WorldWideScience

Sample records for partially spent inorganic

  1. Reclamation of alkaline spent moulding sands of organic and inorganic type and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders requires the reclamation treatments in order to be able to reuse the matrices of spent sands. The spent sands, depending on the applied binding agent, are characterised by various abilities of the matrix reclamation. The results of investigations of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with the Rudal binder and spent sands with the Rezolit binder in the system of uniform sands and of mixed ones, are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by means of the special experimental stands designed and built in the AGH University of Science and Technology, AGH, in Krakow.

  2. Handling and transfer operations for partially-spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, J K [PUSPATI, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1983-12-01

    This project involved the handling and transfer of partially-spent reactor fuel from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor in Corvallis, Oregon to Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The method of handling is dependent upon the burn-up history of the fuel elements. Legal constraints imposed by standing U.S. nuclear regulations determine the selection of transport containers, transportation procedures, physical security arrangements in transit and nuclear material accountability documentation. Results of in-house safety evaluations of the project determine the extent of involvement of pertinent nuclear regulatory authorities. The actual handling activities and actual radiation dose rates are also presented.

  3. Handling and transfer operations for partially-spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    This project involved the handling and transfer of partially-spent reactor fuel from the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor in Corvallis, Oregon to Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington. The method of handling is dependent upon the burn-up history of the fuel elements. Legal constraints imposed by standing U.S. nuclear regulations determine the selection of transport containers, transportation procedures, physical security arrangements in transit and nuclear material accountability documentation. Results of in-house safety evaluations of the project determine the extent of involvement of pertinent nuclear regulatory authorities. The actual handling activities and actual radiation dose rates are also presented (author)

  4. Leaching behavior of lanthanum, nickel and iron from spent catalyst using inorganic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, W.; Prilitasari, N. M.; Iskandar, Y.; Bratakusuma, D.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Highly technological applications of rare earth metals (REs) and scarcity of supply have become an incentive torecover the REs from various resources, which include high grade and low grade ores, as well as recycledwaste materials. Spent hydrocracking catalyst contain lanthanum and a variety of valuable metals such as nickel and iron. This study investigated the recovery of lanthanum, nickel and iron from spent hydrocracking catalyst by leaching using various inorganic acid (sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, and nitric acid). The effect of acid concentration, type of acid and leaching temperature was conducted to study the leaching behavior of each valuable metal from spent-catalyst. It has been shown that it is possible to recover more than 90% of lanthanum, however the leaching efficiency of nickel and iron in this process was very low. It can be concluded that the leaching process is selective for lanthanum recovery from hydrocracking spent-catalyst.

  5. Efficient regeneration of partially spent ammonia borane fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Benjamin Lee; Gordon, John C.; Stephens, Frances; Dixon, David A.; Matus, Myrna H.

    2008-01-01

    A necessary target in realizing a hydrogen (H 2 ) economy, especially for the transportation sector, is its storage for controlled delivery, presumably to an energy producing fuel cell. In this vein, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Centers of Excellence (CoE) in Hydrogen Storage have pursued different methodologies, including metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents, for the expressed purpose of supplanting gasoline's current > 300 mile driving range. Chemical hydrogen storage has been dominated by one appealing material, ammonia borane (H 3 B-NH 3 , AB), due to its high gravimetric capacity of hydrogen (19.6 wt %) and low molecular weight (30.7 g mol -1 ). In addition, AB has both hydridic and protic moieties, yielding a material from which H2 can be readily released. As such, a number of publications have described H 2 release from amine boranes, yielding various rates depending on the method applied. Even though the viability of any chemical hydrogen storage system is critically dependent on efficient recyclability, reports on the latter subject are sparse, invoke the use of high energy reducing agents, and suffer from low yields. For example, the DOE recently decided to no longer pursue the use of NaBH 4 as a H 2 storage material, in part because of inefficient regeneration. We thus endeavored to find an energy efficient regeneration process for the spent fuel from H 2 depleted AB with a minimum number of steps.

  6. Partial Defect Verification of Spent Fuel Assemblies by PDET: Principle and Field Testing in Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Y.S.; Kerr, P.; Sitaraman, S.; Swan, R. [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Rossa, R. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Liljenfeldt, H. [SKB in Oskarshamn (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    The need for the development of a credible method and instrument for partial defect verification of spent fuel has been emphasized over a few decades in the safeguards communities as the diverted spent fuel pins can be the source of nuclear terrorism or devices. The need is increasingly more important and even urgent as many countries have started to transfer spent fuel to so called 'difficult-to-access' areas such as dry storage casks, reprocessing or geological repositories. Partial defect verification is required by IAEA before spent fuel is placed into 'difficult-to-access' areas. Earlier, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has reported the successful development of a new, credible partial defect verification method for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies without use of operator data, and further reported the validation experiments using commercial spent fuel assemblies with some missing fuel pins. The method was found to be robust as the method is relatively invariant to the characteristic variations of spent fuel assemblies such as initial fuel enrichment, cooling time, and burn-up. Since then, the PDET system has been designed and prototyped for 17x17 PWR spent fuel assemblies, complete with data acquisition software and acquisition electronics. In this paper, a summary description of the PDET development followed by results of the first successful field testing using the integrated PDET system and actual spent fuel assemblies performed in a commercial spent fuel storage site, known as Central Interim Spent fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden will be presented. In addition to partial defect detection initial studies have determined that the tool can be used to verify the operator declared average burnup of the assembly as well as intra-assembly burnup levels. (authors)

  7. Reduction of inorganics from macroalgae Laminaria digitata and spent mushroom compost (SMC) by acid leaching and selective hydrothermal liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Jasiunas, Lukas; Xu, Chunbao (Charles)

    2018-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising route for producing bio-crude from various biomass feedstocks. However, high content of inorganic constituents in biomass like macroalgae Laminaria digitata and spent mushroom compost (SMC) affect the conversion process and the resulting fuel products....... This research studied the effects of different acid leaching treatments on such feedstocks, subsequent HTL, and bio-crude properties. Leaching treatments were performed using five different agents: deionized water, acetic acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid. Performance of leaching...... was evaluated by analyzing both leached biomass and HTL products by elemental analysis, ash content, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Catalytic and non-catalytic HTL of both feedstocks before and after treatment were performed in a 10-mL microreactor at 400 °C...

  8. Feasibility studies of computed tomography in partial defect detection of spent BWR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, F.; Tikkinen, J.; Tarvainen, M.; Arlt, R.

    1990-10-01

    Feasibility studies were made for tomographic reconstruction of a cross-sectional activity distribution of a spent nuclear fuel assembly. The purpose was to determine the number of fuel rods (pins) and localize the positisons where pins are missing. The activity distribution map showing the locations of fuel rods in the assembly was reconstructed. The theoretical part of this work consists of simulation of image reconstruction based on theoretically calculated data from a reference assembly model. Evaluation of different image reconstruction techniques was made. Measurements were made in real facility conditions. Gamma radiation from an irradiated 8 x 8 - 1 BWR fuel assembly was measured through a narrow custom made collimator from different angles and positions. The measured data set was used as projections for reconstructing the activity profile of the assembly in cross-sectional plane

  9. Behaviour of Aluminosilicate Inorganic Matrix Sial During and After Solidification of Radioactive Sludge And Radioactive Spent Resins and Their Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichvar, P.; Rozloznik, M.; Sekely, S.

    2013-01-01

    SIAL matrix is the product of inorganic compounds by polycondensation. The inorganic SIAL matrix was subject of study from the atomic level to the level of technological application. Infrared spectroscopy measurement and X-ray analysis confirmed that SIAL matrix is mostly formed by amorphous phase. This satisfies the required criteria for disposal of immobilized radioactive waste of appropriate properties into surface repository (Slovak and Czech Republic). First of all, leaching of radioactive nuclide Cs-137 and compressive strength of the final product were found. Various remotely operated devices have been designed, manufactured and successfully used for the radioactive sludge and sludge/resins mixture solidification at the Nuclear power plant (NPP) A-1, V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice, at Mochovce NPP (Slovak Republic), at Dukovany NPP and at Temelin NPP (Czech Republic). The SIAL matrix was approved for waste package for sludge/resins mixture by the Slovak and Czech Nuclear Regulatory Authorities. (author)

  10. Behaviour of Aluminosilicate Inorganic Matrix Sial During and After Solidification of Radioactive Sludge And Radioactive Spent Resins and Their Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichvar, P.; Rozloznik, M.; Sekely, S. [Amec Nuclear Slovakia, 919 31 Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia)

    2013-09-15

    SIAL matrix is the product of inorganic compounds by polycondensation. The inorganic SIAL matrix was subject of study from the atomic level to the level of technological application. Infrared spectroscopy measurement and X-ray analysis confirmed that SIAL matrix is mostly formed by amorphous phase. This satisfies the required criteria for disposal of immobilized radioactive waste of appropriate properties into surface repository (Slovak and Czech Republic). First of all, leaching of radioactive nuclide Cs-137 and compressive strength of the final product were found. Various remotely operated devices have been designed, manufactured and successfully used for the radioactive sludge and sludge/resins mixture solidification at the Nuclear power plant (NPP) A-1, V-2 in Jaslovske Bohunice, at Mochovce NPP (Slovak Republic), at Dukovany NPP and at Temelin NPP (Czech Republic). The SIAL matrix was approved for waste package for sludge/resins mixture by the Slovak and Czech Nuclear Regulatory Authorities. (author)

  11. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala D.B.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37 Orthogonal Arrays (OA with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering “Nominal the better” situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  12. Experimental study of optimal self compacting concrete with spent foundry sand as partial replacement for M-sand using Taguchi approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, D. B.; Raviraj, S.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the application of Taguchi approach to obtain optimal mix proportion for Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) containing spent foundry sand and M-sand. Spent foundry sand is used as a partial replacement for M-sand. The SCC mix has seven control factors namely, Coarse aggregate, M-sand with Spent Foundry sand, Cement, Fly ash, Water, Super plasticizer and Viscosity modifying agent. Modified Nan Su method is used to proportion the initial SCC mix. L18 (21×37) Orthogonal Arrays (OA) with the seven control factors having 3 levels is used in Taguchi approach which resulted in 18 SCC mix proportions. All mixtures are extensively tested both in fresh and hardened states to verify whether they meet the practical and technical requirements of SCC. The quality characteristics considering "Nominal the better" situation is applied to the test results to arrive at the optimal SCC mix proportion. Test results indicate that the optimal mix satisfies the requirements of fresh and hardened properties of SCC. The study reveals the feasibility of using spent foundry sand as a partial replacement of M-sand in SCC and also that Taguchi method is a reliable tool to arrive at optimal mix proportion of SCC.

  13. Transition metal modified and partially calcined inorganic-organic pillared clays for the adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and caffeine from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2012-11-15

    Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are considered emerging contaminants, and their efficient removal from water is going to be a challenging endeavor. Microporous adsorbent materials, including pillared clays, could offer a potential solution if tailored properly. Although pillared clays have been employed previously for the removal of organics, the effective removal of PPCPs will only be possible if their surface and textural properties are manipulated from the bottom-up. This work presents the use of modified inorganic-organic pillared clays (IOCs) for the adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and caffeine. The IOCs have been modified with Co(2+), Cu(2+), or Ni(2+) to induce complexation-like adsorbate-adsorbent interactions at ambient conditions, in an attempt to provide an efficient and yet reversible driving force in the sub-ppm concentration range. Furthermore, the IOCs were partially calcined to increase effective surface area by an order of magnitude while preserving some hydrophobicity. In general, the Ni(2+) IOCs exhibited the greatest interaction with salicylic and clofibric acids, respectively, while the Co(2+) adsorbents excelled at adsorbing caffeine at low concentrations. All of the metal-modified IOCs showed comparable adsorption capacities for the case of carbamazepine, probably due to the lack of availability of particular functional groups in this adsorbate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A. Rawluk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris, Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW with or without natural barriers on (i amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP, (ii watering location (OSW or stream, and (iii animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture—which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size—was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT, OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR, and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR. Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002, 2 (p = 0.1116, and 3 (p < 0.0001 at the Killarney site compared to cattle in 3NOBARR at the same site. Cattle in 2BARR at the Souris site spent more time in the RP in Period 1 (p < 0.0001 and less time in Period 2 (p = 0.0002 compared to cattle in 3NOBARR. Cattle did use the OSW, but not exclusively, as watering at the stream was still observed. The observed inconsistency in the effectiveness of the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05 on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well

  15. Reprocessing facility for spent fuel from LWR type reactors and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant in the Taxoeldern Forest near Wackersdorf, Bavaria (WAA) - first partial licence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Full text of the first partial licence for the WAA, allowing erection of the following buildings or structures: External fence; guardhouse 1, i.e. the building and the ground connection system with lightning protection system, the fire alarm system and mobile fire-fighting systems; the fuel receiving station, including building and operation systems; excavation work for the main reprocessing building. (HP) [de

  16. Off-Stream Watering Systems and Partial Barriers as a Strategy to Maximize Cattle Production and Minimize Time Spent in the Riparian Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Ashley A; Crow, Gary; Legesse, Getahun; Veira, Douglas M; Bullock, Paul R; González, Luciano A; Dubois, Melanie; Ominski, Kim H

    2014-10-29

    A study was conducted in 2009 at two locations in Manitoba (Killarney and Souris), Canada to determine the impact of off-stream waterers (OSW) with or without natural barriers on (i) amount of time cattle spent in the 10 m buffer created within the riparian area, referred to as the riparian polygon (RP), (ii) watering location (OSW or stream), and (iii) animal performance measured as weight gain. This study was divided into three 28-day periods over the grazing season. At each location, the pasture-which ranged from 21.0 ha to 39.2 ha in size-was divided into three treatments: no OSW nor barriers (1CONT), OSW with barriers along the stream bank to deter cattle from watering at the stream (2BARR), and OSW without barriers (3NOBARR). Cattle in 2BARR spent less time in the RP in Periods 1 (p = 0.0002), 2 (p = 0.1116), and 3 (p natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area between periods and locations may be partly attributable to the environmental conditions present during this field trial as well as difference in pasture size and the ability of the established barriers to deter cattle from using the stream as a water source. Treatment had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on cow and calf weights averaged over the summer period. These results indicate that the presence of an OSW does not create significant differences in animal performance when used in extensive pasture scenarios such as those studied within the present study. Whereas the barriers did not consistently discourage watering at the stream, the results provide some indication of the efficacy of the OSW as well as the natural barriers on deterring cattle from the riparian area.

  17. Single and multi-component adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine and caffeine from water onto transition metal modified and partially calcined inorganic-organic pillared clay fixed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2015-01-23

    Fixed-beds of transition metal (Co(2+), Ni(2+) or Cu(2+)) inorganic-organic pillared clays (IOCs) were prepared to study single- and multi-component non-equilibrium adsorption of a set of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs: salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine and caffeine) from water. Adsorption capacities for single components revealed that the copper(II) IOCs have better affinity toward salicylic and clofibric acid. However, multi-component adsorption tests showed a considerable decrease in adsorption capacity for the acids and an unusual selectivity toward carbamazepine depending on the transition metal. This was attributed to a combination of competition between PPCPs for adsorption sites, adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, and plausible pore blocking caused by carbamazepine. The cobalt(II) IOC bed that was partially calcined to fractionate the surfactant moiety showcased the best selectivity toward caffeine, even during multi-component adsorption. This was due to a combination of a mildly hydrophobic surface and interaction between the PPCP and cobalt(II). In general, the tests suggest that these IOCs may be a potential solution for the removal of PPCPs if employed in a layered-bed configuration, to take care of families of adsorbates in a sequence that would produce sharpened concentration wavefronts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  19. Spent fuels program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this task is to support the Domestic Spent Fuel Storage Program through studies involving the transport of spent fuel. A catalog was developed to provide authoritative, timely, and accessible transportation information for persons involved in the transport of irradiated reactor fuel. The catalog, drafted and submitted to the Transportation Technology Center, Sandia National Laboratories, for their review and approval, covers such topics as federal, state, and local regulations, spent fuel characteristics, cask characteristics, transportation costs, and emergency response information

  20. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel; Prerada isluzenog nuklearnog goriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za visoku aktivnost, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-12-15

    This report covers: chemical-technology investigation of modified purex process for reprocessing of spent fuel; implementation of the procedure for obtaining plutonium peroxide and oxalate; research in the field of uranium, plutonium, and fission products separation by inorganic ion exchangers and extraction by organic solutions; study of the fission products in the heavy water RA reactor.

  1. Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, A.M.; Menoufy, M.F.; Amhed, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company (after 5 years lifetime) compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work. Studies are conducted on partial extraction of the active metals of spent catalyst (Mo and Ni) using three leaching solvents,4% oxidized oxalic acid, 10% aqueous sodium hydroxide and 10% citric acid. The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. The results indicated that 4% oxidized oxalic acid leaching solution gave total metal removal 45.6 for de coked catalyst samples while NaOH gave 35% and citric acid gave 31.9 % The oxidized leaching agent was the most efficient leaching solvent to facilitate the metal removal, and the rejuvenated catalyst was characterized by the unchanged crystalline phase The rejuvenated catalyst was applied for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of vacuum gas oil as a feedstock, under different hydrogen pressure 20-80 bar in order to compare its HDS activity

  2. Spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio

    2005-01-01

    When a country becomes self-sufficient in part of the nuclear cycle, as production of fuel that will be used in nuclear power plants for energy generation, it is necessary to pay attention for the best method of storing the spent fuel. Temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel is a necessary practice and is applied nowadays all over the world, so much in countries that have not been defined their plan for a definitive repository, as well for those that already put in practice such storage form. There are two main aspects that involve the spent fuels: one regarding the spent nuclear fuel storage intended to reprocessing and the other in which the spent fuel will be sent for final deposition when the definitive place is defined, correctly located, appropriately characterized as to several technical aspects, and licentiate. This last aspect can involve decades of studies because of the technical and normative definitions at a given country. In Brazil, the interest is linked with the storage of spent fuels that will not be reprocessed. This work analyses possible types of storage, the international panorama and a proposal for future construction of a spent nuclear fuel temporary storage place in the country. (author)

  3. Spent sulfite liquor developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, H H

    1958-01-01

    A review of methods of utilizing spent sulfite liquor, including evaporation and burning, fermentation to produce yeast or alcohol, production of vanillin and lignosulfonates, and use as a roadbinder.

  4. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO 2 fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO 2 dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with 238 Pu doped UO 2 M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO 2 studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with α doped UO 2 in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO 2 / water interfaces under He 2+ beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO 2 alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines (M. Kelm), On the potential catalytic behavior of

  5. Spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The production of nuclear electricity results in the generation of spent fuel that requires safe, secure and efficient management. Appropriate management of the resulting spent fuel is a key issue for the steady and sustainable growth of nuclear energy. Currently about 10,000 tonnes heavy metal (HM) of spent fuel are unloaded every year from nuclear power reactors worldwide, of which 8,500 t HM need to be stored (after accounting for reprocessed fuel). This is the largest continuous source of civil radioactive material generated, and needs to be managed appropriately. Member States have referred to storage periods of 100 years and even beyond, and as storage quantities and durations extend, new challenges arise in the institutional as well as in the technical area. The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs

  6. Method of processing spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhide; Tamada, Shin; Kikuchi, Makoto; Matsuda, Masami; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the amount of radioactive spent ion exchange resins generated from nuclear power plants, etc and process them into stable inorganic compounds through heat decomposition. Method: Spent ion exchange resins are heat-decomposed in an inert atmosphere to selectively decompose only ion exchange groups in the preceeding step while high molecular skeltons are completely heat-decomposed in an oxidizing atmosphere in the succeeding step. In this way, gaseous sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides are generated in the preceeding step, while gaseous carbon dioxide and hydrogen requiring no discharge gas procession are generated in the succeeding step. Accordingly, the amount of discharged gases requiring procession can significantly be reduced, as well as the residues can be converted into stable inorganic compounds. Further, if transition metals are ionically adsorbed as the catalyst to the ion exchange resins, the ion exchange groups are decomposed at 130 - 300 0 C, while the high molecular skeltons are thermally decomposed at 240 - 300 0 C. Thus, the temperature for the heat decomposition can be lowered to prevent the degradation of the reactor materials. (Kawakami, Y.)

  7. Hydroprocessing using regenerated spent heavy hydrocarbon catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, F.T.; Hensley, A.L. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for hydroprocessing a hydrocarbon feedstock. It comprises: contacting the feedstock with hydrogen under hydroprocessing conditions with a hydroprocessing catalyst wherein the hydroprocessing catalyst contains a total contaminant metals build-up of greater than about 4 wt. % nickel plus vanadium, a hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB metals and Group VIII metals and is regenerated spent hydroprocessing catalyst regenerated by a process comprising the steps: partially decoking the spent catalyst in an initial coke-burning step; impregnating the partially decoked catalyst with a Group IIA metal-containing impregnation solution; and decoking the impregnated catalyst in a final coke-burning step wherein the impregnated catalyst is contacted with an oxygen-containing gas at a temperature of about 600 degrees F to about 1400 degrees F

  8. Radwaste issues belong in the inorganic classroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The safe isolation of high level radioactive wastes is a matter of significant importance. This material is derived primarily from spent nuclear fuel and defense weapon production. Every element on the periodic chart is represented. The majority are metallic elements. Over the thousands of years that they are to be isolated the primary chemistry will be oxidation. The mobility and fate of particular inner and outer transition element ions become very important. For that, one must understand their hydrolytic nature, their complexing tendencies and the solubilities of various compounds. This topic could easily serve as a centerpiece for an inorganic chemistry course. At the very least, it demands the attention of every teacher of inorganic chemistry and consideration by those whose research is directed to tangible problems. The discussion includes notes on the abundance and lifetimes of particular radioisotopes. The positive student responses to this approach are also shared

  9. Spent fuel storage facility, Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shreekumar, B.; Anthony, S.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Kalpakkam is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Kalpakkam was hot commissioned in December 2006. All systems, structures and components (SSCs) related to safety are designed to meet the operational requirements

  10. Spent fuel storage and isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensky, M.S.; Kurzeka, W.J.; Bauer, A.A.; Carr, J.A.; Matthews, S.C.

    1979-02-01

    The principal spent fuel activities conducted within the commercial waste and spent fuel within the Commercial Waste and Spent Fuel Packaging Program are: simulated near-surface (drywell) storage demonstrations at Hanford and the Nevada Test Site; surface (sealed storage cask) and drywell demonstrations at the Nevada Test Site; and spent fuel receiving and packaging facility conceptual design. These investigations are described

  11. Disposal of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Ferguson, D.E.; Croff, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Based on preliminary analyses, spent fuel assemblies are an acceptable form for waste disposal. The following studies appear necessary to bring our knowledge of spent fuel as a final disposal form to a level comparable with that of the solidified wastes from reprocessing: 1. A complete systems analysis is needed of spent fuel disposition from reactor discharge to final isolation in a repository. 2. Since it appears desirable to encase the spent fuel assembly in a metal canister, candidate materials for this container need to be studied. 3. It is highly likely that some ''filler'' material will be needed between the fuel elements and the can. 4. Leachability, stability, and waste-rock interaction studies should be carried out on the fuels. The major disadvantages of spent fuel as a disposal form are the lower maximum heat loading, 60 kW/acre versus 150 kW/acre for high-level waste from a reprocessing plant; the greater long-term potential hazard due to the larger quantities of plutonium and uranium introduced into a repository; and the possibility of criticality in case the repository is breached. The major advantages are the lower cost and increased near-term safety resulting from eliminating reprocessing and the treatment and handling of the wastes therefrom

  12. PARALLEL SOLUTION METHODS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KARABULUT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equations arise in almost all fields of science and engineering. Computer time spent in solving partial differential equations is much more than that of in any other problem class. For this reason, partial differential equations are suitable to be solved on parallel computers that offer great computation power. In this study, parallel solution to partial differential equations with Jacobi, Gauss-Siedel, SOR (Succesive OverRelaxation and SSOR (Symmetric SOR algorithms is studied.

  13. Guidebook on spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Guidebook summarizes the experience and information in various areas related to spent fuel storage: technological aspects, the transport of spent fuel, economical, regulatory and institutional aspects, international safeguards, evaluation criteria for the selection of a specific spent fuel storage concept, international cooperation on spent fuel storage. The last part of the Guidebook presents specific problems on the spent fuel storage in the United Kingdom, Sweden, USSR, USA, Federal Republic of Germany and Switzerland

  14. Spent fuel pyroprocessing demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarlane, L.F.; Lineberry, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A major element of the shutdown of the US liquid metal reactor development program is managing the sodium-bonded spent metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II to meet US environmental laws. Argonne National Laboratory has refurbished and equipped an existing hot cell facility for treating the spent fuel by a high-temperature electrochemical process commonly called pyroprocessing. Four products will be produced for storage and disposal. Two high-level waste forms will be produced and qualified for disposal of the fission and activation products. Uranium and transuranium alloys will be produced for storage pending a decision by the US Department of Energy on the fate of its plutonium and enriched uranium. Together these activities will demonstrate a unique electrochemical treatment technology for spent nuclear fuel. This technology potentially has significant economic and technical advantages over either conventional reprocessing or direct disposal as a high-level waste option

  15. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López Lizana, F.

    2015-01-01

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  16. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  17. Layered inorganic solids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejka, Jiří; Morris, R. E.; Nachtigall, P.; Roth, Wieslaw Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 27 (2014), s. 10274-10275 ISSN 1477-9226 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : layered inorganic solids * physical chemistry * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.197, year: 2014

  18. Inorganic Coatings Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The inorganic Coatings Lab provides expertise to Navy and Joint Service platforms acquisition IPTs to aid in materials and processing choices which balance up-front...

  19. Reprocessing of spent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for removing helium and other impurities from a mixture containing deuterium and tritium, a deuterium/tritium mixture when purified in accordance with such a process and, more particularly, to a process for the reprocessing of spent plasma removed from a thermofusion reactor. (U.K.)

  20. Inorganic and geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinnin, J.I.

    1975-01-01

    Recently described methods for applied inorganic analysis are reviewed from an interdisciplinary standpoint. Abstracts and periodical literature up to Nov. 1974, are included for consideration. The following areas of interest are covered: general reviews of inorganic analytical techniques; analytical techniques, areas of application, and analysis of individual elements. Selected books, monographs, and review articles on the analytical chemistry of the elements are listed. (416 references.) (U.S.)

  1. Solidification of low-level wastes by inorganic binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, M.T.; Shimojo, M.; Suzuki, K.; Kajikawa, A.; Karasawa, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The use of an alkali activated slag binder has been studied for solidification and stabilization of low-level wastes in nuclear power stations and spent fuel processing facilities. The activated slag effectively formed waste products having good physical properties with high waste loading for sodium sulfate, sodium nitrate, calcium pyrophosphate/phosphate and spent ion-exchange resins. Moreover, the results of the study suggest the slag has the ability to become a common inorganic binder for the solidification of various radioactive wastes. This paper also describes the fixation of radionuclides by the activated slag binder

  2. Encapsulating spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, L.R.; Gunasekaran, M.

    1979-01-01

    A system is described for encapsulating spent nuclear fuel discharged from nuclear reactors in the form of rods or multi-rod assemblies. The rods are completely and contiguously enclosed in concrete in which metallic fibres are incorporated to increase thermal conductivity and polymers to decrease fluid permeability. This technique provides the advantage of acceptable long-term stability for storage over the conventional underwater storage method. Examples are given of suitable concrete compositions. (UK)

  3. Inorganic UV filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloísa Berbel Manaia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, concern over skin cancer has been growing more and more, especially in tropical countries where the incidence of UVA/B radiation is higher. The correct use of sunscreen is the most efficient way to prevent the development of this disease. The ingredients of sunscreen can be organic and/or inorganic sun filters. Inorganic filters present some advantages over organic filters, such as photostability, non-irritability and broad spectrum protection. Nevertheless, inorganic filters have a whitening effect in sunscreen formulations owing to the high refractive index, decreasing their esthetic appeal. Many techniques have been developed to overcome this problem and among them, the use of nanotechnology stands out. The estimated amount of nanomaterial in use must increase from 2000 tons in 2004 to a projected 58000 tons in 2020. In this context, this article aims to analyze critically both the different features of the production of inorganic filters (synthesis routes proposed in recent years and the permeability, the safety and other characteristics of the new generation of inorganic filters.

  4. Spent fuel dissolution mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1993-11-01

    This study is a literature survey on the dissolution mechanisms of spent fuel under disposal conditions. First, the effects of radiolysis products on the oxidative dissolution mechanisms and rates of UO 2 are discussed. These effects have mainly been investigated by using electrochemical methods. Then the release mechanisms of soluble radionuclides and the dissolution of the UO 2 matrix including the actinides, are treated. Experimental methods have been developed for measuring the grain-boundary inventories of radionuclides. The behaviour of cesium, strontium and technetium in leaching tests shows different trends. Comparison of spent fuel leaching data strongly suggests that the release of 90 Sr into the leachant can be used as a measure of the oxidation/dissolution of the fuel matrix. Approaches to the modelling UO 2 , dissolution are briefly discussed in the next chapter. Lastly, the use of natural material, uraninite, in the evaluation of the long-term performance of spent fuel is discussed. (orig.). (81 ref., 37 figs., 8 tabs.)

  5. Inorganic liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.; Barta, C.; Jursova, L.

    1986-01-01

    An inorganic liquid scintillator is designed which contains 1 to 30 wt.% of an inorganic molecular compound as the basic active component; the compound contains a cation with an atomic number higher than 47 and a halogen anion. The basic inorganic component is dissolved in water or in an organic solvent in form of non-dissociated molecules or self-complexes in which the bond is preserved between the cation and anion components. The light yield from these scintillators ranges between 70 and 150% of the light yield of a standard organic scintillator based on toluene. They are advantageous in that that they allow to increase the water content in the sample to up to 100%. (M.D.)

  6. Thorium inorganic gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genet, M.; Brandel, V.

    1988-01-01

    The optimum pH and concentration values of thorium salts and oxoacids or oxoacid salts which lead to transparent and stable inorganic gels have been determined. The isotherm drying process of the gel at 50 0 C leads successively to a partly dehydrated gel, then, to the formation of an unusual liquid phase and, finally to a dry amorphous solid phase which is still transparent. This kind of transparent inorganic gels and amorphous phase can be used as matrices for spectroscopic studies [fr

  7. Spent fuel storage requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor (AR) capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as currently licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000. The reference case is bounded by two alternative cases. One, a current capacity case, assumes that only those pool storage capacity increases currently planned by the operating utilities will occur. The second, or maximum capacity with transshipment case, assumes maximum development of pool storage capacity as described above and also assumes no constraints on transshipment of spent fuel among pools of reactors of like type (BWR, PWR) within a given utility. In all cases, a full core discharge capability (full core reserve or FCR) is assumed to be maintained for each reactor, except that only one FCR is maintained when two reactors share a common pool. For the current AR capacity case the indicated storage requirements in the year 2000 are indicated to be 18,190 MTU; for the maximum capacity with transshipment case they are 11,320 MTU

  8. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  9. Spent fuel reprocessing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Hirokazu; Mizuguchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1996-01-01

    Spent oxide fuels containing oxides of uranium and transuranium elements are dismantled and sheared, then oxide fuels are reduced into metals of uranium and transuranium elements in a molten salt with or without mechanical removal of coatings. The reduced metals of uranium and transuranium elements and the molten salts are subjected to phase separation. From the metals of uranium and transuranium elements subjected to phase separation, uranium is separated to a solid cathode and transuranium elements are separated to a cadmium cathode by an electrolytic method. Molten salts deposited together with uranium to the solid cathode, and uranium and transuranium elements deposited to the cadmium cathode are distilled to remove deposited molten salts and cadmium. As a result, TRU oxides (solid) such as UO 2 , Pu 2 in spent fuels can be reduced to U and TRU by a high temperature metallurgical method not using an aqueous solution to separate them in the form of metal from other ingredients, and further, metal fuels can be obtained through an injection molding step depending on the purpose. (N.H.)

  10. Spent fuel interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilegan, Iosif C.

    2003-01-01

    The official inauguration of the spent fuel interim storage took place on Monday July 28, 2003 at Cernavoda NNP. The inaugural event was attended by local and central public authority representatives, a Canadian Government delegation as well as newsmen from local and central mass media and numerous specialists from Cernavoda NPP compound. Mr Andrei Grigorescu, State Secretary with the Economy and Commerce Ministry, underlined in his talk the importance of this objective for the continuous development of nuclear power in Romania as well as for Romania's complying with the EU practice in this field. Also the excellent collaboration between the Canadian contractor AECL and the Romanian partners Nuclear Montaj, CITON, UTI, General Concret in the accomplishment of this unit at the planned terms and costs. On behalf of Canadian delegation, spoke Minister Don Boudria. He underlined the importance which the Canadian Government affords to the cooperation with Romania aiming at specific objectives in the field of nuclear power such as the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 and spent fuel interim storage. After traditional cutting of the inaugural ribbon by the two Ministers the festivities continued on the Cernavoda NPP Compound with undersigning the documents regarding the project completion and a press conference

  11. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, Hideaki; Kumagaya, Naomi; Oda, Masashi; Matsuda, Masami; Maruyama, Hiromi; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu.

    1997-01-01

    The structure of a spent fuel storage rack is determined by the material, thickness, size of square cylindrical tubes (the gap between spent fuel assemblies and the square cylindrical tubes) and pitch of the arrangement (the gap between each of the square cylindrical tubes). In the present invention, the thickness and the pitch of the arrangement of the square tubes are optimized while evaluating subcriticality. Namely, when the sum of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side (the pitch of arrangement of the cylindrical tubes) and the thickness of the cylindrical tubes is made constant, the storage rack is formed by determining the thickness of the cylindrical tubes which is smaller than the optimum value among the combination of the thickness of the water gap at the outer side and that of the cylindrical tube under the effective multiplication factor to be performed. Then, the weight of the rack can be reduced, and the burden of the load on the bottom of the pool can be reduced. Further, the amount of the constitutional materials of the rack itself can be reduced thereby capable of reducing the cost for the materials of the rack. (T.M.)

  12. The spent fuel safety experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmms, G.A.; Davis, F.J.; Ford, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting an ongoing investigation of the consequences of taking fuel burnup into account in the design of spent fuel transportation packages. A series of experiments, collectively called the Spent Fuel Safety Experiment (SFSX), has been devised to provide integral benchmarks for testing computer-generated predictions of spent fuel behavior. A set of experiments is planned in which sections of unirradiated fuel rods are interchanged with similar sections of spent PWR fuel rods in a critical assembly. By determining the critical size of the arrays, one can obtain benchmark data for comparison with criticality safety calculations. The integral reactivity worth of the spent fuel can be assessed by comparing the measured delayed critical fuel loading with and without spent fuel. An analytical effort to model the experiments and anticipate the core loadings required to yield the delayed critical conditions runs in parallel with the experimental effort

  13. Spent fuel: prediction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almassy, M.Y.; Bosi, D.M.; Cantley, D.A.

    1979-07-01

    The need for spent fuel disposal performance modeling stems from a requirement to assess the risks involved with deep geologic disposal of spent fuel, and to support licensing and public acceptance of spent fuel repositories. Through the balanced program of analysis, diagnostic testing, and disposal demonstration tests, highlighted in this presentation, the goal of defining risks and of quantifying fuel performance during long-term disposal can be attained

  14. Inorganic Constituents in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović A.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal contains not only organic matter but also small amounts of inorganic constituents. More thanone hundred different minerals and virtually every element in the periodic table have been foundin coal. Commonly found group minerals in coal are: major (quartz, pyrite, clays and carbonates,minor, and trace minerals. Coal includes a lot of elements of low mass fraction of the orderof w=0.01 or 0.001 %. They are trace elements connected with organic matter or minerals comprisedin coal. The fractions of trace elements usually decrease when the rank of coal increases.Fractions of the inorganic elements are different, depending on the coal bed and basin. A varietyof analytical methods and techniques can be used to determine the mass fractions, mode ofoccurrence, and distribution of organic constituents in coal. There are many different instrumentalmethods for analysis of coal and coal products but atomic absorption spectroscopy – AAS is theone most commonly used. Fraction and mode of occurrence are one of the main factors that haveinfluence on transformation and separation of inorganic constituents during coal conversion.Coal, as an important world energy source and component for non-fuels usage, will be continuouslyand widely used in the future due to its relatively abundant reserves. However, there is aconflict between the requirements for increased use of coal on the one hand and less pollution onthe other. It’s known that the environmental impacts, due to either coal mining or coal usage, canbe: air, water and land pollution. Although, minor components, inorganic constituents can exert asignificant influence on the economic value, utilization, and environmental impact of the coal.

  15. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  16. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineo, H.; Nomura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan 52 commercial nuclear power units are now operated, and the total power generation capacity is about 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising is about 13,500 tU as of March 1997. Spent fuel is reprocessed, and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. In February 1997 short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, backend measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away from reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Research and development on spent fuel storage has been carried out, particularly on dry storage technology. Fundamental studies are also conducted to implement the burnup credit into the criticality safety design of storage and transportation casks. Rokkasho reprocessing plant is being constructed towards its commencement in 2003, and Pu utilization in LWRs will be started in 1999. Research and development of future recycling technology are also continued for the establishment of nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  17. Containing method for spent fuel and spent fuel containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Hanada, Yoshine.

    1996-01-01

    Upon containing spent fuels, a metal vessel main body and a support spacer having fuel containing holes are provided. The support spacer is disposed in the inside of the metal vessel main body, and spent fuel assemblies are loaded in the fuel containing holes. Then, a lid is welded at the opening of the metal vessel main body to provide a sealing state. In this state, heat released from the spent fuel assemblies is transferred to the wall of the metal vessel main body via the support spacer. Since the support spacer has a greater heat conductivity than gases, heat of the spent fuel assemblies tends to be released to the outside, thereby capable of removing heat of the spent fuel assemblies effectively. In addition, since the surfaces of the spent fuel assemblies are in contact with the inner surface of the fuel containing holes of the support spacer, impact-resistance and earthquake-resistance are ensured, and radiation from the spent fuel assemblies is decayed by passing through the layer of the support spacer. (T.M.)

  18. WWER spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, C C; Lettington, C [GEC Alsthom Engineering Systems Ltd., Whetstone (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs.

  19. WWER spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, C.C.; Lettington, C.

    1994-01-01

    Selection criteria for PAKS NPP dry storage system are outlined. They include the following: fuel temperature in storage; sub-criticality assurance (avoidance of criticality for fuel in the unirradiated condition without having to take credit for burn-up); assurance of decay heat removal; dose uptake to the operators and public; protection of environment; volume of waste produced during operation and decommissioning; physical protection of stored irradiated fuel assemblies; IAEA safeguards assurance; storage system versus final disposal route; cost of construction and extent of technology transfer to Hungarian industry. Several available systems are evaluated against these criteria, and as a result the GEC ALSTHOM Modular Vault Dry Store (MVDS) system has been selected. The MVDS is a passively cooled dry storage facility. Its most important technical, safety, licensing and technology transfer characteristics are outlined. On the basis of the experience gained some key questions and considerations related to the East European perspective in the field of spent fuel storage are discussed. 8 figs

  20. Spent fuel management overview: a global perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonne, A.; Crijns, M.J.; Dyck, P.H.; Fukuda, K.; Mourogov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    The paper defines the main spent fuel management strategies and options, highlights the challenges for spent fuel storage and gives an overview of the regional balances of spent fuel storage capacity and spent fuel arising. The relevant IAEA activities in the area of spent fuel management are summarised. (author)

  1. Inorganic chemistry and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, P.J.; Guo, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is beginning to have a major impact on medicine. Not only does it offer the prospect of the discovery of truly novel drugs and diagnostic agents, but it promises to make a major contribution to our understanding of the mechanism of action of organic drugs too. Most of this article is concerned with recent developments in medicinal coordination chemistry. The role of metal organic compounds of platinum, titanium, ruthenium, gallium, bismuth, gold, gadolinium, technetium, silver, cobalt in the treatment or diagnosis of common diseases are briefly are examined

  2. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  3. Spent fuel treatment in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.

    1999-01-01

    In Japan, 52 nuclear power reactors are operating with a total power generation capacity of 45 GWe. The cumulative amount of spent fuel arising, as of March 1998, is about 14,700 W. Spent fuel is reprocessed and recovered nuclear materials are to be recycled in LWRs and FBRs. Pu utilization in LWRs will commence in 1999. In January 1997, short-term policy measures were announced by the Atomic Energy Commission, which addressed promotion of the reprocessing programme in Rokkasho, plutonium utilization in LWRs, spent fuel management, back-end measures and FBR development. With regard to the spent fuel management, the policy measures included expansion of spent fuel storage capacity at reactor sites and a study on spent fuel storage away-from-reactor sites, considering the increasing amount of spent fuel arising. Valuable experience was been accumulated at the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP), from the start of hot operation in 1977 up to now. The role of the TRP will be changed from an operation-oriented to a more R and D oriented facility, when PNC is reorganized into the new organization JNC. The Rokkasho reprocessing plant is under construction and is expected to commence operation in 2003. R and D of future recycling technologies is also continued for the establishment of a nuclear fuel cycle based on FBRs and LWRs. (author)

  4. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report addresses the topic of the mined geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel from Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). Although some fuel processing options are identified, most of the information in this report relates to the isolation of spent fuel in the form it is removed from the reactor. The characteristics of the waste management system and research which relate to spent fuel isolation are discussed. The differences between spent fuel and processed HLW which impact the waste isolation system are defined and evaluated for the nature and extent of that impact. What is known and what needs to be determined about spent fuel as a waste form to design a viable waste isolation system is presented. Other waste forms and programs such as geologic exploration, site characterization and licensing which are generic to all waste forms are also discussed. R and D is being carried out to establish the technical information to develop the methods used for disposal of spent fuel. All evidence to date indicates that there is no reason, based on safety considerations, that spent fuel should not be disposed of as a waste

  5. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  6. Assessment of spent fuel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra, J.G.; Jones, W.R.; Lanik, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the methodology, the findings, and the conclusions of a study that was done by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) on loss of spent fuel pool cooling. The study involved an examination of spent fuel pool designs, operating experience, operating practices, and procedures. AEOD's work was augmented in the area of statistics and probabilistic risk assessment by experts from the Idaho Nuclear Engineering Laboratory. Operating experience was integrated into a probabilistic risk assessment to gain insight on the risks from spent fuel pools

  7. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  8. Spent fuel element storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukaji, Hideo; Yamashita, Rikuo.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To always keep water level of a spent fuel cask pit equal with water level of spent fuel storage pool by means of syphon principle. Constitution: The pool water of a spent fuel storage pool is airtightly communicated through a pipe with the pool water of a spent fuel cask, and a gate is provided between the pool and the cask. Since cask is conveyed into the cask pit as the gate close while conveying, the pool water level is raised an amount corresponding to the volume of the cask, and water flow through scattering pipe and the communication pipe to the storage pool. When the fuel is conveyed out of the cask, the water level is lowered in the amount corresponding to the volume in the cask pit, and the water in the pool flow through the communication pipe to the cask pit. (Sekiya, K.)

  9. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  10. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Pattantyus, P.

    1999-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian spent fuel storage is presented. This includes wet and dry interim storage. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is nor planned, as dry technologies have found wide acceptance. The Canadian nuclear program is sustained by commercial Ontario Hydro CANDU type reactors, since 1971, representing 13600 MW(e) of installed capacity, able to produce 9200 spent fuel bundles (1800 tU) every year, and Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick CANDU reactors each producing 685 MW(e) and about 100 tU of spent fuel annually. The implementation of various interim (wt and dry) storage technologies resulted in simple, dense and low cost systems. Economical factors determined that the open cycle option be adopted for the CANDU type reactors rather that recycling the spent fuel. Research and development activities for immobilization and final disposal of nuclear waste are being undertaken in the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  11. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate

  12. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs

  13. Transportation of spent MTR fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisonnier, D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various aspects of MTR spent fuel transportation and provides in particular information about the on-going shipment of 4 spent fuel casks to the United States. Transnucleaire is a transport and Engineering Company created in 1963 at the request of the French Atomic Energy Commission. The company followed the growth of the world nuclear industry and has now six subsidiaries and affiliated companies established in countries with major nuclear programs.

  14. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed

  15. Selective inorganic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  16. Inorganic Halogen Oxidizer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-16

    Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. 14. No. 9. 1975 Karl 0. Christ¢ (21) L. J. Basile . P. LaBonvillk. J. R. Ferraro, and J. M. Williams. J. Claim. (38) K. 0. Chriae. E... basils of a nonplanar structure of symmetry CI, are revised for six fundamental frequencies. Imalredetle either the 1:2 adduct N 2F4.2SbF5 or the 1:3...8217 in mT are 7 2.1 for B, facility. We aba thank L. K. White and R. L. Belford 111.0 for C, 55.0 for N, and 17100 for F, and the atomic aniso- trop’c

  17. HFIR spent fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Green, V.M.; Shappert, L.B.; Lotts, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been unable to ship its spent fuel to Savannah River Site (SRS) for reprocessing since 1985. The HFIR storage pools are expected to fill up in the February 1994 to February 1995 time frame. If a management altemative to existing HFIR pool storage is not identified and implemented before the HFIR pools are full, the HFIR will be forced to shut down. This study investigated several alternatives for managing the HFIR spent fuel, attempting to identify options that could be implemented before the HFIR pools are full. The options investigated were: installing a dedicated dry cask storage facility at ORNL, increasing HFIR pool storage capacity by clearing the HFIR pools of debris and either close-packing or stacking the spent fuel elements, storing the spent fuel at another ORNL pool, storing the spent fuel in one or more hot cells at ORNL, and shipping the spent fuel offsite for reprocessing or storage elsewhere

  18. Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The series of symposia on 'Modern Trends in Inorganic Chemistry' (MTIC), which began in 1985 at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science, Calcutta has evolved into a forum for the Inorganic Chemistry fraternity of the country to meet every two years and discuss the current status and future projections of research in.

  19. Composite inorganic ion-exchangers and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; John, J.; Motl, A.

    1998-01-01

    Composite inorganic ion exchangers are described containing modified polyacrylonitrile as the binding polymer. An overview of existing composite ion exchangers is presented, and the universality and assets of the developed procedure of treatment of inorganic ion exchanger powders are highlighted. Examples of applicability of the ion exchangers to the separation and concentration of radionuclides include in particular: wastes from the operation of nuclear power plants, contaminated surface waters and ground water, high level radioactive wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, and wastewaters from uranium ore mining and milling. In addition, composite ion exchangers find use in the monitoring of contamination of the hydrosphere and the environment and in the investigation of radionuclide migration in surface waters and ground water

  20. Spent nuclear fuel assembly storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagishita, Takuya

    1998-01-01

    The vessel of the present invention promotes an effect of removing after heat of spent nuclear fuel assemblies so as not to give force to the storage vessel caused by expansion of heat removing partitioning plates. Namely, the vessel of the present invention comprises a cylinder body having closed upper and lower portions and a plurality of heat removing partitioning cylinders disposed each at a predetermined interval in the circumferential direction of the above-mentioned cylinder body. The heat removing partitioning cylinders comprises (1) first heat removing partitioning plates extended in the radial direction of the cylinder body and opposed at a predetermined gap in the circumferential direction of the cylinder body, and having the base ends on the side of the inner wall of the cylinder body being secured to the inner wall of the cylinder body and (2) a second heat removing plate for connecting the top ends of both opposed heat removing partitioning plates on the central side of the cylinder body with each other. Spent nuclear fuel assemblies are contained in a plurality of closed spaces surrounded by the first heat removing partitioning plates and the second heat removing partitioning plate. With such constitution, since after heat is partially transferred from the heat removing partitioning plates to the cylindrical body directly by heat conduction, the heat removing effect can be promoted compared with the prior art. (I.S.)

  1. Inorganic Fullerene-Like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshef Tenne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fullerene-like nanoparticles (inorganic fullerenes; IF and nanotubes of inorganic layered compounds (inorganic nanotubes; INT combine low dimensionality and nanosize, enhancing the performance of corresponding bulk counterparts in their already known applications, as well as opening new fields of their own [1]. This issue gathers articles from the diverse area of materials science and is devoted to fullerene-like nanoparticles and nanotubes of layered sulfides and boron nitride and collects the most current results obtained at the interface between fundamental research and engineering.[...

  2. Transportation of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meguro, Toshiichi

    1976-01-01

    The spent nuclear fuel taken out of reactors is cooled in the cooling pool in each power station for a definite time, then transported to a reprocessing plant. At present, there is no reprocessing plant in Japan, therefore the spent nuclear fuel is shipped abroad. In this paper, the experiences and the present situation in Japan are described on the transport of the spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors, centering around the works in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co. The spent nuclear fuel in Tsuruga Power Station was first transported in Apr. 1973, and since then, about 36 tons were shipped to Britain by 5 times of transport. The reprocessing plant in Japan is expected to start operation in Apr. 1977, accordingly the spent nuclear fuel used for the trial will be transported in Japan in the latter half of this year. Among the permission and approval required for the transport of spent nuclear fuel, the acquisition of the certificate for transport casks and the approval of land and sea transports are main tasks. The relevant laws are the law concerning the regulations of nuclear raw material, nuclear fuel and reactors and the law concerning the safety of ships. The casks used in Tsuruga Power Station and EXL III type, and the charging of spent nuclear fuel, the decontamination of the casks, the leak test, land transport with a self-running vehicle, loading on board an exclusive carrier and sea transport are briefly explained. The casks and the ship for domestic transport are being prepared. (Kato, I.)

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  4. Container for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    The container of the present invention comprises a container main body having a body portion which can contain spent fuel assemblies and a lid, and heat pipes having an evaporation portion disposed along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies to be contained and a condensation portion exposed to the outside of the container main body. Further, the heat pipe is formed spirally at the evaporation portions so as to surround the outer circumference of the spent fuel assemblies, branched into a plurality of portions at the condensation portion, each of the branched portion of the condensation portion being exposed to the outside of the container main body, and is tightly in contact with the periphery of the slit portions disposed to the container main body. Then, since released after heat is transferred to the outside of the container main body from the evaporation portion of the heat pipe along the outer surface of the spent fuel assemblies by way of the condensation portion of the heat pipes exposed to the outside of the container main body, the efficiency of the heat transfer is extremely improved to enhance the effect of removing heat of spent fuel assemblies. Further, cooling effect is enhanced by the spiral form of the evaporation portion and the branched condensation portion. (N.H.)

  5. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  6. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  7. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B S; Park, Y S; Oh, S C; Kim, S H; Cho, M W; Hong, D H

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation`s policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  8. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ji Sup; Park, B. S.; Park, Y. S.; Oh, S. C.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, M. W.; Hong, D. H.

    1997-12-01

    Since the nation's policy on spent fuel management is not finalized, the technical items commonly required for safe management and recycling of spent fuel - remote technologies of transportation, inspection, maintenance, and disassembly of spent fuel - are selected and pursued. In this regards, the following R and D activities are carried out : collision free transportation of spent fuel assembly, mechanical disassembly of spent nuclear fuel and graphical simulation of fuel handling / disassembly process. (author). 36 refs., 16 tabs., 77 figs

  9. Spent fuel management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirahashi, K.; Maeda, M.; Nakai, T.

    1996-01-01

    Japan has scarce energy resources and depends on foreign resources for 84% of its energy needs. Therefore, Japan has made efforts to utilize nuclear power as a key energy source since mid-1950's. Today, the nuclear energy produced from 49 nuclear power plants is responsible for about 31% of Japan's total electricity supply. The cumulative amount of spent fuel generated as of March 1995 was about 11,600 Mg U. Japan's policy of spent fuel management is to reprocess spent nuclear fuel and recycle recovered plutonium and uranium as nuclear fuel. The Tokai reprocessing plant continues stable operation keeping the annual treatment capacity or around 90 Mg U. A commercial reprocessing plant is under construction at Rokkasho, northern part of Japan. Although FBR is the principal reactor to use plutonium, LWR will be a major power source for some time and recycling of the fuel in LWRs will be prompted. (author). 3 figs

  10. Spent Pot Lining Characterization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina, Gustavo; Hassan, Mohamed I.

    2017-09-01

    Spent pot lining (SPL) management represents a major concern for aluminum smelters. There are two key elements for spent pot lining management: recycling and safe storage. Spent pot lining waste can potentially have beneficial uses in co-firing in cement plants. Also, safe storage of SPL is of utmost importance. Gas generation of SPL reaction with water and ignition sensitivity must be studied. However, determining the feasibility of SPL co-firing and developing the required procedures for safe storage rely on determining experimentally all the necessary SPL properties along with the appropriate test methods, recognized by emissions standards and fire safety design codes. The applicable regulations and relevant SPL properties for this purpose are presented along with the corresponding test methods.

  11. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and Department of Energy (DOE) estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented for the next 20 years, through the year 2007. The eventual needs for additional spent fuel storage capacity are estimated. These estimates are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1987 and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to DOE through the 1988 RW-859 data survey and by DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 12 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  12. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, J.A.; Gravalos, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    There are presently nine Light Water Reactors in operation, representing around a 34% of the overall electricity production. In the early years, a small amount of spent fuel was sent to be reprocessed, although this policy was cancelled in favor of the open cycle option. A state owned company, ENRESA, was created in 1984, which was given the mandate to manage all kinds of radioactive wastes generated in the country. Under the present scenario, a rough overall amount of 7000 tU of spent fuel will be produced during the lifetime of the plants, which will go into final disposal. (author)

  13. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  14. Transport device of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a transport device of spent fuel particularly used in a fast breeder, which can enhance accessibility to travelling mechanism portions and exchangeability thereof to facilitate maintenance in the event of failure. Structure: On a travelling floor, which has a function to shield radioactive rays, extending in a direction of transporting spent fuel and being formed with a break passing through in a direction wall thickness, a travelling body is moved along the break. The travelling body has a support rod member mounted thereon, and the support rod member is moved within the break, the support rod member having a fuel support pocket suspended therefrom. (Furukawa, Y.)

  15. Inorganic chemistry of earliest sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, E.I.

    1983-01-01

    A number of inorganic elements are now known to be essential to organisms. Chemical evolutionary processes involving carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen have been studied intensively and extensively, but the other essential elements have been rather neglected in the studies of chemical and biological evolution. This article attempts to assess the significance of inorganic chemistry in chemical and biological evolutionary processes on the earth. Emphasis is placed on the catalytic effects of inorganic elements and compounds, and also on possible studies on the earliest sediments, especially banded iron formation and stratabound copper from the inorganic point of view in the hope of shedding some light on the evolution of the environment and the biological effects on it. (orig./WL)

  16. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R

    2015-01-01

    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  17. Decontamination of spent ion-exchangers contaminated with cesium radionuclides using resorcinol-formaldehyde resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamarchuk, Marina; Egorin, Andrey; Tokar, Eduard; Tutov, Mikhail; Marinin, Dmitry; Avramenko, Valentin

    2017-01-05

    The origin of the emergence of radioactive contamination not removable in the process of acid-base regeneration of ion-exchange resins used in treatment of technological media and liquid radioactive waste streams has been determined. It has been shown that a majority of cesium radionuclides not removable by regeneration are bound to inorganic deposits on the surface and inside the ion-exchange resin beads. The nature of the above inorganic inclusions has been investigated by means of the methods of electron microscopy, IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The method of decontamination of spent ion-exchange resins and zeolites contaminated with cesium radionuclides employing selective resorcinol-formaldehyde resins has been suggested. Good prospects of such an approach in deep decontamination of spent ion exchangers have been demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spent fuel management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattantyus, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current status of the Canadian Spent Fuel Management is described. This includes wet and dry interim storage, transportation issues and future plans regarding final disposal based on deep underground emplacement in stable granite rock. Extension of wet interim storage facilities is not planned, as dry storage technologies have found wide acceptance. (author)

  19. Characteristics of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1988-04-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for the spent fuels and other wastes that will, or may, eventually be disposed of in a geological repository. The two major sources of these materials are commercial light-water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and immobilized high-level waste (HLW). Other wastes that may require long-term isolation include non-LWR spent fuels and miscellaneous sources such as activated metals. This report deals with spent fuels, but for completeness, the other sources are described briefly. Detailed characterizations are required for all of these potential repository wastes. These characteristics include physical, chemical, and radiological properties. The latter must take into account decay as a function of time. In addition, the present inventories and projected quantities of the various wastes are needed. This information has been assembled in a Characteristics Data Base which provides data in four formats: hard copy standard reports, menu-driven personal computer (PC) data bases, program-level PC data bases, and mainframe computer files. 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Spent nuclear fuel transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.I.

    1977-01-01

    The paper considers the problems of shipping spent fuel from nuclear power stations to reprocessing plants and also the principal ways of solving these problems with a view to achieving maximum economy and safety in transport. The increase in the number of nuclear power plants in the USSR will entail an intensification of spent-fuel shipments. Higher burnup and the need to reduce cooling time call for heavier and more complex shipping containers. The problem of shipping spent fuel should be tackled comprehensively, bearing in mind the requirements of safety and economy. One solution to these problems is to develop rational and cheap designs of such containers. In addition, the world-wide trend towards more thorough protection of the environment against pollution and of the health of the population requires the devotion of constant attention to improving the reliability and safety of shipments. The paper considers the prospects for nuclear power development in the USSR and in other member countries of the CMEA (1976-1980), the composition and design of some Soviet packaging assemblies, the appropriate cooling time for spent fuel from thermal reactor power stations, procedures for reducing fuel-shipping costs, some methodological problems of container calculation and design, and finally problems of testing and checking containers on test rigs. (author)

  1. Worldwide spent fuel transportation logistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.E.; Garrison, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the worldwide transportation requirements for spent fuel. Included are estimates of numbers and types of shipments by mode and cask type for 1985 and the year 2000. In addition, projected capital and transportation costs are presented. For the year 1977 and prior years inclusive, there is a cumulative worldwide requirement for approximately 300 MTU of spent fuel storage at away-from-reactor (AFR) facilities. The cumulative requirements for years through 1985 are projected to be nearly 10,000 MTU, and for the years through 2000 the requirements are conservatively expected to exceed 60,000 MTU. These AFR requirements may be related directly to spent fuel transportation requirements. In total nearly 77,000 total cask shipments of spent fuel will be required between 1977 and 2000. These shipments will include truck, rail, and intermodal moves with many ocean and coastal water shipments. A limited number of shipments by air may also occur. The US fraction of these is expected to include 39,000 truck shipments and 14,000 rail shipments. European shipments to regional facilities are expected to be primarily by rail or water mode and are projected to account for 16,000 moves. Pacific basin shipments will account for 4500 moves. The remaining are from other regions. Over 400 casks will be needed to meet the transportation demands. Capital investment is expected to reach $800,000,000 in 1977 dollars. Cumulative transport costs will be a staggering $4.4 billion dollars

  2. Advancing the Fork detector for quantitative spent nuclear fuel verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, S.; Gauld, I. C.; Hu, J.; De Baere, P.; Peterson, J.; Schwalbach, P.; Smejkal, A.; Tomanin, A.; Sjöland, A.; Tobin, S.; Wiarda, D.

    2018-04-01

    The Fork detector is widely used by the safeguards inspectorate of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify spent nuclear fuel. Fork measurements are routinely performed for safeguards prior to dry storage cask loading. Additionally, spent fuel verification will be required at the facilities where encapsulation is performed for acceptance in the final repositories planned in Sweden and Finland. The use of the Fork detector as a quantitative instrument has not been prevalent due to the complexity of correlating the measured neutron and gamma ray signals with fuel inventories and operator declarations. A spent fuel data analysis module based on the ORIGEN burnup code was recently implemented to provide automated real-time analysis of Fork detector data. This module allows quantitative predictions of expected neutron count rates and gamma units as measured by the Fork detectors using safeguards declarations and available reactor operating data. This paper describes field testing of the Fork data analysis module using data acquired from 339 assemblies measured during routine dry cask loading inspection campaigns in Europe. Assemblies include both uranium oxide and mixed-oxide fuel assemblies. More recent measurements of 50 spent fuel assemblies at the Swedish Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel are also analyzed. An evaluation of uncertainties in the Fork measurement data is performed to quantify the ability of the data analysis module to verify operator declarations and to develop quantitative go/no-go criteria for safeguards verification measurements during cask loading or encapsulation operations. The goal of this approach is to provide safeguards inspectors with reliable real-time data analysis tools to rapidly identify discrepancies in operator declarations and to detect potential partial defects in spent fuel assemblies with improved reliability and minimal false positive alarms

  3. Collective processing device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Noboru.

    1996-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a sealing vessel, a transporting device for transporting spent fuels to the sealing vessel, a laser beam cutting device for cutting the transported spent fuels, a dissolving device for dissolving the cut spent fuels, and a recovering device for recovering radioactive materials from the spent fuels during processing. Reprocessing treatments comprising each processing of dismantling, shearing and dissolving are conducted in the sealing vessel can ensure a sealing barrier for the radioactive materials (fissionable products and heavy nuclides). Then, since spent fuels can be processed in a state of assemblies, and the spent fuels are easily placed in the sealing vessel, operation efficiency is improved, as well as operation cost is saved. Further, since the spent fuels can be cut by a remote laser beam operation, there can be prevented operator's exposure due to radioactive materials released from the spent fuels during cutting operation. (T.M.)

  4. Distillery spent wash: Treatment technologies and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohana, Sarayu; Acharya, Bhavik K.; Madamwar, Datta

    2009-01-01

    Distillery spent wash is the unwanted residual liquid waste generated during alcohol production and pollution caused by it is one of the most critical environmental issue. Despite standards imposed on effluent quality, untreated or partially treated effluent very often finds access to watercourses. The distillery wastewater with its characteristic unpleasant odor poses a serious threat to the water quality in several regions around the globe. The ever-increasing generation of distillery spent wash on the one hand and stringent legislative regulations of its disposal on the other has stimulated the need for developing new technologies to process this effluent efficiently and economically. A number of clean up technologies have been put into practice and novel bioremediation approaches for treatment of distillery spent wash are being worked out. Potential microbial (anaerobic and aerobic) as well as physicochemical processes as feasible remediation technologies to combat environmental pollution are being explored. An emerging field in distillery waste management is exploiting its nutritive potential for production of various high value compounds. This review presents an overview of the pollution problems caused by distillery spent wash, the technologies employed globally for its treatment and its alternative use in various biotechnological sectors

  5. The PILO process: zeolites and titanates in the treatment of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.; Forberg, S.; Westermark, T.; Faelt, L.

    1981-01-01

    Spent ion exchange resins from power reactor operation contain more than 95% of the total radioactivity of wet reactor wastes. Cementation and bituminization are the two methods applied in Sweden up to now for the immobilization of spent resins. Over the last years, however, research and development work has resulted in a proposed process (PILO), where > 99.9 % of cesium and strontium and around 90 % of other radioactive nuclides are eluted from the spent resins and sorbed in zeolites and titanates in a chromatographic process. The inorganic sorbents are dried after loading and sintered to yield long-term stable products, while the treated resins may be incinerated to give ash residues of fairly short-lived activity. The development work has included production, characterization and testing of different zeolites and titanates, bench-scale optimization of the chromatographic process using actual spent resins, heat treatment of the loaded inorganic sorbents, and resin incineration. Over-all system design studies including transport requirements, integrated process flowsheets, and cost estimates are now in progress. The aim is to have a sufficient basis during spring 1982 to decide on the merits of a PILO plant at the planned repository for low and medium level waste (SFR), to be commissioned in 1988. (Auth.)

  6. TMI-2 spent fuel shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Burton, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    TMI-2 failed fuel will be shipped to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for use in the DOE Core Examination Program. The fuel debris will be loaded into three types of canisters during defueling and dry loaded into a spent fuel shipping cask. The cask design accommodates seven canisters per cask and has two separate containment vessels with ''leaktight'' seals. Shipments are expectd to begin in early 1986

  7. Spent fuel receipt scenarios study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, L.B.; Montan, D.N.; Revelli, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    This study reports on the results of an assignment from the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to evaluate of the effects of different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel on the potential performance of the waste packages in the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository. The initial evaluations were performed and an interim letter report was prepared during the fall of 1988. Subsequently, the scope of work was expanded and additional analyses were conducted in 1989. This report combines the results of the two phases of the activity. This study is a part of a broader effort to investigate the options available to the DOE and the nuclear utilities for selection of spent fuel for acceptance into the Federal Waste Management System for disposal. Each major element of the system has evaluated the effects of various options on its own operations, with the objective of providing the basis for performing system-wide trade-offs and determining an optimum acceptance scenario. Therefore, this study considers different scenarios for receipt of spent fuel by the repository only from the narrow perspective of their effect on the very-near-field temperatures in the repository following permanent closure. This report is organized into three main sections. The balance of this section is devoted to a statement of the study objective, a summary of the assumptions. The second section of the report contains a discussion of the major elements of the study. The third section summarizes the results of the study and draws some conclusions from them. The appendices include copies of the waste acceptance schedule and the existing and projected spent fuel inventory that were used in the study. 10 refs., 27 figs

  8. Extended storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This document is the final report on the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Behaviour of Spent Fuel and Storage Facility Components during Long Term Storage (BEFAST-II, 1986-1991). It contains the results on wet and dry spent fuel storage technologies obtained from 16 organizations representing 13 countries who participated in the co-ordinated research programme. Considerable quantities of spent fuel continue to arise and accumulate. Many countries are investigating the option of extended spent fuel storage prior to reprocessing or fuel disposal. Wet storage continues to predominate as an established technology with the construction of additional away-from-reactor storage pools. However, dry storage is increasingly used with most participants considering dry storage concepts for the longer term. Depending on the cladding type options of dry storage in air or inert gas are proposed. Dry storage is becoming widely used as a supplement to wet storage for zirconium alloy clad oxide fuels. Storage periods as long as under wet conditions appear to be feasible. Dry storage will also continue to be used for Al clad and Magnox type fuel. Enhancement of wet storage capacity will remain an important activity. Rod consolidation to increase wet storage capacity will continue in the UK and is being evaluated for LWR fuel in the USA, and may start in some other countries. High density storage racks have been successfully introduced in many existing pools and are planned for future facilities. For extremely long wet storage (≥50 years), there is a need to continue work on fuel integrity investigations and LWR fuel performance modelling. it might be that pool component performance in some cases could be more limiting than the FA storage performance. It is desirable to make concerted efforts in the field of corrosion monitoring and prediction of fuel cladding and poll component behaviour in order to maintain good experience of wet storage. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Wet-Oxidation of Spent Organic Waste Tri-butyl Phosphate/Diluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouky, M.I.; Abed El-Aziz, M.M.; El-Mossalamy, E.H.; Aly, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Tri-Butyl Phosphate was used in reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel in the purex process. The amount of uranium retained in the organic phase depends on the type of TBP/Diluent. Destruction of spent TBP is of high interest in waste management. In the present work, oxidative degradation of TBP diluted with kerosene, carbon tetrachloride, benzene and toluene using potassium permanganate as oxidant was carried out to produce stable inorganic dry particle residue which is then immobilized in different matrices. The different factors affecting the destruction of spent waste was investigated. The up take and decontamination factor for both 152 and 154 Eu and 181 Hf and the analysis of the final product have been studied

  10. Spent nuclear fuel in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peev, P.; Kalimanov, N.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the nuclear energy sector in Bulgaria is characterized by two major stages. The first stage consisted of providing a scientific basis for the programme for development of the nuclear energy sector in the country and was completed with the construction of an experimental water-water reactor. At present, spent nuclear fuel from this reactor is placed in a water filled storage facility and will be transported back to Russia. The second stage consisted of the construction of the 6 NPP units at the Kozloduy site. The spent nuclear fuel from the six units is stored in at reactor pools and in an additional on-site storage facility which is nearly full. In order to engage the government of the country with the on-site storage problems, the new management of the National Electric Company elaborated a policy on nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management. The underlying policy is de facto the selection of the 'deferred decision' option for its spent fuel management. (author)

  11. Spent Fuel Working Group Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Toole, T.

    1993-11-01

    The Department of Energy is storing large amounts of spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials (herein referred to as RINM). In the past, the Department reprocessed RINM to recover plutonium, tritium, and other isotopes. However, the Department has ceased or is phasing out reprocessing operations. As a consequence, Department facilities designed, constructed, and operated to store RINM for relatively short periods of time now store RINM, pending decisions on the disposition of these materials. The extended use of the facilities, combined with their known degradation and that of their stored materials, has led to uncertainties about safety. To ensure that extended storage is safe (i.e., that protection exists for workers, the public, and the environment), the conditions of these storage facilities had to be assessed. The compelling need for such an assessment led to the Secretary's initiative on spent fuel, which is the subject of this report. This report comprises three volumes: Volume I; Summary Results of the Spent Fuel Working Group Evaluation; Volume II, Working Group Assessment Team Reports and Protocol; Volume III; Operating Contractor Site Team Reports. This volume presents the overall results of the Working Group's Evaluation. The group assessed 66 facilities spread across 11 sites. It identified: (1) facilities that should be considered for priority attention. (2) programmatic issues to be considered in decision making about interim storage plans and (3) specific vulnerabilities for some of these facilities

  12. Spent nuclear fuel storage vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshio; Kashiwagi, Eisuke; Sekikawa, Tsutomu.

    1997-01-01

    Containing tubes for containing spent nuclear fuels are arranged vertically in a chamber. Heat releasing fins are disposed horizontal to the outer circumference of the containing tubes for rectifying cooling air and promoting cooling of the containing tubes. Louvers and evaporation sides of heat pipes are disposed at a predetermined distance in the chamber. Cooling air flows from an air introduction port to the inside of the chamber and takes heat from the containing tubes incorporated with heat generating spent nuclear fuels, rising its temperature and flows off to an air exhaustion exit. The direction for the rectification plate of the louver is downward from a horizontal position while facing to the air exhaustion port. Since the evaporation sides of the heat pipes are disposed in the inside of the chamber and the condensation side of the heat pipes is disposed to the outside of the chamber, the thermal energy can be recovered from the containing tubes incorporated with spent nuclear fuels and utilized. (I.N.)

  13. Modular dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Long term uncertainties in US spent fuel reprocessing and storage policies and programs are forcing the electric utilities to consider means of storing spent fuel at the reactor site in increasing quantitities and for protracted periods. Utilities have taken initial steps in increasing storage capacity. Existing wet storage pools have in many cases been reracked to optimize their capacity for storing spent fuel assemblies

  14. Spent fuel storage process equipment development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Soo; Lee, Jae Sol; Yoo, Jae Hyung

    1990-02-01

    Nuclear energy which is a major energy source of national energy supply entails spent fuels. Spent fuels which are high level radioactive meterials, are tricky to manage and need high technology. The objectives of this study are to establish and develop key elements of spent fuel management technologies: handling equipment and maintenance, process automation technology, colling system, and cleanup system. (author)

  15. Preparation of inorganic hydrophobic catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi; Du, Yang

    2009-04-01

    In order to catalyse the oxidation of tritium gas, two inorganic hydrophobic catalysts are prepared. Under room temperature, the catalysed oxidation ratio of 0.3%-1% (V/V) hydrogen gas in air is higher than 95%. Pt-II inorganic hydrophobic catalysts has obviously better catalysing ability than Pt-PTFE and lower ability than Pt-SDB in H 2 -HTO isotopic exchange, because the pressure resistence of Pt-II is much higher than Pt-SDB, it can be used to the CECE cell of heavy water detritium system. (authors)

  16. Removal of uranium from spent salt from the moltensalt oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, L.; Hsu, P.C.; Holtz, E.V.; Hipple, D.; Wang, F.; Adamson, M.

    1997-03-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that has the capability of destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials. In this process, combustible waste and air are introduced into the molten sodium carbonate salt. The organic constituents of the waste materials are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, while most of the inorganic constituents, including toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes, are retained in the molten salt bath. As these impurities accumulate in the salt, the process efficiency drops and the salt must be replaced. An efficient process is needed to separate these toxic metals, minerals, and radioisotopes from the spent carbonate to avoid generating a large volume of secondary waste. Toxic metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and zinc etc. are removed by a method described elsewhere. This paper describes a separation strategy developed for radioisotope removal from the mixed spent salt, as well as experimental results, as part of the spent salt cleanup. As the MSO system operates, inorganic products resulting from the reaction of halides, sulfides, phosphates, metals and radionuclides with carbonate accumulate in the salt bath. These must be removed to prevent complete conversion of the sodium carbonate, which would result in eventual losses of destruction efficiency and acid scrubbing capability. There are two operational modes for salt removal: (1) during reactor operation a slip-stream of molten salt is continuously withdrawn with continuous replacement by carbonate, or (2) the spent salt melt is discharged completely and the reactor then refilled with carbonate in batch mode. Because many of the metals and/or radionuclides captured in the salt are hazardous and/or radioactive, spent salt removed from the reactor would create a large secondary waste stream without further treatment. A spent salt clean up/recovery system is necessary to segregate these materials and minimize the amount of

  17. Near surface spent fuel storage: environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, I.C.; Shipler, D.B.; McKee, R.W.; Glenn, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Interim storage of spent fuel appears inevitable because of the lack of reprocessing plants and spent fuel repositories. This paper examines the environmental issues potentially associated with management of spent fuel before disposal or reprocessing in a reference scenario. The radiological impacts of spent fuel storage are limited to low-level releases of noble gases and iodine. Water needed for water basin storage of spent fuel and transportation accidents are considered; the need to minimize the distance travelled is pointed out. Resource commitments for construction of the storage facilities are analyzed

  18. Overview of spent fuel management and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.; Ernst, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel worldwide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialized and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. Some projections of spent fuel inventories to the year 2006 are presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Surveillance instrumentation for spent-fuel safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, J.M.; Holmes, J.P.; Gillman, L.K.; Schmitz, J.A.; McDaniel, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    The movement, in a facility, of spent reactor fuel may be tracked using simple instrumentation together with a real time unfolding algorithm. Experimental measurements, from multiple radiation monitors and crane weight and position monitors, were obtained during spent fuel movements at the G.E. Morris Spent-Fuel Storage Facility. These data and a preliminary version of an unfolding algorithm were used to estimate the position of the centroid and the magnitude of the spent fuel radiation source. Spatial location was estimated to +-1.5 m and source magnitude to +-10% of their true values. Application of this surveillance instrumentation to spent-fuel safeguards is discussed

  20. Molecular modeling of inorganic compounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Comba, Peter; Hambley, Trevor W; Martin, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    ... mechanics to inorganic and coordination compounds. Initially, simple metal complexes were modeled, but recently the field has been extended to include organometallic compounds, catalysis and the interaction of metal ions with biological macromolecules. The application of molecular mechanics to coordination compounds is complicated by the numbe...

  1. Inorganic nanomedicine--part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S; Kamboj, Seema R

    2010-08-01

    Inorganic nanomedicine refers to the use of inorganic or hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects to achieve innovative medical breakthroughs for drug and gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers, and molecular diagnostics. Potential uses for fluorescent quantum dots include cell labeling, biosensing, in vivo imaging, bimodal magnetic-luminescent imaging, and diagnostics. Biocompatible quantum dot conjugates have been used successfully for sentinel lymph node mapping, tumor targeting, tumor angiogenesis imaging, and metastatic cell tracking. Magnetic nanowires applications include biosensing and construction of nucleic acids sensors. Magnetic cell therapy is used for the repair of blood vessels. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are important for magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cell labeling, and tracking. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are used for hyperthermic treatment of tumors. Multifunctional MNPs applications include drug and gene delivery, medical imaging, and targeted drug delivery. MNPs could have a vital role in developing techniques to simultaneously diagnose, monitor, and treat a wide range of common diseases and injuries. From the clinical editor: This review serves as an update about the current state of inorganic nanomedicine. The use of inorganic/hybrid nanomaterials and nanosized objects has already resulted in innovative medical breakthroughs for drug/gene discovery and delivery, discovery of biomarkers and molecular diagnostics, and is likely to remain one of the most prolific fields of nanomedicine. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. James Moir as Inorganic Chemist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    KEYWORDS. Inorganic chemistry, gold, atomic theory, history of chemistry. .... Figure 2 (a) shows Moir's model for the C atom, where the black circles represent the ..... Na filled the hole in the F atom, both becoming ions even in the crystal state ...

  3. Determining Inorganic and Organic Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Sjöblom, Mervi; Spilling, Kristian

    2017-11-21

    Carbon is the element which makes up the major fraction of lipids and carbohydrates, which could be used for making biofuel. It is therefore important to provide enough carbon and also follow the flow into particulate organic carbon and potential loss to dissolved organic forms of carbon. Here we present methods for determining dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon.

  4. Probability of spent fuel transportation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1981-07-01

    The transported volume of spent fuel, incident/accident experience and accident environment probabilities were reviewed in order to provide an estimate of spent fuel accident probabilities. In particular, the accident review assessed the accident experience for large casks of the type that could transport spent (irradiated) nuclear fuel. This review determined that since 1971, the beginning of official US Department of Transportation record keeping for accidents/incidents, there has been one spent fuel transportation accident. This information, coupled with estimated annual shipping volumes for spent fuel, indicated an estimated annual probability of a spent fuel transport accident of 5 x 10 -7 spent fuel accidents per mile. This is consistent with ordinary truck accident rates. A comparison of accident environments and regulatory test environments suggests that the probability of truck accidents exceeding regulatory test for impact is approximately 10 -9 /mile

  5. Hybrid polymer-inorganic photovoltaic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, W.J.E.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Merhari, L.

    2009-01-01

    Composite materials made from organic conjugated polymers and inorganic semiconductors such as metal oxides attract considerable interest for photovoltaic applications. Hybrid polymer-inorganic solar cells offer the opportunity to combine the beneficial properties of the two materials in charge

  6. HTGR spent fuel storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgoyne, R.M.; Holder, N.D.

    1979-04-01

    This report documents a study of alternate methods of storing high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) spent fuel. General requirements and design considerations are defined for a storage facility integral to a fuel recycle plant. Requirements for stand-alone storage are briefly considered. Three alternate water-cooled storage conceptual designs (plug well, portable well, and monolith) are considered and compared to a previous air-cooled design. A concept using portable storage wells in racks appears to be the most favorable, subject to seismic analysis and economic evaluation verification

  7. Spent nuclear fuel sampling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report proposes a strategy for sampling the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stored in the 105-K Basins (105-K East and 105-K West). This strategy will support decisions concerning the path forward SNF disposition efforts in the following areas: (1) SNF isolation activities such as repackaging/overpacking to a newly constructed staging facility; (2) conditioning processes for fuel stabilization; and (3) interim storage options. This strategy was developed without following the Data Quality Objective (DQO) methodology. It is, however, intended to augment the SNF project DQOS. The SNF sampling is derived by evaluating the current storage condition of the SNF and the factors that effected SNF corrosion/degradation

  8. Dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear's plans to build and operate dry storage facilities at each of its two nuclear power station sites in Scotland are explained. An outline of where waste materials arise as part of the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power stations, the volumes for each category of high-, intermediate-and low-level wastes and the costs involved are given. The present procedure for the spent fuels from Hunterston-B and Torness stations is described and Scottish Nuclear's aims of driving output up and costs down are studied. (UK)

  9. Spent fuel canister docking station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The

  10. Spent fuel storage requirements 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel and utility estimates of future discharges from US commercial nuclear reactors are presented through the year 2005. The ultimate needs for additional storage capacity are estimated. These estimtes are based on the maximum capacities within current and planned at-reactor facilities and on any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December, 1986, and projected discharges through the end of reactor life are used in this analysis. The source data was supplied by the utilities to the DOE Energy Information Administration (EIA) through the 1987 RW-859 data survey. 14 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  11. Spent nuclear fuel storage - Basic concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krempel, Ascanio; Santos, Cicero D. Pacifici dos; Sato, Heitor Hitoshi; Magalhaes, Leonardo de

    2009-01-01

    According to the procedures adopted in others countries in the world, the spent nuclear fuel elements burned to produce electrical energy in the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plant of Angra do Reis, Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - CNAAA will be stored for a long time. Such procedure will allow the next generation to decide how they will handle those materials. In the future, the reprocessing of the nuclear fuel assemblies could be a good solution in order to have additional energy resource and also to decrease the volume of discarded materials. This decision will be done in the future according to the new studies and investigations that are being studied around the world. The present proposal to handle the nuclear spent fuel is to storage it for a long period of time, under institutional control. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to introduce a proposal of a basic concept of spent fuel storage, which involves the construction of a new storage building at site, in order to increase the present storage capacity of spent fuel assemblies in CNAAA installation; the concept of the spent fuel transportation casks that will transfer the spent fuel assemblies from the power plants to the Spent Fuel Complementary Storage Building and later on from this building to the Long Term Intermediate Storage of Spent Fuel; the concept of the spent fuel canister and finally the basic concept of the spent fuel long term storage. (author)

  12. Sealed can of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a seal plug cover with a gripping portion fitted to a canning machine and a gripping portion fitted to a gripper of the same configuration as a fuel body for handling the fuel body so as to facilitate the handling work. Structure: A sealed can comprises a vessel and a seal plug cover, said cover being substantially in the form of a bottomed cylinder, which is slipped on the vessel and air-tightly secured by a fastening bolt between it and a flange. The spent fuel body is received into the vessel together with coolant during the step of canning operation. Said seal plug cover has two gripping portions, one for opening and closing the plug cover of the canning machine as an exclusive use member, the other being in the form of a hook-shaped peripheral groove, whereby the gripping portions may be effectively used using the same gripper when the spent fuel body is transported while being received in the sealed can or when the fuel body is removed from the sealed can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  13. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1985-01-01

    How should the decision in favour of reprocessing and against alternative waste management concepts be judged from an economic standpoint. Reprocessing is not imperative neither for resource-economic reasons nor for nuclear energy strategy reasons. On the contrary, the development of an ultimate storage concept representing a real alternative promising to close, within a short period of time, the nuclear fuel cycle at low cost. At least, this is the result of an extensive economic efficiency study recently submitted by the Energy Economics Institute which investigated all waste management concepts relevant for the Federal Republic of Germany in the long run, i.e. direct ultimate storage of spent fuel elements (''Other waste disposal technologies'' - AE) as well as reprocessing of spent fuel elements where re-usable plutonium and uranium are recovered and radioactive waste goes to ultimate storage (''Integrated disposal'' - IE). Despite such fairly evident results, the government of the Federal Republic of Germany has favoured the construction of a reprocessing plant. From an economic point of view there is no final answer to the question whether or not the argumentation is sufficient to justify the decision to construct a reprocessing plant. This is true for both the question of technical feasibility and issues of overriding significance of a political nature. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, E M; Elmessiry, A M [National center of nuclear safety and radiation control atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Spent fuel storage criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, E.M.; Elmessiry, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The safety aspects of the spent fuel storage pool of the Egyptian test and research reactor one (ET-R R-1) has to be assessed as part of a general overall safety evaluation to be included in a safety analysis report (SAR) for this reactor. The present work treats the criticality safety of the spent fuel storage pool. Conservative calculations based on using fresh fuel has been performed, as well as less conservative using burned fuel. The calculations include cross library generation for burned and fresh fuel for the ET-R R-1 fuel type. The WIMS-D 4 code has been used in library generation and burn up calculation the critically calculations are performed using the one dimensional transport code (ANISN) and the two dimensional diffusion code (DIXY2). The possibility of increasing the storage efficiency either by insertion of absorber sheets of soluble boron salts or by reduction of fuel rod separation has been studied. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values for describing dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel. Data obtained during observation of the offloading of research reactor spent fuel at Newport News Terminal in the Port of Hampton Roads, Virginia, are described. These data include estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors, and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Other workers include crane operators, scale operators, security personnel, and truck drivers. The data are compared to the default data in RADTRAN 4, and the latter are found to be conservative. The casks were loaded under IAEA supervision at their point of origin, and three separate radiological inspections of each cask were performed at the entry to the port (Hampton Roads) by the U.S. Coast Guard, the state of Virginia, and the shipping firm. As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handler exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. (author)

  17. Thermal characteristics of spent activated carbon generated from air cleaning units in korean nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yang So

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To identify the feasibility of disposing of spent activated carbon as a clearance level waste, we performed characterization of radioactive pollution for spent activated carbon through radioisotope analysis; results showed that the C-14 concentrations of about half of the spent activated carbon samples taken from Korean NPPs exceeded the clearance level limit. In this situation, we selected thermal treatment technology to remove C-14 and analyzed the moisture content and thermal characteristics. The results of the moisture content analysis showed that the moisture content of the spent activated carbon is in the range of 1.2–23.9 wt% depending on the operation and storage conditions. The results of TGA indicated that most of the spent activated carbon lost weight in 3 temperature ranges. Through py-GC/MS analysis based on the result of TGA, we found that activated carbon loses weight rapidly with moisture desorption reaching to 100°C and desorbs various organic and inorganic carbon compounds reaching to 200°C. The result of pyrolysis analysis showed that the experiment of C-14 desorption using thermal treatment technology requires at least 3 steps of heat treatment, including a heat treatment at high temperature over 850°C, in order to reduce the C-14 concentration below the clearance level.

  18. Thermal characteristics of spent activated carbon generated from air cleaning units in Korean nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hang Rae; So, Ji Yang [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To identify the feasibility of disposing of spent activated carbon as a clearance level waste, we performed characterization of radioactive pollution for spent activated carbon through radioisotope analysis; results showed that the C-14 concentrations of about half of the spent activated carbon samples taken from Korean NPPs exceeded the clearance level limit. In this situation, we selected thermal treatment technology to remove C-14 and analyzed the moisture content and thermal characteristics. The results of the moisture content analysis showed that the moisture content of the spent activated carbon is in the range of 1.2–23.9 wt% depending on the operation and storage conditions. The results of TGA indicated that most of the spent activated carbon lost weight in 3 temperature ranges. Through py-GC/MS analysis based on the result of TGA, we found that activated carbon loses weight rapidly with moisture desorption reaching to 100°C and desorbs various organic and inorganic carbon compounds reaching to 200°C. The result of pyrolysis analysis showed that the experiment of C-14 desorption using thermal treatment technology requires at least 3 steps of heat treatment, including a heat treatment at high temperature over 850°C, in order to reduce the C-14 concentration below the clearance level.

  19. Inorganic, coordination and organometallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursik, F.

    1978-01-01

    Separation of cations and anions of inorganic, coordination and metalloorganic compounds by the method of liquid column chromatography is considered. Common scheme of multicomponent cation mixture is suggesteed. Separation conditions, adsrbents, eluents, pH value solution concenstration, elution rate are also suggested. Separation of rare earth elements Cs, Be, Cd, Te, Th, U, Mo, Re, V, Ru, Zr, In compounds is considered as an example of liquid column chromatography application. Data on column chromatography application are summarized in a table

  20. Spent fuel. Dissolution and oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.

    1989-03-01

    Data from studies of the low temperature air oxidation of spent fuel were retrieved in order to provide a basis for comparison between the mechanism of oxidation in air and corrosion in water. U 3 O 7 is formed by diffusion of oxygen into the UO 2 lattice. A diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the fuel matric was calculated for 25 degree C to be in the range of 10 -23 to 10 -25 m 2 /s. The initial rates of U release from spent fuel and from UO 2 appear to be similar. The lowest rates (at 25 degree c >10 -4 g/(m 2 d)) were observed under reducing conditions. Under oxidizing conditions the rates depend mainly of the nature and concentraion of the oxidant and/or on corbonate. In contact with air, typical initial rates at room temperature were in the range between 0.001 and 0.1 g/(m 2 d). A study of apparent U solubility under oxidizing conditions was performed and it was suggested that the controlling factor is the redox potential at the UO 2 surface rather than the E h of the bulk solution. Electrochemical arguments were used to predict that at saturation, the surface potential will eventually reach a value given by the boundaries at either the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 or the U 3 O 7 /schoepite stability field, and a comparison with spent fuel leach data showed that the solution concentration of uranium is close to the calculated U solubility at the U 3 O 7 /U 3 O 8 boundary. The difference in the cumulative Sr and U release was calculated from data from Studsvik laboratory. The results reveal that the rate of Sr release decreases with the square root of time under U-saturated conditions. This time dependence may be rationalized either by grain boundary diffusion or by diffusion into the fuel matrix. Hence, there seems to be a possibility of an agreement between the Sr release data, structural information and data for oxygen diffusion in UO 2 . (G.B.)

  1. Overview on spent fuel management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview on spent fuel management strategies which range from reprocessing to interim storage in a centralised facility followed by final disposal in a repository. In either case, more spent fuel storage capacity (wet or dry, at-reactor or away-from-reactor, national or regional) is required as spent fuel is continuously accumulated while most countries prefer to defer their decision to choose between these two strategies. (author)

  2. Spent fuel management in France: Programme status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudat, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    France's programme is best characterized as a closed fuel cycle including reprocessing, Plutonium recycling in PWR and use of breeder reactors. The current installed nuclear capacity is 52.5 GWe from 55 units. The spent fuel management scheme chosen is reprocessing. This paper describes the national programme, spent nuclear fuel storage, reprocessing and contracts for reprocessing of spent fuel from various countries. (author). 5 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Spent fuel shipping cask accident evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, S.R.

    1975-12-01

    Mathematical models have been developed to simulate the dynamic behavior, following a hypothetical accident and fire, of typical casks designed for the rail shipment of spent fuel from nuclear reactors, and to determine the extent of radioactive releases under postulated conditions. The casks modeled were the IF-300, designed by the General Electric Company for the shipment of spent LWR fuel, and a cask designed by the Aerojet Manufacturing Company for the shipment of spent LMFBR fuel

  4. Spent fuels transportation coming from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Maritime transportation of spent fuels from Australia to France fits into the contract between COGEMA and ANSTO, signed in 1999. This document proposes nine information cards in this domain: HIFAR a key tool of the nuclear, scientific and technological australian program; a presentation of the ANSTO Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization; the HIFAR spent fuel management problem; the COGEMA expertise in favor of the research reactor spent fuel; the spent fuel reprocessing at La Hague; the transports management; the transport safety (2 cards); the regulatory framework of the transports. (A.L.B.)

  5. Thermal model of spent fuel transport cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.E.M.; Rahman, F.A.; Sultan, G.F.; Khalil, E.E.

    1996-01-01

    The investigation provides a theoretical model to represent the thermal behaviour of the spent fuel elements when transported in a dry shipping cask under normal transport conditions. The heat transfer process in the spent fuel elements and within the cask are modeled which include the radiant heat transfer within the cask and the heat transfer by thermal conduction within the spent fuel element. The model considers the net radiant method for radiant heat transfer process from the inner most heated element to the surrounding spent elements. The heat conduction through fuel interior, fuel-clad interface and on clad surface are also presented. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  6. Spent fuel critical masses and supportive measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Wells, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    Critical masses for spent fuel are larger than for green fuel and therefore use of the increased masses could result in improved handling, storage, and transport of such materials. To apply spent fuel critical masses requires an assessment of fuel exposure and the corresponding isotopic compositions. The paper discusses several approaches at the Hanford N Reactor in establishing fuel exposure, including a direct measurement of spent to green fuel critical masses. The benefits derived from the use of spent fuel critical masses are illustrated for cask designs at the Nuclear Assurance Corporation. (author)

  7. Safety analysis of spent fuel packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Tai, Hideto

    1987-01-01

    Many types of spent fuel packagings have been manufactured and been used for transport of spent fuels discharged from nuclear power plant. These spent fuel packagings need to be assesed thoroughly about safety transportation because spent fuels loaded into the packaging have high radioactivity and generation of heat. This paper explains the outline of safety analysis of a packaging, Safety analysis is performed for structural, thermal, containment, shielding and criticality factors, and MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, KENO, etc computer codes are used for such analysis. (author)

  8. Spent fuel's behavior under dynamic drip tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Buck, E.C.; Hoh, J.C.; Bates, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, failure of the waste package container and the cladding of the spent nuclear fuel would expose the fuel to water under oxidizing conditions. To simulate the release behavior of radionuclides from spent fuel, dynamic drip and vapor tests with spent nuclear fuel have been ongoing for 2.5 years. Rapid alteration of the spent fuel has been noted with concurrent release of radionuclides. Colloidal species containing americium and plutonium have been found in the leachate. This observation suggests that colloidal transport of radionuclides should be included in the performance assessment of a potential repository

  9. Reprocessing method for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujie, Makoto; Shoji, Yuichi; Kobayashi, Tsuguyuki.

    1997-01-01

    After reducing oxides of uranium (U), plutonium (Pu) and miner actinides in spent fuels by magnesium (Mg) in a molten salt, rear earth element oxides and salts of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals contained in the molten salt phase are separated and removed. Further, the Mg phase containing the reduced metals is evaporated to separate and remove Mg, thereby recovering U, Pu and minor actinides. In a lithium (Li) process, Li 2 O also generated in the reduction step is regenerated to Li simultaneously, and the reduction is conducted while suppressing the Li 2 O concentration in the molten salt low. This can improve the reduction rate of oxides of U, Pu and minor actinides compared with conventional cases. Since Li 2 O is regenerated into Li in the reduction step of the Li process, deposited Li 2 O is not carried to an electrolysis purification step, and recovering rate of U, Pu and minor actinides is not lowered. (T.M.)

  10. Method of decladding spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutome, Kazuyuki; Kitagawa, Kazuo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safety and easy decladding of nuclear fuels thereby reduce the processing cost. Constitution: Upon dismantling of a spent fuel rod, the fuel rod is heated at least to such a temperature that the ductility of a fuel can is recovered, then transported by using seizing rollers, by which the fuel rod is pressurized from the outer circumference to break the nuclear fuels at the inside thereof. Then, the destructed fuels are recovered from both ends of the fuel can. With such a constitution, since the ductility of the fuel can is recovered by heating, when the fuel rod is passed through the rollers in this state, the fuel can is deformed to destroy the nuclear fuels at the inside thereof. Since the nuclear fuels are destroyed into small pieces, they can be taken out easily from both ends of the fuel can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Vitrification of spent mordenite molecular sieves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Jain, Savita; Singh, I.J.; Wattal, P.K.

    2002-11-01

    Vitrification of cesium loaded inorganic ion exchangers (mordenite type molecular sieves/zeolite AR-1) was studied empolying borosilicate glass systems. Direct vitrification of aluminosilicates is rather difficult mainly on account of volatility of cesium at processing temperatures of 1100 degC-1300 degC. In the borosilicate glass system, oxides of lead, sodium and zinc along with boric oxide were employed as major glass formers. Homogeneous glass matrix was obtained incorporating simulated composition of mordenite along with oxides of sodium, lead and boron at the processing temperature of 950 degC. The waste oxide loading up to 50% on dry weight basis was incorporated in this glass formulation. Partial replacement of PbO by TeO 2 , Bi 2 O 3 and CaF 2 resulted in lowering of the processing temperature and also increasing homogeneity of matrix. Based on these results, a glass matrix was prepared with actual cesium AR-1 molecular sieves with processing temperature limited to 925 degC. Powdered samples of glass matrix were subjected to leaching as per ASTM-1285 Product Consistency Test in high purity water at 90 degC for 28 days. The normalised cesium leach rate of this glass was found to be 3.92 x 10 -6 g/cm 2 /day, which is comparable to sodium borosilicate glass matrices currently in use for immobilisation of high level waste. The molecular sieves are also amenable to immobilization in cement matrix. As expected, there is substantial volume reduction by factor 3 in vitrification compared to their immobilization in cementious matrices. Also the quantity of cesium leached from vitrified product was nearly 10,000 times lower compared to cement based matrix. Vitrification of mordenite molecular sieves would lead to high capacity utilisation of zeolite AR-1 for the treatment of low and intennediate levelliquid effluents. (author)

  12. Spent fuel receipt and lag storage facility for the spent fuel handling and packaging program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.E.; King, F.D.

    1979-01-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is participating in the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging Program for retrievable, near-surface storage of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. One of SRL's responsibilities is to provide a technical description of the wet fuel receipt and lag storage part of the Spent Fuel Handling and Packaging (SFHP) facility. This document is the required technical description

  13. Prospects of spent management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melches, C.; Ramirez, E.; Selgas, F.; Cabanilles, P.A.; Lopez Perez, B.; Uriarte, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the forecast on spent fuel management in Spain, taking into account the international developments produced during the last years and specially on LWR fuels. This forecast is based on the following actions: increase of the storage capacity in the reactors: construction of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and a fuel reprocessing pilot plant. (author)

  14. Research reactor spent fuel in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimenko, A.P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the research reactors in Ukraine, their spent fuel facilities and spent fuel management problems. Nuclear sciences, technology and industry are highly developed in Ukraine. There are 5 NPPs in the country with 14 operating reactors which have total power capacity of 12,800 MW

  15. Costing of spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This report deals with economic analysis and cost estimation, based on exploration of relevant issues, including a survey of analytical tools for assessment and updated information on the market and financial issues associated with spent fuel storage. The development of new storage technologies and changes in some of the circumstances affecting the costs of spent fuel storage are also incorporated. This report aims to provide comprehensive information on spent fuel storage costs to engineers and nuclear professionals as well as other stakeholders in the nuclear industry. This report is meant to provide informative guidance on economic aspects involved in selecting a spent fuel storage system, including basic methods of analysis and cost data for project evaluation and comparison of storage options, together with financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage. After the review of technical options for spent fuel storage in Section 2, cost categories and components involved in the lifecycle of a storage facility are identified in Section 3 and factors affecting costs of spent fuel storage are then reviewed in the Section 4. Methods for cost estimation and analysis are introduced in Section 5, and other financial and business aspects associated with spent fuel storage are discussed in Section 6.

  16. A central spent fuel storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Hagberth, R.

    1978-01-01

    A planned central spent fuel storage facility in Sweden is described. The nuclear power program and quantities of spent fuel generated in Sweden is discussed. A general description of the facility is given with emphasis on the lay-out of the buildings, transport casks and fuel handling. Finally a possible design of a Swedish transportation system is discussed. (author)

  17. Spent fuel storage for ISER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Takasuke; Kimura, Yuzi

    1987-01-01

    ISER is an intrinsically safe reactor basing its safety only on physical laws, and uses a steel reactor vessel in order to be economical. For such a new type reactor, it is essentially important to be accepted by the society by showing that the reactor is more profitable than conventional reactors to the public in both technical and economic viewpoint. It is also important that the reactor raises no serious problem in the total fuel cycle. Reprocessing seems one of the major worldwide fuel cycle issues. Spent fuel storage is also one of the key technologies for fuel cycle back end. Various systems for ISER spent fuel storages are examined in the present report. Spent fuel specifications of ISER are similar to those of LWR and therefore, most of LWR spent fuel technologies are basically applicable to ISER spent fuel. Design requirements and examples of storage facilities are also discussed. Dry storage seems to be preferable for the relatively long cooling time spent fuel like ISER's one from economical viewpoint. Vault storage will possibly be the most advantageous for large storage capacity. Another point for discussion is the location and international collaboration for spent fuel storages: ISER expected to be a worldwide energy source and therefore, international spent fuel management seems to be fairly attractive way for an energy recipient country. (Nogami, K.)

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  20. Remote technology applications in spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    Spent fuel management has become a prospective area for application of remote technology in recent years with a steadily growing inventory of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production. A remark that could be made from the review of technical information collected from the IAEA meetings was that remote technology in spent fuel management has matured well through the past decades of industrial experiences. Various remote technologies have been developed and applied in the past for facility operation and maintenance work in spent fuel examination, storage, transportation, reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment, among others, with significant accomplishments in dose reduction to workers, enhancement of reliability, etc. While some developmental activities are continuing for more advanced applications, industrial practices have made use of simple and robust designs for most of the remote systems technology applications to spent fuel management. In the current state of affairs, equipment and services in remote technology are available in the market for applications to most of the projects in spent fuel management. It can be concluded that the issue of critical importance in remote systems engineering is to make an optimal selection of technology and equipment that would best satisfy the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) requirements in terms of relevant criteria like dose reduction, reliability, costs, etc. In fact, good selection methodology is the key to efficient implementation of remote systems applications in the modern globalized market. This TECDOC gives a review of the current status of remote technology applications for spent fuel management, based on country reports from some Member States presented at the consultancy meetings, of which updated reports are attached in the annex. The scope of the review covers the series of spent fuel handling operations involved in spent fuel management, from discharge from reactor to reprocessing or

  1. Development of spent fuel dry storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Kunio; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The spent fuels are the recycle fuel resources, and it is very important to store the spent fuels in safety. There are two types of the spent fuel interim storage system. One is wet storage system and another is dry storage system. In this study, the dry storage technology, dual purpose metal cask storage and canister storage, has been developed. For the dual purpose metal cask storage, boronated aluminum basket cell, rational cask body shape and shaping process have been developed, and new type dual purpose metal cask has been designed. For the canister storage, new type concrete cask and high density vault storage technology have been developed. The results of this study will be useful for the spent fuel interim storage. Safety and economical spent fuel interim storage will be realized in the near future. (author)

  2. Nomenclature on an inorganic compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    This book contains eleven chapters : which mention nomenclature of an inorganic compound with introduction and general principle on nomenclature of compound. It gives the description of grammar for nomenclature such as brackets, diagonal line, asterisk, and affix, element, atom and groups of atom, chemical formula, naming by stoichiometry, solid, neutral molecule compound, ion, a substituent, radical and name of salt, oxo acid and anion on introduction and definition of oxo acid, coordination compound like symbol of stereochemistry , boron and hydrogen compound and related compound.

  3. Spent fuel management in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.

    1998-01-01

    From Indian point of view, the spent fuel management by the reprocessing and plutonium recycle option is considered to be a superior and an inevitable option. The nuclear energy programme in Indian envisages three stages of implementation involving installation of thermal reactors in the first phase followed by recycling of plutonium from reprocessed fuel in fast breeder reactors and in the third phase utilization of its large thorium reserves in reactor system based on U-233-Th cycle. The Indian programme for Waste Management envisages disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in near surface disposal facilities and deep geological disposal for high level and alpha bearing wastes. A Waste Immobilization Plant (WHIP), employing metallic melter for HLW vitrification is operational at Tarapur. Two more WIPs are being set up at Kalpakkam and Tarapur. A Solid waste Storage Surveillance Facility (SSSF) is also set up for interim storage of vitrified HLW. Site investigations are in progress for selecting site for ultimate disposal in igneous rock formations. R and D works is taken up on partitioning of HLW. Solvent extraction and extraction chromatographic studies are in progress. Presently emphasis is on separation of heat generating short lived nuclides like strontium and alpha emitters. (author)

  4. Radionuclide separations in the nuclear fuel cycle development and application of micro and meso porous inorganic ion-exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, C.S.; Luca, V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Full text: From the mining of uranium-containing ores to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, separations technologies play a crucial role in determining the efficiency and viability of the nuclear fuel cycle. With respect to proposed Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC), the integral role of separations is no different with solvent extraction and pyroelectrometalurgical processing dominating efforts to develop a sustainable and publicly acceptable roadmap for nuclear power in the next 100 years. An often forgotten or overlooked separation technology is ion-exchange, more specifically, inorganic ion-exchangers. This is despite the fact that these materials offer the potential advantages of process simplicity; exceptional selectivity against high background concentrations of competing ions; and the possibility of a simple immobilization route for the separated radionculides. ANSTO's principal interest in inorganic ion-exchange materials in recent years has been the development of an inorganic ion-exchanger for the pretreatment of acidic legacy 9 Mo production waste to simultaneously remove radiogenic cesium and strontium. Radiogenic cesium and strontium comprise the majority of activity in such waste and may offer increased ease in the downstream processing to immobilise this waste in a Synroc wasteform. With the reliance on separations technologies in all current ANFC concepts, and the recent admission of ANSTO to the European Commissions EUROPART project, the development of new inorganic ion-exchangers has also expanded within our group. This presentation will provide a background of the fundamentals of inorganic and composite inorganic-organic ion-exchange materials followed by specific discussion of some selected inorganic and composite ion-exchange materials being developed and studied at ANSTO. The detailed structural and ion-exchange chemistry of these materials will be discussed and note made of how such materials could benefit any of the

  5. Spent fuel characterization for the commercial waste and spent fuel packaging program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, R.L.; Davis, R.B.; Pasupathi, V.; Klingensmith, R.W.

    1980-03-01

    This document presents the rationale for spent fuel characterization and provides a detailed description of the characterization examinations. Pretest characterization examinations provide quantitative and qualitative descriptions of spent fuel assemblies and rods in their irradiated conditions prior to disposal testing. This information is essential in evaluating any subsequent changes that occur during disposal demonstration and laboratory tests. Interim examinations and post-test characterization will be used to identify fuel rod degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation kinetics. The nature and behavior of the spent fuel degradation will be defined in terms of mathematical rate equations from these and laboratory tests and incorporated into a spent fuel performance prediction model. Thus, spent fuel characterization is an essential activity in the development of a performance model to be used in evaluating the ability of spent fuel to meet specific waste acceptance criteria and in evaluating incentives for modification of the spent fuel assemblies for long-term disposal purposes

  6. Heat-resistant inorganic binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider some aspects of production of inorganic heat-resistant composite materials in which new classes of inorganic binders - the basic salts of various metals – are applied. The possibility to use hydroxochlorides and hydroxonitrates of aluminum, zirconium, chromium and a number of other metals as the binder has been shown. The main products of the thermal decomposition of all types of binders discussed in this paper are nano-dispersed highly refractory oxides. Increased pressure in the manufacture of these materials shifts the position of the minimum of the dependence «production strength – production temperature» in the direction of low temperatures. This effect is caused by decreased film thickness of the binder located between filler particles and hence by increased rate of transfer of the matter to the interface and by facilitated sintering process. Materials based on the systems containing chromium and some other elements in transitional oxidation states are colour. For this reason, they have the worst thermal conductivity under the same heat resistance compared to colorless materials.

  7. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  8. Investigations of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Kinson Chihang

    This thesis focuses on the exploratory synthesis and characterization of inorganic and hybrid inorganic-organic nanomaterials. In particular, nanostructures of semiconducting nitrides and oxides, and hybrid systems of nanowire-polymer composites and framework materials, are investigated. These materials are characterized by a variety of techniques for structure, composition, morphology, surface area, optical properties, and electrical properties. In the study of inorganic nanomaterials, gallium nitride (GaN), indium oxide (In2O3), and vanadium dioxide (VO2) nanostructures were synthesized using different strategies and their physical properties were examined. GaN nanostructures were obtained from various synthetic routes. Solid-state ammonolysis of metastable gamma-Ga2O 3 nanoparticles was found to be particularly successful; they achieved high surface areas and photoluminescent study showed a blue shift in emission as a result of surface and size defects. Similarly, In2O3 nanostructures were obtained by carbon-assisted solid-state syntheses. The sub-oxidic species, which are generated via a self-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid mechanism, resulted in 1D nanostructures including nanowires, nanotrees, and nanobouquets upon oxidation. On the other hand, hydrothermal methods were used to obtain VO2 nanorods. After post-thermal treatment, infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that these nanorods exhibit a thermochromic transition with temperature that is higher by ˜10°C compared to the parent material. The thermochromic behavior indicated a semiconductor-to-metal transition associated with a structural transformation from monoclinic to rutile. The hybrid systems, on the other hand, enabled their properties to be tunable. In nanowire-polymer composites, zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanowires were synthesized and incorporated into polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPy) via in-situ and ex-situ polymerization method. The electrical properties of these composites are

  9. Recycling of waste spent catalyst in road construction and masonry blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ramzi; Al-Kamyani, Zahran; Al-Jabri, Khalifa; Baawain, Mahad; Al-Shamsi, Khalid

    2012-08-30

    Waste spent catalyst is generated in Oman as a result of the cracking process of petroleum oil in the Mina Al-Fahl and Sohar Refineries. The disposal of spent catalyst is of a major concern to oil refineries. Stabilized spent catalyst was evaluated for use in road construction as a whole replacement for crushed aggregates in the sub-base and base layers and as a partial replacement for Portland cement in masonry blocks manufacturing. Stabilization is necessary as the waste spent catalyst exists in a powder form and binders are needed to attain the necessary strength required to qualify its use in road construction. Raw spent catalyst was also blended with other virgin aggregates, as a sand or filler replacement, for use in road construction. Compaction, unconfined compressive strength and leaching tests were performed on the stabilized mixtures. For its use in masonry construction, blocks were tested for unconfined compressive strength at various curing periods. Results indicate that the spent catalyst has a promising potential for use in road construction and masonry blocks without causing any negative environmental impacts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  11. Spent nuclear fuel disposal liability insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis examines the social efficiency of nuclear power when the risks of accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides from a spent fuel disposal facility are considered. The analysis consists of two major parts. First, a theoretical economic model of the use of nuclear power including the risks associated with releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility is developed. Second, the costs of nuclear power, including the risks associated with a radionuclide release, are empirically compared to the costs of fossil fuel-fired generation of electricity. Under the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the federally owned and operated spent nuclear fuel disposal facility is not required to maintain a reserve fund to cover damages from an accidental radionuclide release. Thus, the risks of a harmful radionuclide release are not included in the spent nuclear fuel disposal fee charged to the electric utilities. Since the electric utilities do not pay the full, social costs of spent fuel disposal, they use nuclear fuel in excess of the social optimum. An insurance mechanism is proposed to internalize the risks associated with spent fueled disposal. Under this proposal, the Federal government is required to insure the disposal facility against any liabilities arising from accidental releases of spent fuel radionuclides

  12. Rock cavern storage of spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Kim, Kyung Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The rock cavern storage for spent fuel has been assessed to apply in Korea with reviewing the state of the art of the technologies for surface storage and rock cavern storage of spent fuel. The technical feasibility and economic aspects of the rock cavern storage of spent fuel were also analyzed. A considerable area of flat land isolated from the exterior are needed to meet the requirement for the site of the surface storage facilities. It may, however, not be easy to secure such areas in the mountainous region of Korea. Instead, the spent fuel storage facilities constructed in the rock cavern moderate their demands for the suitable site. As a result, the rock cavern storage is a promising alternative for the storage of spent fuel in the aspect of natural and social environments. The rock cavern storage of spent fuel has several advantages compared with the surface storage, and there is no significant difference on the viewpoint of economy between the two alternatives. In addition, no great technical difficulties are present to apply the rock cavern storage technologies to the storage of domestic spent fuel.

  13. Modeling the highway transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, I.G.

    1986-01-01

    There will be a substantial increase in the number of spent fuel shipments on the nation's highway system in the next thirty years. Most of the spent fuel will be moving from reactors to a spent fuel repository. This study develops two models that evaluate the risk and cost of moving the spent fuel. The Minimum Total Transport Risk Model (MTTRM) seeks an efficient solution for this problem by finding the minimum risk path through the network and sending all the spent fuel shipments over this one path. The Equilibrium Transport Risk Model (ETRM) finds an equitable solution by distributing the shipments over a number of paths in the network. This model decreases the risk along individual paths, but increases society's risk because the spent fuel shipments are traveling over more links in the network. The study finds that there is a trade off between path risk and societal risk. As path risk declines, societal risk rises. The cost of shipping also increases as the number of paths expand. The cost and risk of shipping spent fuel from ten reactors to four potential repository sites are evaluated using the MTTRM. The temporary monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in Tennessee is found to be the minimum cost and minimum risk solution. When direct shipment to the permanent sites is considered, Deaf Smith, Texas is the least cost and least incident free transport risk location. Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the least risk location when the focus is placed on the potential consequences of an accident

  14. The cost of spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.; Badillo, V.; Alonso, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Spent fuel is one of the most important issues in the nuclear industry, currently spent fuel management is been cause of great amount of research, investments, constructing repositories or constructing the necessary facilities to reprocess the fuel, and later to recycle the plutonium recovered in thermal reactors. What is the best solution?, or What is the best technology for an specific solution? Many countries have deferred the decision on selecting an option, while others works actively constructing repositories and others implementing the reprocessing facilities to recycle the plutonium obtained from nuclear spent fuel. In Mexico the nuclear power is limited to two reactors BWR type and medium size. So the nuclear spent fuel discharged has been accommodated at reactor's spent fuel pools. Originally these pools have enough capacity to accommodate spent fuel for the 40 years of designed plant operation. However currently, the plants are under a process for extended power up-rate to 20% of original power and also there are plans to extended operational life for 20 more years. Under these conditions there will not be enough room for spent fuel in the pools. (Author)

  15. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    2003-01-01

    accepting the long-term extrapolations of spent fuel behavior. In recent years ''natural analogues'' for both the repository environment (e.g., the Oklo natural reactors) and nuclear waste form behavior (e.g., corrosion and alteration of uraninite, UO 2+x ) have been cited as a fundamental means of achieving confirmation of long-term extrapolations. In particular, considerable effort has already been made to establish that uraninite, UO 2+x , with its impurities, is a good structural and chemical analogue for the analysis of the long-term behavior of the UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel. This proposal is based on the study of uraninite and the naturally occurring alteration products of UO 2+x under oxidizing and reducing conditions. The UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel is not stable under oxidizing conditions. In oxic solutions, uranium has a strong tendency to exist as U 6+ in the uranyl molecule, UO 2 2+ . Uranyl ions react with a wide variety of inorganic and organic anions to form complexes. Throughout most of the natural range of pH, U 6+ forms strong complexes with oxygen-bearing ions like CO 3 2- , HCO 3- , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- , and AsO 4 3- , which are present in most oxidized stream and subsurface waters. In arid environments, the U 6+ ion can precipitate as a wide variety of uranyl oxide hydrates, uranyl silicates and uranyl phosphates. This is well demonstrated in experimental work, e.g., in long term drip tests on UO 2 and is confirmed by natural occurrences of UO 2 in which a wide variety of uranyl phases form as alteration products. The most striking feature of these studies is the very close parallel in the paragenetic sequences (i.e. phase formation sequence) between the very long term (10 year tests) and the young (therefore, low-Pb uraninites) of the Nopal I deposit in Mexico

  16. Corrosion of Spent Nuclear Fuel: The Long-Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Rodney C.

    2003-09-14

    public that there is a reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations of spent fuel behavior. In recent years ''natural analogues'' for both the repository environment (e.g., the Oklo natural reactors) and nuclear waste form behavior (e.g., corrosion and alteration of uraninite, UO{sub 2+x}) have been cited as a fundamental means of achieving confirmation of long-term extrapolations. In particular, considerable effort has already been made to establish that uraninite, UO{sub 2+x}, with its impurities, is a good structural and chemical analogue for the analysis of the long-term behavior of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel. This proposal is based on the study of uraninite and the naturally occurring alteration products of UO{sub 2+x} under oxidizing and reducing conditions. The UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel is not stable under oxidizing conditions. In oxic solutions, uranium has a strong tendency to exist as U{sup 6+} in the uranyl molecule, UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Uranyl ions react with a wide variety of inorganic and organic anions to form complexes. Throughout most of the natural range of pH, U{sup 6+} forms strong complexes with oxygen-bearing ions like CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, HCO{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, and AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, which are present in most oxidized stream and subsurface waters. In arid environments, the U{sup 6+} ion can precipitate as a wide variety of uranyl oxide hydrates, uranyl silicates and uranyl phosphates. This is well demonstrated in experimental work, e.g., in long term drip tests on UO{sub 2} and is confirmed by natural occurrences of UO{sub 2} in which a wide variety of uranyl phases form as alteration products. The most striking feature of these studies is the very close parallel in the paragenetic sequences (i.e. phase formation sequence) between the very long term (10 year tests) and the young (therefore, low-Pb uraninites) of the Nopal I deposit in Mexico.

  17. German Approach to Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jussofie, A.; Graf, R.; Filbert, W.

    2010-01-01

    The management of spent fuel was based on two powerful columns until 30 June 2005, i. e. reprocessing and direct disposal. After this date any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited so that the direct disposal of unreprocessed spent fuel is the only available option in Germany today. The main steps of the current concept are: (i) Intermediate storage of spent fuel, which is the only step in practice. After the first cooling period in spent fuel storage pools it continues into cask-receiving dry storage facilities. Identification of casks, 'freezing' of inventories in terms of continuity of knowledge, monitoring the access to spent fuel, verifying nuclear material movements in terms of cask transfers and ensurance against diversion of nuclear material belong to the fundamental safeguards goals which have been achieved in the intermediate storage facilities by containment and surveillance techniques in unattended mode. (ii) Conditioning of spent fuel assemblies by separating the fuel rods from structural elements. Since the pilot conditioning facility in Gorleben has not yet come into operation, the underlying safeguards approach which focuses on safeguarding the key measurement points - the spent fuel related way in and out of the facility - has not been applied yet. (iii) Disposal in deep geological formations, but no decision has been made so far neither regarding the location of a geological repository nor regarding the safeguards approach for the disposal concept of spent fuel. The situation was complicated by a moratorium which suspended the underground exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as potential geological repository for spent fuel. The moratorium expires in October 2010. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made in the development of disposal concepts. According to the basic, so-called POLLUX (registered) -concept spent fuel assemblies are to be conditioned after dry storage and reloaded into the POLLUX (registered) -cask

  18. The Canadian research reactor spent fuel situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present research reactor spent fuel situation in Canada. The research reactors currently operating are listed along with the types of fuel that they utilize. Other shut down research reactors contributing to the storage volume are included for completeness. The spent fuel storage facilities associated with these reactors and the methods used to determine criticality safety are described. Finally the current inventory of spent fuel and where it is stored is presented along with concerns for future storage. (author). 3 figs

  19. Advances in HTGR spent fuel treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, N.D.; Lessig, W.S.

    1984-08-01

    GA Technologies, Inc. has been investigating the burning of spent reactor graphite under Department of Energy sponsorship since 1969. Several deep fluidized bed burners have been used at the GA pilot plant to develop graphite burning techniques for both spent fuel recovery and volume reduction for waste disposal. Since 1982 this technology has been extended to include more efficient circulating bed burners. This paper includes updates on high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel cycle options and current results of spent fuel treatment testing for fluidized and advanced circulating bed burners

  20. Spent fuel management newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This issue of the newsletter consists of two parts. The first part describes the IAEA Secretariat activities - work and programme of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, recent and planned meetings and publications, Technical Co-operation projects, Co-ordinated Research programmes. The second part contains country reports - national programmes on spent fuel management: current and planned storage and reprocessing capacities, spent fuel arisings, safety, transportation, storage and treatment of spent fuel

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project dose management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsman, K.H.

    1996-03-01

    This dose management plan facilitates meeting the dose management and ALARA requirements applicable to the design activities of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project, and establishes consistency of information used by multiple subprojects in ALARA evaluations. The method for meeting the ALARA requirements applicable to facility designs involves two components. The first is each Spent Nuclear Fuel Project subproject incorporating ALARA principles, ALARA design optimizations, and ALARA design reviews throughout the design of facilities and equipment. The second component is the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project management providing overall dose management guidance to the subprojects and oversight of the subproject dose management efforts

  2. Immobilization of spent resin with epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultom, O.; Suryanto; Sayogo; Ramdan

    1997-01-01

    immobilization of spent resin using epoxy resin has been conducted. The spent resin was mixtured with epoxy resin in variation of concentration, i.e., 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 weight percent of spent resin. The mixture were pour into the plastic tube, with a diameter of 40 mm and height of 40 mm. The density, compressive strength and leaching rate were respectively measured by quanta chrome, paul weber apparatus and gamma spectrometer. The results showed that the increasing of waste concentration would be decreased the compressive strength, and increased density by immobilized waste. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from waste product was not detected in experiment (author)

  3. Spent fuel management newsletter. No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-04-01

    This issue of the newsletter consists of two parts. The first part describes the IAEA Secretariat activities - work and programme of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, recent and planned meetings and publications, Technical Co-operation projects, Co-ordinated Research programmes. The second part contains country reports - national programmes on spent fuel management: current and planned storage and reprocessing capacities, spent fuel arisings, safety, transportation, storage and treatment of spent fuel.

  4. Pyrolysis of Spent Ion Exchange Resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braehler, Georg; Slametschka, Rainer

    2012-09-01

    Ion exchangers (IEX in international language) are used to remove radionuclides from the primary coolant in all nuclear power stations with a water cooling circuit. This is done by continuously removing a volume of coolant from the primary circuit and passing it through coolers, filters and the ion exchange beds. Cation and anion exchangers, in the form of coarse-grained resin beads in pressurized-water reactors and as finely ground powdered resins in boiling water reactors, are used. The trend for new power stations is to exploit all the possibilities for avoiding the generation of contaminated liquids and then to clean, as far as possible, the solutions that are nevertheless generated using ion exchange for it to be possible to dispose of them as non-radioactive waste. This relieves the burden on evaporator facilities, or means that these can even be dispensed with entirely. Regeneration is possible in principle, but little use is made of it. As the regeneration usual in conventional technologies is not employed in nuclear power stations, it is necessary to dispose of this material as radioactive waste. On the international level, a great number of processes are offered that are intended to meet the relevant national regulations, and these will be discussed in brief with their advantages and disadvantages. The aim is then to find a process which reduces the volume, yields an inert or mineralized product, works at temperatures of no more than approximately 600 deg. C and can be run in a simple facility. Originally, the pyrolysis process was developed to treat liquid organic waste from reprocessing. A typical application is the decomposition of spent solvent (TBP, tributyl phosphate, mixed with kerosene). In this process TBP is pyrolyzed together with calcium hydroxide in a fluidized bed facility at temperatures of around 500 deg. C, the calcium hydroxide reacts with the phosphate groups directly to form calcium pyrophosphate which contains all the radioactivity

  5. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  6. Dissolved organic and inorganic matter in bulk deposition of a coastal urban area: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia S M; Santos, Eduarda B H; Duarte, Armando C

    2014-12-01

    Bulk deposition can remove atmospheric organic and inorganic pollutants that may be associated with gaseous, liquid or particulate phases. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have been carried out, which simultaneously analyse the presence of organic and inorganic fractions in rainwater. In the present work, the complementarity of organic and inorganic data was assessed, through crossing data of some organic [DOC (dissolved organic carbon), absorbance at 250 nm (UV250nm), integrated fluorescence] and inorganic [H(+), NH4(+), NO3(-), non sea salt sulphate (NSS-SO4(2-))] parameters measured in bulk deposition in the coastal urban area of Aveiro. The organic and inorganic parameters analysed were positively correlated (pCDOM) came from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, the inverse correlations observed for the organic and inorganic parameters with the precipitation amount suggest that organic and inorganic fractions were incorporated into the rainwater partially by below-cloud scavenging of airborne particulate matter. This is in accordance with the high values of DOC and NO3(-) found in samples associated with marine air masses, which were linked in part to the contribution of local emissions from vehicular traffic. DOC of bulk deposition was the predominant constituent when compared with the constituents H(+), NH4(+), NO3(-) and NSS-SO4(2-), and consequently bulk deposition flux was also highest for DOC, highlighting the importance of DOC and of anthropogenic ions being simultaneously removed from the atmosphere by bulk deposition. However, it was verified that the contribution of anthropogenic sources to the DOC of bulk deposition may be different for distinct urban areas. Thus, it is recommended that organic and inorganic fractions of bulk deposition are studied together. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the first part of this article, we described medicinal uses of inorganic compounds relating to cancer care, infection and diabetic control, neurological, cardiovascular and in- flammatory diseases. This article contains further infor- mation on the medicinal uses of inorganic compounds as therapeutic and diagnostic in ...

  8. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  9. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  10. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  11. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  12. Spent fuel interim management: 1995 update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The problems of interim away-from-reactor spent fuel storage and storage in spent fuel pools at the reactor site are discussed. An overview of the state-of-the-art in the USA, Europe, and Japan is presented. The technical facilities for away-from-reactor storage are briefly described, including wet storage pools, interactive concrete systems, metallic containers, and passive concrete systems. Reprocessing technologies are mostly at the design stage only. It is predicted that during the 20 years to come, about 50 000 tonnes of spent fuel will be stored at reactor sites regardless of the advance of spent fuel reprocessing or interim storage projects. (J.B.). 4 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  14. Spent fuel management of NPPs in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, D.E.; Lee Gonzalez, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    There are two Nuclear Power Plants in operation in Argentina: 'Atucha I' (unique PHWR design) in operation since 1974, and 'Embalse' (typical Candu reactor) which started operation in 1984. Both NPPs are operated by 'Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A' which is responsible for the management and interim storage of spent fuel till the end of the operative life of the plants. A third NPP, 'Atucha II' is under construction, with a similar design of Atucha I. The legislative framework establishes that after final shutdown of a NPP the spent fuel will be transferred to the 'National Atomic Energy Commission', which is also responsible for the decommissioning of the Plants. In Atucha I, the spent fuel is stored underwater, until another option is implemented meanwhile in Embalse the spent fuel is stored during six years in pools and then it is moved to a dry storage. A decision about the fuel cycle back-end strategy will be taken before year 2030. (authors)

  15. Utilization of spent sulfite liquor carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, A J; Whitmore, L M; Boggs, Jr, L A

    1959-01-01

    Possible utilization of the sugars in spent sulfite liquor in the manufacture of ethanol, torula food yeast, and other fermentation products, and in the production of sugar derivatives, such as the diacetone derivatives, is discussed.

  16. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nott, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  17. Effects of environments on spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, C.W.; Jacobson, L.D.; Menon, M.N.

    1979-07-01

    This report describes the influence of water storage environment and transportation on spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies. It also estimates the storage duration and capacity requirements for several assumed scenarios

  18. Management of spent sealed sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnubroto, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the effort of the Center for Development of Radioactive Waste Management (CDRWM) to develop and implement activities in maintaining and improving the safety of spent sealed radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials over their life cycle. There is a wide variety of uses of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Indonesia, while the CDRWM plan to cover all spent radiation sources. Primary consideration is given to sealed radiation sources with relatively high levels of radioactivity which might necessitate interventional measures should control over them be lost. The policy of the Government of Indonesia for spent radiation sources is, whenever possible, spent sealed sources should be returned to the supplier. CDRWM has a general principle that sealed sources should not be removed from their holders, or the holders physically modified (except for Ra-226 needles, smoke detector and lighting preventer). (author)

  19. International experience in conditioning spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashton, P.

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to compile and present in a clear form international experience (USA, Canada, Sweden, FRG, UK, Japan, Switzerland) gained to date in conditioning spent fuel elements. The term conditioning is here taken to mean the handling and packaging of spent fuel elements for short- or long-term storage or final disposal. Plants of a varying nature fall within this scope, both in terms of the type of fuel element treated and the plant purpose eg. experimental or production plant. Emphasis is given to plants which bear some similarity to the concept developed in Germany for direct disposal of spent fuel elements. Worldwide, however, relatively few conditioning plants are in existence or have been conceived. Hence additional plants have been included where aspects of the experience gained are also of relevance eg. plants developed for the consolidation of spent fuel elements. (orig./HP) [de

  20. TRIGA Mark II Ljubljana - spent fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Dimic, V.

    2008-01-01

    The most important activity in 1999 was shipment of the spent fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal. This activity started already in 1998 with some governmental support. In July 1999 all spent fuel elements (219 pieces) from the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana were shipped back to the United Stated by the ship from the port Koper in Slovenia. At the same time shipment of the spent fuel from the research reactor in Pitesti, Romania, and the research reactor in Rome, Italy, was conducted. During the loading the radiation exposure to the workers was rather low. The loading and shipment of the spent nuclear fuel went very smoothly and according the accepted time table. During the last two years the TRIGA research reactor in Ljubljana has been in operation about 1100 hours per year and without any undesired shut-down. (authors)

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1996-02-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Safety Management Plan describes the new nuclear facility regulatory requirements basis for the Spemt Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and establishes the plan to achieve compliance with this basis at the new SNF Project facilities

  2. Spent fuel storage requirements 1993--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements through the year 2040. The needs are estimated for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the reactor storage pools. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of spent fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. The nuclear utilities provide historical data through December 1992 on the end of reactor life are based on the DOE/Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges

  3. Choosing a spent fuel interim storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, V.; Hunter, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Transnucleaire Group has developed different modular solutions to address spent fuel interim storage needs of NPP. These solutions, that are present in Europe, USA and Asia are metal casks (dual purpose or storage only) of the TN 24 family and the NUHOMS canister based system. It is not always simple for an operator to sort out relevant choice criteria. After explaining the basic designs involved on the examples of the TN 120 WWER dual purpose cask and the NUHOMS 56 WWER for WWER 440 spent fuel, we shall discuss the criteria that govern the choice of a given spent fuel interim storage system from the stand point of the operator. In conclusion, choosing and implementing an interim storage system is a complex process, whose implications can be far reaching for the long-term success of a spent fuel management policy. (author)

  4. Spent fuel workshop'2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poinssot, Ch

    2002-07-01

    This document gathers the transparencies of the presentations given at the 2002 spent fuel workshop: Session 1 - Research Projects: Overview on the IN CAN PROCESSES European project (M. Cowper), Overview on the SPENT FUEL STABILITY European project (C. Poinssot), Overview on the French R and D project on spent fuel long term evolution, PRECCI (C. Poinssot); Session 2 - Spent Fuel Oxidation: Oxidation of uranium dioxide single crystals (F. Garrido), Experimental results on SF oxidation and new modeling approach (L. Desgranges), LWR spent fuel oxidation - effects of burn-up and humidity (B. Hanson), An approach to modeling CANDU fuel oxidation under dry storage conditions (P. Taylor); Session 3 - Spent Fuel Dissolution Experiments: Overview on high burnup spent fuel dissolution studies at FZK/INE (A. Loida), Results on the influence of hydrogen on spent fuel leaching (K. Spahiu), Leaching of spent UO{sub 2} fuel under inert and reducing conditions (Y. Albinsson), Fuel corrosion investigation by electrochemical techniques (D. Wegen), A reanalysis of LWR spent fuel flow through dissolution tests (B. Hanson), U-bearing secondary phases formed during fuel corrosion (R. Finch), The near-field chemical conditions and spent fuel leaching (D. Cui), The release of radionuclides from spent fuel in bentonite block (S.S. Kim), Trace actinide behavior in altered spent fuel (E. Buck, B. Hanson); Session 4 - Radiolysis Issues: The effect of radiolysis on UO{sub 2} dissolution determined from electrochemical experiments with {sup 238}Pu doped UO{sub 2} M. Stroess-Gascoyne (F. King, J.S. Betteridge, F. Garisto), doped UO{sub 2} studies (V. Rondinella), Preliminary results of static and dynamic dissolution tests with {alpha} doped UO{sub 2} in Boom clay conditions (K. Lemmens), Studies of the behavior of UO{sub 2} / water interfaces under He{sup 2+} beam (C. Corbel), Alpha and gamma radiolysis effects on UO{sub 2} alteration in water (C. Jegou), Behavior of Pu-doped pellets in brines

  5. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Michael James; Bean, Thomas E.; Brower, Jeffrey O.; Luke, Dale E.; Patterson, M. W.; Robb, Alan K.; Sindelar, Robert; Smith, Rebecca E.; Tonc, Vincent F.; Tripp, Julia L.; Winston, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center's (INTEC's) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  6. ATR Spent Fuel Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Michael James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bean, Thomas E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brower, Jeffrey O. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Luke, Dale E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Patterson, M. W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Robb, Alan K. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Rebecca E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonc, Vincent F. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripp, Julia L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Winston, Philip L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a materials and fuels test nuclear reactor that performs irradiation services for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Naval Reactors, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and other research programs. ATR achieved initial criticality in 1967 and is expected to operate in support of needed missions until the year 2050 or beyond. It is anticipated that ATR will generate approximately 105 spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements per year through the year 2050. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) currently stores 2,008 ATR SNF elements in dry storage, 976 in wet storage, and expects to have 1,000 elements in wet storage before January 2017. A capability gap exists at INL for long-term (greater than the year 2050) management, in compliance with the Idaho Settlement Agreement (ISA), of ATR SNF until a monitored retrievable geological repository is open. INL has significant wet and dry storage capabilities that are owned by the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) and operated and managed by Fluor Idaho, which include the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center’s (INTEC’s) CPP-666, CPP-749, and CPP-603. In addition, INL has other capabilities owned by DOE-NE and operated and managed by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), which are located at the Materials and Fuel Complex (MFC). Additional storage capabilities are located on the INL Site at the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF). Current INL SNF management planning, as defined in the Fluor Idaho contract, shows INTEC dry fuel storage, which is currently used for ATR SNF, will be nearly full after transfer of an additional 1,000 ATR SNF from wet storage. DOE-NE tasked BEA with identifying and analyzing options that have the potential to fulfill this capability gap. BEA assembled a team comprised of SNF management experts from Fluor Idaho, Savannah River Site (SRS), INL/BEA, and the MITRE Corp with an objective of developing and analyzing

  7. Development of cement material using inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyohara, Masumitsu; Satou, Tatsuaki; Wada, Mikio; Ishii, Tomoharu; Matsuo, Kazuaki.

    1997-01-01

    Inorganic admixtures to enhance the fluidity of cement material was developed. These admixtures turned into easy to immobilize the miscellaneous radioactive waste using cement material. It was found that the ζ potential of cement particles was directly proportional to the content of the inorganic admixtures in cement paste and the particles of cement were dispersed at the high ζ potential. The condensed sodium phosphate, which was the main component of the inorganic admixtures, retarded the dissolution of Ca 2+ ion from the cement, and generated the colloids by incorporating dissolved Ca 2+ ion. The cement material containing the inorganic admixtures was found to have the same mechanical strength and adsorption potential of radionuclides in comparison to normal cement materials. It was confirmed that the cement material containing the inorganic admixture was effectively filled gaps of miscellaneous radioactive waste. (author)

  8. Impacts of the use of spent nuclear fuel burnup credit on DOE advanced technology legal weight truck cask GA-4 fleet size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasheran, A.S.; Boshoven, J.; Lake, B.

    1995-01-01

    The object of this paper is to study the impact of full and partial spent fuel burnup credit on the capacity of the Legal Weight Truck Spent Fuel Shipping Cask (GA-4) and to determine the numbers of additional spent fuel assemblies which could be accommodated as a result. The scope of the study comprised performing nuclear criticality safety scoping calculations using the SCALE-PC software package and the 1993 spent fuel database to determine logistics for number of spent fuel assemblies to be shipped. The results of the study indicate that more capacity than 2 or 3 pressurized water reactor assemblies could be gained for GA-4 casks when burnup credit is considered. Reduction in GA-4 fleet size and number of shipments are expected to result from the acceptance of spent fuel burnup credit

  9. Probable leaching mechanisms for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.; Katayama, Y.B.

    1981-01-01

    At the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, researchers in the Waste/Rock Interaction Technology Program are studying spent fuel as a possible waste form for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation. This paper presents probable leaching mechanisms for spent fuel and discusses current progress in identifying and understanding the leaching process. During the past year, experiments were begun to study the complex leaching mechanism of spent fuel. The initial work in this investigation was done with UO 2 , which provided the most information possible on the behavior of the spent-fuel matrix without encountering the very high radiation levels associated with spent fuel. Both single-crystal and polycrystalline UO 2 samples were used for this study, and techniques applicable to remote experimentation in a hot cell are being developed. The effects of radiation are being studied in terms of radiolysis of water and surface activation of the UO 2 . Dissolution behavior and kinetics of UO 2 were also investigated by electrochemical measurement techniques. These data will be correlated with those acquired when spent fuel is tested in a hot cell. Oxidation effects represent a major area of concern in evaluating the stability of spent fuel. Dissolution of UO 2 is greatly increased in an oxidizing solution because the dissolution is then controlled by the formation of hexavalent uranium. In solutions containing very low oxygen levels (i.e., reducing solutions), oxidation-induced dissolution may be possible via a previously oxidized surface, through exposure to air during storage, or by local oxidants such as O 2 and H 2 O 2 produced from radiolysis of water and radiation-activated UO 2 surfaces. The effects of oxidation not only increase the dissolution rate, but could lead to the disintegration of spent fuel into fine fragments

  10. Electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J. L.; Barnes, L. A.; Figueroa, J.; Limmer, S. L.; Blaskovitz, R. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Our work in developing the fuel cycles and electrochemical technologies needed for the treatment of spent light water reactor and spent fast reactor fuel is progressing well. Baseline flowsheets along with a theoretical material balance have been developed for treatment of each type of fuel. A discussion about the flowsheets provides the opportunity to present the status of our technology development activities and future research and development directions.

  11. Electrochemical processing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, M. A.; Willit, J. L.; Barnes, L. A.; Figueroa, J.; Limmer, S. L.; Blaskovitz, R.

    2008-01-01

    Our work in developing the fuel cycles and electrochemical technologies needed for the treatment of spent light water reactor and spent fast reactor fuel is progressing well. Baseline flowsheets along with a theoretical material balance have been developed for treatment of each type of fuel. A discussion about the flowsheets provides the opportunity to present the status of our technology development activities and future research and development directions

  12. Nuclear spent fuel management. Experience and options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel can be stored safely for long periods at relatively low cost, but some form of permanent disposal will eventually be necessary. This report examines the options for spent fuel management, explores the future prospects for each stage of the back-end of the fuel cycle and provides a thorough review of past experience and the technical status of the alternatives. Current policies and practices in twelve OECD countries are surveyed

  13. Spent fuel transportation in the United States: commercial spent fuel shipments through December 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This report has been prepared to provide updated transportation information on light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel in the United States. Historical data are presented on the quantities of spent fuel shipped from individual reactors on an annual basis and their shipping destinations. Specifically, a tabulation is provided for each present-fuel shipment that lists utility and plant of origin, destination and number of spent-fuel assemblies shipped. For all annual shipping campaigns between 1980 and 1984, the actual numbers of spent-fuel shipments are defined. The shipments are tabulated by year, and the mode of shipment and the casks utilized in shipment are included. The data consist of the current spent-fuel inventories at each of the operating reactors as of December 31, 1984. This report presents historical data on all commercial spent-fuel transportation shipments have occurred in the United States through December 31, 1984

  14. Welcome to Inorganics: A New Open Access, Inclusive Forum for Inorganic Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan H. Gregory

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the beauties of inorganic chemistry is its sheer diversity. Just as chemistry sits at the centre of the sciences, inorganic chemistry sits at the centre of chemistry itself. Inorganic chemists are fortunate in having the entire periodic table at their disposal, providing a palette for the creation of a multitude of rich and diverse compounds and materials from the simplest salts to the most complex of molecular species. It follows that the language of inorganic chemistry can thus be a demanding one, accommodating sub-disciplines with very different perspectives and frames of reference. One could argue that it is the unequivocal breadth of inorganic chemistry that empowers inorganic chemists to work at the interfaces, not just between the traditional Inorganic-Organic-Physical boundaries of the discipline, but in the regions where chemistry borders the other physical and life sciences, engineering and socio-economics. [...

  15. Automatic spent fuel ID number reader (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, S.; Kawamoto, H.; Fujimaki, K.; Kobe, A.

    1991-01-01

    An effective and efficient technique has been developed for facilitating identification works of LWR spent fuel stored in large scale spent fuel storage pools of such as processing plants. Experience shows that there are often difficulties in the implementation of operator's nuclear material accountancy and control works as well as safeguards inspections conducted on spent fuel assemblies stored in deep water pool. This paper reports that the technique is realized as an automatic spent fuel ID number reader system installed on fuel handling machine. The ID number reader system consists of an optical sub-system and an image processing sub-system. Thousands of spent fuel assemblies stored in under water open racks in each storage pool could be identified within relatively short time (e.g. within several hours) by using this combination. Various performance tests were carried out on image processing sub-system in 1990 using TV images obtained from different types of spent fuel assemblies stored in various storage pools of PWR and BWR power stations

  16. Spent fuel dry storage in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buday, G.; Szabo, B.; Oerdoegh, M.; Takats, F.

    1999-01-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. Since 1989, approximately 40-50% of the total annual electricity generation of the country has been supplied by this plant. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia. Most of the spent fuel assemblies have been shipped back to Russia. Difficulties with spent fuel transportation to Russia have begun in 1992. Since that time, some of the shipments were delayed, some of them were completely cancelled, thus creating a backlog of spent fuel filling all storage positions of the plant. To provide assurance of the continued operation, Paks NPPs management decided to implement an independent spent fuel storage facility and chose GEC-Althom's MVDS design. The construction of the facility started in February 1995 and the first spent fuel assembly was placed in the store in September 1997. The paper gives an overview of the situation, describing the conditions leading to the construction of the dry storage facility at Paks and its implementation. Finally, some information is given about the new Public Agency for Radioactive Waste Management established this year and responsible for managing the issues related to spent fuel management. (author)

  17. Pyrochemical processing of DOE spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    A compact, efficient method for conditioning spent nuclear fuel is under development. This method, known as pyrochemical processing, or open-quotes pyroprocessing,close quotes provides a separation of fission products from the actinide elements present in spent fuel and further separates pure uranium from the transuranic elements. The process can facilitate the timely and environmentally-sound treatment of the highly diverse collection of spent fuel currently in the inventory of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The pyroprocess utilizes elevated-temperature processes to prepare spent fuel for fission product separation; that separation is accomplished by a molten salt electrorefining step that provides efficient (>99.9%) separation of transuranics. The resultant waste forms from the pyroprocess, are stable under envisioned repository environment conditions and highly leach-resistant. Treatment of any spent fuel type produces a set of common high-level waste forms, one a mineral and the other a metal alloy, that can be readily qualified for repository disposal and avoid the substantial costs that would be associated with the qualification of the numerous spent fuel types included in the DOE inventory

  18. Transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, M.; Lenail, B.

    1987-01-01

    From a safety standpoint, spent fuel is clearly not ideal for permanent disposal and reprocessing is the best method of preparing wastes for long-term storage in a repository. Furthermore, the future may demonstrate that some fission products recovered in reprocessing have economic applications. Many countries have in fact reached the point at which the recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent fuel is economical in LWR's. Even in countries where this is not yet evident, (i.e., the United States), the French example shows that the day will come when spent fuel will be retrieved for reprocessing and recycle. It is highly questionable whether spent fuel will ever be considered and treated as waste in the same sense as fission products and processed as such, i.e., packaged in a waste form for permanent disposal. Even when recycled fuel material can no longer be reused in LWR's because of poor reactivity, it will be usable in FBR's. Based on the considerable experience gained by SGN and Cogema, this paper has provided practical discussion and illustrations of spent fuel transport and storage of a very important step in the nuclear fuel management process. The best of spent fuel storage depends on technical, economic and policy considerations. Each design has a role to play and we hope that the above discussion will help clarify certain issues

  19. Spent Fuel Management Newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This Newsletter has been prepared in accordance with the recommendations of the International Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management and the Agency's programme (GC XXXII/837, Table 76, item 14). The main purpose of the Newsletter is to provide Member States with new information about the state-of-the-art in one of the most important parts of the nuclear fuel cycle - Spent Fuel Management. The contents of this publication consists of two parts: (1) IAEA Secretariat contribution -work and programme of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Technology Section of the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management, recent and planned meetings and publications, Technical Co-operation projects, Co-ordinated Research programmes, etc. (2) Country reports - national programmes on spent fuel management: current and planned storage and reprocessing capacities, spent fuel arisings, safety, transportation, storage, treatment of spent fuel, some aspects of uranium and plutonium recycling, etc. The IAEA expects to publish the Newsletter once every two years between the publications of the Regular Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management. Figs and tabs

  20. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Won; Shin, Y. J.; Cho, S. H.

    2004-03-01

    The research on spent fuel management focuses on the maximization of the disposal efficiency by a volume reduction, the improvement of the environmental friendliness by the partitioning and transmutation of the long lived nuclides, and the recycling of the spent fuel for an efficient utilization of the uranium source. In the second phase which started in 2001, the performance test of the advanced spent fuel management process consisting of voloxidation, reduction of spent fuel and the lithium recovery process has been completed successfully on a laboratory scale. The world-premier spent fuel reduction hot test of a 5 kgHM/batch has been performed successfully by joint research with Russia and the valuable data on the actinides and FPs material balance and the characteristics of the metal product were obtained with experience to help design an engineering scale reduction system. The electrolytic reduction technology which integrates uranium oxide reduction in a molten LiCl-Li 2 O system and Li 2 O electrolysis is developed and a unique reaction system is also devised. Design data such as the treatment capacity, current density and mass transfer behavior obtained from the performance test of a 5 kgU/batch electrolytic reduction system pave the way for the third phase of the hot cell demonstration of the advanced spent fuel management technology

  1. Retention of 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs on inorganic ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, J.F.; Eymard, S.

    1983-11-01

    The aim of the study is the treatment of radioactive wastes produced in plutonium fuel fabrication or in spent fuel reprocessing by inorganic ion exchangers for ultimate storage. This rapport, gives the distribution coefficients of 60 Co, 85 Sr, 137 Cs (in sodium nitrate medium at different concentration of sodium: .23g/l, 1 g/l, 10 g/l) obtained with different inorganic exchangers: titanium oxyde, sodium titanate, sodium zirconate, sodium niobate, sodium tantalate, titanium phosphate, zirconium phosphate, ammonium phosphotungstate in zirconium phosphate, polyantimonic acid amorphous aluminosilicate and several zeolites (ZBS 15 from OXYMIN, ZEOLON 400, ZEOLON 500, ZEOLON 900 from Norton, IE 96, A 51, 13 X from Union Carbide) [fr

  2. Nuclear criticality safety studies applicable to spent fuel shipping cask designs and spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.S.

    1980-11-01

    Criticality analyses of water-moderated and reflected arrays of LWR fresh and spent fuel assemblies were carried out in this study. The calculated results indicate that using the assumption of fresh fuel loading in spent fuel shipping cask design leads to assembly spacings which are about twice the spacings of spent fuel loadings. Some shipping cask walls of composite lead and water are more effective neutron reflectors than water of 30.48 cm

  3. Optimization of chemical regeneration procedures of spent activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Ghasemzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical regeneration of granular activated carbon exhausted in a petrochemical wastewater unit was investigated. Gas chromatography and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated that spent activated carbon carries large types of organic and inorganic materials. Diverse chemical solvents were adopted in comparison with traditional chemical solvents and regeneration efficiency was investigated for each approach. The optimum procedure and optimum condition including temperature, concentration of solvent, and time were determined. The regenerated activated carbon was used in the adsorption of methylene blue (MB in order to find its regeneration efficiency. The regeneration efficiency can be identified by comparing of amount of MB absorbed by the fresh and regenerated activated carbon. The best acidic regenerator was hydrofluoric acid. The higher the temperature causes the faster desorption rate and consequently, the higher regeneration efficiency. The regeneration efficiency increased by means of an increase in the time of regeneration and solvent concentration, but there was an optimum time and solvent concentration for regeneration. The optimum temperature, solvent concentration and regeneration time obtained was 80 ⁰C, 3 molar and 3 hours, respectively.

  4. Final environmental statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a Spent Fuel Storage Policy for nuclear power reactors. Under this policy, as approved by the President, US utilities will be given the opportunity to deliver spent fuel to US Government custody in exchange for payment of a fee. The US Government will also be prepared to accept a limited amount of spent fuel from foreign sources when such action would contribute to meeting nonproliferation goals. Under the new policy, spent fuel transferred to the US Government will be delivered - at user expense - to a US Government-approved site. Foreign spent fuel would be stored in Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities with domestic fuel. This volume of the environmental impact statement includes effects associated with implementing or not implementing the Spent Fuel Storage Policy for the foreign fuels. The analyses show that there are no substantial radiological health impacts whether the policy is implemented or not. In no case considered does the population dose commitment exceed 0.000006% of the world population dose commitment from natural radiation sources over the period analyzed. Full implementation of the US offer to accept a limited amount of foreign spent fuel for storage provides the greatest benefits for US nonproliferation policy. Acceptance of lesser quantities of foreign spent fuel in the US or less US support of foreign spent fuel storage abroad provides some nonproliferation benefits, but at a significantly lower level than full implementation of the offer. Not implementing the policy in regard to foreign spent fuel will be least productive in the context of US nonproliferation objectives. The remainder of the summary provides a brief description of the options that are evaluated, the facilities involved in these options, and the environmental impacts, including nonproliferation considerations, associated with each option

  5. Inorganic biomaterials structure, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiang C

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a practical guide to the use and applications of inorganic biomaterials. It begins by introducing the concept of inorganic biomaterials, which includes bioceramics and bioglass. This concept is further extended to hybrid biomaterials consisting of inorganic and organic materials to mimic natural biomaterials. The book goes on to provide the reader with information on biocompatibility, bioactivity and bioresorbability. The concept of the latter is important because of the increasing role resorbable biomaterials are playing in implant applications. The book also introduces a n

  6. Comprehensive evaluation on effective leaching of critical metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenfang; Liu, Chenming; Cao, Hongbin; Zheng, Xiaohong; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Haijuan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2018-05-01

    Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted worldwide attention because of issues from both environmental impacts and resource supply. Leaching, for instance using an acidic solution, is a critical step for effective recovery of metals from spent LIBs. To achieve both high leaching efficiency and selectivity of the targeted metals, improved understanding on the interactive features of the materials and leaching solutions is highly required. However, such understanding is still limited at least caused by the variation on physiochemical properties of different leaching solutions. In this research, a comprehensive investigation and evaluation on the leaching process using acidic solutions to recycle spent LIBs is carried out. Through analyzing two important parameters, i.e. leaching speed and recovery rate of the corresponding metals, the effects of hydrogen ion concentration, acid species and concentration on these two parameters were evaluated. It was found that a leachant with organic acids may leach Co and Li from the cathode scrap and leave Al foil as metallic form with high leaching selectivity, while that with inorganic acids typically leach all metals into the solution. Inconsistency between the leaching selectivity and efficiency during spent LIBs recycling is frequently noticed. In order to achieve an optimal status with both high leaching selectivity and efficiency (especially at high solid-to-liquid ratios), it is important to manipulate the average leaching speed and recovery rate of metals to optimize the leaching conditions. Subsequently, it is found that the leaching speed is significantly dependent on the hydrogen ion concentration and the capability of releasing hydrogen ions of the acidic leachant during leaching. With this research, it is expected to improve understanding on controlling the physiochemical properties of a leaching solution and to potentially design processes for spent LIBs recycling with high industrial

  7. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: pauladesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C., E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k{sub 0} method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  8. Inorganic elements in sugar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Paulo M.B. de; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2013-01-01

    Sugar is considered a safe food ingredient; however, it can be contaminated by organic elements since its planting until its production process. Thus, this study aims at checking the presence of inorganic elements in samples of crystal, refined and brown sugar available for consumption in Brazil. The applied technique was neutron activation analysis, the k 0 method, using the TRIGA MARK - IPR-R1 reactor located at CDTN/CNEN, in Belo Horizonte. It was identified the presence of elements such as, Au, Br, Co, Cr, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc and Zn in the samples of crystal/refined sugar and the presence of As, Au, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Na, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Th and Zn in the brown sugar samples. The applied technique was appropriate to this study because it was not necessary to put the samples in solution, essential condition in order to apply other techniques, avoiding contaminations and sample losses, besides allowing a multi elementary detection in different sugar samples. (author)

  9. The quest for inorganic fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Susanne; Dollinger, Andreas; Strobel, Christoph H.; Ganteför, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Park, Eun Ji; Kim, Young Dok, E-mail: gerd.gantefoer@uni-konstanz.de, E-mail: ydkim91@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyun Ook [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science/DESY, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Idrobo, Juan-Carlos [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pennycook, Stephen J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117575 (Singapore)

    2015-10-07

    Experimental results of the search for inorganic fullerenes are presented. Mo{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} and W{sub n}S{sub m}{sup −} clusters are generated with a pulsed arc cluster ion source equipped with an annealing stage. This is known to enhance fullerene formation in the case of carbon. Analogous to carbon, the mass spectra of the metal chalcogenide clusters produced in this way exhibit a bimodal structure. The species in the first maximum at low mass are known to be platelets. Here, the structure of the species in the second maximum is studied by anion photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and scanning tunneling microcopy. All experimental results indicate a two-dimensional structure of these species and disagree with a three-dimensional fullerene-like geometry. A possible explanation for this preference of two-dimensional structures is the ability of a two-element material to saturate the dangling bonds at the edges of a platelet by excess atoms of one element. A platelet consisting of a single element only cannot do this. Accordingly, graphite and boron might be the only materials forming nano-spheres because they are the only single element materials assuming two-dimensional structures.

  10. Inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, M.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tavlarides, L.

    1997-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) researchers are developing a technology that combines metal chelation extraction technology and synthesis chemistry. They begin with a ceramic substrate such as alumina, titanium oxide or silica gel because they provide high surface area, high mechanical strength, and radiolytic stability. One preparation method involves silylation to hydrophobize the surface, followed by chemisorption of a suitable chelation agent using vapor deposition. Another route attaches newly designed chelating agents through covalent bonding by the use of coupling agents. These approaches provide stable and selective, inorganic chemically active adsorbents (ICAAs) tailored for removal of metals. The technology has the following advantages over ion exchange: (1) higher mechanical strength, (2) higher resistance to radiation fields, (3) higher selectivity for the desired metal ion, (4) no cation exchange, (5) reduced or no interference from accompanying anions, (6) faster kinetics, and (7) easy and selective regeneration. Target waste streams include metal-containing groundwater/process wastewater at ORNL`s Y-12 Plant (multiple metals), Savannah River Site (SRS), Rocky Flats (multiple metals), and Hanford; aqueous mixed wastes at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL); and scrubber water generated at SRS and INEL. Focus Areas that will benefit from this research include Mixed Waste, and Subsurface Contaminants.

  11. Features and safety aspects of spent fuel storage facility, Tarapur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Sanjay; Dubey, K.; Qureshi, F.T.; Lokeswar, S.P.

    2017-01-01

    Spent Fuel Storage Facility (SFSF), Tarapur is designed to store spent fuel arising from PHWRs in different parts of the country. Spent fuel is transported in AERB qualified/authorized shipping cask by NPCIL to SFSF by road or rail route. The spent fuel storage facility at Tarapur was hot commissioned after regulatory clearances

  12. Current status of the first interim spent fuel storage facility in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinbo, Hitoshi; Kondo, Mitsuru

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, storage of spent fuels outside nuclear power plants was enabled as a result of partial amendments to the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law in June 2000. Five months later, Mutsu City in Aomori Prefecture asked the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) to conduct technical surveys on siting of the interim spent fuel storage facility (we call it 'Recyclable-Fuel Storage Center'). In April 2003, TEPCO submitted the report on siting feasibility examination, concluded that no improper engineering data for siting, construction of the facility will be possible from engineering viewpoint. Siting Activities for publicity and public acceptance have been continued since then. After these activities, Aomori Prefecture and Mutsu City approved siting of the Recyclable Fuel Storage Center in October 2005. Aomori Prefecture, Mutsu City, TEPCO and Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) signed an agreement on the interim spent fuel storage Facility. A month later, TEPCO and JAPC established Recyclable-Fuel Storage Company (RFS) in Mutsu City through joint capital investment, specialized in the first interim spent fuel storage Facility in Japan. In May 2007, we made an application for establishment permit, following safety review by regulatory authorities. In March 2008, we started the preparatory construction. RFS will safely store of spent fuels of TEPCO and JAPC until they will be reprocessed. Final storage capacity will be 5,000 ton-U. First we will construct the storage building of 3,000 ton-U to be followed by second building. We aim to start operation by 2010. (author)

  13. Fact sheet on spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The IAEA gives high priority to safe and effective spent fuel management. As an example of continuing efforts, the 2003 International Conference on Storage of Spent Fuel from Power Reactors gathered 125 participants from 35 member states to exchange information on this important subject. With its large number of Member States, the IAEA is well-positioned to gather and share information useful in addressing Member State priorities. IAEA activities on this topic include plans to produce technical documents as resources for a range of priority topics: spent fuel performance assessment and research, burnup credit applications, cask maintenance, cask loading optimization, long term storage requirements including records maintenance, economics, spent fuel treatment, remote technology, and influence of fuel design on spent fuel storage. In addition to broader topics, the IAEA supports coordinated research projects and technical cooperation projects focused on specific needs. The proceedings of the 2003 IAEA conference on storage of spent fuel from power reactors has been ranked in the top twenty most accessed IAEA publications. These proceedings are available for free downloads at http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PubDetails.asp?pubId=6924]. The IAEA organized and held a 2004 meeting focused on long term spent fuel storage provisions in Central and Eastern Europe, using technical cooperation funds to support participation by these Member States. Over ninety percent of the participants in this meeting rated its value as good or excellent, with participants noting that the IAEA is having a positive effect in stimulating communication, cooperation, and information dissemination on this important topic. The IAEA was advised in 2004 that results from a recent coordinated research project (IAEA-TECDOC-1343) were used by one Member State to justify higher clad temperatures for spent fuel in dry storage, leading to more efficient storage and reduced costs. Long term

  14. Management of Spent Radiation Source from Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisyah

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays the use of radioactive source for both radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy in Indonesia hospital increases rapidly. Sealed source used in radiotherapy among others for brachytherapy, teletherapy, bone densitometry, whole blood irradiation and gamma knife (radiosurgery). In line with this, the waste of spent radiation sources will be generated in hospitals. Of course these spent radiation sources must be treated correctly in order to maintain the safety of both the public and the environment. According to the Act No. 10/1997, BATAN, in care of the Radioactive Waste Management Center is the national appointed agency for the management of radioactive waste. The option for waste management by hospitals needs to be expound, either by re-exporting to the supplier of origin, re-exporting to other supplier, re-use by other licensee or sending to the Radioactive Waste Management Center. Usually the waste sent by the hospitals to the center comprises of sealed radiation source of 60 Co, 137 Cs or 226 Ra. The management of spent radiation source in the center is carried out in several steps i.e. conditioning, temporary storage, and long-term storage (final disposal). The conditioning of non 226 Ra is carried out by placing the waste in a 200 litter drum shell, 950 or 350 litter concrete shells, depends on the activity and dimension of the spent radiation source. The conditioning of 226 Ra is carried out by encapsulating the waste in a stainless steel container for long-term storage shield which then placed in a 200 litter drum shell. The temporary storage of the conditioned spent radiation source is carried out by storing it in the center’s temporary storages, either low or medium activity waste. Finally, the conditioned spent radiation source is buried in a disposal facility. For medium half-life spent radiation source, the final disposal is burial it in a shallow-land disposal; mean while, for long half-life spent radiation source, the final disposal is burial it in

  15. Recent developments in inorganically filled carbon nanotubes: successes and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal K Gautam, Pedro M F J Costa, Yoshio Bando, Xiaosheng Fang, Liang Li, Masataka Imura and Dmitri Golberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a unique class of nanomaterials that can be imagined as rolled graphene sheets. The inner hollow of a CNT provides an extremely small, one-dimensional space for storage of materials. In the last decade, enormous effort has been spent to produce filled CNTs that combine the properties of both the host CNT and the guest filling material. CNTs filled with various inorganic materials such as metals, alloys, semiconductors and insulators have been obtained using different synthesis approaches including capillary filling and chemical vapor deposition. Recently, several potential applications have emerged for these materials, such as the measurement of temperature at the nanoscale, nano-spot welding, and the storage and delivery of extremely small quantities of materials. A clear distinction between this class of materials and other nanostructures is the existence of an enormous interfacial area between the CNT and the filling matter. Theoretical investigations have shown that the lattice mismatch and strong exchange interaction of CNTs with the guest material across the interface should result in reordering of the guest crystal structure and passivation of the surface dangling bonds and thus yielding new and interesting physical properties. Despite preliminary successes, there remain many challenges in realizing applications of CNTs filled with inorganic materials, such as a comprehensive understanding of their growth and physical properties and control of their structural parameters. In this article, we overview research on filled CNT nanomaterials with special emphasis on recent progress and key achievements. We also discuss the future scope and the key challenges emerging out of a decade of intensive research on these fascinating materials.

  16. Storing the world's spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Weinberg, A.M.; Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    Given the world's prodigious future energy requirements and the inevitable depletion of oil and gas, it would be foolhardy consciously to seek limitations on the growth of nuclear power. Indeed, the authors continue to believe that the global nuclear power enterprise, as measured by installed reactor capacity, can become much larger in the future without increasing proliferation risks. To accomplish this objective will require renewed dedication to the non-proliferation regime, and it will require some new initiatives. Foremost among these would be the establishment of a spent fuel take-back service, in which one or a few states would retrieve spent nuclear fuel from nations generating it. The centralized retrieval of spent fuel would remove accessible plutonium from the control of national leaders in non-nuclear-weapons states, thereby eliminating the temptation to use this material for weapons. The Soviets already implement a retrieval policy with the spent fuel generated by East European allies. The authors believe that it is time for the US to reopen the issue of spent-fuel retrieval, and thus to strengthen its non-proliferation policies and the nonproliferation regime in general. 7 references

  17. Burnup credit demands for spent fuel management in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medun, V.

    2001-01-01

    In fact, till now, burnup credit has not be applied in Ukrainian nuclear power for spent fuel management systems (storage and transport). However, application of advanced fuel at VVER reactors, arising spent fuel amounts, represent burnup credit as an important resource to decrease spent fuel management costs. The paper describes spent fuel management status in Ukraine from viewpoint of subcriticality assurance under spent fuel storage and transport. It also considers: 1. Regulation basis concerning subcriticality assurance, 2. Basic spent fuel and transport casks characteristics, 3. Possibilities and demands for burnup credit application at spent fuel management systems in Ukraine. (author)

  18. Reduction of uranium in disposal conditions of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllykylae, E.

    2008-02-01

    This literature study is a summary of publications, in which the reduction of uranium by iron has been investigated in anaerobic groundwater conditions or in aqueous solution in general. The basics of the reduction phenomena and the oxidation states, complexes and solubilities of uranium and iron in groundwaters are discussed as an introduction to the subject, as well as, the Finnish disposal concept of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel itself mainly (∼96 %) consists of a sparingly soluble uranium(IV) dioxide, UO 2 (s), which is stable phase in the anticipated reducing disposal conditions. If spent fuel gets in contact with groundwater, oxidizing conditions might be induced by the radiolysis of water, or by the intrusion of oxidizing glacial melting water. Under these conditions, the oxidation and dissolution of uranium dioxide to more soluble U(VI) species could occur. This could lead to the mobilization of uranium and other components of spent fuel matrix including fission products and transuranium elements. The reduction of uranium back to oxidation state U(IV) can be considered as a favourable immobilization mechanism in a long-term, leading to precipitation due to the low solubility of U(IV) species. The cast iron insert of the disposal canister and its anaerobic corrosion products are the most important reductants under disposal conditions, but dissolved ferrous iron may also function as reductant. Other iron sources in the buffer or near-field rock, are also considered as possible reductants. The reduction of uranium is a very challenging phenomenon to investigate. The experimental studies need e.g. well-controlled anoxic conditions and measurements of oxidation states. Reduction and other simultaneous phenomena are difficult to distinghuish. The groundwater conditions (pH, Eh and ions) influence on the prevailing complexes of U and Fe and on forming corrosion products of iron and, thus they determine also the redox chemistry. The partial reduction of

  19. Behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tsutomu; Komatsu, Kazunori; Takahashi, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The results of laboratory-scale experiments concerning the behavior of iodine in the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels, which were carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, are summarized. Based on previous and new experimental results, the difference in quantity of residual iodine in the fuel solution between laboratory-scale experiments and reprocessing plants is discussed, Iodine in spent fuels is converted to the following four states: (1) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitric acid, (2) oxidation into I{sub 2} by nitrous acid generated in the dissolution, (3) formation of a colloid of insoluble iodides such as AgI and PdI{sub 2}, and (4) deposition on insoluble residue. Nitrous acid controls the amount of colloid formed. As a result, up to 10% of iodine in spent fuels is retained in the fuel solution, up to 3% is deposited on insoluble residue, and the balance volatilizes to the off-gas, Contrary to earlier belief, when the dissolution is carried out in 3 to 4 M HNO{sub 3} at 100{degrees}C, the main iodine species in a fuel solution is a colloid, not iodate, Immediately after its formation, the colloid is unstable and decomposes partially in the hot nitric acid solution through the following reaction: AgI(s) + 2HNO{sub 3}(aq) = {1/2}I{sub 2}(aq) + AgNO{sub 3}(aq) + NO{sub 2}(g) + H{sub 2}O(1). For high concentrations of gaseous iodine, I{sub 2}(g), and NO{sub 2}, this reaction is reversed towards formation of the colloid (AgI). Since these concentrations are high near the liquid surface of a plant-scale dissolver, there is a possibility that the colloid is formed there through this reversal, Simulations performed in laboratory-scale experiments demonstrated this reversal, This phenomenon can be one reason the quantity of residual iodine in spent fuels is higher in reprocessing plants than in laboratory-scale experiments. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Biomedical inorganic polymers bioactivity and applications of natural and synthetic polymeric inorganic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Schroder, Heinz C

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, inorganic polymers have attracted much attention in nano-biomedicine, in particular in the area of regenerative medicine and drug delivery. This growing interest in inorganic polymers has been further accelerated by the development of new synthetic and analytical methods in the field of nanotechnology and nanochemistry. Examples for biomedical inorganic polymers that had been proven to exhibit biomedical effects and/or have been applied in preclinical or clinical trials are polysilicate / silica glass (such as naturally formed "biosilica" and synthetic "bioglass") and inorganic polyphosphate. Some members of the mentioned biomedical inorganic polymers have already been applied e.g. as "bioglass" for bone repair and bone tissue engineering, or they are used in food processing and in dental care (inorganic polyphosphates). However, there are a number of further biological and medicinal properties of these polymers, which have been elucidated in the last few years but not yet been applied for tr...

  1. Developing Spent Fuel Assembly for Advanced NDA Instrument Calibration - NGSI Spent Fuel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jianwei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gauld, Ian C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Banfield, James [GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, NC (United States); Skutnik, Steven [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the application of modeling and simulation to support the performance assessment and calibration of the advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments developed under the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) Project. Advanced NDA instrument calibration will likely require reference spent fuel assemblies with well-characterized nuclide compositions that can serve as working standards. Because no reference spent fuel standard currently exists, and the practical ability to obtain direct measurement of nuclide compositions using destructive assay (DA) measurements of an entire fuel assembly is prohibitive in the near term due to the complexity and cost of spent fuel experiments, modeling and simulation will be required to construct such reference fuel assemblies. These calculations will be used to support instrument field tests at the Swedish Interim Storage Facility (Clab) for Spent Nuclear Fuel.

  2. Nanoscale Organic−Inorganic Hybrid Lubricants

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daniel; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    Silica (SiO2) nanoparticles densely grafted with amphiphilic organic chains are used to create a family of organic-inorganic hybrid lubricants. Short sulfonate-functionalized alkylaryl chains covalently tethered to the particles form a dense corona

  3. Room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xun; Chen, Hongyi; Hao, Feng; Liu, Ruiheng; Wang, Tuo; Qiu, Pengfei; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri; Chen, Lidong

    2018-05-01

    Ductility is common in metals and metal-based alloys, but is rarely observed in inorganic semiconductors and ceramic insulators. In particular, room-temperature ductile inorganic semiconductors were not known until now. Here, we report an inorganic α-Ag2S semiconductor that exhibits extraordinary metal-like ductility with high plastic deformation strains at room temperature. Analysis of the chemical bonding reveals systems of planes with relatively weak atomic interactions in the crystal structure. In combination with irregularly distributed silver-silver and sulfur-silver bonds due to the silver diffusion, they suppress the cleavage of the material, and thus result in unprecedented ductility. This work opens up the possibility of searching for ductile inorganic semiconductors/ceramics for flexible electronic devices.

  4. [Effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers on emission and sources of N2O in vegetable soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Ding, Jun Jun; Li, Yu Zhong; Xu, Chun Ying; Li, Qiao Zhen; Zheng, Qian; Zhuang, Shan

    2018-05-01

    To clarify the microbial pathway of the N 2 O production and consumption under different fertilizers and provide theoretical basis for the reduction of N 2 O emission and rational management of fertilization in vegetable soils, we examined dynamics of N 2 O flux and isotope signatures under different fertilizer treatments in the vegetable soils of Beijing, by setting up four treatments (organic-acetylene, organic-nonacetylene, inorganic-acetylene, inorganic-nonacetylene) and using the stable isotope technique of natural N 2 O abundance. The results showed that the cumulative N 2 O emission from organic-acetylene group, organic-nonacetylene group, inorganic-acetylene group and inorganic-nonacetylene group was (374±37), (283±34), (458±36), (355±41) g·m -2 in cabbage growing season, respectively. N 2 O fluxes were significantly lower in treatments with organic fertilizer than those with inorganic fertilizer and significantly higher in acetylene group than nonacetylene group. The degree of N 2 O reduction were similar in both fertilizer treatments, and higher nitrification was found in inorganic fertilizer than organic fertilizer treatments. Acetylene only inhibited partial nitrification and partial N 2 O reduction at the peak of N 2 O emission. When the emission was reduced, N 2 O reduction could be completely suppressed. Therefore, the inorganic fertilizer might trigger nitrification and promote higher N 2 O emission. The high concentration of N 2 O could withstand that acetylene to inhibite N 2 O reduction. Hence, using organic fertilizers instead of some inorganic ones could effectively reduce N 2 O emission in vegetable soils of Beijing. The N 2 O concentration threshold should be considered when we identify N 2 O source by acetylene inhibition method.

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology

  6. Method of processing spent fuel cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Masafumi; Ouchi, Atsuhiro; Imahashi, Hiromichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the residual activity of spent fuel cladding tubes in a short period of time and enable safety storage with simple storage equipments. Constitution: Spent fuel cladding tubes made of zirconium alloys discharged from a nuclear fuel reprocessing step are exposed to a grain boundary embrittling atmosphere to cause grain boundary destruction. This causes grain boundary fractures to the zirconium crystal grains as the matrix of nuclear fuels and then precipitation products precipitated to the grain boundary fractures are removed. The zirconium constituting the nuclear fuel cladding tube and other ingredient elements contained in the precipitation products are separated in this removing step and they are separately stored respectively. As a result, zirconium constituting most part of the composition of the spent nuclear fuel cladding tubes can be stored safely at a low activity level. (Takahashi, M.)

  7. Status of spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, I.K.; Hinschberger, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses how several new-generation shopping cask systems are being developed for safe and economical transport of commercial spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes for the generating sites to a federal geologic repository or monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. Primary objectives of the from-reactor spent fuel cask development work are: to increase cask payloads by taking advantage of the increased at-reactor storage time under the current spent fuel management scenario, to facilitate more efficient cask handling operations with reduced occupational radiation exposure, and to promote standardization of the physical interfaces between casks and the shipping and receiving facilities. Increased cask payloads will significantly reduce the numbers of shipments, with corresponding reductions in transportation costs and risks to transportation workers, cask handling personnel, and the general public

  8. Spent fuel storage requirements 1989--2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the US to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 32 years, through the year 2020. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Historical data through December 1988 are derived from the 1989 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 14 refs., 3 figs., 28 tabs

  9. Spent grain as energy source for breweries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, P; Meyer-Pittroff, R [Technical Univ. of Munich, Freising (West Germany)

    1990-01-01

    About 1.7 million tons of spent grain are produced from brewing operations each year in the Federal Republic of Germany. Because there is more spent grain than can be sold as cattle fodder, other uses for this product are being sought. These include composting, methane generation, and direct combustion. Researchers are using anaerobic fermentation as a means of producing biogas and using waste energy from the brewery to heat the fermenter. Combustion of spent grain can give a net energy of 12.8 MJ per kg dry grain. With biogas production, about 15-20% of the whole primary energy or 50% of the primary energy used in the boiling house could be substituted by the biogas.

  10. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Decision Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedrow, C.B.

    1999-11-29

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) made a FY98 commitment to the Department of Energy (DOE) to recommend a technology for the disposal of aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The two technologies being considered, direct co-disposal and melt and dilute, had been previously selected from a group of eleven potential SNF management technologies by the Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team chartered by the DOE''s Office of Spent Fuel Management. To meet this commitment, WSRC organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and ultimately provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE on a preferred SNF alternative management technology.

  12. Geomechanics of the Spent Fuel Test: Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Three years of geomechanical measurements were made at the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) 1400 feet underground in fractured granitic rock. Heating of the rock mass resulted from emplacement of spent fuel as well as the heating by electrical heaters. Cooldown of the rock occurred after the spent fuel was removed and the heaters were turned off. The measurements program examines both gross and localized responses of the rock mass to thermal loading, to evaluate the thermomechanical response of sheared and fractured rock with that of relatively unfractured rock, to compare the magnitudes of displacements during mining with those induced by extensive heating of the rock mass, and to check assumptions regarding symmetry and damaged zones made in numerical modeling of the SFT-C. 28 refs., 113 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly

  14. Spent fuel storage and transportation - ANSTO experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, Tony

    2002-01-01

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) has operated the 10 MW DIDO class High Flux Materials Test Reactor (HIFAR) since 1958. Refuelling the reactor produces about 38 spent fuel elements each year. Australia has no power reactors and only one operating research reactor so that a reprocessing plant in Australia is not an economic proposition. The HEU fuel for HIFAR is manufactured at Dounreay using UK or US origin enriched uranium. Spent fuel was originally sent to Dounreay, UK for reprocessing but this plant was shutdown in 1998. ANSTO participates in the US Foreign Research Reactor Spent Fuel Return program and also has a contract with COGEMA for the reprocessing of non-US origin fuel

  15. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M.S.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures

  16. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1991--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with US Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 50 years, through the year 2040. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. Historical data through December 1990 are derived from the 1991 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges

  17. Spent fuel storage requirements, 1990--2040

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, R.; Bierschbach, M.

    1990-11-01

    Historical inventories of spent fuel are combined with US Department of Energy (DOE) projections of future discharges from commercial nuclear reactors in the United States to provide estimates of spent fuel storage requirements over the next 51 years, through the year 2040. The needs for storage capacity beyond that presently available in the pools are estimated. These estimates incorporate the maximum capacities within current and planned in-pool storage facilities and any planned transshipments of fuel to other reactors or facilities. Existing and future dry storage facilities are also discussed. Historical data through December 1989 are derived from the 1990 Form RW-859 data survey of nuclear utilities. Projected discharges through the end of reactor life are based on DOE estimates of future nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges. 15 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  18. Spent fuel management in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredell, P.J.; Stott, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom, the South African utility, operates one of the largest electricity networks in the world. However, only 6% of the South African generating capacity is nuclear; the remainder is coal fired and hydroelectric. The nuclear component consists of the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant, comprising two French supplied PWRs of 920 MWe each, situated approximately 45 kilometres from cape Town. Construction started in 1976 and the two reactors reached criticality in 1984 and 1985 respectively. South Africa also has an Oak Ridge type research reactor, called SAFARI, operated by the South African Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) at their Pelindaba site near Pretoria. This research reactor was commissioned in 1965, and has been in operation ever since. South Africa has a National Radioactive Waste Disposal facility called Vaalputs, some 600 km north of Cape Town. The facility, operated by AEC, is presently licensed only for the disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes. Vaalputs offers unique features as a potential interim spent fuel storage and final disposal site, such as favorable geology (granite), low seismicity, low population density, remoteness from industrial centres and and conditions. Therefore, this site has been investigated by the AEC as a potential interim spent fuel storage site, but has not yet been licensed for this purpose. Hence, all spent fuel is currently stored on the two sites at Koeberg and Pelindaba respectively. The spent fuel storage pools at Koeberg have recently been enlarged to accommodate the lifetime spent fuel arisings of the plant. Since late 1997, the Safari spent fuel is stored in a pipe storage facility, constructed away from the reactor on the Pelindaba site. (author)

  19. Effect of inorganic nutrients on relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decomposing leaf litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladislav Gulis; Keller Suberkropp

    2003-01-01

    The relative contributions of fungi and bacteria to carbon flow from submerged decaying plant litter at different levels of inorganic nutrients (N and P) were studied. We estimated leaf mass loss, fungal and bacterial biomass and production, and microbial respiration and constructed partial carbon budgets for red maple leaf disks precolonized in a stream and then...

  20. Inorganic nanolayers: structure, preparation, and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah, Bullo; Hussein, Mohd Zobir B

    2015-01-01

    Hydrotalcite-like compounds are two-dimensional inorganic nanolayers also known as clay minerals or anionic clays or layered double hydroxides/layered hydroxy salts, and have emerged as a single type of material with numerous biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, cosmetics, and biosensing. Inorganic nanolayers are promising materials due to their fascinating properties, such as ease of preparation, ability to intercalate different type of anions (inorganic, organic, biomolecules, and even genes), high thermal stability, delivery of intercalated anions in a sustained manner, high biocompatibility, and easy biodegradation. Inorganic nanolayers have been the focus for researchers over the last decade, resulting in widening application horizons, especially in the field of biomedical science. These nanolayers have been widely applied in drug and gene delivery. They have also been applied in biosensing technology, and most recently in bioimaging science. The suitability of inorganic nanolayers for application in drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing technology, and bioimaging science makes them ideal materials to be applied for theranostic purposes. In this paper, we review the structure, methods of preparation, and latest advances made by inorganic nanolayers in such biomedical applications as drug delivery, gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging.

  1. Salicylate-spectrophotometric determination of inorganic monochloramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hui; Chen Zhonglin; Li Xing; Yang Yanling; Li Guibai

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of classical Berthelot reaction, a simple salicylate-spectrophotometric method was developed for quantitative determination of inorganic monochloramine in water samples. With the catalysis of disodium pentacyanonitrosylferrate(III), inorganic monochloramine reacts with salicylate in equimolar to produce indophenol compound which has an intense absorption at 703 nm. Parameters that influence method performance, such as pH, dosage of salicylate and nitroprussiate and reaction time, were modified to enhance the method performance. By using this method, inorganic monochloramine can be distinguished from organic chloramines and other inorganic chlorine species, such as free chlorine, dichloramine, and trichloramine. The molar absorptivities of the final products formed by these compounds are below ±3% of inorganic monochloramine, because of the α-N in them have only one exchangeable hydrogen atom, and cannot react with salicylate to produce the indophenol compound. The upper concentrations of typical ions that do not interfere with the inorganic monochloramine determination are also tested to be much higher than that mostly encountered in actual water treatment. Case study demonstrates that the results obtained from this method are lower than DPD-titrimetric method because the organic chloramines formed by chlorination of organic nitrogenous compounds give no response in the newly established method. And the result measured by salicylate-spectrophotometric method is coincident with theoretical calculation

  2. Acceptance of spent fuel of varying characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, S.M.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is a preliminary overview of a study with the primary objective of establishing a set of acceptance selection criteria and corresponding spent fuel characteristics to be incorporated as a component of requirements for the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). A number of alternative acceptance allocations and selection rules were analyzed to determine the operational sensitivity of each element of the FWMS to the resultant spent fuel characteristics. Preliminary recommendations of the study include three different sets of selection rules to be included in the FWMS design basis. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Neutron intensity of fast reactor spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamatsu, Misao; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    Neutron intensity of spent fuel of the JOYO Mk-II core with a burnup of 62,500 MWd/t and cooling time of 5.2 years was measured at the spent fuel storage pond. The measured data were compared with the calculated values based on the JOYO core management code system `MAGI`, and the average C/E approximately 1.2 was obtained. It was found that the axial neutron intensity didn`t simply follow the burnup distribution, and the neutron intensity was locally increased at the bottom end of the fuel region due to an accumulation of {sup 244}Cm. (author)

  4. Array Detector Modules for Spent Fuel Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey

    2018-05-07

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) proposes to evaluate the arrays of position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid (VFG) detectors for passive gamma-ray emission tomography (ET) to verify the spent fuel in storage casks before storing them in geo-repositories. Our primary objective is to conduct a preliminary analysis of the arrays capabilities and to perform field measurements to validate the effectiveness of the proposed array modules. The outcome of this proposal will consist of baseline designs for the future ET system which can ultimately be used together with neutrons detectors. This will demonstrate the usage of this technology in spent fuel storage casks.

  5. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  6. Conditioning of spent mercury by amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, S. P.; Shon, J. S.; An, B. G.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J. W.; Ji, C. G.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Yang, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Solidification by amalgamation was performed to immobilize and stabilize the liquid spent mercury. First, the appropriate metal and alloy which can convert liquid mercury into a solid form of amalgam were selected through initial tests. The amalgam form, formulated in optimum composition, was characterized and subjected to performance tests including compressive strength, water immersion, leachability and initial vaporization rate to evaluate mechanical integrity, durability and leaching properties. Finally, bench scale amalgamation trial was conducted with about 1 kg of spent mercury to verify the feasibility of amalgamation method

  7. Transporting spent nuclear fuel: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    Although high-level radioactive waste from both commercial and defense activities will be shipped to the repository, this booklet focuses on various aspects of transporting commercial spent fuel, which accounts for the majority of the material to be shipped. The booklet is intended to give the reader a basic understanding of the following: the reasons for transportation of spent nuclear fuel, the methods by which it is shipped, the safety and security precautions taken for its transportation, emergency response procedures in the event of an accident, and the DOE program to develop a system uniquely appropriate to NWPA transportation requirements

  8. Release of segregated nuclides from spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Tait, J.C. [Atomic Energy Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Laboratories

    1997-10-01

    The potential release of fission and activation products from spent nuclear fuel into groundwater after container failure in the Swedish deep repository is discussed. Data from studies of fission gas release from representative Swedish BWR fuel are used to estimate the average fission gas release for the spent fuel population. Information from a variety of leaching studies on LWR and CANDU fuel are then reviewed as a basis for estimating the fraction of the inventory of key radionuclides that could be released preferentially (the Instant Release Fraction of IRF) upon failure of the fuel cladding. The uncertainties associated with these estimates are discussed. 33 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs.

  9. Dissolution studies of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    To obtain quantitative data on the dissolution of high burnup spent nuclear fuel, dissolution study have been carried out at the Department of Chemistry, JAERI, from 1984 under the contract with STA entitled 'Reprocessing Test Study of High Burnup Fuel'. In this study PWR spent fuels of 8,400 to 36,100 MWd/t in averaged burnup were dissolved and the chemical composition and distribution of radioactive nuclides were measured for insoluble residue, cladding material (hull), off-gas and dissolved solution. With these analyses basic data concerning the dissolution and clarification process in the reprocessing plant were accumulated. (author)

  10. Integrated spent nuclear fuel database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henline, S.P.; Klingler, K.G.; Schierman, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    The Distributed Information Systems software Unit at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has designed and developed an Integrated Spent Nuclear Fuel Database System (ISNFDS), which maintains a computerized inventory of all US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Commercial SNF is not included in the ISNFDS unless it is owned or stored by DOE. The ISNFDS is an integrated, single data source containing accurate, traceable, and consistent data and provides extensive data for each fuel, extensive facility data for every facility, and numerous data reports and queries

  11. Significance of campaigned spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doman, J.W.; Tehan, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    Operational experience associated with spent fuel or irradiated hardware shipments to or from the General Electric Morris Facility is presented. The following specific areas are addressed: Problems and difficulties associated with meeting security and safeguard requirements of 10 CFR Part 73; problems associated with routing via railroad; problems associated with scheduling and impact on affected parties when a shipment is delayed or cancelled; and impact on training when shipments spread over many years. The lessons learned from these experiences indicate that spent fuel shipments are best conducted in dedicated open-quotes campaignsclose quotes that concentrate as much consecutive shipping activity as possible into one continuous time frame

  12. Photochemical mineralization of terrigenous DOC to dissolved inorganic carbon in ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Aarnos, Hanna; Gélinas, Yves; Kasurinen, Ville; Gu, Yufei; Puupponen, Veli-Mikko; Vähätalo, Anssi

    2018-01-01

    When terrigenous dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) rich in chromophoric dissolved organic matter (tCDOM) enters the ocean, solar radiation mineralizes it partially into dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). This study addresses the amount and the rates of DIC photoproduction from tDOC and the area of ocean required to photomineralize tDOC. We collected water samples from 10 major rivers, mixed them with artificial seawater, and irradiated them with simulated solar radiation to measure DIC photoprod...

  13. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  14. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  15. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  16. Inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructures useful for thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Kevin C.; Urban, Jeffrey J.; Segalman, Rachel A.; Coates, Nelson E.; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention provides for an inorganic nanostructure-organic polymer heterostructure, useful as a thermoelectric composite material, comprising (a) an inorganic nanostructure, and (b) an electrically conductive organic polymer disposed on the inorganic nanostructure. Both the inorganic nanostructure and the electrically conductive organic polymer are solution-processable.

  17. Methods for Introducing Inorganic Polymer Concepts throughout the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lill, Daniel T.; Carraher, Charles E., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic polymers can be introduced in a variety of undergraduate courses to discuss concepts related to polymer chemistry. Inorganic polymers such as silicates and polysiloxanes are simple materials that can be incorporated into an introductory or descriptive inorganic course. Polymers based on inorganic carbon, including diamond and graphite,…

  18. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  19. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  20. Development of advanced spent fuel management process. System analysis of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, S.G.; Kang, D.S.; Seo, C.S.; Lee, H.H.; Shin, Y.J.; Park, S.W.

    1999-03-01

    The system analysis of an advanced spent fuel management process to establish a non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management is performed by comparing the several dry processes, such as a salt transport process, a lithium process, the IFR process developed in America, and DDP developed in Russia. In our system analysis, the non-proliferation concept is focused on the separation factor between uranium and plutonium and decontamination factors of products in each process, and the non-proliferation model for the long-term spent fuel management has finally been introduced. (Author). 29 refs., 17 tabs., 12 figs

  1. Safeguardability of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. K. (Tien K.); Lee, S. Y. (Sang Yoon); Burr, Tom; Russo, P. A. (Phyllis A.); Menlove, Howard O.; Kim, H. D.; Ko, W. I. (Won Il); Park, S. W.; Park, H. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) is an electro-metallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuel into a metallic form. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing this technology since 1977 for the purpose of spent fuel management and is planning to perform a lab-scale demonstration in 2006. By using of this technology, a significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected, which would lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety and economics. In the framework of collaboration agreement to develop the safeguards system for the ACP, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the KAERI since 2002. In this study, the safeguardability of the ACP technology was examined for the pilot-scale facility. The process and material flows were conceptually designed, and the uncertainties in material accounting were estimated with international target values.

  2. Spent fuel surveillance and monitoring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting on ''Spent Fuel Surveillance and Monitoring Methods'' (27-30 October 1987) has been organized in accordance with recommendations of the International Standing Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management during its second meeting in 1986. The aim of the meeting was to discuss the above questions with emphasis on current design and operation criteria, safety principles and licensing requirements and procedures in order to prevent: inadvertent criticality, undue radiation exposure, unacceptable release of radioactivity as well as control for loss of storage pool water, crud impact, water chemistry, distribution and behaviour of particulates in cooling water, oxidation of intact and failed fuel rods as a function of temperature and burnup; distribution of radiation and temperature through dry cask wall, monitoring of leakages from pools and gas escapes from dry storage facilities, periodical integrity tests of the containment barriers, responsibilities of organizations for the required operation, structure, staff and subordination, etc. The presentations of the Meeting were divided into two sessions: Spent fuel surveillance programmes and practice in Member States (4 papers); Experimental methods developed in support of spent fuel surveillance programmes (5 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Spent fuel and waste inventories and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, W.L.; Finney, B.C.; Alexander, C.W.; Blomeke, J.O.; McNair, J.M.

    1980-08-01

    Current inventories of commercial spent fuels and both commercial and US Department of Energy radioactive wastes were compiled, based on judgments of the most reliable information available from Government sources and the open literature. Future waste generation rates and quantities to be accumulated over the remainder of this century are also presented, based on a present projection of US commercial nuclear power growth and expected defense-related activities. Spent fuel projections are based on the current DOE/EIA estimate of nuclear growth, which projects 180 GW(e) in the year 2000. It is recognized that the calculated spent fuel discharges are probably high in view of recent reactor cancellations; hence adjustments will be made in future updates of this report. Wastes considered, on a chapter-by-chapter basis, are: spent fuel, high-level wastes, transuranic wastes, low-level wastes, mill tailings (active sites), and remedial action wastes. The latter category includes mill tailings (inactive sites), surplus facilities, formerly utilized sites, and the Grand Junction Project. For each category, waste volume inventories and projections are given through the year 2000. The land usage requirements are given for storage/disposal of low-level and transuranic wastes, and for present inventories of mill tailings

  4. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D.; Kim, S. H.

    2004-02-01

    In this research, the remote handling technology is developed for the advanced spent fuel conditioning process which gives a possible solution to deal with the rapidly increasing spent fuels. In detail, a fuel rod slitting device is developed for the decladding of the spent fuel. A series of experiments has been performed to find out the optimal condition of the spent fuel voloxidation which converts the UO 2 pellet into U 3 O 8 powder. The design requirements of the ACP equipment for hot test is established by analysing the modular requirement, radiation hardening and thermal protection of the process equipment, etc. The prototype of the servo manipulator is developed. The manipulator has an excellent performance in terms of the payload to weight ratio that is 30 % higher than that of existing manipulators. To provide reliability and safety of the ACP, the 3 dimensional graphic simulator is developed. Using the simulator the remote handling operation is simulated and as a result, the optimal layout of ACP is obtained. The supervisory control system is designed to control and monitor the several different unit processes. Also the failure monitoring system is developed to detect the possible accidents of the reduction reactor

  5. Regional spent fuel storage facility (RSFSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of the meetings held on the technology and safety aspects of regional spent fuel storage facilities. The questions of technique, economy and key public and political issues will be covered as well as the aspects to be considered for implementation of a regional facility. (author)

  6. Casette for storage of spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a design of a casette for spent fuel storage in a fuelstorage pool. The new design, based on flexible spacers, allows the fuel assemblies to be packed more compact and the fuel storage pool used in a more economic way

  7. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D.; Kim, Y. H.

    2001-03-01

    Since the amount of the spent fuel rapidly increases, the current R and D activities are focused on the technology development related with the storage and utilization of the spent fuel. In this research, to provide such a technology, the mechanical head-end process has been developed. In detail, the swing and shock-free crane and the RCGLUD(Remote Cask Grappling and Lid Unbolting Device) were developed for the safe transportation of the spent fuel assembly, the LLW drum and the transportation cask. Also, the disassembly devices required for the head-end process were developed. This process consists of an assembly downender, a rod extractor, a rod cutter, a fuel decladding device, a skeleton compactor, a force-rectifiable manipulator for the abnormal spent fuel disassembly, and the gantry type telescopic transporter, etc. To provide reliability and safety of these devices, the 3 dimensional graphic design system is developed. In this system, the mechanical devices are modelled and their operation is simulated in the virtual environment using the graphic simulation tools. So that the performance and the operational mal-function can be investigated prior to the fabrication of the devices. All the devices are tested and verified by using the fuel prototype at the mockup facility

  8. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, J.S.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities' specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost

  9. Spent-fuel-stabilizer screening studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynhoff, N.; Girault, S.E.; Fish, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    A broad range of potential stabilizer materials was identified and screened for packaging spent fuel assemblies for underground storage. The screening took into consideration the thermal gradient, stress, differential thermal expansion, nuclear criticality, radiation shielding, cost, and availability. Recommended stabilizer materials for further testing include silica, quartz, mullite, zircon, bentonite, graphite, gases, lead, Zn alloys, Cu alloys, etc

  10. Magnetically modified spent grain for dye removal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Horská, Kateřina; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2011), s. 78-80 ISSN 0733-5210 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09052; GA MPO 2A-1TP1/094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Spent grain * Magnetic fluid * Adsorption * Dyes Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.073, year: 2011

  11. Corrosion of spent Advanced Test Reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundberg, L.B.; Croson, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a study of the condition of spent nuclear fuel elements from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) currently being stored underwater at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are presented. This study was motivated by a need to estimate the corrosion behavior of dried, spent ATR fuel elements during dry storage for periods up to 50 years. The study indicated that the condition of spent ATR fuel elements currently stored underwater at the INEL is not very well known. Based on the limited data and observed corrosion behavior in the reactor and in underwater storage, it was concluded that many of the fuel elements currently stored under water in the facility called ICPP-603 FSF are in a degraded condition, and it is probable that many have breached cladding. The anticipated dehydration behavior of corroded spent ATR fuel elements was also studied, and a list of issues to be addressed by fuel element characterization before and after forced drying of the fuel elements and during dry storage is presented

  12. PROTEIN ENRICHMENT OF SPENT SORGHUM RESIDUE USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    The optimum concentration of spent sorghum for protein enrichment with S. cerevisiae was 7.Sg/100 ml. Th.: protein ... production of single sell protein using Candida utilis and cassava starch effluem as substrate. ... wastes as substrates, Kluyveromyces fragilis and milk whey coconut water as substrate (Rahmat et al.,. 1995 ...

  13. Conditioning experience for spent radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, I. S.; Shon, J. S.; Kim, K. J.; Min, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this paper is to apply the technology that was adapted by IAEA for the conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in member states, as a part of IAEA's project with the Korean expert team. This paper is the result that the Korean expert team carried out spent radium conditioning, under the project title 'Radium Conditioning in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. The whole inventory of spent radium sources 1,429.5mCi, was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer and the control of Myanmar authority on behalf of Myanmar. These sources were encapsuled and welded into 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 concrete-shielded drums. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500mCi, 459.5mCi, and 470mCi

  14. Comparison of spent nuclear fuel management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, C.L.; Caldwell, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the process an results of a trade study of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)management alternatives. The purpose of the trade study was to provide: (1) a summary of various SNF management alternatives, (2) an objective comparison of the various alternatives to facilitate the decision making process, and (3) documentation of trade study rational and the basis for decisions

  15. Operation of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on safety of spent fuel storage. This is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes key activities in the operation of spent fuel storage facilities. Section 3 lists the basic safety considerations for storage facility operation, the fundamental safety objectives being subcriticality, heat removal and radiation protection. Recommendations for organizing the management of a facility are contained in Section 4. Section 5 deals with aspects of training and qualification; Section 6 describes the phases of the commissioning of a spent fuel storage facility. Section 7 describes operational limits and conditions, while Section 8 deals with operating procedures and instructions. Section 9 deals with maintenance, testing, examination and inspection. Section 10 presents recommendations for radiation and environmental protection. Recommendations for the quality assurance (QA) system are presented in Section 11. Section 12 describes the aspects of safeguards and physical protection to be taken into account during operations; Section 13 gives guidance for decommissioning. 15 refs, 5 tabs

  16. Spent fuel management: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    The main objective of the Advisory Group on Spent Fuel Management is to review the world-wide situation in Spent Fuel Management, to define the most important directions of national efforts and international cooperation in this area, to exchange information on the present status and progress in performing the back-end of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to elaborate the general recommendations for future Agency programmes in the field of spent fuel management. This report which is a result of the third IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (the first and second were held in 1984 and 1986) is intended to provide the reader with an overview of the status of spent fuel management programmes in a number of leading countries, with a description of the past and present IAEA activities in this field of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and with the Agency's plans for the next years, based on the proposals and recommendations of Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 14 papers presented at the advisory group meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Time spent on television in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Coenders, M.T.A.; Scheepers, P.L.H.; Konig, R.P.; Nelissen, P.W.M.; Huysmans, F.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to explain the variation in time spent on watching television in 15 European Union countries, using determinants defined at the individual level, and characteristics defined at the national level, such as the number of channels and nature of the television supply. The results of the

  18. Method for processing spent nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levenson, M.; Zebroski, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus are claimed for processing spent nuclear reactor fuel wherein plutonium is continuously contaminated with radioactive fission products and diluted with uranium. Plutonium of sufficient purity to fabricate nuclear weapons cannot be produced by the process or in the disclosed reprocessing plant. Diversion of plutonium is prevented by radiation hazards and ease of detection

  19. High density aseismic spent fuel storage racks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, J.P.

    1985-05-01

    After the reasons of the development of high density aseismic spent fuel racks by FRAMATOME and LEMER, a description is presented, as also the codes, standards and regulations used to design this FRAMATOME storage rack. Tests have been carried out concerning criticality, irradiation of Cadminox, corrosion of the cell, and the seismic behaviour

  20. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project

  1. Spent Fuel Storage Operation - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    Experience gained in planning, constructing, licensing, operating, managing and modifying spent fuel storage facilities in some Member States now exceeds 50 years. Continual improvement is only achieved through post-project review and ongoing evaluation of operations and processes. This publication is aimed at collating and sharing lessons learned. Hopefully, the information provided will assist Member States that already have a developed storage capability and also those considering development of a spent nuclear fuel storage capability in making informed decisions when managing their spent nuclear fuel. This publication is expected to complement the ongoing Coordinated Research Project on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III); the scope of which prioritizes facility operational practices in lieu of fuel and structural components behaviour over extended durations. The origins of the current publication stem from a consultants meeting held on 10-12 December 2007 in Vienna, with three participants from the IAEA, Slovenia and USA, where an initial questionnaire on spent fuel storage was formulated (Annex I). The resultant questionnaire was circulated to participants of a technical meeting, Spent Fuel Storage Operations - Lessons Learned. The technical meeting was held in Vienna on 13-16 October 2008, and sixteen participants from ten countries attended. A consultants meeting took place on 18-20 May 2009 in Vienna, with five participants from the IAEA, Slovenia, UK and USA. The participants reviewed the completed questionnaires and produced an initial draft of this publication. A third consultants meeting took place on 9-11 March 2010, which six participants from Canada, Hungary, IAEA, Slovenia and the USA attended. The meeting formulated a second questionnaire (Annex II) as a mechanism for gaining further input for this publication. A final consultants meeting was arranged on 20-22 June 2011 in Vienna. Six participants from Hungary, IAEA, Japan

  2. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterward undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. 44 refs., 3 figs

  3. Uranium in selected endorheic basins as partial analogue for spent fuel behavior in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luik, A.E. van

    1987-01-01

    If uranium (U) behavior with respect to the components of certain endorheic (closed) basin subsurface, playa, or terminal lake brines were quantitatively understood, the ability to predict the long-term redistribution of emplaced U among analogous components of salt formations may be enhanced. Tests that determine the nature of U interactions with pure mineral and organic matter surfaces are important, but studying the natural systems available could give indications of long-term stabilities of processes, and of preferential processes. For example, some metals present in trace quantities, such as U, may be coprecipitated in the oxidized zone with an evaporite mineral that may afterwards undergo diagenesis, especially if conditions become more reducing. During diagenesis, the trace metal may be remobilized, but scavenged by sulfides or organic particulates, leaving the evaporite mineral depleted of its trace metal content. A survey of the literature shows some trace metal behavior in closed basins has been studied. However, information on U consists of only a few abundance determinations for some evaporite systems. Obtaining and interpreting natural analogue data for the U and Th decay series in selected endorheic basin environments is suggested. (author)

  4. The psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paavola, J.; Eraenen, L.

    1999-03-01

    In this report the potential psychosocial consequences of spent fuel disposal to inhabitants of a community are assessed on the basis of earlier research. In studying the situation, different interpretations and meanings given to nuclear power are considered. First, spent fuel disposal is studied as fear-arousing and consequently stressful situation. Psychosomatic effects of stress and coping strategies used by an individual are presented. Stress as a collective phenomenon and coping mechanisms available for a community are also assessed. Stress reactions caused by natural disasters and technological disasters are compared. Consequences of nuclear power plant accidents are reviewed, e.g. research done on the accident at Three Mile Island power plant. Reasons for the disorganising effect on a community caused by a technological disaster are compared to the altruistic community often seen after natural disasters. The potential reactions that a spent fuel disposal plant can arouse in inhabitants are evaluated. Both short-term and long-term reactions are evaluated as well as reactions under normal functioning, after an incident and as a consequence of an accident. Finally an evaluation of how the decision-making system and citizens' opportunity to influence the decision-making affect the experience of threat is expressed. As a conclusion we see that spent fuel disposal can arouse fear and stress in people. However, the level of the stress is probably low. The stress is at strongest at the time of the starting of the spent fuel disposal plant. With time people get used to the presence of the plant and the threat experienced gets smaller. (orig.)

  5. US spent fuel research and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machiels, A [EPRI and USDOE (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The structural performance of high-burnup spent fuel cladding during dry storage and transportation has been the subject of research and evaluation at EPRI for several years. The major issues addressed in this research program have included the following: Characterization and development of predictive models for damage mechanisms perceived to be potentially active during dry storage; Modeling and analysis of deformation processes during long-term dry storage; Development of cladding failure models and failure criteria, considering cladding material and physical conditions during dry storage and transportation; Failure analysis, considering end-of-dry-storage conditions, of spent fuel systems subjected to normal and accident conditions of transport, prescribed in Part 71 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10CFR71) While issues related to dry storage have largely been resolved, transportation issues have not, at least for spent fuel with discharge burnups greater than 45 GWd/MTU. A research program was launched in late 2002 following two NRC-industry meetings held on September 6, 2002 and October 23, 2002. The aim of the research program was to assess the performance of high-burnup spent fuel cladding under normal and accident conditions of transportation, as prescribed by 10CFR71, considering the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of cladding at the end of dry storage. The objective is to present a synthesis of the information that collectively forms a part of a technical basis intended to facilitate resolution of regulatory issues associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel characterized by discharge burnups greater than 45 GWd/MTU.

  6. Spent fuel disposal problem in Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanov, M; Stefanova, I [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika

    1994-12-31

    The internationally agreed basic safety principles and criteria for spent fuel (SF) and high level waste (HLW) disposal are outlined. In the framework of these principles the specific problems of Bulgaria described in the `National Concept for Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal in Republic of Bulgaria` are discussed. The possible alternatives for spent fuel management are: (1) sending the spent fuel for disposal in other country; (2) once-through cycle and (3) closed fuel cycle. A mixed solution of the problem is implemented in Bulgaria. According to the agreement between Bulgaria and former Soviet Union a part of the spent fuel has been returned to Russia. The once-through and closed-fuel cycle are also considered. The projected cumulated amount of spent fuel is estimated for two cases: (1) the six units of Kozloduy NPP are in operation till the end of their lifetime (3300 tHM) and (2) low estimate (2700 tHM) - only units 5 and 6 are operated till the end of their lifetime. The reprocessing of the total amount of 3300 tHM will lead to the production of about 370 m{sup 3} vitrified high level wastes. Together with the HLW about 1850 m{sup 3} cladding hulls and 7800 m{sup 3} intermediate-level wastes will be generated, which should be disposed off in deep geological repository. The total production of radioactive waste in once-through cycle is 181 000 m{sup 3}, and in closed cycle - 190 000 m{sup 3}. Geological investigations are performed resulting in categorization of the territory of the country based on geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological conditions. This will facilitate the choice of the most suitable location for deep geological repository. 7 figs., 11 refs.

  7. Foundation Coursework in Undergraduate Inorganic Chemistry: Results from a National Survey of Inorganic Chemistry Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.; Reisner, Barbara A.; Smith, Sheila R.; Stewart, Joanne L.; Crane, Johanna L.; Pesterfield, Les; Sobel, Sabrina G.

    2015-01-01

    A national survey of inorganic chemists explored the self-reported topics covered in foundation-level courses in inorganic chemistry at the postsecondary level; the American Chemical Society's Committee on Professional Training defines a foundation course as one at the conclusion of which, "a student should have mastered the vocabulary,…

  8. Development and engineering plan for graphite spent fuels conditioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, C.L.; Fillmore, D.L.; Kirkham, R.J.; Lord, D.L.; Phillips, M.B.; Pinto, A.P.; Staiger, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    Irradiated (or spent) graphite fuel stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) includes Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reactor and Peach Bottom reactor spent fuels. Conditioning and disposal of spent graphite fuels presently includes three broad alternatives: (1) direct disposal with minimum fuel packaging or conditioning, (2) mechanical disassembly of spent fuel into high-level waste and low-level waste portions to minimize geologic repository requirements, and (3) waste-volume reduction via burning of bulk graphite and other spent fuel chemical processing of the spent fuel. A multi-year program for the engineering development and demonstration of conditioning processes is described. Program costs, schedules, and facility requirements are estimated

  9. Safety aspects of dry spent fuel storage and spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, W.; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Kasparek, E.

    2014-01-01

    The storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects like safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, nuclear criticality safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. In Germany dual purpose casks for SF or HLW are used for safe transportation and interim storage. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, present the storage licensing process including sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields (authors)

  10. The Spent Fuel Management in Finland and Modifications of Spent Fuel Storages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaranen, Paeivi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share the Finnish regulator's (STUK) experiences on regulatory oversight of the enlargement of a spent fuel interim storage. An overview of the current situation of spent fuel management in Finland will also be given. In addition, the planned modifications and requirements set for spent fuel storages due to the Fukushima accident are discussed. In Finland, there are four operating reactors, one under construction and two reactors that have a Council of State's Decision-in-Principle to proceed with the planning and licensing of a new reactor. In Olkiluoto, the two operating ASEA-Atom BWR units and the Areva EPR under construction have a shared interim storage for the spent fuel. The storage was designed and constructed in 1980's. The option for enlarging the storage was foreseen in the original design. Considering three operating units to produce their spent fuel and the final disposal to begin in 2022, extra space in the spent fuel storage is estimated to be needed in around 2014. The operator decided to double the number of the spent fuel pools of the storage and the construction began in 2010. The capacity of the enlarged spent fuel storage is considered to be sufficient for the three Olkiluoto units. The enlargement of the interim storage was included in Olkiluoto NPP 1 and 2 operating license. The licensing of the enlargement was conducted as a major plant modification. The operator needed the approval from STUK to conduct the enlargement. Prior to the construction of this modification, the operator was required to submit the similar documentation as needed for applying for the construction license of a nuclear facility. When conducting changes in an old nuclear facility, the new safety requirements have to be followed. The major challenge in the designing the enlargement of the spent fuel storage was to modify it to withstand a large airplane crash. The operator chose to cover the pools with protecting slabs and also to

  11. Sol - gel inorganic ion exchangers for conditioning of medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, G.; Traverso, D.M.; Gerontopoulos, P.; Fava, R.

    1988-01-01

    Decontamination of high-level liquid wastes and medium activity wastes streams by inorganic ion exchange combined with the conversion of the spent inorganic ion exchange material to waste ceramics presents a considerable potential for utilisation in waste conditioning. Ceramic waste forms are found superior to other candidate waste immobilisation forms but practical implementation is hampered because of the complexity of the related fabrication technology. This report shows the possibility of improving this situation by resorting to sol gel techniques earlier developed for preparation of nuclear fuel ceramics. The principal findings are: - superior quality ion exchange xerogel titanates in the form of mechanically resistant, size controlled microspheres can be prepared using a simple sol-gel technique; - the titanate particles can be also used as precursors in Evaporative Deposition on Xerogel Particles (EDXP) a new waste solidification process based on physical impregnation of the xerogel material with the waste liquid followed by evaporation; - waste loaded ion exchange microspheres can be converted to leach resistant ceramics by firing and/or cold pressing and sintering at 900 0 -1100 0 C; - sol-gel inorganic ion exchange and EDXP may find useful application in conditioning MAW streams. 44 figs., 43 refs

  12. Radioactive spent resins conditioning by the hot super-compaction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Andreas; Centner, Baudouin; Lemmens, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Spent ion exchanger media are considered to be problematic waste that, in many cases, requires special approaches and precautions during its immobilization to meet the acceptance criteria for disposal. The waste acceptance criteria define, among others, the quality of waste forms for disposal, and therefore will sometimes define appropriate treatment options. The selection of treatment options for spent ion exchange materials must consider their physical and chemical characteristics. Basically, the main methods for the treatment of spent organic ion exchange materials, following to pretreatment methods are: - Direct immobilization, producing a stable end product by using Cement, Bitumen, Polymer or High Integrity Containers, - The destruction of the organic compounds by using Thermochemical processes or Oxidation to produce an inorganic intermediate product that may or may not be further conditioned for storage and/or disposal, - The complete removal of the resin inner structural water by a thermal process. After a thorough technical economical analysis, Tractebel Engineering selected the Resin Hot Compaction Process to be installed at Tihange Nuclear Power Plant. The Resin Hot Compaction Process is used to make dense homogenous organic blocks from a wide range of particulate waste. In this process spent resins are first dewatered and dried to remove the inner structural water content. The drying takes place in a drying vessel that holds the contents of two 200 L drums (Figure). In the oil heated drying and mixing unit, the resins are heated to the necessary process temperature for the hot pressing step and then placed into special metal drums, which are automatically lidded and immediately transferred to a high force compactor. After high force compaction the pellets are transferred to a measuring unit, where the dose rate, height and weight are automatically measured and recorded. A volume reduction factor of approximately up to four (depending on the type of

  13. Centralized disassembly and packaging of spent fuel in the DOE spent fuel management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    In October 1984, E.R. Johnson Associates, Inc. (JAI) initiated a study of the prospective use of a centralized facility for the disassembly and packaging of spent fuel to support the various elements of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) spent fuel management system, including facilities for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and repositories. It was DOE's original plan to receive spent fuel at each repository where it would be disassembled and packaged (overpacked) for disposal purposes. Subsequently, DOE considered the prospective use of MRS of spent fuel as an option for providing safe and reliable management of spent fuel. This study was designed to consider possible advantages of the use of centralized facilities for disassembly and packaging of spent fuel at whose location storage facilities could be added as required. The study was divided into three principal technical tasks that covered: (a) development of requirements and criteria for the central disassembly and packaging facility and associated systems. (2) Development of conceptual designs for the central disassembly and packaging facility and associated systems. (3) Estimation of capital and operating costs involved for all system facilities and determination of life cycle costs for various scenarios of operation - for comparison with the reference system

  14. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  15. Intercalation compounds involving inorganic layered structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTINO VERA R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional inorganic networks can shown intracrystalline reactivity, i.e., simple ions, large species as Keggin ions, organic species, coordination compounds or organometallics can be incorporated in the interlayer region. The host-guest interaction usually causes changes in their chemical, catalytic, electronic and optical properties. The isolation of materials with interesting properties and making use of soft chemistry routes have given rise the possibility of industrial and technological applications of these compounds. We have been using several synthetic approaches to intercalate porphyrins and phthalocyanines into inorganic materials: smectite clays, layered double hydroxides and layered niobates. The isolated materials have been characterized by elemental and thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, surface area measurements, scanning electronic microscopy, electronic and resonance Raman spectroscopies and EPR. The degree of layer stacking and the charge density of the matrices as well their acid-base nature were considered in our studies on the interaction between the macrocycles and inorganic hosts.

  16. Industrial inorganic chemistry. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechner, W.; Schliebs, R.; Winter, G.; Buechel, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic chemistry is a branch of considerable economic and technical importance. Apart from supplying the market with metals, fertilizers, building materials, pigments and glass it is one of the major suppliers of process materials to the organic chemical industry. Many modern products of other industrial sectors (video tapes, optical fibers or silicon chips) could not have been developed and manufactured without the achievements of industrial inorganic chemistry. The publication is the first of its kind to give a compact description of the inorganic chemistry sector. A clearly arranged survey facilitates access to production processes, economic aspects, ecological implications, energy consumption and raw material consumption as well as to many other data and facts. Due to its clear arrangement and the combination of technical and economic facts the book is a valuable source of information. (orig./EF) [de

  17. Inorganic Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Swierczewska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal molecular imaging can offer a synergistic improvement of diagnostic ability over a single imaging modality. Recent development of hybrid imaging systems has profoundly impacted the pool of available multimodal imaging probes. In particular, much interest has been focused on biocompatible, inorganic nanoparticle-based multimodal probes. Inorganic nanoparticles offer exceptional advantages to the field of multimodal imaging owing to their unique characteristics, such as nanometer dimensions, tunable imaging properties, and multifunctionality. Nanoparticles mainly based on iron oxide, quantum dots, gold, and silica have been applied to various imaging modalities to characterize and image specific biologic processes on a molecular level. A combination of nanoparticles and other materials such as biomolecules, polymers, and radiometals continue to increase functionality for in vivo multimodal imaging and therapeutic agents. In this review, we discuss the unique concepts, characteristics, and applications of the various multimodal imaging probes based on inorganic nanoparticles.

  18. Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Garcia, F.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Fernandez Llorenta, M.; Tascon, J.M.D. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Oviedo (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    A combination of techniques was used to characterize the inorganic constituents of four types of vegetable biomass: apple pulp, olive cake, olive tree pruning and thistle. Two methods were used to selectively eliminate organic matter: low-temperature oxidation in an oxygen plasma, and medium-temperature oxidation in air. Inorganic species present in the residues were identified by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The combination of these techniques allowed one to detect SiO{sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3} and various other Ca-, Mg-, Na- and K-containing phases as inorganic constituents of the studied biomass residues. It is concluded that the oxygen plasma treatment produces sulphates and nitrates that were not present in the starting material. Medium-temperature oxidation does not produce these artificial species but induces some thermal transformations in the mineral constituents of biomass, so that each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. 27 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive waste and management of spent ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the ion exchange technologies currently used and under development in nuclear industry, in particular for waste management practices, along with the experience gained in their application and with the subsequent handling, treatment and conditioning of spent ion exchange media for long term storage and/or disposal. The increased role of inorganic ion exchangers for treatment of radioactive liquid waste, both in nuclear power plant operations and in the fuel reprocessing sector, is recognised in this report. The intention of this report is to consolidate the previous publications, document recent developments and describe the state of the art in the application of ion exchange processes for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste and the management of spent ion exchange materials

  20. Engineered inorganic core/shell nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mélinon, Patrice, E-mail: patrice.melinon@univ-lyon1.fr [Institut Lumière matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Léon Brillouin, 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Begin-Colin, Sylvie [IPCMS et OMNT, 23 rue du Loess BP 43, 67034 STRASBOURG Cedex 2 (France); Duvail, Jean Luc [IMN UMR 6502 et OMNT Campus Sciences : 2 rue de la Houssinire, BP32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex3 (France); Gauffre, Fabienne [SPM et OMNT : Institut des sciences chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, 263 Avenue du General Leclerc, CS 74205, 35042 RENNES Cedex (France); Boime, Nathalie Herlin [IRAMIS-NIMBE, Laboratoire Francis Perrin (CEA CNRS URA 2453) et OMNT, Bat 522, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Ledoux, Gilles [Institut Lumière Matière Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 et CNRS et OMNT, Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Bâtiment Alfred Kastler 43 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 F 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Plain, Jérôme [Universit de technologie de Troyes LNIO-ICD, CNRS et OMNT 12 rue Marie Curie - CS 42060 - 10004 Troyes cedex (France); Reiss, Peter [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA-CNRS-UJF et OMNT, Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Silly, Fabien [CEA, IRAMIS, SPEC, TITANS, CNRS 2464 et OMNT, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Warot-Fonrose, Bénédicte [CEMES-CNRS, Université de Toulouse et OMNT, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig F 31055 Toulouse (France)

    2014-10-20

    It has been for a long time recognized that nanoparticles are of great scientific interest as they are effectively a bridge between bulk materials and atomic structures. At first, size effects occurring in single elements have been studied. More recently, progress in chemical and physical synthesis routes permitted the preparation of more complex structures. Such structures take advantages of new adjustable parameters including stoichiometry, chemical ordering, shape and segregation opening new fields with tailored materials for biology, mechanics, optics magnetism, chemistry catalysis, solar cells and microelectronics. Among them, core/shell structures are a particular class of nanoparticles made with an inorganic core and one or several inorganic shell layer(s). In earlier work, the shell was merely used as a protective coating for the core. More recently, it has been shown that it is possible to tune the physical properties in a larger range than that of each material taken separately. The goal of the present review is to discuss the basic properties of the different types of core/shell nanoparticles including a large variety of heterostructures. We restrict ourselves on all inorganic (on inorganic/inorganic) core/shell structures. In the light of recent developments, the applications of inorganic core/shell particles are found in many fields including biology, chemistry, physics and engineering. In addition to a representative overview of the properties, general concepts based on solid state physics are considered for material selection and for identifying criteria linking the core/shell structure and its resulting properties. Chemical and physical routes for the synthesis and specific methods for the study of core/shell nanoparticle are briefly discussed.

  1. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  2. Effects of Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil and Organic Amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Spent Engine Oil Polluted Soil and Organic Amendment on Soil ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... of using organic fertilizer as bioremediant for spent engine oil polluted soils.

  3. Status and prospects for spent fuel management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal, R.; L'Epine, P. de

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel arisings and storage capacities, the interface between fuel storage and transportation activities, the spent fuel storage technology, the reprocessing and recycling industrial activities in France are described in the paper. (author). 6 figs, 8 tabs

  4. Spent oxide fuel regeneration by crystallization in molybdate melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, O.A.; Sukhanov, L.P.; Yakunin, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Paper describes a procedure to regenerate spent oxide fuel by its crystallization in molybdate melts. Paper presents the process procedures to regenerate spent fuel of both fast and thermal neutron reactors. One analyzes the advantages of the elaborated procedure [ru

  5. Management and storage of spent fuel from CEA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, F.

    1996-01-01

    CEA research reactors and their interim spent fuel storage facilities are described. Long-term solutions for spent fuel storage problems, involving wet storage at PEGASE or dry storage at CASCAD, are outlined in some detail. (author)

  6. EURATOM safeguards efforts in the development of spent fuel verification methods by non-destructive assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matloch, L.; Vaccaro, S.; Couland, M.; De Baere, P.; Schwalbach, P. [Euratom, Communaute europeenne de l' energie atomique - CEEA (European Commission (EC))

    2015-07-01

    The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to develop. The European Commission, particularly the Nuclear Safeguards Directorate of the Directorate General for Energy, implements Euratom safeguards and needs to adapt to this situation. The verification methods for spent nuclear fuel, which EURATOM inspectors can use, require continuous improvement. Whereas the Euratom on-site laboratories provide accurate verification results for fuel undergoing reprocessing, the situation is different for spent fuel which is destined for final storage. In particular, new needs arise from the increasing number of cask loadings for interim dry storage and the advanced plans for the construction of encapsulation plants and geological repositories. Various scenarios present verification challenges. In this context, EURATOM Safeguards, often in cooperation with other stakeholders, is committed to further improvement of NDA methods for spent fuel verification. In this effort EURATOM plays various roles, ranging from definition of inspection needs to direct participation in development of measurement systems, including support of research in the framework of international agreements and via the EC Support Program to the IAEA. This paper presents recent progress in selected NDA methods. These methods have been conceived to satisfy different spent fuel verification needs, ranging from attribute testing to pin-level partial defect verification. (authors)

  7. Development of Inorganic Solar Cells by Nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yafei Zhang; Huijuan Geng; Zhihua Zhou; Jiang Wu; Zhiming Wang; Yaozhong Zhang; Zhongli Li; Liying Zhang; Zhi Yang; Huey Liang Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Inorganic solar cells, as durable photovoltaic devices for harvesting electric energy from sun light,have received tremendous attention due to the fear of exhausting the earth’s energy resources and damaging the living environment due to greenhouse gases. Some recent developments in nanotechnology have opened up new avenues for more relevant inorganic solar cells produced by new photovoltaic conversion concepts and effective solar energy harvesting nanostructures. In this review, the multiple exciton generation effect solar cells, hot carrier solar cells, one dimensional material constructed asymmetrical schottky barrier arrays, noble nanoparticle induced plasmonic enhancement, and light trapping nanostructured semiconductor solar cells are highlighted.

  8. Separation of fission products using inorganic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, T.S.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Venkatachalam, R.; Varma, R.N.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the separation of long lived fission products like caesium-137, strontium-90 using inorganic exchangers ammonium phosphomolybdate and zirconium antimonate. A revised flow sheet is proposed for the sequential separation of these isotopes using the above two compounds. This is a modification of the earlier scheme developed which involved the use of four inorganic exchangers namely ammonium phosphomolybdate, manganese dioxide, zirconium antimonate and polyantimonic acid. The elution of the adsorbed elements like cerium, strontium, and sodium has been studied and it has been possible to elute these using different eluting agents. (author)

  9. Chronic inorganic mercury induced peripheral neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, C.-C.; Huang, C.-C.; Ryu, S.-J. [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Dept. of Neurology, Tapei (Taiwan, Province of China); Wu, T.-N. [Executive Yuan, Dept. of Health, Surveillance and Quarantine Service, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-12-01

    We report the clinical features, electrophysiological studies, and morphometric analysis of sural nerve pathology in a patient with polyneuropathy due to inorganic mercury intoxication. He developed slowly progressive generalized paralysis of all limbs after 3 months ingestion of herb drugs which contained mercuric sulfate. Electrophysiologic studies revealed axonal polyneuropathy involving both motor and sensory fibers. Sural nerve biopsy demonstrated axonal degeneration with demyelination and a predominant loss of large myelinated fibers. His muscle strength showed only mild improvement after 2 years` follow-up. We concluded that inorganic mercury exposure may induce severe axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy in humans and that neurological deficits may persist in severe cases. (au) 21 refs.

  10. Labeling of the spent fuel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbreth, W.G.; Chagari, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the containers used to store spent fuel in an underground repository must meet federal guidelines that call for unique labels that identify the contents and processing history. Existing standards in the nuclear power industry and relevant ASME/ANSI codes have been reviewed for possible application to the spent-fuel container labeling. An Array of labeling techniques were found that include recommendations for: fonts, word spacing, color combinations, label materials and mounting methods, placement, and content. The use of bar code, optical character recognition, and RF labels were also studied to meet the requirement that the container labels be consistent with the methods used to maintain the repository records

  11. Management of spent sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto; Sordei, Gian-Maria; Hiromoto, Goro

    2002-01-01

    The number of sealed radiation sources used in industrial, medical, and research applications in Brazil amounts to hundreds of thousands. Spent or disused sources are being collected and stored as radioactive waste in nuclear research centers, awaiting for a decision on their final disposal. However, a safe and economically feasible disposal technology is unavailable. The aim of this paper is to report the development of the concept of a repository and a treatment process that will allow the final disposal of all the spent sealed sources in a safe, dedicated, and exclusive repository. The concept of the disposal system is a deep borehole in stable geologic media, meeting the radiological performance standards and safety requirements set by international organizations. (author)

  12. Historical overview of domestic spent fuel shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Wankerl, M.W.; Armstrong, S.; Hamberger, C.; Schmid, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide available historical data on most commercial and research reactor spent fuel shipments that have been completed in the United States between 1964 and 1989. This information includes data on the sources of spent fuel that has been shipped, the types of shipping casks used, the number of fuel assemblies that have been shipped, and the number of shipments that have been made. The data are updated periodically to keep abreast of changes. Information on shipments is provided for planning purposes; to support program decisions of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM); and to inform interested members of the public, federal, state, and local government, Indian tribes, and the transportation community. 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Spent fuel container alignment device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stewart D.; Chapek, George V.

    1996-01-01

    An alignment device is used with a spent fuel shipping container including a plurality of fuel pockets for spent fuel arranged in an annular array and having a rotatable cover including an access opening therein. The alignment device includes a lightweight plate which is installed over the access opening of the cover. A laser device is mounted on the plate so as to emit a laser beam through a laser admittance window in the cover into the container in the direction of a pre-established target associated with a particular fuel pocket. An indexing arrangement on the container provides an indication of the angular position of the rotatable cover when the laser beam produced by the laser is brought into alignment with the target of the associated fuel pocket.

  14. Incineration of spent ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Chiaki

    1990-01-01

    It is a pressing need to reduce radioactive waste which is generated from the maintenance and operation of a nuclear power plant. Incineration of low level combustible solid waste such as polyethylene seats, paper and others have been successfully performed since 1984 at the Shimane Nuclear Power Station. Furthermore, for extending incineration treatment to spent ion exchange resin, the incineration test was carried out in 1989. However, as the cation exchange resin contains sulfur and then incineration generates SOx gases, so the components of this facility will be in a corrosive environment. We surveyed incineration conditions to improve the corrosive environment at the exhaust gas treatment system. This paper includes these test results and improved method to incinerate spent ion exchange resin. (author)

  15. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs

  16. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ro, Seung Gy; Shin, Y. J.; Do, J. B.; You, G. S.; Seo, J. S.; Lee, H. G.

    1998-03-01

    This study is to develop an advanced spent fuel management process for countries which have not yet decided a back-end nuclear fuel cycle policy. The aims of this process development based on the pyroreduction technology of PWR spent fuels with molten lithium, are to reduce the storage volume by a quarter and to reduce the storage cooling load in half by the preferential removal of highly radioactive decay-heat elements such as Cs-137 and Sr-90 only. From the experimental results which confirm the feasibility of metallization technology, it is concluded that there are no problems in aspects of reaction kinetics and equilibrium. However, the operating performance test of each equipment on an engineering scale still remain and will be conducted in 1999. (author). 21 refs., 45 tabs., 119 figs

  17. International safeguards for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzer, M.; Wonder, E.; Immerman, W.; Crane, F.

    1981-08-01

    This report analyzes the nonproliferation effectiveness and political and economic acceptability of prospective improvements in international safeguard techniques for LWR spent fuel storage. Although the applicability of item accounting considerably eases the safeguarding of stored spent fuel, the problem of verification is potentially serious. A number of simple gamma and neutron nondestructive assay techniques were found to offer considerable improvements, of a qualitative rather than quantitative nature, in verification-related data and information, and possess the major advantage of intruding very little on facility operations. A number of improved seals and monitors appear feasible as well, but improvements in the timeliness of detection will not occur unless the frequency of inspection is increased or a remote monitoring capability is established. Limitations on IAEA Safeguards resources and on the integration of results from material accounting and containment and surveillance remain problems

  18. Design of spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Guide is for interim spent fuel storage facilities that are not integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. Following the introduction, Section 2 describes the general safety requirements applicable to the design of both wet and dry spent fuel storage facilities; Section 3 deals with the design requirements specific to either wet or dry storage. Recommendations for the auxiliary systems of any storage facility are contained in Section 4; these are necessary to ensure the safety of the system and its safe operation. Section 5 provides recommendations for establishing the quality assurance system for a storage facility. Section 6 discusses the requirements for inspection and maintenance that must be considered during the design. Finally, Section 7 provides guidance on design features to be considered to facilitate eventual decommissioning. 18 refs

  19. Spent-fuel transport: available as needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklin, L.

    1976-01-01

    As a result of the general uncertainty as to when commercial reprocessing will actually take place in the United States (U.S.) and the long lead times now required before bringing a spent-fuel cask system in operation, it appears that serious problems can arise by 1979-1980 in cask capacity availability. Compounding the uncertainty with respect to cask capacity availability is the position taken by some of the U.S. railroad systems and some state and local governmental agencies in imposing restraints in the movement of spent fuel. By utility companies taking risk in committing to casks in advance of the actual requirement dates and by cask suppliers assuming the risks of licensing, costs, and delivery schedules, this potential bottleneck could be minimized

  20. Storage method for spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajiri, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    In the present invention, spent fuel assemblies are arranged at a dense pitch in a storage rack by suppressing the reactivity of the assemblies, to increase storage capacity for the spent fuel assemblies. That is, neutron absorbers are filled in the cladding tube of an absorbing rod, and the diameter thereof is substantially equal with that of a fuel rod. A great amount of the absorbing rods are arranged at the outer circumference of the fuel assembly. Then, they are fixed integrally to the fuel assembly and stored in a storage rack. In this case, the storage rack may be constituted only with angle materials which are inexpensive and installed simply. With such a constitution, in the fuel assembly having absorbing rods wound therearound, neutrons are absorbed by absorbing rods and the reactivity is lowered. Accordingly, the assembly arrangement pitch in the storage rack can be made dense. As a result, the storage capacity for the assemblies is increased. (I.S.)

  1. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  2. Impact analysis of spent fuel jacket assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramayo, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the analyses performed in support of the reracking of the High Flux Isotope Reactor pool, it became necessary to prove the structural integrity of the spent fuel jacket assemblies subjected to gravity drop that result from postulated accidents associated with the handling of these assemblies while submerged in the pool. The spent fuel jacket assemblies are an integral part of the reracking project, and serve to house fuel assemblies. The structure integrity of the jacket assemblies from loads that result from impact from a height of 10 feet onto specified targets has been performed analytically using the computer program LS-DYNA3D. Nine attitudes of the assembly at the time of impact have been considered. Results of the analyses show that there is no failure of the assemblies as a result of the impact scenarios considered

  3. BR-100 spent fuel shipping cask development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuinn, E.J.; Childress, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Continued public acceptance of commercial nuclear power is contingent to a large degree on the US Department of Energy (DOE) establishing an integrated waste management system for spent nuclear fuel. As part of the from-reactor transportation segment of this system, the B ampersand W Fuel Company (BWFC) is under contract to the DOE to develop a spent-fuel cask that is compatible with both rail and barge modes of transportation. Innovative design approaches were the keys to achieving a cask design that maximizes payload capacity and cask performance. The result is the BR-100, a 100-ton rail/barge cask with a capacity of 21 PWR or 52 BWR ten-year cooled, intact fuel assemblies. 3 figs

  4. Research reactor spent fuel management in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audero, M.A.; Bevilacqua, A.M.; Mehlich, A.M.; Novara, O.

    2002-01-01

    The research reactor spent fuel (RRSF) management strategy will be presented as well as the interim storage experience. Currently, low-enriched uranium RRSF is in wet interim storage either at reactor site or away from reactor site in a centralized storage facility. High-enriched uranium RRSF from the centralized storage facility has been sent to the USA in the framework of the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program. The strategy for the management of the RRSF could implement the encapsulation for interim dry storage. As an alternative to encapsulation for dry storage some conditioning processes are being studied which include decladding, isotopic dilution, oxidation and immobilization. The immobilized material will be suitable for final disposal. (author)

  5. Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaziev, M.A.; Iskakov, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.

  6. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  7. Spent nuclear fuel project product specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajunen, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Product specifications are limits and controls established for each significant parameter that potentially affects safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for transport to dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the spent fuel packaged in MultiCanister Overpacks (MCOs) to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The SNF includes N Reactor fuel and single-pass reactor fuel. The FRS removes the SNF from the storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The MCO loading system places the baskets into MCO/Cask assembly packages. These packages are then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the MCO cask packages are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCOs are removed from the casks, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The key criteria necessary to achieve these goals are documented in this specification

  8. Past and future IAEA spent fuel management activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, A.

    1993-01-01

    The main objectives and strategies of the Agency's activities in the area of spent fuel management are to promote the exchange of information between Member States on technical, safety, environmental and economic aspects of spent fuel management technology, including storage, transport and treatment of spent fuel, and to provide assistance to Member States in the planning, implementation and operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This paper give a list of the meetings held since the last issue of the Spent Fuel Management Newsletter

  9. Development of spent fuel remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, B. S.; Yoon, J. S.; Hong, H. D. (and others)

    2007-02-15

    In this research, the remote handling technology was developed for the ACP application. The ACP gives a possible solution to reduce the rapidly cumulative amount of spent fuels generated from the nuclear power plants in Korea. The remote technologies developed in this work are a slitting device, a voloxidizer, a modified telescopic servo manipulator and a digital mock-up. A slitting device was developed to declad the spent fuel rod-cuts and collect the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets. A voloxidizer was developed to convert the spent fuel UO{sub 2} pellets obtained from the slitting process in to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Experiments were performed to test the capabilities and remote operation of the developed slitting device and voloxidizer by using simulated rod-cuts and fuel in the ACP hot cell. A telescopic servo manipulator was redesigned and manufactured improving the structure of the prototype. This servo manipulator was installed in the ACP hot cell, and the target module for maintenance of the process equipment was selected. The optimal procedures for remote operation were made through the maintenance tests by using the servo manipulator. The ACP digital mockup in a virtual environment was established to secure a reliability and safety of remote operation and maintenance. The simulation for the remote operation and maintenance was implemented and the operability was analyzed. A digital mockup about the preliminary conceptual design of an enginnering-scale ACP was established, and an analysis about a scale of facility and remote handling was accomplished. The real-time diagnostic technique was developed to detect the possible fault accidents of the slitting device. An assessment of radiation effect for various sensors was also conducted in the radiation environment.

  10. Spent fuel transportation regulatory and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippek, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    The problems that could result from state and local governments and other groups with relation to regulations concerning the transportation of spent nuclear fuels are discussed. The powers of the individual states as spelled out in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 are set forth in some detail. The possibility of transportation employees gaining a position to demand and receive more stringent protections from hazards of radiation is pointed out

  11. Towards a Swedish repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroem, P.-E.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear power is producing electricity for the benefit of society but is also leaving radioactive residues behind. It is our responsibility to handle these residues in a safe and proper manner. The development of a system for handling spent fuel from nuclear power plants has proceeded in steps. The same is true for the actual construction of facilities and will continue to be the case for the final repository for spent fuel and other types of long-lived wastes. The primary objective in constructing the repository will be to isolate and contain the radioactive waste. In case the isolation fails for some reason the multibarrier system should retain and retard the radionuclides that might come into contact with the groundwater. A repository is now planned to be built in two steps where the first step will include deposition of about 400 canisters with spent fuel. This first step should be finished in about 20 years from now and be followed by an extensive evaluation of the results from not only this particular step but also from the development of alternative routes before deciding on how to proceed. A special facility to encapsulate the spent fuel is also required. Such an encapsulation plant is proposed to be constructed as an extension of the existing interim storage CLAB. Finding a site for the repository is a critical issue in the implementation of any repository. The siting process started a few years ago and made some progress but is by no means yet completed. It will go on at least into the early part of the next decade. When the present nuclear power plants begin to be due for retirement there should also be some facilities in place to take permanent care of the long-lived radioactive residues. Progress in siting will be a prerequisite for success in our responsibility to make progress towards a safe permanent solution of the waste issue. (orig.)

  12. Management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The programme consists of the long-term and short-term programme, the continued bedrock investigations, the underground research laboratory, the decision-making procedure in the site selection process and information questions during the site selection process. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel hereby subunits both the SKB's R and D Programme 86 and the Board's statement concerning the programme. Decisions in the matter have been made by the Board's executive committee. (DG)

  13. Safety assessment for spent fuel storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Safety Practice has been prepared as part of the IAEA's programme on the safety assessment of interim spent fuel storage facilities which are not an integral part of an operating nuclear power plant. This report provides general guidance on the safety assessment process, discussing both deterministic and probabilistic assessment methods. It describes the safety assessment process for normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences and also related to accident conditions. 10 refs, 2 tabs

  14. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project integrated schedule plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squires, K.G.

    1995-03-06

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel Integrated Schedule Plan establishes the organizational responsibilities, rules for developing, maintain and status of the SNF integrated schedule, and an implementation plan for the integrated schedule. The mission of the SNFP on the Hanford site is to provide safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Hanford SNF in a manner which stages it to final disposition. This particularly involves K Basin fuel.

  16. Spent fuel packaging and its safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Kimitaka; Nakaoki, Kozo; Tamamura, Tadao; Matsuda, Fumio; Fukudome, Kazuyuki

    1983-01-01

    An all stainless steel B(U) type packaging is proposed to transport spent fuels discharged from research reactors and other radioactive materials. The package is used dry and provided with surface fins to absorb drop shock and to dissipate decay heat. Safety was analyzed for structural, thermal, containment shielding and criticality factors, and the integrity of the package was confirmed with the MARC-CDC, TRUMP, ORIGEN, QAD, ANISN, and KENO computer codes. (author)

  17. The cascad spent fuel dry storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guay, P.; Bonnet, C.

    1991-01-01

    France has a wide variety of experimental spent fuels different from LWR spent fuel discharged from commercial reactors. Reprocessing such fuels would thus require the development and construction of special facilities. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has consequently opted for long-term interim storage of these spent fuels over a period of 50 years. Comparative studies of different storage concepts have been conducted on the basis of safety (mainly containment barriers and cooling), economic, modular design and operating flexibility criteria. These studies have shown that dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection is the best solution. A research and development program including theoretical investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection and the validity of design rules applied for fuel storage. A facility called CASCAD was built at the CEA's Cadarache Nuclear Research Center, where it has been operational since mid-1990. This paper describes the CASCAD facility and indicates how its concept can be applied to storage of LWR fuel assemblies

  18. New developments in dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, C.; Chevalier, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    As shown in various new examples, HABOG facility (Netherlands), CERNAVODA (Candu - Romania), KOZLODUY (WWER - Bulgaria), CHERNOBYL ( RMBK - Ukraine), MAYAK (Spent Fuel from submarine and Icebreakers - Russia), recent studies allow to confirm the flexibility and performances of the CASCAD system proposed by SGN, both in safety and operability, for the dry storage of main kinds of spent fuel. The main features are: A multiple containment barrier system: as required by international regulation, 2 independent barriers are provided (tight canister and storage pit); Passive cooling, while the Fuel Assemblies are stored in an inert atmosphere and under conditions of temperature preventing from degradation of rod cladding; Sub-criticality controlled by adequate arrangements in any conditions; Safe facility meeting ICPR 60 Requirements as well as all applicable regulations (including severe weather conditions and earthquake); Safe handling operations; Retrievability of the spent fuel either during storage period or at the end of planned storage period (100 years); Future Decommissioning of the facility facilitated through design optimisation; Construction and operating cost-effectiveness. (author)

  19. Considerations for the transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    In our society today the transportation of radioactive materials, and most particularly spent reactor fuel, is surrounded by considerable emotion and a wealth of information, good and bad. The transportation of these materials is viewed as unique and distinct from the transportation of other hazardous materials and as a particularly vulnerable component of the nuclear power activities of this nation. Added to this is the concept, widely held, that almost everyone is an expert on the transportation of radioactive materials. One significant contribution to this level of emotion is the notion that all roads (rail and highway), on which these goods will be transported, somehow traverse everyone's backyard. The issue of the transportation of spent fuel has thus become a political battleground. Perhaps this should not be surprising since it has all of the right characteristics for such politicization in that it is pervasive, emotional, and visible. In order that those involved in the discussion of this activity might be able to reach some rational conclusions, this paper offers some background information which might be useful to a broad range of individuals in developing their own perspectives. The intent is to address the safety of transporting spent fuel from a technical standpoint without the emotional content which is frequently a part of this argument

  20. Problems of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negrivoda, G.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 99% of the radioactivity in waste, produced in the process of operating a nuclear power plant, is contained in spent nuclear fuel. Safe handling and storage of the spent nuclear fuel is an important factor of a nuclear plant safety. Today at Ignalina NPP the spent fuel is stored in special water pools, located in the same buildings as the reactors. The volume of the pools is limited, for unit one the pool will be fully loaded in 1998, for unit 2 - in 2000. The further operation of the plant will only be possible if new storage is constructed. In 1994 contract with German company GNB was signed for the supply of 20 containers of the CASTOR type. Containers were delivered in accordance with agreed schedule. In the end of 1995 a new tender for new storage options was announced in order to minimize the storage costs. A proposal from Canadian company AECL now is being considered as one of the most suitable and negotiations to sign the contract started. (author)

  1. Development of advanced spent fuel management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Joon; Cho, S. H.; You, G. S.

    2001-04-01

    Currently, the economic advantage of any known approach to the back end fuel cycle of a nuclear power reactor has not been well established. Thus the long term storage of the spent fuel in a safe manner is one of the important issues to be resolved in countries where the nuclear power has a relatively heavy weight in power production of that country. At KAERI, as a solution to this particular issue midterm storage of the spent fuel, an alternative approach has been developed. This approach includes the decladding and pulverization process of the spent PWR fuel rod, the reducing process from the uranium oxide to a metallic uranium powder using Li metal in a LiCl salt, the continuous casting process of the reduced metal, and the recovery process of Li from mixed salts by the electrolysis. We conducted the laboratory scale tests of each processes for the technical feasibility and determination for the operational conditions for this approach. Also, we performed the theoretical safety analysis and conducted integral tests for the equipment integration through the Mock-up facility with non-radioactive samples. There were no major issues in the approach, however, material incompatibility of the alkaline metal and oxide in a salt at a high temperature and the reactor that contains the salt became a show stopper of the process. Also the difficulty of the clear separation of the salt with metals reduced from the oxide became a major issue

  2. Spent fuel performance in geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.

    1985-10-01

    The performance assessment of the waste package is a current area of study in the United States program to develop a geologic repository for nuclear waste isolation. The waste package is presently envisioned as the waste form and its surrounding containers and possibly a packing material composed of crushed host rock or mixtures of that rock with clays. This waste package is tied to performance criteria set forth in recent legislation. It is the goal of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to obtain the necessary information on the waste package, in several geologic environments, to show that the waste package provides reasonable assurance of meeting established performance criteria. This paper discusses the United States program directed toward managing high-level radioactive waste, with emphasis on the current effort to define the behavior of irradiated spent fuel in repository groundwaters. Current studies are directed toward understanding the rate and nature (such as valence state, colloid form if any, solid phase controlling solubility) of radionuclide release from the spent fuel. Due to the strong interactive effect of radiation, thermal fields, and waste package components on this release, current spent fuel studies are being conducted primarily in the presence of waste package components over a wide range of potential environments

  3. Spent-fuel transportation - a success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, C.P.; Schoonen, D.H.; Wakeman, B.H.

    1986-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel research and development (R and D) demonstrations and associated transportation activities are being performed as a part of the storage cask performance testing programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These spent-fuel programs support the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) and US Department of Energy (DOE) objectives for cooperative demonstrations with the utilities, testing at federal sites, and alternatives for viable transportation systems. A cooperative demonstration program with the private sector to develop dry storage technologies that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can generically approve is in place as well as cost-shared dry storage R and D program at a federal facility to collect the necessary licensing data. In addition to the accomplishments in the cask performance and testing demonstrations, the long-distance transportation of a large number of spent-fuel assemblies is considered a success story. The evaluation and implementation of applicable requirements, industry perspective, and extensive planning all contributed to this achievement

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-11-29

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment.

  5. Spent fuel assembly source term parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, P.R.; Foadian, H.; Rashid, Y.R.; Seager, K.D.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    Containment of cask contents by a transport cask is a function of the cask body, one or more closure lids, and various bolting hardware, and seals associated with the cavity closure and other containment penetrations. In addition, characteristics of cask contents that impede the ability of radionuclides to move from an origin to the external environment also provide containment. In essence, multiple release barriers exist in series in transport casks, and the magnitude of the releasable activity in the cask is considerably lower than the total activity of its contents. A source term approach accounts for the magnitude of the releasable activity available in the cask by assessing the degree of barrier resistance to release provided by material characteristics and inherent barriers that impede the release of radioactive contents. Standardized methodologies for defining the spent-fuel transport packages with specified regulations have recently been developed. An essential part of applying the source term methodology involves characterizing the response of the spent fuel under regulatory conditions of transport. Thermal and structural models of the cask and fuel are analyzed and used to predict fuel rod failure probabilities. Input to these analyses and failure evaluations cover a wide range of geometrical and material properties. An important issue in the development of these models is the sensitivity of the radioactive source term generated during transport to individual parameters such as temperature and fluence level. This paper provides a summary of sensitivity analyses concentrating on the structural response and failure predictions of the spent fuel assemblies

  6. Conditioning technology of spent radium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Il Sik; Kim, K. J.; Jang, K. D.

    2001-03-01

    In order to avoid accidents that could be resulted from improper storage of spent radium sources, it is necessary to condition and store them safely. The program for safe conditioning of spent radium sources by IAEA has been established to assist the developing countries. The main object of this report is to understand well and apply the technology that was applied in conditioning the national inventory of Ra-226 sources in Myanmar, as a part of IAEA's project by the Korean expert team. The report is the result that the Korean expert team carried out in Myanmar under the project title 'Radium Conditioning Service in Myanmar(INT4131-06646C)'. As a result of the mission, a whole inventory, 1,429.5 mCi of spent radium sources was safely conditioned by the Korean expert team according to the manual under the supervision of IAEA's technical officer, Mr. Al-Mughrabi, and under the control of DAE authority. These sources were encapsuled in 27 small capsules and 3 large capsules, and conditioned in 3 lead shields, producing 3 packages. The inventories were distributed into 3 shielding devices, holding 500, 459.5, and 470 mCi

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel Alternative Technology Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perella, V.F.

    1999-01-01

    A Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Task Team (RRTT) was chartered by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Spent Fuel Management with the responsibility to recommend a course of action leading to a final technology selection for the interim management and ultimate disposition of the foreign and domestic aluminum-based research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under DOE''s jurisdiction. The RRTT evaluated eleven potential SNF management technologies and recommended that two technologies, direct co-disposal and an isotopic dilution alternative, either press and dilute or melt and dilute, be developed in parallel. Based upon that recommendation, the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) organized the SNF Alternative Technology Program to further develop the direct co-disposal and melt and dilute technologies and provide a WSRC recommendation to DOE for a preferred SNF alternative management technology. A technology risk assessment was conducted as a first step in this recommendation process to determine if either, or both, of the technologies posed significant risks that would make them unsuitable for further development. This report provides the results of that technology risk assessment

  8. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  9. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  10. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  11. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  12. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  13. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  14. 5 CFR 551.425 - Time spent receiving medical attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent receiving medical attention... Relation to Other Activities § 551.425 Time spent receiving medical attention. (a) Time spent waiting for and receiving medical attention for illness or injury shall be considered hours of work if: (1) The...

  15. Development of on-site spent fuel transfer system designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, R.W.; Pennington, C.W.; Guerra, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) of the United States has sponsored development of conceptual designs for accomplishing spent fuel transfer from spent fuel pools to casks and from one cask to another. Under an EPRI research contract, transnuclear has developed several concepts for spent fuel transfer systems. (J.P.N.)

  16. 5 CFR 551.422 - Time spent traveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Time spent traveling. 551.422 Section 551... Activities § 551.422 Time spent traveling. (a) Time spent traveling shall be considered hours of work if: (1... who is permitted to use an alternative mode of transportation, or an employee who travels at a time...

  17. Radioactive waste management decommissioning spent fuel storage. V. 3. Waste transport, handling and disposal spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    As part of the book entitled Radioactive waste management decommissioning spent fuel storage, vol. 3 dealts with waste transport, handling and disposal, spent fuel storage. Twelve articles are presented concerning the industrial aspects of nuclear waste management in France [fr

  18. Synthesis of inorganic polymers using fly ash and primary lead slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onisei, S; Pontikes, Y; Van Gerven, T; Angelopoulos, G N; Velea, T; Predica, V; Moldovan, P

    2012-02-29

    The present work reports on the synthesis and properties of inorganic polymers ("geopolymers") made of 100% fly ash from lignite's combustion, 100% primary lead slag and mixtures of the two. In the inorganic polymers with both fly ash and lead slag the main crystalline phases detected are wüstite, magnetite, sodium zinc silicate, quartz, anorthite, and gehlenite; litharge partially dissolves. FTIR analysis in these samples revealed that the main peaks and bands of end members also exist, along with a new amorphous reaction product. In terms of microstructure, both fly ash and lead slag dissolve and contribute in the binding phase whereas the larger particles act as aggregates. For an increasing lead slag in the composition, the binding phase is changing in chemistry and reaches PbO values higher than 50 wt.% for the 100% lead slag inorganic polymer. Regarding the properties of fly ash and lead slag inorganic polymers, compressive strength is higher than 35 MPa in all cases and water absorption diminishes as the lead slag content increases. A comparison of leaching results before and after polymerisation reveals that pH is an important factor as Pb is immobilised in the binding phase, unlike Zn and As. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  20. Status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The management of spent fuel arising from nuclear power production is a crucial issue for the sustainable development of nuclear energy. The IAEA has issued several publications in the past that provide technical information on the global status and trends in spent fuel reprocessing and associated topics, and one reason for this present publication is to provide an update of this information which has mostly focused on the conventional technology applied in the industry. However, the scope of this publication has been significantly expanded in an attempt to make it more comprehensive and by including a section on emerging technologies applicable to future innovative nuclear systems, as are being addressed in such international initiatives as INPRO, Gen IV and MICANET. In an effort to be informative, this publication attempts to provide a state-of-the-art review of these technologies, and to identify major issues associated with reprocessing as an option for spent fuel management. It does not, however, provide any detailed information on some of the related issues such as safety or safeguards, which are addressed in other relevant publications. This report provides an overview of the status of reprocessing technology and its future prospects in terms of various criteria in Section 2. Section 3 provides a review of emerging technologies which have been attracting the interest of Member States, especially in the international initiatives for future development of innovative nuclear systems. A historical review of IAEA activities associated with spent fuel reprocessing, traceable back to the mid-1970s, is provided in Section 4, and conclusions in Section 5. A list of references is provided at the end the main text for readers interested in further information on the related topics. Annex I summarizes the current status of reprocessing facilities around the world, including the civil operational statistics of Purex-based plants, progress with decommissioning and

  1. Simple inorganic complexes but intricate hydrogen bonding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    We are interested in obtaining single crystals of metal-opda complexes because their crystal structures would show complex hydrogen bonding network due to the presence of. –NH2 groups in the opda ligand (hydrogen bonding donor sites) and inorganic anions having mostly oxo groups (hydrogen bonding acceptor sites) ...

  2. Medicinal Uses of Inorganic Compounds - 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Worldwide sales of inorganic drugs are growing rapidly. Although about 26 elements in the periodic table are considered essential for mammalian life, both ... Lithium like alcohol can influence mood. Lithium drugs such as lithium carbonate Li2C03. , are used for the treatment of manic-depressive disorders, most likely ...

  3. Corrosion performance of inorganic coatings in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Buter, S.J.; Ferrari, G.M.; Westing, E. van; Kowalski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic coatings are widely used to protect carbon steel hydraulic cylinder rods from wear and corrosion in aggressive offshore environment. Different types of lay-ers such as Ni/Cr, Al2O3, Cr2O3, TiO2, and Inconel 625 layers were applied to the carbon steels by plasma, High Velocity Oxygen Fuel

  4. Inorganic mass spectrometry of solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.; Vertes, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this review some recent developments in the field of inorganic mass spectrometry of solids are described with special emphasis on the actual state of understanding of the ionization processes. It concentrates on the common characteristics of methods such as spark source-, laser-, secondary ion-, inductively coupled plasma- and glow discharge mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  5. INORGANIC ELEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN OYSTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William S. In press. Inorganic Elements and Distribution of Eastern Oysters (Abstract). To be presented at the 96th Annual Meeting (Aquaculture 2004) of the National Shellfisheries Association, 1-5 March 2004, Honolulu, HI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R962). For over a century w...

  6. Serum Calcium, Inorganic Phosphates and some Haematological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Sickle cell disease has long been associated with bone deformities and pain. Mineral salts such as calcium and inorganic phosphate are critical in bone formation and metabolism. This investigation was designed to study the serum concentration of these minerals as well as some haematological parameters in ...

  7. Studies on inorganic exchanger: zirconium antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The inorganic exchanger zirconium antimonate has been prepared and its characteristics evaluated. A method has been developed for the separation of 90 Sr and 144 Ce from fission products solution using this exchanger. (author). 23 refs., 18 f igs., 9 tabs

  8. Phytochemical, inorganic and proximate composition-guided ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sterols, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all samples. The inorganic composition result showed relatively high concentration of potassium (very high for seed), calcium (for bark and leaf), magnesium and sulphur in Avocado samples. The Avocado seed contained relatively high content of moisture, carbohydrate ...

  9. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  10. QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE EVALUATION OF NUGGETS PREPARED FROM SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to compare the quality of nuggets prepared from spent hen and duck meat. The cooked nuggets were analyzed for pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, tyrosine value (TV, moisture, fat, protein, total plate count (TPC and sensory evaluations. Nuggets prepared from spent hen meat showed significantly higher (p<0.05 moisture content however pH, fat and protein content were significantly higher (p<0.05 in duck nuggets. TBA values, TVs and (TPC were highest in duck nuggets but were within the acceptable level up to 7th day of refrigerated storage (4±1°C in both types of nuggets. Both nuggets maintain their sensory quality up to 7th day of refrigeration storage but spent hen nuggets were preferred by consumers compared to nuggets prepared from spent duck meat. Result of the study indicated that, despite the comparative differences among these nuggets, spent duck and hen meat could be used for preparation of nutritionally rich and acceptable nuggets.

  11. Final environmental impact statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Charge for spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The United States Government policy relating to nuclear fuel reprocessing, which was announced by President Carter on April 7, 1977, provides for an indefinite deferral of reprocessing, and thus commits light water reactor (LWR) plants to a once-through fuel cycle during that indefinite period. In a subsequent action implementing that policy, the Department of Energy (DOE) on October 18, 1977 announced a spent fuel policy which would enable domestic, and on a selective basis, foreign utilities to deliver spent fuel to the US Government for interim storage and final geologic disposal, and pay the Government a fee for such services. This volume addresses itself to whether the fee charged for these services, by its level or its structure, would have any effect on the environmental impacts of implementing the Spent Fuel Policy itself. This volume thus analyzes the fee and various alternatives to determine the interaction between the fee and the degree of participation by domestic utilities and foreign countries in the proposed spent fuel program for implementing the Spent Fuel Policy. It also analyzes the effect, if any, of the fee on the growth of nuclear power

  12. A method for determining the spent-fuel contribution to transport cask containment requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Seager, K.D.; Rashid, Y.R.; Barrett, P.R.; Malinauskas, A.P.; Einziger, R.E.; Jordan, H.; Reardon, P.C.

    1992-11-01

    This report examines containment requirements for spent-fuel transport containers that are transported under normal and hypothetical accident conditions. A methodology is described that estimates the probability of rod failure and the quantity of radioactive material released from breached rods. This methodology characterizes the dynamic environment of the cask and its contents and deterministically models the peak stresses that are induced in spent-fuel cladding by the mechanical and thermal dynamic environments. The peak stresses are evaluated in relation to probabilistic failure criteria for generated or preexisting ductile tearing and material fractures at cracks partially through the wall in fuel rods. Activity concentrations in the cask cavity are predicted from estimates of the fraction of gases, volatiles, and fuel fines that are released when the rod cladding is breached. Containment requirements based on the source term are calculated in terms of maximum permissible volumetric leak rates from the cask. Calculations are included for representative cask designs

  13. SOCIAL INTEGRATION: TESTING ANTECEDENTS OF TIME SPENT ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Suriani Mohd Arif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the relationship of social integration and time spent onlineprovides conflicting evidence of the relationship of social integration with timespent online. The study identifies and highlightsthe controversy and attempts toclarify the relationship of social integration withtime spent online bydecomposing the construct social integration into its affective and behavioraldimensions . Thestudy tests antecedents and effects of time spent online in arandom sample of senior level undergraduate students at a public university inMalaysia. The findings indicated that while self-report measures of behavioralsocial integration did not predict time spent online, and, the affective socialintegration had an inverse relationship with time spent online.

  14. Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Fertilizer on Growth and Leaf Yield of Kale ... Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology ... fertilizer gave leaf yields comparable to those applied with exclusively inorganic sources of fertilizer.

  15. On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced techniques enabling enhanced safeguarding of the spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities. Raman and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopies are analytical techniques that have extensively been extensively applied for measuring the various organic and inorganic compounds including actinides. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. The actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we will present our recent results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels available at

  16. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  17. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source.

  18. Fabrication of the Spent Fuel Elements Rack on the ISFSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slamet Wiranto; Sigit Purwanto; Safrul, H.

    2004-01-01

    The Interim Storage For Spent Fuel elements (ISFSF) was designed to be able to store the 33 spent fuel element racks with capacity of 1386 of normal spent fuel elements and 2 racks for 36 of defected ones. Until now, only 9 out of 33 racks of normal spent fuel elements and lout of 2 racks of defected fuel elements are available. Five of them have suffered from corrosion so that they are not fulfilled the requirements of the spent fuel elements storage anymore. Meanwhile, the spent fuel storage racks in the reactor are almost full. It means, the transfer of the spent fuel from reactor spent fuel storage to the ISFSF pool are compulsory needed. Therefore, it is necessary to provide the new ISFSF spent fuel storage rack with better material and fabrication method than the old one. In this design all materials consist of SS 316 L that are welded with the Argon TIG-welding. Right now there has been one new spent fuel storage rack fabricated with capacity of 42 normal spent fuel elements. (author)

  19. Investigation of novel spent fuel verification system for safeguard application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Radioactive waste, especially spent fuel, is generated from the operation of nuclear power plants. The final stage of radioactive waste management is disposal which isolates radioactive waste from the accessible environment and allows it to decay. The safety, security, and safeguard of a spent fuel repository have to be evaluated before its operation. Many researchers have evaluated the safety of a repository. These researchers calculated dose to public after the repository is closed depending on their scenario. Because most spent fuel repositories are non-retrievable, research on security or safeguards of spent fuel repositories have to be performed. Design based security or safeguard have to be developed for future repository designs. This study summarizes the requirements of future spent fuel repositories especially safeguards, and suggests a novel system which meets the safeguard requirements. Applying safeguards to a spent fuel repository is becoming increasingly important. The future requirements for a spent fuel repository are suggested by several expert groups, such as ASTOR in IAEA. The requirements emphasizes surveillance and verification. The surveillance and verification of spent fuel is currently accomplished by using the Cerenkov radiation detector while spent fuel is being stored in a fuel pool. This research investigated an advanced spent fuel verification system using a system which converts spent fuel radiation into electricity. The system generates electricity while it is conveyed from a transportation cask to a disposal cask. The electricity conversion system was verified in a lab scale experiment using an 8.51GBq Cs-137 gamma source

  20. Review of progress in soil inorganic carbon research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, S. G.; Jiao, Y.; Yang, W. Z.; Gu, P.; Yang, J.; Liu, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil inorganic carbon is one of the main carbon banks in the near-surface environment, and is the main form of soil carbon library in arid and semi-arid regions, which plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. This paper mainly focuses on the inorganic dynamic process of soil inorganic carbon in soil environment in arid and semi-arid regions, and summarized the composition and source of soil inorganic carbon, influence factors and soil carbon sequestration.

  1. Quantitative method for determination of body inorganic iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filatov, A.A.; Tatsievskij, V.A.

    1991-01-01

    An original method of quantitation of body inorganic iodine, based upon a simultaneous administration of a known dose of stable and radioactive iodine with subsequent radiometry of the thyroid was proposed. The calculation is based upon the principle of the dilution of radiactive iodine in human inorganic iodine space. The method permits quantitation of the amount of inorganic iodine with regard to individual features of inorganic space. The method is characterized by simplicity and is not invasive for a patient

  2. A study on the safety of spent fuel management. A scenario study on spent fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Park, Hyun Soo; Ahn, Jin Soo; Hwang, Joo Ho; Choi, Jong Won; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Ju Hwan; Chung, Choong Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-03-01

    In order to produce data applicable for the long-term policy making of spent fuel management and to suggest a basic scenario suitable to domestic situation, the pre-conceptual design of reference disposal facilities for the spent fuel and the vitrified high level radioactive waste from its reprocessing, has been performed. From the results of the pre-conceptual study, further research and development areas to accumulate the disposal technology are suggested. In addition, the physico-chemical properties and functional characteristics of domestic bentonite are analyzed to assess its applicability as a buffer material which would play a major role for the safe disposal of highly active waste including spent fuels. (Author).

  3. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  4. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  5. A present status for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Park, H. Y.; Seo, K. S

    2003-04-01

    National policy for management of a spent nuclear fuel does not establish in Korea yet. A storage capacity of a storage pool that is to store the spent nuclear fuel will be exceeded an amount of accumulation from the first Woljin nuclear power plant in 2007. Therefore it is necessary that dry storage facility is secured to store safely the spent nuclear fuel on site of the nuclear power plant until national policy for a back-end spent nuclear fuel cycle is established. In order to store safely spent nuclear fuel, it is important that the present status and technology on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel is looked over. Therefore, the present status on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel was analyzed so as to develop dry storage system and choose a proper dry storage method domestic.

  6. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  7. Inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Rasmidar

    2016-01-01

    Oral health is closely related to salivary components. Saliva consists of water, inorganic and organic materials. Fasting changes one???s meal and drinking time that in turn can affect the environment in oral cavity, including inorganic componenet of saliva. The purpose of this study is to determine the inorganic component of saliva during fasting and after fast break.

  8. Inorganic carbon fluxes across the vadose zone of planted and unplanted soil mesocosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Eike Marie; Jacques, D.; Jessen, S.

    2014-01-01

    The efflux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from soils influences atmospheric CO2 concentrations and thereby climate change. The partitioning of inorganic carbon (C) fluxes in the vadose zone between emission to the atmosphere and to the groundwater was investigated to reveal controlling underlying...... mechanisms. Carbon dioxide partial pressure in the soil gas (pCO(2)), alkalinity, soil moisture and temperature were measured over depth and time in unplanted and planted (barley) mesocosms. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) percolation flux was calculated from the pCO(2), alkalinity and the water flux...... to calculate the soil CO2 production. Carbon dioxide fluxes were modeled using the HP1 module of the Hydrus 1-D software. The average CO2 effluxes to the atmosphere from unplanted and planted mesocosm ecosystems during 78 days of experiment were 0.1 +/- 0.07 and 4.9 +/- 0.07 mu mol Cm-2 s(-1), respectively...

  9. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 4. Pacific basin spent fuel logistics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the conceptual framework for a Pacific Basin Spent Fuel Logistics System (PBSFLS); and preliminarily describes programatic steps that might be taken to implement such a system. The PBSFLS concept is described in terms of its technical and institutional components. The preferred PBSFLS concept embodies the rationale of emplacing a fuel cycle system which can adjust to the technical and institutional non-proliferation solutions as they are developed and accepted by nations. The concept is structured on the basis of initially implementing a regional spent fuel storage and transportation system which can technically and institutionally accommodate downstream needs for energy recovery and long-term waste management solutions

  10. Trunnions for spent fuel element shipping casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, B.

    1989-01-01

    Trunnions are used on spent fuel element shipping casks for one or more of a combination of lifting, tilting or securing to a transport vehicle. Within the nuclear transportation industry there are many different philosophies on trunnions, concerning the shape, manufacture, attachment, inspection, maintenance and repair. With the volume of international transport of spent fuel now taking place, it is recognized that problems are occurring with casks in international traffic due to the variance of the philosophies, national standards, and the lack of an international standard. It was agreed through the ISO that an international standard was required to harmonize. It was not possible to evolve an international standard. It was only possible to evolve an international guide. To evolve a standard would mean superseding any existing national standards which already cover particular aspects of trunnions i.e. deceleration forces imposed on trunnions used as tie down features. Therefore the document is a guide only and allows existing national standards to take precedence where they exist. The guide covers design, manufacture, maintenance, repair and quality assurance. The guide covers trunnions used on spent fuel casks transported by road, rail and sea. The guide details the considerations which should be taken account of by cask designers, i.e. stress intensity, design features, inspection and test methods etc. Manufacture, attachment and pre-service testing is also covered. The guide details user requirements which should also be taken account of, i.e. servicing frequency, content, maintenance and repair. The application of quality assurance is described separately although the principles are used throughout the guide

  11. Multinational approaches relevant to spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, B.

    2007-01-01

    The storage of spent fuel is a suitable candidate for a multilateral approach, primarily at the regional level. Small countries with only a few nuclear power plants would benefit economically from large joint facilities. The storage of special nuclear materials in a few safe and secure facilities would also enhance safeguards and physical protection. However, the final disposal of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste is the best candidate for a multilateral approach. It would offer major economic benefits and substantial non-proliferation benefits in spite of the legal, political and public acceptance challenges to be expected in most countries. The transfer of nuclear waste from the exporting country to the host country of an interim storage facility or of a final repository would be done under bilateral or multilateral agreements at the commercial and governmental levels, in accordance with the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. Bilateral or international oversight of joint facilities should be arranged, as needed, to achieve the confidence of the partners as to the safety and physical security of the proposed facility. Such monitoring should cover the adequacy of the technical design, its safety features, its environmental impact, the physical security of nuclear materials and possibly the financial management of the joint venture. After the initial choice of bilateral arrangements, some kind of international monitoring may become appropriate. Various organizations could fulfil such a function, in particular, the IAEA. Such monitoring would have nothing to do with nuclear safeguards; repository monitoring would be a parallel but independent activity of the IAEA. (author)

  12. Wet oxidative destruction of spent ion-exchange resins using hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Ramaswamy, M.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Spent organic ion exchange resins are generated in large quantities during the operation of nuclear facilities. Wet oxidation as a mode of treatment of these gel-type ion exchange resins was investigated using H 2 O 2 as oxidant in the presence of CuSO 4 as catalyst. Experiments using commercial samples were conducted at 95-100 deg C under reflux conditions at atmospheric pressure. It was found that the reaction of cation resin with H 2 O 2 was instantaneous whereas with anion resin, there was a lag time. For efficient utilization of the oxidant, low rate of addition of H 2 O 2 , 0.01M concentration of CuSO 4 and neutral pH in mixed resin reactions, were found to be useful. Foaming was noted during reactions involving anion resins. This could be controlled by silicone-based agents. The residual solution left after resin oxidation is aqueous in nature and is expected to contain all the radioactivity originally present in the resin. Preliminary experiments showed that it could be efficiently trapped using available inorganic sorbents. Wet oxidation system offers a simple method of converting organic waste into environmentally acceptable inorganic products. (author). 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Storage racks for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Ukaji, Hideo; Okino, Yoshiyuki; Ishihara, Jo; Ikuta, Isao.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the mounting of neutron absorbers made of amorphous alloys to fuel racks. Constitution: Neutron absorbers are mounted to a cylindrical member of a square cross section for containing to retain spent fuels only on paired opposing sides by means of machine screws or the likes. Then, such cylindrical members are disposed so that their sides attached with the neutron absorbers are not in adjacent with each other. In this way, mounting of the neutron absorbers over the entire surface of the cylindrical members is no more necessary thereby enabling to simplify the mounting work. (Ikeda, J.)

  14. Electrometallurgical treatment of oxide spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karell, E. J.

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) inventory of spent nuclear fuel contains a wide variety of oxide fuel types that may be unsuitable for direct repository disposal in their current form. The molten-salt electrometallurgical treatment technique developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has the potential to simplify preparing and qualifying these fuels for disposal by converting them into three uniform product streams: uranium metal, a metal waste form, and a ceramic waste form. This paper describes the major steps in the electrometallurgical treatment process for oxide fuels and provides the results of recent experiments performed to develop and scale up the process

  15. The spent fuel disposal program in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.K.

    1994-01-01

    It is important, especially for countries with plan to develop nuclear power, to recognize that two key factors to the future prosperity of nuclear power are the safety of nuclear power plants and the appropriate management of backend activities. This paper described the financial, managerial, technical, and political status of the spent fuel disposal program in a newly industrialized country. It is concluded that the R ampersand D works and operational practices associated with the backend activities must be carried out in parallel with the development of nuclear power

  16. Economics of spent LWR fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, H.J.; O'Neill, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    A power reactor operator, confronted with rising spent fuel inventories that would soon exceed his storage capacity, has to decide what to do with this fuel if he wants to continue reactor operations. A low cost option would be to ship excess fuel from the overburdened reactor to another reactor in the utility's system that has available space. The only cost would be for cask leasing and shipping. Three other alternatives all require considerable capital expenditures: reracking, new at-reactor (AR) basins for storage, and away-from-reactor (AFR) basins for storage. Economic considerations for each of the alternatives are compared

  17. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  18. Recovery of decommissioning and spent fuel charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermanis, G.

    1982-01-01

    The licensing and financial aspects of NPP decommissioning, deactivation and dismantling of radioactive equipment in the USA are considered. Data on the costs of spent fuel transport and conservation are given. The state of the problem development in other countries is briefly described. It is pointed out that the technical aspect of the problem is much better studied than that of license-financial problem. At the same time in contrast to TPP NPP use is connected with considerable expenses after the end of a power plant sevice time

  19. Reracking to increase spent fuel storage capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    Many utilities have already increased their spent fuel pool storage capacity by replacing aluminum racks having storage densities as low as 0.2 MTU/ft 2 with stainless steel racks which can more than double storage densities. Use of boron-stainless steel racks or thin stainless steel cans containing reassembled fuel rods allows even higher fuel storage densities (up to approximately 1.25 MTU/ft 2 ). This report evaluates the economics of smaller storage gains that occur if pools, already converted to high density storage, are further reracked

  20. Concretes characterization for spent radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez B, J.; Monroy G, F. P.

    2013-10-01

    The present work includes the preparation and characterization of the concrete used as conditioning matrix of spent radioactive sources in the Treatment Plant of Radioactive Wastes of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The concrete tests tubes were subjected to resistance assays to the compression, leaching, resistance to the radiation and porosity, and later on characterized by means of X rays diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectrometry, with the purpose of evaluating if this concrete accredits the established tests by the NOM-019-Nucl-1995. The results show that the concrete use in the Treatment Plant fulfills the requirements established by the NOM-019-Nucl-1995. (author)

  1. Sure confinement of spent sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.

    2013-10-01

    The industrial and technological development of the last decades produced and increment in the radiations application in different human activities. One of the main effects has been the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, several stages of the waste management of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work the confinement of spent sealed sources is described, maintaining as main objective the security of these sources and the protection to the workers and the people. (author)

  2. Subsurface storage of commercial spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, L.M.; Szulinski, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Atlantic Richfield Company has developed the concept of storing spent fuel in dry caissons. Cooling is passive; safety and safeguard features appear promising. The capacity of a caisson to dissipate heat depends on site-specific soil characteristics and on the diameter of the caisson. It is estimated that approx. 2 kW can be dissipated in the length of one fuel element. Fuel elements can be stacked with little effect on temperature. A spacing of approx. 7.5 m (25 ft) between caissons appears rasonable. Business planning indicates a cost of approx. 0.2 mill/kWh for a 15-yr storage period. 12 figures, 4 tables

  3. Inorganic sorbents for radiostrontium removal from waste solutions: selectivity and role of calixarenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, S.; Belikov, K.; Drapailo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in the remediation of 90 Sr-contaminated waters arises from the need to achieve very high removal efficiencies to meet discharge targets from waste effluents containing relatively high concentrations of non-radioactive cations. Low-cost natural zeolites are not selective for strontium over other divalent cations, notably such ions as calcium; and produce low 90 Sr removal performance, and large volumes of spent sorbent waste. The synthesis and use of selective, synthetic inorganic sorbents could prove to be a feasible approach for high 90 Sr removal efficiencies, and much smaller volumes of secondary solid waste generation. The essential advantages of inorganic sorbents include their stability and resistance to radiation, and the potential for producing stable waste forms such as vitrified glass or ceramics for disposal. However, the cost of strontium-specific sorbents is prohibitive for large-scale applications at present. This paper is a review of the reported information on removal mechanisms and performance of Sr-specific inorganic sorbents. The analysis has revealed promising performance, efficiency and selectivity for strontium removal from solutions containing low and high concentrations of salts. The leading sorbents are crystalline silicotitanate and oxides of metals such as titanium. An initial assessment has also been made of the performance of calixarene-based macrocyclic compounds. These are known for their selectivity for strontium in solvent extraction processes. From the initial strontium removal results in bench-scale tests using different solid substrates, impregnated with calixarene derivatives, only sodium-mordenite impregnated with calyx[8]arene octamide gave an overall strontium removal efficiency in the range of 90 to 95% in the presence of 3.5 ppm calcium. There was no improvement observed for strontium-removal efficiency or selectivity over calcium in the calixarene-impregnated inorganic sorbent matrix. In several tests, the

  4. ASSESSMENT OF MICROBIAL LOAD OF SAUSAGES PREPARED FROM DIFFERENT COMBINATION OF SPENT DUCK AND SPENT HEN MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to assess the microbial load of sausages prepared from different combination of spent duck and spent hen meat. The combination are 100% spent duck (T1, 75%+ 25% spent duck and spent hen (T2, 50%+50% spent duck and spent hen (T3, 25%+75% spent duck and spent hen (T4 and 100% spent hen (T5. All the samples of different combination were subjected to total plate count (TPC, total psychrophilic count (TPSC and total Coliform count (TCC. Mean of TPC for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 were 4.69, 4.62, 4.60, 4.49 and 4.46 log 10 CFU/gm respectively, while mean TPSC were 4.46, 4.46, 4.43, 4.36 and 4.36 log CFU/gm respectively There were no significant (p<0.05 difference between the different group of combination of sausages for TPS as well as TPSC but varies significantly (p<0.05 from 14th day of storage in both cases. The coliform group of bacteria will not be detected in any combination of sausages. It is concluded that microbial load of sausage prepared from spent duck is high and it is decreases as the percentage of duck meat decreases but, the upper limit of bacteria in each group of sausages is within limit and hence it is safe for human consumption.

  5. Stochastic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Lototsky, Sergey V

    2017-01-01

    Taking readers with a basic knowledge of probability and real analysis to the frontiers of a very active research discipline, this textbook provides all the necessary background from functional analysis and the theory of PDEs. It covers the main types of equations (elliptic, hyperbolic and parabolic) and discusses different types of random forcing. The objective is to give the reader the necessary tools to understand the proofs of existing theorems about SPDEs (from other sources) and perhaps even to formulate and prove a few new ones. Most of the material could be covered in about 40 hours of lectures, as long as not too much time is spent on the general discussion of stochastic analysis in infinite dimensions. As the subject of SPDEs is currently making the transition from the research level to that of a graduate or even undergraduate course, the book attempts to present enough exercise material to fill potential exams and homework assignments. Exercises appear throughout and are usually directly connected ...

  6. A study on dissolution and leaching behaviour of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Heon; Im, Hee Jung; Kim, Jong Gu; Park, Yang Soon; Ha, Yeong Keong

    2010-12-01

    This state of the art report describes a leaching behaviour of spent nuclear fuels which should be considered for safety assessment of spent nuclear fuel disposal in a deep geological repository. A decisive factor of a dissolution of UO 2 , a matrix of the fuel, is chemical characters (redox potential, pH, concentration of inorganic anions, water radiolysis subsequent by radiation field of the fuels) of ground water expected to be in contact with the fuels after the container has failed due to corrosion as well as atmosphere condition of a deep geological repository, which can change the oxidation state of UO 2 . The release rates of radionuclides from UO 2 matrix depend largely on their location within the fuels, that is, the radionuclides fixed in the fuel/cladding gap and grain boundaries are rapidly released. However, the radionuclides within the grains of the fuel are slowly released, and then their release rate is governed by a dissolution behaviour of UO 2

  7. Investigation of Electricity Generation by Using Gamma Radiation from Spent Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung Yim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the electric power generation with scale spent fuel. OrigenArp has analyzed gamma radiation environment of spent fuel assembly, MCNPX has analyzed the scintillator behavior, and experimental work has analyzed the electric output of photovoltaic cell. Gamma radiation environment analysis result indicates gamma source rapidly decreases for the early storage period. Scintillator analysis result calculates the photon flux distribution which enters photovoltaic cell. Photovoltaic cell experiment calculates electric current, voltage current generation per each system unit. Generated electric power can be used to cope with existing safety system (i.e. storage monitoring system) under severe accident or to operate security system under external invasion situation (i.e. passive physical barrier system). Several researchers have shown that converting radiation energy into electric energy is possible. Karl Scharf studied the direct electric conversion of radiation energy by using photovoltaic cells. Researchers in University of Massachusetts Lowell have studied radiation-electric energy conversion by using gadolinium oxide scintillator and dye sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) and N. Horuichi et al. studied radiation-electric energy conversion by using inorganic scintillators and amorphous and crystal photovoltaic cells

  8. Inorganic carbon uptake during photosynthesis. II. Uptake by isolated Asparagus mesophyll cells during isotopic disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espie, G.S.; Owttrim, G.W.; Colman, B.

    1986-01-01

    The species of inorganic carbon (CO 2 or HCO 3 - ) taken up as a source of substrate for photosynthetic fixation by isolated Asparagus sprengeri mesophyll cells is investigated. Discrimination between CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport, during steady state photosynthesis, is achieved by monitoring the changes (by 14 C fixation) which occur in the specific activity of the intracellular pool of inorganic carbon when the inorganic carbon present in the suspending medium is in a state of isotopic disequilibrium. Quantitative comparisons between theoretical (CO 2 or HCO 3 - transport) and experimental time-courses of 14 C incorporation, over the pH range of 5.2 to 7.5, indicate that the specific activity of extracellular CO 2 , rather than HCO 3 - , is the appropriate predictor of the intracellular specific activity. It is concluded, therefore, that CO 2 is the major source of exogenous inorganic carbon taken up by Asparagus cells. However, at high pH (8.5), a component of net DIC uptake may be attributable to HCO 3 - transport, as the incorporation of 14 C during isotopic disequilibrium exceeds the maximum possible incorporation predicted on the basis of CO 2 uptake alone. The contribution of HCO 3 - to net inorganic carbon uptake (pH 8.5) is variable, ranging from 5 to 16%, but is independent of the extracellular HCO 3 - concentration. The evidence for direct HCO 3 - transport is subject to alternative explanations and must, therefore, be regarded as equivocal. Nonlinear regression analysis of the rate of 14 C incorporation as a function of time indicates the presence of a small extracellular resistance to the diffusion of CO 2 , which is partially alleviated by a high extracellular concentration of HCO 3 -

  9. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  10. Effect of fission gas leakage on heat transfer within a helium filled spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.B.; Schimmel, W.P. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Leakage of Xe from spent fuel elements into a He-filled cask would reduce the thermal conductivity, but it would also increase the nondimensional Grashof and Rayleigh number convection parameters. The thermal performance for various quantities of leaked fission gases was evaluated for a cask containing 9 fuel assemblies, each producing approximately 2 kW, and a He partial pressure of 4 atm. If all pins leaked, the max pin temperature would increase from 761 to 839 0 K. It is concluded that the effect of fission gases is a second order effect

  11. Main attributes influencing spent nuclear fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreescu, N.; Ohai, D.

    1997-01-01

    All activities regarding nuclear fuel, following its discharge from the NPP, constitute the spent fuel management and are grouped in two possible back end variants, namely reprocessing (including HLW vitrification and geological disposal) and direct disposal of spent fuel. In order to select the appropriate variant it is necessary to analyse the aggregate fulfillment of the imposed requirements, particularly of the derived attributes, defined as distinguishing characteristics of the factors used in the decision making process. The main identified attributes are the following: - environmental impact, - availability of suitable sites, - non-proliferation degree, -strategy of energy, - technological complexity and technical maturity, -possible further technical improvements, - size of nuclear programme, - total costs, - public acceptance, - peculiarity of CANDU fuel. The significance of the attributes in the Romanian case, taking into consideration the present situation, as a low scenario and a high scenario corresponding to an important development of the nuclear power, after the year 2010, is presented. According to their importance the ranking of attributes is proposed . Subsequently, the ranking could be used for adequate weighing of attributes in order to realize a multi-criteria analysis and a relevant comparison of back end variants. (authors)

  12. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S.

    2007-04-01

    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP

  13. Management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel, in submitting its statement of comment to the Government on the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company's (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, SKB) research programme, R and D Programme 86, has also put forward recommendations on the decision-making procedure and on the question of public information during the site selection process. In summary the Board proposes: * that the Government instruct the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel to issue certain directives concerning additions to and changes in R and D Programme 86, * that the Board's views on the decision-making procedure in the site selection process be taken into account in the Government's review of the so-called municipal veto in accordance with Chapter 4, Section 3 of the Act (1987:12) on the conservation of natural resources etc., NRL, * that the Board's views on the decision-making procedure and information questions during the site selection process serve as a basis for the continued work. Three appendices are added to the report: 1. Swedish review statements (SV), 2. International Reviews, 3. Report from the site selection group (SV)

  14. Japan's spent fuel and plutonium management challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuta, Tadahiro; Suzuki, Tatsujiro

    2011-01-01

    Japan's commitment to plutonium recycling has been explicitly stated in its long-term program since 1956. Despite the clear cost disadvantage compared with direct disposal or storage of spent fuel, the Rokkasho reprocessing plant started active testing in 2006. Japan's cumulative consumption of plutonium has been only 5 tons to date and its future consumption rate is still uncertain. But once the Rokkasho reprocessing plant starts its full operation, Japan will separate about 8 tons of plutonium annually. Our analysis shows that, with optimum use of available at-reactor and away-from-reactor storage capacity, there would be no need for reprocessing until the mid-2020s. With an additional 30,000 tons of away-from-reactor (AFR) spent-fuel storage capacity reprocessing could be avoided until 2050. Deferring operation of the Rokkasho plant, at least until the plutonium stockpile had been worked down to the minimum required level, would also minimize international concern about Japan's plutonium stockpile. The authors are happy to acknowledge Frank von Hippel, Harold Feiveson, Jungming Kang, Zia Mian, M.V. Ramana, and other IPFM members, as well as the generous grant from the MacArthur Foundation for helping make this research possible.

  15. Recycling of spent hydroprocessing catalysts: EURECAT technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrebi, G.; Dufresne, P.; Jacquier, Y. (EURECAT-European Reprocessing Catalysts, La Voulte sur Rhone (France))

    1994-04-01

    Disposal of spent catalyst is a growing concern for all refiners. Environmental regulations are becoming stricter and stricter and there are State recommendations to develop disposal routes which would emphasize recycling as much as possible, and processing the wastes as near as possible to the production center. In this context, EURECAT has developed a recycling process for the hydroprocessing catalysts used in the oil refineries (NiMo, CoMo, NiW on alumina or mixed alumina silica). The process starts with a regeneration of the catalyst to eliminate hydrocarbons, carbon and sulfur. After a caustic roasting, the material is leached to obtain a solution containing mainly molybdenum (or tungsten) and vanadium, and a solid containing essentially alumina, cobalt and/or nickel. Molybdenum and vanadium are separated by an ion exchange resin technique. The solid is processed in an arc furnace to separate the alumina. Nickel and cobalt are separated by conventional solvent extraction to obtain pure metal. Alumina is disposed of as an inert slag. The strength of the process lies in the combination of proven technologies applied by companies whose reliability in their respective field is well known. The aspects concerning spent catalyst handling, packaging and transport are also discussed. 13 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. European experience with spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, I.A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Transport Ltd has transported 5000 tonnes of spent fuel from 35 reactors in 8 European countries since 1972. Transport management is governed by the Quality Plan for: transport administration, packaging and shipment procedures at the shipping plant, operations at the power plant, and packaging and shipment organization at the power plant. Selection of a suitable carrier device is made with regard to the shipping plant requirements, physical limitations of the reactor, fuel characteristics, and transport route constraints. The transport plan is set up taking into account exploitation of the casks, reactor shut-down requirements, fuel acceptance plans at the reprocessing plant, and cask maintenance periods. A transport cycle involving spent fuel shipment to La Hague or to Sellafield takes typically two or four weeks, respectively. Most transports through Europe are by rail. A special-design railway ferry boat serves transports to the United Kingdom. Both wet or dry casks are employed. Modern casks are designed for high burnups and for oxide fuels. (J.B.)

  17. Apparatus for lifting spent fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Yoshinari; Sato, Isao; Yoneda, Yoshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To increase the efficiency of cooling of a used fuel assembly being moved within a guide tube in the axial direction thereof by directly cooling the assembly with cooling gas fed into the guide tube, thus facilitating the handling of the spent fuel assembly. Structure: An end of a lock portion is inserted into the top portion of a spent fuel assembly, the assembly being hooked on the lock portion. The lock portion is provided on its outer periphery with a seal member and a centering member and at its tip with a pawl capable of being projected and retracted in the radial direction. Thus, when the lock portion is moved along the guide tube, the used fuel assembly can be moved along the guide tube by maintaining the concentric relation thereto. Meanwhile, when cooling gas is fed into the guide tube, it is blown into the used fuel assembly to directly cool the same. Thus, the cooling efficiency can be increased. (Moriyama, M.)

  18. Radiological characterization of spent control rod assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Pratt, S.L.; Haggard, D.L.

    1995-10-01

    This document represents the final report of an ongoing study to provide radiological characterizations, classifications, and assessments in support of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations. This report describes the results of non-destructive and laboratory radionuclide measurements, as well as waste classification assessments, of BWR and PWR spent control rod assemblies. The radionuclide inventories of these spent control rods were determined by three separate methodologies, including (1) direct assay techniques, (2) calculational techniques, and (3) by sampling and laboratory radiochemical analyses. For the BWR control rod blade (CRB) and PWR burnable poison rod assembly (BPRA), 60 Co and 63 Ni, present in the stainless steel cladding, were the most abundant neutron activation products. The most abundant radionuclide in the PWR rod cluster control assembly (RCCA) was 108m Ag (130 yr halflife) produced in the Ag-In-Cd alloy used as the neutron poison. This radionuclide will be the dominant contributor to the gamma dose rate for many hundreds of years. The results of the direct assay methods agree very well (±10%) with the sampling/radiochemical measurements. The results of the calculational methods agreed fairly well with the empirical measurements for the BPRA, but often varied by a factor of 5 to 10 for the CRB and the RCCA assemblies. If concentration averaging and encapsulation, as allowed by 10CFR61.55, is performed, then each of the entire control assemblies would be classified as Class C low-level radioactive waste

  19. Spent fuel shipping cask development status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, K.H.; Lattin, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to establish a national system for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from commercial power generation, and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) to carry out these duties. A 1985 presidential decision added the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by defense programs to the national disposal system. A primary element of the disposal program is the development and operation of a transportation system to move the waste from its present locations to the facilities that will be included in the waste management system. The primary type of disposal facility to be established is a geologic repository; a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility may also be included as an intermediate step in the nuclear waste disposal process. This paper focuses on the progress and status of one facet of the transportation program--the development of a family of shipping casks for transporting spent fuel from nuclear power reactor sites to the repository of MRS facility

  20. Burnup degree measuring device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideo; Imaizumi, Hideki; Endo, Yasumi; Itahara, Kuniyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a small-sized and convenient device for measuring a burnup degree of spent fuels, which can be installed without remodelling an existent fuel storage pool. Namely, a gamma-ray detecting portion incorporates a Cd-Te detector for measuring intensity ratio of gamma-rays. A neutron detecting portion incorporates a fission counter tube. The Cd-Te detector comprises a neutron shielding member for reducing radiation damages and a background controlling plate for reducing low energy gamma-rays entering from a collimator. Since the Cd-Td detector for use in a gamma-ray spectroscopy can be used at a normal temperature and can measure even a relatively strong radiation field, it can measure the intensity of gamma-rays from Cs-137 and Cs-134 in spent fuels accurately at a resolving power of less than 10 keV. Further, in a case where a cooling period is less than one year, gamma-rays from Rh-106 and Nb-95 can also be measured. (I.S.)

  1. Development of Spent Fuel Examination Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Park, K. J.; Shin, H. S. (and others)

    2007-04-15

    For the official operation of ACPF Facility Attachment based on facility declared DIQ was issued by IAEA and officialized upon ROK government approval. This procedure gives an essential ground to negotiate Joint Determination between governments of ROK and US. For ACPF process material accountability a neutron coincidence counting system was developed and calibrated with Cf-252 source. Its performance test demonstrated that over-all counting efficiency was about 21% with random error, 1.5% against calibration source, which found to be satisfactory to the expected design specification. A calibration curve derived by MCNP code with relationship between ASNC doublet counts vs. neutron activity of Cm-244 showed calibration constant to be 2.78x10E5 counts/s.g which would be used for initial ACP hot operation test. Nuclear material transportation and temporary storage system was established for active demonstration of advanced spent fuel management process line and would be directly applied to the effective management of wastes arising from active demonstration and would later contribute as a base data to development of inter hot-cell movement system in pyro-processing line. In addition, an optimal spent fuel for the ACP demonstration was selected and a computer code was developed as a tool to estimate the expected source term at each key measurement point of ACP.

  2. Systems impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    Three studies were completed to evaluate four alternatives to the disposal of intact spent fuel assemblies in a geologic repository. A preferred spent fuel waste form for disposal was recommended on consideration of (1) package design and fuel/package interaction, (2) long-term, in-repository performance of the waste form, and (3) overall process performance and costs for packaging, handling, and emplacement. The four basic alternative waste forms considered were (1) end fitting removal, (2) fission gas venting, (3) disassembly and close packing, and (4) shearing/immobilization. None of the findings ruled out any alternative on the basis of waste package considerations or long-term performance of the waste form. The third alternative offers flexibility in loading that may prove attractive in the various geologic media under consideration, greatly reduces the number of packages, and has the lowest unit cost. These studies were completed in October, 1981. Since then Westinghouse Electric Corporation and the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation have completed studies in related fields. This report is now being published to provide publicly the background material that is contained within. 47 references, 28 figures, 31 tables

  3. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  4. Present status of JMTR spent fuel shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, Masataka; Watanabe, Masao; Yokokawa, Makoto; Sato, Hiroshi; Ito, Haruhiko

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been consistently making the enrichment reduction of reactor fuels in cooperation with RERTR Program and FRR SNF Acceptance Program both conducted along with the U.S. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy and JMTR, 50 MW test reactor in Oarai Research Establishment, has achieved core conversion, from its initial 93% enriched UAl alloy to 45% enriched uranium-aluminide fuel, and then to the current 19.8% enriched uranium-silicide fuel. In order to return all of JMTR spent fuels, to be discharged from the reactor by May 12, 2006, to the U.S.A. by May 12, 2009, JAERI is planning the transportation schedule based on one shipment per year. The sixth shipment of spent fuels to U.S. was carried out as scheduled this year, where the total number of fuels shipped amounts to 651 elements. All of the UAl alloy elements have so far been shipped and now shipments of 45% enriched uranium-aluminide type fuels are in progress. Thus far the JMTR SFs have been transported on schedule. From 2003 onward are scheduled more then 850 elements to be shipped. In this paper, we describe our activities on the transportation in general and the schedule for the SFs shipments. (author)

  5. Potential information requirements for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disbrow, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has performed analyses of the requirements for data and information for the management of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) designated for disposal under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA). Subsequently, the EIA collected data on the amounts and characteristics of SNF stored at commercial nuclear facilities. Most recently, the EIA performed an analysis of the international and domestic laws and regulations which have been established to ensure the safeguarding, accountability, and safe management of special nuclear materials (SNM). The SNM of interest are those designated for permanent disposal by the NWPA. This analysis was performed to determine what data and information may be needed to fulfill the specific accountability responsibilities of the Department of Energy (DOE) related to SNF handling, transportation, storage and disposal; to work toward achieving a consistency between nuclear fuel assembly identifiers and material weights as reported by the various responsible parties; and to assist in the revision of the Nuclear Fuel Data Form RW-859 used to obtain spent nuclear fuel characteristics data from the nuclear utilities

  6. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  7. Infinite partial summations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, D.W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of those aspects of the effective interaction problem that can be grouped under the heading of infinite partial summations of the perturbation series. After a brief mention of the classic examples of infinite summations, the author turns to the effective interaction problem for two extra core particles. Their direct interaction is summed to produce the G matrix, while their indirect interaction through the core is summed in a variety of ways under the heading of core polarization. (orig./WL) [de

  8. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  9. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  10. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  11. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  12. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  13. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  14. The quest for the ideal inorganic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Klintenberg, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The past half century has witnessed the discovery of many new inorganic scintillator materials and numerous advances in our understanding of the basic physical processes governing the transformation of ionizing radiation into scintillation light. Whereas scintillators are available with a good combination of physical properties, none provides the desired combination of stopping power, light output, and decay time. A review of the numerous scintillation mechanisms of known inorganic scintillators reveals why none of them is both bright and fast. The mechanisms of radiative recombination in wide-bandgap direct semiconductors, however, remain relatively unexploited for scintillators. We describe how suitably doped semiconductor scintillators could provide a combination of high light output, short decay time, and linearity of response that approach fundamental limits

  15. NAC international dry spent fuel transfer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, Thomas A.; Malone, James P.; Patterson, John R.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: For more than ten years NAC International (NAC) has designed, fabricated, tested and operated a variety of Dry Transfer Systems (DTS's) to transfer spent nuclear fuel from facilities with limited crane capabilities, limited accesses or limiting features to IAEA and USNRC licensed spent fuel transport casks or vice-versa. These DTS's have been operated in diverse environments in the United States and throughout the world and have proven to be a significant enhancement in transferring fuel between spent fuel pools, dry storage and hot cell facilities and spent fuel transport casks. Over the years, NAC has successfully and safely transferred more than two thousand fuel assemblies in DTS's. Our latest generation DTS incorporates years of extensive design and operating experience. It consists of a transfer cask with integrated fuel canister grapple, fuel canisters, and facility and cask adapters as well as a complement of related tools and equipment. The transfer cask is used to move irradiated HEU and LEU MTR fuel onsite in those instances where direct loading or unloading of the shipping cask is not possible due to dimensional, weight or other restrictions. The transfer cask is used to move canisters of fuel from the fuel storage location to the shipping cask. Adapters are employed to ensure proper interfacing of the transfer cask with fuel storage locations and shipping casks (NAC-LWT and NLI-1/2). Our existing fuel storage location adapter is designed for use with a storage pool; however, site or equipment specific adapters can easily be developed to allow interfacing with virtually any storage facility. Prior to movement of the first fuel canister in the transfer cask, the shipping cask is prepared for loading by proper set up of the base plate, shipping cask and shipping cask adapter. The fuel canisters are loaded with fuel and then retracted into the transfer cask via the fuel storage location adapter. The transfer cask is then moved to the shipping

  16. Molten salt battery having inorganic paper separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jr., Robert D.

    1977-01-01

    A high temperature secondary battery comprises an anode containing lithium, a cathode containing a chalcogen or chalcogenide, a molten salt electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a separator comprising a porous sheet comprising a homogenous mixture of 2-20 wt.% chrysotile asbestos fibers and the remainder inorganic material non-reactive with the battery components. The non-reactive material is present as fibers, powder, or a fiber-powder mixture.

  17. Inorganic Materials Division annual report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duba, A.; Hornady, B.

    1976-01-01

    This compilation lists abstracts of papers, internal reports, and talks presented during 1975 at national and international meetings by members of the Geoscience and Engineering Section, Inorganic Materials Division, Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Titles of talks at university and local meetings are also listed when available. The subjects range from the in situ retorting of coal to the temperature profile of the moon. A subject classification is included

  18. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-07-07

    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  19. Inorganic particle analysis of dental impression elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Soares, Carlos José; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the inorganic particle fraction of commercially available dental elastomers. The inorganic volumetric fraction of two addition silicones (Reprosil Putty/Fluid and Flexitime Easy Putty/Fluid), three condensation silicones (Clonage Putty/Fluid, Optosil Confort/Xantopren VL and Silon APS Putty/Fluid), one polyether (Impregum Soft Light Body) and one polysulfide (Permlastic Light Body) was accessed by weighing a previously determined mass of each material in water before and after burning samples at 600 ºC, during 3 h. Unsettled material samples were soaked in acetone and chloroform for removal of the organic portion. The remaining filler particles were sputter-coated with gold evaluation of their morphology and size, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexitime Easy Putty was the material with the highest results for volumetric particle fraction, while Impregum Soft had the lowest values. Silon 2 APS Fluid presented the lowest mean filler size values, while Clonage Putty had the highest values. SEM micrographs of the inorganic particles showed several morphologies - lathe-cut, spherical, spherical-like, sticks, and sticks mixed to lathe-cut powder. The results of this study revealed differences in particle characteristics among the elastometic materials that could lead to different results when testing mechanical properties.

  20. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  1. Instrumentation and analytical methods in carbon balance studies - inorganic components in a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjelvan, I.; Johannessen, T.; Miller, L.; Stoll, M.

    1996-03-01

    This paper was read at the workshop ``The Norwegian Climate and Ozone Research Programme`` held on 11-12 March 1996. Substantial amounts of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} enters the atmosphere. The land biota acts as a sink for CO{sub 2}, with uncertain consequences. About 30% of the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} added to the atmosphere is absorbed by the ocean and how the ocean acts as a sink is central in understanding the carbon cycle. In their project the authors investigate the inorganic carbon in the ocean, especially total dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in surface ocean and atmosphere. To determine total dissolved inorganic carbon, coulometric analysis is used in which an exact amount of sea water is acidified and the amount of carbon extracted is determined by a coulometer. Alkalinity is determined by potentiometric titration. In the pCO{sub 2} measurement, a small amount of air is circulated in a large amount of sea water and when after some time the amount of CO{sub 2} in the air reflects the CO{sub 2} concentration in the water, the pCO{sub 2} in the gas phase is determined by infra-red detection. The atmospheric pCO{sub 2} is also determined, and the difference between the two partial pressures gives information about source or sink activities. Total carbon and alkalinity measurements are done on discrete samples taken from all depths in the ocean, but for partial pressure detection an underway system is used, which determines the pCO{sub 2} in the surface ocean continuously

  2. Nondestructive verification and assay systems for spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Phillips, J.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Eccleston, G.W.; Halbig, J.K.; Hatcher, C.R.; Hsue, S.T.

    1982-04-01

    This is an interim report of a study concerning the potential application of nondestructive measurements on irradiated light-water-reactor (LWR) fuels at spent-fuel storage facilities. It describes nondestructive measurement techniques and instruments that can provide useful data for more effective in-plant nuclear materials management, better safeguards and criticality safety, and more efficient storage of spent LWR fuel. In particular, several nondestructive measurement devices are already available so that utilities can implement new fuel-management and storage technologies for better use of existing spent-fuel storage capacity. The design of an engineered prototype in-plant spent-fuel measurement system is approx. 80% complete. This system would support improved spent-fuel storage and also efficient fissile recovery if spent-fuel reprocessing becomes a reality

  3. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts

  4. Investigation of the condition of spent-fuel pool components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustas, F.M.; Bates, S.O.; Opitz, B.E.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    It is currently projected that spent nuclear fuel, which is discharged from the reactor and then stored in water pools, may remain in those pools for several decades. Other studies have addressed the expected integrity of the spent fuel during extended water storage; this study assesses the integrity of metallic spent fuel pool components. Results from metallurgical examinations of specimens taken from stainless steel and aluminum components exposed in spent fuel pools are presented. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) relating to problems with spent fuel components were assessed and are summarized to define the types of operational problems that have occurred. The major conclusions of this study are: aluminum and stainless steel spent fuel pool components have a good history of performance in both deionized and borated water pools. Although some operational problems involving pool components have occurred, these problems have had minimal impacts.

  5. Spent fuel management fee methodology and computer code user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, R.L.; White, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    The methodology and computer model described here were developed to analyze the cash flows for the federal government taking title to and managing spent nuclear fuel. The methodology has been used by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate the spent fuel disposal fee that will provide full cost recovery. Although the methodology was designed to analyze interim storage followed by spent fuel disposal, it could be used to calculate a fee for reprocessing spent fuel and disposing of the waste. The methodology consists of two phases. The first phase estimates government expenditures for spent fuel management. The second phase determines the fees that will result in revenues such that the government attains full cost recovery assuming various revenue collection philosophies. These two phases are discussed in detail in subsequent sections of this report. Each of the two phases constitute a computer module, called SPADE (SPent fuel Analysis and Disposal Economics) and FEAN (FEe ANalysis), respectively

  6. Effects of spent nuclear fuel aging on disposal requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Johnson, K.I.; Huber, H.D.; Bierschbach, M.C.

    1991-10-01

    This paper describes results of a study to analyze the waste management systems effects of extended spent fuel aging on spent fuel disposal requirements. The analysis considers additional spent fuel aging up to a maximum of 50 years relative to the currently planned 2010 repository startup in the United States. As part of the analysis, an equal energy disposition (EED) methodology was developed for determining allowable waste emplacement densities and waste container loading in a geologic repository. Results of this analysis indicate that substantial benefits of spent fuel aging will already have been achieved by a repository startup in 2010 (spent fuel average age will be 28 years). Even so, further significant aging benefits, in terms of reduced emplacement areas and mining requirements and reduced number of waste containers, will continue to accrue for at least another 50 years when the average spent fuel age would be 78 years, if the repository startup is further delayed

  7. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  8. The borehole disposal of spent sources (BOSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regional Training Course on 'The Management of Low-Level Radioactive Waste from Hospitals and Other Nuclear Applications' hosted by the Atomic Energy Corporation of SA Ltd. (AEC), now NECSA, during July/August 1995, the African delegates reviewed their national radioactive waste programmes. Among the issues raised, which are common to most African countries, were the lack of adequate storage facilities, lack of disposal solutions and a lack of equipment to implement widely used disposal concepts to dispose of their spent sources. As a result of this meeting, a Technical Co-operation (TC) project was launched to look at the technical feasibility and economic viability of such a concept. Phase I and II of the project have been completed and the results can be seen in three reports produced by NECSA. The Safety Assessment methodology used in the evaluation of the concept was that developed during the ISAM programme and detailed in Van Blerk's PhD thesis. This methodology is specifically developed for shallow land repositories, but was used in this case as the borehole need not be more than 100m deep and could fit into the definition of a shallow land disposal system. The studies found that the BOSS concept would be suitable for implementation in African countries as the borehole has a large capacity for sources and it is possible that an entire country's disused sources can be placed in a single borehole. The costs are a lot lower than for a shallow land trench, and the concept was evaluated using radium (226) sources as the most limiting inventory. The conclusion of the initial safety assessment was that the BOSS concept is robust, and provides a viable alternative for the disposal of radium needles. The concept is expected to provide good assurance of safety at real sites. The extension of the safety assessment to other types of spent sources is expected to be relatively straightforward. Disposal of radium needles

  9. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  10. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  11. Introduction on the recycling of spent and disused radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Mingqiang; Zang Ruihua

    2011-01-01

    It is not only a stress of environment safety, but also a waste of huge resources to send directly to store spent and disused radioactive sources. This article reviews some important aspects of management suggestions recommended by IAEA and requirements of regulations in China for disposing the spent and disused radioactive sources. The present condition and benefit of recycling spent and disused sources are analyzed. Some suggestions on carrying out recycling in China are put forward too. (authors)

  12. The use of spent glauconite in lightweight aggregate production

    OpenAIRE

    Franus, Wojciech; Franus, Małgorzata; Latosińska, Jolanta; Wójcik, Rafał

    2011-01-01

    The presented work has shown an application of spent glauconite bed after purification of wastewater for production of lightweight expanded clay aggregates. Sewage, from which it was removed Zn ions, came from technological line (zincworks) of Communication Equipment Factory „PZL” Świdnik. Spent glauconite bed was used as an additive in lightweight aggregate production which was obtained using plastic method by sintering, at temperature 1140 ºC and 1200 ºC, of spent glauconite amouts 10, 15, ...

  13. The risks of the Taiwan research reactor spent fuel project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The proposed action is to transport up to 118 spent fuel rods, to include canned spent fuel rod particulates immobilized on filters, from a research reactor in Taiwan by sea to Hampton Roads, Virginia, and then overland by truck to the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At SRS, the spent fuel will be reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium. 55 refs., 8 tabs

  14. Spent fuel management and closed nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic objectives set by Rosatom Corporation in the field of spent fuel management are given. By 2030, Russia is to create technological infrastructure for innovative nuclear energy development, including complete closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. A target model of the spent NPP nuclear fuel management system until 2030 is analyzed. The schedule for key stages of putting in place the infrastructure for spent NPP fuel management is given. The financial aspect of the problem is also discussed [ru

  15. Expansion of capacity of spent fuel pools and associated problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, J.L. De; Lopez-Cotarelo, J.; Ramos, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Expanding the spent fuel storage pool capacity is a good solution for utilities facing the current shortage in fuel reprocessing capacity. The problems more likely to be found when expanding a spent fuel storage facility by using high density storage racks are reviewed. Basically three types of problems arise: 1) Problems related with the characteristics of the new facility. 2) Problems related with the works of expansion. 3) Problems related with the long term storage of large quantities of spent fuel. (author)

  16. Safe transport of spent fuels after long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aritomi, M.; Takeda, T.; Ozaki, S.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the scarcity of energy resources in Japan, a nuclear energy policy pertaining to the spent fuel storage has been adopted. The nuclear energy policy sets the rules that spent fuels generated from LWRs shall be reprocessed and that plutonium and unburnt uranium shall be recovered and reused. For this purpose, a reprocessing plant, which has a reprocessing capability of 800 ton/yr, is under construction at Rokkasho Village. However, it is anticipated that the start of its operation will be delayed. In addition, the amount of spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants exceeds its reprocessing capability. Therefore, the establishment of storage technology for spent fuels becomes an urgent problem in Japan in order to continue smoothly the LWR operations. In this paper, the background of nuclear power generation in Japan is introduced at first. Next, the policy of spent fuel storage in Japan and circumstances surrounding the spent fuels in Japan are mentioned. Furthermore, the major subjects for discussions to settle and improve 'Standard for Safety Design and Inspection of Metal Casks for Spent Fuel Interim Storage Facility' in Atomic Energy Society of Japan are discussed, such as the integrity of fuel cladding, basket, shielding material and metal gasket for the long term storage for achieving safe transport of spent fuels after the storage. Finally, solutions to the unsolved subject in establishing the spent fuel interim storage technologies ase introduced accordingly

  17. Spent fuel heatup following loss of water during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, A.S.; McCloskey, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Spent fuel assemblies from light water reactors are typically stored for one year or more in the reactor spent fuel pool and then transported for long-term storage at an off-site location. Because of the design, construction, and operation features of spent fuel storage pools, an accident that might drain most of the water from a pool is assessed as being extremely improbable. As a limiting case, however, a hypothetical incident involving instantaneous draining of all the water from a storage pool has been postulated, and the subsequent heatup of the spent fuel elements has been evaluated. The model is analyzed, and results are summarized

  18. Remarks on the transportation of spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1992-01-01

    Information and data are provided on several aspects of the transportation of spent fuel elements. These aspects include contract, transportation, reprocessing batch size, and economical considerations. (author)

  19. Status of Away From Reactor spent fuel storage program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.D.

    1979-07-01

    The Away From Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Program that the US Department of Energy established in 1977 is intended to preclude the shutting down of commercial nuclear power reactors because of lack of storage space for spent fuel. Legislation now being considered by Congress includes plans to provide storage space for commercial spent fuel beginning in 1983. Utilities are being encouraged to provide as much storage space as possible in their existing storage facilities, but projections indicate that a significant amount of AFR storage will be required. The government is evaluating the use of both existing and new storage facilities to solve this forecasted storage problem for commercial spent fuel

  20. Transportation and storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the generic actions to be taken by the Department of Energy, in cooperation with other US government agencies, foreign governments, and international organizations, in support of the implementation of Administration policies with respect to the following international spent fuel management activities: bilateral cooperation related to expansion of foreign national storage capacities; multilateral and international cooperation related to development of multinational and international spent fuel storage regimes; fee-based transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage; and emergency transfer of foreign spent power reactor fuel to the US for storage

  1. Legal questions concerning the termination of spent fuel element reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The thesis on legal aspects of the terminated spent fuel reprocessing in Germany is based on the legislation, jurisdiction and literature until January 2004. The five chapters cover the following topics: description of the problem; reprocessing of spent fuel elements in foreign countries - practical and legal aspects; operators' responsibilities according to the atomic law with respect to the reprocessing of Geman spent fuel elements in foreign countries; compatibility of the prohibition of Geman spent fuel element reprocessing in foreign countries with international law, European law and German constitutional law; results of the evaluation

  2. Status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    Results compiled in the research reactor spent fuel database are used to assess the status of research reactor spent fuel world-wide. Fuel assemblies, their types, enrichment, origin of enrichment and geological distribution among the industrialised and developed countries of the world are discussed. Fuel management practices in wet and dry storage facilities and the concerns of reactor operators about long-term storage of their spent fuel are presented and some of the activities carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency to address the issues associated with research reactor spent fuel are outlined. (author)

  3. Transportation capabilities study of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.L.; Johnson, R.A.; Smith, R.W. [Packaging Technology, Inc., Tacoma, WA (United States); Abbott, D.G.; Tyacke, M.J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This study evaluates current capabilities for transporting spent nuclear fuel owned by the US Department of Energy. Currently licensed irradiated fuel shipping packages that have the potential for shipping the spent nuclear fuel are identified and then matched against the various spent nuclear fuel types. Also included are the results of a limited investigation into other certified packages and new packages currently under development. This study is intended to support top-level planning for the disposition of the Department of Energy`s spent nuclear fuel inventory.

  4. Preliminary concepts: safeguards for spent light-water reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Dayem, H.A.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    The technology available for safeguarding spent nuclear fuels from light-water power reactors is reviewed, and preliminary concepts for a spent-fuel safeguards system are presented. Essential elements of a spent-fuel safeguards system are infrequent on-site inspections, containment and surveillance systems to assure the integrity of stored fuel between inspections, and nondestructive measurements of the fuel assemblies. Key safeguards research and development activities necessary to implement such a system are identified. These activities include the development of tamper-indicating fuel-assembly identification systems and the design and development of nondestructive spent-fuel measurement systems

  5. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed

  6. Characterization plan for Hanford spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, J.; Thornton, T.A.; Thomas, L.E.; Berting, F.M.; Marschman, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Hanford Site Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) was terminated in 1972. Since that time a significant quantity of N Reactor and Single-Pass Reactor SNF has been stored in the 100 Area K-East (KE) and K-West (KW) reactor basins. Approximately 80% of all US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned SNF resides at Hanford, the largest portion of which is in the water-filled KE and KW reactor basins. The basins were not designed for long-term storage of the SNF and it has become a priority to move the SNF to a more suitable location. As part of the project plan, SNF inventories will be chemically and physically characterized to provide information that will be used to resolve safety and technical issues for development of an environmentally benign and efficient extended interim storage and final disposition strategy for this defense production-reactor SNF

  7. Calculating the plutonium in spent fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnham, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Many members of the public are concerned about plutonium. They are worried about its environmental, health and proliferation risks. Fundamental to all such considerations are two related questions: how much plutonium do nuclear reactors produce ? and how accurately do the relevant authorities know these production figures ? These two questions have been studied with particular reference to the UK civil Magnox reactors. In 1990 these were still the only UK civil reactors whose spent fuel had been reprocessed to extract plutonium in routine production. It has not been possible to conclude that the relevant government industry and safeguard authorities are aware of how much plutonium these reactors produce and that the figures are known to the highest achievable accuracy. To understand why, this chapter will outline some of the history of the attempts to get answers to these two questions. (author)

  8. Advanced waste forms from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.P.; McPheeters, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    More than one hundred spent nuclear fuel types, having an aggregate mass of more than 5000 metric tons (2700 metric tons of heavy metal), are stored by the United States Department of Energy. This paper proposes a method for converting this wide variety of fuel types into two waste forms for geologic disposal. The method is based on a molten salt electrorefining technique that was developed for conditioning the sodium-bonded, metallic fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for geologic disposal. The electrorefining method produces two stable, optionally actinide-free, high-level waste forms: an alloy formed from stainless steel, zirconium, and noble metal fission products, and a ceramic waste form containing the reactive metal fission products. Electrorefining and its accompanying head-end process are briefly described, and methods for isolating fission products and fabricating waste forms are discussed

  9. Management of spent solvents of reprocessing origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manohar, S.; Srinivas, C.; Vincent, T.; Wattal, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    Spent solvents of reprocessing origin constitute a major portion of radioactive liquid organic wastes arising from nuclear activity. An in-depth study of this waste stream has led to the evolution of a complete management option, which addresses not only the concern of radioactivity but also its organic nature. This is based on alkaline hydrolysis of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), which converts it into aqueous soluble products, viz. sodium salt of dibutyl phosphoric acid and butanol. During the process of alkaline hydrolysis almost all the activity associated with the waste gets transferred into the aqueous phase. The recovered diluent virtually free of activity and TBP can be recycled, and in case of it not meeting reprocessing standards, can be incinerated. The process generated aqueous waste is found compatible with cement and can be immobilized in cement matrix. (author)

  10. Spent fuel shipping cask sealing concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    In late 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requested the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) to provide a study which examined sealing concepts for application to spent fuel shipping casks. This request was approved, and assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). In the course of this study, discussions were held with personnel in the International Safeguards Community who were familiar with the shipping casks used in their States. A number of shipping casks were examined, and discussions were held with two shipping cask manufacturers in the US. As a result of these efforts, it was concluded that the shipping casks provided an extremely good containment, and that many of the existing casks can be effectively sealed by applying the seal to the cask closure bolts/nuts

  11. Spent fuel cladding containment credit test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    As an initial step in addressing the effectiveness of breached cladding as a barrier to radionuclide release from the repository during the post-containment period, preliminary scoping tests have been initiated which compare radionuclide releases from spent fuel specimens with artificially induced cladding defects of various severities. The artificially induced defects are all more severe than the typical in-reactor type breaches which are expected to be the principal type of breach entering the repository for terminal storage. These preliminary scoping tests being conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Waste Package Development Program in support of the Tuff repository project at the Nevada Test Site are described. Also included in this presentation are selected initial results from these tests. 22 figures

  12. Radiation Templates of Spent Fuel in Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanier, Peter

    2018-05-07

    BNL and INL propose to perform a scoping study, using heavily collimated gamma and fast neutron detectors, to obtain passive radiation templates of dry storage casks containing spent fuel. The goal is to demonstrate sufficient spatial resolution and sensitivity to detect a missing fuel assembly. Such measurements, combined with detailed modeling and decay corrections should provide confidence that the cask contents have not been altered, despite loss of continuity of knowledge (CoK). The concept relies on the leakage of high energy gammas and neutrons through the shielding of the casks. Tests will emphasize organic scintillators with pulse shape discrimination, but baseline comparisons will be made to high purity germanium (HPGe) and collimated moderated 3He detectors deployed in the same locations. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) detectors and data acquisition electronics will be used with custom-built collimators and shielding.

  13. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Ikladious, N.E.; Eskander, S.B.

    1981-01-01

    PMMA was studied with the aim to evaluate its usefulness as an incorporation medium for the final containment of spent ion-exchange resins. The study of the effect of water content (ranging from 25 to 100%) of the incorporated resin into PMMA on the compression strength of the final solid products shows that with the increasing water content the compression strength of the final products decreases sharply. Hardness of the final products follows nearly the same trend of compression strength. Increasing gamma irradiation doses, up to 7.77x10 7 rad, PMMA shows increase in compression strength and hardness for small doses and then decreases with increasing irradiation dose due to the increase in polymerization process and the degradation of the incorporation medium

  14. Spent and fresh fuel shipping cask considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shappert, L.B.; Unger, W.E.; Freedman, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A program to provide basic information for cask design and safety has been conducted for over ten years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Principal problem areas in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) casks are identified as heat transfer, structures and containment, criticality and shielding. Solutions in the problem areas, as well as the need for future work, are addressed by describing an LMFBR conceptual design cask. A new program, which is underway at Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, is aimed at producing technology useful to industry and government. Technologies are being developed in areas of hazards analysis, heat transfer, shielding, structures and containment, and spent fuel characterization, substantiated by hot laboratory verification. Particular emphasis will be placed on establishing qualification tests based on accident experience. Handling requirements and limitations are discussed. (auth)

  15. Potential Interface Issues in Spent Fuel Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    This publication is an output of a series of meetings to identify and evaluate issues and opportunities associated with interfaces in the back end of the fuel cycle (BEFC) and to describe effective management approaches based on the experience of Member States. During the meetings, participants from Member States and other international organizations shared and evaluated the main interfaces and potential interface issues among the spent fuel storage, transport, reprocessing and disposal of the BEFC, and also reviewed the national approaches to addressing these issues. The aim of this publication is to provide an approach to identify the interfaces in the BEFC as well as the potential issues that should be addressed. It also aims at responding to the solutions Member States most often find to be effective and, in some cases, were adjusted or revisited to reach the fixed target. Most of the interfaces and issues are country specific, as evidenced by the variety and diversity of examples provided in this publication

  16. Spent nuclear fuel project technical databook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project technical databook provides project-approved summary tables of selected parameters and derived physical quantities, with nominal design and safety basis values. It contains the parameters necessary for a complete documentation basis of the SNF Project technical and safety baseline. The databook is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 presents K Basins SNF related information. Volume 2 (not yet available) will present selected sludge and water information, as it relates to the sludge and water removal projects. The values, within this databook, shall be used as the foundation for analyses, modeling, assumptions, or other input to SNF project safety analyses or design. All analysis and modeling using a parameter available in this databook are required to use and cite the appropriate associated value, and document any changes to those values (i.e., analysis assumptions, equipment conditions, etc). Characterization and analysis efforts are ongoing to validate, or update these values

  17. Spent nuclear fuel project technical databook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, M.A.

    1998-07-22

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project technical databook provides project-approved summary tables of selected parameters and derived physical quantities, with nominal design and safety basis values. It contains the parameters necessary for a complete documentation basis of the SNF Project technical and safety baseline. The databook is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 presents K Basins SNF related information. Volume 2 (not yet available) will present selected sludge and water information, as it relates to the sludge and water removal projects. The values, within this databook, shall be used as the foundation for analyses, modeling, assumptions, or other input to SNF project safety analyses or design. All analysis and modeling using a parameter available in this databook are required to use and cite the appropriate associated value, and document any changes to those values (i.e., analysis assumptions, equipment conditions, etc). Characterization and analysis efforts are ongoing to validate, or update these values.

  18. Method of reprocessing spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Hiroaki; Inoue, Tadashi; Miyashiro, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the storage management for the wastes resulting from reprocessing by chemically separating transuranium elements such as actionoid elements together with uranium and plutonium. Method: Spent fuels from a nuclear reactor are separated into two groups, that is, a mixture of uranium, plutonium and transuranium elements and cesium, strontium and other nuclear fission products. Virgin uranium is mixed to adjust the mixture of uranium, plutonium and transuranium elements in the first group, which is used as the fuels for the nuclear reactor. After separating to recover useful metals such as cesium and strontium are separated from short half-decay nuclear fission products of the second group, other nuclear fission products are stored and managed. This enables to shorten the storage period and safety storage and management for the wastes. (Takahashi, M.)

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Removal Campaign Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The overall operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project will include fuel removal, sludge removal, debris removal, and deactivation transition activities. Figure 1-1 provides an overview of the current baseline operating schedule for project sub-systems, indicating that a majority of fuel removal activities are performed over an approximately three-and-one-half year time period. The purpose of this document is to describe the strategy for operating the fuel removal process systems. The campaign plan scope includes: (1) identifying a fuel selection sequence during fuel removal activities, (2) identifying MCOs that are subjected to extra testing (process validation) and monitoring, and (3) discussion of initial MCO loading and monitoring in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The campaign plan is intended to integrate fuel selection requirements for handling special groups of fuel within the basin (e.g., single pass reactor fuel), process validation activities identified for process systems, and monitoring activities during storage

  20. Regeneration of ammonia borane spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, Andrew David; Davis, Benjamin L.; Gordon, John C.

    2009-01-01

    A necessary target in realizing a hydrogen (H 2 ) economy, especially for the transportation sector, is its storage for controlled delivery, presumably to an energy producing fuel cell. In this vein, the U.S. Department of Energy's Centers of Excellence (CoE) in Hydrogen Storage have pursued different methodologies, including metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, and sorbents, for the expressed purpose of supplanting gasoline's current > 300 mile driving range. Chemical H 2 storage has been dominated by one appealing material, ammonia borane (H 3 N-BH 3 , AB), due to its high gravimetric capacity of H 2 (19.6 wt %) and low molecular weight (30.7 g mol -1 ). In addition, AB has both hydridic and protic moieties, yielding a material from which H 2 can be readily released in contrast to the loss of H 2 from C 2 H 6 which is substantially endothermic. As such, a number of publications have described H 2 release from amine boranes, yielding various rates depending on the method applied. The viability of any chemical H 2 storage system is critically dependent on efficient recyclability, but reports on the latter subject are sparse, invoke the use of high energy reducing agents, and suffer from low yields. Our group is currently engaged in trying to find and fully demonstrate an energy efficient regeneration process for the spent fuel from H 2 depleted AB with a minimum number of steps. Although spent fuel composition depends on the dehydrogenation method, we have focused our efforts on the spent fuel resulting from metal-based catalysis, which has thus far shown the most promise. Metal-based catalysts have produced the fastest rates for a single equivalent of H 2 released from AB and up to 2.5 equiv. of H 2 can be produced within 2 hours. While ongoing work is being carried out to tailor the composition of spent AB fuel, a method has been developed for regenerating the predominant product, polyborazylene (PB) which can be obtained readily from the decomposition of borazine