC Committee IV.1 on principles and Criteria for Design is to report on the following:The ongoing concern for quantification of general economic and safety criteria for marine structures and for the development of appropriate principles for rational life cycle design using...

  18. Exploring Challenging Group Dynamics in Participatory Design with Children

    OpenAIRE

    Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gielen, Matthieu; Vanden Abeele, Vero; Laenen, Ann; Zaman, Bieke

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a structured way to evaluate challenging group or 'codesign dynamics' in participatory design processes with children. In the form of a critical reflection on a project in which 103 children were involved as design partners, we describe the most prevalent codesign dynamics. For example, some groups rush too quickly towards consensus to safeguard group cohesiveness instead of examining other choice alternatives (i.e., groupthink). Besides 'groupthink' we describe five more ...

  19. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  20. Logical database design principles

    CERN Document Server

    Garmany, John; Clark, Terry

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO LOGICAL DATABASE DESIGNUnderstanding a Database Database Architectures Relational Databases Creating the Database System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)Systems Planning: Assessment and Feasibility System Analysis: RequirementsSystem Analysis: Requirements Checklist Models Tracking and Schedules Design Modeling Functional Decomposition DiagramData Flow Diagrams Data Dictionary Logical Structures and Decision Trees System Design: LogicalSYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The ER ApproachEntities and Entity Types Attribute Domains AttributesSet-Valued AttributesWeak Entities Constraint

  1. Participatory ergonomics for psychological factors evaluation in work system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Lau, Henry Y K

    2012-01-01

    It is a well recognized understanding that workers whose voice needs to be heard should be actively encouraged as full participants and involved in the early design stages of new ergonomic work system which encompass the development and implementation of new tools, workplaces, technologies or organizations. This paper presents a novel participatory strategy to evaluate three key psychological factors which are respectively mental fatigue, spiritual stress, and emotional satisfaction in work system design based on a modified version of Participatory Ergonomics (PE). In specific, it integrates a PE technique with a formulation view by combining the parallel development of PE strategies, frameworks and functions throughout the coverage of the entire work system design process, so as to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative analysis of psychological factors which can cause adverse or advantageous effects on worker's physiological and behavioral performance.

  2. Values-led Participatory Design - Mediating the Emergence of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing interest in values-led inquiries within participatory design. One approach argues that working with values is a recursive 3-phase process that supports the emergence, development and grounding of values. In this paper we focus solely upon the emergence phase, proposing...... an approach that can support the emergence of values during the initial phase of a values-led inquiry. To illustrate this approach and to ground our discussion, we draw from a recent participatory design case where we were engaged in the design of digital technology to support the experiences of young adults...... with severe intellectual disabilities, in an art museum. By describing how we establish, negotiate and the debrief values during this initial phase of a values-led inquiry. By foregrounding both explicit and implicit mediation in the PD process we show how a theoretical understanding of mediation can...

  3. Participatory design of healthcare technology with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tara

    2018-02-12

    Purpose There are many frameworks and methods for involving children in design research. Human-Computer Interaction provides rich methods for involving children when designing technologies. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper examines various approaches to involving children in design, considering whether users view children as study objects or active participants. Findings The BRIDGE method is a sociocultural approach to product design that views children as active participants, enabling them to contribute to the design process as competent and resourceful partners. An example is provided, in which BRIDGE was successfully applied to developing upper limb prostheses with children. Originality/value Approaching design in this way can provide children with opportunities to develop social, academic and design skills and to develop autonomy.

  4. Design Competences to Support Participatory Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Fanny Barbara

    2017-01-01

    the spontaneous creations of services by citizens? How might designers build platforms that could support interactions between citizens and public organizations on a large scale? In this paper I will refer to the Open4Citizens (O4C) research project as an exemplary playground to build co-design tools...... answers to unsolved and shared everyday problems. In this context designers should support and facilitate bottom up approaches that could address these challenges by the creation of new public services that are informed by the real needs of their users (the citizens). How can designers support...... that supports the designer activity to empower the citizens to build meaningful services....

  5. Developments in Participatory Design of Health Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Madsen, Jacob; Nøhr, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The landscape of Participatory Design (PD) of Health Information Technology (HIT) is diverse and constantly evolving. This paper reviews the publications in the proceedings from the Participatory Design Conferences (PDCs) that have been held every two years since 1990. We used the Matrix Method...... procedures, records, secondary healthcare and health professionals. However, the analysis also shows a development from a primary focus on health workers and hospitals to a recent attention on HIT in everyday life and PD with patients, relatives, neighbourhoods and citizens in general. Additionally......, the review shows a growing number of PD methods being applied. This paper concludes that research on PD and HIT appears to be maturing and developing with ongoing technological and societal development....

  6. Integrating Participatory Design and Health Literacy to Improve Research and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Health communication is an essential health promotion strategy to convert scientific findings into actionable, empowering information for the public. Health communication interventions have shown positive outcomes, but many efforts have been disappointing. A key weakness is that expert-designed health communication is often overly generic and not adequately aligned with the abilities, preferences and life situations of specific audiences. The emergence of the field of health literacy is providing powerful theoretical guidance and practice strategies. Health literacy, in concert with other determinants of health, has greatly advanced understanding of factors that facilitate or hinder health promotion at individual, organizational and community settings. However, health literacy models are incomplete and interventions have shown only modest success to date. A challenge is to move beyond the current focus on individual comprehension and address deeper factors of motivation, self-efficacy and empowerment, as well as socio-environmental influences, and their impact to improve health outcomes and reduce health disparities. Integrating participatory design theory and methods drawn from social sciences and design sciences can significantly improve health literacy models and interventions. Likewise, researchers and practitioners using participatory design can greatly benefit from incorporating health literacy principles into their efforts. Such interventions at multiple levels are showing positive health outcomes and reduction of health disparities, but this approach is complex and not yet widespread. This chapter focuses on research findings about health literacy and participatory design to improve health promotion, and practical guidance and case examples for researchers, practitioners and policymakers.

  7. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: AN INTERSUBJECTIVE SCHEMA FOR DECISION MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Sanya

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is participatory design (PD); a field that has been in existence since the 1960s. Reflections on a PD project in which the author played a central role revealed that existing literature does not engage adequately with intersubjective decision-making in PD processes. In this paper, appropriation and re-imagination of the Nordic framework for performance-based standards results in a novel multidimensional schema with five mutually related steps. Analysis indicates that t...

  8. Participatory Design at a Radio Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Simonsen, Jesper; Bødker, Keld

    1998-01-01

    realistic, design practice, that provides a sound basis for organisational decision making and for technical and organizational development and implementation. We focus on cooperative aspects within and among the editorial units, and between editorial units and the editorial board. We discuss technical...... and organisational aspects of the design, seen in light of recent CSCW concepts, including coordination and computational coordination mechanisms, technologies of accountability, and workflow from within and without....

  9. Staging a Professional Participatory Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2002-01-01

    Use and users have an important and acknowledged role to most designers of interactive systems. Nevertheless any touch of user hands does not in itself secure development of meaningful artifacts. In this article we stress the need for a professional PD practice in order to yield the full potentia......Use and users have an important and acknowledged role to most designers of interactive systems. Nevertheless any touch of user hands does not in itself secure development of meaningful artifacts. In this article we stress the need for a professional PD practice in order to yield the full...

  10. Participatory Design of Citizen Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senabre, Enric; Ferran-Ferrer, Nuria; Perelló, Josep

    2018-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the collaborative design of a citizen science research project through co-creation. Three groups of secondary school students and a team of scientists conceived three experiments on human behavior and social capital in urban and public spaces. The study goal is to address how interdisciplinary work and attention…

  11. Fiction as a resource in participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Ulv Lenskjold, Tau; Markussen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    in collaborative design processes. We define the concept of resourcing on the basis of pragmatist process theories and complexity theory perspectives of social life, which enable us to explicate the gap between managerial thinking that understands resources as objective entities to be planned and controlled...

  12. Participatory design of citizen science experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Senabre, Enric; Ferran Ferrer, Núria; Perelló, Josep, 1974-

    2018-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the collaborative design of a citizen science research project through cocreation. Three groups of secondary school students and a team of scientists conceived three experiments on human behavior and social capital in urban and public spaces. The study goal is to address how interdisciplinary work and attention to social concerns and needs, as well as the collective construction of research questions, can be integrated into scientific research. The 95 stude...

  13. Automotive HMI design and participatory user involvement: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Mathilde; Osiurak, François; Fort, Alexandra; Crave, Philippe; Navarro, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    Automotive human-machine interface (HMI) design is facing new challenges due to the technological advances of the last decades. The design process has to be adapted in order to address human factors and road safety challenges. It is now widely accepted that user involvement in the HMI design process is valuable. However, the current form of user involvement in industry remains at the stages of concept assessment and usability tests. Moreover, the literature in other fields (e.g. information systems) promotes a broader user involvement with participatory design (i.e. the user is fully involved in the development process). This article reviews the established benefits of participatory design and reveals perspectives for automotive HMI quality improvement in a cognitive ergonomic framework. Practitioner Summary: Automotive HMI quality determines, in part, drivers' ability to perform primary driving tasks while using in-vehicle devices. User involvement in the design process is a key point to contribute to HMI quality. This article reports the potential benefits of a broad involvement from drivers to meet automotive HMI design challenges.

  14. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...

  15. The design game in Participatory Design and design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    carefully. Cases from student projects are used as illustrating examples; work environments were redesigned and design games played. It turns out that degrees of freedom are present for the choice of (gaming) method as well as the ways of using the selected method. These degrees of freedom should be used...... in a way that will be labeled as »interested«, rather than in a way labeled as »taking for granted«. It is not possible to guarantee an interested and beneficial approach; yet the paper argues on the grounds that reflective gaming practice can be supportive in this direction....

  16. Stakeholder involvement in stages of a participatory process illustrated in interior design cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Peter; van Rhijn, Gu; Seim, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    In a previous study (Vink et al., 2008) an overview was made of the involvement of different stakeholders in a participatory design process. In this paper this overview was used to describe four participatory design cases focused on improvising productivity, health, and comfort by interior design....... It appeared that this overview is useful to describe the involvement in participatory interior design projects. However, it can only serve as an initial benchmark as much is dependent on the specific case at hand....

  17. Workspace experiments: a journey on planning participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Summative Statement: This paper presents a resource material in planning and performing participatory workspace design processes. This material brings up design dialogues into focus and gives insights on how to stage them, bridging the gap of merging user involvement with the well-defined design...... work-practice. Problem statement: There is a widespread interest in implementing user involvement in major building and construction projects. Nevertheless, it is also often difficult to translate the contributions from users to workspace design that seriously take on board the employees’ specific work...... practices as a platform for a desired change. There is a need of tool that manages to travel into a well-defined design work-practice and merge with it. Research Objective: We developed a resource material to merge user involvement within current designers’ practices when designing new workspaces. The aim...

  18. Design Principles for Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system -Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and - principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples....

  19. Structuring Principles for the Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    1998-01-01

    This paper suggests a list of structuring principles that support the designer in making alternative concepts for product architectures. Different architectures may support different points of diversification in the product life-cycle. The aim is to balance reuse of resources and reduction...

  20. Fundamental Principles of Alarm Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Us, Tolga; Jensen, Niels; Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally alarms are designed on the basis of empirical guidelines rather than on a sound scientific framework rooted in a theoretical foundation for process and control system design. This paper proposes scientific principles and a methodology for design of alarms based on a functional...... be applied to any engineering system which can be modeled by MFM. The methodology provides a set of alarms which can facilitate event interpretation and operator support for abnormal situation management. The proposed design methodology provides the information content of the alarms, but does not deal...

  1. Principles of modern digital design

    CERN Document Server

    Lala, Parag K

    2007-01-01

    A major objective of this book is to fill the gap between traditional logic design principles and logic design/optimization techniques used in practice. Over the last two decades several techniques for computer-aided design and optimization of logic circuits have been developed. However, underlying theories of these techniques are inadequately covered or not covered at all in undergraduate text books. This book covers not only the ""classical"" material found in current text books but also selected materials that modern logic designers need to be familiar with.

  2. Development of a multimedia educational programme for first-time hearing aid users: a participatory design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Melanie; Leighton, Paul; Brandreth, Marian; Wharrad, Heather

    2018-05-02

    To develop content for a series of interactive video tutorials (or reusable learning objects, RLOs) for first-time adult hearing aid users, to enhance knowledge of hearing aids and communication. RLO content was based on an electronically-delivered Delphi review, workshops, and iterative peer-review and feedback using a mixed-methods participatory approach. An expert panel of 33 hearing healthcare professionals, and workshops involving 32 hearing aid users and 11 audiologists. This ensured that social, emotional and practical experiences of the end-user alongside clinical validity were captured. Content for evidence-based, self-contained RLOs based on pedagogical principles was developed for delivery via DVD for television, PC or internet. Content was developed based on Delphi review statements about essential information that reached consensus (≥90%), visual representations of relevant concepts relating to hearing aids and communication, and iterative peer-review and feedback of content. This participatory approach recognises and involves key stakeholders in the design process to create content for a user-friendly multimedia educational intervention, to supplement the clinical management of first-time hearing aid users. We propose participatory methodologies are used in the development of content for e-learning interventions in hearing-related research and clinical practice.

  3. Teachers as Participatory Designers: Two Case Studies with Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, Rebecca; Tan, Esther; Slotta, Jim; So, Hyo-Jeong; Könings, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    Teachers are not typically involved as participatory designers in the design of technology-enhanced learning environments. As they have unique and valuable perspectives on the role of technology in education, it is of utmost importance to engage them in a participatory design process. Adopting a case study methodology, we aim to reveal in what…

  4. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian

    2010-01-01

    practices of visitors and museum knowledge. The second and larger part of the contribution addresses the issue of shaping design inquiries. This part is summarized through the overarching notion of fictional space denoting a perspective on the creation of a design space where established norms...... spaces for museums and science centres. The dissertation is composed of seven research papers framed by a general overview that summarises the arguments made in the papers and outlines related work and research method. The contribution reflects a dual yet intertwined concern for understanding engagement...... in exhibition spaces and shaping design inquiries around the notion of engaging interactive environments. The first part of the contribution relates to conceptualising aspects of engagement in relation to interactive environments. The perspective of participatory engagement is presented as an overarching...

  5. Industrial instrumentation principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Padmanabhan, Tattamangalam R

    2000-01-01

    Pneumatic, hydraulic and allied instrumentation schemes have given way to electronic schemes in recent years thanks to the rapid strides in electronics and allied areas. Principles, design and applications of such state-of-the-art instrumentation schemes form the subject matter of this book. Through representative examples, the basic building blocks of instrumentation schemes are identified and each of these building blocks discussed in terms of its design and interface characteristics. The common generic schemes synthesized with such building blocks are dealt with subsequently. This forms the scope of Part I. The focus in Part II is on application. Displacement and allied instrumentation, force and allied instrumentation and process instrumentation in terms of temperature, flow, pressure level and other common process variables are dealt with separately and exhaustively. Despite the diversity in the sensor principles and characteristics and the variety in the applications and their environments, it is possib...

  6. Using community-based participatory research principles to develop more understandable recruitment and informed consent documents in genomic research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlyn G Skinner

    Full Text Available Heart Healthy Lenoir is a transdisciplinary project aimed at creating long-term, sustainable approaches to reduce cardiovascular disease risk disparities in Lenoir County, North Carolina using a design spanning genomic analysis and clinical intervention. We hypothesized that residents of Lenoir County would be unfamiliar and mistrustful of genomic research, and therefore reluctant to participate; additionally, these feelings would be higher in African-Americans.To test our hypothesis, we conducted qualitative research using community-based participatory research principles to ensure our genomic research strategies addressed the needs, priorities, and concerns of the community. African-American (n = 19 and White (n = 16 adults in Lenoir County participated in four focus groups exploring perceptions about genomics and cardiovascular disease. Demographic surveys were administered and a semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate discussions. The discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed in ATLAS.ti.From our analysis, key themes emerged: transparent communication, privacy, participation incentives and barriers, knowledge, and the impact of knowing. African-Americans were more concerned about privacy and community impact compared to Whites, however, African-Americans were still eager to participate in our genomic research project. The results from our formative study were used to improve the informed consent and recruitment processes by: 1 reducing misconceptions of genomic studies; and 2 helping to foster participant understanding and trust with the researchers. Our study demonstrates how community-based participatory research principles can be used to gain deeper insight into the community and increase participation in genomic research studies. Due in part to these efforts 80.3% of eligible African-American participants and 86.9% of eligible White participants enrolled in the Heart Healthy Lenoir Genomics

  7. Participatory Design of Large-Scale Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    into a PD process model that (1) emphasizes PD experiments as transcending traditional prototyping by evaluating fully integrated systems exposed to real work practices; (2) incorporates improvisational change management including anticipated, emergent, and opportunity-based change; and (3) extends initial...... design and development into a sustained and ongoing stepwise implementation that constitutes an overall technology-driven organizational change. The process model is presented through a largescale PD experiment in the Danish healthcare sector. We reflect on our experiences from this experiment......In this article we discuss how to engage in large-scale information systems development by applying a participatory design (PD) approach that acknowledges the unique situated work practices conducted by the domain experts of modern organizations. We reconstruct the iterative prototyping approach...

  8. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: AN INTERSUBJECTIVE SCHEMA FOR DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sanya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is participatory design (PD; a field that has been in existence since the 1960s. Reflections on a PD project in which the author played a central role revealed that existing literature does not engage adequately with intersubjective decision-making in PD processes. In this paper, appropriation and re-imagination of the Nordic framework for performance-based standards results in a novel multidimensional schema with five mutually related steps. Analysis indicates that the schema has a capacity for enhancing intersubjectivity in PD decision-making while also rendering the process more malleable to multiple viewpoints and their fusion into progressively definitive shared outcomes. In the conclusions, prospects for projective and reflective application of the schema explore its transformative capacity for professional and lay participants and its potential role in engendering critical design pedagogy.

  9. On participatory design of home-based healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Kyng, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) activities in private homes challenge how we relate to the PD process, compared to PD in professional settings. Grounded in a project related to chronic dizziness among older people, we identified four challenges when performing PD with ill, weak users in their private...... homes. The challenges are (1) designing for, and negotiating knowledge about, the home, (2) ill, weak users and their participation in PD, (3) divergent interests of participants and (4) usable and sustainable post-project solutions. These challenges have to be carefully addressed, and we use them...... to reflect upon differences between a home-based PD process with non-workers, such as ours, and work-place projects, such as Utopia. Through this reflection, the paper contributes to a more general discussion on PD in non-work settings with weak users. Indeed, differences do exist between traditional PD...

  10. Playful Collaborative Exploration: New Research Practice in Participatory Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johansson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the Participatory Design community as well as the Computer Supported Cooperative Work tradition, a lot of effort has been put into the question of letting field studies inform design. In this paper, we describe how game-like approaches can be used as a way of exploring a practice from a design point of view. Thinking of ethnographic fieldwork as a base for sketching, rather than descriptions, creates openness that invites collaborative authoring. The concept of playful collaborative exploration suggests certain ways of interacting with material from field studies so that it becomes a design material for an open-ended design process. We have carried out field studies, transformed the field material into design material, and set up a design game for working with it together with the people we followed in the field. The design game builds on an idea about the power of narratives and the benefits of constraining rules. We believe that this framework for collaboration opens for playfulness, experimentation, and new design ideas.

  11. A room for design: Through participatory design young adults with schizophrenia become strong collaborators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terp, Malene; Laursen, Birgitte Schantz; Jørgensen, Rikke; Mainz, Jan; Bjørnes, Charlotte D

    2016-12-01

    Smartphone technology is being increasingly viewed as key to engaging young adults with schizophrenia in their own mental health care. In an attempt to use smartphones as an engagement tool, we conducted a participatory design process, where young adults with schizophrenia (n = 4), healthcare providers (n = 7), software designers (n = 3), graphic designer (n = 1), graphic recorder (n = 1), and team leader (n = 1) co-designed a smartphone application for use in early phase schizophrenia care. This paper reports the co-design process. Based on a variety of written data-sources, the paper describes if, and how, participatory design can help construct a physical and relational environment that enables young adults with schizophrenia to become active participants in the design of a more participatory mental health practice. Guided by Etienne Wenger's construct of Community of Practice, three major categories of characteristics and construction of a physical and relational environment supporting and inspiring participation and engagement were identified: (i) a pre-narrative about a community of practice, (ii) the room for design is a community of practice and (iii) the community of practice as a practice of special qualities. It is concluded that participatory design can support and inspire participation and engagement in the development of mental health care with young adults with schizophrenia, given that the environment in which participatory design unfolds is transparent, flexible, secure and informal. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  12. Communications receivers principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  13. Design and implementation of participatory hygiene and sanitation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study is a continuation of a research carried out in Luweero district in Uganda1. It investigated whether PHAST was a suitable tool for reducing transmission of soil transmitted helminths. PHAST means Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation; a participatory approach that uses visual tools to ...

  14. Design principles for precision mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The successful design of mechanisms for products, tools and equipment relies on excellent concepts and properly designed details. Both are covered in this book. Many of the examples presented have been realised in practice and properly evaluated, giving the reader/designer a high level of confidence. Every example comes with the considerations underlying the application and the limitations of the particular idea. This book is based on the work started in the 1960s by W. van der Hoek at Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and subsequently continued by M.P. Koster, culminating in the Dutch-language book “Constructieprincipes” [Design principles for accurate movement and positioning]. The core of their design approach has been preserved, while theory and examples were updated and the English language was adopted to reach a broad audience within the Netherlands as well as abroad. Herman (H.M.J.R.) Soemers is associated with the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. He also works as a technolog...

  15. Promises, Premises and Risks: Sharing Responsibilities, Working Up Trust and Sustaining Commitment in Participatory Design Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büscher, Monika; Hartswood, Mark; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    2002-01-01

    While participatory design crosses the boundaries between technology production and use, it does not erase them. In accounts of participatory projects, the work of negotiating and changing these boundaries often recedes into the background, yet it is crucial in shaping the very nature and scope o...

  16. Adapting participatory design to design information system with rural Ethiopian community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne; Bekele, Rahel

    2015-01-01

    Most of the Information and Communication Technology for Development initiatives introduced to communities in developing countries fails to deliver its promises due to the lack of intended beneficiary involvement. Participatory Design assumes to be effective as long as its nature of participations...... and methods are contextualized to a given settings. To this end, we discuss the implication of considering local (rural community) culture of participation practices, and propose a procedure to be followed in the early phases of information system development process. Finally we argue that, such adaption...... could advance the Participatory Action Research methodology....

  17. Towards a culturally independent participatory design method: Fusing game elements into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Nakatani, Momoko; Ohno, Takehiko

    2013-01-01

    Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent ...... imply that the introduction of game elements allows PD to be effectively utilized in culturally diverse settings.......Historically, Participatory Design (PD) was introduced and applied in the Scandinavian and American context as a practical design method for collective creativity and stakeholder involvement. In this paper, by fusing game elements into PD, we suggest a first step towards a culturally independent PD...... method called the ICT Service Design Game to ease the prevailing concern that PD has limited applicability in other cultural settings. We conduct four experiments on ICT Service Design Game in Scandinavia and Asia to evaluate its feasibility. The experiments identify some differences in the PD process...

  18. The Design:Lab as platform in participatory design research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The notion of laboratory or simply 'lab' has become popular in recent years in areas outside science and technology development. Learning Labs, Innovation Labs, Usability Labs, Media and Communication Labs and even Art Labs designate institutions or fora dedicated to change and experimentation...... as others have frequently used other metaphors like workshop, studio or atelier in design research. In this article we will argue that the laboratory metaphor is particularly suitable and useful for the design:lab, and we will give examples of how we have worked with the design:lab as a platform...

  19. Virtues in participatory design: cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Marc

    2013-09-01

    In this essay several virtues are discussed that are needed in people who work in participatory design (PD). The term PD is used here to refer specifically to an approach in designing information systems with its roots in Scandinavia in the 1970s and 1980s. Through the lens of virtue ethics and based on key texts in PD, the virtues of cooperation, curiosity, creativity, empowerment and reflexivity are discussed. Cooperation helps people in PD projects to engage in cooperative curiosity and cooperative creativity. Curiosity helps them to empathize with others and their experiences, and to engage in joint learning. Creativity helps them to envision, try out and materialize ideas, and to jointly create new products and services. Empowerment helps them to share power and to enable other people to flourish. Moreover, reflexivity helps them to perceive and to modify their own thoughts, feelings and actions. In the spirit of virtue ethics-which focuses on specific people in concrete situations-several examples from one PD project are provided. Virtue ethics is likely to appeal to people in PD projects because it is practice-oriented, provides room for exploration and experimentation, and promotes professional and personal development. In closing, some ideas for practical application, for education and for further research are discussed.

  20. [Participatory design guide for mental health promotion in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Navarro, R; Paredes-Carbonell, J J; Aviñó Juan-Ulpiano, D; González Rubio, J; Pitarch Monzó, C; Martínez Martínez, L; Arroyo-Cobo, J M

    2013-01-01

    [corrected] The main aim was to describe the issues and the participatory process required to design a Guide to promotemental health in prison through group activities. We reviewed the bibliography, the mental health policies, the workshops about healthy mental habits, and a video about protection and risk factors. We identified the stakeholders and sought their points of view about the topics included in the Guide. We decided on the contents of the Guide and the incorporation of the health assets model and the perspectives provided by gender and cultural diversity. After the initial design of the modules and sessions, we started a pilot in the Prison of Valencia and the Prison of Zaragoza with women and men from different cultures, incorporating the suggested improvements, unifying contents and the discursive style. The guide is formed by: a preface, introduction, description, modules, sessions and evaluation. It has 6 modules and 19 sessions on: health and motivation; self-esteem; health and emotions; more assets to improve health: relax, positive thinking, keeping calm, communication and problem resolution; progress is possible: resiliency and starring in my own change. Each session consists of: activities (objectives, material, allocated time and development), theoretical material and tabbed sheets for activities. The guide is available in print and online versions. A guide has been elaborated with involved stakeholders and the opinion of the prison population.

  1. Enhancing collaborative rule-making on global sustainability concerns through Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This short paper outlines the background and prospects for a potential research agenda of Participatory Design (PD) in the area of collaborative transnational rule-making on global sustainability concerns. The paper adopts a pragmatic approach to interdisciplinary work, identifying new...... with opportunities to involve a global citizenry in the evolution of norms of conduct that may affect the lives and futures of individuals. The paper describes research potential for PD towards enhancing information technology assisted inclusion of views, needs and concerns of individuals in transnational rule......-making. It does so by drawing on the process that led to the 2011 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. This process exemplifies challenges in collaborative and inclusive global rule-making that that may be assisted by increased and informed deployment of IT in order to enhance broad...

  2. Engaging People with Aphasia in Design of Rehabilitation Through Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    The research literature on participatory design in relation to people with communicative and cognitive disabilities often focuses on the challenges of communication among the participants. This paper presents a case study involving people suffering from communication disabilities after a brain...... injury (aphasia) early in a design process of an avatar-mediated virtual learning environment for rehabilitation. The example demonstrates how providing time and space and supporting the communication with well-suited tools and artefact opens for firth-hand domain knowledge of living with aphasia....... The results demonstrate that participatory design methods might result in much more than just being a step in the design process. In this specific case, it turns out to be a tool to engage, involve, and empower people with communication disabilities to interact and communicate. The paper argues...

  3. Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

  4. Design principles for riboswitch function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase L Beisel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological advances that enable the tuning of integrated regulatory components to match network and system requirements are critical to reliably control the function of biological systems. RNA provides a promising building block for the construction of tunable regulatory components based on its rich regulatory capacity and our current understanding of the sequence-function relationship. One prominent example of RNA-based regulatory components is riboswitches, genetic elements that mediate ligand control of gene expression through diverse regulatory mechanisms. While characterization of natural and synthetic riboswitches has revealed that riboswitch function can be modulated through sequence alteration, no quantitative frameworks exist to investigate or guide riboswitch tuning. Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to investigate the relationship between riboswitch function and performance. Model results demonstrated that the competition between reversible and irreversible rate constants dictates performance for different regulatory mechanisms. We also found that practical system restrictions, such as an upper limit on ligand concentration, can significantly alter the requirements for riboswitch performance, necessitating alternative tuning strategies. Previous experimental data for natural and synthetic riboswitches as well as experiments conducted in this work support model predictions. From our results, we developed a set of general design principles for synthetic riboswitches. Our results also provide a foundation from which to investigate how natural riboswitches are tuned to meet systems-level regulatory demands.

  5. An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). An approach to participatory instructional design in secondary education: an exploratory study. Educational Research, 52(1), 45-59.

  6. Participatory design in the project of virtual learning environment of histology

    OpenAIRE

    Santa-Rosa, José Guilherme da Silva

    2012-01-01

    This present article describes a research on the development, under the approach of participatory design, a virtual teaching-learning of Histology in which students and teachers participated actively in all stages of development of the educational environment. We postulates that the development of virtual learning environment of Histology, through the Participatory Design approach, contributes to greater acceptance and use by students and that the adoption of virtual environment for teaching ...

  7. Cooperative Learning: The Benefits of Participatory Examinations in Principles of Marketing Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Reginald A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes procedures for participatory examinations, a method for achieving student collaboration in marketing education. Suggests that the method teaches students group process, persuasion, teamwork, and other skills needed in the contemporary workplace. (SK)

  8. Design Principles of Open Innovation Concept – Universal Design Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Mustaquim, Moyen; Nyström, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The concept of open innovation is becoming an increasingly popular topic of interest and seems to promise a lot in organizational development. However, to date there are no certain design principles that can be followed by organizations on how to use open innovation successfully. In this paper seven design principles of open innovation concept have been proposed. The derived principles are the outcome which is based on the principles of universal design. The open innovation design, based on t...

  9. Design Principles for Closed Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Krikke (Harold); C.P. Pappis (Costas); G.T. Tsoulfas; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study design principles for closed loop supply chains. Closed loop supply chains aim at closing material flows thereby limiting emission and residual waste, but also providing customer service at low cost. We study 'traditional' and 'new' design principles known in the

  10. Leveraging health information exchange to improve population health reporting processes: lessons in using a collaborative-participatory design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Debra; Dixon, Brian E; Hills, Rebecca; Williams, Jennifer L; Grannis, Shaun J

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance, or the systematic monitoring of disease within a population, is a cornerstone function of public health. Despite significant investment in information technologies (IT) to improve the public's health, health care providers continue to rely on manual, spontaneous reporting processes that can result in incomplete and delayed surveillance activities. Participatory design principles advocate including real users and stakeholders when designing an information system to ensure high ecological validity of the product, incorporate relevance and context into the design, reduce misconceptions designers can make due to insufficient domain expertise, and ultimately reduce barriers to adoption of the system. This paper focuses on the collaborative and informal participatory design process used to develop enhanced, IT-enabled reporting processes that leverage available electronic health records in a health information exchange to prepopulate notifiable-conditions report forms used by public health authorities. Over nine months, public health stakeholders, technical staff, and informatics researchers were engaged in a multiphase participatory design process that included public health stakeholder focus groups, investigator-engineering team meetings, public health survey and census regarding high-priority data elements, and codesign of exploratory prototypes and final form mock-ups. A number of state-mandated report fields that are not highly used or desirable for disease investigation were eliminated, which allowed engineers to repurpose form space for desired and high-priority data elements and improve the usability of the forms. Our participatory design process ensured that IT development was driven by end user expertise and needs, resulting in significant improvements to the layout and functionality of the reporting forms. In addition to informing report form development, engaging with public health end users and stakeholders through the participatory design

  11. Using Participatory Design to design and develop mHealth for women with osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Pernille; Kock Wiil, Uffe; Søndergaard, Jens

    2017-01-01

    and sick, and the women should be aided in learning to live with osteoporosis and how to prevent fractures (2). The effects of mHealth on self-care and self-management appear to be promising (3). Involvement of users in health care research is important, especially when developing new technologies...... The design and development of mHealth is based on a participatory design process. In the first phase, needs among the users are identified using qualitative methods as participant observations (10 hours), semi structured interviews (n=17) and focus groups (n=3). In the second phase, ideas and concepts...

  12. Troubling Futures: Can Participatory Design Research provide a Constitutive Anthropology for the 21st Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Light

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues there is value in considering participatory design as a form of anthropology at a time when we recognise that we need not only to understand cultures but to change them towards sustainable living. Holding up the democratically-oriented practices of some participatory design research to definitions of anthropology allows the essay to explore the role of intervention in social process. And, challenging definitional boundaries, it examines design as a participatory tool for cultural change, creating and interrogating futures (and the idea of futures. In analysing how designing moves towards change in the world, the paper brings together design research and anthropological concepts to help us better understand and operationalise our interventions and pursue them in a fair and sustainable manner.

  13. Principles for enabling deep secondary design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Hansen, Magnus Rotvit Perlt

    2017-01-01

    design by analyzing two cases where secondary designers fundamentally change functionality, content and technology complexity level. The first case redesigns a decision model for agile development in an insurance company; the second creates a contingency model for choosing project management tools...... and techniques in a hospital. Our analysis of the two cases leads to the identification of four principles of design implementation that primary designers can apply to enable secondary design and four corresponding design implementation principles that secondary designers themselves need to apply....

  14. Developing digital technologies for university mathematics by applying participatory design methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents our research efforts to develop digital technologies for undergraduate university mathematics. We employ participatory design methods in order to involve teachers and students in the design of such technologies. The results of the first round of our design are included...

  15. Justifying Design Decisions with Theory-based Design Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Schermann, Michael;Gehlert, Andreas;Pohl, Klaus;Krcmar, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Although the role of theories in design research is recognized, we show that little attention has been paid on how to use theories when designing new artifacts. We introduce design principles as a new methodological approach to address this problem. Design principles extend the notion of design rationales that document how a design decision emerged. We extend the concept of design rationales by using theoretical hypotheses to support or object to design decisions. At the example of developing...

  16. Design principles for a large RFP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillpott, J.; Rostagni, G.; Di Marco, J.

    1981-01-01

    An RFP experiment (RFX) has been designed by an International Design Team, by groups of collaborating physicists and engineers working in their home laboratories. This international collaborative project has been brought to an advanced stage of system and component design by the co-operation of three design teams under the co-ordination of a Design Manager, based at Culham Laboratory. The paper summaries the important design principles for an RFP device, based on the outcome of this collaborative design project

  17. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  18. Design Principles for Synthesizable Processor Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleuniger, Pascal; McKee, Sally A.; Karlsson, Sven

    2012-01-01

    As FPGAs get more competitive, synthesizable processor cores become an attractive choice for embedded computing. Currently popular commercial processor cores do not fully exploit current FPGA architectures. In this paper, we propose general design principles to increase instruction throughput...

  19. MWH's water treatment: principles and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crittenden, John C

    2012-01-01

    ... with additional worked problems and new treatment approaches. It covers both the principles and theory of water treatment as well as the practical considerations of plant design and distribution...

  20. Symbiotic architecture: Redefinition of recycling design principles

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Šijaković; Ana Perić

    2018-01-01

    The study seeks to examine the possibility of implementing the biological concept of symbiosis into the field of architecture for redefining the design principles of architectural recycling. Through an in-depth analysis of the biological concept of symbiosis (i.e., a close and often long-term interaction between two or more different biological species and the criteria that govern the differentiation between symbiotic associations), three redefined design principles of recycling—commensalism,...

  1. Developing a Conceptual Framework for Participatory Design of Psychosocial and Physical Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Tiina; Helfenstein, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    The present study shows how the mixed-methods approach can be used in capturing and organising learning environment (LE) characteristics for the participatory design of psychosocial and physical LEs involving learners. Theoretical constructs were tested and further elaborated on in the analysis of two similar educational design research studies:…

  2. The Cube and the Poppy Flower: Participatory Approaches for Designing Technology-Enhanced Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Diogo; Mitchell, Paul

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative method for learning space design that is driven by user input. An exploratory study was undertaken at an English university with the aim of redesigning technology-enhanced learning spaces. Two provocative concepts were presented through participatory design workshops during which students and teachers reflected…

  3. The Process of Participatory Ergonomics Simulation in Hospital Work System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics simulation (PES) is a method to involve workers in simulation and design of their own future work system. Understanding of the process of PES is crucial in order to plan and facilitate the process towards creating an ergonomics work system design supporting both human well...

  4. Team learning center design principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, B.; Loveland, J.; Whatley, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    This is a preliminary report of a multi-year collaboration of the authors addressing the subject: Can a facility be designed for team learning and would it improve the efficiency and effectiveness of team interactions? Team learning in this context is a broad definition that covers all activities where small to large groups of people come together to work, to learn, and to share through team activities. Multimedia, networking, such as World Wide Web and other tools, are greatly enhancing the capability of individual learning. This paper addresses the application of technology and design to facilitate group or team learning. Many organizational meetings need tens of people to come together to do work as a large group and then divide into smaller subgroups of five to ten to work and then to return and report and interact with the larger group. Current facilities were not, in general, designed for this type of meeting. Problems with current facilities are defined and a preliminary design solution to many of the identified problems is presented.

  5. Teaching geometrical principles to design students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Bartneck, C.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of

  6. General Principles for Brain Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Brian D.

    2006-06-01

    The task of understanding how the brain works has met with only limited success since important design concepts are not as yet incorporated in the analysis. Relevant concepts can be uncovered by studying the powerful methodologies that have evolved in the context of computer programming, raising the question of how the concepts involved there can be realised in neural hardware. Insights can be gained in regard to such issues through the study of the role played by models and representation. These insights lead on to an appreciation of the mechanisms underlying subtle capacities such as those concerned with the use of language. A precise, essentially mathematical account of such capacities is in prospect for the future.

  7. Designing for Nomadic Play: A case study of participatory design with children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Ludvigsen, Martin

    This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted a participat......This poster presents the results from an empirical probe study trying to engage children creatively in the design process of systems and artifacts that support nomadic life-style. Based on observational studies and interviews with children of different ages (5-15 years), we conducted...... a participatory design workshop cycle where children were encouraged to envision and virtually play with not-yet-invented future technology. Findings include qualitative characterizations of children’s activities (e.g. ‘play’ culture, use of digital media, age and gender differences, relation to space...

  8. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  9. Design Principles for Augmented Reality Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Augmented reality is an emerging technology that utilizes mobile, context-aware devices (e.g., smartphones, tablets) that enable participants to interact with digital information embedded within the physical environment. This overview of design principles focuses on specific strategies that instructional designers can use to develop AR learning…

  10. Participatory design in Parkinson's research with focus on the symptomatic domains to be measured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J Artur; Larsen, Frank; Isaacs, Tom; Matthews, Helen; Duffen, Joy; Riggare, Sara; Capitanio, Fulvio; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Domingos, Josefa; Maetzler, Walter; Graessner, Holm

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the objective assessment of health related outcomes using technology providing quality measurements to be applied not only in daily clinical practice, but also in scientific research. Differences in the understandings of the condition and the terminology used between people with Parkinson's (PwPs), clinicians and technical developers may influence the progress of a participatory design process. This paper reports on a participatory design process to achieve a consensus among PwPs, clinicians and technologists over the selection of a set of symptomatic domains to be continuously assessed, in order to provide results relevant to both PwPs and clinicians. The methods used were a Web based user survey, end-user focus groups, ranking by combined methods, a Delphi process performed among clinicians and scientists, and prioritization of the results in a concertation workshop for PwPs, clinicians and technologists. The following symptomatic domains were commonly agreed by PwPs and clinicians to be of central importance in a system of continuous assessment: hypokinesia/bradykinesia, tremor, sway, gait, sleep and cognition. This list satisfied both the needs of the PwPs and the concerns of the clinicians regarding the means of advancing new strategies in assessment and interventions in PD. A participatory design strategy allowed the definition of a consensual list of symptomatic domains. Both the strategy and the achieved results may be of relevance for similar interdisciplinary approaches in the field of PD using a participatory design involving patients, clinicians and technologists.

  11. The Participatory Design of a (Today and) Future Digital Entomology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-Jew, Shalin

    2011-01-01

    This article showcases a virtual interactive participatory design activity for building a digital entomology lab. Conceptualized as a virtual complement to a general entomology course at Kansas State University, the lab would allow learners to explore morphological aspects of insects--their various forms and functions--in order to understand…

  12. Textiles as Tangible Working Materials in Participatory Design Processes: Potentials and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative nat...

  13. Upon opening the black box of participatory design and finding it filled with ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, I bring together Participatory Design's (PD) tradition of critical reflection on one's own practices, and Science and Technology Studies' focus on specific activities ('opening the black box'), in order to explore the ethics of PD. Three different forms of ethics—ethics-of-theother,

  14. Participatory design in secondary education: Its desirability and feasibility according to teachers and students.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könings, Karen; Van Zundert, Marjo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Könings, K. D., Van Zundert, M. J. Brand-Gruwel, S. & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2007). Participatory design in secondary education: Its desirability and feasibility according to teachers and students. Educational Studies, 33, 445-465.

  15. An Approach to Participatory Instructional Design in Secondary Education: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konings, Karen D.; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Teachers have limited insight in students' perspectives on education, although these perspectives influence quality of learning. As students' and teachers' perspectives differ considerably, there is a need for teachers to learn more about students' experiences and ideas about education. Participatory design might be a good strategy for…

  16. Mobiles for mobility: Participatory design of a 'Happy walker' that stimulates mobility among older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, F.; Cremers, A.; Schoone, M.; Dijk, J. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Existing solutions facilitating mobility among older adults mainly focus on supporting physical disabilities. However, solutions are more likely to succeed when current activities and capabilities serve as a starting point. Participatory design is a suitable approach to detect these. We

  17. From Participatory Design and Ontological Ethics, Towards an Approach to Constructive Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sandra Burri Gram; Ryberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores, analyses and discusses the potential of applying Danish theologian and philosopher K.E. Løgstrup’s ontological approach to ethics, when planning and conducting participatory design activities. By doing so, ethical considerations, will transform from being a summative evaluation...

  18. The Process of Participatory Ergonomics Simulation in Hospital Work System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    2016-01-01

    Participatory ergonomics simulation (PES) is a method to involve workers in simulation and design of their own future work system. Understanding of the process of PES is crucial in order to plan and facilitate the process towards creating an ergonomics work system design supporting both human well-being and overall system performance. With outset in two cases of PES in hospital work system design, this study investigates the elements of the PES process and their interrelations. The aim is to ...

  19. Mechatronics design principles for biotechnology product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik; Björkman, Mats

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, biotechnology design has focused on the manufacture of chemicals and biologics. Still, a majority of biotechnology products that appear on the market today is the result of mechanical-electric (mechatronic) construction. For these, the biological components play decisive roles in the design solution; the biological entities are either integral parts of the design, or are transformed by the mechatronic system. This article explains how the development and production engineering design principles used for typical mechanical products can be adapted to the demands of biotechnology products, and how electronics, mechanics and biology can be integrated more successfully. We discuss three emerging areas of biotechnology in which mechatronic design principles can apply: stem cell manufacture, artificial organs, and bioreactors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An Ethnographically Informed Participatory Design of Primary Healthcare Information Technology in a Developing Country Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidende, Nima Herman; Igira, Faraja Teddy; Mörtberg, Christina Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Ethnography, with its emphasis on understanding activities where they occur, and its use of qualitative data gathering techniques rich in description, has a long tradition in Participatory Design (PD). Yet there are limited methodological insights in its application in developing countries. This paper proposes an ethnographically informed PD approach, which can be applied when designing Primary Healthcare Information Technology (PHIT). We use findings from a larger multidisciplinary project, Health Information Systems Project (HISP) to elaborate how ethnography can be used to facilitate participation of health practitioners in developing countries settings as well as indicating the importance of ethnographic approach to participatory Health Information Technology (HIT) designers. Furthermore, the paper discusses the pros and cons of using an ethnographic approach in designing HIT.

  1. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2000-01-01

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation. The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples.

  2. RFID Malware: Design Principles and Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieback, M.R.; Simpson, P.N.D.; Crispo, B.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of malware for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems - including RFID exploits, RFID worms, and RFID viruses. We present RFID malware design principles together with concrete examples; the highlight is a fully illustrated example of a self-replicating RFID

  3. Devising Principles of Design for Numeracy Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Vince; Forgasz, Helen; Goos, Merrilyn; Bennison, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Numeracy is a fundamental component of the Australian National Curriculum as a General Capability identified in each F-10 subject. In this paper, we consider the principles of design necessary for the development of numeracy tasks specific to subjects other than mathematics--in this case, the subject of English. We explore the nature of potential…

  4. Teaching geometrical principles to design students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Bartneck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new method of teaching the principles of geometry to design students. The students focus on a field of design in which geometry is the design: tessellation. We review different approaches to geometry and the field of tessellation before we discuss the setup of the course. Instead of employing 2D drawing tools, such as Adobe Illustrator, the students define their tessellation in mathematical formulas, using the Mathematica software. This procedure enables them to understand the mathematical principles on which graphical tools, such as Illustrator are built upon. But we do not stop at a digital representation of their tessellation design we continue to cut their tessellations in Perspex. It moves the abstract concepts of math into the real world, so that the students can experience them directly, which provides a tremendous reward to the students.

  5. Co-constructing stories : a participatory design technique to elicit in-depth user feedback and suggestions about design concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcelik, D.; Terken, J.M.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a participatory design technique for early, formative concept evaluations to elicit in-depth user feedback and suggestions, revealing attitudes and motivations of users. The technique is motivated by the link between memories, experiences and dreams, and is based on the

  6. New Challenges for Participation in Participatory Design in Family, Clinical and Other Asymmetrical, Non-work Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Hedvall, Per-Oluf

    2009-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) has taken as its ideal that designers and users should engage in an equal language game. When we apply PD in contexts where some of the users involved are weak, ill, or have impairments, this assumed equality can no longer be an ideal. The workshop explores new ideals fo...... for participatory design in non-work settings with highly heterogeneous user constellations....

  7. A Participatory Perspective on Cross-Cultural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodil, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Designers face a number of challenges in terms of when and how to design interactive systems with indigenous groups. Every layer of development faces obstacles from designing localized interfaces to facilitating prototype evaluations in the wild. This article argues for the importance of continuous...

  8. The workspace design concept: A new framework of participatory ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Broberg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The concept of Workspace Design is presented as a potential new approach for ergonomists and consultants in the occupational health service. The concept is aimed as an intervention and facilitation strategy in the early stages of design processes leading to new workplaces. Preliminary results from a case study demonstrate how Workspace Design can contribute to a technical change process.

  9. Community-based participatory research and user-centered design in a diabetes medication information and decision tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Vida A; Barr, Kathryn L; An, Lawrence C; Guajardo, Claudia; Newhouse, William; Mase, Rebecca; Heisler, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Together, community-based participatory research (CBPR), user-centered design (UCD), and health information technology (HIT) offer promising approaches to improve health disparities in low-resource settings. This article describes the application of CBPR and UCD principles to the development of iDecide/Decido, an interactive, tailored, web-based diabetes medication education and decision support tool delivered by community health workers (CHWs) to African American and Latino participants with diabetes in Southwest and Eastside Detroit. The decision aid is offered in English or Spanish and is delivered on an iPad in participants' homes. The overlapping principles of CBPR and UCD used to develop iDecide/Decido include a user-focused or community approach, equitable academic and community partnership in all study phases, an iterative development process that relies on input from all stakeholders, and a program experience that is specified, adapted, and implemented with the target community. Collaboration between community members, researchers, and developers is especially evident in the program's design concept, animations, pictographs, issue cards, goal setting, tailoring, and additional CHW tools. The principles of CBPR and UCD can be successfully applied in developing health information tools that are easy to use and understand, interactive, and target health disparities.

  10. A methodological framework to support the initiation, design and institutionalization of participatory modeling processes in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbe, Johannes; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Adamowski, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Multiple barriers constrain the widespread application of participatory methods in water management, including the more technical focus of most water agencies, additional cost and time requirements for stakeholder involvement, as well as institutional structures that impede collaborative management. This paper presents a stepwise methodological framework that addresses the challenges of context-sensitive initiation, design and institutionalization of participatory modeling processes. The methodological framework consists of five successive stages: (1) problem framing and stakeholder analysis, (2) process design, (3) individual modeling, (4) group model building, and (5) institutionalized participatory modeling. The Management and Transition Framework is used for problem diagnosis (Stage One), context-sensitive process design (Stage Two) and analysis of requirements for the institutionalization of participatory water management (Stage Five). Conceptual modeling is used to initiate participatory modeling processes (Stage Three) and ensure a high compatibility with quantitative modeling approaches (Stage Four). This paper describes the proposed participatory model building (PMB) framework and provides a case study of its application in Québec, Canada. The results of the Québec study demonstrate the applicability of the PMB framework for initiating and designing participatory model building processes and analyzing barriers towards institutionalization.

  11. Participatory research design in mobile health: Tablet devices for diabetes self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Sally; Park, Sora; Dawda, Paresh; Burns, John

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent, chronic disease, which places significant burden on societies and individuals. This article reports the participatory research design of an exploratory study that introduces mobile tablet devices in the self-management of type 2 diabetes in a primary healthcare setting. Strategies from democratic dialogic theory were used in the design of the research to steer the participatory engagement between researchers and healthcare practitioners. The outcome of this phase of the research was the issue of six ‘invitations’ to 28 people with diabetes to frame their use of a mobile tablet device in managing their health. Those invitations were clustered in two themes, Empowered and Compelled, representing typical patient attitudes and behaviours. The work reported here sets the stage for a longitudinal and socially complex study that encompasses a new and comprehensive General Practitioner (GP) Super Clinic with an array of health and administrative staff, patients with a chronic health condition requiring continual self-management, a wide continuum of digital literacy capability in all participants and an ever-increasing digital society. It reports a novel research design methodology that merges democratic dialogic theory and participatory design, resulting in a grounded and agreed approach to a mobile health intervention.

  12. Macro-environmental policy: Principles and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huppes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The central theme of this book is how macro-environmental policy can be developed, which does not prescribe or suggest specific technologies and products bu realizes the environmental quality desired by changing the general context. The publication is composed of four main parts. The framework for analysis and the normative principles for policy design and evaluation, the first two parts, form the analytic core. The framework for analysis gives a classification of instruments in terms of permutations of a limited number of defining elements. The normative principles guide choices in instrument design and, as the flexible response strategy, guide their application in specific policies. Detailing two main new instruments (the standard method for life cycle analysis and the substance deposit, and applying the instrument strategy as developed to the cases make up the next two parts

  13. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID principles appropriate to distance education (DE and tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online. These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its LMS platform (Moodle to increase course accessibility. Numerous accessibility-sensitive plug-in modules are found to be available to Moodle users, though relatively few features were included in the sample course analysed. This may be because they have not been made available to instructors at the institutional level. The paper offers a series of recommendations to improve the accessibility of online DE to learners with diverse abilities, disabilities, and needs.

  14. Implantable biomedical microsystems design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Sawan, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Research and innovation in areas such as circuits, microsystems, packaging, biocompatibility, miniaturization, power supplies, remote control, reliability, and lifespan are leading to a rapid increase in the range of devices and corresponding applications in the field of wearable and implantable biomedical microsystems, which are used for monitoring, diagnosing, and controlling the health conditions of the human body. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamental design principles and validation for implantable microsystems, as well as several major application areas. Each co

  15. Design Principles for E-Government Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain

    The paper introduces a holistic approach for architecting systems which must sustain the entire e-government activity of a public authority. Four principles directly impact the architecture: Legality, Responsibility, Transparency, and Symmetry leading to coherent representations of the architecture for the client, the designer and the builder. The approach enables to deploy multipartite, distributed public services, including legal delegation of roles and outsourcing of non mandatory tasks through PPP.

  16. The workspace design concept: A new framework of participatory ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The concept of Workspace Design is presented as a potential new approach for ergonomists and consultants in the occupational health service. The concept is aimed as an intervention and facilitation strategy in the early stages of design processes leading to new workplaces. Preliminary results fro...

  17. Introducing E-Learning in a Norwegian Service Company with Participatory Design and Evolutionary Prototyping Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Mørch , Anders I.; Engen , Bård Ketil; Hansen Åsand , Hege-René; Brynhildsen , Camilla; Tødenes , Ida

    2004-01-01

    Over a 2-year period, we have participated in the introduction of e-learning in a Norwegian service company, a gas station division of an oil company. This company has an advanced computer network infrastructure for communication and information sharing, but the primary task of the employees is serving customers. We identify some challenges to introducing e-learning in this kind of environment. A primary emphasis has been on using participatory design techniques during the planning stages and...

  18. Participatory Design at the Museum - inquiring into children's everyday engagement in cultural heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    We address the challenge of creating intersections between children’s everyday engagement and museum exhibitions. Specifically, we propose an approach to participatory design inquiry where children’s everyday engagement is taken as the point of departure. We base our discussion on a design workshop...... – Gaming the Museum – where a primary school class was invited to participate in creating future exhibition spaces for a museum based on their everyday use of computer games and online communities. We reflect on the results of the workshop and discuss more broadly the qualities of design inquiries that use...... the everyday engagement of children as point of departure for designing interactive museum exhibitions....

  19. Cryostat design case studies, principles and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book enables the reader to learn the fundamental and applied aspects of practical cryostat design by examining previous design choices and resulting cryostat performance. Through a series of extended case studies the book presents an overview of existing cryostat design covering a wide range of cryostat types and applications, including the magnet cryostats that comprise the majority of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, space-borne cryostats containing sensors operating below 1 K, and large cryogenic liquid storage vessels. It starts with an introductory section on the principles of cryostat design including practical data and equations. This section is followed by a series of case studies on existing cryostats, describing the specific requirements of the cryostat, the challenges involved and the design choices made along with the resulting performance of the cryostat. The cryostat examples used in the studies are chosen to cover a broad range of cryostat applications and the authors of each case are ...

  20. Overlapping research and design phases through participatory strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casciola, Lara Clare; Vasco, Maria Crucera; Grøndal, Esben

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the implications, with regard to service design education, of a project in the second semester of the Service Systems Design Master’s program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The learning objective of this project is to develop student capabilities in the design and deploy......This paper explores the implications, with regard to service design education, of a project in the second semester of the Service Systems Design Master’s program at Aalborg University in Copenhagen. The learning objective of this project is to develop student capabilities in the design...... and deployment of service concepts within a systemic environment. Topics introduced as part of the program’s curriculum in this semester that contribute to engaging students in this type of thinking include both technical (production systems, IT systems) and social (user participation and social innovation......) aspects. As the case study is discussed, note will be taken of the influence of this educational approach in the design team’s choices throughout the project process. Through this exploration, a discussion can be held on the opportunities and challenges presented to students as they attempt to combine...

  1. Y-12 Sustainable Design Principles for Building Design and Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J. G.

    2008-11-01

    B&W Y-12 is committed to modernizing the Y-12 complex to meet future needs with a sustainable and responsive infrastructure and to integrating sustainability principles and practices into Y-12 work (Y72-001, B&W Y-12 Environmental, Safety and Health Policy). This commitment to sustainability and specifically sustainable design of buildings is also incorporated into Presidential Executive Orders (EO), DOE Orders (DOE O), and goals. Sustainable building design is an approach to design, construct, and operate facilities in an efficient and environmentally sound manner that will produce a healthful, resource-efficient and productive working environment that is inherently protective of the environment. The DOE has established the following 5 Guiding Principles for High Performance Sustainable Building (HPSB), and has issued directives that require Y-12 to incorporate the principles and a number of supporting specific practices and techniques into building design, construction and renovation projects: (1) Employ Integrated Design Principles; (2) Optimize Energy Performance; (3) Protect and Conserve Water; (4) Enhance Indoor Environmental Quality; and (5) Reduce Environmental Impact of Materials. The purpose of this document is to present the required sustainable building principles, practices and techniques, summarize the key drivers for incorporating them into Y-12 projects, and present additional recommendations and resources that can be used to support sustainable buildings to enhance the environmental and economic performance of the Y-12 Complex.

  2. Middle School Program and Participatory Planning Drive School Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Uses the example of award-winning Black Hawk Middle School in Minnesota to examine: (1) developing a middle school architecture; (2) benefits of the house concept; (3) the need for staff involvement in school design; (4) assembling houses into schools; (5) reduced discipline problems; (6) fostering teacher collaboration; and (7) measuring success.…

  3. Participation as a matter of concern in participatory design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Danholt, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2015-01-01

    an analytical understanding of participation. It is argued that participation is a matter of concern, something inherently unsettled, to be investigated and explicated in every design project. Specifically, it is argued that (1) participation is an act overtaken by numerous others, rather than carried out...

  4. A participatory systems approach to design for safer integrated medicine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Gyuchan Thomas; Canham, Aneurin; Altuna-Palacios, Ander; Ward, James R; Bhamra, Ran; Rogers, Stephen; Dutt, Amalin; Shah, Priyal

    2018-01-01

    It is recognised that whole systems approaches are required in the design and development of complex health care services. Application of a systems approach benefits from the involvement of key stakeholders. However, participation in the context of community based health care is particularly challenging due to busy and geographically distributed stakeholders. This study used action research to investigate what processes and methods were needed to successfully employ a participatory systems approach. Three participatory workshops planned and facilitated by method experts were held with 30 representative stakeholders. Various methods were used with them and evaluated through an audit of workshop outputs and a qualitative questionnaire. Findings on the method application and participation are presented and methodological challenges are discussed with reference to further research. Practitioner Summary: This study provides practical insights on how to apply a participatory systems approach to complex health care service design. Various template-based methods for systems thinking and risk-based thinking were efficiently and effectively applied with stakeholders.

  5. Values-led Participatory Design as a pursuit of meaningful alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Tuck Wah; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Participatory Design (PD) is inherently concerned with inquiring into and supporting human values when designing IT. We argue that a PD approach that is led by a focus upon participants' values can allow participants to discover meaningful alternatives -- alternative uses and alternative...... conceptualizations for IT that are particularly meaningful to them. However, how PD works with values in the design process has not been made explicit. In this paper, we aim to (i) explicate this values-led PD approach, (ii) illustrate how this approach can lead to outcomes that are meaningful alternatives, and (iii...

  6. Participatory knowledge-management design: A semiotic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valtolina, Stefano; Barricelli, Barbara Rita; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    vocabularies, notations, and suitable visual structures for navigating among interface elements. To this end, the paper describes how our semiotic approach supports processes for representing, storing, accessing, and transferring knowledge through which the information architecture of an interactive system can......The aim of this paper is to present a design strategy for collaborative knowledge-management systems based on a semiotic approach. The contents and structure of experts' knowledge is highly dependent on professional or individual practice. Knowledge-management systems that support cooperation...... a semiotic perspective to computer application and human–computer interaction. From a semiotic perspective, the computer application is both a message from the designer to the user about the structure of the problem domain, as well as about interaction with it, and a structured channel for the user...

  7. The Use of User-Centered Participatory Design in Serious Games for Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Maria R; Williams, Alishia D

    2017-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using serious games to deliver or complement healthcare interventions for mental health, particularly for the most common mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression. Initial results seem promising, yet variations exist in the effectiveness of serious games, highlighting the importance of understanding optimal design features. It has been suggested that the involvement of end-users in the design and decision-making process could influence game effectiveness. In user-centered design (UCD) or participatory design (PD), users are involved in stages of the process, including planning, designing, implementing, and testing the serious game. To the authors' knowledge, no literature review to date has assessed the use of UCD/PD in games that are designed for mental health, specifically for anxiety or depression. The aim of this review is, therefore, to document the extent to which published studies of serious games that are designed to prevent or treat anxiety and depression have adopted a PD framework. A search of keywords in PubMed and PsychINFO databases through to December 2016 was conducted. We identified 20 serious games developed to prevent, treat or complement existing therapies for anxiety and/or depression. Half (N = 10; 50%) of these games were developed with input from the intended end-users, in either informant (N = 7; 70%) or full participatory co-design roles (N = 3; 30%). Less than half of games (45%) included users only in the testing phase.

  8. Design Principles for Natural and Hybrid Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation. ....... The hybrid ventilation concepts, design challenges and principles are discussed and illustrated by four building examples.......For many years mechanical and natural ventilation systems have developed separately. Naturally, the next step in this development is the development of ventilation concepts that utilize and combine the best features from each system to create a new type of ventilation system- Hybrid Ventilation...

  9. How do the design features of health hackathons contribute to participatory medicine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Day

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Hackathon concept is attracting interest as a vehicle for participatory development in both Health and Information systems. Publically available datasets, cloud based data storage, and increasingly sophisticated analytical methods, combined with user friendly development tools for mobile devices are inspiring innovation in the participatory medicine space. This has the potential to disrupt traditional methods and deliver solutions more rapidly, and in a form more likely to meet requirements. In health applications this involves putting the patient and their supports at the centre of design. This work contributes to solving the challenges involved in bringing a diverse cohort of designers, developers, problem owners, healthcare providers, patients, and citizens together to solve user-driven self-care problems using technology. We use a descriptive case study approach focussing on two weekend-long hackathons dubbed “Health Hackathon: Solving Self-care”. We gather thick data from multiple sources according to the process defined by Geertz (1994 first, to provide a rich picture of the role of hackathons in participatory medicine and second, to contribute evidence to the practise of running a hackathon. Some key originalities of our work include seeking more candid responses via self-serve interviews. Through this, controversially, we noted a marked emphasis on the creative process over concerns for privacy and ethics around the personal data cloud created by hackathon products. We build on existing theories of participatory medicine and emerging methodologies for conducting hackathons to provide evidence of the efficacy of the hacking approach both in terms of outcome and team dynamics. Through interviews, observation, twitter feeds and a pre-survey, we identify a number of success factors including (1 group size, (2 maturity of the idea, (3 level of involvement of a mentor, and (4 involvement of students. In addition we identify five skills

  10. User-centric incentive design for participatory mobile phone sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Lu, Haoyang

    2014-05-01

    Mobile phone sensing is a critical underpinning of pervasive mobile computing, and is one of the key factors for improving people's quality of life in modern society via collective utilization of the on-board sensing capabilities of people's smartphones. The increasing demands for sensing services and ambient awareness in mobile environments highlight the necessity of active participation of individual mobile users in sensing tasks. User incentives for such participation have been continuously offered from an application-centric perspective, i.e., as payments from the sensing server, to compensate users' sensing costs. These payments, however, are manipulated to maximize the benefits of the sensing server, ignoring the runtime flexibility and benefits of participating users. This paper presents a novel framework of user-centric incentive design, and develops a universal sensing platform which translates heterogenous sensing tasks to a generic sensing plan specifying the task-independent requirements of sensing performance. We use this sensing plan as input to reduce three categories of sensing costs, which together cover the possible sources hindering users' participation in sensing.

  11. Construction principles and design rules in the case of circular design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romme, A.G.L.; Endenburg, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes science-based organization design that uses construction principles and design rules to guide practitioner-academic projects. Organization science implies construction principles for creating and implementing designs. These principles serve to construct design rules that are

  12. Writing participatory design: a workshop on interpreting, accounting and novel forms of reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, Ann; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    This workshop asks participatory designers and researchers to consider how they write about their work and what role there is for novel approaches to expression, forms drawn from other disciplines, and open and playful texts. As we bring social science and humanities sensibilities to bear...... reflections on designing? How far are we making our practice even as we write? Is the page a contemplative or collaborative space? Does the tyranny of the conference paper overwrite everything? Join us for this day of reading, writing and discussion about how we tell the stories that matter most to us....

  13. Writing Participatory Design – A Workshop on Interpreting, Accounting and Novel Forms of Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Light, Ann; Malmborg, Lone; Messeter, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    This workshop asks participatory designers and researchers to consider how they write about their work and what role there is for novel approaches to expression, forms drawn from other disciplines, and open and playful texts. As we bring social science and humanities sensibilities to bear...... reflections on designing? How far are we making our practice even as we write? Is the page a contemplative or collaborative space? Does the tyranny of the conference paper overwrite everything? Join us for this day of reading, writing and discussion about how we tell the stories that matter most to us....

  14. Participatory design methods for the development of a clinical telehealth service for neonatal homecare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne Holm, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte; Smith, Anthony C; Clemensen, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal homecare delivered during home visits by neonatal nurses is a common method for supporting families of preterm infants following discharge. Telehealth has been introduced for the provision of neonatal homecare, resulting in positive feedback from parents of preterm infants. While the benefits are beginning to be realised, widespread uptake of telehealth has been limited due to a range of logistical challenges. Understanding user requirements is important when planning and developing a clinical telehealth service. We therefore used participatory design to develop a clinical telehealth service for neonatal homecare. The study adopted a participatory design approach to engage users in the development and design of a new telehealth service. Participatory design embraces qualitative research methods. Creative and technical workshops were conducted as part of the study. Tests of the telehealth service were conducted in the neonatal unit. Participants in this study were former and current parents of preterm infants eligible for neonatal homecare, and clinical staff (medical and nursing) from the neonatal unit. Preterm infants accompanied their parents. Based on the results obtained during the workshops and subsequent testing, we developed an application (app), which was integrated into the medical record at the neonatal unit. The app was used to initiate videoconferences and chat messages between the family at home and the neonatal unit, and to share information regarding infant growth and well-being. Results obtained from the workshops and testing demonstrated the importance of involving users when developing new telehealth applications. The workshops helped identify the challenges associated with delivery of the service, and helped instruct the design of a new telehealth service for neonatal homecare based on the needs of parents and clinical staff.

  15. Two Eyes, 3D: Stereoscopic Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Aaron; Subbarao, M.; Wyatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    Two Eyes, 3D is a NSF-funded research project about how people perceive highly spatial objects when shown with 2D or stereoscopic ("3D") representations. As part of the project, we produced a short film about SN 2011fe. The high definition film has been rendered in both 2D and stereoscopic formats. It was developed according to a set of stereoscopic design principles we derived from the literature and past experience producing and studying stereoscopic films. Study participants take a pre- and post-test that involves a spatial cognition assessment and scientific knowledge questions about Type-1a supernovae. For the evaluation, participants use iPads in order to record spatial manipulation of the device and look for elements of embodied cognition. We will present early results and also describe the stereoscopic design principles and the rationale behind them. All of our content and software is available under open source licenses. More information is at www.twoeyes3d.org.

  16. Design principles for robust oscillatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Hair, Sebastian M; Villota, Elizabeth R; Coronado, Alberto M

    2015-09-01

    Oscillatory responses are ubiquitous in regulatory networks of living organisms, a fact that has led to extensive efforts to study and replicate the circuits involved. However, to date, design principles that underlie the robustness of natural oscillators are not completely known. Here we study a three-component enzymatic network model in order to determine the topological requirements for robust oscillation. First, by simulating every possible topological arrangement and varying their parameter values, we demonstrate that robust oscillators can be obtained by augmenting the number of both negative feedback loops and positive autoregulations while maintaining an appropriate balance of positive and negative interactions. We then identify network motifs, whose presence in more complex topologies is a necessary condition for obtaining oscillatory responses. Finally, we pinpoint a series of simple architectural patterns that progressively render more robust oscillators. Together, these findings can help in the design of more reliable synthetic biomolecular networks and may also have implications in the understanding of other oscillatory systems.

  17. Participatory Communication Referred to Meta-Design Approach through the FleXpeaker™ Application of Innovative Material in Exhibition Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsuan Su

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Modelling a communication system in material culture today always involves with objects, people, organizations, activities and interrelationships among them. The researcher suggests bringing together stakeholders engaged to exchange ideas, which the interactions relate to multiple professions and disciplines in a participatory scope of communication system. Owing to the invention of digital media, the status quo of images and sounds has revolutionized and caused changes of the mode of art exhibitions that produce activities and aesthetic concepts in terms of numerical representation, modularity, automation, visual variability and transcoding. Underlying a participatory-design approach, the research emphasizes a co-creative meta-interpretation of museum‟s visitors. In addition, the research delves further into the use of new media-FleXpeaker™ [ITRI], as the carrier. Combining art and design with innovative technology, the research focuses on examining design objects and innovative material which are applied in new media art and exhibition, in the hope to find new angles of participatory interpretation of the “integrated innovation” in curating an exhibition.

  18. The Techniques of Participatory Design for Inclusive Public Space Provision in Kampung Kota of Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H Kusumaningdyah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of participatory design is essential for the future development knowledge of architecture to inform the improvement of architectural education and practice in Asia. Therefore to provide of inclusive public spaces for the community, this research article presents a field study of the usage of community participation design method in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces within the kampung (settlements in Surakarta, Indonesia. Surakarta has a problem to provide inclusive public space for its dense organic-informal kampung’s for the vulnerable populations such as children. Multi dimensional complexities of the kampung’s often challenge the notion of public space provision. Community participation approach arises as one of the preferred alternative methods to solve the problems with its basic community-based foundation. This research chose Sangkrah and Gandekan sub-districts as research locations both of the areas represent kampung’s characteristics and inhabited by many children population. Steps toward the goal of the study are; (1 field observation of the implementation of a community participation design through participatory place making project, and (2 examining typology assessment perspective, and (3 clarify participation techniques. This research used: (1 descriptive analysis for the project implementation, and (2 qualitative analysis for examining community’s perspectives. Through this multi-perspective analysis, this research presents the an alternative framework for implementing techniques community participation methods in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces especially for children in Indonesia and other developing countries.

  19. Digital publics and participatory education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. McNely

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article—a collaborative exploration between instructors, students, and members of the broader, digital classroom community—explores how the strategic incorporation of sociotechnical networks and digital technologies facilitates literate practices that extend the classroom in productive ways. The article builds toward coauthors’ reflective practices (Schön, 1983, or “participatory perspectives”, had during an undergraduate English Studies course at a mid-sized, public, American university. Specifically, participants argue that these literate practices afforded not just information sharing, but the opening up of a traditional classroom to include broader digital publics and collaborative knowledge work (Spinuzzi, 2006. Toward this end, we ground literate practice in scholarship that attends to public writing in online spaces, and theoretically frame our argument using Jenkins et al.’s (2006 principles of participatory education. We then detail the specific curricular approach deliberately designed to create digitally connected publics and end with generalizable significance of coauthors’ participatory perspectives.

  20. The new international certification and design principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnen, W.H.P.M.; Heineman, H.

    1995-01-01

    ISO/TC 67 deals with standardization of Equipment for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries at a global level. The paper will provide the reader with insight in the Certification system as well as its link with Design. It will explain how the total process fits in the business structure of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry, with the focus on the emerging concepts such as partnering, turn key contracts, the developments in the EC and the need to reduce costs at a global basis. The paper will also address the topic of Design Principles based on the results of the study performed for ISO/TC 67. The paper will provide a framework that can be used by the industry in how to deal with issues such as, there shall the activity of the Operator be focused on when ordering equipment or services and how the manufacturer or service provider should prepare himself to become an equal partner with regard to the required equipment, service and its associated technology now and in the future. In the changing world with ever increasing focus on Health, Safety and Environment (HSE), the topic efficiency, technology, equipment performance and functionality should not be overlooked or been given less attention. The Certification and Design principles, implemented in standards, aim predominantly at Fitness for Purpose of equipment and/or services to regain the balance. A further aim is to limit consequential costs due to deficiencies in the broadest sense, allowing the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry to produce oil and gas in a cost effective manner with the highest possible HSE targets

  1. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    In this paper we discuss the potential for Participatory Design (PD) to make a fundamental contribution to the business-oriented field of user-driven innovation, taking note of where we find PD can best benefit from interaction with this other field. We examine some of the challenges that must...... be addressed if PD is to contribute to innovation processes in companies. We conclude by presenting a research agenda comprising of six promising topics to shape a new discipline of Participatory Innovation....

  2. Novel Natural Convection Heat Sink Design Concepts From First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES by Derek E. Fletcher June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Garth Hobson Second Reader...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NOVEL NATURAL CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...CONVECTION HEAT SINK DESIGN CONCEPTS FROM FIRST PRINCIPLES Derek E. Fletcher Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy B.S., Southwestern

  3. Basic design principles of colorimetric vision systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumzhiu, Alex M.

    1998-10-01

    Color measurement is an important part of overall production quality control in textile, coating, plastics, food, paper and other industries. The color measurement instruments such as colorimeters and spectrophotometers, used for production quality control have many limitations. In many applications they cannot be used for a variety of reasons and have to be replaced with human operators. Machine vision has great potential for color measurement. The components for color machine vision systems, such as broadcast quality 3-CCD cameras, fast and inexpensive PCI frame grabbers, and sophisticated image processing software packages are available. However the machine vision industry has only started to approach the color domain. The few color machine vision systems on the market, produced by the largest machine vision manufacturers have very limited capabilities. A lack of understanding that a vision based color measurement system could fail if it ignores the basic principles of colorimetry is the main reason for the slow progress of color vision systems. the purpose of this paper is to clarify how color measurement principles have to be applied to vision systems and how the electro-optical design features of colorimeters have to be modified in order to implement them for vision systems. The subject of this presentation far exceeds the limitations of a journal paper so only the most important aspects will be discussed. An overview of the major areas of applications for colorimetric vision system will be discussed. Finally, the reasons why some customers are happy with their vision systems and some are not will be analyzed.

  4. Personnel Selection Using Fuzzy Axiomatic Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant V. Khandekar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Overall competency of the working personnel is often observed to ultimately affect the productivity of an organization. The globalised competitive atmosphere coupled with technological improvements demands for efficient and specialized manpower for the industrial operations. A set of typical technological skills and attitudes is thus demanded for every job profile. Most often, these skills and attitudes are expressed imprecisely and hence, necessitating the support of fuzzy sets for their effective understanding and further processing. In this paper, a method based on fuzzy axiomatic design principles is applied for solving the personnel selection problems. Selecting a middle management staff of a service department for a large scale organization is demonstrated here as a real life example. Five shortlisted candidates are assessed with respect to a set of 18 evaluation criteria, and the selection committee with experts from the related fields also realizes the outcome of the adopted approach to be quite appropriate, befitting and in agreement with their expectations.

  5. Participatory design in lean production: which contribution from employees? For what end?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Toralla, M S; Falzon, P; Morais, A

    2012-01-01

    The proponents of lean production have pointed to the positive effects of the work organization on employees in terms of autonomy, enhanced skills and empowerment mainly by their participation into the continuous improvement of work process. But studies that have examined this issue suggest that the increase in autonomy is not sufficient to compensate for increases work intensity. Participatory design has grown extensively in manufacturing since the 1980's under the impulsion of the Scandinavian socio-technical system approach and it's central in the model of lean production performance. Its main objectives are to improve quality, increase productivity and safety through employee's participation to the reduction of non-value added activities, such as defined by lean production. In the line of the studies on participatory design and continuous improvement the present study examines the functioning of work groups, based on the kaizen model, the aim of which was to improve the proportion of "value-added activities" and working conditions, essentially physical constraints. The main results are consistent with the literature and show that accelerated forms of re-conception activities give employees limited room for maneuver to elaborate solutions based on the analysis of the real activity. This study is part of a broader initiative that goes in the direction of continuous improvement of the design process itself so that it integrates the real constraints of work and propose changes bases on work as it actually takes place, beyond pre-established performance goals bases on the reduction of "non added value activities".

  6. Participatory design of probability-based decision support tools for in-hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alvin D; Novak, Laurie L; Kennedy, Betsy; Dietrich, Mary S; Mion, Lorraine C

    2017-11-01

    To describe nurses' preferences for the design of a probability-based clinical decision support (PB-CDS) tool for in-hospital clinical deterioration. A convenience sample of bedside nurses, charge nurses, and rapid response nurses (n = 20) from adult and pediatric hospitals completed participatory design sessions with researchers in a simulation laboratory to elicit preferred design considerations for a PB-CDS tool. Following theme-based content analysis, we shared findings with user interface designers and created a low-fidelity prototype. Three major themes and several considerations for design elements of a PB-CDS tool surfaced from end users. Themes focused on "painting a picture" of the patient condition over time, promoting empowerment, and aligning probability information with what a nurse already believes about the patient. The most notable design element consideration included visualizing a temporal trend of the predicted probability of the outcome along with user-selected overlapping depictions of vital signs, laboratory values, and outcome-related treatments and interventions. Participants expressed that the prototype adequately operationalized requests from the design sessions. Participatory design served as a valuable method in taking the first step toward developing PB-CDS tools for nurses. This information about preferred design elements of tools that support, rather than interrupt, nurses' cognitive workflows can benefit future studies in this field as well as nurses' practice. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  7. Incentive Schemes for Participatory Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Radanovic, Goran; Faltings, Boi

    2015-01-01

    We consider a participatory sensing scenario where a group of private sensors observes the same phenomenon, such as air pollution. Since sensors need to be installed and maintained, owners of sensors are inclined to provide inaccurate or random data. We design a novel payment mechanism that incentivizes honest behavior by scoring sensors based on the quality of their reports. The basic principle follows the standard Bayesian Truth Serum (BTS) paradigm, where highest rewards are obtained for r...

  8. Participatory Design to Enhance ICT Learning and Community Attachment: A Case Study in Rural Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Huang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used observation and interviews with participants in “PunCar Action” to understand how participatory design methods can be applied to the education of rural individuals in information and communication technology (ICT. PunCar Action is a volunteer program in which ICT educators tour the rural communities of Taiwan, offering courses on the use of digital technology. This paper makes three contributions: First, we found that participatory design is an excellent way to teach ICT and Web 2.0 skills, co-create community blogs, and sustain intrinsic motivation to use Web applications. Second, PunCar Action provides an innovative bottom-up intergenerational ICT education model with high penetrability capable of enhancing the confidence of rural residents in the use of ICT. Third, the content of basic courses was based on applications capable of making the lives of elderly individuals more convenient, and the advanced course was based on the co-creation of community blogs aimed at reviving the core functions of communities and expanding local industry. Our research was conducted with the use of a non-quantitative index to measure ICT learning performance of participants from a rural community. The results show that PunCar Action emphasizes interpersonal communication and informational applications and creates a collaborative process that encourages rural residents to take action to close the digital divide.

  9. Developing design principles for a Virtual Hospice: improving access to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrea; French, Tara; Raman, Sneha

    2018-03-01

    Providing access to hospice services will become increasingly difficult due to the pressures of an ageing population and limited resources. To help address this challenge, a small number of services called Virtual Hospice have been established. This paper presents early-stage design work on a Virtual Hospice to improve access to services provided by a hospice (Highland Hospice) serving a largely remote and rural population in Scotland, UK. The study was structured as a series of Experience Labs with Highland Hospice staff, healthcare professionals and patients. Experience Labs employ a participatory design approach where participants are placed at the centre of the design process, helping to ensure that the resultant service meets their needs. Data from the Experience Labs were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and design analysis. A number of themes and barriers to accessing Highland Hospice services were identified. In response, an initial set of seven design principles was developed. Design principles are high-level guidelines that are used to improve prioritisation and decision making during the design process by ensuring alignment with research insights. The design principles were piloted with a group of stakeholders and gained positive feedback. The design principles are intended to guide the ongoing development of the Highland Hospice Virtual Hospice. However, the challenges faced by Highland Hospice in delivering services in a largely remote and rural setting are not unique. The design principles, encompassing digital and non-digital guidelines, or the design approach could be applied by other hospices in the UK or overseas. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Is participatory design associated with the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion? A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents ac...

  11. Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma C; Chandler, Clare I R; Innocent, Simeon H S; Kalumuna, Charles; Terlouw, Dianne J; Lalloo, David G; Staedke, Sarah G; Haaland, Ane

    2012-01-01

    The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality

  12. Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Davies

    Full Text Available The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV relies on adverse event (AE reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings

  13. Materials design principles of ancient fish armour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruet, Benjamin J. F.; Song, Juha; Boyce, Mary C.; Ortiz, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Knowledge of the structure-property-function relationships of dermal scales of armoured fish could enable pathways to improved bioinspired human body armour, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origins of mineralized tissues. Here, we present a multiscale experimental and computational approach that reveals the materials design principles present within individual ganoid scales from the `living fossil' Polypterus senegalus. This fish belongs to the ancient family Polypteridae, which first appeared 96 million years ago during the Cretaceous period and still retains many of their characteristics. The mechanistic origins of penetration resistance (approximating a biting attack) were investigated and found to include the juxtaposition of multiple distinct reinforcing composite layers that each undergo their own unique deformation mechanisms, a unique spatial functional form of mechanical properties with regions of differing levels of gradation within and between material layers, and layers with an undetectable gradation, load-dependent effective material properties, circumferential surface cracking, orthogonal microcracking in laminated sublayers and geometrically corrugated junctions between layers.

  14. Move the Neighbourhood: a novel study design of a participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR......) to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. METHODS: The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design including two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study....... During spring 2017 the interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban...

  15. A RFID specific participatory design approach to support design and implementation of real-time location systems in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2015-01-01

    Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs.

  16. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    strategic modernization program at a nuclear power plant where legacy systems are upgraded to advanced digital technologies through a systematic process that links human factors principles to the systems engineering process. This approach will help to create an integrated control room architecture beyond what is possible for individual subsystem upgrades alone. In addition, several human factors design and evaluation methods were used to develop the end-state concept, including interactive sessions with operators in INL’s Human System Simulation Laboratory, three-dimensional modeling to visualize control board changes.

  17. Appreciating the Persona paradox: lessons from participatory design sessions with HIV+ gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Phillips, Craig; Currie, Leanne M

    2014-01-01

    Eliciting user requirements from HIV-positive gay men who smoke can be challenging. This is because of the complex relationship between social stigma and gender identities (e.g., gay, masculine, HIV+, and smoking status). Inspired to engage HIV-positive gay men in the development of a web-assisted tobacco intervention, we used personas as a main communication tool in our participatory design sessions. Personas are characters created by users that embody part of their own behaviours, thoughts, and motivations. In an apparent paradox, this article is a description of how the use of personas to ensure less realistic self-representation provided an impetus for more self-disclosure. Findings and feedbacks from this study reveal that personas are an effective design tool to engage users in sensitive topics. Implications for future work are also discussed.

  18. Impediments to User Gains: Experiences from a Critical Participatory Design Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2012-01-01

    interviews with participants in a project aimed at developing technology that fosters engaging museum experiences, and rethinking cultural heritage communication. Despite the use of established PD techniques by experienced PD practitioners, a significant number of frustrations relating to the PD process were...... prominent in the research study. Based on these findings, we provide an analysis of impediments for users gains in PD projects: Differences between aims were unresolved, absence of a shared set-up for collaboration and different conceptions of technology.......Actual studies of user gains from involvement in design processes are few, although a concern for users’ gains is a core characteristic of participatory design (PD). We explore the question of user gains through a retrospective evaluation of a critical PD project. We conducted ten qualitative...

  19. Participatory design methods for the development of a clinical telehealth service for neonatal homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne Holm, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    . While the benefits are beginning to be realised, widespread uptake of telehealth has been limited due to a range of logistical challenges. Understanding user requirements is important when planning and developing a clinical telehealth service. We therefore used participatory design to develop a clinical...... on the results obtained during the workshops and subsequent testing, we developed an application (app), which was integrated into the medical record at the neonatal unit. The app was used to initiate videoconferences and chat messages between the family at home and the neonatal unit, and to share information...... regarding infant growth and well-being. CONCLUSION: Results obtained from the workshops and testing demonstrated the importance of involving users when developing new telehealth applications. The workshops helped identify the challenges associated with delivery of the service, and helped instruct the design...

  20. Design in mind: eliciting service user and frontline staff perspectives on psychiatric ward design through participatory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csipke, Emese; Papoulias, Constantina; Vitoratou, Silia; Williams, Paul; Rose, Diana; Wykes, Til

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric ward design may make an important contribution to patient outcomes and well-being. However, research is hampered by an inability to assess its effects robustly. This paper reports on a study which deployed innovative methods to capture service user and staff perceptions of ward design. User generated measures of the impact of ward design were developed and tested on four acute adult wards using participatory methodology. Additionally, inpatients took photographs to illustrate their experience of the space in two wards. Data were compared across wards. Satisfactory reliability indices emerged based on both service user and staff responses. Black and minority ethnic (BME) service users and those with a psychosis spectrum diagnosis have more positive views of the ward layout and fixtures. Staff members have more positive views than service users, while priorities of staff and service users differ. Inpatient photographs prioritise hygiene, privacy and control and address symbolic aspects of the ward environment. Participatory and visual methodologies can provide robust tools for an evaluation of the impact of psychiatric ward design on users.

  1. From qualification design to training design using ECVET principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Wastin, Franck

    2017-01-01

    The Joint Research Centre of European Commission was designated in 2009 as Operating agent of European Human Resources Observatory - in Nuclear (EHRO@N). EHRO@N identified the nuclear sector's major challenges: to fill@in the 30 % gap between HR demand and supply in decommissioning and to adapt nuclear E and T system to comply more to the labour market demands. The process of nuclear training system adaptation to the labour market needs is based on the design of the flexible qualifications (unit based qualifications) using European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) principles. The process of ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector is ongoing since 2011 and is based on the strategy and road map developed by EHRO-N. The current paper presents the latest developments on the designing of training programs based on exit outcomes.

  2. From qualification design to training design using ECVET principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceclan, Mihail; Wastin, Franck [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Directorate Nuclear Safety and Security

    2017-05-15

    The Joint Research Centre of European Commission was designated in 2009 as Operating agent of European Human Resources Observatory - in Nuclear (EHRO@N). EHRO@N identified the nuclear sector's major challenges: to fill@in the 30 % gap between HR demand and supply in decommissioning and to adapt nuclear E and T system to comply more to the labour market demands. The process of nuclear training system adaptation to the labour market needs is based on the design of the flexible qualifications (unit based qualifications) using European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET) principles. The process of ECVET implementation in the nuclear energy sector is ongoing since 2011 and is based on the strategy and road map developed by EHRO-N. The current paper presents the latest developments on the designing of training programs based on exit outcomes.

  3. Exploring governance learning: How policymakers draw on evidence, experience and intuition in designing participatory flood risk planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newig, Jens; Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    The importance of designing suitable participatory governance processes is generally acknowledged. However, less emphasis has been put on how decision-makers design such processes, and how they learn about doing so. While the policy learning literature has tended to focus on the substance of policy, little research is available on learning about the design of governance. Here, we explore different approaches to learning among German policymakers engaged in implementing the European Floods Directive. We draw on official planning documents and expert interviews with state-level policymakers to focus on learning about the procedural aspects of designing and conducting participatory flood risk management planning. Drawing on the policy learning and evidence-based governance literatures, we conceptualise six types of instrumental 'governance learning' according to sources of learning (endogenous and exogenous) and modes of learning (serial and parallel). We empirically apply this typology in the context of diverse participatory flood risk management planning processes currently unfolding across the German federal states. We find that during the first Floods Directive planning cycle, policymakers have tended to rely on prior experience in their own federal states with planning under the Water Framework Directive to inform the design and carrying out of participatory processes. In contrast, policymakers only sporadically look to experiences from other jurisdictions as a deliberate learning strategy. We argue that there is scope for more coordinated and systematic learning on designing effective governance, and that the latter might benefit from more openness to experimentation and learning on the part of policymakers.

  4. Community-based participatory research to design a faith-enhanced diabetes prevention program: The Better Me Within randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzman, Heather; Dodgen, Leilani; Mamun, Abdullah; Slater, J Lee; King, George; Slater, Donna; King, Alene; Mandapati, Surendra; DeHaven, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Reducing obesity positively impacts diabetes and cardiovascular risk; however, evidence-based lifestyle programs, such as the diabetes prevention program (DPP), show reduced effectiveness in African American (AA) women. In addition to an attenuated response to lifestyle programs, AA women also demonstrate high rates of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To address these disparities, enhancements to evidence-based lifestyle programs for AA women need to be developed and evaluated with culturally relevant and rigorous study designs. This study describes a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to design a novel faith-enhancement to the DPP for AA women. A long-standing CBPR partnership designed the faith-enhancement from focus group data (N=64 AA adults) integrating five components: a brief pastor led sermon, memory verse, in class or take-home faith activity, promises to remember, and scripture and prayer integrated into participant curriculum and facilitator materials. The faith components were specifically linked to weekly DPP learning objectives to strategically emphasize behavioral skills with religious principles. Using a CBPR approach, the Better Me Within trial was able to enroll 12 churches, screen 333 AA women, and randomize 221 (M age =48.8±11.2; M BMI =36.7±8.4; 52% technical or high school) after collection of objective eligibility measures. A prospective, randomized, nested by church, design will be used to evaluate the faith-enhanced DPP as compared to a standard DPP on weight, diabetes and cardiovascular risk, over a 16-week intervention and 10-month follow up. This study will provide essential data to guide enhancements to evidence-based lifestyle programs for AA women who are at high risk for chronic disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using participatory design to develop structured training in child and adolescent psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah J; Ringsted, Charlotte; Bonde, Mie

    2009-01-01

    identified three key issues to consider in CAP residencies: (1) Preparation for tasks postgraduate trainees are expected to fulfil, (2) Ensuring acquisition of physician-specific knowledge and skills, and (3) Clarifying roles and professional identity within the team. A structured training programme......CONTEXT: Learning during residency in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) is primarily work-based and has traditionally been opportunistic. There are increasing demands from both postgraduate trainees and medical organisations for structured programmes with defined learning outcomes. OBJECTIVES......: Participatory design was used to structure a learning and assessment programme in CAP. First, during working seminars, consultants and postgraduate trainees were interviewed about the characteristics of the learning and working in CAP. These interviews were audio taped, transcribed and analyzed for recurrent...

  6. Commentary on a participatory inquiry paradigm used to assess EOL simulation participant outcomes and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Jane M

    2017-11-20

    Care at the end-of-life has attracted global attention, as health care workers struggle with balancing cure based care with end-of-life care, and knowing when to transition from the former to the latter. Simulation is gaining in popularity as an education strategy to facilitate health care provider decision-making by improving communication skills with patients and family members. This commentary focuses on the authors' simulation evaluation process. When data were assessed using a participatory inquiry paradigm, the evaluation revealed far more than a formative or summative evaluation of participant knowledge and skills in this area of care. Consequently, this assessment strategy has ramifications for best practices for simulation design and evaluation.

  7. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  8. Co-designing energy landscapes: Application of participatory mapping and geographic information systems in the exploration of low carbon futures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.; Picchi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The chapter begins with a literature review of energy potential mapping, ecosystem services (ES) assessment and participatory mapping (PM). PM is a key technique to conduct tradeoff analysis while co-designing sustainable energy landscapes (SEL) with local communities. Stakeholders, among others,

  9. Participatory IT-support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents...

  10. General design safety principles for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides the safety principles and the approach that have been used to implement the Code in the Safety Guides. These safety principles and the approach are tied closely to the safety analyses needed to assist the design process, and are used to verify the adequacy of nuclear power plant designs. This Guide also provides a framework for the use of other design Safety Guides. However, although it explains the principles on which the other Safety Guides are based, the requirements for specific applications of these principles are mostly found in the other Guides

  11. Human Systems Interface Design Methods Using Ecological Interface Design Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seung Kweon; Park, Jung Chul; Kim, Sun Su; Sim, Kwang Pyo; Yuk, Seung Yul; Choi, Jae Hyeon; Yoon, Seung Hyun

    2009-12-01

    The results of this study categorized into two parts. The first part is the guidelines for EID designs. The procedure to observe for EID design is composed of 6 steps; 1) to define a target system, 2) to make an abstraction hierarchy model, 3) to check the link structure among each components included in the layers of abstraction hierarchy model, 4) to transform information requirements to variables, 5) to make the graphs related to each variables, 6) to check the graphs by visual display design principles and heuristic rules. The second part is an EID design alternative for nuclear power plant. The EID for high level function represents the energy balance and energy flow in each loop of nuclear power plant. The EID for middle level function represents the performance indicators of each equipment involved in the all processes of changing from coolants to steam. The EID for low level function represents the values measured in each equipment such as temperature, pressure, water level and so on

  12. Design Charrette as Methodology for Post-Disaster Participatory Reconstruction: Observations from a Case Study in Fukushima, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been a growing body of literature on post-disaster participatory reconstruction, a shared understanding on a participatory approach is insufficient. A design charrette is a participatory planning that is particularly suitable for situations in which multidisciplinary professionals and non-professional stakeholders collaborate to accomplish target tasks in a short period of time. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of design charrette as a methodology in the context of post-disaster reconstruction in Japan. This will be achieved through a participatory observation on a design charrette in Minamisoma City, Japan, after the Fukushima accident. The charrette includes the participation of multiple stakeholders in intercultural, intergenerational and interdisciplinary exchanges. The contributions and constraints of the charrette are analyzed on the basis of the authors’ observation, and a strategy to improve post-disaster reconstruction charrette is thereby proposed. This study shows that the charrette is a useful method for communication and collaboration in the post-disaster context. Furthermore, it also demonstrates that assuring the participation of all key stakeholders, improving the training of participants and introducing resource analysis during the charrette’s preparatory stage are the essential conditions for the legitimacy and policy compliance of the final result.

  13. Safety principles and design management of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Qirui; Cheng Pingdong

    1997-01-01

    The basic safety consideration and detailed design principles in the design of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant is elaborated. The management within the frame setting up by 'safety culture' and 'quality culture'

  14. From conception to evaluation of mobile services for people with head injury: A participatory design perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussard, Pierre-Yves; Pigot, Hélène; Giroux, Sylvain

    2018-07-01

    Adults with cognitive impairments lack the means to organise their daily life, plan their appointments, cope with fatigue, and manage their budget. They manifest interest in using new technologies to be part of society. Unfortunately, the applications offered on smart phones are often beyond their cognitive abilities. The goal of this study was to design a mobile cognitive assistant to enhance autonomy of people living with acquired traumatic brain injury. Participatory design methodologies guided this research by involving adults with cognitive impairments (CI) and their caregivers in the early stages of the design process. The population of the study is composed of four male adults who present cognitive impairments (three with head injury and one with stroke) and three caregivers. The first phase of this research was to design the Services Assistance Mobile and Intelligent (SAMI) application based on the needs expressed by the participants. During three focus groups, needs emerged concerning planning, health monitoring and money management and led to the implementation of assistive solutions on an Android mobile phone. During the second phase, the participants evaluated the mobile assistant SAMI at home for eight weeks. The results demonstrate that the participants were able to participate actively in the conception of SAMI and to use it successfully. People with CI showed a slight improvement in their life satisfaction. Due to the small number of participants, these promising results need to be confirmed by a larger-scale study.

  15. EVALUATION OF STREET FURNITURE ACCORDING TO BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES

    OpenAIRE

    GHORAB, Peyman; YÜCEL CAYMAZ, Gökçen Firdevs

    2014-01-01

    In the urban context, it is important to create more comfortable and livable environments with proper planning, design and application. Because aesthetic considerations are of more importance today, designing urban furniture to give a more beautiful appearance to cities is of high priority; designers and those working in related disciplines must be careful to observe these principles throughout the design process. This paper describes research conducted to review the aesthetic principles invo...

  16. The Value of the Operational Principle in Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    Formal design studies are increasing our insight into design processes, including those of instructional design. Lessons are being learned from other design fields, and new techniques and concepts can be imported as they are demonstrated effective. The purpose of this article is to introduce a design concept--the "operational principle"--for…

  17. Enhancing the Therapy Experience Using Principles of Video Game Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkins, John Wm; Brackenbury, Tim; Krause, Miriam; Haviland, Allison

    2016-02-01

    This article considers the potential benefits that applying design principles from contemporary video games may have on enhancing therapy experiences. Six principles of video game design are presented, and their relevance for enriching clinical experiences is discussed. The motivational and learning benefits of each design principle have been discussed in the education literature as having positive impacts on student motivation and learning and are related here to aspects of clinical practice. The essential experience principle suggests connecting all aspects of the experience around a central emotion or cognitive connection. The discovery principle promotes indirect learning in focused environments. The risk-taking principle addresses the uncertainties clients face when attempting newly learned skills in novel situations. The generalization principle encourages multiple opportunities for skill transfer. The reward system principle directly relates to the scaffolding of frequent and varied feedback in treatment. Last, the identity principle can assist clients in using their newly learned communication skills to redefine self-perceptions. These principles highlight areas for research and interventions that may be used to reinforce or advance current practice.

  18. Principle design and data of graphite components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Oku, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) constructed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is a graphite-moderated and helium-gas-cooled reactor with prismatic fuel elements of hexagonal blocks. The reactor internal structures of the HTTR are mainly made up of graphite components. As well known, the graphite is a brittle material and there were no available design criteria for brittle materials. Therefore, JAERI had to develop the design criteria taking account of the brittle fracture behavior. In this paper, concept and key specification of the developed graphite design criteria is described, and also an outline of the quality control specified in the design criteria is mentioned

  19. Participatory design of mass health communication in three languages for seniors and people with disabilities on Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Rothschild, Beccah; Graham, Carrie; Ivey, Susan L; Konishi, Susana

    2009-12-01

    We used participatory design methods to develop and test guidebooks about health care choices intended for 600 000 English-, Spanish-, and Chinese-speaking seniors and people with disabilities receiving Medicaid in California. Design and testing processes were conducted with consumers and professionals; they included 24 advisory group interviews, 36 usability tests, 18 focus groups (105 participants), 51 key informant interviews, guidebook readability and suitability testing, linguistic adaptation, and iterative revisions of 4 prototypes. Participatory design processes identified preferences of intended audiences for guidebook content, linguistic adaptation, and format; guidebook readability was scored at the sixth- to eighth-grade level and suitability at 95%. These findings informed the design of a separate efficacy study that showed high guidebook usage and satisfaction, and better gains in knowledge, confidence, and intended behaviors among intervention participants than among control participants. Participatory design can be used effectively in mass communication to inform vulnerable audiences of health care choices. The techniques described can be adapted for a broad range of health communication interventions.

  20. Urban Environment Development based on Universal Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun Ir

    2018-02-01

    Universal Design is a design which facilitated full range of human diversity. By applying Universal design principles, urban environment can be more functional and more user-friendly for everyone. This study examined five urban streets of South Korea as a country experienced on developing various urban street designs based on universal design. This study aimed to examine and compare the South Korea cases using seven principles of universal design. The research methods of this study are literature study, case study, and site observation. The results of this study are: South Korea cases are good practices, urgency of implementing the direction into local regulations; and change of urban development paradigm.

  1. Toward Instructional Design Principles: Inducing Faraday's Law with Contrasting Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Eric; Wieman, Carl E.

    2016-01-01

    Although physics education research (PER) has improved instructional practices, there are not agreed upon principles for designing effective instructional materials. Here, we illustrate how close comparison of instructional materials could support the development of such principles. Specifically, in discussion sections of a large, introductory…

  2. Design Principles for Achieving Integrated Healthcare Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii...

  3. Publish Subscribe Systems Design and Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Tarkoma, Sasu

    2012-01-01

    This book offers an unified treatment of the problems solved by publish/subscribe, how to design and implement the solutions In this book, the author provides an insight into the publish/subscribe technology including the design, implementation, and evaluation of new systems based on the technology.  The book also addresses the basic design patterns and solutions, and discusses their application in practical application scenarios. Furthermore, the author examines current standards and industry best practices as well as recent research proposals in the area. Finally, necessary content ma

  4. MWH's water treatment: principles and design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crittenden, John C

    2012-01-01

    .... The contents have been updated to cover changes to regulatory requirements, testing methodology, and design approaches, as well as the emergent topics of pharmacological agents in the water supply...

  5. Social media for health promotion in diabetes: study protocol for a participatory public health intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, E; Bradway, M; Fernandez-Luque, L; Chomutare, T; Hansen, A H; Wynn, R; Årsand, E

    2018-06-05

    Participatory health approaches are increasingly drawing attention among the scientific community, and could be used for health promotion programmes on diabetes through social media. The main aim of this project is to research how to best use social media to promote healthy lifestyles with and within the Norwegian population. The design of the health promotion intervention (HPI) will be participatory, and will involve both a panel of healthcare experts and social media users following the Norwegian Diabetes Association. The panel of experts will agree on the contents by following the Delphi method, and social media users will participate in the definition of the HPI by expressing their opinions through an adhoc online questionnaire. The agreed contents between both parties to be used in the HPI will be posted on three social media channels (Facebook, Twitter and Instagram) along 24 months. The 3 months before starting the HPI, and the 3 months after the HPI will be used as control data. The effect of the HPI will be assessed by comparing formats, frequency, and reactions to the published HPI messages, as well as comparing potential changes in five support-intended communication behaviours expressed on social media, and variations in sentiment analysis before vs during and after the HPI. The HPI's effect on social media users' health-related lifestyles, online health behaviours, and satisfaction with the intervention will be assessed every 6 months through online questionnaires. A separate questionnaire will be used to assess the panel of experts' satisfaction and perceptions of the benefits for health professionals of a HPI as this one. The time constraints of today's medical practice combined with the piling demand of chronic conditions such as diabetes make any additional request of extra time used by health care professionals a challenge. Social media channels provide efficient, ubiquitous and user-friendly platforms that can encourage participation

  6. A participatory approach to design monitoring indicators of production diseases in organic dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, J E; Fourichon, C; Madouasse, A; Sjöström, K; Emanuelson, U; Bareille, N

    2016-06-01

    indicators. This is valuable information for scientists involved in the design of HHPM programs. Advisors in the field also can benefit from this participatory approach because it transforms monitoring tools provided by scientists into farm-specific tools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Third generation participatory design in health informatics--making user participation applicable to large-scale information system projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilemalm, Sofie; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-04-01

    Participatory Design (PD) methods in the field of health informatics have mainly been applied to the development of small-scale systems with homogeneous user groups in local settings. Meanwhile, health service organizations are becoming increasingly large and complex in character, making it necessary to extend the scope of the systems that are used for managing data, information and knowledge. This study reports participatory action research on the development of a PD framework for large-scale system design. The research was conducted in a public health informatics project aimed at developing a system for 175,000 users. A renewed PD framework was developed in response to six major limitations experienced to be associated with the existing methods. The resulting framework preserves the theoretical grounding, but extends the toolbox to suit applications in networked health service organizations. Future research should involve evaluations of the framework in other health service settings where comprehensive HISs are developed.

  8. Design principles of electrical synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John

    2017-09-08

    Essentially all animals with nervous systems utilize electrical synapses as a core element of communication. Electrical synapses, formed by gap junctions between neurons, provide rapid, bidirectional communication that accomplishes tasks distinct from and complementary to chemical synapses. These include coordination of neuron activity, suppression of voltage noise, establishment of electrical pathways that define circuits, and modulation of high order network behavior. In keeping with the omnipresent demand to alter neural network function in order to respond to environmental cues and perform tasks, electrical synapses exhibit extensive plasticity. In some networks, this plasticity can have dramatic effects that completely remodel circuits or remove the influence of certain cell types from networks. Electrical synaptic plasticity occurs on three distinct time scales, ranging from milliseconds to days, with different mechanisms accounting for each. This essay highlights principles that dictate the properties of electrical coupling within networks and the plasticity of the electrical synapses, drawing examples extensively from retinal networks. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Principles of waveform diversity and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wicks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This is the first book to discuss current and future applications of waveform diversity and design in subjects such as radar and sonar, communications systems, passive sensing, and many other technologies. Waveform diversity allows researchers and system designers to optimize electromagnetic and acoustic systems for sensing, communications, electronic warfare or combinations thereof. This book enables solutions to problems, explaining how each system performs its own particular function, as well as how it is affected by other systems and how those other systems may likewise be affected. It is

  10. Design principles for radiological protection instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    This Code of Practice takes the form of recommendations intended for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation, and should also be of value to the newcomer to the R.P.I. field. Topics are discussed under the following headings: outline of R.P.I. requirements, specifying the requirement, satisfying the requirements, (overall design, availability and reliability, information display, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, and cost analysis), supply, location and operation of the equipment, importance of documentation. (U.K.)

  11. Safety principles and design criteria for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, M.

    1982-01-01

    The criteria and safety principles for the design of nuclear power stations are presented from the viewpoint of a nuclear engineer. The design, construction and operation of nuclear power stations should be carried out according to these criteria and safety principles to ensure, to a reasonable degree, that the likelihood of release of radioactivity as a result of component failure or human error should be minimized. (author)

  12. Seven principles to design for embodied sensemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummels, C.C.M.; Dijk, van J.

    2015-01-01

    The TEI-community is based a various paradigms. We believe that the community matures by scrutinising these different paradigms and unravelling the consequences for designing for tangible, embedded and embodied interaction. In this paper we explore the consequences and possibilities of

  13. Wireless sensor networks principles, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Shuang-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks presents the latest practical solutions to the design issues presented in wireless-sensor-network-based systems. Novel features of the text, distributed throughout, include workable solutions, demonstration systems and case studies of the design and application of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) based on the first-hand research and development experience of the author, and the chapters on real applications: building fire safety protection; smart home automation; and logistics resource management. Case studies and applications illustrate the practical perspectives of: ·         sensor node design; ·         embedded software design; ·         routing algorithms; ·         sink node positioning; ·         co-existence with other wireless systems; ·         data fusion; ·         security; ·         indoor location tracking; ·         integrating with radio-frequency identification; and ·         In...

  14. Design Principles for a Comprehensive Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluakar, Tamer; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes an online design featuring circulation control, catalog access, and serial holdings that uses an incremental approach to system development. Utilizing a dedicated computer, this second of three releases pays particular attention to present and predicted computing capabilities as well as trends in library automation. (Author/RAA)

  15. Participatory Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    This user guide on participatory communication aims to answer the following questions: What do we mean when we say participatory communication? What are the practical implications of working with participatory communication strategies in development and social change processes? What practical exp......, tools, and experiences on how to implement participatory communications strategies. It is targeted toward government officials, World Bank staff, develompent workers in the field, and civil society....

  16. Beyond Borders: Participatory Design Research and the Changing Role of Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-Early, Adream

    2010-01-01

    University art and design programs are branching out and creating cross-disciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to…

  17. Design principles for global commons: Natural resources and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Stern

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ostrom’s design principles for managing common pool resources were developed largely by examining local commons involving natural resources. This paper enumerates several key characteristics that distinguish such commons from more complex commons involving global resources and the risks of emerging technologies. It considers the degree to which the design principles transfer to those commons and concludes that although they have considerable external validity, the list needs some modification and elaboration to apply to global resources and risk commons. A list of design principles is offered for global resource commons and the risks of emerging technologies. Applying Ostrom’s approach to global resources and emerging technologies can improve understanding and expand the solution set for these problems from international treaties, top-down national regulation, and interventions in market pricing systems to include non-governmental institutions that embody principles of self-governance.

  18. Wind turbine technology principles and design

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionPart I: AerodynamicsWind Turbine Blade Design; Peter J. Schubel and Richard J. CrossleyA Shrouded Wind Turbine Generating High Output Power with Wind-Lens Technology; Yuji Ohya and Takashi KarasudaniEcomoulding of Composite Wind Turbine Blades Using Green Manufacturing RTM Process; Brahim AttafAerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Using Differential Evolution; Travis J. Carrigan, Brian H. Dennis, Zhen X. Han, and Bo P. WangPart II: Generators and Gear Systems

  19. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  20. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  1. Preserving SSC Design Function Using RCM Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, K.

    2009-01-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) can be defined as an approach that employs preventive, predictive, proactive, and reactive maintenance practices and strategies in an integrated manner to increase the probability that a Structure, System, or Component (SSC) will function as designed over its life cycle with optimum maintenance. The goal of RCM is to preserve the SSC intended design function at the lowest cost by developing a maintenance strategy that is supported by sound technical and economic justification. RCM has been used extensively by the aircraft, space, defense, power generation, and manufacturing industries where functional failures of SSCs can have the potential to compromise worker or public safety, cause adverse environmental impact, cause loss of production, and/or result in excessive damage to critical SSCs. This paper provides a framework for performing an RCM analysis in support of DOE Order 430.1A (Life Cycle Asset Management) and DOE Order 420.1B (Facility Safety). The influence of RCM on the various aspects of the maintenance program including the work control process is also discussed

  2. Geometry Design, Principles and Assembly of Micromotors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanpo Ning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of bio-inspired, self-propelled and externally-powered nano-/micro-motors, rotors and engines (micromachines is considered a potentially revolutionary paradigm in nanoscience. Nature knows how to combine different elements together in a fluidic state for intelligent design of nano-/micro-machines, which operate by pumping, stirring, and diffusion of their internal components. Taking inspirations from nature, scientists endeavor to develop the best materials, geometries, and conditions for self-propelled motion, and to better understand their mechanisms of motion and interactions. Today, microfluidic technology offers considerable advantages for the next generation of biomimetic particles, droplets and capsules. This review summarizes recent achievements in the field of nano-/micromotors, and methods of their external control and collective behaviors, which may stimulate new ideas for a broad range of applications.

  3. Correction: Using participatory design to develop (public health decision support systems through GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Michael

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizations that collect substantial data for decision-making purposes are often characterized as being 'data rich' but 'information poor'. Maps and mapping tools can be very useful for research transfer in converting locally collected data into information. Challenges involved in incorporating GIS applications into the decision-making process within the non-profit (public health sector include a lack of financial resources for software acquisition and training for non-specialists to use such tools. This on-going project has two primary phases. This paper critically reflects on Phase 1: the participatory design (PD process of developing a collaborative web-based GIS tool. Methods A case study design is being used whereby the case is defined as the data analyst and manager dyad (a two person team in selected Ontario Early Year Centres (OEYCs. Multiple cases are used to support the reliability of findings. With nine producer/user pair participants, the goal in Phase 1 was to identify barriers to map production, and through the participatory design process, develop a web-based GIS tool suited for data analysts and their managers. This study has been guided by the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU conceptual framework. Results Due to wide variations in OEYC structures, only some data analysts used mapping software and there was no consistency or standardization in the software being used. Consequently, very little sharing of maps and data occurred among data analysts. Using PD, this project developed a web-based mapping tool (EYEMAP that was easy to use, protected proprietary data, and permit limited and controlled sharing between participants. By providing data analysts with training on its use, the project also ensured that data analysts would not break cartographic conventions (e.g. using a chloropleth map for count data. Interoperability was built into the web-based solution; that is, EYEMAP can read many different

  4. Telemedicine in Neonatal Home Care: Identifying Parental Needs Through Participatory Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garne, Kristina; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte; Clemensen, Jane

    2016-07-08

    For the majority of preterm infants, the last weeks of hospital admission mainly concerns tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding. Neonatal home care (NH) was developed to allow infants to remain at home for tube feeding and establishment of breastfeeding with regular home visits from neonatal nurses. For hospitals covering large regions, home visits may be challenging, time consuming, and expensive and alternative approaches must be explored. To identify parental needs when wanting to provide neonatal home care supported by telemedicine. The study used participatory design and qualitative methods. Data were collected from observational studies, individual interviews, and focus group interviews. Two neonatal units participated. One unit was experienced in providing neonatal home care with home visits, and the other planned to offer neonatal home care with telemedicine support. A total of 9 parents with preterm infants assigned to a neonatal home care program and 10 parents with preterm infants admitted to a neonatal unit participated in individual interviews and focus group interviews, respectively. Three overall themes were identified: being a family, parent self-efficacy, and nurse-provided security. Parents expressed desire for the following: (1) a telemedicine device to serve as a "bell cord" to the neonatal unit, giving 24-hour access to nurses, (2) video-conferencing to provide security at home, (3) timely written email communication with the neonatal unit, and (4) an online knowledge base on preterm infant care, breastfeeding, and nutrition. Our findings highlight the importance of neonatal home care. NH provides parents with a feeling of being a family, supports their self-efficacy, and gives them a feeling of security when combined with nursing guidance. Parents did not request hands-on support for infant care, but instead expressed a need for communication and guidance, which could be met using telemedicine.

  5. Basic principles governing the design of magnetic switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birx, D.L.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Schmidt, J.; Smith, M.

    1980-01-01

    The idea of using saturable reactors as the basis of high power pulse generators is not a new concept, but there have been few recent applications of this technology. Here the principle of magnetic pulse generation is briefly described and some of the basic guidelines used to design these circuits are discussed. A demonstration of the principles by a small scale pulse amplifier is presented, and finally there is an extrapolation to a large scale system

  6. The Elements and Principles of Design: A Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Critical to the discipline, both professionally and academically, are the fundamentals of interior design. These fundamentals include the elements and principles of interior design: the commonly accepted tools and vocabulary used to create and communicate successful interior environments. Research indicates a lack of consistency in both the…

  7. Non-Flutter Design Principle for long Span Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Starch Øvre, Michele

    velocity for a thin airfoil shows an asymptotical behavior. In traditional bridge design the torsional-to-vertical frequency ratio is increased to obtain higher flutter wind velocities. In the present study, we investigate, what we will label the non-flutter design principle, in which the torsional...

  8. Principle design of an energy efficient transfemoral prosthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, P.H.; Ünal, Ramazan; Eberle, W.; Hekman, Edsko E.G.; Carloni, Raffaella; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    In the pursuit of realizing an energy efficient transfemoral prosthetic, in this paper we present a preliminary study on a principle design. In particular, the design is based on the idea that the efficiency of the system can be realized by energetically coupling the knee and the ankle joints. In

  9. Design Principles of Next-Generation Digital Gaming for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Kurt; Jenkins, Henry; Holland, Walter; Miller, Heather; O'Driscoll, Alice; Tan, Katie Philip; Todd, Katie.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of digital games, describes research at MIT that is exploring the potential of digital games for supporting learning, and offers hypotheses about the design of next-generation educational video and computer games. Highlights include simulations and games; and design principles, including context and using information to…

  10. Designing User-Computer Dialogues: Basic Principles and Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Thomas H.

    This discussion of the design of computerized psychological assessment or testing instruments stresses the importance of the well-designed computer-user interface. The principles underlying the three main functional elements of computer-user dialogue--data entry, data display, and sequential control--are discussed, and basic guidelines derived…

  11. Engineering Design of an Adaptive Leg Prosthesis Using Biological Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Dentel, Andy; Invarsdottir, Thorunn

    2010-01-01

    The biomimetic design process is explored through a design case: An adaptive leg prosthesis. The aim is to investigate if the biomimetic design process can be carried out with a minimum of biological knowledge and without using advanced design methods. In the design case biomimetic design was suc...... was successfully carried out using library search resulting in 14 biological analogies for the design problem 'shape adaption'. It is proposed that search results are handled using special cards describing the biological phenomena and the functional principles....

  12. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Josie M M.; Ryde, Gemma.; Jepson, Ruth.; Gray, Cindy.; Shepherd, Ashley.; Mackison, Dionne.; Ireland, Aileen V.; McMurdo, Marion E T.; Williams, Brian.; Shepherd, A..; Jepson, R..; Gray, C..; Mackison, D..; Evans, J.M.M..; Ryde, G..

    2016-01-01

    Background Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Methods Studies using different quantitative and qualit...

  13. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas:a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Josie M M; Ryde, Gemma; Jepson, Ruth; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; Mackison, Dionne; Ireland, Aileen V; McMurdo, Marion E T; Williams, Brian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting.METHODS: Studies using different quantitative and q...

  14. Participatory Public Service Design by Gov.3.0 Design Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhyun Baek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizen satisfaction levels with public service have become a key indicator in evaluating a nation’s policy capability; as such, it has become important to realize citizen-centered public service that enhances the satisfaction of citizens. Governments need to adopt new and creative methods to respond to changes and redefine the conditions of their policy processes. This study reviews the effectiveness of utilizing open innovation by design thinking for policy processes, and aims to detail the conditions for a policy process geared towards citizen-centered public service. The study reviews open innovation as a means of overcoming the insular tendencies of organizations, and also reviews the advantages of design thinking in identifying the diversified needs of citizens and coordinating their interests. Based on those, we conducted a case study and applied open innovation by design thinking for policy processes. The results revealed that key conditions include cooperation among designers, the diversification of communication channels between internal and external organizations, the joining of citizen experiences, repeated verification of citizen needs, and visualization of the whole progression. Such conditions are principal factors that contribute to citizen orientation and participation, and are expected to play a conducive role in the realization of citizen-centered public service in the future.

  15. Robust design principles for reducing variation in functional performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability and percei......This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability...... and perceived quality of a product and efforts should be made to minimise it. The design principles are identified by a systematic decomposition of the Taguchi Transfer Function in combination with the use of existing literature and the authors’ experience. The paper presents 15 principles and describes...... their advantages and disadvantages along with example cases. Subsequently, the principles are classified based on their applicability in the various development and production stages. The VRP are to be added to existing robust design methodologies, helping the designer to think beyond robust design tool and method...

  16. Intelligent computer systems in engineering design principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sunnersjo, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory book discusses how to plan and build useful, reliable, maintainable and cost efficient computer systems for automated engineering design. The book takes a user perspective and seeks to bridge the gap between texts on principles of computer science and the user manuals for commercial design automation software. The approach taken is top-down, following the path from definition of the design task and clarification of the relevant design knowledge to the development of an operational system well adapted for its purpose. This introductory text for the practicing engineer working in industry covers most vital aspects of planning such a system. Experiences from applications of automated design systems in practice are reviewed based on a large number of real, industrial cases. The principles behind the most popular methods in design automation are presented with sufficient rigour to give the user confidence in applying them on real industrial problems. This book is also suited for a half semester c...

  17. Patterns, principles, and practices of domain-driven design

    CERN Document Server

    Millett, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Methods for managing complex software construction following the practices, principles and patterns of Domain-Driven Design with code examples in C# This book presents the philosophy of Domain-Driven Design (DDD) in a down-to-earth and practical manner for experienced developers building applications for complex domains. A focus is placed on the principles and practices of decomposing a complex problem space as well as the implementation patterns and best practices for shaping a maintainable solution space. You will learn how to build effective domain models through the use of tactical pat

  18. Design criteria and principles for criticality detection and alarm systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Clifton, J.J.

    1984-10-01

    The report gives design principles and criteria for criticality detection and alarm systems based on earlier work and revised in the light of more recent experience. In particular, account is taken of the developments which have taken place in the field of radiation detection and in the understanding of the different types of criticality excursion. General guidance is given on the principles to apply in deciding upon the need for a criticality system. The characteristics of a criticality incident are described in terms of the minimum incident of concern, and the radiation field. Criteria for the threshold of detection of a criticality incident are then derived and the methods of detection considered. The selection and siting of criticality detectors is discussed, and design principles are given for alarm systems. Finally, testing and post-alarm procedures are outlined, followed by a summary of the principal recommendations. The supporting Appendices include a discussion of reliability and a summary of radiation detector characteristics. (author)

  19. Design principles and developmental mechanisms underlying retinal mosaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Benjamin E; Keeley, Patrick W

    2015-08-01

    Most structures within the central nervous system (CNS) are composed of different types of neuron that vary in both number and morphology, but relatively little is known about the interplay between these two features, i.e. about the population dynamics of a given cell type. How such arrays of neurons are distributed within a structure, and how they differentiate their dendrites relative to each other, are issues that have recently drawn attention in the invertebrate nervous system, where the genetic and molecular underpinnings of these organizing principles are being revealed in exquisite detail. The retina is one of the few locations where these principles have been extensively studied in the vertebrate CNS, indeed, where the design principles of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniformity of coverage' were first explicitly defined, quantified, and related to each other. Recent studies have revealed a number of genes that influence the formation of these histotypical features in the retina, including homologues of those invertebrate genes, although close inspection reveals that they do not always mediate comparable developmental processes nor elucidate fundamental design principles. The present review considers just how pervasive these features of 'mosaic regularity' and 'uniform dendritic coverage' are within the mammalian retina, discussing the means by which such features can be assessed in the mature and developing nervous system and examining the limitations associated with those assessments. We then address the extent to which these two design principles co-exist within different populations of neurons, and how they are achieved during development. Finally, we consider the neural phenotypes obtained in mutant nervous systems, to address whether a prospective gene of interest underlies those very design principles. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  20. Elements and Principles of Design Posters. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This book accompanies a poster series and allows the teacher to pre-plan a lesson or activity for students with the objectives shown for each element or principle of design to be presented. Along with a black-and-white reproduction of each poster, major concepts are discussed. Suggested student activities relating to a particular element or…

  1. Implementation of the non-flutter design principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Styrk; Sahin, Emrah; Laustsen, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The non-flutter design principle is introduced. Aerodynamically stable section model tests performed by three different research groups indicate, that flutter might be avoided if the torsional-to-vertical frequency ratio is kept below 1. A case study of a suspension bridge spanning 3:7 km...

  2. Design Principles for Cell Phone Learning in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong

    2010-01-01

    Cell phone learning (C-learning), as an instructional approach, has been gaining more and more attention in the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in the last 10 years. While studies have proved C-learning an effective instructional approach in research settings, a review of literature indicates the lack of design principles to…

  3. Design principle and structure of the ANI data centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopov, N.Z.; Arutyunyan, S.Kh.; Chilingaryan, A.A.; Galfayan, S.Kh.; Matevosyan, V.Kh.; Zazyan, M.Z.

    1985-01-01

    The design principles and structure of applied statistical programms used for processing the data from the ANI experiments are described. Nonparametric algorithms provide development of high-efficient method for simultaneous analysis of computerized and experimental data, from cosmic ray experiments. Relation data base for unified data storage, protection, renewing and erasuring as well as for fast and convenient information retrieval is considered

  4. Design Principles for Improving the Process of Publishing Open data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, A.M.G.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Choenni, R.; Meijer, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    · Purpose: Governments create large amounts of data. However, the publication of open data is often cumbersome and there are no standard procedures and processes for opening data. This blocks the easy publication of government data. The purpose of this paper is to derive design principles for

  5. Authentic tasks in higher education: Studying design principles for assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keulen, H.; van den Berg, I.; Ramaekers, S.

    2006-01-01

    Students may benefit significantly from learning through authentic tasks. But how do we assess their learning outcomes, taking into account the specific characteristics of authentic tasks? In the second presentation of this symposium on design principles for authentic tasks we present and discuss

  6. Web Interface Design Principles for Adults' Self-Directed Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Mehmet; Sakar, A. Nurhan; Kabakci Yurdakul, Isil

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important features which e-learning tools and environments must possess within the scope of lifelong learning is self-directed learning, which can be considered as a form of self-learning. The aim of this study was to determine, based on the views and recommendations of experts, interface design principles for the development of…

  7. Computers as components principles of embedded computing system design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Computers as Components: Principles of Embedded Computing System Design, 3e, presents essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques. Updated for today's embedded systems design methods, this edition features new examples including digital signal processing, multimedia, and cyber-physical systems. Author Marilyn Wolf covers the latest processors from Texas Instruments, ARM, and Microchip Technology plus software, operating systems, networks, consumer devices, and more. Like the previous editions, this textbook: Uses real processors to demonstrate both technology and tec

  8. Applying multimedia design principles enhances learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Nabil; Schuller, Mary; Santacaterina, Susan; Shapiro, Michael; Wang, Edward; Mayer, Richard E; DaRosa, Debra A

    2011-08-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges' Institute for Improving Medical Education's report entitled 'Effective Use of Educational Technology' called on researchers to study the effectiveness of multimedia design principles. These principles were empirically shown to result in superior learning when used with college students in laboratory studies, but have not been studied with undergraduate medical students as participants. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used, in which the traditional-learning group received a lecture on shock using traditionally designed slides and the modified-design group received the same lecture using slides modified in accord with Mayer's principles of multimedia design. Participants included Year 3 medical students at a private, midwestern medical school progressing through their surgery clerkship during the academic year 2009-2010. The medical school divides students into four groups; each group attends the surgery clerkship during one of the four quarters of the academic year. Students in the second and third quarters served as the modified-design group (n=91) and students in the fourth-quarter clerkship served as the traditional-design group (n=39). Both student cohorts had similar levels of pre-lecture knowledge. Both groups showed significant improvements in retention (paffect transfer of learning. Further research on applying the principles of multimedia design to medical education is needed to verify the impact it has on the long-term learning of medical students, as well as its impact on other forms of multimedia instructional programmes used in the education of medical students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  9. Experimental application of design principles in corrosion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyrl, W.H.; Pohlman, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental design criteria for corrosion investigations are based on established principles for systems that have uniform, or nearly uniform, corrosive attack. Scale-up or scale-down may be accomplished by proper use of dimensionless groups that measure the relative importance of interfacial kinetics, solution conductivity, and mass transfer. These principles have been applied to different fields of corrosion which include materials selection testing and protection; and to a specific corrosion problem involving attack of a substrate through holes in a protective overplate

  10. Applying principles of Design For Assembly to ITER maintenance operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, Cock; de Baar, Marco; Elzendoorn, Ben; Koning, Jarich; Verhoeven, Toon; Vreede, Fred de

    2009-01-01

    In ITER, maintenance operations in the vessel and in the Hot Cell will be largely done by Remote Handling (RH). Remotely performed maintenance actions tend to be more time-costly than actions performed by direct human access. With a human operator in the control loop and adequate situational feedback, a two-armed master slave manipulator system can mimic direct access with dexterous manipulation, tactile feedback and vision. But even then, turnaround times are still very high. Adapting the design for simplified maintenance operations can yield significant time savings. One of the methods known to produce a simpler, more robust design, which is also better suited for handling with robots, is Design For Assembly (DFA). This paper discusses whether and how the principles of DFA can be applied to simplify maintenance operations for ITER. While DFA is normally used with series-production and ITER is a unique product, it is possible to apply the principles of DFA to ITER maintenance operations. Furthermore, DFA's principles can be applied at different abstraction levels. Combining principles of DFA with Virtual Reality leads to new insights and provides additional value.

  11. Design and evaluation of an integrated safeguards system: principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Coulter, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Whitty, W.J.

    1984-07-01

    An integrated safeguards system is defined as a collection of safeguards activities in which system components are coordinated to meet safeguards objectives efficiently within constraints imposed by safeguards resources, facility operations, potential adversaries, and regulatory requirements. This paper describes principles for designing and evaluating an integrated safeguards system that consists of four parts: (1) a problem definition phase that specifies resources and constraints composing the problem boundary values; (2) a system analysis/synthesis phase that describes how to select and integrate safeguards activities for efficient attainment of system objectives; (3) a system evaluation/optimization phase that defines measures of safeguards performance and develops methods for evaluating them; and (4) a decision-making phase that develops principles for selecting admissible designs and preference-ordering designs. 6 references, 4 figures, 5 tables

  12. Design and evaluation of an integrated safeguards system: principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Coulter, C.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Whitty, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    An integrated safeguards system is defined as a collection of safeguards activities in which system components are coordinated to meet safeguards objectives efficiently within constraints imposed by safeguards resources, facility operations, potential adversaries, and regulatory requirements. This paper describes principles for designing and evaluating an integrated safeguards system that consists of four parts: a problem definition phase that specifies resources and constraints composing the problem boundary values, a system analysis/synthesis phase that describes how to select and integrate safeguards activities for efficient attainment of system objectives, a system evaluation/optimization phase that defines measures of safeguards performance and develops methods for evaluating them, and a decision-making phase that develops principles for selecting admissible designs and preference-ordering designs

  13. Mechanical design of an electronic control unit using axiomatic principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cazacu Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available If the engine of the car can be considered as the heart, then the E.C.U’s represents the brain of the car. Electronic control units (E.C.U’s are electronic devices which control the way different components of a car (engine, windows, airbags, etc. react in some situations (overheating, button pressed by a passenger, crash, etc.. Axiomatic design is a set of principles that theorizes the act of conceiving a new project. Based on two axiom this method comes into designers help, giving them the option to reach in a short period of time a fully functional and compliant product without supporting the design of the product on chance, past experiences or “try and fail” principle.

  14. Developments in Participatory Design of Health Information Technology - A Review of PDC Publications from 1990-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Madsen, Jacob; Nøhr, Christian; Bygholm, Ann; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    The landscape of Participatory Design (PD) of Health Information Technology (HIT) is diverse and constantly evolving. This paper reviews the publications in the proceedings from the Participatory Design Conferences (PDCs) that have been held every two years since 1990. We used the Matrix Method to identify, describe and synthesise HIT publications from the proceedings. A total of 47 papers were included in the review and analysed in relation to six themes. The analysis reveals a significant volume of HIT research at PDCs, with a large amount of attention to digitalisation of health information, work procedures, records, secondary healthcare and health professionals. However, the analysis also shows a development from a primary focus on health workers and hospitals to a recent attention on HIT in everyday life and PD with patients, relatives, neighbourhoods and citizens in general. Additionally, the review shows a growing number of PD methods being applied. This paper concludes that research on PD and HIT appears to be maturing and developing with ongoing technological and societal development.

  15. Design and construction of a basic principle simulator: an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, O.; Galdoz, E.; Flury, C.; Fontanini, H.; Maciel, F.; Rovere, L.; Carpio, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes activities developed over design and building of a Basic Principle Simulator for nuclear power plants. This simulator has been developed in Process Control Division of Bariloche Atomic Center, Argentina. This project was sponsored jointly by CNEA and Atomic Energy International Organization, through the United Nations Program for Development. The paper specially emphasizes aspects like: architecture design methodology of real time simulators; graphic environment and interfaces design for users and instructor interaction, and for display information; test and validation of the used models; and human resources formation. Finally describes the actual implementation of the simulator to be used in Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  16. Theory-generating practice. Proposing a principle for learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This contribution proposes a principle for learning design – Theory-Generating Practice (TGP) – as an alternative to the way university courses are traditionally taught and structured, with a series of theoretical lectures isolated from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project...... building, and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP, contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics, and discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP. Finally, three...

  17. Babinet principle applied to the design of metasurfaces and metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, F; Lopetegi, T; Laso, M A G; Baena, J D; Bonache, J; Beruete, M; Marqués, R; Martín, F; Sorolla, M

    2004-11-05

    The electromagnetic theory of diffraction and the Babinet principle are applied to the design of artificial metasurfaces and metamaterials. A new particle, the complementary split rings resonator, is proposed for the design of metasurfaces with high frequency selectivity and planar metamaterials with a negative dielectric permittivity. Applications in the fields of frequency selective surfaces and polarizers, as well as in microwave antennas and filter design, can be envisaged. The tunability of all these devices by an applied dc voltage is also achievable if these particles are etched on the appropriate substrate.

  18. Design principles of a web interface for monitoring tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiftimiei, C; Pra, S D; Fantinel, S; Andreozzi, S; Fattibene, E; Misurelli, G; Cuscela, G; Donvito, G; Dudhalkar, V; Maggi, G; Pierro, A

    2008-01-01

    A monitoring tool of a complex Grid system can gather a huge amount of information that have to be presented to the users in the most comprehensive way. Moreover different types of consumers could be interested in inspecting and analyzing different subsets of data. The main goal in designing a Web interface for the presentation of monitoring information is to organize the huge amount of data in a simple, user-friendly and usable structure. One more problem is to consider different approaches, skills and interests that all the possible categories of users have in looking for the desired information. Starting from the Information Architecture guidelines for the Web, it is possible to design Web interfaces towards a closer user experience and to deal with an advanced user interaction through the implementation of many Web standard technologies. In this paper, we will present a number of principles for the design of Web interface for monitoring tools that provide a wider, richer range of possibilities for what concerns the user interaction. These principles are based on an extensive review of the current literature in Web design and on the experience with the development of the GridICE monitoring tool. The described principles can drive the evolution of the Web interface of Grid monitoring tools

  19. Digital sonar design in underwater acoustics principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qihu

    2012-01-01

    "Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics Principles and Applications" provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of research on sonar design, including the basic theory and techniques of digital signal processing, basic concept of information theory, ocean acoustics, underwater acoustic signal propagation theory, and underwater signal processing theory. This book discusses the general design procedure and approaches to implementation, the design method, system simulation theory and techniques, sonar tests in the laboratory, lake and sea, and practical validation criteria and methods for digital sonar design. It is intended for researchers in the fields of underwater signal processing and sonar design, and also for navy officers and ocean explorers. Qihu Li is a professor at the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Zero Energy Buildings – Design Principles and Built Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Designing a zero energy building is a complicated task, and in order to achieve good results it is necessary to include knowledge from a range of sources. Therefore, cooperation is required between different professions and between generalists and specialists from the very beginning of the process...... knowledge must be acquired, depending on the project in question. Through a cross-disciplinary approach to architecture and building design, and based on an integrated design process, this publication will: • introduce a number of design strategies and technologies which are particularly important...... for the development of zero energy houses. These strategies and technologies are illustrated through simple design principles and built examples • identify technical and architectural potentials and challenges related to design strategies of crucial importance to the development of zero energy houses • identify...

  1. Client Mobile Software Design Principles for Mobile Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Tan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In a client-server mobile learning system, client mobile software must run on the mobile phone to acquire, package, and send student’s interaction data via the mobile communications network to the connected mobile application server. The server will receive and process the client data in order to offer appropriate content and learning activities. To develop the mobile learning systems there are a number of very important issues that must be addressed. Mobile phones have scarce computing resources. They consist of heterogeneous devices and use various mobile operating systems, they have limitations with their user/device interaction capabilities, high data communications cost, and must provide for device mobility and portability. In this paper we propose five principles for designing Client mobile learning software. A location-based adaptive mobile learning system is presented as a proof of concept to demonstrate the applicability of these design principles.

  2. Design principles for achieving integrated healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-03-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed 'Standardized pull of patient data' expanded and is now used on a large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii) identification of key healthcare actors to provide them with immediate benefits.

  3. Using Mathematical Modeling and Set-Based Design Principles to Recommend an Existing CVL Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SET-BASED DESIGN PRINCIPLES TO RECOMMEND AN EXISTING CVL DESIGN by William H. Ehlies September 2017 Thesis Advisor...Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE...September 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE USING MATHEMATICAL MODELING AND SET-BASED DESIGN PRINCIPLES

  4. A Stepwise, Participatory Approach to Design and Implement Community Based Adaptation to Drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lasage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents an approach for participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change. It combines in an innovative manner participatory design with physical measurements, modeling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña River basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey (n = 94 we explore how a vulnerability index (risk divided by response efficacy can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households, and how socio-economic factors determine this vulnerability. Water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlated with vulnerability to drought. The research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency is low. The selected adaptation measures aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency of farmers and households.

  5. Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte; Misfeldt, Morten

    their previous experience. A second workshop will focus on hands-on user experience based on a prototype predesigned from the preliminary research findings. The final workshop will build up a common knowledge discourse among its participants, and work towards an overall requirement specification for a preferred...... seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities...... of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating...

  6. Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte; Misfeldt, Morten

    seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities......For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project...... of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating...

  7. Participatory innovation through user-designed knowledge sharing and Web2.0 in the Danish seed industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend; Boelt, Birte; Misfeldt, Morten

    2010-01-01

    For many years the Danish seed industry has been at the forefront with high quality seed production, but in a rapidly changing global market innovation is a key factor for the future of Danish seed production - one important element to innovation is transfer of knowledge. In a new Ph.D. project...... seed scientists from Aarhus University will work together with seed growers and seed company consultants in designing a collaborative knowledge platform to optimise the diffusion of innovation between them. The aim of the Ph.D. project is to look at the processes within the three communities...... of practice in their participatory efforts to design and select technologies that will improve their knowledge dissemination through a shared understanding of learning and innovation within the Danish seed industry. The research questions are: •What boundary objects emerge between and within the collaborating...

  8. Design for Natural Breast Augmentation: The ICE Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallucci, Patrick; Branford, Olivier Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The authors' published studies have helped define breast beauty in outlining key parameters that contribute to breast attractiveness. The "ICE" principle puts design into practice. It is a simplified formula for inframammary fold incision planning as part of the process for determining implant selection and placement to reproduce the 45:55 ratio previously described as fundamental to natural breast appearance. The formula is as follows: implant dimensions (I) - capacity of the breast (C) = excess tissue required (E). The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of the ICE principle for producing consistent natural beautiful results in breast augmentation. A prospective analysis of 50 consecutive women undergoing primary breast augmentation by means of an inframammary fold incision with anatomical or round implants was performed. The ICE principle was applied to all cases to determine implant selection, placement, and incision position. Changes in parameters between preoperative and postoperative digital clinical photographs were analyzed. The mean upper pole-to-lower pole ratio changed from 52:48 preoperatively to 45:55 postoperatively (p principle for surgical planning in breast augmentation that attractive natural breasts may be achieved consistently and with precision. Therapeutic, IV.

  9. Power electronics basics operating principles, design, formulas, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rozanov, Yuriy; Chaplygin, Evgeny; Voronin, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Power Electronics Basics: Operating Principles, Design, Formulas, and Applications provides fundamental knowledge for the analysis and design of modern power electronic devices. This concise and user-friendly resource:Explains the basic concepts and most important terms of power electronicsDescribes the power assemblies, control, and passive components of semiconductor power switchesCovers the control of power electronic devices, from mathematical modeling to the analysis of the electrical processesAddresses pulse-width modulation, power quality control, and multilevel, modular, and multicell

  10. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  11. A Randomized Trial Comparing Classical Participatory Design to VandAID, an Interactive CrowdSourcing Platform to Facilitate User-centered Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufendach, Kevin R; Koch, Sabine; Unertl, Kim M; Lehmann, Christoph U

    2017-10-26

    Early involvement of stakeholders in the design of medical software is particularly important due to the need to incorporate complex knowledge and actions associated with clinical work. Standard user-centered design methods include focus groups and participatory design sessions with individual stakeholders, which generally limit user involvement to a small number of individuals due to the significant time investments from designers and end users. The goal of this project was to reduce the effort for end users to participate in co-design of a software user interface by developing an interactive web-based crowdsourcing platform. In a randomized trial, we compared a new web-based crowdsourcing platform to standard participatory design sessions. We developed an interactive, modular platform that allows responsive remote customization and design feedback on a visual user interface based on user preferences. The responsive canvas is a dynamic HTML template that responds in real time to user preference selections. Upon completion, the design team can view the user's interface creations through an administrator portal and download the structured selections through a REDCap interface. We have created a software platform that allows users to customize a user interface and see the results of that customization in real time, receiving immediate feedback on the impact of their design choices. Neonatal clinicians used the new platform to successfully design and customize a neonatal handoff tool. They received no specific instruction and yet were able to use the software easily and reported high usability. VandAID, a new web-based crowdsourcing platform, can involve multiple users in user-centered design simultaneously and provides means of obtaining design feedback remotely. The software can provide design feedback at any stage in the design process, but it will be of greatest utility for specifying user requirements and evaluating iterative designs with multiple options.

  12. “Expanding the Design Space of ICT for Participatory Budgeting”. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Communities and Technologies, Troyes, France, 26-30 June 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parra, C.; Rohaut, C.; Maeckelbergh, M.; Issarny, V.; Holston, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes existing practices and supporting technologies for Participatory Budgeting (PB), with a special focus on US-related initiatives, as a mean to understand the current and future design space of ICT for participatory democracy. We suggest new design opportunities for ICT

  13. AGROECOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND STRATEGIES FOR THE DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE AGROECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Canuto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper is the debate on principles and strategies for designing sustainable agricultural systems. The paper builds on a broad approach to principles, moving to the more specific approach to strategies and finalizing with a micro-scale perspective on the practice of drawings and the consequences of each possible option. The objective is first of all to put to the debate the dialectic between conceptual plurality and unity in Agroecology. The problem in focus is to situate more clearly what are sustainable agroecosystems and, as a consequence, how to connect principles and strategies to make them viable. Regarding the theoretical reference, we use the classic authors of Agroecology and some critical articles on the conceptual question. The methodology that gives foundation to the approach is based on the author's theoretical and practical experience, with a qualitative, subjective and intuitive character. The results are only the presentation of ideas in order to contribute to the conceptual debate now in vogue and also to glimpse, on a smaller scale, the practical issue of sustainable agroecosystems designs.

  14. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates

  15. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  16. Theory-Generating Practice: Proposing a principle for learning design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Buhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a principle for learning design: Theory-Generating Practice (TGP as an alternative to the way university courses often are taught and structured with a series of theoretical lectures separate from practical experience and concluding with an exam or a project. The aim is to contribute to a development of theoretical frameworks for learning designs by suggesting TGP which may lead to new practices and turn the traditional dramaturgy for teaching upside down. TGP focuses on embodied experience prior to text reading and lectures to enhance theoretical knowledge building and takes tacit knowledge into account. The article introduces TGP and contextualizes it to a Danish tradition of didactics as well as discusses it in relation to contemporary conceptual currents of didactic design and learning design. This is followed by a theoretical framing of TGP, and is discussed through three empirical examples from bachelor and master programs involving technology, and showing three ways of practicing it.

  17. Semiconductor-inspired design principles for superconducting quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yun-Pil; Tahan, Charles

    2016-03-17

    Superconducting circuits offer tremendous design flexibility in the quantum regime culminating most recently in the demonstration of few qubit systems supposedly approaching the threshold for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Competition in the solid-state comes from semiconductor qubits, where nature has bestowed some very useful properties which can be utilized for spin qubit-based quantum computing. Here we begin to explore how selective design principles deduced from spin-based systems could be used to advance superconducting qubit science. We take an initial step along this path proposing an encoded qubit approach realizable with state-of-the-art tunable Josephson junction qubits. Our results show that this design philosophy holds promise, enables microwave-free control, and offers a pathway to future qubit designs with new capabilities such as with higher fidelity or, perhaps, operation at higher temperature. The approach is also especially suited to qubits on the basis of variable super-semi junctions.

  18. PDC 2016. Proceedings of the 14th Participatory Design Conference - Volume I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    societal challenges at various levels. Sharing economy, crowdfunding and participatory cultures create new forms of engagement that challenge traditional ideas of participation. Public engagement in radical social innovation is used to address shrinking finances to public services, which has resulted...... in citizen involving projects and labs in various domains. Maker technologies, notions of hacking and shared data, are promoting civic engagement with technology innovation that changes the material and socio-economic contexts of production. At the same time, centralization of the Internet, big data...... prove valuable to authors whose work we could not include as they pursue publication elsewhere. Many members of the Programme Committee were able to contribute to the thematic clustering of the selected papers in a workshop, which concluded the May PC meeting. The full paper sessions are organized...

  19. Designing the Electronic Classroom: Applying Learning Theory and Ergonomic Design Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2001-01-01

    Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)

  20. Design principles and operating principles: the yin and yang of optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voit, Eberhard O

    2003-03-01

    Metabolic engineering has as a goal the improvement of yield of desired products from microorganisms and cell lines. This goal has traditionally been approached with experimental biotechnological methods, but it is becoming increasingly popular to precede the experimental phase by a mathematical modeling step that allows objective pre-screening of possible improvement strategies. The models are either linear and represent the stoichiometry and flux distribution in pathways or they are non-linear and account for the full kinetic behavior of the pathway, which is often significantly effected by regulatory signals. Linear flux analysis is simpler and requires less input information than a full kinetic analysis, and the question arises whether the consideration of non-linearities is really necessary for devising optimal strategies for yield improvements. The article analyzes this question with a generic, representative pathway. It shows that flux split ratios, which are the key criterion for linear flux analysis, are essentially sufficient for unregulated, but not for regulated branch points. The interrelationships between regulatory design on one hand and optimal patterns of operation on the other suggest the investigation of operating principles that complement design principles, like a user's manual complements the hardwiring of electronic equipment.

  1. In search of design principles for developing digital learning & performance support for a student design task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Lars; van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Hendrik H.; McKenney, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of

  2. In search of design principles for developing digital learning & performance support for a student design task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, Lars; Van der Meij, Hans; Leemkuil, Henny; McKenney, Susan

    2016-01-01

    A digital learning and performance support environment for university student design tasks was developed. This paper describes on the design rationale, process, and the usage results to arrive at a core set of design principles for the construction of such an environment. We present a collection of

  3. Proof of principle for epitope-focused vaccine design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Bruno E.; Bates, John T.; Loomis, Rebecca J.; Baneyx, Gretchen; Carrico, Chris; Jardine, Joseph G.; Rupert, Peter; Correnti, Colin; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; Vittal, Vinayak; Connell, Mary J.; Stevens, Eric; Schroeter, Alexandria; Chen, Man; MacPherson, Skye; Serra, Andreia M.; Adachi, Yumiko; Holmes, Margaret A.; Li, Yuxing; Klevit, Rachel E.; Graham, Barney S.; Wyatt, Richard T.; Baker, David; Strong, Roland K.; Crowe, James E.; Johnson, Philip R.; Schief, William R.

    2014-03-01

    Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce epitope-specific neutralizing antibodies are needed. Here we show, with a neutralization epitope from respiratory syncytial virus, that computational protein design can generate small, thermally and conformationally stable protein scaffolds that accurately mimic the viral epitope structure and induce potent neutralizing antibodies. These scaffolds represent promising leads for the research and development of a human respiratory syncytial virus vaccine needed to protect infants, young children and the elderly. More generally, the results provide proof of principle for epitope-focused and scaffold-based vaccine design, and encourage the evaluation and further development of these strategies for a variety of other vaccine targets, including antigenically highly variable pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus and influenza.

  4. Zero Energy Buildings – Design Principles and Built Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Designing a zero energy building is a complicated task, and in order to achieve good results it is necessary to include knowledge from a range of sources. Therefore, cooperation is required between different professions and between generalists and specialists from the very beginning of the process...... for the development of zero energy houses. These strategies and technologies are illustrated through simple design principles and built examples • identify technical and architectural potentials and challenges related to design strategies of crucial importance to the development of zero energy houses • identify...... technical and architectural potentials and challenges related to the application of new technologies • make visible engineering and architectural issues and create greater transparency, providing a point of departure for cross-disciplinary cooperation....

  5. Principles of human joint replacement design and clinical application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2015-01-01

    This book is written for the users and designers of joint replacements. In its second extended edition it conveys to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their forty year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter describes the design methodology now required for joint replacement in the USA and EU countries. The remaining chapters provide a history of joint replacement, an evaluation of earlier and current devices and sample case hist...

  6. Principles of Human Joint Replacement Design and Clinical Application

    CERN Document Server

    Buechel, Frederick F

    2012-01-01

    Drs. Buechel, an orthopaedic surgeon, and Pappas, a professor of Mechanical Engineering, are the designers of several successful joint replacement systems. The most well-known of these is the pioneering LCS knee replacement. They have written this book for the users and designers of joint replacements. It is an attempt to convey to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their thirty five year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter de...

  7. Using Participatory and Service Design to Identify Emerging Needs and Perceptions of Library Services among Science and Engineering Researchers Based at a Satellite Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Kuglitsch, Rebecca; Bresnahan, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study used participatory and service design methods to identify emerging research needs and existing perceptions of library services among science and engineering faculty, post-graduate, and graduate student researchers based at a satellite campus at the University of Colorado Boulder. These methods, and the results of the study, allowed us…

  8. Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) — Principles, geometry and design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qvist, Staffan A., E-mail: staffan.qvist@physics.uu.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley (United States); Hellesen, Carl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Thiele, Roman [Division of Reactor Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Dubberley, Allen E. [General Electric Advanced Reactor Systems Department (retired), Sunnyvale, CA (United States); Gradecka, Malwina; Greenspan, Ehud [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California Berkeley (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Here we define the principles of the operation and design of ARC systems. • ARC systems can provide inherent safety during and following unprotected transients. • A manufacturing and assembly method was developed and presented. - Abstract: The Autonomous Reactivity Control (ARC) system was developed to ensure inherent safety performance of Generation-IV reactors while having a minimal impact on reactor performance and economic viability. Here we present in detail the principles of how the ARC system operates, what materials should be used, what components make up the system and how they are interconnected. The relevant equations regarding how to design the system for a certain response are developed and defined, and the most important aspects determining the speed of actuation of the systems are analyzed. Thus, this study serves as the general reference material for all of the fundamental principles behind the ARC idea. Finally, we present a step-by-step guide to how a fast reactor fuel subassembly with an ARC system installed would be manufactured, using a full 3D-CAD model. For an ARC installation in a 1000 MWth sodium-cooled oxide-fueled fast reactor core, the system constitutes a relatively minor adjustment to a typical fuel assembly, increasing its total axial extent by ∼5–10% and the total primary coolant pressure drop by ∼1%. The main finding of this study is that it is possible to design, manufacture (using existing methods) and implement ARC systems in the fuel assemblies of fast reactor cores to provide inherent safety in all anticipated unprotected transients with only a modest increase in the length of the assembly and the pressure drop across the core.

  9. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems: Principles, design, and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Yoram; Gu, Xi; Guo, Weihong

    2018-06-01

    Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMSs), which possess the advantages of both dedicated serial lines and flexible manufacturing systems, were introduced in the mid-1990s to address the challenges initiated by globalization. The principal goal of an RMS is to enhance the responsiveness of manufacturing systems to unforeseen changes in product demand. RMSs are costeffective because they boost productivity, and increase the lifetime of the manufacturing system. Because of the many streams in which a product may be produced on an RMS, maintaining product precision in an RMS is a challenge. But the experience with RMS in the last 20 years indicates that product quality can be definitely maintained by inserting in-line inspection stations. In this paper, we formulate the design and operational principles for RMSs, and provide a state-of-the-art review of the design and operations methodologies of RMSs according to these principles. Finally, we propose future research directions, and deliberate on how recent intelligent manufacturing technologies may advance the design and operations of RMSs.

  10. Using Green Chemistry and Engineering Principles to Design ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concepts of green chemistry and engineering (GC&E) have been promoted as an effective qualitative framework for developing more sustainable chemical syntheses, processes, and material management techniques. This has been demonstrated by many theoretical and practical cases. In addition, there are several approaches and frameworks focused on demonstrating that improvements were achieved through GC&E technologies. However, the application of these principles is not always straightforward. We propose using systematic frameworks and tools that help practitioners when deciding which principles can be applied, the levels of implementation, prospective of obtaining simultaneous improvements in all sustainability aspects, and ways to deal with multiobjective problems. Therefore, this contribution aims to provide a systematic combination of three different and complementary design tools for assisting designers in evaluating, developing, and improving chemical manufacturing and material management systems under GC&E perspectives. The WAR Algorithm, GREENSCOPE, and SustainPro were employed for this synergistic approach of incorporating sustainability at early stages of process development. In this demonstration, simulated ammonia production is used as a case study to illustrate this advancement. Results show how to identify process design areas for improvements, key factors, multi-criteria decision-making solutions, and optimal tradeoffs. Finally, conclusions were pre

  11. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND METHODS OF SYMBOLIC APPROACHES IN URBAN DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULAKH I. V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The low level of expression and personalization of mass architecture of the second half of the twentieth century connected with the spread of industrial technology and even to a greater extent with mechanistic traditionally functional relation to the average person as, abstract consumer architecture. The condition out of the critical situation is focusing on matters aesthetic, artistic understanding and harmonious image creation environment. The problem of increasing architectural and artistic level of architectural and urban planning solutions to overcome the monotony of planning and development, creating aesthetically expressive urban environment does not lose relevance over the past decades. Understanding and acceptance of enigma and dynamic development of cities encourage architects to find new design techniques that are able to provide in the future a reasonable possibility of forming artistic and aesthetic image of the modern city. Purpose. Define and systematize the principles of symbolization architectural and planning images; propose methods symbolism in the architectural planning of image of the urban environment. Conclusion based on analysis of the enhanced concept symbolizing the image of Architecture and Planning, the place, role and symbolization trends at all levels of the urban environment - planning, three-dimensional and improvement of urban areas; first identified the main stages and levels of symbolization (analohyzatsyya, schematization and alehoryzatsiya, their features and characteristics, formulated the basic principles of symbolization architectural and planning of image, namely the principles of communication between figurative analogies, transformation of subsequent circuits, switching allegorical groupings and metamorfizm ultimate goal – symbol birth .

  12. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-01-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as open-quotes design for manufactureclose quotes or open-quotes concurrent engineeringclose quotes are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of open-quotes Design for Constructibility and Performanceclose quotes is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance

  13. A case study analysis of the application of design for manufacture principles by industrial design students

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, R; Page, T

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a case study evaluation of a module that engages students on product and industrial design programmes with the principles of Design for Manufacturing (DFM). The primary element of the module is to expose students to the constraints of a full design to manufacture process. The module explores the design of a small polymer promotional item, together with the means of mass producing that item. This is done through the process of injection moulding and students design an inje...

  14. Design principles and algorithms for automated air traffic management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents design principles and algorithm for building a real time scheduler. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high altitude airspace far from the airport and low altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time.

  15. Development of a Web-Based Health Care Intervention for Patients With Heart Disease: Lessons Learned From a Participatory Design Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noergaard, Birgitte; Sandvei, Marianne; Rottmann, Nina; Johannessen, Helle; Wiil, Uffe; Schmidt, Thomas; Pedersen, Susanne S

    2017-05-17

    The use of telemedicine technologies in health care has increased substantially, together with a growing interest in participatory design methods when developing telemedicine approaches. We present lessons learned from a case study involving patients with heart disease and health care professionals in the development of a personalized Web-based health care intervention. We used a participatory design approach inspired by the method for feasibility studies in software development. We collected qualitative data using multiple methods in 3 workshops and analyzed the data using thematic analysis. Participants were 7 patients with diagnosis of heart disease, 2 nurses, 1 physician, 2 systems architects, 3 moderators, and 3 observers. We present findings in 2 parts. (1) Outcomes of the participatory design process: users gave valuable feedback on ease of use of the platforms' tracking tools, platform design, terminology, and insights into patients' monitoring needs, information and communication technologies skills, and preferences for self-management tools. (2) Experiences from the participatory design process: patients and health care professionals contributed different perspectives, with the patients using an experience-based approach and the health care professionals using a more attitude-based approach. The essential lessons learned concern planning and organization of workshops, including the finding that patients engaged actively and willingly in a participatory design process, whereas it was more challenging to include and engage health care professionals. ©Birgitte Noergaard, Marianne Sandvei, Nina Rottmann, Helle Johannessen, Uffe Wiil, Thomas Schmidt, Susanne S Pedersen. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (http://www.researchprotocols.org), 17.05.2017.

  16. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design

  17. Teaching the Principles of Effective Online Course Design: What Works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gormley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While much has been written about the pedagogy and challenges of online learning, there is comparatively little research that advises how online course design competencies can be achieved. Certainly a growing range of course design resources is being created and made openly available, but there is a need to evaluate their actual impact on practice. This predominantly qualitative study describes the impact of two learning interventions – open online tutorials and a design and development workshop – aimed at introducing the fundamentals of online course design. Four online course developers at an Irish university were interviewed about their experiences creating multimedia-based online courses. Two of the developers were given access to targeted learning interventions and were subsequently interviewed about their experiences using those interventions. The main findings were that novice online course developers can potentially learn and apply design principles through a dedicated introductory phase, techniques that promote discussion of effective pedagogy, and ongoing collaboration in course design. These strategies could be adapted to specific contexts elsewhere.

  18. Five Principles for MOOC Design: With a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Drake

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available New web technologies have enabled online education to take on a massive scale, prompting many universities to create massively open online courses (MOOCs that take advantage of these technologies in a seemingly effortless manner. Designing a MOOC, however, is anything but trivial. It involves developing content, learning activities, and assessments to accommodate both the massiveness and openness of the course. To design an effective MOOC, instructors need to integrate both pedagogical and information systems theory. In this paper, we present a case study of a MOOC grant and a series of decisions made in its development. These decisions, when paired with the theoretical framework, suggest five principles – meaningful, engaging, measurable, accessible, and scalable – may be applicable to future MOOC development projects.

  19. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Vulnerability assessment in a participatory approach to design and implement community based adaptation to drought in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasage, Ralph; Muis, Sanne; Sardella, Carolina; van Drunen, Michiel; Verburg, Peter; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier meltwater during the growing season. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region. This paper presents the implementation of an approach for the participatory development of community-based adaptation measures to cope with the projected impacts of climate change, which was implemented jointly by the local community and by a team consisting of an NGO, Peruvian ministry of environment, research organisations and a private sector organisation. It bases participatory design on physical measurements, modelling and a vulnerability analysis. Vulnerability to drought is made operational for households in a catchment of the Ocoña river basin in Peru. On the basis of a household survey we explore how a vulnerability index (impacts divided by the households' perceived adaptive capacity) can be used to assess the distribution of vulnerability over households in a sub catchment. The socio-economic factors water entitlement, area of irrigated land, income and education are all significantly correlate with this vulnerability to drought. The index proved to be appropriate for communicating about vulnerability to climate change and its determining factors with different stakeholders. The water system research showed that the main source of spring water is local rainwater, and that water use efficiency in farming is low. The adaptation measures that were jointly selected by the communities and the project team aimed to increase water availability close to farmland, and increase water use efficiency, and these will help to reduce the communities vulnerability to drought.

  2. Synthetic RNAs for Gene Regulation: Design Principles and Computational Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laganà, Alessandro; Shasha, Dennis; Croce, Carlo Maria

    2014-01-01

    The use of synthetic non-coding RNAs for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has not only become a standard laboratory tool for gene functional studies but it has also opened up new perspectives in the design of new and potentially promising therapeutic strategies. Bioinformatics has provided researchers with a variety of tools for the design, the analysis, and the evaluation of RNAi agents such as small-interfering RNA (siRNA), short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), artificial microRNA (a-miR), and microRNA sponges. More recently, a new system for genome engineering based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), was shown to have the potential to also regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in a more specific way. In this mini review, we present RNAi and CRISPRi design principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of the current design approaches.

  3. Synthetic RNAs for Gene Regulation: Design Principles and Computational Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laganà, Alessandro [Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Shasha, Dennis [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY (United States); Croce, Carlo Maria [Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-11

    The use of synthetic non-coding RNAs for post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression has not only become a standard laboratory tool for gene functional studies but it has also opened up new perspectives in the design of new and potentially promising therapeutic strategies. Bioinformatics has provided researchers with a variety of tools for the design, the analysis, and the evaluation of RNAi agents such as small-interfering RNA (siRNA), short-hairpin RNA (shRNA), artificial microRNA (a-miR), and microRNA sponges. More recently, a new system for genome engineering based on the bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), was shown to have the potential to also regulate gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in a more specific way. In this mini review, we present RNAi and CRISPRi design principles and discuss the advantages and limitations of the current design approaches.

  4. Web Interface Design Principles for Adults’ Self-Directed Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important features which e-learning tools and environments must possess within the scope of lifelong learning is self-directed learning, which can be considered as a form of self-learning. The aim of this study was to determine, based on the views and recommendations of experts, interface design principles for the development of educational web interfaces that will support the self-directed learning of adults. This descriptive study was conducted with the contribution of 12 academicians specializing in interface design and self-directed learning. Within the scope of the study, new interfaces features were identified based on an evaluation of the literature on interface designs for self-directed learning, and the views of subject experts. Based on the study results, it was determined that interface designs supporting self-directed learning must possess five basic features, which include being user-directed, ensuring variety, being supported by learning analytics, being motivational, and being sharing-oriented.

  5. Participatory Research as One Piece of the Puzzle: A Systematic Review of Consumer Involvement in Design of Technology-Based Youth Mental Health and Well-Being Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Venning, Anthony; Winsall, Megan; Jones, Gabrielle M; Wyld, Kaisha; Damarell, Raechel A; Antezana, Gaston; Schrader, Geoffrey; Smith, David; Collin, Philippa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of technology-based mental health interventions for young people, limited uptake and/or adherence is a significant challenge. It is thought that involving young people in the development and delivery of services designed for them leads to better engagement. Further research is required to understand the role of participatory approaches in design of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Objective To investigate consumer involvement processes and associated outcomes from studies using participatory methods in development of technology-based mental health and well-being interventions for youth. Methods Fifteen electronic databases, using both resource-specific subject headings and text words, were searched describing 2 broad concepts-participatory research and mental health/illness. Grey literature was accessed via Google Advanced search, and relevant conference Web sites and reference lists were also searched. A first screening of titles/abstracts eliminated irrelevant citations and documents. The remaining citations were screened by a second reviewer. Full text articles were double screened. All projects employing participatory research processes in development and/or design of (ICT/digital) technology-based youth mental health and well-being interventions were included. No date restrictions were applied; English language only. Data on consumer involvement, research and design process, and outcomes were extracted via framework analysis. Results A total of 6210 studies were reviewed, 38 full articles retrieved, and 17 included in this study. It was found that consumer participation was predominantly consultative and consumerist in nature and involved design specification and intervention development, and usability/pilot testing. Sustainable participation was difficult to achieve. Projects reported clear dichotomies around designer/researcher and consumer assumptions of effective and acceptable

  6. Identifying consumer's needs of health information technology through an innovative participatory design approach among English- and Spanish-speaking urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, R; Sheehan, B; Yen, P; Velez, O; Nobile-Hernandez, D; Tiase, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe an innovative community-centered participatory design approach, Consumer-centered Participatory Design (C2PD), and the results of applying C2PD to design and develop a web-based fall prevention system. We conducted focus groups and design sessions with English- and Spanish-speaking community-dwelling older adults. Focus group data were summarized and used to inform the context of the design sessions. Descriptive content analysis methods were used to develop categorical descriptions of design session informant's needs related to information technology. The C2PD approach enabled the assessment and identification of informant's needs of health information technology (HIT) that informed the development of a falls prevention system. We learned that our informants needed a system that provides variation in functions/content; differentiates between actionable/non-actionable information/structures; and contains sensory cues that support wide-ranging and complex tasks in a varied, simple, and clear interface to facilitate self-management. The C2PD approach provides community-based organizations, academic researchers, and commercial entities with a systematic theoretically informed approach to develop HIT innovations. Our community-centered participatory design approach focuses on consumer's technology needs while taking into account core public health functions.

  7. Participatory hierarchies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Marianne; Bloch-Poulsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    projects works in the interface between communication and organisation. Third, the methodological purpose is to show that handling of these participatory hierarchies ought to become a goal in OAR projects to be included along with producing practical and theoretical results. The article argues...

  8. Using the principles of circadian physiology enhances shift schedule design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, J.J.; Moore-Ede, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power plants must operate 24 h, 7 days a week. For the most part, shift schedules currently in use at nuclear power plants have been designed to meet operational needs without considering the biological clocks of the human operators. The development of schedules that also take circadian principles into account is a positive step that can be taken to improve plant safety by optimizing operator alertness. These schedules reduce the probability of human errors especially during backshifts. In addition, training programs that teach round-the-clock workers how to deal with the problems of shiftwork can help to optimize performance and alertness. These programs teach shiftworkers the underlying causes of the sleep problems associated with shiftwork and also provide coping strategies for improving sleep and dealing with the transition between shifts. When these training programs are coupled with an improved schedule, the problems associated with working round-the-clock can be significantly reduced

  9. Usability principles to design mobile workplace learning content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Messuti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design of a mobile workplace learning tool for trainers of the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization. The motivation behind is to provide trainers with a practical tool that will enable them to recall information at the moment of need and continue to learn in context. On this purpose a set of visual augmented reality cards was created, taking into consideration the fundamental mobile learning and usability principles. The nature of the article is empirical as it reports an experiment carried out with trainers which aimed at testing cards usability and learnability. Results show that the integration of both online and offline strategies was perceived as an added value as trainers could choose to retrieve information as they mostly like; finally, it also resulted in high usability scores, an aspect that contributes to their effectiveness at the workplace.

  10. Synthetic Elucidation of Design Principles for Molecular Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael James

    Quantum information processing (QIP) is an emerging computational paradigm with the potential to enable a vast increase in computational power, fundamentally transforming fields from structural biology to finance. QIP employs qubits, or quantum bits, as its fundamental units of information, which can exist in not just the classical states of 0 or 1, but in a superposition of the two. In order to successfully perform QIP, this superposition state must be sufficiently long-lived. One promising paradigm for the implementation of QIP involves employing unpaired electrons in coordination complexes as qubits. This architecture is highly tunable and scalable, however coordination complexes frequently suffer from short superposition lifetimes, or T2. In order to capitalize on the promise of molecular qubits, it is necessary to develop a set of design principles that allow the rational synthesis of complexes with sufficiently long values of T2. In this dissertation, I report efforts to use the synthesis of series of complexes to elucidate design principles for molecular qubits. Chapter 1 details previous work by our group and others in the field. Chapter 2 details the first efforts of our group to determine the impact of varying spin and spin-orbit coupling on T2. Chapter 3 examines the effect of removing nuclear spins on coherence time, and reports a series of vanadyl bis(dithiolene) complexes which exhibit extremely long coherence lifetimes, in excess of the 100 mus threshold for qubit viability. Chapters 4 and 5 form two complimentary halves of a study to determine the exact relationship between electronic spin-nuclear spin distance and the effect of the nuclear spins on T2. Finally, chapter 6 suggests next directions for the field as a whole, including the potential for work in this field to impact the development of other technologies as diverse as quantum sensors and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

  11. PRINCIPLE "EARLY MATCHING" AERODYNAMIC DESIGN AIRCRAFT WITH LANDING GEAR HOVERCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Morozov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of "early matching" aircraft aerohydrodynamic layouts with air cushion landing gear is suggested. Application of this principle is considered as an example of adaptation to the ball screw base circuit of light transport aircraft. The principle, other than weight, aerodynamic, technological and operational requirements includes additional project activities related to the installation of ball screws.

  12. Three Principles of Perception for Instructional Interface Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Linda L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses graphical user interfaces used for instructional purposes in educational environments, which promote learning goals, and in support environments, which promote performance goals. Explains three key principles of perception and gives guidelines for their use, including the figure/ground principle, the hierarchy principle, and the gestalt…

  13. Participatory design facilitates Person Centred Nursing in service improvement with older people: a secondary directed content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstenholme, Daniel; Ross, Helen; Cobb, Mark; Bowen, Simon

    2017-05-01

    To explore, using the example of a project working with older people in an outpatient setting in a large UK NHS Teaching hospital, how the constructs of Person Centred Nursing are reflected in interviews from participants in a Co-design led service improvement project. Person Centred Care and Person Centred Nursing are recognised terms in healthcare. Co-design (sometimes called participatory design) is an approach that seeks to involve all stakeholders in a creative process to deliver the best result, be this a product, technology or in this case a service. Co-design practice shares some of the underpinning philosophy of Person Centred Nursing and potentially has methods to aid in Person Centred Nursing implementation. The research design was a qualitative secondary Directed analysis. Seven interview transcripts from nurses and older people who had participated in a Co-design led improvement project in a large teaching hospital were transcribed and analysed. Two researchers analysed the transcripts for codes derived from McCormack & McCance's Person Centred Nursing Framework. The four most expressed codes were as follows: from the pre-requisites: knowing self; from care processes, engagement, working with patient's beliefs and values and shared Decision-making; and from Expected outcomes, involvement in care. This study describes the Co-design theory and practice that the participants responded to in the interviews and look at how the co-design activity facilitated elements of the Person Centred Nursing framework. This study adds to the rich literature about using emancipatory and transformational approaches to Person Centred Nursing development, and is the first study exploring explicitly the potential contribution of Co-design to this area. Methods from Co-design allow older people to contribute as equals in a practice development project, co-design methods can facilitate nursing staff to engage meaningfully with older participants and develop a shared

  14. Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be…

  15. Design principles for engaging and retaining virtual citizen scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Longo, Justin; Dobell, A R

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science initiatives encourage volunteer participants to collect and interpret data and contribute to formal scientific projects. The growth of virtual citizen science (VCS), facilitated through websites and mobile applications since the mid-2000s, has been driven by a combination of software innovations and mobile technologies, growing scientific data flows without commensurate increases in resources to handle them, and the desire of internet-connected participants to contribute to collective outputs. However, the increasing availability of internet-based activities requires individual VCS projects to compete for the attention of volunteers and promote their long-term retention. We examined program and platform design principles that might allow VCS initiatives to compete more effectively for volunteers, increase productivity of project participants, and retain contributors over time. We surveyed key personnel engaged in managing a sample of VCS projects to identify the principles and practices they pursued for these purposes and led a team in a heuristic evaluation of volunteer engagement, website or application usability, and participant retention. We received 40 completed survey responses (33% response rate) and completed a heuristic evaluation of 20 VCS program sites. The majority of the VCS programs focused on scientific outcomes, whereas the educational and social benefits of program participation, variables that are consistently ranked as important for volunteer engagement and retention, were incidental. Evaluators indicated usability, across most of the VCS program sites, was higher and less variable than the ratings for participant engagement and retention. In the context of growing competition for the attention of internet volunteers, increased attention to the motivations of virtual citizen scientists may help VCS programs sustain the necessary engagement and retention of their volunteers. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Virus-inspired design principles of nanoparticle-based bioagents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yuan

    Full Text Available The highly effectiveness and robustness of receptor-mediated viral invasion of living cells shed lights on the biomimetic design of nanoparticle(NP-based therapeutics. Through thermodynamic analysis, we elucidate that the mechanisms governing both the endocytic time of a single NP and the cellular uptake can be unified into a general energy-balance framework of NP-membrane adhesion and membrane deformation. Yet the NP-membrane adhesion strength is a globally variable quantity that effectively regulates the NP uptake rate. Our analysis shows that the uptake rate interrelatedly depends on the particle size and ligand density, in contrast to the widely reported size effect. Our model predicts that the optimal radius of NPs for maximal uptake rate falls in the range of 25-30 nm, and optimally several tens of ligands should be coated onto NPs. These findings are supported by both recent experiments and typical viral structures, and serve as fundamental principles for the rational design of NP-based nanomedicine.

  17. Silver Nanoclusters: From Design Principles to Practical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulhalim, Lina G.

    2015-12-08

    A strategy based on reticulating metal ions and organic ligands into atomically precise gold and silver nanoclusters (NCs) with high monodispersity has been advanced to a point that allows the design of NCs with strict stoichiometries, functionalities and valence. Of the Ag NCs discovered, Ag44 is the most studied, not only due to its high absorption that transcends the visible spectrum suitable for photovoltaics but also because of its long excited state lifetime, as revealed by nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. A major principle discovered in this dissertation is the ability to produce Ag44 in scalable amounts and with high stability in addition to modulation of the functional groups of the organic ligands via a fast and complete ligand exchange process. This new discovery has led to the development of synthetic designs in which new sizes were obtained by varying the reaction parameters (e.g., ligands functionality, reaction temperature and time), namely, Ag29 using dithiols and phosphines. The synthesized NCs possess tetravalent functionalities that facilitate their crystallization and characterization. Furthermore, Ag29 glows red and is therefore a possible candidate for sensing and imaging applications.

  18. Design principles for solid-state lithium superionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Richards, William Davidson; Ong, Shyue Ping; Miara, Lincoln J; Kim, Jae Chul; Mo, Yifei; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-10-01

    Lithium solid electrolytes can potentially address two key limitations of the organic electrolytes used in today's lithium-ion batteries, namely, their flammability and limited electrochemical stability. However, achieving a Li(+) conductivity in the solid state comparable to existing liquid electrolytes (>1 mS cm(-1)) is particularly challenging. In this work, we reveal a fundamental relationship between anion packing and ionic transport in fast Li-conducting materials and expose the desirable structural attributes of good Li-ion conductors. We find that an underlying body-centred cubic-like anion framework, which allows direct Li hops between adjacent tetrahedral sites, is most desirable for achieving high ionic conductivity, and that indeed this anion arrangement is present in several known fast Li-conducting materials and other fast ion conductors. These findings provide important insight towards the understanding of ionic transport in Li-ion conductors and serve as design principles for future discovery and design of improved electrolytes for Li-ion batteries.

  19. 75 FR 80571 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... Part II Commodity Futures Trading Commission 17 CFR Parts 1, 16, and 38 Core Principles and Other... CFR Parts 1, 16, and 38 RIN 3038-AD09 Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract... Principles 1. Subpart B--Designation as Contract Market 2. Subpart C--Compliance With Rules i. Proposed Sec...

  20. 78 FR 32988 - Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 38 RIN 3038-AD09 Core Principles and Other... regarding Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets by inserting a missing... regarding Core Principles and Other Requirements for Designated Contract Markets (77 FR 36612, June 19, 2012...

  1. Lost and misplaced items and assistive devices in nursing homes: Identifying problems and technological opportunities through participatory design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Weernink, C E; Sweegers, L; Relou, L; van der Zijpp, T J; van Hoof, J

    2018-02-06

    Modern healthcare, including nursing home care, goes together with the use of technologies to support treatment, the provision of care and daily activities. The challenges concerning the implementation of such technologies are numerous. One of these emerging technologies are location technologies (RTLS or Real-Time Location Systems). that can be utilized in the nursing home for monitoring the use and location of assets. This paper describes a participatory design study of RTLS based on context mapping, conducted in two nursing home organizations. Rather than investigating the technological possibilities, this study investigates the needs and wishes from the perspective of the care professional. The study identified semantic themes that relate to the practicalities of lost and misplaced items in the nursing home, as well as latent themes that cover the wishes regarding technology in the nursing homes. The organizational culture and building typology may play a role in losing items. The participants in this study indicated that RTLS can provide a solution to some of the challenges that they encounter in the workplace. However, the implementation of new technologies should be done with care and should be integrated into existing ICT systems in order to minimize additional training and posing a burden on the workload.

  2. Participatory heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This new book provides a wide range of international guidance and perspectives on the issues surrounding the preservation of local cultural heritage, ranging from formal cultural heritage institutions to individual community members in the associated processes of creation, organization, access, use...... and preservation. Participatory Heritage explores issues including, how to manage copyright, ownership, orphan works, open data access to heritage representations and artefacts, crowdsourcing, cultural heritage amateurs, information as a commodity or information as public domain, sustainable preservation...

  3. Defining DSL design principles for enhancing the requirements elicitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arroyo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La Elicitación de Requisitos propicia el entendimiento de las necesidades de los usuarios con respecto a un desarrollo de software. Los métodos que se emplean provienen de las ciencias sociales por lo que se carece de una retroalimentación ejecutable. Consecuentemente, la primera versión del software podría no cumplir con las expectativas. El uso de DSLs como herramientas para el descubrimiento de requisitos es una idea aceptada, desafortunadamente, muy pocos trabajos en la literatura se enfocan en la definición de principios de diseño de DSLs. En este trabajo planteamos principios de diseño de DSLs orientados a la elicitación de requisitos, enseguida, generamos casos de prueba en ANTLR, Ruby y Curry. También, enunciamos el perfil que debe tener el nuevo analista de software. Con ello, se incrementa la retroalimentación entre los involucrados en el desarrollo de software y se mejora el producto.Requirements elicitation is concerned with learning and understanding the needs of users w.r.t. a new software development. Frequently the methods employed for requirements elicitation are adapted from areas like social sciences that do not include executable (prototype based on feedback. As a consequence, it is relatively common to discover that the first release does not fit the requirements defined at the beginning of the project. Using domain-specific languages (DSLs as an auxiliary tool for requirements elicitation is a commonly well accepted idea. Unfortunately, there are few works in the literature devoted to the definition of design principles for DSLs to be experienced in the frameworks for DSL developing such as ANTLR, Ruby, and Curry. We propose design principles for the DSL development (regardless of paradigm which are sufficient to model the domain in a requirements phase. Further more we enunciate a new profile for the requirements analyst and a set of elicitation steps. The use of DSLs not only giveus an immediate feedback with

  4. How participation is practiced? –Extension of Participatory Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mika Yasuoka; Kamihira, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    Last few years, we have witnessed of an increased value of stakeholder participation on service design. In spite of the attention to the participation on design, we have only a limited common ground what participation means. Participants, definition, process, purpose and expectation...

  5. Participatory telerobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissner-Gross, Alexander D.; Sullivan, Timothy M.

    2013-05-01

    We present a novel "participatory telerobotics" system that generalizes the existing concept of participatory sensing to include real-time teleoperation and telepresence by treating humans with mobile devices as ad-hoc telerobots. In our approach, operators or analysts first choose a desired location for remote surveillance or activity from a live geographic map and are then automatically connected via a coordination server to the nearest available trusted human. That human's device is then activated and begins recording and streaming back to the operator a live audiovisual feed for telepresence, while allowing the operator in turn to request complex teleoperative motions or actions from the human. Supported action requests currently include walking, running, leaning, and turning, all with controllable magnitudes and directions. Compliance with requests is automatically measured and scored in real time by fusing information received from the device's onboard sensors, including its accelerometers, gyroscope, magnetometer, GPS receiver, and cameras. Streams of action requests are visually presented by each device to its human in the form of an augmented reality game that rewards prompt physical compliance while remaining tolerant of network latency. Because of its ability to interactively elicit physical knowledge and operations through ad-hoc collaboration, we anticipate that our participatory telerobotics system will have immediate applications in the intelligence, retail, healthcare, security, and travel industries.

  6. Use of an interdisciplinary, participatory design approach to develop a usable patient self-assessment tool in atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacCallum L

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lori MacCallum,1,2 Heather McGaw,1 Nazanin Meshkat,3 Alissia Valentinis,4 Leslie Beard Ashley,5 Rajan Sacha Bhatia,3,6,7 Kaye Benson,7 Noah Ivers,6,8 Kori Leblanc,2,7 Dante Morra3,5,7 1Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, 2Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, 4Taddle Creek Family Health Team, Toronto, 5Trillium Health Partners, Mississauga, 6Women's College Hospital, Toronto, 7Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, University Health Network, Toronto, 8Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: After identifying that significant care gaps exist within the management of atrial fibrillation (AF, a patient-focused tool was developed to help patients better assess and manage their AF. This tool aims to provide education and awareness regarding the management of symptoms and stroke risk associated with AF, while engaging patients to identify if their condition is optimally managed and to become involved in their own care. An interdisciplinary group of health care providers and designers worked together in a participatory design approach to develop the tool with input from patients. Usability testing was completed with 22 patients of varying demographics to represent the characteristics of the patient population. The findings from usability testing interviews were used to further improve and develop the tool to improve ease of use. A physician-facing tool was also developed to help to explain the tool and provide a brief summary of the 2012 Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines. By incorporating patient input and human-centered design with the knowledge, experience, and medical expertise of health care providers, we have used an approach in developing the tool that tries to more effectively meet patients' needs. Keywords: patient education, atrial fibrillation, care gaps

  7. Sometimes more is more: iterative participatory design of infographics for engagement of community members with varying levels of health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcia, Adriana; Suero-Tejeda, Niurka; Bales, Michael E; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Yoon, Sunmoo; Woollen, Janet; Bakken, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    To collaborate with community members to develop tailored infographics that support comprehension of health information, engage the viewer, and may have the potential to motivate health-promoting behaviors. The authors conducted participatory design sessions with community members, who were purposively sampled and grouped by preferred language (English, Spanish), age group (18-30, 31-60, >60 years), and level of health literacy (adequate, marginal, inadequate). Research staff elicited perceived meaning of each infographic, preferences between infographics, suggestions for improvement, and whether or not the infographics would motivate health-promoting behavior. Analysis and infographic refinement were iterative and concurrent with data collection. Successful designs were information-rich, supported comparison, provided context, and/or employed familiar color and symbolic analogies. Infographics that employed repeated icons to represent multiple instances of a more general class of things (e.g., apple icons to represent fruit servings) were interpreted in a rigidly literal fashion and thus were unsuitable for this community. Preliminary findings suggest that infographics may motivate health-promoting behaviors. Infographics should be information-rich, contextualize the information for the viewer, and yield an accurate meaning even if interpreted literally. Carefully designed infographics can be useful tools to support comprehension and thus help patients engage with their own health data. Infographics may contribute to patients' ability to participate in the Learning Health System through participation in the development of a robust data utility, use of clinical communication tools for health self-management, and involvement in building knowledge through patient-reported outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Design Principles for the Information Architecture of a SMET Education Digital Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Andy; Agogino, Alice M.

    This implementation paper introduces principles for the information architecture of an educational digital library, principles that address the distinction between designing digital libraries for education and designing digital libraries for information retrieval in general. Design is a key element of any successful product. Good designers and…

  9. Is Participatory Design Associated with the Effectiveness of Serious Digital Games for Healthy Lifestyle Promotion? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmet, Ann; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Palmeira, Antonio; Verloigne, Maïté; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2016-04-29

    Serious digital games can be effective at changing healthy lifestyles, but large differences in their effectiveness exist. The extent of user involvement in game design may contribute to game effectiveness by creating a better fit with user preferences. Participatory design (PD), which represents active user involvement as informant (ie, users are asked for input and feedback) or codesigner (ie, users as equal partners in the design) early on and throughout the game development, may be associated with higher game effectiveness, as opposed to no user involvement or limited user involvement. This paper reports the results of a meta-analysis examining the moderating role of PD in the effectiveness of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion. Four databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers in English that were published or in press before October 2014, using a (group-) randomized controlled trial design. Effectiveness data were derived from another meta-analysis assessing the role of behavior change techniques and game features in serious game effectiveness. A total of 58 games evaluated in 61 studies were included. As previously reported, serious digital games had positive effects on healthy lifestyles and their determinants. Unexpectedly, PD (g=0.075, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.133) throughout game development was related to lower game effectiveness on behavior (Q=6.74, PGames developed with PD (g=0.171, 95% CI 0.061 to 0.281, Pgame effectiveness on self-efficacy (Q=7.83, Pgame design (g=0.384, 95% CI 0.283 to 0.485, Pgame design element. Games developed with PD were more effective in changing behavioral determinants when they included users in design elements on game dynamics (beta=.215, 95% CI .075 to .356, Pgame levels was also related to higher game effectiveness (Q=7.02, Pgame challenge (Q=11.23, Pgame effectiveness when used to create characters (Q=4.36, Pgame world (Q=3.99, Pgames developed with PD. However, significant differences existed among PD

  10. EMERGING ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES FOR YIELD IMPROVEMENT IN MICROBIAL CELL DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Comba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Engineering has undertaken a rapid transformation in the last ten years making real progress towards the production of a wide range of molecules and fine chemicals using a designed cellular host. However, the maximization of product yields through pathway optimization is a constant and central challenge of this field. Traditional methods used to improve the production of target compounds from engineered biosynthetic pathways in non-native hosts include: codon usage optimization, elimination of the accumulation of toxic intermediates or byproducts, enhanced production of rate-limiting enzymes, selection of appropriate promoter and ribosome binding sites, application of directed evolution of enzymes, and chassis re-circuit. Overall, these approaches tend to be specific for each engineering project rather than a systematic practice based on a more generalizable strategy. In this mini-review, we highlight some novel and extensive approaches and tools intended to address the improvement of a target product formation, founded in sophisticated principles such as dynamic control, pathway genes modularization, and flux modeling.

  11. Emerging engineering principles for yield improvement in microbial cell design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Comba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Engineering has undertaken a rapid transformation in the last ten years making real progress towards the production of a wide range of molecules and fine chemicals using a designed cellular host. However, the maximization of product yields through pathway optimization is a constant and central challenge of this field. Traditional methods used to improve the production of target compounds from engineered biosynthetic pathways in non-native hosts include: codon usage optimization, elimination of the accumulation of toxic intermediates or byproducts, enhanced production of rate-limiting enzymes, selection of appropriate promoter and ribosome binding sites, application of directed evolution of enzymes, and chassis re-circuit. Overall, these approaches tend to be specific for each engineering project rather than a systematic practice based on a more generalizable strategy. In this mini-review, we highlight some novel and extensive approaches and tools intended to address the improvement of a target product formation, founded in sophisticated principles such as dynamic control, pathway genes modularization, and flux modeling.

  12. Principles for designing and delivering psychosocial and mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard; Kemp, V

    2018-03-08

    The development of the UK's military policy includes the potential for military organisations to deploy in support of humanitarian aid operations. This paper offers an overview of the risks to people's mental health of their exposure to emergencies, major incidents, disasters, terrorism, displacement, postconflict environments in which humanitarian aid is delivered, and deployments to conflict zones. It summarises the psychosocial approach recommended by many contemporary researchers and practitioners. It differentiates the extremely common experience of distress from the mental disorders that people who are affected may develop and introduces the construct of psychosocial resilience. The authors recognise the importance of trajectories of response in separating people who are distressed and require psychosocial care from those who require mental healthcare. Finally, this paper summarises a strategic approach to designing, planning and providing psychosocial and mental healthcare, provides a model of care and outlines the principles for early psychosocial interventions that do not require training in mental healthcare to deliver them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Design principles of a conditional futile cycle exploited for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolla, Dean A; Kiley, Patricia J; Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    In this report, we characterize the design principles of futile cycling in providing rapid adaptation by regulatory proteins that act as environmental sensors. In contrast to the energetically wasteful futile cycles that are avoided in metabolic pathways, here we describe a conditional futile cycle exploited for a regulatory benefit. The FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction) cycle in Escherichia coli operates under two regimes - a strictly futile cycle in the presence of O2 and as a pathway under anoxic conditions. The computational results presented here use FNR as a model system and provide evidence that cycling of this transcription factor and its labile sensory cofactor between active and inactive states affords rapid signaling and adaptation. We modify a previously developed mechanistic model to examine a family of FNR models each with different cycling speeds but mathematically constrained to be otherwise equivalent, and we identify a trade-off between energy expenditure and response time that can be tuned by evolution to optimize cycling rate of the FNR system for a particular ecological context. Simulations mimicking experiments with proposed double mutant strains offer suggestions for experimentally testing our predictions and identifying potential fitness effects. Our approach provides a computational framework for analyzing other conditional futile cycles, which when placed in their larger biological context may be found to confer advantages to the organism.

  14. Development of design principles for automated systems in transport control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Wilson, John R; Sharples, Sarah; Clarke, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of a qualitative study investigating attitudes towards and opinions of an advanced automation system currently used in UK rail signalling. In-depth interviews were held with 10 users, key issues associated with automation were identified and the automation's impact on the signalling task investigated. The interview data highlighted the importance of the signallers' understanding of the automation and their (in)ability to predict its outputs. The interviews also covered the methods used by signallers to interact with and control the automation, and the perceived effects on their workload. The results indicate that despite a generally low level of understanding and ability to predict the actions of the automation system, signallers have developed largely successful coping mechanisms that enable them to use the technology effectively. These findings, along with parallel work identifying desirable attributes of automation from the literature in the area, were used to develop 12 principles of automation which can be used to help design new systems which better facilitate cooperative working. The work reported in this article was completed with the active involvement of operational rail staff who regularly use automated systems in rail signalling. The outcomes are currently being used to inform decisions on the extent and type of automation and user interfaces in future generations of rail control systems.

  15. Principles underlying rational design of live attenuated influenza vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yo Han

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent innovative advances in molecular virology and the developments of vaccines, influenza virus remains a serious burden for human health. Vaccination has been considered a primary countermeasure for prevention of influenza infection. Live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are particularly attracting attention as an effective strategy due to several advantages over inactivated vaccines. Cold-adaptation, as a classical means for attenuating viral virulence, has been successfully used for generating safe and effective donor strains of LAIVs against seasonal epidemics and occasional pandemics. Recently, the advent of reverse genetics technique expedited a variety of rational strategies to broaden the pool of LAIVs. Considering the breadth of antigenic diversity of influenza virus, the pool of LAIVs is likely to equip us with better options for controlling influenza pandemics. With a brief reflection on classical attenuating strategies used at the initial stage of development of LAIVs, especially on the principles underlying the development of cold-adapted LAIVs, we further discuss and outline other attenuation strategies especially with respect to the rationales for attenuation, and their practicality for mass production. Finally, we propose important considerations for a rational vaccine design, which will provide us with practical guidelines for improving the safety and effectiveness of LAIVs. PMID:23596576

  16. Design Principles and Algorithms for Air Traffic Arrival Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; Itoh, Eri

    2014-01-01

    This report presents design principles and algorithms for building a real-time scheduler of arrival aircraft based on a first-come-first-served (FCFS) scheduling protocol. The algorithms provide the conceptual and computational foundation for the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) of the Center/terminal radar approach control facilities (TRACON) automation system, which comprises a set of decision support tools for managing arrival traffic at major airports in the United States. The primary objective of the scheduler is to assign arrival aircraft to a favorable landing runway and schedule them to land at times that minimize delays. A further objective of the scheduler is to allocate delays between high-altitude airspace far away from the airport and low-altitude airspace near the airport. A method of delay allocation is described that minimizes the average operating cost in the presence of errors in controlling aircraft to a specified landing time. This report is a revision of an earlier paper first presented as part of an Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) lecture series in September 1995. The authors, during vigorous discussions over the details of this paper, felt it was important to the air-trafficmanagement (ATM) community to revise and extend the original 1995 paper, providing more detail and clarity and thereby allowing future researchers to understand this foundational work as the basis for the TMA's scheduling algorithms.

  17. Design Principles for Online Instruction: A New Kind of Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil TOPORSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1900’s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or “canned” broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed DE to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb model, where content was disseminated in about the same time constraints as a traditional class: taught at scheduled times throughout the week–almost anywhere but not always anytime. Moreover, the modes of presentation in classic DE seemed to hinder the kinds of human interactions normally experienced in the traditional classroom, fostering individualized and isolated learning experiences.Online learning is a hybrid between the traditional classroom and the DE experience. Like the traditional classroom, instruction is teacher-facilitated. The student is enrolled in a conventional course with topic (lecture presentations, reading and homework assignments, classroom discussions, and class projects. Unlike the traditional classroom, courses are web-based and distributed from a distance, using an assortment of synchronous and asynchronous computer technologies and offered anywhere and anytime. In this way, online learning is different from the classic DE model by encouraging decentralized and collaborative learning environments. So that in this presentation will be discuss design principles for online instruction as being a new kind of classroom.

  18. Design principles for simulation games for learning clinical reasoning: A design-based research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, J-M; Haavisto, E; Niemi, H; Haho, P; Nylund, S; Multisilta, J

    2018-01-01

    Nurses sometimes lack the competence needed for recognising deterioration in patient conditions and this is often due to poor clinical reasoning. There is a need to develop new possibilities for learning this crucial competence area. In addition, educators need to be future oriented; they need to be able to design and adopt new pedagogical innovations. The purpose of the study is to describe the development process and to generate principles for the design of nursing simulation games. A design-based research methodology is applied in this study. Iterative cycles of analysis, design, development, testing and refinement were conducted via collaboration among researchers, educators, students, and game designers. The study facilitated the generation of reusable design principles for simulation games to guide future designers when designing and developing simulation games for learning clinical reasoning. This study makes a major contribution to research on simulation game development in the field of nursing education. The results of this study provide important insights into the significance of involving nurse educators in the design and development process of educational simulation games for the purpose of nursing education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. How bioethics principles can aid design of electronic health records to accommodate patient granular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslin, Eric M; Schwartz, Peter H

    2015-01-01

    Ethics should guide the design of electronic health records (EHR), and recognized principles of bioethics can play an important role. This approach was recently adopted by a team of informaticists who are designing and testing a system where patients exert granular control over who views their personal health information. While this method of building ethics in from the start of the design process has significant benefits, questions remain about how useful the application of bioethics principles can be in this process, especially when principles conflict. For instance, while the ethical principle of respect for autonomy supports a robust system of granular control, the principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence counsel restraint due to the danger of patients being harmed by restrictions on provider access to data. Conflict between principles has long been recognized by ethicists and has even motivated attacks on approaches that state and apply principles. In this paper, we show how using ethical principles can help in the design of EHRs by first explaining how ethical principles can and should be used generally, and then by discussing how attention to details in specific cases can show that the tension between principles is not as bad as it initially appeared. We conclude by suggesting ways in which the application of these (and other) principles can add value to the ongoing discussion of patient involvement in their health care. This is a new approach to linking principles to informatics design that we expect will stimulate further interest.

  20. The Development of SCORM-Conformant Learning Content Based on the Learning Cycle Using Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Wang, T. I.

    2010-01-01

    This study incorporates the 5E learning cycle strategy to design and develop Sharable Content Object Reference Model-conformant materials for elementary science education. The 5E learning cycle that supports the constructivist approach has been widely applied in science education. The strategy consists of five phases: engagement, exploration,…

  1. Playful empowerment, the role of game design innovation in participatory citizenship.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Marsh, T.

    2016-01-01

    In this talk I will address a changing perspective on design, one in which users are defined as social and economical actors who co-create products and services. We will see that the role of play in its contemporary and digital form for instance through games, apps, interactive toys is essential in

  2. Design for redundancy in a participatory action that helps user calibrating hearing devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simeone, Luca

    2018-01-01

    and hearing aid simulator) and (b) adopting these technologies to create videogames that can be used by people with hearing aids to fine-tune their hearing devices. The high number of stakeholders involved in the project and their differences (in terms of needs, wants and agendas) motivated a design approach...

  3. Connecting the Space between Design and Research: Explorations in Participatory Research Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Glenda Amayo; Osborne, Lindy; Mewburn, Inger; Nottingham, Anitra

    2016-01-01

    In this article we offer a single case study using an action research method for gathering and analysing data offering insights valuable to both design and research supervision practice. We do not attempt to generalise from this single case, but offer it as an instance that can improve our understanding of research supervision practice. We…

  4. Cross-disciplinary Participatory & Contextual Design Research: Creating a Teacher Dashboard Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy D. Abel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Concepts of Human Computer Interaction have crossed disciplinary boundaries allowing the discovery of underlying stakeholder affordances to emerge during the design research phase of system design. For the current scenario, middle school mathematics teachers as data-driven decision makers are inundated with diagnostic and assessment data, resulting in data deluge. The situation is unlikely to subside as digital technologies and media are broadly adopted for instruction and learning. Teachers could benefit from tools to quickly sift through this data to inform classroom instruction. Data should be visualized in a way that teachers can make real-time formative and summative assessments of student progress. The purpose of this article is to introduce a mixed-method mode of discovery to uncover affordances innate to classroom teachers during the design of an iPad data visualization application. These technology-assisted “dashboard” platforms could serve as efficient and effective interventions to deal with the copious amounts of data streams now available to teachers.

  5. Exploring adaptations to climate change with stakeholders: A participatory method to design grassland-based farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautier, Marion; Piquet, Mathilde; Duru, Michel; Martin-Clouaire, Roger

    2017-05-15

    Research is expected to produce knowledge, methods and tools to enhance stakeholders' adaptive capacity by helping them to anticipate and cope with the effects of climate change at their own level. Farmers face substantial challenges from climate change, from changes in the average temperatures and the precipitation regime to an increased variability of weather conditions and the frequency of extreme events. Such changes can have dramatic consequences for many types of agricultural production systems such as grassland-based livestock systems for which climate change influences the seasonality and productivity of fodder production. We present a participatory design method called FARMORE (FARM-Oriented REdesign) that allows farmers to design and evaluate adaptations of livestock systems to future climatic conditions. It explicitly considers three climate features in the design and evaluation processes: climate change, climate variability and the limited predictability of weather. FARMORE consists of a sequence of three workshops for which a pre-existing game-like platform was adapted. Various year-round forage production and animal feeding requirements must be assembled by participants with a computerized support system. In workshop 1, farmers aim to produce a configuration that satisfies an average future weather scenario. They refine or revise the previous configuration by considering a sample of the between-year variability of weather in workshop 2. In workshop 3, they explicitly take the limited predictability of weather into account. We present the practical aspects of the method based on four case studies involving twelve farmers from Aveyron (France), and illustrate it through an in-depth description of one of these case studies with three dairy farmers. The case studies shows and discusses how workshop sequencing (1) supports a design process that progressively accommodates complexity of real management contexts by enlarging considerations of climate change

  6. Groupwork and participatory media

    OpenAIRE

    Brailas, Alexios; Nika, Stella

    2015-01-01

    Face-to-face groupwork sessions combined with online participatory social media could be a quite promising pedagogical strategy. In this paper, we present the pedagogical design and the rationale for groupwork in a blended educational landscape. In traditional teaching, the emphasis is given on the dissemination of information, on rich content delivery by a sage on the stage. In the proposed model, the educator acts as a facilitator, as the active guide on the side of the group, delegating au...

  7. Participatory urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    2016-01-01

    cannot directly influence their structures, they can influence their contours through such leisure practices. In this chapter focus will be on how citizens’ engagement in locative leisure activities may allow them to co-create urban space. This participatory urbanism is a form of everyday democracy......Urban areas are planned structures that cannot easily be changed. Urban areas do however still afford physical spaces for various types of leisure expression and participation, from street art to parkour and from urban gaming to artistic happenings. Thus, while citizens who inhabit the urban areas...

  8. Transformer design principles with applications to core-form power transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Del Vecchio, Robert M; Feeney, Mary-Ellen F

    2001-01-01

    Transformer Design Principles presents the theory of transformer operation and the methods and techniques of designing them. It emphasizes the physical principles and mathematical tools for simulating transformer behavior, including modern computer techniques. The scope of the book includes types of construction, circuit analysis, mechanical aspects of design, high voltage insulation requirements, and cooling design. The authors also address test procedures and reliability methods to assure successful design and discuss the economic analysis of designs. Summarizing material currently scattered

  9. Participatory design methods for the development of a clinical telehealth service for neonatal homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Kristina Garne; Brødsgaard, Anne; Zachariassen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    on the results obtained during the workshops and subsequent testing, we developed an application (app), which was integrated into the medical record at the neonatal unit. The app was used to initiate videoconferences and chat messages between the family at home and the neonatal unit, and to share information...... regarding infant growth and well-being. Conclusion: Results obtained from the workshops and testing demonstrated the importance of involving users when developing new telehealth applications. The workshops helped identify the challenges associated with delivery of the service, and helped instruct the design...

  10. Participatory Design of an Online Self-Management Tool for Users With Spinal Cord Injury: Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John; Tomasone, Jennifer; Munce, Sarah; Linassi, Gary; Hossain, Saima Noreen; Jaglal, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Background Rehospitalization rates resulting from secondary conditions in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) are high. Self-management programs for many chronic conditions have been associated with decreases in hospital readmissions. However, in the SCI community, evidence suggests that satisfaction with traditional self-management programs is low. Users with SCI have indicated preference for programs that are online (rather than in-person), that target SCI-specific concerns, and are led by peers with SCI. There is currently no program with all of these features, which addresses self-management of secondary conditions after SCI. Objective The aim of this study was to provide details of a participatory design (PD) process for an internet-mediated self-management program for users with SCI (called SCI & U) and illustrate how it has been used to define design constraints and solutions. Methods Users were involved in development as codesigners, codevelopers, and key informants. Codesigners and codevelopers were recruited from consumer advocacy groups and worked with a core development team. Key informants were recruited from geographically distributed advocacy groups to form a product advisory council that met regularly with the core team. During meetings, codesigners and informants walked through stages of work that typify PD processes such as exploration, discovery, and prototyping. This paper details the process by analyzing 10 meetings that took place between August 2015 and May 2016. Meetings were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to an inductive thematic analysis; resulting themes were organized according to their relationship to PD stages. Results A total of 16 individuals participated in meeting discussions, including 7 researchers and 9 persons with SCI from 4 Canadian provinces. Themes of trust, expertise, and community emerged in every group discussion. The exploration stage revealed interest in online self-management resources coupled with concerns

  11. E-Inclusion: Social Inclusion of Young Adults with Intellectual Disabilities - A Participatory Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Julia S

    2017-01-01

    By examining the role of digital tools and social media, this paper discusses an innovative prospective research study to enhance social inclusion of young adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The paper begins with an overview of how individuals with disabilities have historically been excluded from society based on limited access and minimal opportunities afforded to them. Next, the paper presents the caveats that may hinder the improvement of social inclusion of young adults with ID and the oversights when developing digital technologies. Details about a prospective intervention research study are described that include a mobile application and a social media component. Finally, implications for research and practice are highlighted to emphasize the fundamental call for an insightful deliberation of these caveats that needs to be addressed in the design of a research study of this nature.

  12. PRINCÍPIO DA PARTICIPAÇÃO E INSTRUMENTOS DE DEMOCRACIA PARTICIPATIVA EM ÂMBITO LOCAL / PARTICIPATION PRINCIPLE AND LOCAL PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Rigo Santin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s 1988 Constitution created the legal basis for the development of some of the world’s most progressive democratic practices, consecrated as fundamental rights. The Brazilian Democratic State of Law must be based on popular sovereignty in which the people are the holder of political power and sometimes are also called to exercise it. However, even though there is a formal recognition, there is, in practical terms, a great resistance both by civil society and by political society in turning participation into an effective practice in Brazilian public management, residing here the research problematization. Thus, based on the dialectical method, the objective is to analyze the local instruments of participatory democracy in Brazil, especially the institutes of municipal democratic management, participatory budgetary management, public hearings and municipal management councils. There is a need of creating, through participation, a sense of belonging in every citizen to their local space. This can be done by aiming to optimize the application of public money and increasing social control over historical political practices such as clientelism, corruption and diversion of funds for private purposes. These practices are still present in the country and contaminate the effectiveness of the public machine and the legitimacy of institutions.

  13. Temporal Evolution of Design Principles in Engineering Systems: Analogies with Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb, Kalyanmoy; Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2012-01-01

    constructed later during optimization. Interestingly, there exists a simile between evolution of design principles with that of human evolution. Such information about the hierarchy of key design principles should enable designers to have a deeper understanding of their problems.......Optimization of an engineering system or component makes a series of changes in the initial random solution(s) iteratively to form the final optimal shape. When multiple conflicting objectives are considered, recent studies on innovization revealed the fact that the set of Pareto-optimal solutions...... portray certain common design principles. In this paper, we consider a 14-variable bi-objective design optimization of a MEMS device and identify a number of such common design principles through a recently proposed automated innovization procedure. Although these design principles are found to exist...

  14. Participatory action research designs in applied disability and rehabilitation science: protecting against threats to social validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekins, Tom; White, Glen W

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and evaluation of a software prototype for participatory planning of environmental adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, J; Ek, A; Johansson, G

    2000-03-01

    A software prototype to support the planning process for adapting home and work environments for people with physical disabilities was designed and later evaluated. The prototype exploits low-cost three-dimensional (3-D) graphics products in the home computer market. The essential features of the prototype are: interactive rendering with optional hardware acceleration, interactive walk-throughs, direct manipulation tools for moving objects and measuring distances, and import of 3-D-objects from a library. A usability study was conducted, consisting of two test sessions (three weeks apart) and a final interview. The prototype was then tested and evaluated by representatives of future users: five occupational therapist students, and four persons with physical disability, with no previous experience of the prototype. Emphasis in the usability study was placed on the prototype's efficiency and learnability. We found that it is possible to realise a planning tool for environmental adaptations, both regarding usability and technical efficiency. The usability evaluation confirms our findings from previous case studies, regarding the relevance and positive attitude towards this kind of planning tool. Although the prototype was found to be satisfactorily efficient for the basic tasks, the paper presents several suggestions for improvement of future prototype versions.

  16. Collaborative Research in Child Welfare: A Rationale for Rigorous Participatory Evaluation Designs to Promote Sustained Systems Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Shackelford, Kim; Kelly, Michael; Martin-Galijatovic, Ramie

    2011-01-01

    Expansion of the child welfare evidence base is a major challenge. The field must establish how organizational systems and practice techniques yield outcomes for children and families. Needed research must be grounded in practice and must engage practitioners and administrators via participatory evaluation. The extent to which successful practices…

  17. Gamification in online education: proposal for a participatory learning model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Bigão Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies have suggested limitations on the form of application of gamification mechanics in the context of online education. These mechanics have been applied without reference to a theoretical model dedicated to this type of education. The objective of the paper is to propose a model for a gamified platform for online education that contributes to a more participatory learning, taking into account the different student profiles. Based on literature review about approaches to gamification systems design, a set of steps was followed in order to develop a generic model for a framework dedicated to online education. The model proposed is based on the Educational Gamification Design Principles proposed by Dicheva et al. (2015. The model may contribute to the promotion of participatory learning, taking into account the different student profiles. The results of such evaluation will be published in the future.

  18. Assessment Of Co60 Industrial Irradiators According To Basic Design Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Mohamed El Refaie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring safe and easy operation providing relative uniform dose in the product and maximizing radiation utilization are the basic design principles for each Co60 industrial irradiator to maintain radiation safety. The study shows an assessment for four industrial irradiators to determine which active results were been maintained by using basic design principles. Different designs elements of the chosen irradiators have been illustrated and studied. The study shows that IRASM and ROBO industrial irradiators satisfy all basic design principles. IAEA-NR3772 irradiator maintains only two of the three basic design principles due to rotating door. Brevion irradiator satisfies only the principle of relative uniform radiation dose in product. Without affecting radiation safety this study proposes a new design of the irradiator to maximize energy utilization by adding a new track for low density products and also a static irradiation for cultural heritage beside the main track of high density products.

  19. Seismic design and performance of nuclear safety related RC structures based on new seismic design principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugan, R.; Sivathanu Pillai, C.; Chattopadhyaya, S.; Sundaramurthy, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Seismic design of safety related Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures of Nuclear power plants (NPP) in India as per the present AERB codal procedures tries to ensure predominantly elastic behaviour under OBE so that the features of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) necessary for continued safe operation are designed to remain functional and prevent accident (collapse) of NPP under SSE for which certain Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) those are necessary to ensure the capability to shut down the reactor safely, are designed to remain functional. While the seismic design principles of non safety related structures as per Indian code (IS 1893-2002) are ensuring elastic behaviour under DBE and inelastic behaviour under MCE by utilizing ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structure effectively. The design principle of AERB code is ensuring elastic behaviour under OBE and is not enlightening much inference about the overall structural behaviour under SSE (only ensuring the capability of certain SSCs required for safe shutdown of reactor). Various buildings and structures of Indian Nuclear power plant are classified from the basis of associated safety functions in a descending order in according with their roles in preventions and mitigation of an accident or support functions for prevention. This paper covers a comprehensive seismic analysis and design methodology based on the AERB codal provisions followed for safety related RC structure taking Diesel Generator Building of PFBR as a case study and study and investigates its performance under OBE and SSE by carrying out Non-linear static Pushover analysis. Based on the analysis, observed variations, recommendations are given for getting the desired performance level so as to implement performance based design in the future NPP design

  20. Designing Next Generation Rechargeable Battery Materials from First-Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo

    Technology has advanced rapidly, especially in the twenty-first century, influencing our day-to-day life on unprecedented levels. Most such advances in technology are closely linked to, and often driven by, the discovery and design of new materials. It follows that the discovery of new materials can not only improve existing technologies but also lead to revolutionary ones. In particular, there is a growing need to develop new energy materials that are reliable, clean, and affordable for emerging applications such as portable electronics, electric vehicles, and power grid systems. Many researchers have been actively searching for more cost-effective and clean electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) during the last few decades. These new electrode materials are also required to achieve higher electrochemical performance, compared to the already commercialized electrodes. Unfortunately, discovering the next sustainable energy materials based on a traditional 'trial-and-error' method via experiment would be extremely slow and difficult. In the last two decades, computational compilations of battery material properties such as voltage, diffusivity, and phase stability against irreversible phase transformation(s) using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations have helped researchers to understand the underlying mechanism in many oxide materials that are used as LIB electrodes. Here, we have examined the (001) and (111) surface structures of LiMn2O4 (LMO) spinel cathode materials using DFT calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) + U approach. Our theoretical results explain the observation of a wide spectrum of polyhedral shapes between (001)- and (111)-dominated LMO particles in experiments, which can be described by the narrow range of surface energies and their sensitivity to synthesis conditions. We further show that single-layer graphene coatings help suppress manganese dissolution in LMO by chemically

  1. Designing MOOC: a shared view on didactical principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; De Vries, Fred

    2018-01-01

    The innovative impact of the paper can be highlighted by the following statements: 1. Applying the Group Concept Mapping, a non-traditional and power research methodology for objectively identifying the shared vision of a group of experts on MOOC didactical principles. 2. Defining MOOC didactical

  2. Silver Nanoclusters: From Design Principles to Practical Applications

    KAUST Repository

    AbdulHalim, Lina G.

    2015-01-01

    transient absorption spectroscopy. A major principle discovered in this dissertation is the ability to produce Ag44 in scalable amounts and with high stability in addition to modulation of the functional groups of the organic ligands via a fast and complete

  3. Design Principles for the Development of the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser Ozmantar, Zehra; Gedikoglu, Tokay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the development and implementation process of the balanced scorecard (BSC) approach in an educational institution in the context of the Turkish educational system. It also aims, on the basis of the results of the applications in a particular school, to define principles through which the…

  4. Design of Learning Objects for Concept Learning: Effects of Multimedia Learning Principles and an Instructional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Thomas K. F.; Churchill, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Literature suggests using multimedia learning principles in the design of instructional material. However, these principles may not be sufficient for the design of learning objects for concept learning in mathematics. This paper reports on an experimental study that investigated the effects of an instructional approach, which includes two teaching…

  5. Representing Clarity: Using Universal Design Principles to Create Effective Hybrid Course Learning Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Cheri Lemieux

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the author applied principles of universal design to hybrid course materials to increase student understanding and, ultimately, success. Pulling the three principles of universal design--consistency, color, and icon representation--into the author's Blackboard course allowed her to change the types of reading skills…

  6. 10 CFR 435.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] 435.6 Section 435.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS...-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction...

  7. 10 CFR 433.6 - Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] 433.6 Section 433.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS... BUILDINGS § 433.6 Sustainable principles for siting, design and construction. [Reserved] ...

  8. Integrating Quality Matters into Hybrid Course Design: A Principles of Marketing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research supports the idea that the success of hybrid or online delivery modes is more a function of course design than delivery media. This article describes a case study of a hybrid Principles of Marketing course that implemented a comprehensive redesign based on design principles espoused by the Quality Matters Program, a center for…

  9. The principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The objective of the author is to review the need for shallow land disposal facilities in the UK and to propose design principles which will protect the public and operatives from excessive risk. It is not the intent of the author to present a detailed design of facility which will meet the design standards proposed although such a design is feasible and within the scope of currently available technology. The principles and standards proposed in this paper are not necessarily those of PPC Consultant Services Ltd. or NEI Waste Technologies Ltd. (author)

  10. Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Chorianopoulos; Michail Giannakos

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1) engage the students with narrative (hero, story), 2) employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3) engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4) situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two...

  11. Teaching Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kensing, Finn; Bødker, Keld; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This full-day invitational pre-conference workshop is devoted to sharing experiences from teaching PD methods, approaches, issues and concerns to students and practitioners. Our experiences stem from teaching and coaching IT practitioners as well as students studying computer science or IT. However......, people with experiences gained from working with other professions are also welcome. Short presentations from each of the participants form the starting point of the discussion to which most of the time will be devoted. The intend is not to suggest the way of teaching PD, rather we hope that each...... participant will receive valuable inspiration to help improve his or her own teaching....

  12. Design principles for data- and change-oriented organisational analysis in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, A; Jenny, G J; Bauer, G F

    2012-06-01

    This article focuses on organizational analysis in workplace health promotion (WHP) projects. It shows how this analysis can be designed such that it provides rational data relevant to the further context-specific and goal-oriented planning of WHP and equally supports individual and organizational change processes implied by WHP. Design principles for organizational analysis were developed on the basis of a narrative review of the guiding principles of WHP interventions and organizational change as well as the scientific principles of data collection. Further, the practical experience of WHP consultants who routinely conduct organizational analysis was considered. This resulted in a framework with data-oriented and change-oriented design principles, addressing the following elements of organizational analysis in WHP: planning the overall procedure, data content, data-collection methods and information processing. Overall, the data-oriented design principles aim to produce valid, reliable and representative data, whereas the change-oriented design principles aim to promote motivation, coherence and a capacity for self-analysis. We expect that the simultaneous consideration of data- and change-oriented design principles for organizational analysis will strongly support the WHP process. We finally illustrate the applicability of the design principles to health promotion within a WHP case study.

  13. Some General Principles in Cryogenic Design, Implementation, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipirro, Michael James

    2015-01-01

    Brief Course Description: In 2 hours only the most basic principles of cryogenics can be presented. I will concentrate on the differences between a room temperature thermal analysis and cryogenic thermal analysis, namely temperature dependent properties. I will talk about practical materials for thermal contact and isolation. I will finish by describing the verification process and instrumentation used that is unique to cryogenic (in general less than 100K) systems.

  14. A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup...... for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference...... is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings....

  15. Using Community-Based Participatory Research and Human-Centered Design to Address Violence-Related Health Disparities Among Latino/a Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Santacrose, Diana E; Liu, Sabrina R; Adams, Jessica

    High rates of exposure to violence and other adversities among Latino/a youth contribute to health disparities. The current article addresses the ways in which community-based participatory research (CBPR) and human-centered design (HCD) can help engage communities in dialogue and action. We present a project exemplifying how community forums, with researchers, practitioners, and key stakeholders, including youths and parents, integrated HCD strategies with a CBPR approach. Given the potential for power inequities among these groups, CBPR + HCD acted as a catalyst for reciprocal dialogue and generated potential opportunity areas for health promotion and change. Future directions are described.

  16. Participatory Design of an Online Self-Management Tool for Users With Spinal Cord Injury: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Sonya; Shepherd, John; Tomasone, Jennifer; Munce, Sarah; Linassi, Gary; Hossain, Saima Noreen; Jaglal, Susan

    2018-03-21

    Rehospitalization rates resulting from secondary conditions in persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) are high. Self-management programs for many chronic conditions have been associated with decreases in hospital readmissions. However, in the SCI community, evidence suggests that satisfaction with traditional self-management programs is low. Users with SCI have indicated preference for programs that are online (rather than in-person), that target SCI-specific concerns, and are led by peers with SCI. There is currently no program with all of these features, which addresses self-management of secondary conditions after SCI. The aim of this study was to provide details of a participatory design (PD) process for an internet-mediated self-management program for users with SCI (called SCI & U) and illustrate how it has been used to define design constraints and solutions. Users were involved in development as codesigners, codevelopers, and key informants. Codesigners and codevelopers were recruited from consumer advocacy groups and worked with a core development team. Key informants were recruited from geographically distributed advocacy groups to form a product advisory council that met regularly with the core team. During meetings, codesigners and informants walked through stages of work that typify PD processes such as exploration, discovery, and prototyping. This paper details the process by analyzing 10 meetings that took place between August 2015 and May 2016. Meetings were recorded, transcribed, and subjected to an inductive thematic analysis; resulting themes were organized according to their relationship to PD stages. A total of 16 individuals participated in meeting discussions, including 7 researchers and 9 persons with SCI from 4 Canadian provinces. Themes of trust, expertise, and community emerged in every group discussion. The exploration stage revealed interest in online self-management resources coupled with concerns about information credibility. In

  17. Friction reduction using discrete surface textures: principle and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen M; Jing, Yang; Hua, Diann; Zhang, Huan

    2014-01-01

    There have been many reports on the use of dimples, grooves, and other surface textures to control friction in sliding interfaces. The effectiveness of surface textures in friction reduction has been demonstrated in conformal contacts under high speed low load applications such as mechanical seals and automotive water pump seals, etc., resulting in reduced friction and longer durability. For sliding components with higher contact pressures or lower speeds, conflicting results were reported. Reasons for the inconsistency may be due to the differences in texture fabrication techniques, lack of dimple size and shape uniformity, and different tester used. This paper examines the basic principles on which surface textural patterns influence friction under the three principle lubrication regimes: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary lubrication regimes. Our findings suggest that each regime requires specific dimple size, shape, depth, and areal density to achieve friction reduction. Control experiments were also conducted to explore mechanisms of friction reduction. The dimple geometric shape and the dimple's orientation with respect to the sliding direction influence friction significantly. The underlying mechanisms for friction control via textures are discussed. (paper)

  18. Design of a Blended Learning Environment Based on Merrill’s Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarmata, Janner; Djohar, Asari; Purba, Janulis; Juanda, Enjang A.

    2018-01-01

    Designing blended learning courses requires a systematic approach, in instructional design decisions and implementations, instructional principles help educators not only to specify the elements of the course, but also to provide a solid base from which to build the technology. The blended learning course was designed based on Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction with five phases. This paper helps inform educators about how to develop appropriate learning styles and preferences according to students’ learning needs.

  19. Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Matthews, Ben

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant appr...... the challenges such an approach sets to innovation management, and discuss research directions we see as fundamental to the development of the field of user-driven innovation. Udgivelsesdato: September......An increasing number of corporations engage with users in co-innovation of products and services. But there are a number of competing perspectives on how best to integrate these understandings into existing corporate innovation development processes. This paper maps out three of the dominant...... approaches, compares them in terms of goals, methods and basic philosophy, and shows how they may beneficially enrich one another. We will present an industrial innovation case that has been instrumental to the development of what we have termed ‘Participatory Innovation’. Based on this we will list...

  20. Participatory Design With Seniors: Design of Future Services and Iterative Refinements of Interactive eHealth Services for Old Citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandurra, Isabella; Sjölinder, Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing social isolation among the elderly today. This will be an even larger issue in the future with growing numbers of elderly and less resources, for example, in terms of economy and staff. Loneliness and social isolation can, however, be addressed in several ways using different interactive eHealth services. This case study investigated novel eHealth services for the elderly, and their usage of a social interactive device designed especially for them. In this work, we used an innovative mobile communication device connected to the television (TV), which worked as a remotely controlled large interactive screen. The device was tested by 8 volunteers who visited a senior center. They were between 65 and 80 years of age and lived in their own homes. Throughout the 1.5 year-long project, 7 design workshops were held with the seniors and the staff at the center. During these workshops, demands and preferences regarding existing and new services were gathered. At the end of the project the participants' experience of the device and of the services was elaborated in 3 workshops to get ideas for improved or new meaningful services. During the data analyses and development process, what seniors thought would be useful in relation to what was feasible was prioritized by the development company. Regarding daily usage, the seniors reported that they mainly used the service for receiving information from the senior center and for communication with other participants in the group or with younger relatives. They also read information about events at the senior center and they liked to perform a weekly sent out workout exercise. Further, they played games such as Memory and Sudoku using the device. The service development focused on three categories of services: cognitive activities, social activities, and physical activities. A cognitive activity service that would be meaningful to develop was a game for practicing working memory. In the social activities

  1. Four Principles for User Interface Design of Computerised Clinical Decision Support Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Christiansen, Marion Berg; Nøhr, Christian

    2011-01-01

    emphasises a focus on how users interact with the system, a focus on how information is provided by the system, and four principles of interaction. The four principles for design of user interfaces for CDSS are summarised as four A’s: All in one, At a glance, At hand and Attention. It is recommended that all...... four interaction principles are integrated in the design of user interfaces for CDSS, i.e. the model is an integrated model which we suggest as a guide for interaction design when working with preventing medication errors....

  2. Resisting Technological Gravity: Using Guiding Principles for Instructional Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jason K.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers face tremendous pressure to abandon the essential characteristics of educational approaches, and settle instead for routine practices that do not preserve the level of quality those approaches originally expressed. Because this pressure can be strong enough to affect designers almost as gravity affects objects in the…

  3. Principles and Concepts for Information and Communication Technology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ray; Langdon, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a theory for evaluating information and communication technology design for individuals with disabilities. Simplex 1 evaluates designs in five zones: sensory and input zone; output zone; abstract working memory; long-term memory; and central executive functioning. Simplex 2 evaluates feedback, emotional responses, cognitive…

  4. A Community-Based, Technology-Supported Health Service for Detecting and Preventing Frailty among Older Adults: A Participatory Design Development Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velsen, Lex; Illario, Maddalena; Jansen-Kosterink, Stephanie; Crola, Catherine; Di Somma, Carolina; Colao, Annamaria; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Frailty is a multifaceted condition that affects many older adults and marks decline on areas such as cognition, physical condition, and nutritional status. Frail individuals are at increased risk for the development of disability, dementia, and falls. There are hardly any health services that enable the identification of prefrail individuals and that focus on prevention of further functional decline. In this paper, we discuss the development of a community-based, technology-supported health service for detecting prefrailty and preventing frailty and further functional decline via participatory design with a wide range of stakeholders. The result is an innovative service model in which an online platform supports the integration of traditional services with novel, Information Communication Technology supported tools. This service is capable of supporting the different phases of screening and offers training services, by also integrating them with community-based services. The service model can be used as a basis for developing similar services within a wide range of healthcare systems. We present the service model, the general functioning of the technology platform, and the different ways in which screening for and prevention of frailty has been localized. Finally, we reflect on the added value of participatory design for creating such health services.

  5. A Participatory Design Approach to Develop a Web-Based Self-Care Program Supporting Early Rehabilitation among Patients after Total Laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Eerenstein, Simone E J; Rinkel, Rico N P M; Aalders, Ijke J; van den Berg, Klaske; de Goede, Cees J T; van Stijgeren, Ans J; Cruijff-Bijl, Yvonne; de Bree, Remco; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2015-01-01

    To develop a Web-based self-care program for patients after total laryngectomy according to a participatory design approach. We conducted a needs assessment with laryngectomees (n = 9) and their partners (n = 3) by means of a focus group interview. In 4 focus group sessions, a requirement plan was formulated by a team of health care professionals (n = 10) and translated into a prototype. An e-health application was built including illustrated information on functional changes after total laryngectomy as well as video demonstrations of skills and exercises. Usability of the prototype was tested by end users (n = 4) and expert users (n = 10). Interviews were held to elicit the intention to use and the desired implementation strategy. Six main self-care topics were identified: (1) nutrition, (2) tracheostomy care, (3) voice prosthesis care, (4) speech rehabilitation, (5) smell rehabilitation, and (6) mobility of head, neck, and shoulder muscles. Expert users expressed concerns regarding tailored exercises, indicated a positive intent to implement the intervention in routine care, and expressed a need for guidance when implementing the intervention. End users and expert users appreciated the content completeness and multimedia-based information built into the application. The participatory design is a valuable approach to develop a self-care program to help meet users' needs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Building a patient-centered and interprofessional training program with patients, students and care professionals: study protocol of a participatory design and evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijn, Thomas W; Wollersheim, Hub; Faber, Marjan J; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Kremer, Jan A M

    2018-05-30

    A common approach to enhance patient-centered care is training care professionals. Additional training of patients has been shown to significantly improve patient-centeredness of care. In this participatory design and evaluation study, patient education and medical education will be combined by co-creating a patient-centered and interprofessional training program, wherein patients, students and care professionals learn together to improve patient-centeredness of care. In the design phase, scientific literature regarding interventions and effects of student-run patient education will be synthesized in a scoping review. In addition, focus group studies will be performed on the preferences of patients, students, care professionals and education professionals regarding the structure and content of the training program. Subsequently, an intervention plan of the training program will be constructed by combining these building blocks. In the evaluation phase, patients with a chronic disease, that is rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes and hypertension, and patients with an oncologic condition, that is colonic cancer and breast cancer, will learn together with medical students, nursing students and care professionals in training program cycles of three months. Process and effect evaluation will be performed using the plan-do-study-act (PDSA) method to evaluate and optimize the training program in care practice and medical education. A modified control design will be used in PDSA-cycles to ensure that students who act as control will also benefit from participating in the program. Our participatory design and evaluation study provides an innovative approach in designing and evaluating an intervention by involving participants in all stages of the design and evaluation process. The approach is expected to enhance the effectiveness of the training program by assessing and meeting participants' needs and preferences. Moreover, by using fast PDSA cycles and a modified control design

  7. Using principles of learning to inform language therapy design for children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Meyers, Christina; Ancharski, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Language treatment for children with specific language impairment (SLI) often takes months to achieve moderate results. Interventions often do not incorporate the principles that are known to affect learning in unimpaired learners. To outline some key findings about learning in typical populations and to suggest a model of how they might be applied to language treatment design as a catalyst for further research and discussion. Three main principles of implicit learning are reviewed: variability, complexity and sleep-dependent consolidation. After explaining these principles, evidence is provided as to how they influence learning tasks in unimpaired learners. Information is reviewed on principles of learning as they apply to impaired populations, current treatment designs are also reviewed that conform to the principles, and ways in which principles of learning might be incorporated into language treatment design are demonstrated. This paper provides an outline for how theoretical knowledge might be applied to clinical practice in an effort to promote discussion. Although the authors look forward to more specific details on how the principles of learning relate to impaired populations, there is ample evidence to suggest that these principles should be considered during treatment design. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  8. Participatory visualization with Wordle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viégas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin; Feinberg, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the design and usage of "Wordle," a web-based tool for visualizing text. Wordle creates tag-cloud-like displays that give careful attention to typography, color, and composition. We describe the algorithms used to balance various aesthetic criteria and create the distinctive Wordle layouts. We then present the results of a study of Wordle usage, based both on spontaneous behaviour observed in the wild, and on a large-scale survey of Wordle users. The results suggest that Wordles have become a kind of medium of expression, and that a "participatory culture" has arisen around them.

  9. Design Principles and Concepts for Enhancing Long-Term Cap Performance and Confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven J. Piet; Robert P. Breckenridge; Gregory J. White; Jacob J. Jacobson; Hilary I. Inyang

    2005-01-01

    The siting of new landfills is becoming increasing difficult as the public and stakeholders want more confidence of performance for longer times and landfill owners want to store more waste in the least area while knowing and limiting their long-term liabilities. These changes motivate re-examination of long-term performance mechanisms and their implications for cap and barrier designs. Accordingly, in this paper we first consider design principles from the standpoint of long-term performance and management, including the ability to monitor and repair barriers. We then consider some design concepts that may implement these principles, especially evapo-transpiration (ET) caps. We suggest five design principles based on experience in the cap and barrier field as well as other engineering disciplines. These principles are as follows: (1) Establish a clear and defendable design basis. (2) Design for ease of monitoring and repair. (3) Analyze the barrier as a dynamic system, not static. (4) Work with nature, not against. (5) Recognize that increased complexity can reduce, not enhance, net performance. ET caps are an excellent embodiment of these design principles. We apply the design principles to ET caps, as well as variants such as erosion armor, capillary breaks, bio-intrusion layers, and low permeability material layers

  10. Designing a Summer Transition Program for Incoming and Current College Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Participatory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Hotez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD face unique challenges transitioning from high school to college and receive insufficient support to help them navigate this transition. Through a participatory collaboration with incoming and current autistic college students, we developed, implemented, and evaluated two intensive week-long summer programs to help autistic students transition into and succeed in college. This process included: (1 developing an initial summer transition program curriculum guided by recommendations from autistic college students in our ongoing mentorship program, (2 conducting an initial feasibility assessment of the curriculum [Summer Transition Program 1 (STP1], (3 revising our initial curriculum, guided by feedback from autistic students, to develop a curriculum manual, and (4 pilot-testing the manualized curriculum through a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test assessment of a second summer program [Summer Transition Program 2 (STP2]. In STP2, two autistic college students assumed a leadership role and acted as “mentors” and ten incoming and current autistic college students participated in the program as “mentees.” Results from the STP2 pilot-test suggested benefits of participatory transition programming for fostering self-advocacy and social skills among mentees. Autistic and non-autistic mentors (but not mentees described practicing advanced forms of self-advocacy, specifically leadership, through their mentorship roles. Autistic and non-autistic mentors also described shared (e.g., empathy and unique (an intuitive understanding of autism vs. an intuitive understanding of social interaction skills that they contributed to the program. This research provides preliminary support for the feasibility and utility of a participatory approach in which autistic college students are integral to the development and implementation of programming to help less experienced autistic students develop the self

  11. Principles of VLSI RTL design a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Churiwala, Sanjay; Gianfagna, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the impact of register transfer level (RTL) design choices that may result in issues of testability, data synchronization across clock domains, synthesizability, power consumption and routability, that appear later in the product lifecycle.

  12. SOA and Web services interface design principles, techniques, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, James

    2009-01-01

    SOA offers solutions to the most intractable business problems faced by every enterprise, but getting the SOA service interface right requires the practical design knowledge this book uniquely delivers

  13. Constructal Law and the Unifying Principle of Design

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Sylvie; Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Design happens everywhere, whether in animate objects (e.g., dendritic lung structures, bacterial colonies, and corals), inanimate patterns (river basins, beach slope, and dendritic crystals), social dynamics (pedestrian traffic flows), or engineered systems (heat dissipation in electronic circuitry). This “design in nature” often takes on remarkably similar patterns, which can be explained under one unifying Constructal Law. This book explores the unifying power of the Constructal Law and its applications in all domains of design generation and evolution, ranging from biology and geophysics to globalization, energy, sustainability, and security.  The Constructal Law accounts for the universal tendency of flow systems to morph into evolving configurations that provide greater and easier access over time. The Constructal Law resolves the many and contradictory ad hoc statements of “optimality”, end design, and destiny in nature, such as minimum and maximum entropy production and minimum and maximum fl...

  14. A Learning and Interaction design framework, from a study on formulating principles for the design of engaging music learning games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitze, Charlotte Lærke; Ørngreen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    Based on a preliminary action research study investigating the design of digital music games and years of experiences from interaction design processes of learning resources, this extended abstract presents a framework that mixes designs for learning principles and game design with a process view...... using a simple interaction design lifecycle. Though the first outset was to design engaging music games, the resulting framework has a more generic character....

  15. Designing high pressure containers for research- principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandkumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    The high pressure scientist looks for a well engineered pressure apparatus for high pressure experiments for 1 kbar (0.1 GPa) and above. Often, a variety of difficulties including the choice of materials, design configuration, optimum utilisation of the strength of materials used in the design, are encountered. This article is intended to help the high pressure scientist to select the design approach for pressure retaining container. The limitations imposed by the strength of available materials and engineering standards in building high pressure containers are discussed. Engineering solutions to overcome these limitations with optimal utilisation of the strength of the materials are also discussed. Novel methods to boost up the pressure retaining capacity like multilayered design and autofrettaging are compared along with their relative advantages and disadvantages. Special methods by which it is possible to attain pressures which are several times the yield strength of the materials of construction are presented. In this aspects such as the basis of the codes and their relevance in the design of high pressure equipment will also be described. Discussions are centered around the methods to tackle situations where experimental constraints dictate requirements of pressures higher than those permitted by design codes. Safety features are also discussed. (author)

  16. Design and Testing of Novel Lethal Ovitrap to Reduce Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes: Community-Based Participatory Research between Industry, Academia and Communities in Peru and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Soldan, Valerie A; Yukich, Josh; Soonthorndhada, Amara; Giron, Maziel; Apperson, Charles S; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Schal, Coby; Morrison, Amy C; Keating, Joseph; Wesson, Dawn M

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus (and Chikungunya and Zika viruses) is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes considerable human morbidity and mortality. As there is currently no vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to protect people from dengue virus infection, vector control is the only viable option for disease prevention. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the design and placement process for an attractive lethal ovitrap to reduce vector populations and to describe lessons learned in the development of the trap. This study was conducted in 2010 in Iquitos, Peru and Lopburi Province, Thailand and used an iterative community-based participatory approach to adjust design specifications of the trap, based on community members' perceptions and feedback, entomological findings in the lab, and design and research team observations. Multiple focus group discussions (FGD) were held over a 6 month period, stratified by age, sex and motherhood status, to inform the design process. Trap testing transitioned from the lab to within households. Through an iterative process of working with specifications from the research team, findings from the laboratory testing, and feedback from FGD, the design team narrowed trap design options from 22 to 6. Comments from the FGD centered on safety for children and pets interacting with traps, durability, maintenance issues, and aesthetics. Testing in the laboratory involved releasing groups of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti in walk-in rooms and assessing what percentage were caught in traps of different colors, with different trap cover sizes, and placed under lighter or darker locations. Two final trap models were mocked up and tested in homes for a week; one model was the top choice in both Iquitos and Lopburi. The community-based participatory process was essential for the development of novel traps that provided effective vector control, but also met the needs and concerns of community members.

  17. Multi-level participatory design of land use policies in African drylands: a method to embed adaptability skills of drylands societies in a policy framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aquino, Patrick; Bah, Alassane

    2014-01-01

    The participatory modelling method described here focuses on how to enable stakeholders to incorporate their own perception of environmental uncertainty and how to deal with it to design innovative environmental policies. This "self-design" approach uses role playing games and agent based modelling to let participants design their own conceptual framework, and so modelling supports, of issues. The method has a multi-scale focus I order to enable the whole multi-scale Sahelian logic to be expressed and on the other hand to encourage the players to deal with possible region-wide changes implied by their "local" policy objectives. This multi-level participatory design of land use policies has been under experimentation in Senegal since 2008 in different local and national arenas. The process has resulted in the "self-design" of a qualitative and relatively simple model of Sahelian uncertainty, which can be played like a role playing game as well a computerized model. Results are shown in perceptible autonomous organisational learning at the local level. Participants were also able to incorporate their own ideas for new rules for access to resources. They designed innovative collective rules, organised follow up and monitoring of these new land uses. Moreover, meaningful ideas for environmental policies are beginning to take shape. This work raises the epistemological question of what is meant by the term "indigenous knowledge" in environmental management, ranging from knowledge based on practical experience being included in the scholar's framing of knowledge, to a legitimate local ability to contextualize and re-arrange scientific expertise, to profoundly different worldviews which do not match ours. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and Testing of Novel Lethal Ovitrap to Reduce Populations of Aedes Mosquitoes: Community-Based Participatory Research between Industry, Academia and Communities in Peru and Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Paz-Soldan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (and Chikungunya and Zika viruses is transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes and causes considerable human morbidity and mortality. As there is currently no vaccine or chemoprophylaxis to protect people from dengue virus infection, vector control is the only viable option for disease prevention. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the design and placement process for an attractive lethal ovitrap to reduce vector populations and to describe lessons learned in the development of the trap.This study was conducted in 2010 in Iquitos, Peru and Lopburi Province, Thailand and used an iterative community-based participatory approach to adjust design specifications of the trap, based on community members' perceptions and feedback, entomological findings in the lab, and design and research team observations. Multiple focus group discussions (FGD were held over a 6 month period, stratified by age, sex and motherhood status, to inform the design process. Trap testing transitioned from the lab to within households.Through an iterative process of working with specifications from the research team, findings from the laboratory testing, and feedback from FGD, the design team narrowed trap design options from 22 to 6. Comments from the FGD centered on safety for children and pets interacting with traps, durability, maintenance issues, and aesthetics. Testing in the laboratory involved releasing groups of 50 gravid Ae. aegypti in walk-in rooms and assessing what percentage were caught in traps of different colors, with different trap cover sizes, and placed under lighter or darker locations. Two final trap models were mocked up and tested in homes for a week; one model was the top choice in both Iquitos and Lopburi.The community-based participatory process was essential for the development of novel traps that provided effective vector control, but also met the needs and concerns of community members.

  19. Fundamental Design Principles for Transcription-Factor-Based Metabolite Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Ahmad A; Liu, Di; Zhang, Fuzhong; Oyarzún, Diego A

    2017-10-20

    Metabolite biosensors are central to current efforts toward precision engineering of metabolism. Although most research has focused on building new biosensors, their tunability remains poorly understood and is fundamental for their broad applicability. Here we asked how genetic modifications shape the dose-response curve of biosensors based on metabolite-responsive transcription factors. Using the lac system in Escherichia coli as a model system, we built promoter libraries with variable operator sites that reveal interdependencies between biosensor dynamic range and response threshold. We developed a phenomenological theory to quantify such design constraints in biosensors with various architectures and tunable parameters. Our theory reveals a maximal achievable dynamic range and exposes tunable parameters for orthogonal control of dynamic range and response threshold. Our work sheds light on fundamental limits of synthetic biology designs and provides quantitative guidelines for biosensor design in applications such as dynamic pathway control, strain optimization, and real-time monitoring of metabolism.

  20. Design principles and realization of electro-optical circuit boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschon, Felix; Lamprecht, Tobias; Halter, Markus; Beyer, Stefan; Peterson, Harry

    2013-02-01

    The manufacturing of electro-optical circuit boards (EOCB) is based to a large extent on established technologies. First products with embedded polymer waveguides are currently produced in series. The range of applications within the sensor and data communication markets is growing with the increasing maturity level. EOCBs require design flows, processes and techniques similar to existing printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing and appropriate for optical signal transmission. A key aspect is the precise and automated assembly of active and passive optical components to the optical waveguides which has to be supported by the technology. The design flow is described after a short introduction into the build-up of EOCBs and the motivation for the usage of this technology within the different application fields. Basis for the design of EOCBs are the required optical signal transmission properties. Thereafter, the devices for the electro-optical conversion are chosen and the optical coupling approach is defined. Then, the planar optical elements (waveguides, splitters, couplers) are designed and simulated. This phase already requires co-design of the optical and electrical domain using novel design flows. The actual integration of an optical system into a PCB is shown in the last part. The optical layer is thereby laminated to the purely electrical PCB using a conventional PCB-lamination process to form the EOCB. The precise alignment of the various electrical and optical layers is thereby essential. Electrical vias are then generated, penetrating also the optical layer, to connect the individual electrical layers. Finally, the board has to be tested electrically and optically.

  1. Computers as Components Principles of Embedded Computing System Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This book was the first to bring essential knowledge on embedded systems technology and techniques under a single cover. This second edition has been updated to the state-of-the-art by reworking and expanding performance analysis with more examples and exercises, and coverage of electronic systems now focuses on the latest applications. Researchers, students, and savvy professionals schooled in hardware or software design, will value Wayne Wolf's integrated engineering design approach.The second edition gives a more comprehensive view of multiprocessors including VLIW and superscalar archite

  2. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe; Ibarra, A.; Heidinger, R.; Knaster, J.; Sugimoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  3. Design principles of a nuclear and industrial HVAC of IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneri, Giuseppe [IFMIF/EVEDA, Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Ibarra, A. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Heidinger, R. [F4E, Garching (Germany); Knaster, J. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Rokkasho (Japan); Sugimoto, M. [JAEA, Rokkasho (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Parameter of Derivate air Contamination (DAC) allows to associate the type of air ventilation. • The construction and operation of IFMIF will be subjected to the regulations of the country in which it will be sited. • Structures, systems and components are assigned a particular safety important components (SIC, 1–2 and Non-SIC) clarification that is based on the consequences of their failure. • Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI) analysis has given a great contribution of the facility to optimize the configuration, particularly for the HVAC system. - Abstract: In 2013, the IFMIF, the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility, presently in its Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (EVEDA) phase, framed by the Broader Approach Agreement between Japan and EURATOM, accomplished in 2013 its mandate to provide the engineering design of the plant on schedule [1]. The IFMIF aims to qualify and characterize materials that are capable of withstanding the intense neutron flux originated in D-T reactions of future fusion reactors due to a neutron flux with a broad peak at 14 MeV, which is able to provide >20 dpa/fpy on small specimens in this EVEDA phase. The successful operation of such a challenging plant demands a careful assessment of the Conventional Facilities (CF), which have adequate redundancies to allow for the target plant availability [2]. The present paper addresses the design proposed in the IFMIF Intermediate Engineering Design Report regarding the CF, particularly the IFMIF's Nuclear and Industrial HVAC design. A preliminary feasibility study, including the initial configuration, calculations and reliability/availability analysis, were performed. The nuclear HVAC design was developed progressively; first, by establishing a conceptual design, starting from the system functional description, followed by the identification of the corresponding interfacing systems and their

  4. Provotypes for Participatory Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared

    2012-01-01

    Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about ‘users’ and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely...... to surface. Instead of the natural tendency to avoid these tensions, we demonstrate how tensions can be utilized by embodying them in provocative types (provotypes). Provotypes expose and embody tensions that surround a field of interest to support collaborative analysis and collaborative design explorations...... across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines...

  5. Using participatory methods to design an mHealth intervention for a low income country, a case study in Chikwawa, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Rebecca; Dixon, Diane; Morse, Tracy; Beattie, Tara K; Kumwenda, Save; Mpemberera, Grant

    2017-07-05

    mHealth holds the potential to educate rural communities in developing countries such as Malawi, on issues which over-burdened and under staffed health centres do not have the facilities to address. Previous research provides support that mHealth could be used as a vehicle for health education campaigns at a community level; however the limited involvement of potential service users in the research process endangers both user engagement and intervention effectiveness. This two stage qualitative study used participatory action research to inform the design and development of an mHealth education intervention. First, secondary analysis of 108 focus groups (representing men, women, leadership, elderly and male and female youth) identified four topics where there was a perceived health education need. Second, 10 subsequent focus groups explored details of this perceived need and the acceptability and feasibility of mHealth implementation in Chikwawa, Malawi. Stage 1 and Stage 2 informed the design of the intervention in terms of target population, intervention content, intervention delivery and the frequency and timing of the intervention. This has led to the design of an SMS intervention targeting adolescents with contraceptive education which they will receive three times per week at 4 pm and will be piloted in the next phase of this research. This study has used participatory methods to identify a need for contraception education in adolescents and inform intervention design. The focus group discussions informed practical considerations for intervention delivery, which has been significantly influenced by the high proportion of users who share mobile devices and the intervention has been designed to allow for message sharing as much as possible.

  6. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Skau Pawlowski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10–13-years-old and seniors (>60-years-old in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. Methods The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1 a children study and 2 a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children’s and senior’s use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC. A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. Discussion The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Trial registration Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  7. Move the Neighbourhood: Study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention in a Danish deprived neighbourhood to promote active living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse; Schmidt, Tanja; Wagner, Anne Margrethe; Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Lamm, Bettina; Kural, René; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens

    2017-05-19

    A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This paper will present the study protocol of a community-based intervention study co-designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration with community members to develop urban installations highly tailored to promote active living among children (10-13-years-old) and seniors (>60-years-old) in a deprived neighbourhood in Copenhagen. The study builds on a quasi-experimental study design with two sub-studies: 1) a children study and 2) a senior study. The interventions will be developed, designed and implemented in collaboration with local children and seniors, respectively, using different co-design tools and methods. We will evaluate the effect of the interventions on children's and senior's use of the new-built urban installations using accelerometers in combination with GPS as well as systematic observation using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC). A process evaluation with focus groups consisting of the various stakeholders in the two sub-studies will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. The paper presents new approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, and tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods in the future. Retrospectively registered with study ID ISRCTN50036837 . Date of registration: 16 December 2016.

  8. Execution Of Systems Integration Principles During Systems Engineering Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    application utilized a paper-based approach to systems design. The customer directed utilization of an SE Waterfall process model . These new...regarding requirements, stakeholders, testing, and system boundaries. Additionally, this thesis discusses use of systems architecture frameworks and models ...and the consistent use of model - based systems engineering throughout development. Lastly, it proposes formal methods language for improving models

  9. Design Principles for Digital Badges Used in Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Emily; Raish, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Digital badges give libraries greater flexibility in delivering impactful instruction to students. They serve as flexible, stackable microcredentials that sequence an information literacy experience across the curriculum. Design considerations rooted in learning theory have a foundation through which to drive decisions. Information literacy badges…

  10. Designing sustainable energy landscapes : concepts, principles and procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stremke, S.

    2010-01-01

    The depletion of fossil fuels, in combination with climate change, necessitates a transition to sustainable energy systems. Such systems are characterized by a decreased energy demand and an increase in the use of renewables. The objective of this dissertation is to advance the planning and design

  11. PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.; Dam, van C.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength multiplexers, demultiplexers and routers based on optical phased arrays play a key role in multiwavelength telecommunication links and networks. In this paper, a detailed description of phased-array operation and design is presented and an overview is given of the most important

  12. Mammalian designer cells: Engineering principles and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology is a widely interdisciplinary field focusing on the use of living cells or organisms to solve established problems in medicine, food production and agriculture. Synthetic biology, the science of engineering complex biological systems that do not exist in nature, continues to provide the biotechnology industry with tools, technologies and intellectual property leading to improved cellular performance. One key aspect of synthetic biology is the engineering of deliberately reprogrammed designer cells whose behavior can be controlled over time and space. This review discusses the most commonly used techniques to engineer mammalian designer cells; while control elements acting on the transcriptional and translational levels of target gene expression determine the kinetic and dynamic profiles, coupling them to a variety of extracellular stimuli permits their remote control with user-defined trigger signals. Designer mammalian cells with novel or improved biological functions not only directly improve the production efficiency during biopharmaceutical manufacturing but also open the door for cell-based treatment strategies in molecular and translational medicine. In the future, the rational combination of multiple sets of designer cells could permit the construction and regulation of higher-order systems with increased complexity, thereby enabling the molecular reprogramming of tissues, organisms or even populations with highest precision. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Distributed learning process: principles of design and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Boychenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage, broad information and communication technologies (ICT usage in educational practices is one of the leading trends of global education system development. This trend has led to the instructional interaction models transformation. Scientists have developed the theory of distributed cognition (Salomon, G., Hutchins, E., and distributed education and training (Fiore, S. M., Salas, E., Oblinger, D. G., Barone, C. A., Hawkins, B. L.. Educational process is based on two separated in time and space sub-processes of learning and teaching which are aimed at the organization of fl exible interactions between learners, teachers and educational content located in different non-centralized places.The purpose of this design research is to fi nd a solution for the problem of formalizing distributed learning process design and realization that is signifi cant in instructional design. The solution to this problem should take into account specifi cs of distributed interactions between team members, which becomes collective subject of distributed cognition in distributed learning process. This makes it necessary to design roles and functions of the individual team members performing distributed educational activities. Personal educational objectives should be determined by decomposition of team objectives into functional roles of its members with considering personal and learning needs and interests of students.Theoretical and empirical methods used in the study: theoretical analysis of philosophical, psychological, and pedagogical literature on the issue, analysis of international standards in the e-learning domain; exploration on practical usage of distributed learning in academic and corporate sectors; generalization, abstraction, cognitive modelling, ontology engineering methods.Result of the research is methodology for design and implementation of distributed learning process based on the competency approach. Methodology proposed by

  14. Serious game design principles: The impact of game design on learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael W.

    This dissertation examines the research question "How do video game design principles affect learning outcomes in serious games?" This research first develops a theoretical foundation concerning the meaning of the terms "game" and "serious game". This conceptual clarification is broken down into analytic propositions, which state that games have participants, rules, goals and challenges, and synthetic propositions, which state that the games should be intrinsically compelling, provide meaningful choices, and be self encapsulated. Based on these synthetic propositions, three hypotheses were developed. The hypotheses are that games with an enhanced aesthetic presentation, more meaningful choices, or provide player competition will elicit higher learning outcomes than identical games without these factors. These hypotheses were tested via a quantitative experiment involving 172 undergraduate students in the Old Dominion University Chemistry Department. The students were asked to play a chemistry-oriented serious game entitled Element Solitaire©, which was created by the research author. The students were randomly given different treatments of the Element Solitaire© game to play, and the difference between their learning outcomes were compared. The experimental results demonstrated that the aesthetic presentation of a game can have a significant impact upon the learning outcome. The experiment was not able to discern significant effects from the choice or competition conditions, but further examination of the experimental data did reveal some insight into these aspects of serious game design. Choices need to provide the player with options that have a sufficient value that they will be considered and the application of competition within games needs to be judiciously implemented to promote a positive affect for all players. The results of the theoretical foundations and empirical evidence were then combined with additional theoretical research to develop a set of

  15. Emergent features and perceptual objects: re-examining fundamental principles in analogical display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Jerred; Bennett, Kevin B; Flach, John M

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of design principles for analogical visual displays, based on the concepts of emergent features and perceptual objects, are described. An interpretation of previous empirical findings for three displays (bar graph, polar graphic, alphanumeric) is provided from both perspectives. A fourth display (configural coordinate) was designed using principles of ecological interface design (i.e. direct perception). An experiment was conducted to evaluate performance (accuracy and latency of state identification) with these four displays. Numerous significant effects were obtained and a clear rank ordering of performance emerged (from best to worst): configural coordinate, bar graph, alphanumeric and polar graphic. These findings are consistent with principles of design based on emergent features; they are inconsistent with principles based on perceptual objects. Some limitations of the configural coordinate display are discussed and a redesign is provided. Practitioner Summary: Principles of ecological interface design, which emphasise the quality of very specific mappings between domain, display and observer constraints, are described; these principles are applicable to the design of all analogical graphical displays.

  16. Network-driven design principles for neuromorphic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Partzsch, Johannes; Sch?ffny, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic connectivity is typically the most resource-demanding part of neuromorphic systems. Commonly, the architecture of these systems is chosen mainly on technical considerations. As a consequence, the potential for optimization arising from the inherent constraints of connectivity models is left unused. In this article, we develop an alternative, network-driven approach to neuromorphic architecture design. We describe methods to analyse performance of existing neuromorphic architectures i...

  17. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-09-21

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object.

  18. Network-driven design principles for neuromorphic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes ePartzsch

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic connectivity is typically the most resource-demanding part of neuromorphic systems. Commonly, the architecture of these systems is chosen mainly on technical considerations. As a consequence, the potential for optimization arising from the inherent constraints of connectivity models is left unused. In this article, we develop an alternative, network-driven approach to neuromorphic architecture design. We describe methods to analyse performance of existing neuromorphic architectures in emulating certain connectivity models. Furthermore, we show step-by-step how to derive a neuromorphic architecture from a given connectivity model. For this, we introduce a generalized description for architectures with a synapse matrix, which takes into account shared use of circuit components for reducing total silicon area. Architectures designed with this approach are fitted to a connectivity model, essentially adapting to its connection density. They are guaranteeing faithful reproduction of the model on chip, while requiring less total silicon area. In total, our methods allow designers to implement more area-efficient neuromorphic systems and verify usability of the connectivity resources in these systems.

  19. Network-driven design principles for neuromorphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partzsch, Johannes; Schüffny, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic connectivity is typically the most resource-demanding part of neuromorphic systems. Commonly, the architecture of these systems is chosen mainly on technical considerations. As a consequence, the potential for optimization arising from the inherent constraints of connectivity models is left unused. In this article, we develop an alternative, network-driven approach to neuromorphic architecture design. We describe methods to analyse performance of existing neuromorphic architectures in emulating certain connectivity models. Furthermore, we show step-by-step how to derive a neuromorphic architecture from a given connectivity model. For this, we introduce a generalized description for architectures with a synapse matrix, which takes into account shared use of circuit components for reducing total silicon area. Architectures designed with this approach are fitted to a connectivity model, essentially adapting to its connection density. They are guaranteeing faithful reproduction of the model on chip, while requiring less total silicon area. In total, our methods allow designers to implement more area-efficient neuromorphic systems and verify usability of the connectivity resources in these systems.

  20. Principles of alloy design in high nitrogen 12% chromium steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goecmen, A.; Ernst, P.; Holmes, P.

    1999-01-01

    12% chromium steels are hardened by a martensitic transformation and by precipitation reactions of the martensite during a subsequent tempering treatment. The original alloy design of these steels is based on the intensifying effect of C on the martensitic transformation hardening as well as on the effects of V and Mo on intensity and stability of carbide precipitation hardening reactions. Advanced alloy design of high carbon 12% chromium steels makes use of f.c.c.-MX type carbonitrides to improve grain refinement and tempering resistance, whereas alloying with about 0.05 wt.-% nitrogen already plays a decisive role. In this paper, new alloy design opportunities provided by high nitrogen are reviewed, which promise to achieve a best possible compromise between grain size limitation, particle hardening and particle stability of 12% chromium steels. The crucial effects of the solubility product of MX-type phases on grain coarsening resistance, precipitation hardening and particle stability are reviewed. The advantages of high nitrogen steels to improve these properties are rationalized to result from the lower solubility of nitrides compared with carbides. As an advantageous opportunity of the achievable higher grain coarsening resistance, the normalizing temperature in high nitrogen steels can be increased in order to increase the amount of the less soluble and thereby slow coarsening f.c.c.-nitrides. In addition, as a consequence of a higher normalizing temperature, the solubility gap of nitrides in the austenite is expanded, which in turn enables an effective precipitation hardening due to low soluble nitrides in the metastable austenite before the martensitic transformation

  1. Real-time embedded systems design principles and engineering practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you

  2. Designing Embedded Systems with PIC Microcontrollers Principles and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wilmshurst, Tim

    2009-01-01

    PIC microcontrollers are used worldwide in commercial and industrial devices. The 8-bit PIC which this book focuses on is a versatile work horse that completes many designs. An engineer working with applications that include a microcontroller will no doubt come across the PIC sooner rather than later. It is a must to have a working knowledge of this 8-bit technology. This book takes the novice from introduction of embedded systems through to advanced development techniques for utilizing and optimizing the PIC family of microcontrollers in your device. To truly understand the PIC, assembly and

  3. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  4. Design principles of the yeast G1/S switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of the G1/S transition in budding yeast cell cycle is the proteolytic degradation of the B-type cyclin-Cdk stoichiometric inhibitor Sic1. Deleting SIC1 or altering Sic1 degradation dynamics increases genomic instability. Certain key facts about the parts of the G1/S circuitry are established: phosphorylation of Sic1 on multiple sites is necessary for its destruction, and both the upstream kinase Cln1/2-Cdk1 and the downstream kinase Clb5/6-Cdk1 can phosphorylate Sic1 in vitro with varied specificity, cooperativity, and processivity. However, how the system works as a whole is still controversial due to discrepancies between in vitro, in vivo, and theoretical studies. Here, by monitoring Sic1 destruction in real time in individual cells under various perturbations to the system, we provide a clear picture of how the circuitry functions as a switch in vivo. We show that Cln1/2-Cdk1 sets the proper timing of Sic1 destruction, but does not contribute to its destruction speed; thus, it acts only as a trigger. Sic1's inhibition target Clb5/6-Cdk1 controls the speed of Sic1 destruction through a double-negative feedback loop, ensuring a robust all-or-none transition for Clb5/6-Cdk1 activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the degradation of a single-phosphosite mutant of Sic1 is rapid and switch-like, just as the wild-type form. Our mathematical model confirms our understanding of the circuit and demonstrates that the substrate sharing between the two kinases is not a redundancy but a part of the design to overcome the trade-off between the timing and sharpness of Sic1 degradation. Our study provides direct mechanistic insight into the design features underlying the yeast G1/S switch.

  5. Designing Crop Simulation Web Service with Service Oriented Architecture Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnachodteeranun, R.; Hung, N. D.; Honda, K.

    2015-12-01

    Crop simulation models are efficient tools for simulating crop growth processes and yield. Running crop models requires data from various sources as well as time-consuming data processing, such as data quality checking and data formatting, before those data can be inputted to the model. It makes the use of crop modeling limited only to crop modelers. We aim to make running crop models convenient for various users so that the utilization of crop models will be expanded, which will directly improve agricultural applications. As the first step, we had developed a prototype that runs DSSAT on Web called as Tomorrow's Rice (v. 1). It predicts rice yields based on a planting date, rice's variety and soil characteristics using DSSAT crop model. A user only needs to select a planting location on the Web GUI then the system queried historical weather data from available sources and expected yield is returned. Currently, we are working on weather data connection via Sensor Observation Service (SOS) interface defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Weather data can be automatically connected to a weather generator for generating weather scenarios for running the crop model. In order to expand these services further, we are designing a web service framework consisting of layers of web services to support compositions and executions for running crop simulations. This framework allows a third party application to call and cascade each service as it needs for data preparation and running DSSAT model using a dynamic web service mechanism. The framework has a module to manage data format conversion, which means users do not need to spend their time curating the data inputs. Dynamic linking of data sources and services are implemented using the Service Component Architecture (SCA). This agriculture web service platform demonstrates interoperability of weather data using SOS interface, convenient connections between weather data sources and weather generator, and connecting

  6. Turning challenges into design principles: Telemonitoring systems for patients with multiple chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Mehwish; Kuluski, Kerry; McIsaac, Warren J; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Seto, Emily

    2018-01-01

    People with multiple chronic conditions often struggle with managing their health. The purpose of this research was to identify specific challenges of patients with multiple chronic conditions and to use the findings to form design principles for a telemonitoring system tailored for these patients. Semi-structured interviews with 15 patients with multiple chronic conditions and 10 clinicians were conducted to gain an understanding of their needs and preferences for a smartphone-based telemonitoring system. The interviews were analyzed using a conventional content analysis technique, resulting in six themes. Design principles developed from the themes included that the system must be modular to accommodate various combinations of conditions, reinforce a routine, consolidate record keeping, as well as provide actionable feedback to the patients. Designing an application for multiple chronic conditions is complex due to variability in patient conditions, and therefore, design principles developed in this study can help with future innovations aimed to help manage this population.

  7. Using Persuasive Design Principles in Motivational Feeling towards Children Dental Anxiety (CDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Sobihatun Nur-Abdul; Yahaya, Wan Ahmad Jaafar-Wan; Ali, Azillah-Mohd

    This paper is focusing the potential use of persuasive design principles in motivating children's dental anxiety. The main intention of the paper is to emphasize an attempt of how persuasive design principle can be designed into educational material using CD ROM based multimedia learning environment to overcome the CDA. Firstly, we describe a problem domain which discuss about the universal feeling of CDA and secondly the current practices in handling those negative feelings. Thirdly, the conceptual background of PMLE and how the principle has been applied in designing the information interfaces and presentation of a persuasive multimedia learning environment (PMLE) are described. Fourthly, an experimental design was used to validate the effects of prototype which assessed children dental anxiety level before and after the demonstration and utilization of a PMLE. Primary school children age between seven and nine years old are selected as respondents. Fifthly, the result of the study has revealed the feedback from children regarding baseline test and children dental anxiety test. It shows how by using persuasive design principles as an overall strategy in designing PMLE was able to motivate children feelings towards dental anxiety and could let the children behave in a good manner for dental visit in the future.

  8. Landscape and participation: construction of a PhD research problem and an analysis method. Towards the comparative analysis of participatory processes of landscape management projects design on a local scale in the Walloon region (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Droeven, Emilie

    2007-01-01

    A preliminary reflection to the definition of a PhD research problem on the concepts of participation, landscape and project, led the student to be interested in the participatory processes of landscape management projects design, and in the inhabitants landscapes representations. The method includes the comparative analysis of local processes of projects design, and the direct observation of two Walloon landscape management projects design (investigation conducted with stakeholders implied i...

  9. Novel Principles and Techniques to Create a Natural Design in Female Hairline Correction Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Female hairline correction surgery is becoming increasingly popular. However, no guidelines or methods of female hairline design have been introduced to date. The purpose of this study was to create an initial framework based on the novel principles of female hairline design and then use artistic ability and experience to fine tune this framework. An understanding of the concept of 5 areas (frontal area, frontotemporal recess area, temporal peak, infratemple area, and sideburns) and 5 points (C, A, B, T, and S) is required for female hairline correction surgery (the 5A5P principle). The general concepts of female hairline correction surgery and natural design methods are, herein, explained with a focus on the correlations between these 5 areas and 5 points. A natural and aesthetic female hairline can be created with application of the above-mentioned concepts. The 5A5P principle of forming the female hairline is very useful in female hairline correction surgery.

  10. The social representation of public space for the design and management of sustainable territories A theoretical-practical and methodological proposal for participatory planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Natalie Contreras-Lovich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La representación social del espacio público para el diseño y gestión de territorios sostenibles. Una propuesta teórica-práctica y metodológica para un urbanismo participativo. ResumenA partir de la gestión integral participativa se orienta el desarrollo espacial de los territorios vistos desde el individuo, para comprender la gestión, acción y ordenamiento territorial, desde la diferencia entre la ciudad entendida como lo que es y el espacio público como objeto de observación. Las vías para recolectar la información fueron la revisión bibliográfica y, a partir de la aplicación de una metodología mixta, se evidenciaron las representaciones vivenciales de los individuos que construyen el saber y el conocimiento a partir del espacio cultural vivido, en donde las experiencias y las prácticas del espacio prevalecen en el desarrollo de un urbanismo participativo. La propuesta se consolida a partir del hacer, el saber y el evaluar, en una trialéctica del ambiente humanizado. Se concluye con los aportes de la propuesta en términos teóricos, prácticos y metodológicos, con el fin de validar una gestión humana participativa en la cual el individuo se vaya convirtiendo en un ser creativo que fomente la calidad de vida y el bienestar social.Palabras clave: desarrollo urbano, diseño urbano, espacio público, gestión urbana, imaginarios urbanos, participación ciudadana. The social representation of public space for the design and management of sustainable territoriesA theoretical-practical and methodological proposal for participatory planningAbstractFrom participatory integrated management, spatial development of the territories seen by the individual is oriented to understand the management, action and land from the difference between the city understood as what it is and public space as an object of observation. The ways to collect the information were the literature review and from the application of a mixed methodology

  11. Pacific Canada's Rockfish Conservation Areas: using Ostrom's design principles to assess management effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darienne Lancaster

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available International declines in marine biodiversity have lead to the creation of marine protected areas and fishery reserve systems. In Canada, 164 Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCAs were implemented between 2003 and 2007 and now cover 4847.2 km² of ocean. These reserves were created in response to widespread concern from fishers and nongovernmental organizations about inshore rockfish (genus Sebastes population declines. We used the design principles for effective common-pool resource management systems, originally developed by Elinor Ostrom, to assess the social and ecological effectiveness of these conservation areas more than 10 years after their initial implementation. We assessed the relative presence or absence of each design principle within current RCA management. We found that 2 of the 11 design principles were moderately present in the recreational fishery. All other design principles were lacking for the recreational sector. We found that 2 design principles were fully present and 5 were moderately present in the commercial sector. Four design principles were lacking in the commercial sector. Based on this analysis, we highlight 4 main areas for management improvement: (1 create an education and outreach campaign to explain RCA rules, regulations, boundaries, and the need for marine conservation; (2 increase monitoring of users and resources to discourage noncompliance and gather the necessary data to create social buy-in for marine conservation; (3 encourage informal nested governance through stakeholder organizations for education and self-regulation (e.g. fisher to fisher; and (4 most importantly, create a formal, decadal RCA review process to gather stakeholder input and make amendments to regulations and RCA boundaries. This information can be used to inform spatial management systems both in Canada and internationally. This analysis also contributes to a growing literature on effectively scaling up small-scale management techniques

  12. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed method design: principles and procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-Method-Designs, in denen quantitative und qualitative Methoden Verwendung finden, erfreuen sich zunehmender Beliebtheit für die Untersuchung komplexer Phänomene. Die vorliegende Besprechung beschäftigt sich in diesem Zusammenhang mit dem Buch "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures" von Janice M. MORSE und Linda NIEHAUS, die für solche Designs Kern- und Ergänzungskomponenten zu identifizieren versuchen. Hierzu differenzieren sie zwischen Projekten, die einer eher deduktiven oder...

  13. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed method design related to the use of a combination of methods, usually quantitative and qualitative, is increasingly used for the investigation of complex phenomena. This review discusses the book, "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures," by Janice M. MORSE and Linda NIEHAUS. A distinctive feature of their approach is the consideration of mixed methods design out of a core and a supplemental component. In order to define these components they emphasize the overall conceptual dir...

  14. The roles and uses of design principles for developing the trialogical approach on learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kosonen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the development and use of a specific set of pedagogical design principles in a large research and development project are analysed. The project (the Knowledge Practices Laboratory developed technology and a pedagogical approach to support certain kinds of collaborative knowledge creation practices related to the ‘trialogical' approach on learning. The design principles for trialogical learning are examined from three main developmental perspectives that were emphasised in the project: theory, pedagogy, and technology. As expected, the design principles had many different roles but not as straightforward or overarching as was planned. In their outer form they were more resistant to big changes than was expected but they were elaborated and specified during the process. How theories change in design-based research is discussed on the basis of the analysis. Design principles are usually seen as providing a bridge between theory and practice, but the present case showed that also complementary, more concrete frameworks are needed for bridging theory to practical pedagogical or technical design solutions.

  15. A study of usability principles and interface design for mobile e-books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Ming; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study examined usability principles and interface designs in order to understand the relationship between the intentions of mobile e-book interface designs and users' perceptions. First, this study summarised 4 usability principles and 16 interface attributes, in order to conduct usability testing and questionnaire survey by referring to Nielsen (1993), Norman (2002), and Yeh (2010), who proposed the usability principles. Second, this study used the interviews to explore the perceptions and behaviours of user operations through senior users of multi-touch prototype devices. The results of this study are as follows: (1) users' behaviour of operating an interactive interface is related to user prior experience; (2) users' rating of the visibility principle is related to users' subjective perception but not related to user prior experience; however, users' ratings of the ease, efficiency, and enjoyment principles are related to user prior experience; (3) the interview survey reveals that the key attributes affecting users' behaviour of operating an interface include aesthetics, achievement, and friendliness. This study conducts experiments to explore the effects of users’ prior multi-touch experience on users’ behaviour of operating a mobile e-book interface and users’ rating of usability principles. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were performed. By applying protocol analysis, key attributes affecting users’ behaviour of operation were determined.

  16. Mouthsticks - A Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Waltraud; Nussbaum, Gerhard; Berger, Veronika M; Major, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    Mouthsticks are quite an old kind of assistive technology (AT) but nevertheless they are up to now the Swiss army knives among AT. Unfortunately the popularity of mouthsticks massively decreased during the 1990s with the result that knowledge about how to produce good mouthsticks got lost and that there are hardly any adaptable mouthsticks available on the market. This paper discusses the development of a personalized mouthstick with the involvement of end users - people with severe physical disabilities - and occupational therapists as experts of everyday use. A participatory approach was chosen. The results of the analysis of a standardized questionnaire, group discussions and a collaborative workshop with IT-designers, polymer engineers, end users, occupational therapists and gender and diversity researchers are presented and discussed. This proved the necessity of the development of a personalized mouthstick.

  17. Design Principles for Serious Video Games in Mathematics Education: From Theory to Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Chorianopoulos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in the employment of serious video games in science education, but there are no clear design principles. After surveying previous work in serious video game design, we highlighted the following design principles: 1 engage the students with narrative (hero, story, 2 employ familiar gameplay mechanics from popular video games, 3 engage students into constructive trial and error game-play and 4 situate collaborative learning. As illustrated examples we designed two math video games targeted to primary education students. The gameplay of the math video games embeds addition operations in a seamless way, which has been inspired by that of classic platform games. In this way, the students are adding numbers as part of popular gameplay mechanics and as a means to reach the video game objective, rather than as an end in itself. The employment of well-defined principles in the design of math video games should facilitate the evaluation of learning effectiveness by researchers. Moreover, educators can deploy alternative versions of the games in order to engage students with diverse learning styles. For example, some students might be motived and benefited by narrative, while others by collaboration, because it is unlikely that one type of serious video game might fit all learning styles. The proposed principles are not meant to be an exhaustive list, but a starting point for extending the list and applying them in other cases of serious video games beyond mathematics and learning.

  18. Urban Principle of Water Sensitive Design in Kampung Kamboja at Pontianak City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasriyanti, N.; Ryanti, E.

    2017-07-01

    This study will define the design principles of settlement area banks of the Kapuas Pontianak to approach the concept of water sensitive urban design (WSUD) in densely populated residential areas. Using a case study of a region densely located on the banks of the river with engineering literature to formulate the aspects taken into consideration and the components are arranged in the design, analysis descriptive paradigm rationalistic to identify the characteristics of residential areas riverbank with consideration of elements WSUD and formulate design principles residential area that is sensitive to water. This research is important to do because of problems related to the water management system in the settlement bank of the river in the city of Pontianak do not maximize. So that the primacy of this study contains several objectives to be achieved is to identify the characteristics of the settlement area riverbanks under consideration aspects areas design that is sensitive to water and principle areas design that will formulate the structure of the existing problems related to the needs of the community infrastructure facilities infrastructure neighborhoods and formulate and create guidelines for appropriate technology for integrated water management systems in the residential area of the riverbank and engineering design for the settlements are sensitive to water (WSUD). The final aim of the study is expected to achieve water management systems in residential areas by utilizing the abundant rainwater availability by using LID (Low Impact Development) through the concept of urban design that sensitive water

  19. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josie M. M. Evans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Methods Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Results Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 % aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits. There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players. Intervention design (form and content was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. Conclusions It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio

  20. Accessing and engaging women from socio-economically disadvantaged areas: a participatory approach to the design of a public health intervention for delivery in a Bingo club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Josie M M; Ryde, Gemma; Jepson, Ruth; Gray, Cindy; Shepherd, Ashley; Mackison, Dionne; Ireland, Aileen V; McMurdo, Marion E T; Williams, Brian

    2016-04-18

    Our aim was to use participatory methods to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of using Bingo clubs for the design and delivery of an evidence-based physical activity and/or healthy eating intervention to socio-economically disadvantaged women. This paper describes the participatory process that has resulted in a physical activity intervention for women aged >55 years, ready for pilot-testing in a Bingo club setting. Studies using different quantitative and qualitative approaches were conducted among customers and staff of a Bingo club in a city of 85,000 inhabitants in central Scotland. These were designed to take the views of different stakeholders into account, with a view to enhancing uptake, engagement and effectiveness with any proposed intervention. Sixteen relevant studies were identified in a literature review that generated ideas for intervention components. A questionnaire completed by 151 women in the Bingo club showed that almost half (47 %) aged >55 years were not meeting physical activity guidelines; evidence backed up by accelerometer data from 29 women. Discussions in six focus groups attended by 27 club members revealed different but overlapping motivations for attending the Bingo club (social benefits) and playing Bingo (cognitive benefits). There was some scepticism as to whether the Bingo club was an appropriate setting for an intervention, and a dietary intervention was not favoured. It was clear that any planned intervention needed to utilise the social motivation and habitual nature of attendance at the Bingo club, without taking women away from Bingo games. These results were taken forward to a 5-h long participative workshop with 27 stakeholders (including 19 Bingo players). Intervention design (form and content) was then finalised during two round table research team meetings. It was possible to access and engage with women living in areas of socio-economic disadvantage through a Bingo club setting. A physical activity

  1. Design principles of water sensitive in settlement area on the river banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryanti, E.; Hasriyanti, N.; Utami, W. D.

    2018-03-01

    This research will formulate the principle of designing settlement area of Kapuas River Pontianak with the approach of water sensitive concept of urban design (WSUD) the densely populated settlement area. By using a case study the approach that is a dense settlement area located on the banks of the river with literature study techniques to formulate the aspects considered and components that are set in the design, descriptive analysis with the rationalistic paradigm for identification characteristics of the settlement in the river banks areas with consideration of WSUD elements and formulate the principles of designing water-sensitive settlement areas. This research is important to do because the problems related to the water management system in the existing riverside settlement in Pontianak has not been maximal to do. So the primary of this research contains several objectives that will be achieved that is identifying the characteristics of riverside settlement area based on consideration of design aspects of the area that are sensitive to water and the principle of designing the area so that the existing problem structure will be formulated in relation to the community’s need for infrastructure in settlement environment and formulate and develop appropriate technology guidelines for integrated water management systems in riverside settlement areas and design techniques for water-sensitive settlements (WSUD).

  2. To Design and Evaluate a 12th Grade Course in the Principles of Economics; Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Suzanne E.; Sperling, John G.

    Reported is the design, development, and evaluation of a one-semester course on the principles of economics for twelfth grade students. The course is intended to develop students' capacity for economic reasoning through economic theory and empirical research. To do this, teaching materials and innovative techniques for teacher training were…

  3. The pit ventilation features and the design principle of ventilation system in trackless mining uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wenhui; Zhou Xinghuo; Li Xianjie

    2001-01-01

    According to the pit arrangement features of trackless mining uranium mine, based on the fundamental of radon permeation and control, and analysis of radon pollution characteristics and radon education, the design principle of ventilation system in trackless mining uranium mine has been raised

  4. Opportunity recognition in entrepreneurship education, design principles on fostering competent entrepreneurs in the science domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nab, J.; Beugels, J.; van Keulen, H.; Oost, H.; Pilot, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is part of a research project focusing on educational design principles that should help students with a background in Science to become competent with respect to opportunity recognition in business. The recognition of business opportunities is one of the basic competencies of

  5. The Roles and Uses of Design Principles for Developing the Trialogical Approach on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola, Sami; Lakkala, Minna; Muukkonen, Hanni; Kosonen, Kari; Karlgren, Klas

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, the development and use of a specific set of pedagogical design principles in a large research and development project are analysed. The project (the Knowledge Practices Laboratory) developed technology and a pedagogical approach to support certain kinds of collaborative knowledge creation practices related to the…

  6. PBMR phase 1 study: Seismic and structural design consideration - An overview of principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wium, D.J.W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the principles involved in the planning and design of the proposed facility to cater for seismic and structural loads. The conceptual layout is discussed, as well as the different load characteristics and scenarios. An outline is given of model used to estimate the seismic loads, whereafter the different analytical models are discussed. (author)

  7. Sign Redesign: Applying Design Principles to Improve Signage in an Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Kasperek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When the Mansfield University library’s Special Events and Customer Service Committee created a communications plan for the library, the opportunity presented itself to overhaul the library signs. Applying basic design principles of contrast, alignment, and repetition along with standards from the Americans with Disabilities Act, the library improved the visual communications within the library. Patrons can now read signs from a distance and understand their purpose. Using common design elements, the library began presenting official library information more cohesively. Extending beyond signs, these design principles are now part of the library’s print publications and promotional items. With this consistency, the library brand is more easily recognizable both within the library and across campus. This article describes some basic elements of design and the process of redesigning the signs.

  8. First principles design of a core bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goparaju, Geetha; Fry, Bryan A.; Chobot, Sarah E.; Wiedman, Gregory; Moser, Christopher C.; Leslie Dutton, P.; Discher, Bohdana M.

    2016-05-01

    Here we describe the design, Escherichia coli expression and characterization of a simplified, adaptable and functionally transparent single chain 4-α-helix transmembrane protein frame that binds multiple heme and light activatable porphyrins. Such man-made cofactor-binding oxidoreductases, designed from first principles with minimal reference to natural protein sequences, are known as maquettes. This design is an adaptable frame aiming to uncover core engineering principles governing bioenergetic transmembrane electron-transfer function and recapitulate protein archetypes proposed to represent the origins of photosynthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics — the design and engineering of electronic transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson.

  9. Remedial principles and meaningful engagement in education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the meaningful engagement doctrine in the education rights jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the light of a set of normative principles developed by Susan Sturm for evaluating participatory public law remedies. It commences by identifying four principles for evaluating participatory remedies ...

  10. The concept and principles of sustainable architectural design for national parks in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Predrag

    2004-01-01

    The paper elaborates the concept of sustainable architectural design that has come to the forefront in the last 20 years, and in the light of the National Park. This concept recognizes that human civilization is an integral part of the natural world and that nature must be preserved and perpetuated if the human community itself is to survive. Sustainable design articulates this idea through developments that exemplify the principles of conservation and encourage the application of those princ...

  11. Finding ergonomic solutions--participatory approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignett, Sue; Wilson, John R; Morris, Wendy

    2005-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the theory of participatory ergonomics interventions and summary examples from a range of industries, including health care, military, manufacturing, production and processing, services, construction and transport. The definition of participatory approaches includes interventions at macro (organizational, systems) levels as well as micro (individual), where workers are given the opportunity and power to use their knowledge to address ergonomic problems relating to their own working activities. Examples are given where a cost-effective benefit has been measured using musculoskeletal sickness absence and compensation costs. Other examples, using different outcome measures, also showed improvements, for example, an increase in productivity, improved communication between staff and management, reduction in risk factors, the development of new processes and new designs for work environments and activities. Three cases are described from Canada and Japan where the participatory project was led by occupational health teams, suggesting that occupational health practitioners can have an important role to play in participatory ergonomics projects.

  12. Optimal Input Design for Aircraft Parameter Estimation using Dynamic Programming Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Klein, Vladislav

    1990-01-01

    A new technique was developed for designing optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. The principles of dynamic programming were used for the design in the time domain. This approach made it possible to include realistic practical constraints on the input and output variables. A description of the new approach is presented, followed by an example for a multiple input linear model describing the lateral dynamics of a fighter aircraft. The optimal input designs produced by the new technique demonstrated improved quality and expanded capability relative to the conventional multiple input design method.

  13. High-throughput spectrometer designs in a compact form-factor: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. M.

    2013-05-01

    Many compact, portable Raman spectrometers have entered the market in the past few years with applications in narcotics and hazardous material identification, as well as verification applications in pharmaceuticals and security screening. Often, the required compact form-factor has forced designers to sacrifice throughput and sensitivity for portability and low-cost. We will show that a volume phase holographic (VPH)-based spectrometer design can achieve superior throughput and thus sensitivity over conventional Czerny-Turner reflective designs. We will look in depth at the factors influencing throughput and sensitivity and illustrate specific VPH-based spectrometer examples that highlight these design principles.

  14. Designing Social Interfaces Principles, Patterns, and Practices for Improving the User Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Crumlish, Christian

    2009-01-01

    From the creators of Yahoo!'s Design Pattern Library, Designing Social Interfaces provides you with more than 100 patterns, principles, and best practices, along with salient advice for many of the common challenges you'll face when starting a social website. Designing sites that foster user interaction and community-building is a valuable skill for web developers and designers today, but it's not that easy to understand the nuances of the social web. Now you have help. Christian Crumlish and Erin Malone share hard-won insights into what works, what doesn't, and why. You'll learn how to bala

  15. Software Engineering Design Principles Applied to Instructional Design: What Can We Learn from Our Sister Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Nor Hafizah; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2018-01-01

    The failure of many instructional design initiatives is often attributed to poor instructional design. Current instructional design models do not provide much insight into design processes for creating e-learning instructional solutions. Given the similarities between the fields of instructional design and software engineering, instructional…

  16. Outline of principle of design construction of demolished concrete from electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Tomohiko; Sakagami, Takeharu; Inagaki, Hirokazu; Morozumi, Hironori; Muranaka, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    'The principle of design construction of recycled demolished concrete from electric power plant' (a plan) is going to be published by TSCE Concrete Committee in 2005. The abstract of the above principle is described. A large amount of demolished concrete is generated by decommissioning of atomic power plant. About 450,000 to 500,000t of concrete with small radiation level per an atomic power plant will be generated. This report included decommissioning of Tokai power plant, characteristics of subject of demolished concrete, the recycled demolished concrete, fresh conditions of the recycled demolished concrete, the strength, deformation properties, durability, alkali silica reactivity of them and control measurement. (S.Y.)

  17. Operationalising the Lean principles in maternity service design using 3P methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Iain

    2016-01-01

    The last half century has seen significant changes to Maternity services in England. Though rates of maternal and infant mortality have fallen to very low levels, this has been achieved largely through hospital admission. It has been argued that maternity services may have become over-medicalised and service users have expressed a preference for more personalised care. NHS England's national strategy sets out a vision for a modern maternity service that continues to deliver safe care whilst also adopting the principles of personalisation. Therefore, there is a need to develop maternity services that balance safety with personal choice. To address this challenge, a maternity unit in North East England considered improving their service through refurbishment or building new facilities. Using a design process known as the production preparation process (or 3P), the Lean principles of understanding user value, mapping value-streams, creating flow, developing pull processes and continuous improvement were applied to the design of a new maternity department. Multiple stakeholders were engaged in the design through participation in a time-out (3P) workshop in which an innovative pathway and facility for maternity services were co-designed. The team created a hybrid model that they described as "wrap around care" in which the Lean concept of pull was applied to create a service and facility design in which expectant mothers were put at the centre of care with clinicians, skills, equipment and supplies drawn towards them in line with acuity changes as needed. Applying the Lean principles using the 3P method helped stakeholders to create an innovative design in line with the aspirations and objectives of the National Maternity Review. The case provides a practical example of stakeholders applying the Lean principles to maternity services and demonstrates the potential applicability of the Lean 3P approach to design healthcare services in line with policy requirements.

  18. Mapping of Affordance and Activity as the Biophilic Design Principle of Blue Lagoon Tourism Area Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptorini Hastuti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bathing and playing in the river is not a new phenomenon for some people. But this experience creates a recreational spirit on the Tepusriver which is now better known as the Blue Lagoon. This area is a term for the settlement that is split a piece of the river in the dusun Ndalem Ngemplak Sleman. Its tributaries are clear and blue, surrounded by some springs with natural bamboo groves and old trees that invite local and around communities for recreation. The local community has anticipated it by responding to the communities’ demands as well as the recreation area. Appear sporadically “warungs” and recreational activities follow-up though not yet grown in conceptual. This paper aims to study the map of affordance and activity of previous research findings and could be used to the biophilic design to afford the health, productivity, and wellbeing in the tourism area. The method is by synthesizing the previous research findings in 2016, some relevant urban design theories, and biophilic design principle. The conclusion is paid attention to two main principles. The first principle is maximizing the utilization of existing natural properties and the existing cultural skills into its development to nourish visitors both physically and psychologically. The second principle is the Government, and Non-Government Organizations (i.e., expertise, academics, universities, investors support, both policy and financially, in many sectors: tourism, environment, and infrastructure.

  19. Seismic design principles for the German fast breeder reactor SNR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangette, A.M.; Peters, K.A.

    1988-01-01

    The leading aim of a seismic design is, besides protection against seismic impacts, not to enhance the overall risk in the absence of seismic vibrations and, secondly, to avoid competition between operational needs and a seismic structural design. This approach is supported by avoiding overconservatism in the assumption of seismic loads and in the calculation of the structural response. Accordingly the seismic principles are stated as follows: restriction to German or equivalent low seismicity sites with intensities (SSE) lower VIII at frequency lower than 10 -4 /year; best estimate of seismic input-data without further conservatism; no consideration of OBE. The structural design principles are: 1. The secondary character of the seismic excitation is explicitly accounted for; 2. Energy absorption is allowed for by ductility of materials and construction. Accordingly strain criteria are used for failure predictions instead of stress criteria. (author). 1 fig

  20. Zebrafish housing systems: a review of basic operating principles and considerations for design and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Christian; Mason, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The strategies for housing zebrafish used in biomedical research have evolved considerably over the past three decades. To keep pace with the rapid expansion and development of the zebrafish model system, the field has generally moved from keeping fish at the level of aquarium hobbyist to that of industrialized, recirculating aquaculture. Numerous commercial system vendors now offer increasingly sophisticated housing systems based on design principles that maximize the number of animals that can be housed in a given space footprint, and they are thus able to support large and diverse research programs. This review is designed to provide managers, lab animal veterinarians, investigators, and other parties responsible for care and use of these animals with a comprehensive overview of the basic operating and design principles of zebrafish housing systems. This information can be used to help plan the construction of new facilities and/or the upgrade and maintenance of existing operations.

  1. Blockchain to Rule the Waves - Nascent Design Principles for Reducing Risk and Uncertainty in Decentralized Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nærland, Kristoffer; Müller-Bloch, Christoph; Beck, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Many decentralized, inter-organizational environments such as supply chains are characterized by high transactional uncertainty and risk. At the same time, blockchain technology promises to mitigate these issues by introducing certainty into economic transactions. This paper discusses the findings...... of a Design Science Research project involving the construction and evaluation of an information technology artifact in collaboration with Maersk, a leading international shipping company, where central documents in shipping, such as the Bill of Lading, are turned into a smart contract on blockchain. Based...... on our insights from the project, we provide first evidence for preliminary design principles for applications that aim to mitigate the transactional risk and uncertainty in decentralized environments using blockchain. Both the artifact and the first evidence for emerging design principles are novel...

  2. Grasping social dynamics of participatory innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sproedt, Henrik; Boer, Laurens

    2011-01-01

    perspective we study how a game that addresses these dynamics can be designed. We describe a case of a game, designed for the Participatory Innovation Conference of 2011 in Sønderborg, Denmark. The game was particularly designed around the themes of conflict and interdependence, captured by the dilemma of co-opetition...

  3. Collective form generation through visual participatory representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Sharma, Nishant; Punekar, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    In order to inspire and inform designers with the users data from participatory research, it may be important to represent data in a visual format that is easily understandable to the designers. For a case study in vehicle design, the paper outlines visual representation of data and the use...

  4. Formulation of engineering design principles for the treatment of irradiated fuel and associated radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banford, A.W.; Hanson, B.C.; Scully, P.J.; Taylor, R.

    2007-01-01

    The industrial scale treatment of irradiated fuel in the UK has resulted in BNFL developing extensive experience of the process design, build, commissioning, and operation necessary for successful nuclear processing plant. Much of the design experience now resides in Nexia Solutions (formally BNFL Research and Development Division) who have always defined and undertaken the extensive development programmes necessary to underpin the design at all stages of the project life-cycle. Since the 1990's, Nexia Solutions has built up a large portfolio of plant designs for a range of spent fuel applications, from fuel conditioning to partitioning and transmutation. In addition, by investigation of a large and diverse portfolio of technologies Nexia Solutions has developed innovative concepts for plant design that could present significant economic savings on conventional approaches. Using this experience and the lessons learned, we have developed and refined our own engineering design principles necessary for the successful design of commercial spent fuel and waste treatment plant. Our approach is to advocate an integral concept, with both science and engineering designs working in parallel during development. 4 foundation principles for success have been identified: -) understand the strategic objective, -) adopt a risk driven programme, -) engage in engineering activities early, and -) timely application of appropriate engineering methodologies. 2 Case studies presented in this paper: first, the BNFL segregated effluent treatment plant and secondly, the selection of a pyrochemical process for recycle of fast reactor, demonstrate how this approach has been adopted and the benefits that have been gained

  5. Novel Designs for the Audio Mixing Interface Based on Data Visualisation First Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Dewey, Christopher; Wakefield, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    Given the shortcomings of current audio mixing interfaces (AMIs) this study focuses on the development of alternative AMIs based on data visualisation first principles. The elementary perceptual tasks defined by Cleveland informed the design process. Two design ideas were considered for pan: using the elementary perceptual tasks ‘scale’ to display pan on either a single or multiple horizontal lines. Four design ideas were considered for level:\\ud using ‘length’, ‘area’, ‘saturation’ or ‘scala...

  6. Toward an Architecture of Dissensus: Participatory Urbanism in South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camillo Boano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Adopting Rancière’s principles of equality, his concepts of aesthetics and le partage du sensible as an intellectual toolbox, this paper examines how practices of participation in informal settlement development might encourage one to think differently about the relationship between politics, design and the city – contributing thus to the debate about participatory urbanism.A critical reflection of the Thai programme Baan Mankong (secure housing and its regional counterpart Asian Coalition for Community Action (ACCA – an entity aimed at creating an alternative development process in which people that were previously ignored and marginalized are engaged at the centre of a process of transforming their lives, spaces and position in the city – sheds light on such relationship in order to promote a re-conceptualisation of the role of architecture and design in the process of socially just urban development, participatory urbanism and the struggle for democracy.

  7. The concept and principles of sustainable architectural design for national parks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Predrag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper elaborates the concept of sustainable architectural design that has come to the forefront in the last 20 years, and in the light of the National Park. This concept recognizes that human civilization is an integral part of the natural world and that nature must be preserved and perpetuated if the human community itself is to survive. Sustainable design articulates this idea through developments that exemplify the principles of conservation and encourage the application of those principles in our daily lives. A corollary concept, and one that supports sustainable design, is that of bio-regionalism - the idea that all life is established and maintained on a functional community basis and that all of these distinctive communities (bio-regions have mutually supporting life systems that are generally self-sustaining. The concept of sustainable design holds that future technologies must function primarily within bioregional patterns and scales. They must maintain biological diversity and environmental integrity contribute to the health of air, water, and soils, incorporate design and construction that reflect bio-regional conditions, and reduce the impacts of human use. Sustainable design, sustainable development, design with nature environmentally sensitive design, holistic resource management - regardless of what it's called, "sustainability," the capability of natural and cultural systems being continued over time, is the key. Sustainable design must use an alternative approach to traditional design and the new design approach must recognize the impacts of every design choice on the natural and cultural resources of the local, regional, and global environments. Sustainable park and recreation development will succeed to the degree that it anticipates and manages human experiences. Interpretation provides the best single tool for shaping experiences and sharing values. By providing an awareness of the environment, values are taught that are

  8. Computer-based teaching module design: principles derived from learning theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K H Vincent

    2014-03-01

    The computer-based teaching module (CBTM), which has recently gained prominence in medical education, is a teaching format in which a multimedia program serves as a single source for knowledge acquisition rather than playing an adjunctive role as it does in computer-assisted learning (CAL). Despite empirical validation in the past decade, there is limited research into the optimisation of CBTM design. This review aims to summarise research in classic and modern multimedia-specific learning theories applied to computer learning, and to collapse the findings into a set of design principles to guide the development of CBTMs. Scopus was searched for: (i) studies of classic cognitivism, constructivism and behaviourism theories (search terms: 'cognitive theory' OR 'constructivism theory' OR 'behaviourism theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') and their sub-theories applied to computer learning, and (ii) recent studies of modern learning theories applied to computer learning (search terms: 'learning theory' AND 'e-learning' OR 'web-based learning') for articles published between 1990 and 2012. The first search identified 29 studies, dominated in topic by the cognitive load, elaboration and scaffolding theories. The second search identified 139 studies, with diverse topics in connectivism, discovery and technical scaffolding. Based on their relative representation in the literature, the applications of these theories were collapsed into a list of CBTM design principles. Ten principles were identified and categorised into three levels of design: the global level (managing objectives, framing, minimising technical load); the rhetoric level (optimising modality, making modality explicit, scaffolding, elaboration, spaced repeating), and the detail level (managing text, managing devices). This review examined the literature in the application of learning theories to CAL to develop a set of principles that guide CBTM design. Further research will enable educators to

  9. Basic principles of test-negative design in evaluating influenza vaccine effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Wakaba; Hirota, Yoshio

    2017-08-24

    Based on the unique characteristics of influenza, the concept of "monitoring" influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) across the seasons using the same observational study design has been developed. In recent years, there has been a growing number of influenza VE reports using the test-negative design, which can minimize both misclassification of diseases and confounding by health care-seeking behavior. Although the test-negative designs offer considerable advantages, there are some concerns that widespread use of the test-negative design without knowledge of the basic principles of epidemiology could produce invalid findings. In this article, we briefly review the basic concepts of the test-negative design with respect to classic study design such as cohort studies or case-control studies. We also mention selection bias, which may be of concern in some countries where rapid diagnostic testing is frequently used in routine clinical practices, as in Japan. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. IN QUEST OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN SERVICES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Durmus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Proposal: Architectural design companies increasingly recognize that time spent on management is not at the expense of their production and there are always better ways to organize business. Although architects have long placed a traditional emphasis on quality, quality management is still a new concept for the majority of architectural design companies, which have to organize relatively more complicated operations nowadays to meet their clients’ expectations. This study aims to understand how architectural design companies define quality and explores the extent to which Total Quality Management (TQM principles like continual improvement, employee involvement, customer satisfaction and others can be pertinent in these companies. Adopting a qualitative research strategy, the authors interviewed with the owner-managers of 10 widely-recognized architectural design companies of different size in Istanbul. The results from the content analysis of semi-structured interview data suggest that i TQM principles cannot be directly applied in architectural design companies without an appropriate translation; ii special characteristics of design services are important to explain quality-related perceptions of owner-managers; iii the owner-managers feel the pressure from the changing internal and external environmental conditions, however few of them adopt a systematic and documented approach to quality management. Architectural design offices which aim to establish a quality management system can benefit from this study to understand potential problem areas on their road.

  11. Grounding IS Design Education in the First Principles of a Designerly Way of Knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguepack, Leslie J.; Babb, Jeffry S.

    2017-01-01

    "The Golden Age of Design may finally be upon us!" or so reported the New York Times in September of 2014. On the one hand everyday personal information appliances emphasized beauty and function. Apple™ took a lead by marketing the "feeling" of the iPod's design. The business world took notice and the cachet of designers soared…

  12. A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Phansalkar, Shobha; Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Seger, Diane L; Schedlbauer, Angela; Avery, Anthony J; Bates, David W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of human factors principles in current clinical information systems using alerts to provide medication decisio...

  13. Implementation of a participatory management model: analysis from a political perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Andrea; G Cummings, Greta; Gabriel, Carmen Silvia; Martinez Évora, Yolanda Dora; Gomes Maziero, Vanessa; Coleman-Miller, Glenda

    2015-10-01

    To analyse experiences of managers and nursing staff in the implementation of participatory management, specifically processes of decision-making, communication and power in a Canadian hospital. Implementing a Participatory Management Model involves change because it is focused on the needs of patients and encourages decentralisation of power and shared decisions. The study design is qualitative using observational sessions and content analysis for data analysis. We used Bolman and Deal's four-frame theoretical framework to interpret our findings. Participatory management led to advances in care, because it allowed for more dialogue and shared decision making. However, the biggest challenge has been that all major changes are still being decided centrally by the provincial executive board. Managers and directors are facing difficulties related to this change process, such as the resistance to change by some employees and limited input to decision-making affecting their areas of responsibility; however, they and their teams are working to utilise the values and principles underlying participatory management in their daily work practices. Innovative management models encourage accountability, increased motivation and satisfaction of nursing staff, and improve the quality of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using engineering control principles to inform the design of adaptive interventions: a conceptual introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Daniel E; Pew, Michael D; Collins, Linda M

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe the role that control engineering principles can play in developing and improving the efficacy of adaptive, time-varying interventions. It is demonstrated that adaptive interventions constitute a form of feedback control system in the context of behavioral health. Consequently, drawing from ideas in control engineering has the potential to significantly inform the analysis, design, and implementation of adaptive interventions, leading to improved adherence, better management of limited resources, a reduction of negative effects, and overall more effective interventions. This article illustrates how to express an adaptive intervention in control engineering terms, and how to use this framework in a computer simulation to investigate the anticipated impact of intervention design choices on efficacy. The potential benefits of operationalizing decision rules based on control engineering principles are particularly significant for adaptive interventions that involve multiple components or address co-morbidities, situations that pose significant challenges to conventional clinical practice.

  15. Design Principles for the Atomic and Electronic Structure of Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic Materials: Insights from Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Robert F

    2018-02-09

    In the current decade, perovskite solar cell research has emerged as a remarkably active, promising, and rapidly developing field. Alongside breakthroughs in synthesis and device engineering, halide perovskite photovoltaic materials have been the subject of predictive and explanatory computational work. In this Minireview, we focus on a subset of this computation: density functional theory (DFT)-based work highlighting the ways in which the electronic structure and band gap of this class of materials can be tuned via changes in atomic structure. We distill this body of computational literature into a set of underlying design principles for the band gap engineering of these materials, and rationalize these principles from the viewpoint of band-edge orbital character. We hope that this perspective provides guidance and insight toward the rational design and continued improvement of perovskite photovoltaics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Parallel power electronics filters in three-phase four-wire systems principle, control and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Man-Chung; Lam, Chi-Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book describes parallel power electronic filters for 3-phase 4-wire systems, focusing on the control, design and system operation. It presents the basics of power-electronics techniques applied in power systems as well as the advanced techniques in controlling, implementing and designing parallel power electronics converters. The power-quality compensation has been achieved using active filters and hybrid filters, and circuit models, control principles and operational practice problems have been verified by principle study, simulation and experimental results. The state-of-the-art research findings were mainly developed by a team at the University of Macau. Offering background information and related novel techniques, this book is a valuable resource for electrical engineers and researchers wanting to work on energy saving using power-quality compensators or renewable energy power electronics systems. .

  17. Basic Principles of Industrial Electric Power Network Computer Aided Design and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual model for a computer aided design and engineering system has been developed in the paper. The paper presents basic automation process principles including a graphical representation   network and calculation results, convenient user interface, automatic mode calculation, selection of transformer rated power and cross-section area of wires. The developed algorithm and program make it possible to save time and improve quality of project implementation.

  18. Application of Instructional Design Principles in Developing an Online Information Literacy Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Misa

    2016-01-01

    An online information literacy curriculum was developed as an intervention to engage students in independent study and self-assessment of their learning needs and learning outcomes, develop proficiency in information skills, and foster lifelong learning. This column demonstrates how instructional design principles were applied to create the learning experiences integrated into various courses of the medical curriculum to promote active learning of information skills and maximize self-directed learning outcomes for lifelong learning.

  19. The Effect of Content Representation Design Principles on Users' Intuitive Beliefs and Use of E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Selim, Hassan; Zaqout, Fahed

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to assess the effect of different content representation design principles on learners' intuitive beliefs about using e-learning. We hypothesized that the impact of the representation of course contents is mediated by the design principles of alignment, quantity, clarity, simplicity, and affordance, which influence the…

  20. Designing nanomaterials to maximize performance and minimize undesirable implications guided by the Principles of Green Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Leanne M; Zimmerman, Julie B; Plata, Desiree L; Hutchison, James E; Anastas, Paul T

    2015-08-21

    The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry were first published in 1998 and provide a framework that has been adopted not only by chemists, but also by design practitioners and decision-makers (e.g., materials scientists and regulators). The development of the Principles was initially motivated by the need to address decades of unintended environmental pollution and human health impacts from the production and use of hazardous chemicals. Yet, for over a decade now, the Principles have been applied to the synthesis and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and the products they enable. While the combined efforts of the global scientific community have led to promising advances in the field of nanotechnology, there remain significant research gaps and the opportunity to leverage the potential global economic, societal and environmental benefits of ENMs safely and sustainably. As such, this tutorial review benchmarks the successes to date and identifies critical research gaps to be considered as future opportunities for the community to address. A sustainable material design framework is proposed that emphasizes the importance of establishing structure-property-function (SPF) and structure-property-hazard (SPH) relationships to guide the rational design of ENMs. The goal is to achieve or exceed the functional performance of current materials and the technologies they enable, while minimizing inherent hazard to avoid risk to human health and the environment at all stages of the life cycle.