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Sample records for partially completed commercial

  1. Complete destructive interference of partially coherent fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gbur, G.J.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.

    2004-01-01

    A three-point source model is used to study the interference of wavefields which are mutually partially coherent. It is shown that complete destructive interference of the fields is possible in such a "three-pinhole interferometer" even if the sources are not fully coherent with respect to each

  2. Comparing complete and partial classification for identifying customers at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemer, J.M.M.; Brijs, T.; Swinnen, S.P.; Vanhoof, K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates complete versus partial classification for the problem of identifying customers at risk. We define customers at risk as customers reporting overall satisfaction, but these customers also possess characteristics that are strongly associated with dissatisfied customers. This

  3. Motor Axonal Regeneration After Partial and Complete Spinal Cord Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Paul; Blesch, Armin; Graham, Lori; Wang, Yaozhi; Samara, Ramsey; Banos, Karla; Haringer, Verena; Havton, Leif; Weishaupt, Nina; Bennett, David; Fouad, Karim; Tuszynski, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    We subjected rats to either partial mid-cervical or complete upper thoracic spinal cord transections and examined whether combinatorial treatments support motor axonal regeneration into and beyond the lesion. Subjects received cAMP injections into brainstem reticular motor neurons to stimulate their endogenous growth state, bone marrow stromal cell grafts in lesion sites to provide permissive matrices for axonal growth, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gradients beyond the lesion to stimulate distal growth of motor axons. Findings were compared to several control groups. Combinatorial treatment generated motor axon regeneration beyond both C5 hemisection and complete transection sites. Yet despite formation of synapses with neurons below the lesion, motor outcomes worsened after partial cervical lesions and spasticity worsened after complete transection. These findings highlight the complexity of spinal cord repair, and the need for additional control and shaping of axonal regeneration. PMID:22699902

  4. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  5. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

  6. Effect of complete and partial removable dentures on chewing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, T M S V; Vilanova, L S R; Gonçalves, L M; Rodrigues Garcia, R C M

    2014-03-01

    Partial or complete edentulism impairs mastication. However, it is unclear how the chewing cycle is affected by prosthetics. We evaluated the chewing movements of patients fitted with complete (CD) or removable partial denture (RPD). A total of 29 subjects were kinesiographically evaluated during chewing of peanuts and Optocal portions in a random sequence. The subjects were divided into two groups according to prosthesis type. Group RPD was composed of 14 partially edentulous patients using a lower distal extension RPD (mean age 61 ± 8 years), and group CD contained 15 completely edentulous patients using CD (mean age 65·9 ± 7·9 years) in both jaws. Opening, closing, occlusal and masticatory cycle times, movement angle (opening and closing), maximum velocity (opening and closing), total area and chewing cycle amplitudes were evaluated. The results were subjected to anova and Tukey's HSD test at a significance level of 5%. The RPD group exhibited shorter opening and closing phases and masticatory cycle time (P chewing envelope was smaller in the CD group (P chewing cycles in any of the parameters evaluated (P > 0·05). RPD wearers use a faster chewing sequence with greater vertical and lateral jaw excursions compared with CD wearers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prosthodontic rehabilitation of completely edentulous patient with partial glossectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Garg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer accounts for about 40% of all cancers inflicting the human beings. Those involving the tongue results in mild to severe deficiencies of phonation, deglutition, mastication, and taste depending upon the degree and extent tissues involved. Often rehabilitation of such patient is a challenge for the prosthodontist and involves a careful observation and evaluation of the residual oral function and ways to restore them. This article presents a case report of prosthodontic rehabilitation completely edentulous patient, who underwent partial glossectomy following surgical resection of the squamous cell carcinoma involving left lateral borders of the tongue. An attempt was made to restore the comfort and function of the patient with the help of palatal augmentation prosthesis, with additional assistance through speech therapy and simple oral exercises.

  8. Outcomes of Complete Versus Partial Surgical Stabilization of Flail Chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Terry P; Thiels, Cornelius A; Kim, Brian D; Zielinski, Martin D; Jenkins, Donald H; Schiller, Henry J

    2016-01-01

    Rib fractures are common after chest wall trauma. For patients with flail chest, surgical stabilization is a promising technique for reducing morbidity. Anatomical difficulties often lead to an inability to completely repair the flail chest; thus, the result is partial flail chest stabilization (PFS). We hypothesized that patients with PFS have outcomes similar to those undergoing complete flail chest stabilization (CFS). A prospectively collected database of all patients who underwent rib fracture stabilization procedures from August 2009 until February 2013 was reviewed. Abstracted data included procedural and complication data, extent of stabilization, and pulmonary function test results. Of 43 patients who underwent operative stabilization of flail chest, 23 (53%) had CFS and 20 (47%) underwent PFS. Anterior location of the fracture was the most common reason for PFS (45%). Age, sex, operative time, pneumonia, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and narcotic use were the same in both groups. Total lung capacity was significantly improved in the CFS group at 3 months. No chest wall deformity was appreciated on follow-up, and no patients underwent additional stabilization procedures following PFS. Despite advances in surgical technique, not all fractures are amenable to repair. There was no difference in chest wall deformity, narcotic use, or clinically significant impairment in pulmonary function tests among patients who underwent PFS compared with CFS. Our data suggest that PFS is an acceptable strategy and that extending or creating additional incisions for CFS is unnecessary.

  9. Complete and Partial Organizing for Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasche, A.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Moon, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates different modes of organizing for corporate social responsibility (CSR). Based on insights from organization theory, we theorize two ways to organize for CSR. "Complete" organization for CSR happens within businesses and depends on the availability of certain organizational

  10. Abnormal Moral Reasoning in Complete and Partial Callosotomy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael B.; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Young, Liane; King, Danielle; Paggi, Aldo; Fabri, Mara; Polonara, Gabriele; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest lateralized cerebral mechanisms in the right temporal parietal junction are involved in complex social and moral reasoning, such as ascribing beliefs to others. Based on this evidence, we tested 3 anterior-resected and 3 complete callosotomy patients along with 22 normal subjects on a reasoning task that…

  11. Complete and Partial Organizing for Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; de Bakker, Frank; Moon, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates different modes of organizing for corporate social responsibility (CSR). Based on insights from organization theory, we theorize two ways to organize for CSR. 'Complete' organization for CSR happens within businesses and depends on the availability of certain organizationa...

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament tear: comparison of MR features between complete and partial tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Young; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yu Jin; Rho, Eun Jin; Kim, Young Hoon; Yi, Jeong Geun; Ahn, Joong Mo

    1997-01-01

    To determine the MRI features which distinguish complete and partial tear of the anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and to thus improve MRI interpretation. In 80 patients, we analyzed MR findings of direct and indirect signs of ACL tear (complete tear, 61 cases, partial tear, 19 cases) confirmed by arthroscopy or surgery, and compared the relative incidence of each sign in cases of complete and partial tear. Direct and indirect signs were found in 61 (100%) and 60 cases (98.4%), respectively, in complete tears, but in 16 (84.2%) and 15 cases (78.9%), respectively, in partial tears. Poor visualization, discontinuity and hyperintensity were seen in all complete tears but in only nine cases (47.4%) of partial tear. A wavy or abnormal contour was seen in 53 cases (86.9%) of complete tear and 14 (73.7%) of partial tear. A wavy contour without other direct signs was seen in only five cases (26.3%) of partial tear. Three cases (15.8%) of partial tear showed normal MR finding. Indirect signs, i.e. abnormal ACL angle, abnormal ACL-Blumensaat line angle, abnormal posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) line, abnormal PCL angle, PCL buckling, anterior displacement of tibia, posterior displacement of lateral meniscus, bone bruise, Segond fracture, tear of collateral ligaments, PCL, and tear of meniscus were commoner in complete than in partial tears. Two cases of O'Donoghue's triad and two of popliteus injury were seen only in complete tears. Direct and indirect signs of ACL tear were more commonly noted in complete than in partial tears. The latter showed MR features varying from normal to almost complete tear. We suggest that a wavy contour without other direct signs is indicative of a partial tear, and that O'Donoghue's triad and popliteus muscle injury are indirect signs of a complete tear

  13. Beyond a complete failure : The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Jenelius, E.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between

  14. The Returns to Completion or Partial Completion of a Qualification in the Trades. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tham

    2015-01-01

    Many students do not complete full qualifications in the vocational education and training (VET) system because their intention is to obtain only the particular skills they require. This can be achieved through the acquisition of skill sets; these enable flexibility in training to quickly respond to changes in the labour market. Skill sets may…

  15. Impact of Partial and complete rupture of anterior cruciate ligament on medial meniscus: A cadavaric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Similar to complete rupture, partial rupture of ACL can also trigger strain concentration on medial meniscus, especially posterior horn, which may be a more critical reason for meniscus injury associated with chronic ACL deficiency.

  16. Partial and complete tear of the anterior cruciate ligament. Direct and indirect MR signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.T.; Tu, H.Y.; Chen, R.C.; Shih, T.T.F.; Shau, W.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze MR direct and indirect signs for knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) partial or complete tear. Material and Methods: According to documented MR direct and indirect signs for ACL tear, we retrospectively reviewed the incidence of those signs in 15 partial ACL tear and 17 complete ACL tear patients. The findings were also compared with duration of injury (less or more than 6 weeks, as acute or chronic stages). Results: A residual straight and tight ACL fiber in at least one pulse sequence was more frequently detected in partial ACL tears. The empty notch sign, a wavy contour of ACL, bone contusion at lateral compartment and lateral meniscus posterior horn tear were significantly more frequently seen in complete tear cases. The posterior cruciate ligament angle in chronic complete ACL tear cases (109 deg ±20 deg) had a tendency to be less than in chronic partial ACL tear cases (119 deg ±18 deg). Conclusion: The empty notch sign, a wavy ACL, bone contusion, and posterior horn of lateral meniscus tears are suggestive of a complete ACL tear. A residual straight and tight ACL fiber seen in at least one image section is a helpful sign to diagnosis of partial ACL tear. In the acute ACL injury stage, a focal increase of the ACL signal intensity is more suggestive of a partial ACL tear

  17. On bounded rank positive semidefinite matrix completions of extreme partial correlation matrices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Eisenberg-Nagy (Marianna); M. Laurent (Monique); A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios)

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a new geometric graph parameter egd(G), defined as the smallest integer r ≥ 1 for which any partial symmetric matrix which is completable to a correlation matrix and whose entries are specified at the positions of the edges of G, can be completed to a matrix in the convex hull

  18. On bounded rank positive semidefinite matrix completions of extreme partial correlation matrices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Eisenberg-Nagy (Marianna); M. Laurent (Monique); A. Varvitsiotis (Antonios)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe study a new geometric graph parameter $egd(G)$, defined as the smallest integer $r\\ge 1$ for which any partial symmetric matrix which is completable to a correlation matrix and whose entries are specified at the positions of the edges of $G$, can be completed to a matrix in the convex

  19. Amplitude reconstruction from complete photoproduction experiments and truncated partial-wave expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, R. L.; Tiator, L.; Wunderlich, Y.; Doring, M.; Haberzettl, H.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we compare the methods of amplitude reconstruction, for a complete experiment and a truncated partial-wave analysis, applied to the photoproduction of pseudoscalar mesons. The approach is pedagogical, showing in detail how the amplitude reconstruction (observables measured at a single energy and angle) is related to a truncated partial-wave analysis (observables measured at a single energy and a number of angles).

  20. Characteristics of Hospitals Associated with Complete and Partial Implementation of Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhounsule, Prajakta; Peterson, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    (1) To determine the proportion of hospitals with and without implementation of electronic health records (EHRs). (2) To examine characteristics of hospitals that report implementation of EHRs partially or completely versus those that report no implementation. (3) To identify hospital characteristics associated with nonimplementation to help devise future policy initiatives. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2012 American Hospital Association Annual Survey Database. The outcome variable was the implementation of EHRs completely or partially. Independent variables were hospital characteristics, such as staffing, organization structure, accreditations, ownership, and services and facilities provided at the hospitals. Descriptive frequencies were determined, and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine variables independently associated with complete or partial implementation of EHRs. In this study, 12.6 percent of hospitals reported no implementation of EHRs, while 43.9 percent of hospitals implemented EHRs partially and 43.5 percent implemented EHRs completely. Overall characteristics of hospitals with complete and partial implementation were similar. The multinomial regression model revealed a positive association between the number of licensed beds and complete implementation of EHRs. A positive association was found between children's general medical, surgical, and heart hospitals and complete implementation of EHRs. Conversely, psychiatric and rehabilitation hospitals, limited service hospitals, hospitals participating in a network, service hospitals, government nonfederal hospitals, and nongovernment not-for-profit hospitals showed less likelihood of complete implementation of EHRs. Study findings suggest a disparity of EHR implementation between larger, for-profit hospitals and smaller, not-for-profit hospitals. Low rates of implementation were observed with psychiatric and rehabilitation hospitals. EHR policy initiatives

  1. Highly accelerated cardiac cine parallel MRI using low-rank matrix completion and partial separability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jingyuan; Nakarmi, Ukash; Zhang, Chaoyi; Ying, Leslie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to highly accelerated dynamic parallel MRI using low rank matrix completion, partial separability (PS) model. In data acquisition, k-space data is moderately randomly undersampled at the center kspace navigator locations, but highly undersampled at the outer k-space for each temporal frame. In reconstruction, the navigator data is reconstructed from undersampled data using structured low-rank matrix completion. After all the unacquired navigator data is estimated, the partial separable model is used to obtain partial k-t data. Then the parallel imaging method is used to acquire the entire dynamic image series from highly undersampled data. The proposed method has shown to achieve high quality reconstructions with reduction factors up to 31, and temporal resolution of 29ms, when the conventional PS method fails.

  2. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B.

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative

  3. FMDP Reactor Alternative Summary Report: Volume 3 - partially complete LWR alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, S.R.; Fisher, S.E.; Bevard, B.B. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) initiated a detailed analysis activity to evaluate each of ten plutonium disposition alternatives that survived an initial screening process. This document, Volume 3 of a four volume report summarizes the results of these analyses for the partially complete LWR (PCLWR) reactor based plutonium disposition alternative.

  4. On the complete and partial integrability of non-Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bountis, T. C.; Ramani, A.; Grammaticos, B.; Dorizzi, B.

    1984-11-01

    The methods of singularity analysis are applied to several third order non-Hamiltonian systems of physical significance including the Lotka-Volterra equations, the three-wave interaction and the Rikitake dynamo model. Complete integrability is defined and new completely integrable systems are discovered by means of the Painlevé property. In all these cases we obtain integrals, which reduce the equations either to a final quadrature or to an irreducible second order ordinary differential equation (ODE) solved by Painlevé transcendents. Relaxing the Painlevé property we find many partially integrable cases whose movable singularities are poles at leading order, with In( t- t0) terms entering at higher orders. In an Nth order, generalized Rössler model a precise relation is established between the partial fulfillment of the Painlevé conditions and the existence of N - 2 integrals of the motion.

  5. Partial to complete wetting transitions in immiscible ternary blends with PLA: the influence of interfacial confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolali, Ali M; Favis, Basil D

    2017-04-12

    In this study it is shown that the three different intermediate phases in melt blended ternary PLA/PHBV/PBS, PLA/PBAT/PE and PLA/PE/PBAT systems all demonstrate partial wetting, but have very different wetting behaviors as a function of composition and annealing. The interfacial tension of the various components, their spreading coefficients and the contact angles of the confined partially wet droplets at the interface are examined in detail. A wetting transition from partially wet droplets to a complete layer at the interface is observed for both PHBV and PBAT by increasing the concentration and also by annealing. In contrast, in PLA/PE/PBAT, the partially wet droplets of PE at the interface of PLA/PBAT coalesce and grow in size, but remain partially wet even at a high PE concentration of 20% and after 30 min of quiescent annealing. The dewetting speed of the intermediate phase is found to be the principal factor controlling these wetting transitions. This work shows the significant potential for controlled wetting and structuring in ternary polymer systems.

  6. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabušić S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation , where satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  7. Commercial Cuts of Carcass of Thin-Tailed Lambs and Sheep Fed Complete Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeti, N.; Lestari, C. M. S.; Purbowati, E.

    2018-02-01

    This research was conducted to examine the commercial cuts of thin tailed lambs and sheep fed complete feed. This study used 6 male thin tailed sheep aged ±11 months with average body weight of 23,01 ± 1,91 kg (CV 8,31%) and 6 male thin tailed lambs aged ±4 months with average body weight of 15,41 ± 2,11 kg (CV 13,72%). They were fed a complete feed as much as 3.5% from body weight. Fed contained 12% crude protein (CP) and 55% total digestible nutrients (TDN) and was given ad libitum. The animals were raised for 12 weeks and slaughtered being carcass. Commercial cuts were obtained from a half right body part of each sheep carcass and divided into eight commercial cuts, i.e., neck, shoulder, fore shank, breast, flank, rack, loin and leg. The collected data was analysed using t- test in 5% level. The results showed that slaughter weight, carcass weight and half carcass weight were significantly different (Pcarcass weight and half carcass was not significantly different (P>0.05). All of the weight commercial cuts of thin tailed lambs and sheep were significantly different (P0.05). The percentage of neck and leg were significantly different (P<0.05), while the other commercial cuts were not significantly different (P<0.05). Based on the result, it can be concluded that commercial cuts of sheep is better than lambs.

  8. Comparison of partial and complete arterial occlusion models for studying intestinal ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, D.A.; Grogaard, B.; Granger, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    Mucosal albumin clearance was measured in jejunal segments of dogs under control conditions and following complete or partial arterial occlusion of varying durations (1, 2, 3, or 4 hours). The rate of albumin clearance was estimated from the luminal perfusion rate and the activity of protein bound 125 I in the perfusate and plasma. Partial and total arterial occlusions of 60 minutes to 4 hours' duration produced significant increases in mucosal albumin clearance. The magnitude of the rise in albumin clearance was directly related to the duration of ischemia in both total and partial arterial occlusion models. However, the magnitude of the increase in albumin clearance was significantly greater with total arterial occlusion for any given duration of ischemia. The albumin clearance results obtained in the present study compare favorably with previously reported morphologic changes in the intestinal mucosa produced by both total and partial occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery. The agreement between morphologic and physiologic measurements indicates that mucosal albumin clearance may be a useful tool for studying the pathophysiology of intestinal ischemia

  9. Can MRI distinguish between acute partial and complete anterior cruciate ligament tear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Minoru; Yamagishi, Tsuneo.

    1996-01-01

    A study to elucidate the title problem was done. Subjects were 8 patients with partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear diagnosed by both MRI and arthroscopy within 6 weeks after trauma, 14 patients with complete ACL tear diagnosed similarly and 10 control patients with arthroscopically intact ACL. Proton density-and T2-weighted MRI imaging of the sagittal section of the knee was performed with 1.5 T magnets (Siemens Magnetom H15, Shimadzu SMT150GUX) by using a dedicated knee coil, with slice thickness of 4-5 mm and 14-16 cm field of view. The examination was done on the primary (discontinuity of low signal band, abnormal axis of the ligament and focal or diffuse increased signal intensity) and secondary (bone bruise, anterior translocation of the tibia and PCL curvature value) signs of ACL tear. In proton density-weighted sagittal images, it was found easy to distinguish acute partial ACL tear from normal ligament but not from complete ACL tear. In T2-weighted images, partial ACL tear was suggested to keep continuity of the ligament. (H.O.)

  10. On 0-Complete Partial Metric Spaces and Quantitative Fixed Point Techniques in Denotational Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1994, Matthews introduced the notion of partial metric space with the aim of providing a quantitative mathematical model suitable for program verification. Concretely, Matthews proved a partial metric version of the celebrated Banach fixed point theorem which has become an appropriate quantitative fixed point technique to capture the meaning of recursive denotational specifications in programming languages. In this paper we show that a few assumptions in statement of Matthews fixed point theorem can be relaxed in order to provide a quantitative fixed point technique useful to analyze the meaning of the aforementioned recursive denotational specifications in programming languages. In particular, we prove a new fixed point theorem for self-mappings between partial metric spaces in which the completeness has been replaced by 0-completeness and the contractive condition has been weakened in such a way that the new one best fits the requirements of practical problems in denotational semantics. Moreover, we provide examples that show that the hypothesis in the statement of our new result cannot be weakened. Finally, we show the potential applicability of the developed theory by means of analyzing a few concrete recursive denotational specifications, some of them admitting a unique meaning and others supporting multiple ones.

  11. [Effectiveness of partial and complete instrumental masking in chronic tinnitus. Studies with reference to retraining therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wedel, H; von Wedel, U C; Streppel, M; Walger, M

    1997-09-01

    Jastreboff und Hazell [9] developed a neurophysiological approach to tinnitus perception, including the important role of the central nervous system in the maintenance and intrusiveness of tinnitus. They introduced tinnitus-retraining therapy, consisting of four different strategies: (1) directive and person-centered counseling; (2) hearing aids and/or noise generators and/or environmental sounds; (3) psychological therapy; (4) adjacent therapies. Tinnitus should not be masked as with a tinnitus-masker, but must be able to be heard in addition to the noise! A noise generator or hearing aid should be worn at least 6-8 h per day over a period of up to 18 months. In additions several clinical visits are required in order to reinforce the counseling. The actual results show complete tinnitus remission for about 20-30% and partial remission for 50-60% of the patients [6]. We report on a retrospective study in patients wearing hearing aids or tinnitus-maskers over a period of 3 years. We compared the results of patients using partial tinnitus masking to those using complete masking. The tinnitus-related and general psychological complaints were acquired by the 52-item tinnitus questionnaire developed by Hallam et al. [4] and modified by Goebel and Hiller [3]. To describe the dimensions of tinnitus-related distress the scales are labelled emotional distress, cognitive distress, emotional and cognitive distress, intrusiveness, auditory perceptual difficulties, sleep disturbance and somatic complaints. Positive changes for the global tinnitus questionnaire score of more than 10 points are significant in the dimensions of tinnitus-related distress and are described as partial tinnitus-reduction. The group with partial masking effects can be compared to those performing retraining therapy to day because directive and personal centered counseling were integrated for all patients. Patients reporting partial masking effects through their aids (hearing aid or noise generator

  12. Three tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: can we differentiate complete from partial tears?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, Pieter van; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M. [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, Filip M. [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten Duffel/Mechelen, Department of Radiology, Duffel (Belgium); Dossche, Lieven; Gestel, Jozef van [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Orthopedics, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium); Wouters, Kristien [University Hospital Antwerp and University of Antwerp, Department of Scientific Coordination and Biostatistics, Antwerp (Edegem) (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    To determine the ability of 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to identify partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to allow distinction of complete from partial ACL tears. One hundred seventy-two patients were prospectively studied by 3.0T MR imaging and arthroscopy in our institution. MR images were interpreted in consensus by two experienced reviewers, and the ACL was diagnosed as being normal, partially torn, or completely torn. Diagnostic accuracy of 3.0T MR for the detection of both complete and partial tears of the ACL was calculated using arthroscopy as the standard of reference. There were 132 patients with an intact ACL, 17 had a partial, and 23 had a complete tear of the ACL seen at arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 3.0T MR for complete ACL tears were 83, 99, and 97%, respectively, and, for partial ACL tears, 77, 97, and 95%, respectively. Five of 40 ACL lesions (13%) could not correctly be identified as complete or partial ACL tears. MR imaging at 3.0T represents a highly accurate method for identifying tears of the ACL. However, differentiation between complete and partial ACL tears and identification of partial tears of this ligament remains difficult, even at 3.0T. (orig.)

  13. Three tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: can we differentiate complete from partial tears?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, Pieter van; Gielen, Jan L.; Parizel, Paul M.; Vanhoenacker, Filip M.; Dossche, Lieven; Gestel, Jozef van; Wouters, Kristien

    2011-01-01

    To determine the ability of 3.0T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to identify partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to allow distinction of complete from partial ACL tears. One hundred seventy-two patients were prospectively studied by 3.0T MR imaging and arthroscopy in our institution. MR images were interpreted in consensus by two experienced reviewers, and the ACL was diagnosed as being normal, partially torn, or completely torn. Diagnostic accuracy of 3.0T MR for the detection of both complete and partial tears of the ACL was calculated using arthroscopy as the standard of reference. There were 132 patients with an intact ACL, 17 had a partial, and 23 had a complete tear of the ACL seen at arthroscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 3.0T MR for complete ACL tears were 83, 99, and 97%, respectively, and, for partial ACL tears, 77, 97, and 95%, respectively. Five of 40 ACL lesions (13%) could not correctly be identified as complete or partial ACL tears. MR imaging at 3.0T represents a highly accurate method for identifying tears of the ACL. However, differentiation between complete and partial ACL tears and identification of partial tears of this ligament remains difficult, even at 3.0T. (orig.)

  14. Complete and Partial Photo-oxidation of Dissolved Organic Matter Draining Permafrost Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Collin P; Cory, Rose M

    2016-04-05

    Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and partially oxidized compounds is an important component of the carbon cycle in the Arctic. Thawing permafrost soils will change the chemical composition of DOM exported to arctic surface waters, but the molecular controls on DOM photodegradation remain poorly understood, making it difficult to predict how inputs of thawing permafrost DOM may alter its photodegradation. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified the susceptibility of DOM draining the shallow organic mat and the deeper permafrost layer of arctic soils to complete and partial photo-oxidation and investigated changes in the chemical composition of each DOM source following sunlight exposure. Permafrost and organic mat DOM had similar lability to photomineralization despite substantial differences in initial chemical composition. Concurrent losses of carboxyl moieties and shifts in chemical composition during photodegradation indicated that photodecarboxylation could account for 40-90% of DOM photomineralized to CO2. Permafrost DOM had a higher susceptibility to partial photo-oxidation compared to organic mat DOM, potentially due to a lower abundance of phenolic moieties with antioxidant properties. These results suggest that photodegradation will likely continue to be an important control on DOM fate in arctic freshwaters as the climate warms and permafrost soils thaw.

  15. Partial and Complete Wetting in Ultralow Interfacial Tension Multiphase Blends with Polylactide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolali, Ali M; Favis, Basil D

    2016-12-15

    The control of phase structuring in multiphase blends of polylactide (PLA) with other polymers is a viable approach to promote its broader implementation. In this article, ternary and quaternary blends of PLA with poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT), and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) are prepared by melt blending. The interfacial tensions between components are measured using three different techniques, and a Fourier transform infrared imaging technique is developed for the purpose of unambiguous phase identification. A tricontinuous complete wetting behavior is observed for the ternary 33PLA/33PBS/33PBAT blend before and after quiescent annealing, which correlates closely with spreading theory analysis. In the quaternary PLA/PBS/PBAT/PHBV blend, a concentration-dependent wetting behavior is found. At 10 vol % PBAT, self-assembled partially wet droplets of PBAT are observed at the interface of PBS and PHBV, and they remain stable after quiescent annealing as predicted by spreading theory. In contrast, at 25 vol % PBAT, a quadruple continuous system is observed after mixing, which only transforms to partially wet PBAT droplets after subsequent annealing. These results clearly indicate the potential of composition control during the mixing of multiphase systems to result in a complete change of spreading behavior.

  16. Using Partial Genomic Fosmid Libraries for Sequencing CompleteOrganellar Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeal, Joel R.; Leebens-Mack, James H.; Arumuganathan, K.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; dePamphilis, Claude W.

    2005-08-26

    Organellar genome sequences provide numerous phylogenetic markers and yield insight into organellar function and molecular evolution. These genomes are much smaller in size than their nuclear counterparts; thus, their complete sequencing is much less expensive than total nuclear genome sequencing, making broader phylogenetic sampling feasible. However, for some organisms it is challenging to isolate plastid DNA for sequencing using standard methods. To overcome these difficulties, we constructed partial genomic libraries from total DNA preparations of two heterotrophic and two autotrophic angiosperm species using fosmid vectors. We then used macroarray screening to isolate clones containing large fragments of plastid DNA. A minimum tiling path of clones comprising the entire genome sequence of each plastid was selected, and these clones were shotgun-sequenced and assembled into complete genomes. Although this method worked well for both heterotrophic and autotrophic plants, nuclear genome size had a dramatic effect on the proportion of screened clones containing plastid DNA and, consequently, the overall number of clones that must be screened to ensure full plastid genome coverage. This technique makes it possible to determine complete plastid genome sequences for organisms that defy other available organellar genome sequencing methods, especially those for which limited amounts of tissue are available.

  17. Treatment of Complete and Partial Obstruction of the Nasolacrimal System with Polyurethane Stents: Initial Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulido-Duque, Juan M.; Reyes, Ricardo; Carreira, Jose M.; Vega, Francisco; Gorriz, Elias; Pardo, M. Dolores; Perez, Francisco; Maynar, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To present our experience in the treatment of nasolacrimal occlusion by means of polyurethane stents. Methods: Forty polyurethane stents were placed under fluoroscopic guidance in 35 consecutive patients with epiphora due to total or partial obstruction of the nasolacrimal system. The set designed by Song was used in all patients. The procedure was performed by introducing a guidewire through the superior punctum into the canaliculus and advancing it across the obstruction into the inferior meatus of the nasal cavity. After pulling out the guidewire, the stent was advanced in retrograde fashion and released into the sac and the nasolacrimal duct.Results: The technical success rate was 100%. The average time for the procedure was 25 min (range 10-60 min). Immediate complications were: mild pain (n= 5), severe pain (n= 1), minimal epistaxis (n= 7), and moderate epistaxis (n= 1). No major complications occurred. The last clinical control revealed complete resolution of epiphora in 35 eyes and partial resolution in four; one patient did not improve. Conclusion: This technique for treatment of obstruction of the nasolacrimal system is simple and safe, and may obviate the use of more invasive procedures

  18. A new knee arthrometer, the GNRB: experience in ACL complete and partial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, H; Nouveau, S; Gageot, S; Gagnière, B

    2009-05-01

    Clinical diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears (Lachman test and Pivot shift test in valgus and internal rotation) is reliable in case of complete ACL tear but reveals elusive in case of partial tears. Quantitative assessment of anterior tibial translation proves to be imprecise, subjective and poorly reproducible especially with the KT-1000 arthrometer. We developed the GNRB, an alternative original anterior knee laxity measurement device. The lower limb is placed in a rigid support with the knee at 0 degrees of rotation, the restraining power being recorded. A 0-250 N thrust force is transmitted by a jack to the upper segment of the calf. This force is only applied in the absence of hamstring muscles contraction. Displacement of the anterior tibial tubercle is recorded using a sensor with a 0.1mm precision. We hypothesize that this knee laxity measurement device is more reliable and reproducible than other currently available arthrometers. During a first validation study, the GNRB was compared to the KT-1000 arthrometer, in 20 pairs of healthy knees, measurements being performed by two investigators. Variance analyses were carried out at 134 N. In a second clinical study, 21 complete ACL tears (the notch is devoid of ACL) and 24 partial ACL tears (anterior or posterior bundle tear and cicatricial ACL remnant in continuity) were tested with these arthrometers to exact a differential laxity threshold value between both knees at 250 N. Statistical analysis was subsequently performed using variance and ROC curves analysis. The GNRB arthrometer reveals to be significantly more reproducible than the KT-1000, irrespectively of the tester's experience level. Moreover, unlike the KT-1000, the achieved measurement is independent from the uninvolved side. Reproducibility of laximetry proves to be significantly better with the GNRB than with the KT-1000, wherever the examiner's experience stands and whatever the evaluated side condition could be. When

  19. Final-impression techniques and materials for making complete and removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Srinivasan; Singh, Balendra P; Ramanathan, Balasubramanian; Pazhaniappan Pillai, Murukan; MacDonald, Laura; Kirubakaran, Richard

    2018-04-04

    Endentulism is relatively common and is often treated with the provision of complete or partial removable dentures. Clinicians make final impressions of complete dentures (CD) and removable partial dentures (RPD) using different techniques and materials. Applying the correct impression technique and material, based on an individual's oral condition, improves the quality of the prosthesis, which may improve quality of life. To assess the effects of different final-impression techniques and materials used to make complete dentures, for retention, stability, comfort, and quality of life in completely edentulous people.To assess the effects of different final-impression techniques and materials used to make removable partial dentures, for stability, comfort, overextension, and quality of life in partially edentulous people. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 22 November 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Register of Studies, to 22 November 2017), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 November 2017), and Embase Ovid (21 December 2015 to 22 November 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on language or publication status when searching the electronic databases, however the search of Embase was restricted by date due to the Cochrane Centralised Search Project to identify all clinical trials and add them to CENTRAL. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different final-impression techniques and materials for treating people with complete dentures (CD) and removable partial dentures (RPD). For CD, we included trials that compared different materials or different techniques or both. In RPD for tooth-supported conditions, we included trials comparing the

  20. A comprehensive investigation of the pseudo-skin factor for partially completed vertical wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farokhi, Vahid; Gerami, Shahab

    2012-01-01

    To prohibit gas and/or water coning, it is very common for wells to be completed over only a portion of their productive zone. Such a procedure causes an additional pressure drop, termed the pseudo-skin factor, which reduces the well productivity. In order to ascertain whether or not a partially penetrated well requires stimulation, one has to quantitatively determine the different components of the total skin. Hence, an accurate evaluation of the pseudo-skin factor as one of the main components of the total skin is critical. Many authors have employed different mathematics to find expressions for estimating the pseudo-skin factor, however, since a comprehensive investigation of the available models has not as yet been performed, the diversity of these expressions could be very confusing. This paper first aims to propose an analytical model which accurately estimates the pseudo-skin factor in a partially penetrated well. In model development, the impacts of anisotropy and the arbitrariness of the open interval location are all taken into account, and the model is validated against a numerical simulator (ECLIPSE). Its second aim is to take the results of the numerical simulator as the comparison basis, and make a comprehensive investigation of the available models to check their accuracy for estimating the pseudo-skin factor. The results of the investigation show that, in comparison to other methods, this proposed model, Streltsova's method and that of Yeh and Reynolds, estimate the pseudo-skin factor favourably close to that obtained by the simulator. (paper)

  1. Diagnosis of partial and complete rotator cuff tears using combined gradient echo and spin echo imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuite, M.J.; Yandow, D.R.; DeSmet, A.A.; Orwin, J.F.; Quintana, F.A.

    1994-01-01

    Most magnetic resonance (MR) studies evaluating the rotator cuff for tears have used T2-weighted imaging in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique planes. T2 * -weighted gradient echo imaging, however, has advantages over spin echo imaging, including contiguous slices without cross-talk, high contrast around the cuff, and intrinsically shorter imaging times which can be used to increase the number of signals averaged and thus improve the signal-to-noise ratio. We reviewed the shoulder MR scans of 87 consecutive patients who underwent both a MR scan and a shoulder arthroscopy during which the size of tears, if present, was graded. The reviewers were blinded as to the history and arthroscopic results. The MR scans included oblique coronal T2 * -weighted gradient echo and oblique sagittal T2-weighted spin echo images. MR cuff grades were correlated with arthroscopic findings. For complete tears, the sensitivity of MR was 0.91 and the specificity 0.95. For partial tears, the sensitivity was 0.74 and the specificity 0.87. This accuracy is similar to two-plane T2-weighted imaging as previously reported in the literature. There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.0005) between the cuff grade as determined by MR and the arthroscopic findings. (orig.)

  2. Diagnosis of partial and complete rotator cuff tears using combined gradient echo and spin echo imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuite, M J [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Yandow, D R [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); DeSmet, A A [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Orwin, J F [Div. of Orthopedic Surgery, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Quintana, F A [Dept. of Biostatistics, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Most magnetic resonance (MR) studies evaluating the rotator cuff for tears have used T2-weighted imaging in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique planes. T2{sup *}-weighted gradient echo imaging, however, has advantages over spin echo imaging, including contiguous slices without cross-talk, high contrast around the cuff, and intrinsically shorter imaging times which can be used to increase the number of signals averaged and thus improve the signal-to-noise ratio. We reviewed the shoulder MR scans of 87 consecutive patients who underwent both a MR scan and a shoulder arthroscopy during which the size of tears, if present, was graded. The reviewers were blinded as to the history and arthroscopic results. The MR scans included oblique coronal T2{sup *}-weighted gradient echo and oblique sagittal T2-weighted spin echo images. MR cuff grades were correlated with arthroscopic findings. For complete tears, the sensitivity of MR was 0.91 and the specificity 0.95. For partial tears, the sensitivity was 0.74 and the specificity 0.87. This accuracy is similar to two-plane T2-weighted imaging as previously reported in the literature. There was a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.0005) between the cuff grade as determined by MR and the arthroscopic findings. (orig.)

  3. The effect of a commercial probiotic drink on oral microbiota in healthy complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Sutula

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background : It is acknowledged that oral and general health status declines with age. The global population of denture wearers is increasing, so is the incidence of denture biofilm-related problems, such as denture-associated stomatitis, aspiration pneumonia and malodour. It has been suggested that consumption of probiotic bacteria may improve oral health. However, the effects of probiotics on the oral microbiota of denture wearers have received little attention. Methods : The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of consumption of a commercial probiotic product (Yakult on microbiota of saliva, tongue and denture biofilm in healthy complete denture wearers. Eight healthy complete denture-wearing National Health Service (NHS patients undertook a 7-week trial comprising three phases: baseline; 4-week consumption of one bottle of Yakult per day, each containing a minimum 6.5×109 viable cells of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS; 4-week washout period. The microbial viability and composition of saliva, tongue dorsum coating and denture biofilm were assessed using a range of solid selective and indicator media. Questionnaires were used to explore participants’ denture cleaning habits and impact of wearing dentures on their life quality and well-being [modified oral health impact profile (OHIP-14] prior to and after the study. Results : Seven volunteers (1 male, 6 females completed the trial. LcS temporarily colonised oral cavity and denture surface. There was no significant change in the viability of Streptococcus mutans, acidogenic microorganisms, total anaerobic species and Gram-negative obligate anaerobes between study phases. There was no obvious effect of LcS on occurrence and viability of Candida. Participants presented a good general knowledge of denture hygiene and their responses to OHIP-14 questionnaires improved after completing the study (p=0.16. Conclusion : It appeared that 4-week consumption of probiotic drink had

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of the Goatpox Virus Strain Gorgan Obtained Directly from a Commercial Live Attenuated Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijs, Elisabeth; Vandenbussche, Frank; Haegeman, Andy; Al-Majali, Ahmad; De Clercq, Kris

    2016-01-01

    This is a report of the complete genome sequence of the goatpox virus strain Gorgan, which was obtained directly from a commercial live attenuated vaccine (Caprivac, Jordan Bio-Industries Centre). PMID:27738031

  5. Clinical diagnosis of partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament tears using patients' history elements and physical examination tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décary, Simon; Fallaha, Michel; Belzile, Sylvain; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic validity of clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Prospective diagnostic study. Orthopaedic clinics (n = 2), family medicine clinics (n = 2) and community-dwelling. Consecutive patients with a knee complaint (n = 279) and consulting one of the participating orthopaedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Not applicable. History elements and physical examination tests performed independently were compared to the reference standard: an expert physicians' composite diagnosis including history elements, physical tests and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Penalized logistic regression (LASSO) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of ACL tear and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Forty-three individuals received a diagnosis of partial or complete ACL tear (15.4% of total cohort). The Lachman test alone was able to diagnose partial or complete ACL tears (LR+: 38.4; 95%CI: 16.0-92.5). Combining a history of trauma during a pivot with a "popping" sensation also reached a high diagnostic validity for partial or complete tears (LR+: 9.8; 95%CI: 5.6-17.3). Combining a history of trauma during a pivot, immediate effusion after trauma and a positive Lachman test was able to identify individuals with a complete ACL tear (LR+: 17.5; 95%CI: 9.8-31.5). Finally, combining a negative history of pivot or a negative popping sensation during trauma with a negative Lachman or pivot shift test was able to exclude both partial or complete ACL tears (LR-: 0.08; 95%CI: 0.03-0.24). Diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical

  6. Drug use among complete responders, partial responders and non-responders in a longitudinal survey of nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Rasmussen, Lotte; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In observational studies, non-response can limit representativity and introduce bias. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in the number of used drugs among complete responders, partial responders, and non-responders in a whole birth cohort of Danish nonagenarians participati...

  7. Some Common Fixed Point Theorems for F-Contraction Type Mappings in 0-Complete Partial Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove some common fixed point theorems for F-contractions in 0-complete partial metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize, and unify several known results in the literature. Some examples are included which show that the generalization is proper.

  8. Partial versus complete fundoplication for the correction of pediatric GERD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Glen

    Full Text Available There is no consensus as to what extent of "wrap" is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD.To evaluate if a complete (360 degree or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD.A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25% used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor.The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis.

  9. UV completions of partial compositeness: the case for a SU(4) gauge group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of partial compositeness arising as the IR limit of a SU(4) gauge theory with only fermionic matter. This group is one of the most promising ones among a handful of possible choices allowing a symmetry breaking pattern incorporating custodial symmetry and a top partner candidate, while retaining asymptotic freedom. It is favored for not giving rise to lepto-quarks or Landau poles in the SM gauge couplings. The minimal UV theory consists of five hyperfermions in the anti-symmetric representation and three in the fundamental and anti-fundamental. The IR theory is centered around the coset SU(5)/SO(5), with top partners in the fundamental of SO(5), giving rise to one composite fermion of electric charge 5/3, three of charge 2/3 and one of charge −1/3. Electro-Weak symmetry breaking occurs via top-quark-driven vacuum misalignment. The top quark mass is generated via the mechanism of partial compositeness, while the remaining fermions acquire a mass via a standard quadratic coupling to the Higgs. We compute the top and bottom quark mass matrix and the Electro-Weak currents of the composite fermions. The model does not give rise to unacceptably large deviations from the SM Z→bb-bar decay width.

  10. Five-year trends of second-hand smoke exposure in Greece: a comparison between complete, partial, and prelegislation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Anagnostopoulos, Nektarios; Patelarou, Evridiki; Minas, Markos; Nakou, Chrysanthi; Dramba, Vassiliki; Giourgouli, Gianna; Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos; Pattaka, Paraskevi; Antoniadis, Antonis; Lionis, Christos; Bertic, Monique; Dockery, Douglas; Connolly, Gregory N; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2012-12-01

    Our aim was to assess second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues after the smoke-free legislation implemented in September 2010 in Greece and to compare with when a partial ban was in place and in 2006 when no ban was in place. Hospitality venues were prospectively assessed for their indoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) during the partial ban phase (n=149) and the complete ban phase (n=120, 80% followed up), while overall and matched by venue comparisons were also performed (no ban vs. partial ban vs. complete ban). Comparisons with previously collected data in 2006 when no ban was in place also was performed. Indoor air levels of PM(2.5) attributable to SHS dropped following the transition from a partial to a complete ban by 34% (137 μg/m(3) vs. 90 μg/m(3), p=0.003). This drop was larger in bars (from 195 μg/m(3) to 121 μg/m(3)), than in cafes (124 μg/m(3) vs. 87 μg/m(3)) or restaurants (42 μg/m(3) vs. 39 μg/m(3)). PM(2.5) concentrations between 2006 (no ban) and the partial ban of 2010 were also found to decrease by 94 μg/m(3); however, among matched venues, the levels of indoor air pollution were not found to change significantly (218 μg/m(3) vs. 178 μg/m(3), p=0.58). Comparing the 2010 complete ban results (n=120) with previously collected data from 2006 when no ban was in place (n=43), overall PM(2.5) concentrations were found to fall from 268 μg/m(3) to 89 μg/m(3), while a matched analysis found a significant reduction in PM(2.5) concentrations (249 μg/m(3) vs. 46 μg/m(3), p=0.011). The complete ban of smoking in hospitality venues in Greece led to a reduction in SHS exposure, in comparison to when the partial ban or no ban was in place; however, exposure to SHS was not eliminated indicating the need for stronger enforcement.

  11. Clinical diagnosis of partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament tears using patients' history elements and physical examination tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaha, Michel; Belzile, Sylvain; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic validity of clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose partial or complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Design Prospective diagnostic study. Settings Orthopaedic clinics (n = 2), family medicine clinics (n = 2) and community-dwelling. Participants Consecutive patients with a knee complaint (n = 279) and consulting one of the participating orthopaedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures History elements and physical examination tests performed independently were compared to the reference standard: an expert physicians’ composite diagnosis including history elements, physical tests and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Penalized logistic regression (LASSO) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of ACL tear and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures including sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), predictive values and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results Forty-three individuals received a diagnosis of partial or complete ACL tear (15.4% of total cohort). The Lachman test alone was able to diagnose partial or complete ACL tears (LR+: 38.4; 95%CI: 16.0–92.5). Combining a history of trauma during a pivot with a “popping” sensation also reached a high diagnostic validity for partial or complete tears (LR+: 9.8; 95%CI: 5.6–17.3). Combining a history of trauma during a pivot, immediate effusion after trauma and a positive Lachman test was able to identify individuals with a complete ACL tear (LR+: 17.5; 95%CI: 9.8–31.5). Finally, combining a negative history of pivot or a negative popping sensation during trauma with a negative Lachman or pivot shift test was able to exclude both partial or complete ACL tears (LR

  12. 50 CFR 23.51 - What are the requirements for issuing a partially completed CITES document?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE... CITES documents only when: (i) The permitted trade will have a negligible impact or no impact on the... completed documents benefits both the permit holder and the issuing Management Authority. (2) The proposed...

  13. MASTICATION, PHONETICS AND ESTHETICS AS A FINAL RESULT OF PARTIAL OR COMPLETE DENTURE TREATMENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Georgieva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three target groups- dentists/ dental students, dental technicians and patients were asked to fill in an anonymous questionnaire about their satisfaction of the final results after prosthetic treatment with removable dentures using a scale from 1 to 5 (1- completely dissatisfied, 2-dissatisfied, 3-indifferent, 4-satisfied, 5-completely satisfied. The mean results (including colour, shape and size of artificial teeth, arrangement of front teeth, colour of artificial gums, phonetics, mastication, natural smile, enough space for tongue for all three groups of respondents were compared. Dental technicians (4,34 are more satisfied than dentists/dental students (3,62 and patients (3,53. A successful outcome of prosthetic treatment depends on one hand on the professional approach of the dental team and on the other hand on the patient’s motivation and cooperation. The predictive final results and realistic expectations lead to satisfaction of all participants in the treatment process.

  14. Removable partial or complete dentures exposed to beverages and mouthwashes: evaluation of microhardness and roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Alves Feitosa

    Full Text Available AbstractPurposeTo evaluate microhardness and roughness of denture base polymethylmethacrylate resinn exposed to acid beverages and mouthwashes.Material and methodRectangular samples (n=80 were prepared from poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA. They were divided into 8 groups and had the initial microhardness and Knoop roughness measured. Samples of each group were immersed for 10 min into a test solution (coffee, lemon juice, chlorhexidine gluconate, red wine, cola-based soft drink, vinegar or antiseptic with and without alcohol and after stored in artificial saliva for 23 h and 50 min, completing a period of 24 h. This procedure was performed for 14 consecutive days and after this period the microhardness and surface roughness measurements were made again. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA non parametric, Kruskal-Walis and the Dunn´s test for microhardness and the t-Student and ANOVA for roughness.ResultFor microhardness there were found statistically significant differences among the chlorhexidine gluconate solution, antiseptic without alcohol and cola-based soft drink. For roughness was observed that the mean values between the initial period and after immersion in the test products differed statistically in all groups, without difference among groups.ConclusionThe microhardness of poly(methyl methacrylate was affected by continue exposition to chlorhexidine gluconate, antiseptic without alcohol and cola-based soft drink. The roughness of poly(methyl methacrylate is negatively influenced by the exposure to all tested products. It may be concluded that both, microhardness and roughness, were affected by the treatments.

  15. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet. © 2015 The Authors. Zoo Biology

  16. MRI differential diagnosis of complete and partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee: the usefulness of oblique coronal T2-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seo Young; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Bang, Sun Woo; Ryu, Seok Jong; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Jeong Seok

    2002-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of T2-weighted oblique coronal MR imaging (T2OCI) in the differential diagnosis of complete and partial tears of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. Thirty-three patients with ACL tear (16 complete and 17 partial tears), comfirmed by arthroscopy, were included in this study. Conventional MR imaging and T2OCI were performed, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists in terms of continuity, shape, axis and internal signal intensity of the ligament. Each finding was tested if there were stastistically significant differences in its prevalence between partial and complete tears. The diagnostic accuracy of T2OCI and conventional MR imaging in the detection of partial and complete tears of the ACL were compared. Conventional MR imaging revealed no statistically significant finding for differential diagnosis of complete and partial ACL tears. The reliable and statistically significant (p<0.001) findings of T2OCI were complete discontinuity of the ligament in cases involving complete ACL tears (14 of 16 complete tears and 2 of 17 partial tears) and the preservation of the band form for partial ACL tears (2 of 16 complete tears and 15 of 17 partial tears). The accuracy of T2OCI and conventional MR imaging was 88% and 70%, respectively. When ACL injury is vague on conventional MR images, a modality which is more useful in the differential diagnosis of partial and complete tears of the ACL, and in predicting the site of a tear, is T2-weighted oblique coronal imaging

  17. Thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery for partial and complete lung lobectomy in dogs and cats: 11 cases (2008-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormser, Chloe; Singhal, Sunil; Holt, David E; Runge, Jeffrey J

    2014-11-01

    To describe the use of thoracoscopic-assisted pulmonary surgery (TAPS) for partial and complete lung lobectomy in small animal patients and to evaluate short-term outcome. Retrospective case series. 11 client-owned dogs and cats. Procedures-Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent a partial or complete TAPS lung lobectomy were reviewed. All patients underwent general anesthesia and were positioned in lateral recumbency with the affected hemithorax uppermost. One-lung ventilation was not implemented in any patient. For initial exploration, a 5- to 10-mm incision was made for insertion of a 30° telescope approximately 5 to 7 rib spaces away from the site of the pulmonary lesion in the dorsal third of the thorax. All subsequent incision placements were case dependent and determined by the location of the lesion to be resected. Following lesion localization, a 2- to 7-cm minithoracotomy incision was made with direct thoracoscopic visualization without the use of rigid rib retractors. In 10 of 11 patients, a 360° wound retraction device was placed at the minithoracotomy site prior to exteriorization and resection of the affected lung. Lymph nodes were inspected intraoperatively, but biopsies were not performed; incisions were closed routinely, and a thoracostomy tube was placed in all patients. 3 cats and 8 dogs underwent successful partial (5) or complete (6) TAPS lung lobectomy over a 5-year period (2008 through 2013). Median surgery time was 92.7 minutes (range, 77 to 150 minutes). Thoracostomy tubes were removed a median of 22.3 hours after surgery (range, 18 to 36 hours). The median time to discharge was 3.1 days (range, 1 to 6 days). No intraoperative complications were encountered. All patients were discharged from the hospital, with 9 of 11 patients alive 6 months after surgery. Results of this study suggested that lung lobectomy by means of TAPS can be successfully performed in dogs and cats. When compared with total thoracoscopic surgery, TAPS may

  18. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W.; D’Ruiz, Carl D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject’s usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29–95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25–40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7–38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1–20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75–96%) and exclusive use groups (11–83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88–89% and 27–32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46–63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs. PMID:27401591

  19. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure (BoE) to harmful or potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Grant; Graff, Donald W; D'Ruiz, Carl D

    2016-07-01

    Changes in fifteen urine, blood and exhaled breath BoEs of HPHCs representing classes of compounds reported by FDA to be significant contributors to smoking-associated disease risks were measured in 105 clinical-confined subjects following randomization and a five-day forced-switch from usual brand conventional combustible cigarettes to: (i) exclusive commercial e-cigarette use; (ii) dual-use of commercial e-cigarettes and the subject's usual cigarette brand; or (iii) discontinued use of all tobacco or nicotine products. Levels of urinary biomarkers in subjects that completely substituted their usual cigarette with e-cigarettes were significantly lower (29-95%) after 5 days. Percent reductions in eight of nine urinary BoEs were indistinguishable to smokers who had quit smoking, except for nicotine equivalents, which declined by 25-40%. Dual users who halved self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes exhibited reductions (7-38%) in eight of nine urinary biomarkers, but had increase (1-20%) in nicotine equivalents. Reductions were broadly proportional to the reduced numbers of cigarettes smoked. Dual user urinary nicotine equivalents were slightly higher, but not statistically significant. After 5 days, blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75-96%) and exclusive use groups (11-83%); with dual users experiencing no significant reductions. All subjects experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO. Decreases in the cessation and exclusive groups ranged from 88-89% and 27-32% in dual users. Exhaled NO increased in the cessation and exclusive groups (46-63% respectively), whereas the dual users experienced minimal changes. Overall, smokers who completely or partially substituted conventional cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days, experienced reductions in HPHCs.

  20. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Singhal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Results suggest the use of partial caries removal in a single session as compared to complete caries removal as a part of treatment of deep lesions in deciduous teeth in order to reduce the risk of pulp exposure. Partial caries removal using ART can be preferred for community settings as public health procedure for caries management.

  1. Collection and evaluation of complete and partial losses of off-site power at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1985-02-01

    Events involving loss of off-site power that have occurred at nuclear power plants through 1983 are described and categorized as complete or partial losses. The events were identified as plant-centered or grid-related failures. In addition, the causes of the failures were classified as weather, human error, design error, or hardware failure. The plant-centered failures were usually of shorter duration than the weather-related grid failures. For this reason, the weather-related events were reviewed in detail. Design features that may be important factors affecting off-site power system reliability were tabulated for most of the operating nuclear power plants. The tabulated information was provided to NRC for a statistical analysis to determine the importance of these design features for losses of off-site power. The frequency of losses of off-site power versus duration was estimated for three time periods. The frequency of loss of off-site power was estimated to be 0.09/reactor-year based on industry-wide data for the years 1959 through 1983

  2. A novel technique for investigation of complete and partial anisotropic wetting on structured surface by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, M., E-mail: maurizio.santini@unibg.it [Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy); Guilizzoni, M. [Department of Energy, Politecnico di Milano, Milano (Italy); Fest-Santini, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy); Lorenzi, M. [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    An experimental study about the anisotropic wetting behavior of a surface patterned with parallel grooves is presented as an application example of a novel technique for investigation of complete and partial anisotropic wetting on structured surface by X-ray microtomography. Shape of glycerin droplets on such surface is investigated by X-ray micro computed tomography (microCT) acting as a non-intrusive, full volume 3D microscope with micrometric spatial resolution. The reconstructed drop volumes enable to estimate the exact volumes of the drops, their base contours, and 3D static contact angles, based on true cross-sections of the drop-surface couple. Droplet base contours are compared to approximate geometrical contour shapes proposed in the literature. Contact angles along slices parallel and perpendicular to the grooves direction are compared with each other. The effect of the sessile drop volume on the wetting behavior is discussed. The proposed technique, which is applicable for any structured surface, enables the direct measure of Wenzel ratio based on the microCT scan in the wetted region usually inapproachable by any others. Comparisons with simplified models are presented and congruence of results with respect to the minimum resolution needed is evaluated and commented.

  3. Microbiological analysis after complete or partial removal of carious dentin using two different techniques in primary teeth: A randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Deepak Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Thakur, Arun Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of deep carious lesions can be done by various techniques but residual caries dilemma still persists and bacterial reduction in cavities treated by either partial or complete caries removal techniques is debatable. So the objective of the present randomized clinical trial was to compare microbial counts in cavities submitted to complete caries removal and partial caries removal using either hand instruments or burs before and after 3 weeks of restoration. Materials and Methods: Primary molars with acute carious lesions in inner half of dentine and vital pulp were randomly divided into three groups of 14 each: Group A: Partial caries removal using hand instruments atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) only; Group B: Partial caries removal using bur; Group C: Complete caries removal using bur and caries detector dye. Dentine sample obtained after caries removal and 3 weeks after restoration, were subjected to microbial culture and counting (colony-forming units [CFU]/mg of dentine) for total viable bacterial count, Streptococcus spp., mutans streptococci, Lactobacillus spp. Results: Three techniques of caries removal showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in all microorganisms studied after 3 weeks of evaluation, but there was no statistically significant difference in percentage reduction of microbial count among three groups. Conclusion: Results suggest the use of partial caries removal in a single session as compared to complete caries removal as a part of treatment of deep lesions in deciduous teeth in order to reduce the risk of pulp exposure. Partial caries removal using ART can be preferred for community settings as public health procedure for caries management. PMID:26962313

  4. [A phd completed 10. Implant-supported removable partial -dentures in a Kennedy Class I-situation in the mandible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Louwerse, C

    2017-06-01

    Implant-supported removable partial dentures in the mandible often cause problems, which means that patients wear their dentures seldom if at all. A solution is to place implants that the dentures can be snapped onto. There is, however, no consensus about the best position of the implants in the mandible yet. In addition, it is worthwhile to balance the cost of treatment with its effectiveness. In a randomised cross-over clinical trial involving 30 patients with a shortened dental arch, the implant-supported removable partial denture in the mandible was evaluated based on the experience of the patient, mean time of wearing, chewing ability and the clinical and radiographic parameters in relation to 2 different implant positions: 2 in the pre-molar region or 2 in the molar region. The cost-effectiveness of both treatments was also evaluated. From the patient's point of view, the implant-supported removable partial dentures are best supported by implants placed in the molar region. The research also revealed, however, that significantly more bleeding occurred around implants placed in the molar region and from a clinical perspective placement in the pre-molar region would have preference. The cost-effectiveness of the treatment with an implant-supported removable partial denture depends on the choice of outcome measurement and monetary threshold.

  5. The use of the rat as a model for studying peripheral nerve regeneration and sprouting after complete and partial nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Borschel, Gregory H

    2017-01-01

    Rat models of complete and partial injuries are the most frequently used models for analysis of the cellular and molecular processes of nerve regeneration and axon sprouting. Studies of nerve regeneration and axon sprouting after complete and partial nerve injuries, respectively, are reviewed. Special consideration is made of the peripheral nerves chosen for the studies and the outcome measures that were utilized in the studies. The studies have made important contributions to our knowledge of the degenerative and regenerative processes that occur after the peripheral nerve injuries, why functional recovery is frequently compromised after delayed surgery, the positive effects of neurotrophic factors on nerve regeneration after delayed nerve repair or after insertion of autografts between transected nerve, and how axon regeneration may be accelerated by brief periods of electrical stimulation and/or by administration of androgens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. One-step partial or complete caries removal and bonding with antibacterial or traditional self-etch adhesives: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villat, Cyril; Attal, Jean-Pierre; Brulat, Nathalie; Decup, Franck; Doméjean, Sophie; Dursun, Elisabeth; Fron-Chabouis, Hélène; Jacquot, Bruno; Muller Bolla, Michèle; Plasse-Pradelle, Nelly; Roche, Laurent; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Nony, Patrice; Gritsch, Kerstin; Millet, Pierre; Gueyffier, François; Grosgogeat, Brigitte

    2016-08-15

    Current concepts in conservative dentistry advocate minimally invasive dentistry and pulp vitality preservation. Moreover, complete removal of carious dentin in deep carious lesions often leads to pulp exposure and root canal treatment, despite the absence of irreversible pulp inflammation. For years, partial caries removal has been performed on primary teeth, but little evidence supports its effectiveness for permanent teeth. Furthermore, the recent development of new antibacterial adhesive systems could be interesting in the treatment of such lesions. The objectives of this study are to compare the effectiveness of partial versus complete carious dentin removal in deep lesions (primary objective) and the use of an antibacterial versus a traditional two-step self-etch adhesive system (main secondary objective). The DEep CAries Treatment (DECAT) study protocol is a multicenter, randomized, controlled superiority trial comparing partial versus complete caries removal followed by adhesive restoration. The minimum sample size required is 464 patients. Two successive randomizations will be performed (allocation ratio 1:1): the first for the type of excavation (partial versus complete) and the second (if no root canal treatment is required) for the type of adhesive (antibacterial versus traditional). For the two objectives, the outcome is the success of the treatment after 1 year, measured according to a composite outcome of five FDI criteria: material fracture and retention, marginal adaptation, radiographic examination (including apical pathologies), postoperative sensitivity and tooth vitality, and carious lesion recurrence. The study will investigate the interest of a conservative approach for the management of deep carious lesions in terms of dentin excavation and bioactive adhesive systems. The results may help practitioners achieve the most efficient restorative procedure to maintain pulp vitality and increase the restoration longevity. Clinical

  7. Is Ki-67 of Diagnostic Value in Distinguishing Between Partial and Complete Hydatidiform Moles? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Xiong, Guang-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Hang, B O

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the value of Ki-67 in distinguishing between partial and complete hydatidiform moles. We searched electronic databases included Medline, WOK, Cochrane Library and CNKI, through January 24, 2015. Experts were consulted, and references from related articles were examined. The meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan5.3, according to the PRISMA guidelines. Mantel-Haenszel estimates were calculated and pooled under a random effect model, with data expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). We analyzed eight trials with a total of 337 participants who underwent uterine curettage and met the inclusion criteria. A significantly higher expression of Ki-67 was observed in complete than in partial hydatidiform moles (OR=3.28; 95%CI=1.80-5.96; pvalue in distinguishing between partial and complete hydatidiform moles. However, the present study had only a limited number of samples, so investigation of a greater number of cases is needed to confirm this conclusion. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  8. Production method and cost of commercial-scale offshore cultivation of kelp in the Faroe Islands using multiple partial harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandorf Bak, Urd; Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Gregersen, Olavur

    2018-01-01

    was conducted. The total cost per kg dw of cultivated S. latissima decreased when the number of possible harvests without re-seeding was increased (from € 36.73 to € 9.27). This work has demonstrated that large-scale kelp cultivation is possible using multiple partial harvesting in the Faroe Islands...

  9. Comparison of properties of new sources of partially purified inulin to those of commercially pure chicory inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudannayake, Deshani C; Wimalasiri, Kuruppu M S; Silva, Kahandage F S T; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-05-01

    Newly developed inulin powders were prepared from roots of Asparagus falcatus (AF) and Taraxacum javanicum (TJ) plants grown in Sri Lanka. Inulin content, analyzed by enzymatic spectrophotometric as well as high-performance liquid chromatographic methods, showed that AF and TJ inulin powders contain 65.5% and 45.4% (dry wt) inulin, respectively, compared with 72% dry wt in the commercially available chicory inulin. Treating the AF and TJ inulin powders using ion exchange techniques significantly (P inulin into fructose and glucose by fructanase, and FT-IR analyses proved that the developed AF and TJ inulins have characteristic molecular composition similar to commercial inulin. TJ inulin contained significantly (P inulin, which contained 1.33 mg GAE/g of total phenolics, 0.43 mg QE/g of total flavonoids, and 406.26 mM TE/g antioxidant capacity. The current study suggests that the newly developed inulin from AF and TJ roots could be used as an alternative commercial source of inulin for the food industry. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Long-term dynamic and pseudo-state modeling of complete partial nitrification process at high nitrogen loading rates in a sequential batch reactor (SBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moomen; Eldyasti, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    Recently, partial nitrification has been adopted widely either for the nitrite shunt process or intermediate nitrite generation step for the Anammox process. However, partial nitrification has been hindered by the complexity of maintaining stable nitrite accumulation at high nitrogen loading rates (NLR) which affect the feasibility of the process for high nitrogen content wastewater. Thus, the operational data of a lab scale SBR performing complete partial nitrification as a first step of nitrite shunt process at NLRs of 0.3-1.2kg/(m 3 d) have been used to calibrate and validate a process model developed using BioWin® in order to describe the long-term dynamic behavior of the SBR. Moreover, an identifiability analysis step has been introduced to the calibration protocol to eliminate the needs of the respirometric analysis for SBR models. The calibrated model was able to predict accurately the daily effluent ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, alkalinity concentrations and pH during all different operational conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in head and cervical-spine postures and EMG activities of masticatory muscles following treatment with complete upper and partial lower denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Huggare, J A

    1994-10-01

    A clinical stomatognathic, cephalometric and electromyographic (EMG) study was performed in relation to 14 subjects (10 women, 4 men), each with an edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular dentition before and six months after treatment with complete upper and partial lower dentures. The mean age of the subjects was 54.4 years (range 43-64 years). The mean period of edentulousness and age of dentures were 22.5 years (range 15-33 years) and 14.1 (range 1.5-30 years), respectively. Natural head position was recorded (using a fluid-level method) and measured from cephalograms. EMG activity was measured in relation to masseter and temporal muscles. A decrease in clinical dysfunction index was noted in 12 of 14 subjects (86%). There was no change in cervical inclination, but a slight extension of the head was noted after treatment. Rapid recovery of the masticatory muscles was reflected in increased EMG activity, especially when biting in the maximal intercuspal position. In cases of edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular anterior dentition, treatment with a complete upper and lower partial denture had a favorable effect on craniomandibular disorders and masticatory-muscle function.

  12. A Survey of Removable Partial Denture (RPD) Retentive Elements in Relation to the Type of Edentulism and Abutment Teeth Found in Commercial Laboratories, Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriou, Michael; Zissis, Alcibiades

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this survey was to record removable partial denture (RPD) retentive elements and abutment teeth in partially edentulous patients, identified in commercial laboratories in Athens, Greece. Material and Methods 628 master casts with the corresponding cast metal frameworks used in the construction of RPDs were evaluated. Casts were photographed to identify the number and position of existing teeth, the partial edentulism class and the retentive elements. Prevalence tables and the x2 test were used for the statistical analysis of the collected data (α=.05). Results There were 276 maxillary (43.9%) and 352 (56.1%) mandibular casts. Maxillary edentulism entailed almost a total absence of right third molars in 96.7% and left third molars 96.0% of casts, with lower rates for the first and second molars. Edentulism in the posterior mandible presented a similar pattern. The most profound findings concerning retentive elements were: 91.9% of the retainers used were clasps and the remaining 8.1% were attachments. Of the clasps used, 48.9% were of the Roach Τ type, a finding more common in Kennedy Class I as compared to other Kennedy Classes (p<0.01). The circumferential clasps accounted for 19.3% of the total clasps used, and it was less frequently presented (8.8%) in Kennedy I Classes (p<0.01). Conclusions Roach clasps were used in the majority of cases whereas RPI clasps and attachments were rarely used. PMID:27688367

  13. A Survey of Removable Partial Denture (RPD Retentive Elements in Relation to Type of Edentulism and Abutment Teeth in Commercial Laboratories in Athens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sotiriou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this survey was to record removable partial denture (RPD retentive elements and abutment teeth in partially edentulous patients, identified in commercial laboratories in Athens, Greece. Material and Methods. 628 master casts with the corresponding cast metal frameworks used in the construction of RPDs were evaluated. Casts were photographed to identify the number and position of existing teeth, the partial edentulism class and the retentive elements. Prevalence tables and the x2 test were used for the statistical analysis of the collected data (α=.05. Results. There were 276 maxillary (43.9% and 352 (56.1% mandibular casts. Maxillary edentulism entailed almost a total absence of right third molars in 96.7% and left third molars 96.0% of casts, with lower rates for the first and second molars. Edentulism in the posterior mandible presented a similar pattern. The most profound findings concerning retentive elements were: 91.9% of the retainers used were clasps and the remaining 8.1% were attachments. Of the clasps used, 48.9% were of the Roach Τ type, a finding more common in Kennedy Class I as compared to other Kennedy Classes (p<0.01. The circumferential clasps accounted for 19.3% of the total clasps used, and it was less frequently presented (8.8% in Kennedy I Classes (p<0.01. Conclusions. Roach clasps were used in the majority of cases whereas RPI clasps and attachments were rarely used.

  14. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ruiz, Carl D; Graff, Donald W; Robinson, Edward

    2016-07-11

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE) representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %-95 %) of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %-40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %-38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %-20 %) in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %-96 %) and e-cigarette use groups (11 %-83 %); dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %-89 %). Exhaled NO increases (46 %-63 %) were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  15. Reductions in biomarkers of exposure, impacts on smoking urge and assessment of product use and tolerability in adult smokers following partial or complete substitution of cigarettes with electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl D. D’Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are popular alternatives to conventional cigarettes among adult smokers wishing to reduce their exposure to harmful smoke constituents. However, little information exists on the relative internal exposures resulting from the exclusive or dual use of e-cigarettes. Methods Measurements of product use; adverse events; changes in smoking urge; and blood, urine and exhaled breath biomarkers of exposure (BoE representing toxicants believed to contribute to smoking related diseases were made at baseline and after five days of product use in 105 clinically-confined smokers randomized into groups that partially or completely substituted their usual brand combustible cigarette with commercial e-cigarettes, or discontinued all nicotine and tobacco products. Results Subjects switching to e-cigarettes had significantly lower levels (29 %–95 % of urinary BoEs after 5 days. Nicotine equivalents declined by 25 %–40 %. Dual users who substituted half of their self-reported daily cigarette consumption with e-cigarettes experienced 7 %–38 % reductions, but had increases (1 %–20 % in nicotine equivalents. Blood nicotine biomarker levels were lower in the cessation (75 %–96 % and e-cigarette use groups (11 %–83 %; dual users had no significant reductions. All groups experienced significant decreases in exhaled CO (27 %–89 %. Exhaled NO increases (46 %–63 % were observed in the cessation and e-cigarette use groups; dual users had minimal changes. By Day 5, all groups had greater reductions in smoking urge compared to cessation. However, reductions were larger in the dual use group. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions Exposures to harmful smoke toxicants were observed to be lower in smokers who completely or partially replaced their cigarettes with e-cigarettes over five days.

  16. Effect of partial and complete variable loop deletions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein on the breadth of gp160-specific immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gzyl, Jaroslaw; Bolesta, Elizabeth; Wierzbicki, Andrew; Kmieciak, Dariusz; Naito, Toshio; Honda, Mitsuo; Komuro, Katsutoshi; Kaneko, Yutaro; Kozbor, Danuta

    2004-01-01

    Induction of cross-reactive cellular and humoral responses to the HIV-1 envelope (env) glycoprotein was examined after DNA immunization of BALB/c mice with gp140 89.6 -derived constructs exhibiting partial or complete deletions of the V1, V2, and V3 domains. It was demonstrated that specific modification of the V3 loop (mV3) in combination with the V2-modified (mV2) or V1/V2-deleted (ΔV1/V2) region elicited increased levels of cross-reactive CD8 + T cell responses. Mice immunized with the mV2/mV3 or ΔV1/V2/mV3 gp140 89.6 plasmid DNA were greater than 50-fold more resistant to challenge with recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) expressing heterologous env gene products than animals immunized with the wild-type (WT) counterpart. Sera from mV2/mV3- and ΔV1/V2/mV3-immunized mice exhibited the highest cross-neutralizing activity and displayed intermediate antibody avidity values which were further enhanced by challenge with rVV expressing the homologous gp160 glycoprotein. In contrast, complete deletion of the variable regions had little or no effect on the cross-reactive antibody responses. The results of these experiments indicate that the breadth of antibody responses to the HIV-1 env glycoprotein may not be increased by removal of the variable domains. Instead, partial deletions within these regions may redirect specific responses toward conserved epitopes and facilitate approaches for boosting cross-reactive cellular and antibody responses to the env glycoprotein

  17. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in patients wearing bimaxillary complete dentures, removable partial dentures and in students with natural dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Thaisa B; Conci, Ricardo A; Pezzini, Maristela M G; Pezzini, Rolando P; Mendonça, Márcio J

    2013-01-01

    Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD) has attained a prominent role within the context of dental care due to its high prevalence. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD in students at the State University of West of Paraná (UNIOESTE) with natural dentition, and in patients with removable partial dentures and double complete dentures. A total of 210 randomly selected individuals of both genders were evaluated, being divided into three groups: seventy students at the UNIOESTE with natural dentition (Group 1), seventy patients with removable partial dentures (Group 2) and seventy patients with bimaxillary complete dentures (Group 3). The data were collected by a single examiner using the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire for triage, where a single affirmative response to any of the situations mentioned was enough to carry out clinical evaluation. Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann Whitney, Chi-Square, ANOVA and Tukey's statistical tests were performed. The most prevalent signs and symptoms of TMD in Group 1 were pain or difficulty in chewing or talking, perception of recent change in bite and deviations during the course of mandibular movements. In Group 2 they were perceptions of recent changes in the bite, deflections in the mandibular movements, presence of joint sounds, pain during excursive movements and muscle tenderness. The most prevalent signs and symptoms in Group 3 were limited to mouth opening and poor stability and retention of at least one of the prostheses. Group 3 also reported having received treatment for headaches or facial pain with a high prevalence. Group 2 had the highest prevalence of signs and symptoms. Prevalence was similar in Groups 1 and 3.

  18. Residual symptoms in patients with partial versus complete remission of a major depressive disorder episode: patterns of painful physical symptoms in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eiji Harada,1 Yoichi Satoi,2 Toshiaki Kikuchi,3 Koichiro Watanabe,3 Levent Alev,1 Masaru Mimura4 1Medical Science, Medicines Development Unit-Japan, 2Statistical Science, Medicines Development Unit-Japan, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Hyogo, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, Kyorin University School of Medicine, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Objective: The patterns of residual painful physical symptoms (PPS and emotional symptoms among patients with partial remission (PR or complete remission (CR of a major depressive disorder (MDD episode were compared. Methods: This is a multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study. Patients who had originally been diagnosed with MDD, were treated with an antidepressant for 12 weeks for that episode, and achieved either PR or CR at study entry were enrolled in the study. Using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17, PR was defined as a score of ≥8 and ≤18 and CR as a score of ≤7. Residual symptoms were assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF and the HAM-D17.Results: A total of 323 patients (CR =158, PR =165 were included in the study. Patients in the PR group had a higher mean (standard deviation score in the HAM-D17 than those in the CR group (11.8 [3.1] and 4.4 [2.0], respectively. BPI-SF results showed that “at least moderate PPS” (score ≥3 on BPI-SF question 5 was significantly more prevalent among patients with PR than those with CR (37.0% vs 16.5%, respectively; odds ratio =3.04; P<0.001. Presence of pain (any severity was also more prevalent among patients with PR than those with CR (54.5% vs 35.4%, respectively. The HAM-D17 results for individual items indicated that impaired work and activities, depressed mood, psychological and somatic anxiety, and general somatic symptoms were observed in at least 75% of patients with PR.Conclusion: PR was associated with a higher prevalence of at least moderate PPS

  19. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Chichilichi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05. The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  20. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichilichi, Biswal; Mohanty, G P; Mishra, S K; Pradhan, C R; Behura, N C; Das, A; Behera, K

    2015-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha. A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein from Azolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH) and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38(th) day of age. At 42(nd) day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined. The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3. It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.

  1. Partial medial second toe pulp free flap and dermal substitute with skin graft for salvage reconstruction of a complete skin envelope degloving of the small finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, V; Strugarek, C; Montoya-Faivre, D; Dap, F; Dautel, G

    2018-04-04

    Skin envelope degloving of fingers are rare injuries that require rapid care and surgical treatment. Mostly caused by ring finger injuries, these traumas include bone, tendon and neurovascular pedicle damage. The authors present an unusual case of finger degloving limited exclusively to the skin envelope, without skeletal, tendinous or vascular lesion. This rare case of skin envelope degloving rendered microsurgical revascularization impossible. The authors report the results at 12 months following salvage reconstruction combining a partial second toe pulp free flap for the volar side and a dermal substitute with a thin skin graft for the dorsum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  3. Treatment of deep caries lesions in adults: randomized clinical trials comparing stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, and direct pulp capping vs. partial pulpotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars; Reit, Claes; Bruun, Gitte Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Less invasive excavation methods have been suggested for deep caries lesions. We tested the effects of stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, 1 yr after the procedure had been carried out, in 314 adults (from six centres) who had received treatment of a tooth with deep caries. The teeth had car...

  4. Researches on the development of new composite materials complete / partially biodegradable using natural textile fibers of new vegetable origin and those recovered from textile waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, M. P.; Bulei, C.; Heput, T.; Kiss, I.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop new fully / partially biodegradable composite materials by using new natural fibers and those recovered from various wastes. Thus, the research aims to obtain some composites with matrix of various types of polymeric materials and the reinforcement phase of textile materials (of different natures, morphologies and composites) so that the resulting products to be (bio)degradable. The textile inserts used as raffle are ecological, non-toxic and biodegradable and they contain (divided or in combination) bast fibers (flax, hemp, jute) and other vegetable fibers (cotton, wool) as plain yarn or fabric, which can replace fibers of glass commonly used in polymeric composites. The main activities described in this article are carried out during the first phase of the research (phase I - initiation of research) and they are oriented towards the choice of types of textile inserts from which the composites will be obtained (the materials needed for the raffle), the choice of the types of polymers (the necessary materials for matrices) and choosing the variants of composites with different types and proportions of the constituent content (proposals and working variants) and choosing the right method for obtaining samples of composite materials (realization technology). The purpose of the research is to obtain composite materials with high structural, thermo-mechanical and / or tribological performances, according to ecological norms and international requirements in order to replace the existing classical materials, setting up current, innovative and high performance solutions, for applications in top areas such as automotive industry and not only.

  5. Complete nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater via partial nitrification by appropriately alternating anoxic/aerobic conditions in a continuous plug-flow step feed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shijian; Peng, Yongzhen; Qiu, Shuang; Zhu, Ao; Ren, Nanqi

    2014-05-15

    This study assessed the technical feasibility of removing nitrogen from municipal wastewater by partial nitrification (nitritation) in a continuous plug-flow step feed process. Nitrite in the effluent accumulated to over 81.5  ± 9.2% but disappeared with the transition of process operation from anoxic/oxic mode to the anaerobic/anoxic/oxic mode. Batch tests showed obvious ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) stimulation (advanced ammonia oxidation rate) and nitrite (NOB) oxidizing bacteria inhibition (reduced nitrite oxidation rate) under transient anoxic conditions. Two main factors contributed to nitritation in this continuous plug-flow process: One was the alternating anoxic and oxic operational condition; the step feed strategy guaranteed timely denitrification in anoxic zones, allowing a reduction in energy supply (nitrite) to NOB. Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that NOB population gradually decreased to 1.0  ± 0.1% of the total bacterial population (dominant Nitrospira spp., 1.55 × 10(9) copies/L) while AOB increased approximately two-fold (7.4  ± 0.9%, 1.25 × 10(10) copies/L) during the above anoxic to anaerobic transition. Most importantly, without addition of external carbon sources, the above wastewater treatment process reached 86.0  ± 4.2% of total nitrogen (TN) removal with only 7.23 ± 2.31 mg/L of TN in the effluent, which met the discharge requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tratamento conservador das lesões parciais e completas do manguito rotador Conservative treatment of partial and complete tears of the rotator cuff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvandré Lech

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A lesão do manguito rotador é a mais freqüente patologia do ombro. Cerca de 180 pacientes foram tratados conservadoramente nos dois Serviços nos anos de 1996 e 1997. Este grupo recebeu uma ampla gama de tratamentos (apenas medicação, exercícios caseiros, infiltração, fisioterapia, etc.. Este estudo avaliou os resultados do tratamento conservador em 26 pacientes com rupturas parcial e total do manguito rotador. O protocolo consistiu de um programa com 6 meses de duração que incluiu terapia miofascial específica, exercícios ativos assistidos e de fortalecimento dos músculos do manguito rotador e da musculatura axioescapular. Os fatores de inclusão no estudo foram: 1 realizar todo o programa com apenas um reabilitador; 2 não ter recebido infiltração; 3 não ter tido cirurgia prévia; 4 não ter reumatopatia diagnosticada. Seis meses após a alta, dezoito pacientes (69,22% apresentavam resultado satisfatório, enquanto que os demais 08 casos (30,78% foram considerados insatisfatórios e tiveram indicação cirúrgica.The lesion of rotator cuff is the most frequent lesion of the shoulder. Circa 180 patients were conservatively treated in both Clinics during the years of 1976 and 1997. This group of patients received a wide range of treatments (only medication, home exercises, infiltration, physiotherapy, etc. This study evaluated the results of the conservative treatment in 26 patients with partial and total rupture of the rotator cuff. The protocol consisted of a program with duration of 6 months including specific miofascial therapy, assisted active exercises and of strengthening of the muscles of the rotator cuff and axioscapular musculature. The inclusion criteria of the study were: 1 to carry the program with just one reabilitator; 2 no previous infiltration; 3 no previous surgery; 4 absence of diagnosed rheumatopathy. Six months after the end of treatment, eighteen patients (69,22% presented with satisfactory results, while

  7. Supplementation of broiler diets with high levels of microbial protease and phytase enables partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdaw, M M; Perez-Maldonado, R A; Iji, P A

    2018-02-22

    A 3 × 3 + 1 factorial, involving three levels of protease (0, 15,000 or 30,000 PROT/kg) and three levels of phytase (1,000, 2,000 or 3,000 FYT/kg), was used to evaluate the effect of replacing commercial soybean meal (SBM) with raw, full-fat soybean (RFSB) at 75 g/kg of diet for broilers. A control diet was used for comparison. Each treatment was replicated six times, with nine birds per replicate. The concentration of trypsin inhibitors (TIs) in the test diets was approximately 10,193.4 TIU/kg. Regardless of enzyme supplementation, feed intake (FI) and body weight gain (BWG) of birds in the control group were superior to those on the test diets. Birds that received the protease-free test diets had reduced FI and BWG, but when supplemented with protease, were similar to the control diet in BWG, FI (except 0-35 days) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). When the test diet was supplemented with elevated levels (extradose) of protease and phytase, the BWG was improved during 0-10 days (p = .05) and 0-24 days (p replace SBM in broiler diets, provided the diets are supplemented with elevated levels of protease and phytase. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  9. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  11. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  12. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  13. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  14. Completion milestones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westbury, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Southeastern Environmental Resources Alliance (SERA) is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy, the states of Georgia and South Carolina, and Westinghouse US Department of Energy, the states of Georgia Savannah River Company (WSRC). The original proposal for SERA, submitted under the Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), is based on improving the competitiveness of manufacturers within Georgia and South Carolina by addressing the costs associated with environmental and waste management issues. By using the many technologies available through the national laboratories, universities, the Savannah River Site, and the commercial sector, SERA will improve the competitive position of companies that would otherwise have no access to those technologies. This Start-Up Plan details the steps SERA will take to begin effective operations by June 1, 1995, and will focus on the short-term needs of the program. This plan will serve as a supplement to the original SERA proposal, and will address the major milestones included in the Department of Energy's Cooperative Agreement. Also documented are the planning processes that SERA will use to ensure the long-term viability of the program. The planning process will include additional work elements that are referenced by the original proposal, but, for the purposes of program start-up, are not immediately addressed. The major milestones and schedules are provided for each goal

  15. Commercial Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are looking to reduce water use in a new facility or replace old, inefficient toilets in commercial restrooms, a WaterSense labeled flushometer-valve toilet is a high-performance, water-efficient option worth considering.

  16. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  17. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  18. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  19. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  20. Rehabilitation of a patient with complete mandibulectomy and partial glossectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerson, M.D.; Johnson, B.H.; Weitzman, R.S.

    1980-01-01

    Following a number of radiologic and surgical procedures for the treatment of oral cancer, a patient with severe facial difigurement and alteration of the vocal tract acquired acceptable speech. Consultation among referring physicians and speech pathologists can aid such a patient by facilitating the rehabilitative process through improvement of communicative skills

  1. Extracting Information Based on Partial or Complete Network Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... depth and breadth first search network traversal do not perform well overall .... work was created using the Python's preferential attachment ..... [13] J. Boland, T. Haynes, and L. Lawson, “Domination from a distance,”. Congr.

  2. Extracting Information Based on Partial or Complete Network Data

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... The k-Vertex Maximum Domination, introduced by Miyano and Ono in [4], .... work was created using the Python's random network model. ER(n, m) to ..... Proceedings of the Seventeenth Computing: The Australasian Theory.

  3. Costing national road accidents with partially complete national data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  5. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2014-11-18

    (Figure Presented) We present a method to complete missing structures in facade layouts. Starting from an abstraction of the partially observed layout as a set of shapes, we can propose one or multiple possible completed layouts. Structure completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions and attributes have to be estimated jointly. Our proposed solution is to break the problem into two components: a statistical model to evaluate layouts and a planning algorithm to generate candidate layouts. This ensures that the completed result is consistent with the observation and the layouts in the database.

  6. Commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the near term (one-to-five-year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered in this assessment. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low-radiation-dose thyroid scan. The word could in the preceding sentence is underlined because an alternative source of enriched stable isotopes does exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States

  7. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  8. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  9. Analysis of commercial and public bioactivity databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkainen, Pekka; Franke, Lutz

    2012-02-27

    Activity data for small molecules are invaluable in chemoinformatics. Various bioactivity databases exist containing detailed information of target proteins and quantitative binding data for small molecules extracted from journals and patents. In the current work, we have merged several public and commercial bioactivity databases into one bioactivity metabase. The molecular presentation, target information, and activity data of the vendor databases were standardized. The main motivation of the work was to create a single relational database which allows fast and simple data retrieval by in-house scientists. Second, we wanted to know the amount of overlap between databases by commercial and public vendors to see whether the former contain data complementing the latter. Third, we quantified the degree of inconsistency between data sources by comparing data points derived from the same scientific article cited by more than one vendor. We found that each data source contains unique data which is due to different scientific articles cited by the vendors. When comparing data derived from the same article we found that inconsistencies between the vendors are common. In conclusion, using databases of different vendors is still useful since the data overlap is not complete. It should be noted that this can be partially explained by the inconsistencies and errors in the source data.

  10. Trend of Complete Hydatidiform Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Thapa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complete Hydatidiform mole is one of the most frequent abnormal pregnancies. This review studies the trend of complete mole in Paropakar Maternity and Women's hospital and clinical ability to detect it. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 504 cases of complete hydatidiform mole recorded at Paropakar maternity and women's hospital, Kathmandu, during 2058-2065 B.S. Medical records were reviewed and incidence, clinical presentation and method of diagnosis were studied. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 13,9117 births and 504 complete moles, 12 partial moles, 48 persistent gestational tumours, six choriocarcinoma and four invasive moles recorded in the hospital. The incidence of complete mole was one per 276 births. It was prevalent among women younger than 29 years (80% and among the primigravidae (36.7%. More than 90% women presented in the first half of their pregnancy and vaginal bleeding was the main complaint (68.3%. Suction evacuation, dilation and evacuation followed by sharp curettage and abdominal hysterectomy were performed in 80.6%, 17.6% and 1.2% of the women respectively. Persistent mole and choriocarcinoma developed in 9.5% and 0.4% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Complete mole has the highest incidence. It affects mostly younger women and presents with vaginal bleeding most of the time, usually in the first half of their pregnancy. Keywords: complete hydatidiform mole, gestational trophoblastic disease, persistent gestational tumours.

  11. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  12. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  13. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  14. 14 CFR 413.13 - Complete application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Complete application. 413.13 Section 413.13 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE APPLICATION PROCEDURES § 413.13 Complete application. The FAA's acceptance of an...

  15. Tensor Completion Algorithms in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Qingquan; Ge, Hancheng; Caverlee, James; Hu, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Tensor completion is a problem of filling the missing or unobserved entries of partially observed tensors. Due to the multidimensional character of tensors in describing complex datasets, tensor completion algorithms and their applications have received wide attention and achievement in areas like data mining, computer vision, signal processing, and neuroscience. In this survey, we provide a modern overview of recent advances in tensor completion algorithms from the perspective of big data an...

  16. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An algebra A is called right completely continuous (right weakly completely continuous) ... Moreover, some applications of these results in group algebras are .... A linear subspace S(G) of L1(G) is said to be a Segal algebra, if it satisfies the.

  17. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  18. arXiv Minimal Fundamental Partial Compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Sannino, Francesco; Thomsen, Anders Eller

    Building upon the fundamental partial compositeness framework we provide consistent and complete composite extensions of the standard model. These are used to determine the effective operators emerging at the electroweak scale in terms of the standard model fields upon consistently integrating out the heavy composite dynamics. We exhibit the first effective field theories matching these complete composite theories of flavour and analyse their physical consequences for the third generation quarks. Relations with other approaches, ranging from effective analyses for partial compositeness to extra dimensions as well as purely fermionic extensions, are briefly discussed. Our methodology is applicable to any composite theory of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking featuring a complete theory of flavour.

  19. Complete spacelike immersions with topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    A fairly large class of Lorentz manifolds is defined, called WH normal manifolds, which are approximately those for which timelike infinity is a single point. It is shown that, in such a space, an immersed spacelike hypersurface which is complete must, if it is self-intersecting, not achronal or proper, satisfy strong topological conditions; in particular, if the immersion is injective in the fundamental group, then the hypersurface must be closed, embedded and achronal (i.e. a partial Cauchy surface). WH normal spaces include products of any Riemannian manifold with Minkowski 1-space; in such space, a complete immersed spacelike hypersurface must be immersed as a covering space for the Riemannian factor. (author)

  20. Commercialization project of Ulchin vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Won

    2011-01-01

    The Ulchin Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology. The construction of the facility was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From December 2007 to September 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced commercial operation in October 2009 for the vitrification of radioactive waste. (author)

  1. Complete blood count - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  2. The partial-birth stratagem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    In Wisconsin, physicians stopped performing abortions when a Federal District Court Judge refused to issue a temporary restraining order against the state's newly enacted "partial birth" abortion ban that was couched in such vague language it actually covered all abortions. While ostensibly attempting to ban late-term "intact dilation and extraction," the language of the law did not refer to that procedure or to late terms. Instead, it prohibited all abortions in which a physician "partially vaginally delivers a living child, causes the death of the partially delivered child with the intent to kill the child and then completes the delivery of the child." The law also defined "child" as "a human being from the time of fertilization" until birth. It is clear that this abortion ban is unconstitutional under Row v. Wade, and this unconstitutionality is compounded by the fact that the law allowed no exception to protect a woman's health, which is required by Roe for abortion bans after fetal viability. Wisconsin is only one of about 28 states that have enacted similar laws, and only two have restricted the ban to postviability abortions. Many of these laws have been struck down in court, and President Clinton has continued to veto the Federal partial-birth bill. The Wisconsin Judge acknowledged that opponents of the ban will likely prevail when the case is heard, but his action in denying the temporary injunction means that many women in Wisconsin will not receive timely medical care. The partial birth strategy is really only another anti-abortion strategy.

  3. Partial differential equations for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Farlow, Stanley J

    1993-01-01

    Most physical phenomena, whether in the domain of fluid dynamics, electricity, magnetism, mechanics, optics, or heat flow, can be described in general by partial differential equations. Indeed, such equations are crucial to mathematical physics. Although simplifications can be made that reduce these equations to ordinary differential equations, nevertheless the complete description of physical systems resides in the general area of partial differential equations.This highly useful text shows the reader how to formulate a partial differential equation from the physical problem (constructing th

  4. Partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Colton, David

    2004-01-01

    Intended for a college senior or first-year graduate-level course in partial differential equations, this text offers students in mathematics, engineering, and the applied sciences a solid foundation for advanced studies in mathematics. Classical topics presented in a modern context include coverage of integral equations and basic scattering theory. This complete and accessible treatment includes a variety of examples of inverse problems arising from improperly posed applications. Exercises at the ends of chapters, many with answers, offer a clear progression in developing an understanding of

  5. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  6. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  7. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  8. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  9. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  10. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  11. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  12. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  13. Latino College Completion: Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, Tim W E

    2007-01-01

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction

  16. Completeness, supervenience and ontology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maudlin, Tim W E [Department of Philosophy, Rutgers University, 26 Nichol Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1411 (United States)

    2007-03-23

    In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen raised the issue of the completeness of the quantum description of a physical system. What they had in mind is whether or not the quantum description is informationally complete, in that all physical features of a system can be recovered from it. In a collapse theory such as the theory of Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber, the quantum wavefunction is informationally complete, and this has often been taken to suggest that according to that theory the wavefunction is all there is. If we distinguish the ontological completeness of a description from its informational completeness, we can see that the best interpretations of the GRW theory must postulate more physical ontology than just the wavefunction.

  17. Limited liability company according to the new Act on commercial corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Daniela Růžičková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Act No. 90/2012 Coll., on commercial corporations, is one of the legal norms which arose in connection to the re-codification of the Private law. Along with the new Civil Code and Act on International private law, it brings about fundamental changes in the field of the regulation of commercial companies. It is an act which partially replaced the current Act No. 513/1991 Coll., Commercial Code. Its content predominantly consists of the regulation of commercial companies and cooperatives, while other relations regarding commercial relations will be covered by the new Civil code. The Chamber of Deputies approved the bill on 16th December and the Act should take effect on 1st January 2014.Since the new legislative norm brings as well many changes in the field of regulations of the limited liability company, which is currently the most used company form, the purpose of this article is to provide complete information about prepared changes in this field, while focusing on risks related to these changes for the limited liability company. According to a hypothesis determined by Pearson chi-quadrate, it should prove to the readers whether or not the changes in the field of the limited liability company will have, as a consequence, the transformation of the legal form used by persons conducting business based on the Trade Act. Further, it will be researched whether these changes will have an impact on the current form for business conduct.

  18. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  19. Complete Ureteral Avulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete avulsion of the ureter is one of the most serious complications of ureteroscopy. It requires open or laparoscopic intervention for repair. This case report emphasizes its management and presents recommendations for prevention in current urological practice.

  20. Complete family of separability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Andrew C.; Spedalieri, Federico M.; Parrilo, Pablo A.

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a family of separability criteria that are based on the existence of extensions of a bipartite quantum state ρ to a larger number of parties satisfying certain symmetry properties. It can be easily shown that all separable states have the required extensions, so the nonexistence of such an extension for a particular state implies that the state is entangled. One of the main advantages of this approach is that searching for the extension can be cast as a convex optimization problem known as a semidefinite program. Whenever an extension does not exist, the dual optimization constructs an explicit entanglement witness for the particular state. These separability tests can be ordered in a hierarchical structure whose first step corresponds to the well-known positive partial transpose (Peres-Horodecki) criterion, and each test in the hierarchy is at least as powerful as the preceding one. This hierarchy is complete, in the sense that any entangled state is guaranteed to fail a test at some finite point in the hierarchy, thus showing it is entangled. The entanglement witnesses corresponding to each step of the hierarchy have well-defined and very interesting algebraic properties that, in turn, allow for a characterization of the interior of the set of positive maps. Coupled with some recent results on the computational complexity of the separability problem, which has been shown to be NP hard, this hierarchy of tests gives a complete and also computationally and theoretically appealing characterization of mixed bipartite entangled states

  1. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  2. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  3. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  4. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  5. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  6. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  7. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  8. Clinical and genetic characterization of 6 cases with complete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... secondary sex characters (partial AIS) to a complete AIS (CAIS) (Ferlin et al., 2006;. Zuccarello et al., 2008). ... The physical examination and the .... 2004 Residual activity of mutant androgen receptors explains wolffian duct.

  9. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  10. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 3rd Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009....

  11. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 4th Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009, and the EU Brussels Regulation (recast), 2012....

  12. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  13. Starfire: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D.; Kokoszenski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic objective of the STARFIRE Project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor. The STARFIRE Project was initiated in May 1979, with the goal of completing the design study by October 1980. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the major parameters and design features that have been tentatively selected for STARFIRE

  14. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  15. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    the vector field, which allows the generation of a complete abstraction. To compute the functions that define the subdivision of the state space in an algorithm, we formulate a sum of squares optimization problem. This optimization problem finds the best subdivisioning functions, with respect to the ability......This paper addresses the generation of complete abstractions of polynomial dynamical systems by timed automata. For the proposed abstraction, the state space is divided into cells by sublevel sets of functions. We identify a relation between these functions and their directional derivatives along...

  16. Image Reconstruction For Bioluminescence Tomography From Partial Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, M.; Zhou, T.; Cheng, J. T.; Cong, W. X.; Wang, Ge

    2007-01-01

    The bioluminescence tomography is a novel molecular imaging technology for small animal studies. Known reconstruction methods require the completely measured data on the external surface, although only partially measured data is available in practice. In this work, we formulate a mathematical model for BLT from partial data and generalize our previous results on the solution uniqueness to the partial data case. Then we extend two of our reconstruction methods for BLT to this case. The first m...

  17. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  18. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  19. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  20. Construction completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This Construction Completion Report documents the major construction projects at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and related information on contracts, schedules, and other areas which affected construction. This report is not intended to be an exhaustive detailed analysis of construction, but is a general overview and summary of the WIPP construction. 10 refs., 29 figs

  1. Complete Rerouting Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a new protection method: Complete Rerouting. This is the most capacity e cient protection method for circuit switched networks and it is, to the best of our knowledge, the first time it has been described. We implement a column generation algorithm and test the performance...

  2. Complete French Teach Yourself

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The best-selling complete course for a fun and effective way to learn French. This ISBN is for the paperback book. The corresponding audio support (ISBN: 9781444100068) is also available. The book and audio support can also be purchased as a pack (ISBN: 9781444100051).

  3. Completeness of Lyapunov Abstraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Wisniewski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we continue our study on discrete abstractions of dynamical systems. To this end, we use a family of partitioning functions to generate an abstraction. The intersection of sub-level sets of the partitioning functions defines cells, which are regarded as discrete objects. The union of cells makes up the state space of the dynamical systems. Our construction gives rise to a combinatorial object - a timed automaton. We examine sound and complete abstractions. An abstraction is said to be sound when the flow of the time automata covers the flow lines of the dynamical systems. If the dynamics of the dynamical system and the time automaton are equivalent, the abstraction is complete. The commonly accepted paradigm for partitioning functions is that they ought to be transversal to the studied vector field. We show that there is no complete partitioning with transversal functions, even for particular dynamical systems whose critical sets are isolated critical points. Therefore, we allow the directional derivative along the vector field to be non-positive in this work. This considerably complicates the abstraction technique. For understanding dynamical systems, it is vital to study stable and unstable manifolds and their intersections. These objects appear naturally in this work. Indeed, we show that for an abstraction to be complete, the set of critical points of an abstraction function shall contain either the stable or unstable manifold of the dynamical system.

  4. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  5. A complete woman

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lawrence

    treated me like a son in the way he encouraged my education, while my mother ... cine gives me a lot of satisfaction when I see my patients getting cured. Teaching ... thing in life as a complete woman in different roles – daughter, wife, mother ...

  6. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  7. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  8. The complete cosmicomics

    CERN Document Server

    Calvino, Italo

    2014-01-01

    The definitive edition of Calvino’s cosmicomics, bringing together all of these enchanting stories—including some never before translated—in one volume for the first time. In Italo Calvino’s cosmicomics, primordial beings cavort on the nearby surface of the moon, play marbles with atoms, and bear ecstatic witness to Earth’s first dawn. Exploring natural phenomena and the origins of the universe, these beloved tales relate complex scientific concepts to our common sensory, emotional, human world. Now, The Complete Cosmicomics brings together all of the cosmicomic stories for the first time. Containing works previously published in Cosmicomics, t zero, and Numbers in the Dark, this single volume also includes seven previously uncollected stories, four of which have never been published in translation in the United States. This “complete and definitive collection” (Evening Standard) reconfirms the cosmicomics as a crowning literary achievement and makes them available to new generations of reader...

  9. A novel technique for partial discharge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokh, Fattahi; Navid, Tagizadegan; Ahmad, Zentabchi; Mehdi, Rashidi

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Partial discharges are a sensitive measure of local electrical stress and therefore the measurements is very often used as a quality check of the insulation. The inception of partial discharges gives information on the limit of the electrical strength of the insulating material before a complete discharge between the conductors takes place. Therefore the insulating material can be tested with high stress but without damaging or reducing the performance of the insulation. Also, for partial discharge measurements it should be taken into account that every stress of the insulation will have an influence on the life expectancy of the material, but a reasonable compromise between the stress during the measurement in order to get reliable results and the influence of he lifetime should be found and established in the relevant standard for the particular equipment, for example transformers, cables and so on

  10. CMS Is Finally Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Yet another step in the completion of the Large Hadron Collider was taken yesterday morning, as the final element of the Compact Muon Solenoid was lowered nearly 100 meters bellow ground. After more than eight years of work at the world's most powerful particle accelerator, scientists hope that they will be able to start initial experiments with the LHC until the end of this year.

  11. LEAR construction completed

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    In July 1982, LEAR construction was completed, the individual systems had been dry-tested. On 16 July, the first 50 MeV (309 MeV/c) protons from Linac 1 were injected and circulated. On 11 October, the first antiprotons from the AA, decelerated in the PS to 609 MeV/c, were injected. Also in 1982, acceleration, deceleration and stochastic cooling were successfully tested. See 9007366 for a more detailed description. See also 8201061, 8204131, 8309026.

  12. SHIVA laser: nearing completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Godwin, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Construction of the Shiva laser system is nearing completion. This laser will be operating in fall 1977 and will produce over 20 terawatts of focusable power in a subnanosecond pulse. Fusion experiments will begin early in 1978. It is anticipated that thermonuclear energy release equal to one percent that of the incident light energy will be achieved with sub-millimeter deuterium-tritium targets. From other experiments densities in excess of a thousand times that of liquid are also expected

  13. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  14. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort

  15. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal of this paper is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort

  16. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...

  17. Separation of uranium and other metals from commercial phosphoric acid by ion-exchange and voltammetric determination of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.B.C.; Carvalho, F.M.S. de; Abrao, A.

    1985-11-01

    The separation of metals from crude commercial phosphoric acid is achieved by simple dilution and percolation through a strong cationic ion exchanger. Uranium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron and aluminum are quantitatively fixed by the exchanger and can be detected or analysed after their complete elution with 6 M HCI. Titanium and zirconium are only partially retained. Specially for its separation and determination uranium is retained selectively by the resin from the phosphoric acid-EDTA solution, the column is washed with water and then eluted with hydrochloric acid. Uranium is analyzed by voltametry with the hanging drop mercury electrode. (Author) [pt

  18. Infinite partial summations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, D.W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of those aspects of the effective interaction problem that can be grouped under the heading of infinite partial summations of the perturbation series. After a brief mention of the classic examples of infinite summations, the author turns to the effective interaction problem for two extra core particles. Their direct interaction is summed to produce the G matrix, while their indirect interaction through the core is summed in a variety of ways under the heading of core polarization. (orig./WL) [de

  19. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  20. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  1. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  2. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  3. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  4. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  5. Towards commercial aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Harry W.; Knaus, Ulrich; Appelbaum, Samuel; Goddek, Simon; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Vermeulen, Tycho; Haїssam Jijakli, M.; Kotzen, Benz

    2018-01-01

    Aquaponics is rapidly developing as the need for sustainable food production increases and freshwater and phosphorous reserves shrink. Starting from small-scale operations, aquaponics is at the brink of commercialization, attracting investment. Arising from integrated freshwater aquaculture, a

  6. NASA commercial programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  7. Commercial Landing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  8. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  9. Complete pancreas traumatic transsection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hodžić

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a twenty-year old male with complete pancreas breakdown in the middle of its corpus, which was caused by a strong abdomen compression, with injuries of the spleen, the firstjejunumcurve,mesocolon transversum, left kidney, and appereance of retroperitoneal haemathoma. Surgical treatment started 70 minutes after the injury. The treatment consisted of left pancreatectomy with previous spleenectomy, haemostasis of ruptured mesocolon transversum blood vessels, left kidney exploration, suturing of the firstjejunumcurvelession and double abdomen drainage. Posttraumatic pancreatitis which appeared on the second postoperative day and prolonged drain secretion were successfully solved by conservative treatment.

  10. Complete rerouting protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Thomas K.; Kjærulff, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Protection of communication against network failures is becoming increasingly important and in this paper we present the most capacity efficient protection method possible, the complete rerouting protection method, when requiring that all communication should be restored in case of a single link...... network failure. We present a linear programming model of the protection method and a column generation algorithm. For 6 real world networks, the minimal restoration overbuild network capacity is between 13% and 78%. We further study the importance of the density of the network, derive analytical bounds...

  11. Completion of treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    The outline of the lecture included the following topics: entering prescription; plan printout; print and transfer DDR; segment BEV; export to R and V; physician approval; and second check. Considerable attention, analysis and discussion. The summary is as follows: Treatment planning completion is a very responsible process which requires maximum attention; Should be independently checked by the planner, physicist, radiation oncologist and a therapist; Should not be done in a last minute rush; Proper communication between team members; Properly set procedure should prevent propagation of an error by one individual to the treatment: the error should be caught by somebody else. (P.A.)

  12. TestComplete cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Alpaev, Gennadiy

    2013-01-01

    A practical cookbook, with a perfect package of simple, medium, and advanced recipes targeted at basic programmers as well as expert software testers, who will learn to create, manage, and run automated tests. It is packed with problem-solving recipes that are supported by simple examples.If you are a software tester or a programmer who is involved with testing automation using TestComplete, this book is ideal for you! You will be introduced to the very basics of using the tool, as well as polish any previously gained knowledge in using the tool. If you are already aware of programming basics,

  13. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  14. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  15. Commodification and commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J

    1992-01-01

    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  16. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  17. Observability of discretized partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.; Dee, Dick P.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that complete observability of the discrete model used to assimilate data from a linear partial differential equation (PDE) system is necessary and sufficient for asymptotic stability of the data assimilation process. The observability theory for discrete systems is reviewed and applied to obtain simple observability tests for discretized constant-coefficient PDEs. Examples are used to show how numerical dispersion can result in discrete dynamics with multiple eigenvalues, thereby detracting from observability.

  18. Complete atrioventricular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Raffaele; Limongelli, Giuseppe

    2006-04-05

    Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC), also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification). CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months) but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators) plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  19. Complete atrioventricular canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli Giuseppe

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complete atrioventricular canal (CAVC, also referred to as complete atrioventricular septal defect, is characterised by an ostium primum atrial septal defect, a common atrioventricular valve and a variable deficiency of the ventricular septum inflow. CAVC is an uncommon congenital heart disease, accounting for about 3% of cardiac malformations. Atrioventricular canal occurs in two out of every 10,000 live births. Both sexes are equally affected and a striking association with Down syndrome was found. Depending on the morphology of the superior leaflet of the common atrioventricular valve, 3 types of CAVC have been delineated (type A, B and C, according to Rastelli's classification. CAVC results in a significant interatrial and interventricular systemic-to-pulmonary shunt, thus inducing right ventricular pressure and volume overload and pulmonary hypertension. It becomes symptomatic in infancy due to congestive heart failure and failure to thrive. Diagnosis of CAVC might be suspected from electrocardiographic and chest X-ray findings. Echocardiography confirms it and gives anatomical details. Over time, pulmonary hypertension becomes irreversible, thus precluding the surgical therapy. This is the reason why cardiac catheterisation is not mandatory in infants (less than 6 months but is indicated in older patients if irreversible pulmonary hypertension is suspected. Medical treatment (digitalis, diuretics, vasodilators plays a role only as a bridge toward surgery, usually performed between the 3rd and 6th month of life.

  20. Barnett shale completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schein, G. [BJ Services, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Fractured shales yield oil and gas in various basins across the United States. A map indicating these fractured shale source-reservoir systems in the United States was presented along with the numerous similarities and differences that exist among these systems. Hydrocarbons in the organic rich black shale come from the bacterial decomposition of organic matter, primary thermogenic decomposition of organic matter or secondary thermogenic cracking of oil. The shale may be the reservoir or other horizons may be the primary or secondary reservoir. The reservoir has induced micro fractures or tectonic fractures. This paper described the well completions in the Barnett Shale in north Texas with reference to major players, reservoir properties, mineralogy, fluid sensitivity, previous treatments, design criteria and production examples. The Barnett Shale is an organic, black shale with thickness ranging from 100 to 1000 feet. The total organic carbon (TOC) averages 4.5 per cent. The unit has undergone high rate frac treatments. A review of the vertical wells in the Barnett Shale was presented along with the fracture treatment schedule and technology changes. A discussion of refracturing opportunities and proppant settling and transport revealed that additional proppant increases fluid recovery and enhances production. Compatible scale inhibitors and biocides can be beneficial. Horizontal completions in the Barnett Shale have shown better results than vertical wells, as demonstrated in a production comparison of 3 major horizontal wells in the basin. tabs., figs.

  1. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of partially purified catalase from camel ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liver of camel has high level of catalase (32,225 units/g tissue) as commercially used bovine liver catalase. For the establishment of the enzyme, the rate of catalase activity was linearly increased with increase of the catalase concentration and incubation time. The procedure of partial purification of catalase from camel ...

  3. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  4. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  5. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  6. Commercial real estate analysis and investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geltner, D.; Miller, N.; Clayton, J.; Eichholtz, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The well-known and respected authorship team of Geltner and Miller bring you a new edition of what has become the undisputed and authoritative resource on commercial real estate investment. Streamlined and completely updated with expanded coverage of corporate and international real estate

  7. GOGOL: ACADEMIC AND COMPLETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing international interest to Gogol explains the necessity of publishing a new edition of his works. The present Complete Collection of Gogol’s Works and Letters is an academic edition prepared and published by the A. M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences. It draws on rich experience of studying and publishing Gogol’s heritage in Russia but at the same time questions and underscores Gogol’s relevance for the modern reader and his place in the world culture of our time. It intends to fill in the gaps left by the previous scholarly tradition that failed to recognize some of Gogol’s texts as part of his heritage. Such are, for example, dedicatory descriptions in books and business notes. The present edition accounts not only for the completeness of texts but also for their place within the body of Gogol’s work, as part of his life-long creative process. By counterpoising different editions, it attempts to trace down the dynamics of Gogol’s creative thought while at the same time underscores the autonomy and relevance of each period in his career. For example, this collection publishes two different versions (editions of the same work: while the most recent version has become canonical at the expense of the preceding one, the latter still preserves its meaning and historical relevance. The present edition has the advantage over its predecessors since it has an actual, physical opportunity to erase the gaps, e.g. to publish the hitherto unpublished texts. However, the editors realize that new, hitherto unknown gaps may appear and the present edition will become, in its turn, outdated. At this point, there will be a necessity in the new edition.

  8. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  9. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  10. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  11. Fundamental partial compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  12. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  13. Treatment planning: implant-supported partial overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Winston W L

    2005-04-01

    When multiple anterior teeth are missing, many options of replacement are available. Traditionally, the choice was between a fixed or removable prostheses. Today, with the predictability of dental implants, the options of tooth replacement range from removable partial dentures to implant-supported fixed prostheses. The choice of which restoration that will best provide occlusion and esthetics depends on multiple factors including the number and location of missing teeth, the residual ridge form in relation to the replacement teeth, the relationship of the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth, the condition of teeth adjacent to the edentulous span, the amount of bone available for implant placement, the patients "smile line" and display of teeth, lip support, and financial constraints. When there is minimal loss of the ridge contour, restorations that emerge from the ridge are the most functional and esthetic restorations, adhesive-type fixed partial dentures, conventional fixed partial dentures, and implant-supported restorations can be indicated with the choice of restoration dependent on a risk benefit and cost benefit analysis. When there is a loss of ridge contour due to residual ridge resorption or trauma, the decision becomes more complex as not only does the tooth structure need to be replaced, the ridge form also has to be replaced. (Figures 1 and 2). This can be assessed clinically as illustrated by Figures 1 and 2 where a dis crepancy in arch form and ridge form in relation to the adjacent teeth and/or opposing arch can be observed. Other considerations are lip support and display of the teeth when smiling. This article presents a case and rationale for implant-supported par tial overdentures. Many authors have written on the merits of com plete overdentures. The complete overdenture has proven to be an improvement over conventional complete prostheses with respect to chewing efficiency, patient comfort and satisfaction. In partial edentulism, the

  14. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  15. Commercial Conspiracy Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eFurnham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs.The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed.

  16. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  17. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  18. Development of coal partial hydropyrolysis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hideaki Yabe; Takafumi Kawamura; Kohichiroh Gotoh; Akemitsu Akimoto [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Coal partial hydropyrolysis process aims at co-production of high yield of light oil such as BTX and naphthalene and synthesis gas from a low rank coal under a mild hydropyrolysis condition. The characteristic of this process is in the two-staged entrained hydropyrolysis reactor composed of the reformer and gasifier. This reactor arrangement gives us high heat efficiency of this process. So far, in order to evaluate the process concept a small-scale basic experiment and a 1t/day process development unit study were carried out. The experimental results showed that coal volatiles were partially hydrogenated to increase the light oil and hydrocarbon gases at the condition of partial hydropyrolysis such as pressure of 2-3MPa, temperature of 700-900{sup o}C and hydrogen concentration of 30-50%. This process has a possibility of producing efficiently and economically liquid and gas products as chemicals and fuel for power generation. As a further development in the period of 2003 to 2008, a 20t/day pilot plant study named ECOPRO (efficient co-production with coal flash hydropyrolysis technology) has been started to establish the process technologies for commercialization. 12 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  20. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, David; Dorko, Allison; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding...

  1. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  2. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  3. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  4. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  5. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  6. Does partial occlusion promote normal binocular function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Ding, Zhaofeng; Chan, Lily Y L; Chen, Xiang; Yu, Minbin; Deng, Daming; Hess, Robert F

    2012-10-03

    There is growing evidence that abnormal binocular interactions play a key role in the amblyopia syndrome and represent a viable target for treatment interventions. In this context the use of partial occlusion using optical devices such as Bangerter filters as an alternative to complete occlusion is of particular interest. The aims of this study were to understand why Bangerter filters do not result in improved binocular outcomes compared to complete occlusion, and to compare the effects of Bangerter filters, optical blur and neutral density (ND) filters on normal binocular function. The effects of four strengths of Bangerter filters (0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2) on letter and vernier acuity, contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, and interocular suppression were measured in 21 observers with normal vision. In a subset of 14 observers, the partial occlusion effects of Bangerter filters, ND filters and plus lenses on stereopsis and interocular suppression were compared. Bangerter filters did not have graded effect on vision and induced significant disruption to binocular function. This disruption was greater than that of monocular defocus but weaker than that of ND filters. The effect of the Bangerter filters on stereopsis was more pronounced than their effect on monocular acuity, and the induced monocular acuity deficits did not predict the induced deficits in stereopsis. Bangerter filters appear to be particularly disruptive to binocular function. Other interventions, such as optical defocus and those employing computer generated dichoptic stimulus presentation, may be more appropriate than partial occlusion for targeting binocular function during amblyopia treatment.

  7. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  8. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    in partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  9. Anatomic partial nephrectomy: technique evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Raed A; Metcalfe, Charles; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-03-01

    Partial nephrectomy provides equivalent long-term oncologic and superior functional outcomes as radical nephrectomy for T1a renal masses. Herein, we review the various vascular clamping techniques employed during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy, describe the evolution of our partial nephrectomy technique and provide an update on contemporary thinking about the impact of ischemia on renal function. Recently, partial nephrectomy surgical technique has shifted away from main artery clamping and towards minimizing/eliminating global renal ischemia during partial nephrectomy. Supported by high-fidelity three-dimensional imaging, novel anatomic-based partial nephrectomy techniques have recently been developed, wherein partial nephrectomy can now be performed with segmental, minimal or zero global ischemia to the renal remnant. Sequential innovations have included early unclamping, segmental clamping, super-selective clamping and now culminating in anatomic zero-ischemia surgery. By eliminating 'under-the-gun' time pressure of ischemia for the surgeon, these techniques allow an unhurried, tightly contoured tumour excision with point-specific sutured haemostasis. Recent data indicate that zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy may provide better functional outcomes by minimizing/eliminating global ischemia and preserving greater vascularized kidney volume. Contemporary partial nephrectomy includes a spectrum of surgical techniques ranging from conventional-clamped to novel zero-ischemia approaches. Technique selection should be tailored to each individual case on the basis of tumour characteristics, surgical feasibility, surgeon experience, patient demographics and baseline renal function.

  10. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We study an alternative model of infinitary term rewriting. Instead of a metric on terms, a partial order on partial terms is employed to formalise convergence of reductions. We consider both a weak and a strong notion of convergence and show that the metric model of convergence coincides with th...... to the metric setting -- orthogonal systems are both infinitarily confluent and infinitarily normalising in the partial order setting. The unique infinitary normal forms that the partial order model admits are Böhm trees....

  11. Crowdfunding Through a Partial Organization Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Roed

    2018-01-01

    Crowdfunding has become a rapidly growing source of alternative financing for a wide range of products and service ideas. The crowdfunding process itself necessitates the successful interaction between a number of actors including the central organizing platform, a number of content providing...... campaigns, and a large diverse group of funders. By utilizing the literature on complete and partial organizations and rejecting the commonly applied organizational molds to describe the process, this paper proposes that crowdfunding is organized and enabled as a fluid and co-dependent interaction between...... the various actors. The concept of partial organizations and its emphasis on key organizational decisions reveal that crowdfunding may be conceived of as a “co-dependent organization” in which the relationship of the involved actors is so interdependent that the crowdfunding process can neither be maintained...

  12. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Presenting with Gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast caused by the proliferation of glandular breast tissue. Determining the various causes of gynecomastia such as physiological causes, drugs, systemic diseases, and endocrine disorders is important. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS is a rare endocrine disorder presenting with gynecomastia and is a disorder of male sexual differentiation caused by mutations within the androgen receptor gene. All individuals with AIS have the 46 XY karyotype, although AIS phenotypes can be classified as mild, partial or complete and can differ among both males and females including ambiguous genitalia or infertility in males. We experienced a case of partial AIS presenting with gynecomastia and identified the androgen receptor gene mutation.

  13. Stochastic partial differential equations an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the theory of stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) of evolutionary type. SPDEs are one of the main research directions in probability theory with several wide ranging applications. Many types of dynamics with stochastic influence in nature or man-made complex systems can be modelled by such equations. The theory of SPDEs is based both on the theory of deterministic partial differential equations, as well as on modern stochastic analysis. Whilst this volume mainly follows the ‘variational approach’, it also contains a short account on the ‘semigroup (or mild solution) approach’. In particular, the volume contains a complete presentation of the main existence and uniqueness results in the case of locally monotone coefficients. Various types of generalized coercivity conditions are shown to guarantee non-explosion, but also a systematic approach to treat SPDEs with explosion in finite time is developed. It is, so far, the only book where the latter and t...

  14. Strategic orientations and new product commercialization : mediator, moderator, and interplay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, J.; Di Benedetto, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Why are some firms more successful at commercializing new products than others in emerging economies? It is possible that the strategic orientations, which firms adopt as a type of business strategy, lead at least partially to the superior performance of the new products they introduce to the

  15. Evaluation of the performance of solidified commercial low-level wastes in an arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M.J.; Walter, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Shallow land burial is being used as a disposal method for commercial low-level waste at waste disposal sites in arid (Hanford, Washington) and humid (Barnwell, South Carolina) climatic regions. A field lysimeter facility has been established at Hanford in which to conduct waste-form leaching tests. The primary objective of this research is to determine typical source terms generated by commercial solidified low-level wastes. The field lysimeter facility consists of 10, 3 M deep by 1.8 M diameter, closed-bottomed lysimeters around a central 4 M deep by 4 M diameter instrument caisson. Commercial cement and dow polymer waste samples were removed from 210 L drums and placed in the 1.8 M diameter lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility this year. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste forms. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste will be used to periodically collect soil water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, moisture content, and soil temperature are being automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle size distribution, concentrations and distributions of radionuclides in the waste streams, and concentrations of hydrophilic organic species in one of the waste streams

  16. Evaluation of the performance of solidified commercial low-level wastes in an arid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M.J.; Walter, M.B.

    1984-09-01

    Shallow land burial is being used as a disposal method for commercial low-level waste at waste disposal sites in arid (Hanford site near Richland, Washington) and humid (Barnwell, South Carolina) climatic regions. A field lysimeter facility has been established at the Hanford site in which to conduct waste-form leaching tests. The primary objective of this research is to determine typical source terms generated by commercial solidified low-level wastes. The field lysimeter facility consists of ten 3-m-deep by 1.8-m-diameter, closed-bottom lysimeters around a central instrument caisson, 4 m in diameter. Commercial cement and vinyl ester-styrene waste samples were removed from 210-L drums and placed in the 1.8-m-diameter lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility in 1984. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste forms. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste will be used to periodically collect soil water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, moisture content, and soil temperature are automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle size distribution, concentrations and distributions of radionuclides in the waste forms, concentrations of radionuclides in the waste streams, and concentrations of hydrophilic organic species in one of the waste steams. 8 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  17. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  18. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  19. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  20. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  3. On Degenerate Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of recent developments, including recent results, ideas, techniques, and approaches, in the study of degenerate partial differential equations are surveyed and analyzed. Several examples of nonlinear degenerate, even mixed, partial differential equations, are presented, which arise naturally in some longstanding, fundamental problems in fluid mechanics and differential geometry. The solution to these fundamental problems greatly requires a deep understanding of nonlinear degenerate parti...

  4. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  5. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  6. Partial twisting for scalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given

  7. Concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion

    OpenAIRE

    Bengua, Johann A.; Tuan, Hoang D.; Phien, Ho N.; Do, Minh N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel framework called concatenated image completion via tensor augmentation and completion (ICTAC), which recovers missing entries of color images with high accuracy. Typical images are second- or third-order tensors (2D/3D) depending if they are grayscale or color, hence tensor completion algorithms are ideal for their recovery. The proposed framework performs image completion by concatenating copies of a single image that has missing entries into a third-order tensor,...

  8. On the hierarchy of partially invariant submodels of differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, Sergey V [Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: sergey@hydro.nsc.ru

    2008-07-04

    It is noted that the partially invariant solution (PIS) of differential equations in many cases can be represented as an invariant reduction of some PISs of the higher rank. This introduces a hierarchic structure in the set of all PISs of a given system of differential equations. An equivalence of the two-step and the direct ways of construction of PISs is proved. The hierarchy simplifies the process of enumeration and analysis of partially invariant submodels to the given system of differential equations. In this framework, the complete classification of regular partially invariant solutions of ideal MHD equations is given.

  9. On the hierarchy of partially invariant submodels of differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovin, Sergey V.

    2008-07-01

    It is noted that the partially invariant solution (PIS) of differential equations in many cases can be represented as an invariant reduction of some PISs of the higher rank. This introduces a hierarchic structure in the set of all PISs of a given system of differential equations. An equivalence of the two-step and the direct ways of construction of PISs is proved. The hierarchy simplifies the process of enumeration and analysis of partially invariant submodels to the given system of differential equations. In this framework, the complete classification of regular partially invariant solutions of ideal MHD equations is given.

  10. On the hierarchy of partially invariant submodels of differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, Sergey V

    2008-01-01

    It is noted that the partially invariant solution (PIS) of differential equations in many cases can be represented as an invariant reduction of some PISs of the higher rank. This introduces a hierarchic structure in the set of all PISs of a given system of differential equations. An equivalence of the two-step and the direct ways of construction of PISs is proved. The hierarchy simplifies the process of enumeration and analysis of partially invariant submodels to the given system of differential equations. In this framework, the complete classification of regular partially invariant solutions of ideal MHD equations is given

  11. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra

  12. Coke from partially briquetted preheated coal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitskii, A.N.; Sklyar, M.G.; Toryanik, Eh.I.; Bronshtein, A.P.

    1988-07-01

    Analyzes effects of partial coal charge briquetting on coking and on quality of coke for metallurgy. Effects of mixing hot coal briquets on temperature and moisture of coal were investigated on an experimental scale in a coking plant. Coal with a moisture content of 12% was used. Coking mixture consisted of 30% briquets and 70% crushed coal. Fifteen minutes after briquet mixing with coal, the mean coal charge temperature increased to 100-105 C and moisture content was lower than 2-5%. Results of laboratory investigations were verified by tests on a commercial scale. Experiments showed briquetting of weakly caking or non-caking coal charge components to be an efficient way of preventing coke quality decline. Adding 15-20% briquets consisting of weakly caking coal did not influence coke quality. Mixing hot coal briquets reduced moisture content in crushed coal, increased its temperature and reduced coking time.

  13. Crowdfunding Through a Partial Organizational Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Nielsen, Kristian

    -professional investors to support their preferred project(s). However, while the phenomenon continues to grow rapidly our academic knowledge of this emergent organizational form has lagged behind. The literature to date remains largely ‘phenomenon-driven’ where definitions and descriptions are typically delimited...... types, where complete and partial organisations do not emerge as separate entities each filling their own presupposed role, but do so co-dependently which consequently allow for a fluid, but also entangled organizational structure. The paper finally argues that crowdfunding literature merits greater...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Escherichia coli Strain WG5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imamovic, Lejla; Misiakou, Maria-Anna; van der Helm, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Escherichia coli strain WG5 is a widely used host for phage detection, including somatic coliphages employed as standard ISO method 10705-1 (2000). Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a commercial E. coli WG5 strain.......Escherichia coli strain WG5 is a widely used host for phage detection, including somatic coliphages employed as standard ISO method 10705-1 (2000). Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a commercial E. coli WG5 strain....

  15. p-topological Cauchy completions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wig

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The duality between “regular” and “topological” as convergence space properties extends in a natural way to the more general properties “p-regular” and “p-topological.” Since earlier papers have investigated regular, p-regular, and topological Cauchy completions, we hereby initiate a study of p-topological Cauchy completions. A p-topological Cauchy space has a p-topological completion if and only if it is “cushioned,” meaning that each equivalence class of nonconvergent Cauchy filters contains a smallest filter. For a Cauchy space allowing a p-topological completion, it is shown that a certain class of Reed completions preserve the p-topological property, including the Wyler and Kowalsky completions, which are, respectively, the finest and the coarsest p-topological completions. However, not all p-topological completions are Reed completions. Several extension theorems for p-topological completions are obtained. The most interesting of these states that any Cauchy-continuous map between Cauchy spaces allowing p-topological and p′-topological completions, respectively, can always be extended to a θ-continuous map between any p-topological completion of the first space and any p′-topological completion of the second.

  16. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  17. Structure completion for facade layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin; Musialski, Przemyslaw; Liu, Ligang; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    completion with large missing parts is an ill-posed problem. Therefore, we combine two sources of information to derive our solution: the observed shapes and a database of complete layouts. The problem is also very difficult, because shape positions

  18. Accuracy of MR imaging in partial tears of rotator cuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Masao; Ito, Nobuyuki; Tomonaga, Tadashi; Harada, Shin'ichi; Rabbi, M.E.; Iwasaki, Katsuro

    1997-01-01

    MRI is very useful for the diagnosis of the rotator cuff tear However. in case of partial tears it is sometimes controvertible. In this study, we studied the accuracy of MRI in the diagnosis of partial tears. 67 patients who underwent MRI investigation before operation were chosen for this study. There were 61 males and 6 females, ranging from 30 to 80 years (mean: 54.8 years at the time of operation). MRI was performed with 1.5T superconductive system with shoulder surface coil. MPGR T2-weighted images were performed in the coronal oblique and sagittal oblique planes. Complete tears were diagnosed when full thickness high intensity was observed in the rotator cuff, whereas with partial high intensity of the rotator cuff, was considered as partial tears. MRI demonstrated 77.8% sensitivity, 91.4% specificity and 89.6% accuracy in the diagnosis of partial tear. In 8 cases MRI had misinterpretation. In MPGR T2-weighted images, not only the partial tears but the degenerative changes also show high intensity of the rotator cuff. Therefore, it is difficult to differentiate and maybe this is the reason of misinterpretations of partial tears by MRI. MRI provided with useful pre-operative informations of partial tears of the rotator cuff. However, in few cases it is hard to differentiate for the degenerative changes of the rotator cuff. (author)

  19. Complete eventration of right hemidiaphragm: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushna Makwana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eventration of the diaphragm is a term used to describe an abnormal elevation of part or whole of the hemidiaphragm, where the whole or part of the diaphragm is made up of a thin fibro membranous sheet replacing normal diaphragmatic musculature. Complete and partial eventration both can occur, however, complete eventration of the right hemidiaphragm in an adult female, as presented in this patient, is rarely seen.

  20. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brust, Christopher [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Hinterbichler, Kurt [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University,10900 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)

    2017-02-16

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes “third-order” Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D=3,5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D=4,7.

  1. Partially massless higher-spin theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brust, Christopher; Hinterbichler, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    We study a generalization of the D-dimensional Vasiliev theory to include a tower of partially massless fields. This theory is obtained by replacing the usual higher-spin algebra of Killing tensors on (A)dS with a generalization that includes “third-order” Killing tensors. Gauging this algebra with the Vasiliev formalism leads to a fully non-linear theory which is expected to be UV complete, includes gravity, and can live on dS as well as AdS. The linearized spectrum includes three massive particles and an infinite tower of partially massless particles, in addition to the usual spectrum of particles present in the Vasiliev theory, in agreement with predictions from a putative dual CFT with the same symmetry algebra. We compute the masses of the particles which are not fixed by the massless or partially massless gauge symmetry, finding precise agreement with the CFT predictions. This involves computing several dozen of the lowest-lying terms in the expansion of the trilinear form of the enlarged higher-spin algebra. We also discuss nuances in the theory that occur in specific dimensions; in particular, the theory dramatically truncates in bulk dimensions D=3,5 and has non-diagonalizable mixings which occur in D=4,7.

  2. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  3. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  4. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  5. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  6. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  7. On the Impact of Partial Shading on PV Output Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Baghzouz, Yahia

    2008-01-01

    clarifies the mechanism of partial PV shading on a number of PV cells connected in series and/or parallel with and without bypass diodes. The analysis is presented in simple terms and can be useful to someone who wishes to determine the impact of some shading geometry on a PV system. The analysis...... is illustrated by measurements on a commercial 70 W panel, and a 14.4 kW PV array....

  8. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  9. Partially massless fields during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Daniel; Goon, Garrett; Lee, Hayden; Pimentel, Guilherme L.

    2018-04-01

    The representation theory of de Sitter space allows for a category of partially massless particles which have no flat space analog, but could have existed during inflation. We study the couplings of these exotic particles to inflationary perturbations and determine the resulting signatures in cosmological correlators. When inflationary perturbations interact through the exchange of these fields, their correlation functions inherit scalings that cannot be mimicked by extra massive fields. We discuss in detail the squeezed limit of the tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum, and show that certain partially massless fields can violate the tensor consistency relation of single-field inflation. We also consider the collapsed limit of the scalar trispectrum, and find that the exchange of partially massless fields enhances its magnitude, while giving no contribution to the scalar bispectrum. These characteristic signatures provide clean detection channels for partially massless fields during inflation.

  10. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  11. Exploring Early Adolescents' Evaluation of Academic and Commercial Online Resources Related to Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, Carita; Leu, Donald J.; Marttunen, Miika; Hautala, Jarkko; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of 426 students (ages 12-13) to critically evaluate two types of online locations on health issues: an academic resource and a commercial resource. The results indicated limited evaluation abilities, especially for the commercial resource, and only a small, partial association with prior stance and offline reading…

  12. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  13. The commercialization of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  14. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to reduce the probability of later clinical involvement of the axilla and at establishing a sound basis for adjuvant treatment planning axillary dissection is an important operative procedure. So, partial axillary dissection has been applied to decrease the morbidity and postoperative axillary complications.Aim of the work was to study the reliability of partial axillary lymph node dissection in patients with breast carcinoma with clinically negative axilla. Methods: Eighteen patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, while the other two patients who were fulfilling the criteria for conservative breast surgery underwent lumpectomy. All patients did complete axillary lymph nodes dissection. Intraoperative leveling of the axilla was performed and level I axillary lymph nodes were identified according to their relation to pectoralis minor muscle; then they were subjected to intraoperative pathological examination by frozen section examination followed by complete axillary clearance. Then post operative histopathological examination of the tumor and all lymph nodes was done. Results: By intraoperative pathological examination; five patients (25% were found positive for malignant invasion, while 15 patients (75% were pathologically free. While paraffin section showed six patients (30% with malignant invasion, and 14 patients (70% were pathologically free. There was a false negative rate of 5% in level I axillary lymph nodes by intraoperative pathological examination which was positive for metastasis by paraffin section that revealed microinvasion in one lymph node out of 8 in level I. Only two cases out of 20 were found positive for metastasis in level II and III. Conclusion: Partial axillary lymph node dissection is a minimally invasive, feasible and sufficient technique that can predict the axillary lymph node status. KEYWORDS: Breast cancer, Axillary lymph nodes clearance

  15. Series Assembly of Microbial Desalination Cells Containing Stacked Electrodialysis Cells for Partial or Complete Seawater Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-07-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a new approach for desalinating water based on using the electrical current generated by exoelectrogenic bacteria. Previously developed MDCs have used only one or two desalination chambers with substantial internal resistance, and used low salinity catholytes containing a buffered or acid solution. Here we show that substantially improved MDC performance can be obtained even with a nonbuffered, saline catholyte, by using an electrodialysis stack consisting of 5 pairs of desalting and concentrating cells. When 4 stacked MDCs were used in series (20 total pairs of desalination chambers), the salinity of 0.06 L of synthetic seawater (35 g/L NaCl) was reduced by 44% using 0.12 L of anode solution (2:1). The resistive loss in the electrodialysis stack was negligible due to minimization of the intermembrane distances, and therefore the power densities produced by the MDC were similar to those produced by single chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) lacking desalination chambers. The observed current efficiency was 86%, indicating separation of 4.3 pairs of sodium and chloride ions for every electron transferred through the circuit. With two additional stages (total of 3.8 L of anolyte), desalination was increased to 98% salt removal, producing 0.3 L of fresh water (12.6:1). These results demonstrate that stacked MDCs can be used for efficient desalination of seawater while at the same time achieving power densities comparable to those obtained in MFCs. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  16. Object recognition using deep convolutional neural networks with complete transfer and partial frozen layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruithof, M.C.; Bouma, H.; Fischer, N.M.; Schutte, K.

    2016-01-01

    Object recognition is important to understand the content of video and allow flexible querying in a large number of cameras, especially for security applications. Recent benchmarks show that deep convolutional neural networks are excellent approaches for object recognition. This paper describes an

  17. Semi-commercialization of PVP-carrageenan hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna S.; Abad, Lucille V.; Aranilla, Charito T.; Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) has developed the PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel wound dressing by radiation processing. The PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel has undergone clinical testing for burn and bedsores. It has already a pending patent application (No. 1-2000-02471) at the Philippine Patent Office. The techno-economic feasibility study has also been completed. In order to commercialize this product, a project on semi-commercialization in partnership with the investor was proposed to Technology Incubation for Commercialization (TECHNICOM), a technology transfer program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). TECHNICOM was established in 2003 under the National Science and Technology Plan (2002-2020) as a strategic technology transfer program. The program aims to identify key technological breakthroughs especially those generated by R and D institutes. It can intervene through the following: technology assessment/commercial prototype development; business plan/feasibility study preparation; intellectual property rights protection; technology valuation negotiation and licensing; semi-commercial production assistance and training/consultancy services. High technology applications with commercial potentials are given priority. Under semi-commercialization stage, government funds will be provided to match private sector investment in the commercial application of a particular technology innovation. This will lessen the risk of commercialization and ensure commitment from the investors. Commercial success in the shortest time is ensured since scientist can then work closely with the private sector at the production floor while testing the gaps in the technology. (author)

  18. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  19. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  20. The commercialization of SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, Megan M.; Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of sterile insects for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs have been supplied by government facilities, although the private sector often participates in the field programs and sometimes provides substantial funding. As the demand for SIT has grown, government production facilities have sold sterile insects to other governments to use in their own programs. However, most of the production facilities are not organized as commercial ventures and have not been accounting for capital or possibly other fixed costs on top of the direct (variable) costs such as diet and transport. The biological nature of the product influences the best methods for figuring operational costs. Furthermore, unlike other liabilities and losses, a business cannot recover quickly from the unlikely but serious event of a lost breeding colony through an insurance claim, even if such insurance could be obtained. (author)

  1. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  2. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  3. Commercialism - the growth prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.K.R.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to ensure good business proposals for the future British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is making a number of international initiatives. Likely markets for expansion include the United States, Japan and Western Europe, to whom the company can offer activities such as oxide fuel reprocessing, uranium hexafluoride conversion, fabrication of oxide and mixed oxide fuels, uranium enrichment and the safe transport of nuclear materials. The creation of International Nuclear Fuels Limited will expand overseas business and ensure security of fuel supply for the international nuclear industry. Working jointly with AEA Technology, BNFL will seek to market their combined decommissioning experience on the international market. The author concludes the BNFL is in a strong position to supply an increasing world-wide need for nuclear waste management and increased commercial awareness within the company will ensure a good section of the market is secured. U.K

  4. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  5. Clinical evaluation of failures in removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Janaina H; Quishida, Cristiane C C; Vergani, Carlos E; Machado, Ana L; Pavarina, Ana C; Giampaolo, Eunice T

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate the effects of removable partial dentures on the support tissues and changes occurring in lower tooth-supported and bilateral distal-extension dentures, 5 years after placement. The study involved analysis of a total of 53 patients who received prosthetic treatment for removable partial dentures. The patients were divided into two groups. In group 1, the patients had a completely edentulous maxilla and an edentulous area with natural teeth remaining in both the anterior and posterior regions. In group 2, the patients had a completely edentulous maxilla and partially edentulous mandible with preserved anterior teeth. Tooth mobility, prevalence of caries, fracture of the abutment teeth, fracture and/or deformation of the removable partial denture components and stability of the denture base were evaluated. The use of a removable partial denture increased tooth mobility, reduced the prevalence of caries, and did not cause loss or fracture of the abutments or damage to their components, when compared with the baseline. It was concluded that there was no difference between the groups as evaluated in terms of tooth mobility, prevalence of caries, loss and fracture of the abutments or damage to the components of the removable partial denture.

  6. fineness and concentrate to low quality roughage ratio of complete

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of the roughage component on ad libirum intake and apparent digestibility of complete diets in respect of the dairy cow. The roughage used was of low quality, ... cent) and a commercial vitamin-mineral mixture were used. Diets were batch mixed in 400 kg lots. The maize straw used (whole maize plant without cob and cob-.

  7. Commercialization of DOE isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the business structure and operations of MAC Isotopes (MACI) L.L.C., a newly created business resulting from the commercialization of a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). MACI began its commercial operations on October 1, 1996, and is the first U.S. commercial isotope production business to result from the commercialization of DOE facilities or programs. The commercialization was the culmination of an -2-yr competitive procurement process by the DOE and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). MACI was selected from this competitive process as the commercial business of choice on the basis of providing the best value to the DOE/LMITCO and having the greatest potential for commercial success

  8. Completeness theorems in transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweifel, P.F.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since K. M.; Case's famous 1960 paper, transport theorists have been studying the questions of full- and half-range completeness for various transport type equations. The purpose of this note is to try to define exactly what is meant by completeness as it is needed, and used, in solving transport equations and to discuss some of the various techniques which have been, or might be, used to verify completeness. Attention is restricted to the question of full-range completeness. As a paradigm the generalized form of the transport equation first introduced by Beals is adopted

  9. Rate shock crisis faces completed nukes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1982-01-01

    Political reluctance on the part of regulators to grant utilities a full rate base for large generating plants is a new crisis facing utilities with newly completed nuclear plants. Zero- or partial-rate treatment for large new plants will increase the financial strains of electric companies if they cannot recover their investment. Such rate decisions will affect the commitment to uncompleted and planned nuclear plants as the economic advantage is removed. Economists warn that consumer resistance to large rate increases to cover construction periods could lead to an overhaul of regulatory practices. Alternatives to sudden rate shocks could be moderated with phased-in increases or rate trending. Analysts disagree on whether consumer opposition is the beginning of a national movement or a regional response, but if other states follow Alabama's example of turning rate decisions over to the courts, it may confirm their assessment that the trending approach is unworkable

  10. The complete sequence of human chromosome 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy; Martin, Joel; Terry, Astrid; Couronne, Olivier; Grimwood, Jane; Lowry, State; Gordon, Laurie A.; Scott, Duncan; Xie, Gary; Huang, Wayne; Hellsten, Uffe; Tran-Gyamfi, Mary; She, Xinwei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Aerts, Andrea; Altherr, Michael; Bajorek, Eva; Black, Stacey; Branscomb, Elbert; Caoile, Chenier; Challacombe, Jean F.; Chan, Yee Man; Denys, Mirian; Detter, Chris; Escobar, Julio; Flowers, Dave; Fotopulos, Dea; Glavina, Tijana; Gomez, Maria; Gonzales, Eidelyn; Goodstenin, David; Grigoriev, Igor; Groza, Matthew; Hammon, Nancy; Hawkins, Trevor; Haydu, Lauren; Israni, Sanjay; Jett, Jamie; Kadner, Kristen; Kimbal, Heather; Kobayashi, Arthur; Lopez, Frederick; Lou, Yunian; Martinez, Diego; Medina, Catherine; Morgan, Jenna; Nandkeshwar, Richard; Noonan, James P.; Pitluck, Sam; Pollard, Martin; Predki, Paul; Priest, James; Ramirez, Lucia; Rash, Sam; Retterer, James; Rodriguez, Alex; Rogers, Stephanie; Salamov, Asaf; Salazar, Angelica; Thayer, Nina; Tice, Hope; Tsai, Ming; Ustaszewska, Anna; Vo, Nu; Wheeler, Jeremy; Wu, Kevin; Yang, Joan; Dickson, Mark; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Eichler, Evan E.; Olsen, Anne; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Richardson, Paul; Lucas, Susan M.; Myers, Richard M.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2004-04-15

    Chromosome 5 is one of the largest human chromosomes yet has one of the lowest gene densities. This is partially explained by numerous gene-poor regions that display a remarkable degree of noncoding and syntenic conservation with non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting they are functionally constrained. In total, we compiled 177.7 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence containing 923 manually curated protein-encoding genes including the protocadherin and interleukin gene families and the first complete versions of each of the large chromosome 5 specific internal duplications. These duplications are very recent evolutionary events and play a likely mechanistic role, since deletions of these regions are the cause of debilitating disorders including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

  11. Commercializing medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  12. Latino College Completion: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  13. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  14. Latino College Completion: South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  15. Latino College Completion: North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  16. Latino College Completion: New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  17. ANALYTIC FITS FOR PARTIAL PHOTOIONIZATION CROSS-SECTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERNER, DA; YAKOVLEV, DG

    We present a compact, uniform and complete set of analytic fits to the partial Hartree-Dirac-Slater photoionization cross sections for the ground state shells of all atoms and ions of elements from H to Zn (Z less-than-or-equal-to 30). Comparison with experiment and theory demonstrates generally

  18. Calibration Of Partial-Pressure-Of-Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, David W.; Heronimus, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Report and analysis of, and discussion of improvements in, procedure for calibrating partial-pressure-of-oxygen sensors to satisfy Spacelab calibration requirements released. Sensors exhibit fast drift, which results in short calibration period not suitable for Spacelab. By assessing complete process of determining total drift range available, calibration procedure modified to eliminate errors and still satisfy requirements without compromising integrity of system.

  19. Partial Widths of Nonmesonic Weak Decays of Lambda-Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmin, V A

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the phenomenological matrix elements completely describing \\Lambda N \\to NN weak interaction in the 1p-shell nuclei can be obtained from the partial widths of nonmesonic decays of ^{10}_{\\Lambda}Be and ^{10}_{\\Lambda}B hypernuclei. It is shown that the uncertainties related to the description of nuclear structure are not essential for this task.

  20. Partial Transposition on Bipartite System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Jun, Ren; Yong-Jian, Han; Yu-Chun, Wu; Guang-Can, Guo

    2008-01-01

    Many properties of partial transposition are unclear as yet. Here we carefully consider the number of the negative eigenvalues of ρ T (ρ's partial transposition) when ρ is a two-partite state. There is strong evidence to show that the number of negative eigenvalues of ρ T is N(N − 1)/2 at most when ρ is a state in Hilbert space C N C N . For the special case, the 2 × 2 system, we use this result to give a partial proof of the conjecture |ρ T | T ≥ 0. We find that this conjecture is strongly connected with the entanglement of the state corresponding to the negative eigenvalue of ρ T or the negative entropy of ρ

  1. Partial volume effect in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munehiro; Yoshiya, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiji

    1989-01-01

    According to the direction and the thickness of the imaging slice in tomography, the border between the tissues becomes unclear (partial volume effect). In the present MRI experiment, we examined border area between fat and water components using phantom in order to investigate the partial volume effect in MRI. In spin echo sequences, the intensity of the border area showed a linear relationship with composition of fat and water. Whereas, in inversion recovery and field echo sequences, we found the parameters to produce an extremely low intensity area at the border region between fat and water. This low intensity area was explained by cancellation of NMR signals from fat and water due to the difference in the direction of magnetic vectors. Clinically, partial volume effect can cause of mis-evaluation of walls, small nodules, tumor capsules and the tumor invasion in the use of inversion recovery and field echo sequences. (author)

  2. Partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with a partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson. The model is based on a strongly interacting fermionic sector coupled to a fundamental scalar sector via Yukawa interactions. The SU(4)×SU(4) global symmetry of these two sectors...... is broken to a single SU(4) via Yukawa interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced by condensation due to the strong interactions in the new fermionic sector which further breaks the global symmetry SU(4)→Sp(4). The Higgs boson arises as a partially composite state which is an exact...... Goldstone boson in the limit where SM interactions are turned off. Terms breaking the SU(4) global symmetry explicitly generate a mass for the Goldstone Higgs boson. The model realizes in different limits both (partially) composite Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models, thereby providing a convenient...

  3. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. ETHICS AND COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern economic science was built around the concept of efficiency. In economy the notion of equality is strongly correlated with the notion of balance, such as the market balance when the demand equals the offer. In a broader view, the economy cannot contribute to a reflection on equity unless it re-became a moral and political science or even a philosophical economy. At present, when there is an effervescence of international transactions, we all adulate the need for morality. Everyday, all around the world, regular people are affected by the costs of ethical issues. The profit and social responsibility do not exclude reciprocally. The social value of a company is given by the well-being and the work-places generated, by the products and services offered to the consumers at a fair price in correlation with the quality. The sentimental value represents the value that a person is giving to a good, based on feelings and emotions and not on monetary values. In many cases the passions and the interests are more powerful than the moral value that animates us. A lot of commercials, if they are to say the truth, would recognize that, for them, not the clients are important but the profits.

  5. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs

  6. Re-thinking informal entrepreneurship: commercial or social entrepreneurs?

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, C.C.; Nadin, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates critically the assumption that entrepreneurs\\ud who start-up their business ventures operating wholly or partially\\ud off-the-books are engaged in commercial entrepreneurship. Reporting evidence\\ud from a 2005–2006 survey involving face-to-face interviews with\\ud 298 informal entrepreneurs in Ukraine, the finding is that they are not all\\ud commercially-driven. Instead, these informal entrepreneurs range from purely\\ud rational economic actors who pursue for-profit logics...

  7. Complexity of Products of Some Complete and Complete Bipartite Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Daoud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of spanning trees in graphs (networks is an important invariant; it is also an important measure of reliability of a network. In this paper, we derive simple formulas of the complexity, number of spanning trees, of products of some complete and complete bipartite graphs such as cartesian product, normal product, composition product, tensor product, and symmetric product, using linear algebra and matrix analysis techniques.

  8. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  9. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian Naismith

    1957-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  10. Nutritional analysis and microbiological evaluation of commercially available enteral diets for cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prantil, Lori R; Markovich, Jessica E; Heinze, Cailin R; Linder, Deborah E; Tams, Todd R; Freeman, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of nutrients less than or greater than accepted standards in commercially available enteral diets for cats, and to identify contamination incidence in enteral diets for cats. Prospective cross-sectional study. University teaching hospital. Seven commercial enteral diets for cats. Labels were evaluated to determine if diets were intended to be nutritionally complete and balanced. One diet under storage techniques partially representative of clinical conditions was sampled on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 of storage for aerobic bacterial culture. All 7 diets were analyzed for key nutrients and results were compared to Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) Nutrient Profiles for Adult Cats for maintenance and National Research Council recommended allowance (NRC-RA). From label information, 4 diets were classified as complete and balanced and 3 diets were classified as not complete and balanced. All 7 diets had at least 1 nutrient less than the AAFCO minimums and the NRC-RA. The total number of nutrients less than AAFCO minimums ranged from 3 to 9 (median = 4), with iron, potassium, and manganese being the most common. Concentrations of some nutrients were undetectable. None of the samples tested had a positive aerobic culture at baseline (day 0) or on subsequent samples from days 1, 3, 5, and 7 under any storage condition. None of the diets analyzed met all of the minimum nutrient concentrations. While short-term feeding may not be of concern for an individual patient, clinicians should be aware of potential nutritional limitations when feeding enteral diets to ill or injured cats. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  11. Security and matching of partial fingerprint recognition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jea, Tsai-Yang; Chavan, Viraj S.; Govindaraju, Venu; Schneider, John K.

    2004-08-01

    Despite advances in fingerprint identification techniques, matching incomplete or partial fingerprints still poses a difficult challenge. While the introduction of compact silicon chip-based sensors that capture only a part of the fingerprint area have made this problem important from a commercial perspective, there is also considerable interest on the topic for processing partial and latent fingerprints obtained at crime scenes. Attempts to match partial fingerprints using singular ridge structures-based alignment techniques fail when the partial print does not include such structures (e.g., core or delta). We present a multi-path fingerprint matching approach that utilizes localized secondary features derived using only the relative information of minutiae. Since the minutia-based fingerprint representation, is an ANSI-NIST standard, our approach has the advantage of being directly applicable to already existing databases. We also analyze the vulnerability of partial fingerprint identification systems to brute force attacks. The described matching approach has been tested on one of FVC2002"s DB1 database11. The experimental results show that our approach achieves an equal error rate of 1.25% and a total error rate of 1.8% (with FAR at 0.2% and FRR at 1.6%).

  12. Optimal partial-arcs in VMAT treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Salari, Ehsan; Chen Wei; Craft, David

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for improving the delivery efficiency of VMAT by extending the recently published VMAT treatment planning algorithm vmerge to automatically generate optimal partial-arc plans. A high-quality initial plan is created by solving a convex multicriteria optimization problem using 180 equi-spaced beams. This initial plan is used to form a set of dose constraints, and a set of partial-arc plans is created by searching the space of all possible partial-arc plans that satisfy these constraints. For each partial-arc, an iterative fluence map merging and sequencing algorithm (vmerge) is used to improve the delivery efficiency. Merging continues as long as the dose quality is maintained above a user-defined threshold. The final plan is selected as the partial-arc with the lowest treatment time. The complete algorithm is called pmerge. Partial-arc plans are created using pmerge for a lung, liver and prostate case, with final treatment times of 127, 245 and 147 s. Treatment times using full arcs with vmerge are 211, 357 and 178 s. The mean doses to the critical structures for the vmerge and pmerge plans are kept within 5% of those in the initial plan, and the target volume covered by the prescription isodose is maintained above 98% for the pmerge and vmerge plans. Additionally, we find that the angular distribution of fluence in the initial plans is predictive of the start and end angles of the optimal partial-arc. We conclude that VMAT delivery efficiency can be improved by employing partial-arcs without compromising dose quality, and that partial-arcs are most applicable to cases with non-centralized targets. (paper)

  13. Is radurisation commercially feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In November 1980 an international expert committee, convened by the three organisations sponsoring the International Food Irradiation Project, viz the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, declared all radurised foods irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) as unconditionally safe and nutritionally adequate (ie wholesome) for humans. However, the application of this new food-processing technique on a full commercial scale will undoubtedly be determined by factors such as the efficacy of the process in comparison with existing techniques, cost of operation, and finally, acceptance by the food handler and consumer. Studies in various countries, including South Africa, during the past decade have demonstrated that radiation in most cases in combination with pre-irradiation heat treatment or post irradiation cold storage, could play an important role in improving the quality of fresh produce by extension of shelf life (sometimes dramatic), by hygienisation (eg the elimination of harmful pathogens or a reduction of potentially harmful chemical residues) and lastly by improved quarantine control. Cost and energy-comsumption analyses indicate that radurisation is an energy-saving process in comparison with both heating and cooling and, even though the process is capital intensive, that substantial cost benefits can accrue when large quantities of certain foodstuffs are processed. Consumer acceptance trials, both locally and abroad, have shown that if the consumer is properly informed, he can be convinced of the advantages which radurised foods could offer. A National Steering Committee was recently consituted. This committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and co-ordinates all aspects of the test marketing of radurised food on a national level

  14. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao

    2009-01-01

    observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  16. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  17. Adaptive Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rasmussen, Tage

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) have recently been introduced. The transition and emission probabilities are conditioned on the past. In this report, the PHMM is extended with a multiple token version. The different versions of the PHMM are applied to bi-level image coding....

  18. Partially molten magma ocean model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirley, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    The properties of the lunar crust and upper mantle can be explained if the outer 300-400 km of the moon was initially only partially molten rather than fully molten. The top of the partially molten region contained about 20% melt and decreased to 0% at 300-400 km depth. Nuclei of anorthositic crust formed over localized bodies of magma segregated from the partial melt, then grew peripherally until they coverd the moon. Throughout most of its growth period the anorthosite crust floated on a layer of magma a few km thick. The thickness of this layer is regulated by the opposing forces of loss of material by fractional crystallization and addition of magma from the partial melt below. Concentrations of Sr, Eu, and Sm in pristine ferroan anorthosites are found to be consistent with this model, as are trends for the ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich suites on a diagram of An in plagioclase vs. mg in mafics. Clustering of Eu, Sr, and mg values found among pristine ferroan anorthosites are predicted by this model

  19. [Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainjot, Amélie; Vanheusden, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Posterior ceramic bonded partial restorations are conservative and esthetic approaches for compromised teeth. Overlays constitute a less invasive alternative for tooth tissues than crown preparations. With inlays and onlays they are also indicated in case of full arch or quadrant rehabilitations including several teeth. This article screens indications and realization of this type of restorations.

  20. Implementing circularity using partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2001-01-01

    of an imperative C-like language, by extending the language with a new construct, persistent variables. We show that an extension of partial evaluation can eliminate persistent variables, producing a staged C program. This approach has been implemented in the Tempo specializer for C programs, and has proven useful...

  1. Oculomotor impairment during chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M; Thomas, M; Thorne, D; Sing, H; Redmond, D; Rowland, L; Johnson, D; Hall, S; Krichmar, J; Balkin, T

    2003-04-01

    The effects of chronic partial sleep (sleep deprivation) and extended sleep (sleep augmentation) followed by recovery sleep on oculomotor function were evaluated in normal subjects to explore the usefulness of oculomotor assessment for alertness monitoring in fitness-for-duty testing. Sixty-six commercial drivers (24-62 years, 50m/16f) participated in a 15 day study composed of 3 training days with 8h time in bed per night, 7 experimental days with subjects randomly assigned to either 3, 5, 7, or 9h time in bed, and 3 recovery nights with 8h time in bed. Data from 57 subjects were used. Saccadic velocity (SV), initial pupil diameter (IPD), latency to pupil constriction (CL), and amplitude of pupil constriction (CA) were assessed and correlated with the sleep latency test (SLT), the Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS), and simulated driving performance. Regression analyses showed that SV slowed significantly in the 3 and 5h groups, IPD decreased significantly in the 9h group, and CL increased significantly in the 3h group. SLT and SSS significantly correlated with SV, IPD, CL, and driving accidents for the 3h group, and with CL for the 5h group. Analyses also showed a significant negative correlation between decreasing SV and increasing driving accidents in the 3h group and a significant negative correlation between IPD and driving accidents for the 7h group. The results demonstrate a sensitivity primarily of SV to sleepiness, and a correlation of SV and IPD to impaired simulated driving performance, providing evidence for the potential utility of oculomotor indicators in the detection of excessive sleepiness and deterioration of complex motor performance with chronic partial sleep restriction. This paper shows a relationship between sleep deprivation and oculomotor measures, and suggests a potential utility for oculometrics in assessing operational performance readiness under sleep restricted conditions.

  2. Large Hadron Collider nears completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Installation of the final component of the Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator is under way along the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland. When completed this summer, the LHC will be the world's largest and most complex scientific instrument.

  3. Complete Blood Count (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Deal With Injections and Blood Tests Blood Culture Anemia Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Blood Test: Hemoglobin Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Complete Blood Count (CBC) Medical Tests and Procedures ( ...

  4. Monitoring Completed Navigation Projects Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bottin, Jr., Robert R

    2001-01-01

    ... (MCNP) Program. The program was formerly known as the Monitoring Completed Coastal Projects Program, but was modified in the late 1990s to include all navigation projects, inland as well as coastal...

  5. Exactly and completely integrable nonlinear dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leznov, A.N.; Savel'ev, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    The survey is devoted to a consitent exposition of the group-algebraic methods for the integration of systems of nonlinear partial differential equations possessing a nontrivial internal symmetry algebra. Samples of exactly and completely integrable wave and evolution equations are considered in detail, including generalized (periodic and finite nonperiodic Toda lattice, nonlinear Schroedinger, Korteweg-de Vries, Lotka-Volterra equations, etc.) For exactly integrable systems the general solutions of the Cauchy and Goursat problems are given in an explicit form, while for completely integrable systems an effective method for the construction of their soliton solutions is developed. Application of the developed methods to a differential geometry problem of classification of the integrable manifolds embeddings is discussed. For exactly integrable systems the supersymmetric extensions are constructed. By the example of the generalized Toda lattice a quantization scheme is developed. It includes an explicit derivation of the corresponding Heisenberg operators and their desription in terms of the quantum algebras of the Hopf type. Among multidimensional systems the four-dimensional self-dual Yang-Mills equations are investigated most attentively with a goal of constructing their general solutions

  6. Electric automobile: Commercialization prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1992-01-01

    Performance results during one-month test driving of a small FIAT car (normally equipped with a 30-45 Hp internal combustion engine), retrofitted to operate with a set of electric batteries delivering 15 Hp, demonstrated that, unless the design of an electric car's transmission and control systems are based completely on electric power operation, the vehicle loses its competitiveness with conventional cars. Making reference to the findings of an ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) electric powered vehicle R ampersand D program, this paper assesses the feasibility of electric powered vehicles and points out their major drawbacks: battery volume, weight, cost and recharging requirements in densely populated urban environments. The paper also notes that mass conversion to these vehicles by itself will not solve the urban traffic congestion problem for which optimum traffic control and parking areas are required

  7. Gravity Effects Observed In Partially Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Gauguly, Ranjan; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    Partially premixed flames (PPFs) contain a rich premixed fuel air mixture in a pocket or stream, and, for complete combustion to occur, they require the transport of oxidizer from an appropriately oxidizer-rich (or fuel-lean) mixture that is present in another pocket or stream. Partial oxidation reactions occur in fuel-rich portions of the mixture and any remaining unburned fuel and/or intermediate species are consumed in the oxidizer-rich portions. Partial premixing, therefore, represents that condition when the equivalence ratio (phi) in one portion of the flowfield is greater than unity, and in another section its value is less than unity. In general, for combustion to occur efficiently, the global equivalence ratio is in the range fuel-lean to stoichiometric. These flames can be established by design by placing a fuel-rich mixture in contact with a fuel-lean mixture, but they also occur otherwise in many practical systems, which include nonpremixed lifted flames, turbulent nonpremixed combustion, spray flames, and unwanted fires. Other practical applications of PPFs are reported elsewhere. Although extensive experimental studies have been conducted on premixed and nonpremixed flames under microgravity, there is a absence of previous experimental work on burner stabilized PPFs in this regard. Previous numerical studies by our group employing a detailed numerical model showed gravity effects to be significant on the PPF structure. We report on the results of microgravity experiments conducted on two-dimensional (established on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner) and axisymmetric flames (on a coannular burner) that were investigated in a self-contained multipurpose rig. Thermocouple and radiometer data were also used to characterize the thermal transport in the flame.

  8. Complete colonic duplication in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghnejad Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad Tabari, Nasibeh

    2012-01-01

    Complete colonic duplication is a very rare congenital anomaly that may have different presentations according to its location and size. Complete colonic duplication can occur in 15% of gastrointestinal duplication. We report two cases of complete colonic duplications, and their characteristics. We present two patients with complete colonic duplication with different types and presentations. Case 1: A 2- year old boy presented to the clinic with abdominal protrusion, difficulty to defecate, chronic constipation and mucosal prolaps covered bulging (rectocele) since he was 6 months old. The patient had palpable pelvic mass with doughy consistency. Rectal exam confirmed perirectal mass with soft consistency. The patient underwent a surgical operation that had total tubular colorectal duplication with one blind end and was treated with simple fenestration of distal end, and was discharged without complication. After two years follow up, he had normal defecation and good weight gain. Case 2: A 2 -day old infant was referred with imperforate anus and complete duplication of recto-sigmoid colon, diphallus, double bladder, and hypospadiasis. After clinical and paraclinical investigations, he underwent operations in several stages in different periods, and was discharged without complications. After four years follow up, he led a normal life. The patients with complete duplication have to be examined carefully because of the high incidence of other systemic anomalies. Treatment includes simple resection of distal common wall, fenestration, and repair other associated anomalies.

  9. REPORT FOR COMMERCIAL GRADE NICKEL CHARACTERIZATION AND BENCHMARKING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-12-20

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, has completed the collection, sample analysis, and review of analytical results to benchmark the concentrations of gross alpha-emitting radionuclides, gross beta-emitting radionuclides, and technetium-99 in commercial grade nickel. This report presents methods, change management, observations, and statistical analysis of materials procured from sellers representing nine countries on four continents. The data suggest there is a low probability of detecting alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in commercial nickel. Technetium-99 was not detected in any samples, thus suggesting it is not present in commercial nickel.

  10. Superconformal partial waves in Grassmannian field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doobary, Reza; Heslop, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-23

    We derive superconformal partial waves for all scalar four-point functions on a super Grassmannian space Gr(m|n,2m|2n) for all m,n. This family of four-point functions includes those of all (arbitrary weight) half BPS operators in both N=4 SYM (m=n=2) and in N=2 superconformal field theories in four dimensions (m=2,n=1) on analytic superspace. It also includes four-point functions of all (arbitrary dimension) scalar fields in non-supersymmetric conformal field theories (m=2,n=0) on Minkowski space, as well as those of a certain class of representations of the compact SU(2n) coset spaces. As an application we then specialise to N=4 SYM and use these results to perform a detailed superconformal partial wave analysis of the four-point functions of arbitrary weight half BPS operators. We discuss the non-trivial separation of protected and unprotected sectors for the 〈2222〉, 〈2233〉 and 〈3333〉 cases in an SU(N) gauge theory at finite N. The 〈2233〉 correlator predicts a non-trivial protected twist four sector for 〈3333〉 which we can completely determine using the knowledge that there is precisely one such protected twist four operator for each spin.

  11. Semi-bounded partial differential operators

    CERN Document Server

    Cialdea, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the conditions for the semi-boundedness of partial differential operators, which are interpreted in different ways. For example, today we know a great deal about L2-semibounded differential and pseudodifferential operators, although their complete characterization in analytic terms still poses difficulties, even for fairly simple operators. In contrast, until recently almost nothing was known about analytic characterizations of semi-boundedness for differential operators in other Hilbert function spaces and in Banach function spaces. This book works to address that gap. As such, various types of semi-boundedness are considered and a number of relevant conditions which are either necessary and sufficient or best possible in a certain sense are presented. The majority of the results reported on are the authors’ own contributions.

  12. Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2009-01-01

    "Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory" is a self-contained book divided into two parts: Part I is a coherent survey bringing together newly developed methods for solving PDEs. While some traditional techniques are presented, this part does not require thorough understanding of abstract theories or compact concepts. Well-selected worked examples and exercises shall guide the reader through the text. Part II provides an extensive exposition of the solitary waves theory. This part handles nonlinear evolution equations by methods such as Hirota’s bilinear method or the tanh-coth method. A self-contained treatment is presented to discuss complete integrability of a wide class of nonlinear equations. This part presents in an accessible manner a systematic presentation of solitons, multi-soliton solutions, kinks, peakons, cuspons, and compactons. While the whole book can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering, Part II w...

  13. Partial radiative capture of resonance neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samour, C.

    1969-01-01

    The radiative capture of resonance neutrons has been studied near the Saclay linac between 0.5 and 700 eV with time-of-flight method and a Ge(Li) detector. 195 Pt + n and 183 W + n allow the study of the distribution of partial radiative widths and their eventual correlation and also the variation of γ i > with E γ . The mean values of Ml and El transition intensities are compared in several tin isotopes. Interference effects, either between resonances or between direct capture and resonant capture are found in 195 Pt + n, 197 Au + n and 59 Co + n. The excited level schemes of a great deal of nuclei are obtained and compared with theoretical predictions. This study has been completed by an analysis of thermal spectrum. (author) [fr

  14. Prospective needs for decommissioning commercial nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Yasui, M.; Laraia, M.

    1992-01-01

    The answers to the questions: How many reactors will face the end of their operating lifetime over the next few decades? To what extent are the issues of decommissioning urgent? The answers will lead us to those issues that should be tackled now in order to complete smoothly the decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants. The prospective needs for decommissioning of nuclear power plants are illustrated from the viewpoint of reactor age, and some of the issues to be tackled, in particular by governments, in this century are discussed, to prepare for the future decommissioning activities. (author) 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  16. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  17. One bacterial cell, one complete genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Woyke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While the bulk of the finished microbial genomes sequenced to date are derived from cultured bacterial and archaeal representatives, the vast majority of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes from these environmental species. Single cell genomics is a novel culture-independent approach, which enables access to the genetic material of an individual cell. No single cell genome has to our knowledge been closed and finished to date. Here we report the completed genome from an uncultured single cell of Candidatus Sulcia muelleri DMIN. Digital PCR on single symbiont cells isolated from the bacteriome of the green sharpshooter Draeculacephala minerva bacteriome allowed us to assess that this bacteria is polyploid with genome copies ranging from approximately 200-900 per cell, making it a most suitable target for single cell finishing efforts. For single cell shotgun sequencing, an individual Sulcia cell was isolated and whole genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA. Sanger-based finishing methods allowed us to close the genome. To verify the correctness of our single cell genome and exclude MDA-derived artifacts, we independently shotgun sequenced and assembled the Sulcia genome from pooled bacteriomes using a metagenomic approach, yielding a nearly identical genome. Four variations we detected appear to be genuine biological differences between the two samples. Comparison of the single cell genome with bacteriome metagenomic sequence data detected two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, indicating extremely low genetic diversity within a Sulcia population. This study demonstrates the power of single cell genomics to generate a complete, high quality, non-composite reference genome within an environmental sample, which can be used for population genetic analyzes.

  18. One Bacterial Cell, One Complete Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Tighe, Damon; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lapidus, Alla; Wu, Dongying; McCutcheon, John P.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Moran, Nancy A.; Bristow, James; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2010-04-26

    While the bulk of the finished microbial genomes sequenced to date are derived from cultured bacterial and archaeal representatives, the vast majority of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes from these environmental species. Single cell genomics is a novel culture-independent approach, which enables access to the genetic material of an individual cell. No single cell genome has to our knowledge been closed and finished to date. Here we report the completed genome from an uncultured single cell of Candidatus Sulcia muelleri DMIN. Digital PCR on single symbiont cells isolated from the bacteriome of the green sharpshooter Draeculacephala minerva bacteriome allowed us to assess that this bacteria is polyploid with genome copies ranging from approximately 200?900 per cell, making it a most suitable target for single cell finishing efforts. For single cell shotgun sequencing, an individual Sulcia cell was isolated and whole genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA). Sanger-based finishing methods allowed us to close the genome. To verify the correctness of our single cell genome and exclude MDA-derived artifacts, we independently shotgun sequenced and assembled the Sulcia genome from pooled bacteriomes using a metagenomic approach, yielding a nearly identical genome. Four variations we detected appear to be genuine biological differences between the two samples. Comparison of the single cell genome with bacteriome metagenomic sequence data detected two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), indicating extremely low genetic diversity within a Sulcia population. This study demonstrates the power of single cell genomics to generate a complete, high quality, non-composite reference genome within an environmental sample, which can be used for population genetic analyzes.

  19. Intelligent driving in traffic systems with partial lane discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadi, Hamid; Emmerich, Heike

    2013-04-01

    It is a most common notion in traffic theory that driving in lanes and keeping lane changes to a minimum leads to smooth and laminar traffic flow, and hence to increased traffic capacity. On the other hand, there exist persistent vehicular traffic systems that are characterised by habitual disregarding of lane markings, and partial or complete loss of laminar traffic flow. Here, we explore the stability of such systems through a microscopic traffic flow model, where the degree of lane-discipline is taken as a variable, represented by the fraction of drivers that disregard lane markings completely. The results show that lane-free traffic may win over completely ordered traffic at high densities, and that partially ordered traffic leads to the poorest overall flow, while not considering the crash probability. Partial order in a lane-free system is similar to partial disorder in a lane-disciplined system in that both lead to decreased traffic capacity. This could explain the reason why standard enforcement methods, which rely on continuous increase of order, often fail to incur order to lane-free traffic systems. The results also provide an insight into the cooperative phenomena in open systems with self-driven particles.

  20. The strategic value of partial vertical integration

    OpenAIRE

    Fiocco, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the strategic incentives for partial vertical integration, namely, partial ownership agreements between manufacturers and retailers, when retailers privately know their costs and engage in differentiated good price competition. The partial misalignment between the profit objectives within a partially integrated manufacturer-retailer hierarchy entails a higher retail price than under full integration. This `information vertical effect' translates into an opposite ...

  1. 32 CFR 751.13 - Partial payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... voucher and all other information related to the partial payment shall be placed in the claim file. Action... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Partial payments. 751.13 Section 751.13 National... Claims Against the United States § 751.13 Partial payments. (a) Partial payments when hardship exists...

  2. Commercialization of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)

  3. Partial Defect Verification of Spent Fuel Assemblies by PDET: Principle and Field Testing in Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Y.S.; Kerr, P.; Sitaraman, S.; Swan, R. [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Rossa, R. [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Liljenfeldt, H. [SKB in Oskarshamn (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    The need for the development of a credible method and instrument for partial defect verification of spent fuel has been emphasized over a few decades in the safeguards communities as the diverted spent fuel pins can be the source of nuclear terrorism or devices. The need is increasingly more important and even urgent as many countries have started to transfer spent fuel to so called 'difficult-to-access' areas such as dry storage casks, reprocessing or geological repositories. Partial defect verification is required by IAEA before spent fuel is placed into 'difficult-to-access' areas. Earlier, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has reported the successful development of a new, credible partial defect verification method for pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies without use of operator data, and further reported the validation experiments using commercial spent fuel assemblies with some missing fuel pins. The method was found to be robust as the method is relatively invariant to the characteristic variations of spent fuel assemblies such as initial fuel enrichment, cooling time, and burn-up. Since then, the PDET system has been designed and prototyped for 17x17 PWR spent fuel assemblies, complete with data acquisition software and acquisition electronics. In this paper, a summary description of the PDET development followed by results of the first successful field testing using the integrated PDET system and actual spent fuel assemblies performed in a commercial spent fuel storage site, known as Central Interim Spent fuel Storage Facility (CLAB) in Sweden will be presented. In addition to partial defect detection initial studies have determined that the tool can be used to verify the operator declared average burnup of the assembly as well as intra-assembly burnup levels. (authors)

  4. The fate of completed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Francis T; Einstein, Gilles O

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this research was to determine whether and how people deactivate prospective memory (PM) intentions after they have been completed. One view proposes that PM intentions can be deactivated after completion, such that they no longer come to mind and interfere with current tasks. Another view is that now irrelevant completed PM intentions exhibit persisting activation, and continue to be retrieved. In Experiment 1, participants were given a PM intention embedded within the ongoing task during Phase 1, after which participants were told either that the PM task had been completed or suspended until later. During Phase 2, participants were instructed to perform only the ongoing task and were periodically prompted to report their thoughts. Critically, the PM targets from Phase 1 reappeared in Phase 2. All of our measures, including thoughts reported about the PM task, supported the existence of persisting activation. In Experiment 2, we varied conditions that were expected to mitigate persisting activation. Despite our best attempts to promote deactivation, we found evidence for the persistence of spontaneous retrieval in all groups after intentions were completed. The theoretical and practical implications of this potential dark side to spontaneous retrieval are discussed.

  5. Mathematical constraint on functions with continuous second partial derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franson, J D

    2012-01-01

    A new integral identity for functions with continuous second partial derivatives is derived. It is shown that the value of any function f(r, t) at position r and time t is completely determined by its previous values at all other locations r′ and retarded times t′ ⩽ t, provided that the function vanishes at infinity and has continuous second partial derivatives. Functions of this kind occur in many areas of physics and it seems somewhat surprising that they are constrained in this way. (paper)

  6. Complete Normal Ordering 1: Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Skliros, Dimitri P.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to `complete normal order' the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all `cephalopod' Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of `complete normal ordering' (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering) reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative i...

  7. Removable partial dentures: clinical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, David M

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review of the traditional clinical concepts for the design and fabrication of removable partial dentures (RPDs). Although classic theories and rules for RPD designs have been presented and should be followed, excellent clinical care for partially edentulous patients may also be achieved with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and unique blended designs. These nontraditional RPD designs and fabrication methods provide for improved fit, function, and esthetics by using computer-aided design software, composite resin for contours and morphology of abutment teeth, metal support structures for long edentulous spans and collapsed occlusal vertical dimensions, and flexible, nylon thermoplastic material for metal-supported clasp assemblies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Partial scram incident in FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usha, S.; Pillai, C.P.; Muralikrishna, G.

    1989-01-01

    Evaluation of a partial scram incident occurred at the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam was carried out. Based on the observations of the experiments it was ascertained that the nonpersistant order was due to superimposed noise component on the channel that was close to the threshold and had resulted in intermittent supply to electro-magnetic (EM) coils. Owing to a larger discharge time and a smaller charge time, the EM coils got progressively discharged. It was confirmed that during the incident, partial scram took place since the charging and discharging patterns of the EM coils are dissimilar and EM coils of rods A, E and F had discharged faster than others for noise component of a particular duty cycle. However, nonlatching of scram order was because of the fact that noise pulse duration was less than latching time. (author)

  9. The marketing of partial hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, P; Brown, E; Kiser, L; Pruitt, D

    1987-09-01

    Health-care professionals are currently operating in the context of a rapidly changing health-care delivery system, including the move away from inpatient services to outpatient services in order to control costs. Those who practice in partial-hospital settings are in a position to offer effective, cost-efficient services; however, there continue to be obstacles which hinder appropriate utilization of the modality. The development and use of a well-designed marketing plan is one strategy for removing these obstacles. This paper presents a brief overview of the marketing process, ideas for developing a marketing plan, and several examples of specific marketing strategies as well as ways to monitor their effectiveness. Partial-hospital providers must take an active role in answering the calls for alternative sources of psychiatric care. A comprehensive, education-oriented marketing approach will increase the public's awareness of such alternatives and enable programs to survive in a competitive environment.

  10. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Borthwick, David

    2016-01-01

    This modern take on partial differential equations does not require knowledge beyond vector calculus and linear algebra. The author focuses on the most important classical partial differential equations, including conservation equations and their characteristics, the wave equation, the heat equation, function spaces, and Fourier series, drawing on tools from analysis only as they arise.Within each section the author creates a narrative that answers the five questions: (1) What is the scientific problem we are trying to understand? (2) How do we model that with PDE? (3) What techniques can we use to analyze the PDE? (4) How do those techniques apply to this equation? (5) What information or insight did we obtain by developing and analyzing the PDE? The text stresses the interplay between modeling and mathematical analysis, providing a thorough source of problems and an inspiration for the development of methods.

  11. Dynamics of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wayne, C Eugene

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on the dynamics of partial differential equations that deal with closely related topics but can be read independently. Wayne reviews recent results on the global dynamics of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. This system exhibits stable vortex solutions: the topic of Wayne's contribution is how solutions that start from arbitrary initial conditions evolve towards stable vortices. Weinstein considers the dynamics of localized states in nonlinear Schrodinger and Gross-Pitaevskii equations that describe many optical and quantum systems. In this contribution, Weinstein reviews recent bifurcations results of solitary waves, their linear and nonlinear stability properties, and results about radiation damping where waves lose energy through radiation.   The articles, written independently, are combined into one volume to showcase the tools of dynamical systems theory at work in explaining qualitative phenomena associated with two classes of partial differential equ...

  12. Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Ghintran

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.

  13. Phenolic Analysis and Theoretic Design for Chinese Commercial Wines' Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Yu; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2018-01-01

    To develop a robust tool for Chinese commercial wines' varietal, regional, and vintage authentication, phenolic compounds in 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines were detected and quantified by using high-performance liquid chromatography triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-QqQ-MS/MS), and differentiation abilities of principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were compared. Better than PCA and PLS-DA, OPLS-DA models used to differentiate wines according to their varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon or other varieties), regions (east or west Cabernet Sauvignon wines), and vintages (young or old Cabernet Sauvignon wines) were ideally established. The S-plot provided in OPLS-DA models showed the key phenolic compounds which were both statistically and biochemically significant in sample differentiation. Besides, the potential of the OPLS-DA models in deeper sample differentiating of more detailed regional and vintage information of wines was proved optimistic. On the basis of our results, a promising theoretic design for wine authentication was further proposed for the first time, which might be helpful in practical authentication of more commercial wines. The phenolic data of 121 Chinese commercial dry red wines was processed with different statistical tools for varietal, regional, and vintage differentiation. A promising theoretical design was summarized, which might be helpful for wine authentication in practical situation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Partial dependency parsing for Irish

    OpenAIRE

    Uí Dhonnchadha, Elaine; van Genabith, Josef

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a partial dependency parser for Irish, in which Constraint Grammar (CG) rules are used to annotate dependency relations and grammatical functions in unrestricted Irish text. Chunking is performed using a regular-expression grammar which operates on the dependency tagged sentences. As this is the first implementation of a parser for unrestricted Irish text (to our knowledge), there were no guidelines or precedents available. Therefore deciding what constitutes a syntac...

  15. Matching games with partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, Paolo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual “satisfactions”. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized Marriage Problem, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers’ information makes firms to enhance the quality of their products in a competitive market.

  16. Public-Interest Benefit Evaluation of Partial- Upgrading Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kent Fellows

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60 per cent of Alberta’s oil sands production is non-upgraded bitumen which, after being mixed with a diluting agent (diluent to allow transport, is exported. A popular view within Alberta — and particularly among Albertan politicians — is that a much larger share of oil sands bitumen should be upgraded in the province. However, without public subsidies or government underwriting, it is uneconomic to build and operate new facilities in Alberta to fully upgrade the bitumen into synthetic crude oil. But there are new partial upgrading technologies being developed that, subject to successful testing at a larger (commercial pilot scale, can prove to be not only economic in Alberta, but also generate large social and economic benefits for the province. The advantages include a much smaller capital investment, a significant increase in the value of the product and market for the product and, even more importantly, a dramatic reduction in the need for large amounts of expensive diluent to transport the product to market. Indeed, the only diluent required will be that to move the bitumen from the production site to the partial upgrader and this can be continually recycled. The market for the synthetic crude oil produced by full upgrading is only getting tougher. Any Alberta bitumen fully upgraded here would compete closely with the rapidly expanding supply of light U.S. unconventional oil. Partial upgrading does not upgrade bitumen to a light crude, but to something resembling more of a medium or heavy crude, and at a lower cost per barrel than full upgrading. Unlike in the increasingly crowded light-crude market, the Alberta Royalty Review Advisory Panel recognized that currently there are gaps in several North American refineries that could be filled by this partially upgraded Alberta oil. A partial upgrader serving that less-competitive market not only appears to hold the potential for investors to make attractive returns in the

  17. Partial Word Knowledge: Frontier Words in the L2 Mental Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareva, Alla

    2012-01-01

    The study set out to examine the partial word knowledge of native speakers, L2 advanced, and intermediate learners of English with regard to four word features from Richards' (1976) taxonomy of aspects describing what knowing a word entails. To capture partial familiarity, the participants completed in writing a test containing low and mid…

  18. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  19. Building the Commercial Education Professional Competency Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Araya-Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a complete description of the Commercial Education Professional Competency Profile that resulted from the curricular diagnosis of the Licenciatura en Educación Comercial , at the Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica.  The methodological strategy used relies on the principles of research on education. Upon expert validation, written questionnaires were applied to first-year students, students of the licenciatura, practicing professionals and employers. The objective was to describe a particular education situation. Data was analyzed according to two categories: intentions/principles and scope/development. The findings resulted in the characteristics of the Commercial Education professionals, i.e. characteristics related to the discipline, characteristics related to the administrative management of teaching, specific and general characteristics of education and pedagogy, and characteristics associated to human development. Based on those criteria, on the curricular requirements of the information sources and on the curricular perspectives of the Academic Unit, ideas were put into practice to build the competency profile. The ideas proposed comprise the curricular fundamentals of the educational project on which the profile is set out, which include the subject of the study program, the global competency or training goal, the generic competencies as cross-cutting approaches, as well as the –pedagogical and disciplinary− specific competencies. The specific competencies of the discipline are focused on four competency areas: document production, organizational support, technological resources and information management. (1 Translator’s Note: One-year post-Bachelor study program in Commercial Education.

  20. Cost-estimating for commercial digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keif, Malcolm G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current cost-estimating practices used in commercial digital printing. A research study was conducted to determine the use of cost-estimating in commercial digital printing companies. This study answers the questions: 1) What methods are currently being used to estimate digital printing? 2) What is the relationship between estimating and pricing digital printing? 3) To what extent, if at all, do digital printers use full-absorption, all-inclusive hourly rates for estimating? Three different digital printing models were identified: 1) Traditional print providers, who supplement their offset presswork with digital printing for short-run color and versioned commercial print; 2) "Low-touch" print providers, who leverage the power of the Internet to streamline business transactions with digital storefronts; 3) Marketing solutions providers, who see printing less as a discrete manufacturing process and more as a component of a complete marketing campaign. Each model approaches estimating differently. Understanding and predicting costs can be extremely beneficial. Establishing a reliable system to estimate those costs can be somewhat challenging though. Unquestionably, cost-estimating digital printing will increase in relevance in the years ahead, as margins tighten and cost knowledge becomes increasingly more critical.

  1. Land remote sensing commercialization: A status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, W. P.; Heacock, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The current offer by the United States Department of Commerce to transfer the U.S. land remote sensing program to the private sector is described. A Request for Proposals (RFP) was issued, soliciting offers from U.S. firms to provide a commercial land remote sensing satellite system. Proposals must address a complete system including satellite, communications, and ground data processing systems. Offerors are encouraged to propose to take over the Government LANDSAT system which consists of LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT D'. Also required in proposals are the market development procedures and plans to ensure that commercialization is feasible and the business will become self-supporting at the earliest possible time. As a matter of Federal Policy, the solicitation is designed to protect both national security and foreign policy considerations. In keeping with these concerns, an offeror must be a U.S. Firm. Requirements for data quality, quantity, distribution and delivery are met by current operational procedures. It is the Government's desire that the Offeror be prepared to develop and operate follow-on systems without Government subsidies. However, to facilitate rapid commercialization, an offeror may elect to include in his proposal mechanisms for short term government financial assistance.

  2. Structural Completeness in Fuzzy Logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Metcalfe, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2009), s. 153-183 ISSN 0029-4527 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : structral logics * fuzzy logics * structural completeness * admissible rules * primitive variety * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Quantum space and quantum completeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurić, Tajron

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the question whether quantum gravity can "smear out" the classical singularity we analyze a certain quantum space and its quantum-mechanical completeness. Classical singularity is understood as a geodesic incompleteness, while quantum completeness requires a unique unitary time evolution for test fields propagating on an underlying background. Here the crucial point is that quantum completeness renders the Hamiltonian (or spatial part of the wave operator) to be essentially self-adjoint in order to generate a unique time evolution. We examine a model of quantum space which consists of a noncommutative BTZ black hole probed by a test scalar field. We show that the quantum gravity (noncommutative) effect is to enlarge the domain of BTZ parameters for which the relevant wave operator is essentially self-adjoint. This means that the corresponding quantum space is quantum complete for a larger range of BTZ parameters rendering the conclusion that in the quantum space one observes the effect of "smearing out" the singularity.

  4. Program Costs and Student Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Terri M.; Crosta, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to increase completion rates, prepare students for the workplace, and contain costs. Colleges need to know the financial implications of what are often perceived as routine decisions: course scheduling, program offerings, and the provision of support services. This chapter presents a methodology for estimating…

  5. Completely integrable operator evolutionary equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1979-01-01

    The authors present natural generalizations of classical completely integrable equations where the functions are replaced by arbitrary operators. Among these equations are the non-linear Schroedinger, the Korteweg-de Vries, and the modified KdV equations. The Lax representation and the Baecklund transformations are presented. (Auth.)

  6. Globals of Completely Regular Monoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qian-qian; Gan Ai-ping; Du Xian-kun

    2015-01-01

    An element of a semigroup S is called irreducible if it cannot be expressed as a product of two elements in S both distinct from itself. In this paper we show that the class C of all completely regular monoids with irreducible identity elements satisfies the strong isomorphism property and so it is globally determined.

  7. Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daims, Holger; Lebedeva, Elena V.; Pjevac, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia via nitrite to nitrate, has always been considered to be a two-step process catalysed by chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms oxidizing either ammonia or nitrite. No known nitrifier carries out both steps, although complete nitrification should be energetic...

  8. The Completeness Theorem of Godel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GENERAL I ARTICLE. The Completeness Theorem of Godel. 2. Henkin's Proof for First Order Logic. S M Srivastava is with the. Indian Statistical,. Institute, Calcutta. He received his PhD from the Indian Statistical. Institute in 1980. His research interests are in descriptive set theory. I Part 1. An Introduction to Math- ematical ...

  9. Spring valve for well completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatov, P T

    1966-07-22

    A spring-loaded valve for well completion consists of a housing with a spring-loaded closing element. In order to protect the closing element from corrosion which might lower the pressure drop, the closing element is made in the form of a piston. It is tightly connected with sealing elements. The housing has orifices, overlapping the piston in the initial position.

  10. Largest particle detector nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

  11. YB0 SERVICES INSTALLATION COMPLETED

    CERN Document Server

    The beauty of the completed YB0 was briefly visible at P5 as preparations continue for Tracker installation. A tremendous effort, lasting 7 months and involving more than 100 workers on the busiest days, resulted in 5700 electrical cables, 780 optical cables with 65k fibre channels, and 550 pipes laid on YB0 for HB, EB and Tracker.

  12. Molecular characterization of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates from commercial chickens in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourbakhsh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been reported from commercial chicken farms in different provinces of Iran. In some reports the phylogenetic analysis of MS isolates based on 16S rRNA and variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin (vlhA genes have been carried out. The PCR product containing partial 16S rRNA genes of Iranain isolates was sequenced, and compared with 16S rRNA gene of MS sequences which were available in GenBank. Variations, polymorphisms, and differences between nucleotides of all isolates were observed. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that all MS isolates from Iran were most closely related to sequences of MS from Brazil. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal end of the hemagglutinin encoding gene vlhA were also used as an alternative for the detection and initial typing of field strains of MS in commercial poultry. The results showed that there was a complete concordance between all Iranian isolates nucleotide sequence and the 5́-vlhA region sequence remained unchanged in all MS isolates and demonstrated differentiation between Iranian isolates and live commercial MS-H vaccine strain. More recently, the single-copy domain of the conserved region of vlhA gene in MS was sequenced, analyzed and verified to type MS field isolates in Iran and live vaccine MS-H strain. In addition, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method was established based on single nucleotide polymorphism that existed in all field isolates of Iran to differentiate between these field isolates and MS-H. This PCR-RFLP method allowed differentiating all MS field isolates from the vaccine strain.

  13. Partial replacement of commercial soybean meal with raw, full-fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammo Mengesha Erdaw

    2016-12-21

    Dec 21, 2016 ... Dical= dicalcium; Choline Cl= Choline Cloride; TiO2= titanium dioxide. ..... Carbohydrases, protease, and phytase have an additive beneficial effect in ... Nutritional and health benefits of soy proteins. J. Agric. Food. Chem.

  14. This is Commercial Titan Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  15. Partial discharge testing of in-situ power cable accessories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orban, H. E.

    2002-07-01

    An overview of commercially available diagnostic methods for in-situ power cable accessories is given and relevant field experiences with these diagnostics are described. The discussion includes both PILC and polymeric insulated cables. Two major types of degradation are most frequently involved in cable systems. One is an overall condition caused by chemical aging and /or water treeing. Diagnostics for this type of aging include dissipation factor (loss angle), harmonic analysis, return voltage, isothermal relaxation current, dielectric response, or dc leakage current. The second type of degradation is discrete or incremental; condition assessment utilizes dissipation factor measurements or partial discharge (PD) level measurements. The focus in this paper is on PD diagnostics, especially off-line methods such as the 60 Hz test, the combined AC and VLF diagnostic, and the oscillating wave test system test. Among on-line diagnostics, ultrasonic detection of partial discharge and measurement of partial discharge by installing direct, capacitive or inductive couplers near cable accessories, are described. Overall, partial discharge detection and location in cable accessories is considered inadequate, since interpretation of results is difficult due to the number of variables involved. 28 refs., 1 tab.

  16. In vivo near real time imaging of oxygen partial pressures in the glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    of the transparent glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris), it is possible to measure near realtime oxygen partial pressure in vivo. We used a commercially-available digital single-lens reflex camera mounted with an optical long pass filter (II = 490 nm) and excited the phosphorescent dye in the microspheres inside...... the fish with externally-mounted blue light emitting diodes (lip = 470 nm) to image the oxygen partial pressure. This method makes it possible to investigate oxygen partial pressures in the vascular system and different tissues of fish without having to insert any probes into the animal. After injection...

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  18. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  20. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  2. Les entreprises commerciales (Commercial Enterprises).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace

    1979-01-01

    Examines the legal concept of "corporate body" in French and English law, as well as that of the "company," the "corporation," and the "society"; and discusses the manifestations of a dual legal heritage in commercial enterprises in Quebec. (AM)

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  4. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...

  5. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  6. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  7. Completeness in Hybrid Type Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Areces, Carlos; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    We show that basic hybridization (adding nominals and @ operators) makes it possible to give straightforward Henkin-style completeness proofs even when the modal logic being hybridized is higher-order. The key ideas are to add nominals as expressions of type t, and to extend to arbitrary types th......-style intensional models; we build, as simply as we can, hybrid logicover Henkin’s logic...

  8. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  9. Efficient Completion of Weighted Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Waldmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs with edge labels from a semiring. We present an algorithm that allows efficient execution of queries for existence and weights of paths, and allows updates of the graph: adding nodes and edges, and changing weights of existing edges. We apply this method in the construction of matchbound certificates for automatically proving termination of string rewriting. We re-implement the decomposition/completion algorithm of Endrullis et al. (2006 in our framework, and achieve comparable performance.

  10. Solving of some Problems with On-Line Mode Measurement of Partial Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Zalis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems discussing the transition from off-line diagnostic methods to on-line ones. Based on the experience with commercial partial discharge measuring equipment a new digital system for the evaluation of partial discharge measurement including software and hardware facilities has been developed at the Czech Technical University in Prague. Two expert systems work in this complex evaluating system: a rule-based expert system performing an amplitude analysis of partial discharge impulses for determining the damage of the insulation system, and a neural network which is used for a phase analysis of partial discharge impulses to determine the kind of partial discharge activity. Problem of the elimination of disturbances is also discussed.

  11. Complete normal ordering 1: Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ellis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new prescription for quantising scalar field theories (in generic spacetime dimension and background perturbatively around a true minimum of the full quantum effective action, which is to ‘complete normal order’ the bare action of interest. When the true vacuum of the theory is located at zero field value, the key property of this prescription is the automatic cancellation, to any finite order in perturbation theory, of all tadpole and, more generally, all ‘cephalopod’ Feynman diagrams. The latter are connected diagrams that can be disconnected into two pieces by cutting one internal vertex, with either one or both pieces free from external lines. In addition, this procedure of ‘complete normal ordering’ (which is an extension of the standard field theory definition of normal ordering reduces by a substantial factor the number of Feynman diagrams to be calculated at any given loop order. We illustrate explicitly the complete normal ordering procedure and the cancellation of cephalopod diagrams in scalar field theories with non-derivative interactions, and by using a point splitting ‘trick’ we extend this result to theories with derivative interactions, such as those appearing as non-linear σ-models in the world-sheet formulation of string theory. We focus here on theories with trivial vacua, generalising the discussion to non-trivial vacua in a follow-up paper.

  12. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  13. Synchronizing Strategies under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Embedded devices usually share only partial information about their current configurations as the communication bandwidth can be restricted. Despite this, we may wish to bring a failed device into a given predetermined configuration. This problem, also known as resetting or synchronizing words, has...... been intensively studied for systems that do not provide any information about their configurations. In order to capture more general scenarios, we extend the existing theory of synchronizing words to synchronizing strategies, and study the synchronization, short-synchronization and subset...

  14. Laparoscopic Partial Hepatectomy: Animal Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiro Inoue

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available As a first step in firmly establishing laparoscopic hepatectomy, we introduce a porcine model of laparoscopic partial hepatectomy. This procedure has been successfully performed under the normal-pressure or low-pressure pneumoperitoneum condition supported by the full-thickness abdominal wall lifting technique. An ultrasonic dissector combined with electrocautery, newly developed by Olympus Optical Corporation (Japan was effectively utilized in facilitating safe and smooth incisions into the liver parenchyma. Although indications for this procedure seem to be limited only to peripheral lesions and not to central lesions, clinical application of this method may be useful for some patients in the near future.

  15. Evaluation of nicotine in tobacco-free-nicotine commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinghausen, Garrett; Lee, Jauh T; Weatherly, Choyce A; Lopez, Diego A; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a variety of new tobacco-free-nicotine, TFN, products have been commercialized as e-liquids. Tobacco-derived nicotine contains predominantly (S)-(-)-nicotine, whereas TFN products may not. The TFN products are said to be cleaner, purer substances, devoid of toxic components that come from the tobacco extraction process. A variety of commercial tobacco and TFN products were analyzed to identify the presence and composition of each nicotine enantiomer. A rapid and effective enantiomeric separation of nicotine has been developed using a modified macrocyclic glycopeptide bonded to superficially porous particles. The enantiomeric assay can be completed in nicotine, which is present in much greater quantities in commercial TFN products compared to commercial tobacco-derived products. Such studies are required by the FDA for new enantiomeric pharmacological products. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report of the gas-cooled reactor commercialization study completes the technical and cost evaluation portions of this study contract. A final report in December will update the status of the incentive analyses and the issues of commercialization. This study was designed to bring together potential industry participants (utilities and suppliers) to evaluate the commercial potential of the HTGR-SC and to build channels of communication among the participating organizations at the same time that technical, economic and institutional issues were being evaluated. RAMCO, Inc., in suggesting and using this study approach, believes its application extends to any commercialization problem involving multi-party involvement in high capital, intensive, high risk energy technologies

  17. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  18. Mobile Health Care: Towards a commercialization of research results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantas, D.; Bults, Richard G.A.; van Halteren, Aart; Wac, K.E.; Jones, Valerie M.; Widya, I.A.; Herzog, R.; Stormer, H.; Meier, A.; Schumacher, M.

    During the last fours years a consortium of universities, hospitals and commercial companies has been working together for the development of innovative systems and services for mobile health care. Two major projects were financed by the European Union allowed us to develop a complete mobile

  19. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts. Student Learning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction, West Palm Beach, FL.

    This student learning guide contains one module for completing a course in commercial foods and culinary arts. It is designed especially for use in secondary schools in Palm Beach County, Florida. The module covers one task, and consists of a purpose, performance objective, enabling objectives, learning activities keyed to resources, information…

  20. Complex partial seizures: cerebellar metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore, W.H.; Fishbein, D.; Deitz, M.; Baldwin, P.

    1987-07-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) with (/sup 18/F)2-deoxyglucose to study cerebellar glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) and the effect of phenytoin (PHT) in 42 patients with complex partial seizures (CPS), and 12 normal controls. Mean +/- SD patient LCMRglu was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mg glucose/100 g/min (left = right), significantly lower than control values of 8.5 +/- 1.8 (left, p less than 0.006), and 8.3 +/- 1.6 (right, p less than 0.02). Only four patients had cerebellar atrophy on CT/MRI; cerebellar LCMRglu in these was 5.5 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.054 vs. total patient sample). Patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism or EEG foci did not have lateralized cerebellar hypometabolism. Patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) at the time of scan and patients with less than 5 years total PHT exposure had lower LCMRglu, but the differences were not significant. There were weak inverse correlations between PHT level and cerebellar LCMRglu in patients receiving PHT (r = -0.36; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1), as well as between length of illness and LCMRglu (r = -0.22; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Patients with complex partial seizures have cerebellar hypometabolism that is bilateral and due only in part to the effect of PHT.

  1. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    , President Bush told the Congress that he plans to propose legislation for a new, more effective Clean Air Act, which will include a plan to reduce, by a specific date, the emissions that cause acid rain. DOE experienced difficulties in negotiating cooperative agreements with round-one project sponsors, which delayed completing agreements for five projects and resulted in the termination of negotiations for three projects. One of the main problems was that project sponsors had difficulty in completing financial and other business arrangements to fund their share of project costs. Negotiations were also delayed because of (1) sponsors' reluctance to agree to repay the federal share of project costs should the technology become commercialized and (2) sponsors' and other project participants' reluctance to release proprietary data to DOE. Further, DOE headquarters review and approval process to ensure negotiation consistency added time to the agreement formalization process. Although DOE made changes for round two of the program, federal repayment requirements and proprietary data rights could continue to cause delays in completing agreements with project sponsors. Seven of the nine funded round-one projects are not progressing as planned because of equipment failure, delays in obtaining equipment, project financing problems, and delays in obtaining permits. DOE said it is too early to tell whether the slippage will affect the timing of the commercial availability of the clean coal technologies. The CCT program can play an important role in reducing emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. The new administration has indicated its commitment to full funding of the program. Enactment of legislation that prescribes stringent deadlines and/or reduced levels of emissions to control acid rain could affect the program's potential effectiveness by diverting investment from emerging clean coal technologies into available conventional technologies. On the other hand, enactment of

  2. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... used in connection with any business. (b) The use of government roads within park areas by commercial...

  3. Partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals with an industrial X-ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, Thorsten; Kruell, Andreas; Grohmann, Carsten; Schumacher, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated precise small laboratory animal irradiation sources are needed for basic cancer research and to meet this need expensive high precision radiation devices have been developed. To avoid such expenses a cost efficient way is presented to construct a device for partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals by adding specific components to an industrial X-ray tube. A custom made radiation field tube was added to an industrial 200 kV X-ray tube. A light field display as well as a monitor ionization chamber were implemented. The field size can rapidly be changed by individual inserts of MCP96 that are used for secondary collimation of the beam. Depth dose curves and cross sectional profiles were determined with the use of a custom made water phantom. More components like positioning lasers, a custom made treatment couch, and a commercial isoflurane anesthesia unit were added to complete the system. With the accessories described secondary small field sizes down to 10 by 10 mm 2 (secondary collimator size) could be achieved. The dosimetry of the beam was constructed like those for conventional stereotactical clinical linear accelerators. The water phantom created showed an accuracy of 1 mm and was well suited for all measurements. With the anesthesia unit attached to the custom made treatment couch the system is ideal for the radiation treatment of small laboratory animals like mice. It was feasible to shrink the field size of an industrial X-ray tube from whole animal irradiation to precise partial body irradiation of small laboratory animals. Even smaller secondary collimator sizes than 10 by 10 mm 2 are feasible with adequate secondary collimator inserts. Our custom made water phantom was well suited for the basic dosimetry of the X-ray tube.

  4. Theory of vortex flows in partially ionized magnetoplasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, D.; Shukla, P.K

    2004-06-07

    A complete theory for vortex flows in partially ionized magnetoplasmas is presented. Accurate analytical and numerical results are obtained concerning the structure of a Burger's vortex and a tripolar vortex. A novel type of rotating tripolar vortices with elliptic cores are found in the systems dominated by the convection in incompressible flows, but whose generation is triggered by the diffusive and compressible effects. Our vortex flow models successfully explain recent observations from laboratory magnetoplasmas and geophysical flows.

  5. Decontamination and partial dismantling of the Eurochemic plant. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.; Geens, L.; Hild, W.; Klonk, W.

    1980-09-01

    A description is given of the partial dismantling of the dissolver used for fuel elements of up to 1.6 wt % 235 U enrichment, and of the total dismantling of the dissolver for highly enriched fuel elements. The corresponding head-end cells have been decontaminated, allowing prolonged interventions, either in view of refurbishing or complete dismantling. An assessment of required manpower, dose commitments, material consumption, and waste production for all operations is given. (author)

  6. Quantized fields and operators on a partial inner product space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, J.

    1985-11-01

    We investigate the connection between the space OpV of all operators on a partial inner product space V and the weak sequential completion of the * algebra L + (Vsup(no.)) of all operators X such that Vsup(no.) is contained in D(X) intersection D(X*) and both X and its adjoint X* leave Vsup(no.) invariant. This connection gives a mathematical description of quantized fields in terms of elements of OpV. (author)

  7. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creugers, N H J; de Baat, C

    2009-11-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic tissue-supported dentures, dentures with cast metal frameworks en dentures with cast metal frameworks and (semi)precision attachments. Interrupted tooth arches,free-ending tooth arches, and a combination of interrupted as well as free-ending tooth arches can be restored using these dentures. Well-known disadvantages of removable partial dentures are problematic oral hygiene, negative influence on the remaining dentition and limited oral comfort. Due to the advanced possibilities of fixed tooth- or implant-supported partial dentures, whether or not free-ending, or tooth- as well as implant-supported partial dentures, the indication of removable partial dentures is restricted. Nevertheless, for the time being the demand for removable partial dentures is expected to continue.

  8. Abstract methods in partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    Detailed, self-contained treatment examines modern abstract methods in partial differential equations, especially abstract evolution equations. Suitable for graduate students with some previous exposure to classical partial differential equations. 1969 edition.

  9. Male patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Philip; Christiansen, Peter; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2012-01-01

    To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.......To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome....

  10. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of chicken anaemia virus obtained from backyard and commercial chickens in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwayelu, D O; Todd, D; Olaleye, O D

    2008-12-01

    This work reports the first molecular analysis study of chicken anaemia virus (CAV) in backyard chickens in Africa using molecular cloning and sequence analysis to characterize CAV strains obtained from commercial chickens and Nigerian backyard chickens. Partial VP1 gene sequences were determined for three CAVs from commercial chickens and for six CAV variants present in samples from a backyard chicken. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that the 6% and 4% nucleotide diversity obtained respectively for the commercial and backyard chicken strains translated to only 2% amino acid diversity for each breed. Overall, the amino acid composition of Nigerian CAVs was found to be highly conserved. Since the partial VP1 gene sequence of two backyard chicken cloned CAV strains (NGR/CI-8 and NGR/CI-9) were almost identical and evolutionarily closely related to the commercial chicken strains NGR-1, and NGR-4 and NGR-5, respectively, we concluded that CAV infections had crossed the farm boundary.

  11. Juvenile eye growth, when completed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Hans C; Christensen, Anders S; Fledelius, Christian

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test Sorsby's classical statement of axial eye growth as completed at the age of 13 years, with a view also to differentiating between basic eye growth and juvenile elongation associated with eventual refractive change towards myopia. METHODS: (i) A total of 160 healthy eyes close...... about age 13 as general limit found support from the cross-sectional data, which suggested stable emmetropic eye size from about 11-12 years, with an average apparently outgrown male emmetropic value of 23.5 mm versus females' 22.9 mm. The longitudinal data, however, showed emmetropic growth also beyond...

  12. Projective modules and complete intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Satya

    1997-01-01

    In these notes on "Projective Modules and Complete Intersections" an account on the recent developments in research on this subject is presented. The author's preference for the technique of Patching isotopic isomorphisms due to Quillen, formalized by Plumsted, over the techniques of elementary matrices is evident here. The treatment of Basic Element theory here incorporates Plumstead's idea of the "generalized dimension functions". These notes are highly selfcontained and should be accessible to any graduate student in commutative algebra or algebraic geometry. They include fully self-contained presentations of the theorems of Ferrand-Szpiro, Cowsik-Nori and the techniques of Lindel.

  13. Kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol over a Fe-Mo catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic steady-state kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over a commercial Fe-Mo catalyst has been studied experimentally in a differentially operated reactor at temperatures of 230–260 °C, over a wide range of methanol and oxygen concentrations. The principal

  14. Kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol over a Fe-Mo catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic steady-state kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over a commercial Fe-Mo catalyst has been studied experimentally in a differentially operated reactor at temperatures of 230¿260 °C, over a wide range of methanol and oxygen concentrations. The principal

  15. PARALLEL SOLUTION METHODS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan KARABULUT

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Partial differential equations arise in almost all fields of science and engineering. Computer time spent in solving partial differential equations is much more than that of in any other problem class. For this reason, partial differential equations are suitable to be solved on parallel computers that offer great computation power. In this study, parallel solution to partial differential equations with Jacobi, Gauss-Siedel, SOR (Succesive OverRelaxation and SSOR (Symmetric SOR algorithms is studied.

  16. Completion of a fractal structure | Gálvez-Rodríguez | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metrization, and there is a strong relationship between these two concepts. In this paper we give a construction of a completion of a fractal structure by using inverse limits of a sequence of partially ordered sets. This completion extents nicely all the ...

  17. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  18. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  19. Completion of the TRT Barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    Gagnon, P

    On February 3, the US-TRT team proudly completed the installation of the 96th barrel TRT module on its support structure in the SR building at CERN. This happy event came after many years of R&D initiated in the nineties by the TA1 team at CERN, followed by the construction of the modules in three American institutes (Duke, Hampton and Indiana Universities) from 1996 to 2003. In total, the 96 barrel modules contain 52544 kapton straws, each 4 mm in diameter and strung with a 30 micron gold-plated tungsten wire. Each wire was manually inserted, a feat in itself! The inner layer modules contain 329 straws, the middle layer modules have 520 straws and the outer layer, 793 straws. Thirty- two modules of each type form a full layer. Their special geometry was designed such as to leave no dead region. On average, a particle will cross 36 straws. Kirill Egorov, Chuck Mahlon and John Callahan inserted the last module in the Barrel Support Structure. After completion in the US, all modules were transferred...

  20. LHCf completes its first run

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    LHCf, one of the three smaller experiments at the LHC, has completed its first run. The detectors were removed last week and the analysis of data is continuing. The first results will be ready by the end of the year.   One of the two LHCf detectors during the removal operations inside the LHC tunnel. LHCf is made up of two independent detectors located in the tunnel 140 m either side of the ATLAS collision point. The experiment studies the secondary particles created during the head-on collisions in the LHC because they are similar to those created in a cosmic ray shower produced when a cosmic particle hits the Earth’s atmosphere. The focus of the experiment is to compare the various shower models used to estimate the primary energy of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The energy of proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be equivalent to a cosmic ray of 1017eV hitting the atmosphere, very close to the highest energies observed in the sky. “We have now completed the fir...

  1. SPS completes LS1 activities

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    On 27 June, the SPS closed its doors to the LS1 engineers, bringing to an end almost 17 months of activities. The machine now enters the hardware-testing phase in preparation for an October restart.   Photo 1: The SPS transfer tunnel, TT10, reinforced with steal beams. Having completed their LS1 activities right on schedule (to the day!), the SPS team is now preparing the machine for its restart. Over the next eight weeks, hardware tests of the SPS dipole and quadrupole power converters will be underway, led by the TE-EPC (Electrical Power Converters) team. "OP start-up test activities will also be running in parallel, utilising the off hours when EPC is not using the machine," says David McFarlane, the SPS technical coordinator from the Engineering Department. "The primary beam testing phase will start at the beginning of September, once hardware tests and DSO safety tests have been completed." It has been a long journey to this point, with several major...

  2. AEgIS installation completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Gravity. Despite first being described over three centuries ago, it remains one of the least understood of the fundamental forces explored by physicists. At CERN’s recently completed AEgIS experiment, a team has set out to examine the effect of gravity on an as-yet-uncharted realm: antimatter.   The complete AEgIS set-up. Located in the AD hall, the AEgIS experiment plans to  make the first direct measurement of Earth’s gravitation effect on antimatter. By sending a beam of antihydrogen atoms through very thin gratings, the experiment will be able to measure how far the antihydrogen atoms fall and in how much time – giving the AEgIS team a measurement of the gravitational coupling. “By the end of 2012, we had finished by putting all the elements of the experiment together,” explains Michael Doser, AEgIS Spokesperson. “Now we have to show that they can all work together and, unfortunately, we will have no antiproton beams fo...

  3. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Baat, C. de

    2009-01-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic

  4. [Conventional retaining of removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keltjens, H.M.A.M.; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical and biological criteria have to be met in retaining the metal frame of a removable partial denture. Additionally, a removable partial denture is part of the occlusal interface by the clasps and the denture teeth. With respect to mechanical aspects, all rigid parts of the removable partial

  5. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  6. BEYOND THE COMMERCIAL VERSUS SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP DICHOTOMY: A CASE STUDY OF INFORMAL ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    COLIN C. WILLIAMS; SARA NADIN

    2012-01-01

    Despite a widespread recognition in the mainstream entrepreneurship literature that many legitimate entrepreneurs do not pursue purely profit-driven commercial goals, the small but burgeoning literature on entrepreneurship in the informal economy has assumed entrepreneurs operating wholly or partially on an off-the-books basis are commercial rather than social entrepreneurs. To evaluate critically this assumption, evidence is reported from a survey involving face-to-face interviews with 70 in...

  7. Rapid Quantitative Analysis of Forest Biomass Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifty E. Acquah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared reflectance (FTIR spectroscopy has been used to predict properties of forest logging residue, a very heterogeneous feedstock material. Properties studied included the chemical composition, thermal reactivity, and energy content. The ability to rapidly determine these properties is vital in the optimization of conversion technologies for the successful commercialization of biobased products. Partial least squares regression of first derivative treated FTIR spectra had good correlations with the conventionally measured properties. For the chemical composition, constructed models generally did a better job of predicting the extractives and lignin content than the carbohydrates. In predicting the thermochemical properties, models for volatile matter and fixed carbon performed very well (i.e., R2 > 0.80, RPD > 2.0. The effect of reducing the wavenumber range to the fingerprint region for PLS modeling and the relationship between the chemical composition and higher heating value of logging residue were also explored. This study is new and different in that it is the first to use FTIR spectroscopy to quantitatively analyze forest logging residue, an abundant resource that can be used as a feedstock in the emerging low carbon economy. Furthermore, it provides a complete and systematic characterization of this heterogeneous raw material.

  8. Precipitation in partially stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the substructure of partially stabilized ZrO 2 (PSZ) samples, i.e., 2-phase systems containing both cubic and monoclinic modifications of zirconia, after various heat treatments. Monoclinic ZrO 2 exists as (1) isolated grains within the polycrystalline aggregate (a grain- boundary phase) and (2) small plate-like particles within cubic grains. These intragranular precipitates are believed to contribute to the useful properties of PSZ via a form of precipitation hardening. These precipitates initially form as tetragonal ZrO 2 , with a habit plane parallel to the brace 100 brace matrix planes. The orientation relations between the tetragonal precipitates and the cubic matrix are brace 100 brace/sub matrix/ 2 parallel brace 100 brace /sub precipitate/ or (001)/sub precipitate/ and broken bracket 100 broken bracket/sub matrix/ 2 parallel broken bracket 100 broken bracket/sub precipitate/ or [001]/sub precipitate/. (U.S.)

  9. Partially coherent isodiffracting pulsed beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, Matias; Ding, Chaoliang; Turunen, Jari; Pan, Liuzhan

    2018-02-01

    We investigate a class of isodiffracting pulsed beams, which are superpositions of transverse modes supported by spherical-mirror laser resonators. By employing modal weights that, for stationary light, produce a Gaussian Schell-model beam, we extend this standard model to pulsed beams. We first construct the two-frequency cross-spectral density function that characterizes the spatial coherence in the space-frequency domain. By assuming a power-exponential spectral profile, we then employ the generalized Wiener-Khintchine theorem for nonstationary light to derive the two-time mutual coherence function that describes the space-time coherence of the ensuing beams. The isodiffracting nature of the laser resonator modes permits all (paraxial-domain) calculations at any propagation distance to be performed analytically. Significant spatiotemporal coupling is revealed in subcycle, single-cycle, and few-cycle domains, where the partial spatial coherence also leads to reduced temporal coherence even though full spectral coherence is assumed.

  10. TidGen Power System Commercialization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, Christopher R. [President & CEO; McEntee, Jarlath [VP Engineering & CTO

    2013-12-30

    ORPC Maine, LLC, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company, LLC (collectively ORPC), submits this Final Technical Report for the TidGen® Power System Commercialization Project (Project), partially funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-EE0003647). The Project was built and operated in compliance with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) pilot project license (P-12711) and other permits and approvals needed for the Project. This report documents the methodologies, activities and results of the various phases of the Project, including design, engineering, procurement, assembly, installation, operation, licensing, environmental monitoring, retrieval, maintenance and repair. The Project represents a significant achievement for the renewable energy portfolio of the U.S. in general, and for the U.S. marine hydrokinetic (MHK) industry in particular. The stated Project goal was to advance, demonstrate and accelerate deployment and commercialization of ORPC’s tidal-current based hydrokinetic power generation system, including the energy extraction and conversion technology, associated power electronics, and interconnection equipment capable of reliably delivering electricity to the domestic power grid. ORPC achieved this goal by designing, building and operating the TidGen® Power System in 2012 and becoming the first federally licensed hydrokinetic tidal energy project to deliver electricity to a power grid under a power purchase agreement in North America. Located in Cobscook Bay between Eastport and Lubec, Maine, the TidGen® Power System was connected to the Bangor Hydro Electric utility grid at an on-shore station in North Lubec on September 13, 2012. ORPC obtained a FERC pilot project license for the Project on February 12, 2012 and the first Maine Department of Environmental Protection General Permit issued for a tidal energy project on January 31, 2012. In addition, ORPC entered into a 20-year agreement with Bangor Hydro Electric

  11. Is quantum theory predictably complete?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupczynski, M [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Ottawa, 585 King-Edward Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Departement de l' Informatique, UQO, Case postale 1250, succursale Hull, Gatineau, Quebec J8X 3X 7 (Canada)], E-mail: mkupczyn@uottawa.ca

    2009-07-15

    Quantum theory (QT) provides statistical predictions for various physical phenomena. To verify these predictions a considerable amount of data has been accumulated in the 'measurements' performed on the ensembles of identically prepared physical systems or in the repeated 'measurements' on some trapped 'individual physical systems'. The outcomes of these measurements are, in general, some numerical time series registered by some macroscopic instruments. The various empirical probability distributions extracted from these time series were shown to be consistent with the probabilistic predictions of QT. More than 70 years ago the claim was made that QT provided the most complete description of 'individual' physical systems and outcomes of the measurements performed on 'individual' physical systems were obtained in an intrinsically random way. Spin polarization correlation experiments (SPCEs), performed to test the validity of Bell inequalities, clearly demonstrated the existence of strong long-range correlations and confirmed that the beams hitting far away detectors somehow preserve the memory of their common source which would be destroyed if the individual counts of far away detectors were purely random. Since the probabilities describe the random experiments and are not the attributes of the 'individual' physical systems, the claim that QT provides a complete description of 'individual' physical systems seems not only unjustified but also misleading and counter productive. In this paper, we point out that we even do not know whether QT is predictably complete because it has not been tested carefully enough. Namely, it was not proven that the time series of existing experimental data did not contain some stochastic fine structures that could have been averaged out by describing them in terms of the empirical probability distributions. In this paper, we advocate various statistical tests that

  12. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  13. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  14. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  15. 76 FR 126 - Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial..., SDDC will require all commercial accounts accessing transportation systems and applications to use a commercial PKI certificate or Transportation Workers Identification Credential (TWIC). This requirement will...

  16. DAQ INSTALLATION IN USC COMPLETED

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Racz

    After one year of work at P5 in the underground control rooms (USC55-S1&S2), the DAQ installation in USC55 is completed. The first half of 2006 was dedicated to the DAQ infrastructures installation (private cable trays, rack equipment for a very dense cabling, connection to services i.e. water, power, network). The second half has been spent to install the custom made electronics (FRLs and FMMs) and place all the inter-rack cables/fibers connecting all sub-systems to central DAQ (more details are given in the internal pages). The installation has been carried out by DAQ group members, coming from the hardware and software side as well. The pictures show the very nice team spirit !

  17. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  18. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor

  19. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  20. Commercial IEC portable neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sved, J.

    1997-01-01

    The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion grade plasma devices are being developed as a commercial industrial product by Daimler-Benz Aerospace (DASA), Center Trauen, which has an exclusive license from the University of Illinois (UI) to manufacture the commercial implementation of the Miley et al. IEC inventions. DASA is funding the UI Fusion Studies Laboratory basic IEC research and the intellectual property protection process. The association of the DASA Space Infrastructure division with an apparently unrelated technology has arisen from the perception that IEC technology may benefit from certain aerospace technologies and eventually create a market for space infrastructure services. In addition, DASA Center Trauen has a number of environmental technology businesses

  1. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  2. Partial dynamical systems, fell bundles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Exel, Ruy

    2017-01-01

    Partial dynamical systems, originally developed as a tool to study algebras of operators in Hilbert spaces, has recently become an important branch of algebra. Its most powerful results allow for understanding structural properties of algebras, both in the purely algebraic and in the C*-contexts, in terms of the dynamical properties of certain systems which are often hiding behind algebraic structures. The first indication that the study of an algebra using partial dynamical systems may be helpful is the presence of a grading. While the usual theory of graded algebras often requires gradings to be saturated, the theory of partial dynamical systems is especially well suited to treat nonsaturated graded algebras which are in fact the source of the notion of "partiality". One of the main results of the book states that every graded algebra satisfying suitable conditions may be reconstructed from a partial dynamical system via a process called the partial crossed product. Running in parallel with partial dynamica...

  3. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Bruno; Clerice, Guilherme; Ramos, Caio; Andreoli, André; Baptista, Fabricio; Campos, Fernando; Ulson, José

    2016-08-10

    Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique.

  4. Partial Discharge Monitoring in Power Transformers Using Low-Cost Piezoelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Castro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are crucial in an electric power system. Failures in transformers can affect the quality and cause interruptions in the power supply. Partial discharges are a phenomenon that can cause failures in the transformers if not properly monitored. Typically, the monitoring requires high-cost corrective maintenance or even interruptions of the power system. Therefore, the development of online non-invasive monitoring systems to detect partial discharges in power transformers has great relevance since it can reduce significant maintenance costs. Although commercial acoustic emission sensors have been used to monitor partial discharges in power transformers, they still represent a significant cost. In order to overcome this drawback, this paper presents a study of the feasibility of low-cost piezoelectric sensors to identify partial discharges in mineral insulating oil of power transformers. The analysis of the feasibility of the proposed low-cost sensor is performed by its comparison with a commercial acoustic emission sensor commonly used to detect partial discharges. The comparison between the responses in the time and frequency domain of both sensors was carried out and the experimental results indicate that the proposed piezoelectric sensors have great potential in the detection of acoustic waves generated by partial discharges in insulation oil, contributing for the popularization of this noninvasive technique.

  5. A patient with de-novo partial deletion of Xp (p11.4-pter) and partial duplication of 22q (q11.2-qter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Christine M; McGowan-Jordan, Jean; Lawrence, Sarah E; Bouchard, Amélie; Basik, Mark; Allanson, Judith E

    2008-01-01

    We report on a girl with partial deletion of Xp and partial duplication of 22q. Family studies demonstrate that both the patient's mother and her nonidentical twin sister carry the corresponding balanced translocation; 46,X,t(X;22)(p11.4;q11.2). This girl has developmental delay, microcephaly, mild dysmorphisms and hearing loss but otherwise shows few of the features described in individuals with duplications of the long arm of chromosome 22. She does manifest characteristics, such as short stature and biochemical evidence of ovarian failure, which are seen in partial or complete Xp deletions and Turner's syndrome.

  6. 19 CFR 113.67 - Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.67 Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions. Commercial Gauger Bond Conditions (a) Commercial gauger bond...

  7. Hydraulic behaviour of a partially uncovered core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.; Hafner, W.

    1989-10-01

    A critical review of experimental data and theoretical models relevant to the thermohydraulic processes in a partially uncovered core has been performed. Presently available optimized thermohydraulic codes should be able to predict swell level elevations within an error band of ± 0.5 m. Rod temperature rising velocities could be predicted within an error bandwidth of ± 10%, provided the correct rod heat capacity is given. A general statement about the accuracy of predicted rod temperatures is not possible because the errors increase with simulation time. Highest errors are expected for long transients with low heating rates and low steam velocities. As a result, three areas for additional research are suggested: - a high-pressure test at 120 bar to complete the void correlation data base, - a low steam flow - low power experiment to improve heat transfer correlations, - a numerical investigation of three-dimensional effects in the reactor core with unequally heated rod bundles. For the present state of 1-dimensional experiments and models, suggestions for a satisfactory modeling have been derived. The suggested further work could improve the modelling capabilities and the code reliability for some limiting cases like high pressure boil-off, low-power long-term steam cooling, and unequal heating of neighbouring bundles considerably

  8. Epidemics in partially overlapped multiplex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Buono

    Full Text Available Many real networks exhibit a layered structure in which links in each layer reflect the function of nodes on different environments. These multiple types of links are usually represented by a multiplex network in which each layer has a different topology. In real-world networks, however, not all nodes are present on every layer. To generate a more realistic scenario, we use a generalized multiplex network and assume that only a fraction [Formula: see text] of the nodes are shared by the layers. We develop a theoretical framework for a branching process to describe the spread of an epidemic on these partially overlapped multiplex networks. This allows us to obtain the fraction of infected individuals as a function of the effective probability that the disease will be transmitted [Formula: see text]. We also theoretically determine the dependence of the epidemic threshold on the fraction [Formula: see text] of shared nodes in a system composed of two layers. We find that in the limit of [Formula: see text] the threshold is dominated by the layer with the smaller isolated threshold. Although a system of two completely isolated networks is nearly indistinguishable from a system of two networks that share just a few nodes, we find that the presence of these few shared nodes causes the epidemic threshold of the isolated network with the lower propagating capacity to change discontinuously and to acquire the threshold of the other network.

  9. Prospective study on laser-assisted laparascopic partial nephrectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Ronald; Hennig, Georg; Zilinberg, Katja; Khoder, Wael Y.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Developments in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) opened a demand for surgical tools compatible with laparoscopic manipulations to make laser assisted technique safe, feasible and reproducible. Warm ischemia and bleeding during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy place technical constraints on surgeons. Therefore it was the aim to develop a safe and effective laser assisted partial nephrectomy technique without need for ischemia. Patients and methods: A diode laser emitting light at 1318nm in cw mode was coupled into a bare fibre (core diameter 600 μm) thus able to transfer up to 100W to the tissue. After dry lab experience, a total of 10 patients suffering from kidney malformations underwent laparoscopic/retroperitoneoscopic partial nephrectomy. Clinically, postoperative renal function and serum c-reactive protein (CRP) were monitored. Laser induced coagulation depth and effects on resection margins were evaluated. Demographic, clinical and follow-up data are presented. Using a commercial available fibre guidance instrument for lanringeal intervention, the demands on an innovative laser fibre guidance instrument for the laser assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LLPN) are summarized. Results: Overall, all laparascopic intervention were succesfull and could be performed without conversion to open surgery. Mean operative time and mean blood loss were comparable to conventional open and laparascopic approaches. Laser assisted resection of the kidney tissue took max 15min. After extirpation of the tumours all patients showed clinical favourable outcome during follow up period. Tumour sizes were measured to be up 5cm in diameter. The depth of the coagulation on the removed tissue ranged between laser assisted coagulated after removal. The sealing of the surface was induced by a slightly larger coagulation margin, but could not measured so far. Based on this experiences a simple and easy to use instrument described serving also for suction and

  10. An overview of uranium industries in countries of completed market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is an important energy mineral and strategic resources, in countries of completed market economy, energy mineral exploration belongs to commercial mineral exploration. Because uranium exploration is higher in investment risk and rebound, the countries of completed market economy regulate uranium exploration by using laws, paying taxes and protecting environment. China will put the exploration of coal, oil and gas, uranium, oil shale, gas in coalbed in the first place in commercial mineral exploration. Therefore, it is quite necessary to understand uranium exploration industries in countries of completed market economy. (authors)

  11. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  12. The 14 Faces of Commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas

    The ultimate purpose of new product development is commercialization of the results. That is, creating returns for the investment. The authors investigate to what degree research published in Journal of Product Innovation Management has contributed to further our understanding of the concept...

  13. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  14. What Is Commercial Social Marketing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...

  15. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  16. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  17. Strategy development marketing commercial enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Shatalov D. S.; Hamidova O. M.

    2016-01-01

    in the scientific article the necessity of development and implementation of marketing strategies in the activity of any commercial enterprise, we give a meaningful description of the concept of «marketing strategy» and develop requirements for the selection strategy of trade enterprise.

  18. Commercialization of technology in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud Mohamad; Razali Hamzah

    2005-01-01

    Full text:The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), was officially established in 1972 (PUSPATI as it was known then) and has progressed leaps and bounds to become one of the country's leading research organization particularly in the field of nuclear science and technology. Primarily set up as a full fledge research and development entity with one of the initial aims was looking into the possibility of embarking in the generation of power via the use of nuclear technology as an alternative source of energy for the nation. MINTs role has somewhat changed in tandem with her stage of development and national priorities. In line with the Government's policy on sustainability and self-reliance and a drive to commercialize R and D findings, the R and D institutions are expected to be self sufficiency at 30% of institutional operating budget. MINT has embarked on the commercialization program since in 1987 even before the the policy was instituted. Unlike other corporate R and D institutions and universities which do have some liberty and flexibility in the management of the organizations, MINT as a full fledge government R and D institute faces a number of challenges in the commercialization exercise. The paper describes the technologies developed at MINT, our product and services, and challenges and limitations in commercializing our R and D endeavors. (Author)

  19. International agreements on commercial representation

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.

  20. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  1. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  2. Flaws in Commercial Reading Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Jerome

    Three flaws found in commercial reading materials, such as workbooks and kits, are discussed in this paper, and examples of the flaws are taken from specific materials. The first problem noted is that illustrations frequently provide the information that the learner is supposed to supply through phonetic or structural analysis; the illustrations…

  3. Commercial Art: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial art vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  4. ATLAS Magnet System Nearing Completion

    CERN Document Server

    ten Kate, H H J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is equipped with a superconducting magnet system that consists of a Barrel Toroid, two End-Cap Toroids and a Central Solenoid. The four magnets generate the magnetic field for the muon- and inner tracking detectors, respectively. After 10 years of construction in industry, integration and on-surface tests at CERN, the magnets are now in the underground cavern where they undergo the ultimate test before data taking in the detector can start during the course of next year. The system with outer dimensions of 25 m length and 22 m diameter is based on using conduction cooled aluminum stabilized NbTi conductors operating at 4.6 K and 20.5 kA maximum coil current with peak magnetic fields in the windings of 4.1 T and a system stored magnetic energy of 1.6 GJ. The Barrel Toroid and Central Solenoid were already successfully charged after installation to full current in autumn 2006. This year the system is completed with two End Cap Toroids. The ultimate test of...

  5. A complete history of everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanclos, Kyle; Deich, William T. S.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses Lick Observatory's local solution for retaining a complete history of everything. Leveraging our existing deployment of a publish/subscribe communications model that is used to broadcast the state of all systems at Lick Observatory, a monitoring daemon runs on a dedicated server that subscribes to and records all published messages. Our success with this system is a testament to the power of simple, straightforward approaches to complex problems. The solution itself is written in Python, and the initial version required about a week of development time; the data are stored in PostgreSQL database tables using a distinctly simple schema. Over time, we addressed scaling issues as the data set grew, which involved reworking the PostgreSQL database schema on the back-end. We also duplicate the data in flat files to enable recovery or migration of the data from one server to another. This paper will cover both the initial design as well as the solutions to the subsequent deployment issues, the trade-offs that motivated those choices, and the integration of this history database with existing client applications.

  6. Self Completeness of Einstein Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2010-01-01

    We argue, that in Einsteinian gravity the Planck length is the shortest length of nature, and any attempt of resolving trans-Planckian physics bounces back to macroscopic distances due to black hole formation. In Einstein gravity trans-Planckian propagating quantum degrees of freedom cannot exist, instead they are equivalent to the classical black holes that are fully described by lighter infra-red degrees of freedom and give exponentially-soft contribution into the virtual processes. Based on this property we argue that pure-Einstein (super)gravity and its high-dimensional generalizations are self-complete in deep-UV, but not in standard Wilsonian sense. We suggest that certain strong-coupling limit of string theory is built-in in pure Einstein gravity, whereas the role of weakly-coupled string theory limit is to consistently couple gravity to other particle species, with their number being set by the inverse string coupling. We also discuss some speculative ideas generalizing the notion of non-Wilsonian sel...

  7. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, F. [MDS Nordion International Inc. 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario K2k 1x8 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  8. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.

    1997-01-01

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  9. Commercial developments in food irradiation in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, F [MDS Nordion International Inc. 447 March Road, Kanata, Ontario K2k 1x8 (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The 1990 s mark significant progress in the commercialization of food irradiation in the USA. This progress is, to a large extent, the result of a long list of approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which started in earnest in 1986 by the approval of pork, fruits, vegetables, grains, enzymes and dry ingredients. With the establishment of the first dedicated food irradiator in Florida and the subsequent approval by FDA and USDA of fresh and frozen raw poultry, as well as the pending approvals of red meat and seafood, combine into a complete set of positive conditions for a successful commercial launch. (Author)

  10. Chinese Islam: A Complete Concert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvi Ben-Dor Benite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthew S. Erie, China and Islam: The Prophet, the Party, and Law. Cambridge University Press, 2016. 472 pp. $140 (cloth/e-book. Jonathan Lipman, ed., Islamic Thought in China: Sino-Muslim Intellectual Evolution from the 17th to the 20th Century. Edinburgh University Press, 2016. 288 pp. £70 (cloth; e-book. Roberta Tontini, Muslim Sanzijing: Shifts and Continuities in the Definition of Islam in China. Brill, 2016. 238 pp. $125 (cloth. Why study a Chinese “minority” and its history? The task of scholars of Chinese Islam since the 1990s has been twofold: on the one hand, we have wanted to study Islam in China in its Chinese social and cultural context, as opposed to imagining it as a single separate entity, and to show that its history is relevant and meaningful for Chinese history in general. One could almost say that this goal was achieved a while ago. The next task has been to make the study of Chinese Islam and its history meaningful and useful for the greater community of scholars of Islam in general. It seems to me that with the books reviewed here, and with others in the making, we are getting close to reaching this target. In 1910, Marshall Broomhall’s Islam in China declared that Chinese Islam was a “neglected problem.” These books show that it is no longer neglected, and no longer a “problem”; rather, it is an exciting topic. Indeed, a complete, even if not harmonious, concert.

  11. Use of commercial robotics in radioactive waste shipping and receiving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive waste shipping and receiving facilities presently planned for commercial and defense nuclear waste will handle waste packages at frequencies far in excess of those in common practice today. Unacceptable personnel exposure to ionizing radiation is projected to occur if current limits for radiation levels at the cask surface and current handling methods are used. To reduce these exposure levels, alternate handling methods are being developed and demonstrated. The production nature of cask receiving operations suggests commercial robotics be incorporated into a remote handling system to reduce predicted worker exposure to acceptable levels, while maintaining or increasing throughput. The first phase of cask handling system development culminated in a proof-of-principle test demonstrating the feasibility of performing cask receiving and unloading operations in a remote and partially automated manner. 6 refs., 12 figs

  12. Socio-economic Survey of Commercial Fishing Crew in the Northeast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's Social Sciences Branch (SSB) completed a survey of crew, including hired captains, participating in commercial fisheries in...

  13. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but...

  14. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish and...

  15. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use. 272.4 Section... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... charge, royalty charge, or payment in kind which is reasonably related to the commercial value has been...

  16. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has been...

  17. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It is...

  18. Impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on chewing efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    BESSADET, Marion; NICOLAS, Emmanuel; SOCHAT, Marine; HENNEQUIN, Martine; VEYRUNE, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Removable partial denture prostheses are still being used for anatomic, medical and economic reasons. However, the impact on chewing parameters is poorly described. Objectives The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on masticatory parameters. Material and Methods Nineteen removable partial denture prosthesis (RPDP) wearers participated in the study. Among them, 10 subjects were Kennedy Class III partially edentulous and 9 with posterior edentulism (Class I). All presented a complete and full dentate opposing arch. The subjects chewed samples of carrots and peanuts with and without their prosthesis. The granulometry of the expectorated boluses from carrot and peanuts was characterized by median particle size (D50), determined at the natural point of swallowing. Number of chewing cycles (CC), chewing time (CT) and chewing frequency (CF=CC/CT) were video recorded. Results With RPDP, the mean D50 values for carrot and peanuts were lower [Repeated Model Procedures (RMP), F=15, p<0.001] regardless of the type of Kennedy Class. For each food, mean CC, CT and CF values recorded decreased (RMP, F=18, F=9, and F=20 respectively, p<0.01). With or without RPD, the boluses' granulometry values were above the masticatory normative index (MNI) determined as 4,000 µm. Conclusion RPDP rehabilitation improves the ability to reduce the bolus particle size, but does not reestablish fully the masticatory function. Clinical relevance This study encourages the clinical improvement of oral rehabilitation procedure. PMID:24212983

  19. Constructing general partial differential equations using polynomial and neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zjavka, Ladislav; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-01-01

    Sum fraction terms can approximate multi-variable functions on the basis of discrete observations, replacing a partial differential equation definition with polynomial elementary data relation descriptions. Artificial neural networks commonly transform the weighted sum of inputs to describe overall similarity relationships of trained and new testing input patterns. Differential polynomial neural networks form a new class of neural networks, which construct and solve an unknown general partial differential equation of a function of interest with selected substitution relative terms using non-linear multi-variable composite polynomials. The layers of the network generate simple and composite relative substitution terms whose convergent series combinations can describe partial dependent derivative changes of the input variables. This regression is based on trained generalized partial derivative data relations, decomposed into a multi-layer polynomial network structure. The sigmoidal function, commonly used as a nonlinear activation of artificial neurons, may transform some polynomial items together with the parameters with the aim to improve the polynomial derivative term series ability to approximate complicated periodic functions, as simple low order polynomials are not able to fully make up for the complete cycles. The similarity analysis facilitates substitutions for differential equations or can form dimensional units from data samples to describe real-world problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Completely quantized collapse and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearle, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Promotion of quantum theory from a theory of measurement to a theory of reality requires an unambiguous specification of the ensemble of realizable states (and each state's probability of realization). Although not yet achieved within the framework of standard quantum theory, it has been achieved within the framework of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) wave-function collapse model. In CSL, a classical random field w(x,t) interacts with quantum particles. The state vector corresponding to each w(x,t) is a realizable state. In this paper, I consider a previously presented model, which is predictively equivalent to CSL. In this completely quantized collapse (CQC) model, the classical random field is quantized. It is represented by the operator W(x,t) which satisfies [W(x,t),W(x ' ,t ' )]=0. The ensemble of realizable states is described by a single state vector, the 'ensemble vector'. Each superposed state which comprises the ensemble vector at time t is the direct product of an eigenstate of W(x,t ' ), for all x and for 0≤t ' ≤t, and the CSL state corresponding to that eigenvalue. These states never interfere (they satisfy a superselection rule at any time), they only branch, so the ensemble vector may be considered to be, as Schroedinger put it, a 'catalog' of the realizable states. In this context, many different interpretations (e.g., many worlds, environmental decoherence, consistent histories, modal interpretation) may be satisfactorily applied. Using this description, a long-standing problem is resolved, where the energy comes from the particles gain due to the narrowing of their wave packets by the collapse mechanism. It is shown how to define the energy of the random field and its energy of interaction with particles so that total energy is conserved for the ensemble of realizable states. As a by-product, since the random-field energy spectrum is unbounded, its canonical conjugate, a self-adjoint time operator, can be discussed. Finally, CSL

  1. Field lysimeter facility for evaluating the performance of commercial solidified low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, M.B.; Graham, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Analyzing the potential migration of radionuclides from sites containing solid low-level wastes requires knowledge of contaminant concentrations in the soil solution surrounding the waste. This soil solution concentration is generally referred to as the source term and is determined by such factors as the concentration of radionuclides in the solid waste, the rate of leachate formation, the concentration of dissolved species in the leachate, any solubility reactions occurring when the leachate contacts the soil, and the rate of water flow in the soil surrounding the waste. A field lysimeter facility established at the Hanford site is being used to determine typical source terms in arid climates for commercial low-level wastes solidifed with cement, Dow polymer (vinyl ester-styrene), and bitumen. The field lysimeter facility consists of 10, 3-m-deep by 1.8-m-dia closed-bottom lysimeters situated around a 4-m-deep by 4-m-dia central instrument caisson. Commercial cement and Dow polymer waste samples were removed from 210-L drums and placed in 8 of the lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility's remaining 2 lysimeters during 1984. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste forms will be used to periodically collect soil-water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, soil moisture content, and soil temperature are automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle-size distribution, and distributions and concentrations of radionuclides in the waste forms. 11 references, 12 figures, 5 tables

  2. Partial differential equations of mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sobolev, S L

    1964-01-01

    Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics emphasizes the study of second-order partial differential equations of mathematical physics, which is deemed as the foundation of investigations into waves, heat conduction, hydrodynamics, and other physical problems. The book discusses in detail a wide spectrum of topics related to partial differential equations, such as the theories of sets and of Lebesgue integration, integral equations, Green's function, and the proof of the Fourier method. Theoretical physicists, experimental physicists, mathematicians engaged in pure and applied math

  3. [Removable partial dentures. Oral functions and types

    OpenAIRE

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Baat, C. de

    2009-01-01

    A removable partial denture enables the restoration or improvement of 4 oral functions: aesthetics, mandibular stability, mastication, and speech. However, wearing a removable partial denture should not cause oral comfort to deteriorate. There are 3 types of removable partial dentures: acrylic tissue-supported dentures, dentures with cast metal frameworks en dentures with cast metal frameworks and (semi)precision attachments. Interrupted tooth arches,free-ending tooth arches, and a combinatio...

  4. Partial vaginismus : definition, symptoms and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Engman, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Vaginismus is a sexual pain disorder, where spasm of musculature of the outer third of the vagina interferes with intercourse. Vaginismus exists in two forms: total vaginismus, where intercourse is impossible, and the more seldom described partial vaginismus, in which intercourse is possible but painful. The aim of the thesis was to develop a useful definition of partial vaginismus for both clinical and scientific purposes; to describe the prevalence of partial vaginismus among women with sup...

  5. Partial Evaluation of the Euclidian Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    1997-01-01

    -like behavior. Each of them presents a challenge for partial evaluation. The Euclidian algorithm is one of them, and in this article, we make it amenable to partial evaluation. We observe that the number of iterations in the Euclidian algorithm is bounded by a number that can be computed given either of the two...... arguments. We thus rephrase this algorithm using bounded recursion. The resulting program is better suited for automatic unfolding and thus for partial evaluation. Its specialization is efficient....

  6. Partial distance correlation with methods for dissimilarities

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation are scalar coefficients that characterize independence of random vectors in arbitrary dimension. Properties, extensions, and applications of distance correlation have been discussed in the recent literature, but the problem of defining the partial distance correlation has remained an open question of considerable interest. The problem of partial distance correlation is more complex than partial correlation partly because the squared distance covari...

  7. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  8. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  9. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  10. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  11. Comparative analysis of unilateral removable partial denture and classical removable partial denture by using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Various mobile devices are used in the therapy of unilateral free-end saddle. Unilateral dentures with precise connectivity elements are not used frequently. In this paper the problem of applying and functionality of unilateral freeend saddle denture without major connector was taken into consideration. Objective. The aim was to analyze and compare a unilateral RPD (removable partial denture and a classical RPD by calculating and analyzing stresses under different loads. Methods. 3D models of unilateral removable partial denture and classical removable partial denture with casted clasps were made by using computer program CATIA V5 (abutment teeth, canine and first premolar, with crowns and abutment tissues were also made. The models were built in full-scale. Stress analyses for both models were performed by applying a force of 300 N on the second premolar, a force of 500 N on the first molar and a force of 700 N on the second molar. Results. The Fault Model Extractor (FME analysis and calculation showed the complete behavior of unilateral removable partial denture and abutments (canine and first premolar, as well as the behavior of RPD under identical loading conditions. Applied forces with extreme values caused high stress levels on both models and their abutments within physiological limits. Conclusion. Having analyzed stresses under same conditions, we concluded that the unilateral RPD and classical RPD have similar physiological values.

  12. Competition and Commercial Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Andrea; Sobbrio, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on commercial media bias (i.e., advertisers influence over media accuracy) and then introduces a simple model to summarize the main elements of the theoretical literature. The analysis provides three main policy insights for media regulators: i) Media regulators should target their monitoring efforts towards news contents upon which advertisers are likely to share similar preferences; ii) In advertising industries characterized by high correlation in ...

  13. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  14. Recommender Systems in Commercial Use

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial recommender systems are deployed by marketing teams to increase revenue and/or personalize user experience. Marketers evaluate recommender systems not on its algorithms but on how well the vendor‘s expertise and interfaces will support achieving business goals. Driven by a business model that pays based on recommendation success, vendors guide clients through continuous optimization of recommendations. While recommender technology is mature, the solutions and market are still young...

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of an Avian Metapneumovirus Subtype A Strain Isolated from Chicken (Gallus gallus) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rizotto, La?s S.; Scagion, Guilherme P.; Cardoso, Tereza C.; Sim?o, Raphael M.; Caserta, Leonardo C.; Benassi, Julia C.; Keid, Lara B.; Oliveira, Tr?cia M. F. de S.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Arns, Clarice W.; Van Borm, Steven; Ferreira, Helena L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequence of an avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) isolated from a tracheal tissue sample of a commercial layer flock. The complete genome sequence of aMPV-A/chicken/Brazil-SP/669/2003 was obtained using MiSeq (Illumina, Inc.) sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome classified the isolate as avian metapneumovirus subtype A.

  16. Performance properties of commercial explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.N.; Mader, C.L.; Goldstein, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aquarium test is a proven means of obtaining nonidial performance property data for commercial blasting agents. Optical data on the detonation velocity, shock wave in water, and expansion rate of the pipe enclosing the detonation products (in combination with the equilibrium thermodynamic chemistry code BKW) give the C-J state and degree of chemical reaction at the detonation front, as well as information on additional chemical reaction that occurs as the detonation products expand. Specific explosive systems that are studied are ammonium nitrate-fuel oil mixture (ANFO), aluminized ANFO, flaked trinitrotoluene (TNT), and several other commercial products in 10-cm diam and 20-cm-diam pipes of Plexiglas and clay. Experimental shock-pressure data are obtained with lithium niobate transducers placed in the water surrounding the explosive charge. These data show that the addition of approx.100-..mu..m aluminum particles to ANFO significantly increases the initial peak shock pressure delivered to the surrounding medium. Peak shock pressures in the water, calculated from the shock-wave orientation, are also useful in comparing performance properties of various commercial explosives. 20 references, 17 figures, 2 tables.

  17. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  18. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  19. Prospects for commercial fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, S.O.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of issues associated with whether or not, and when, fusion will become commercial. One of the largest factors is cost of development. Development is being delayed by the need to work with other countries to share these costs. Other aspects have to do with the capital costs of the reactors themselves. The ITER reactor may cost 6-7 billion dollars, which is a sizeable investment for a test reactor. The safety and environmental aspects of fusion are other factors which have delayed commercialization. Public acceptance of this form of nuclear power and the licensing and regulatory procedures must be resolved before electric utilities are willing to invest heavily in fusion. The Department of Energy has developed a plan as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, wherein a first demonstration power plant will be operating around the year 2025. Much of the ongoing effort is directed toward reducing the size and cost of Tokamak reactors. While Tokamaks are not the only game in town, it is the primary thrust of the world effort and it is the technology which is expected to lead into the first generation of commercial fusion reactors

  20. Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasgow, Nathan [EdgePower Inc., Aspen, CO (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This report is the final technical report for the Department of Energy SunShot award number EE0007180 to EdgePower Inc., for the project entitled “Predictive Solar-Integrated Commercial Building Load Control.” The goal of this project was to successfully prove that the integration of solar forecasting and building load control can reduce demand charge costs for commercial building owners with solar PV. This proof of concept Tier 0 project demonstrated its value through a pilot project at a commercial building. This final report contains a summary of the work completed through he duration of the project. Clean Power Research was a sub-recipient on the award.