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Sample records for partially activated charcoal

  1. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common ...

  2. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provi......AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have...... kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h.......6--34.4). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that combination treatment may be no better than activated charcoal alone in patients presenting early after large overdoses. The effect of activated charcoal given 2 h post ingestion is substantially less than at 1 h, emphasizing the importance of early intervention....

  3. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C x F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH 4 F. The charcoal laden with NH 4 F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH 4 F as a mixture of NH 3 and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH 4 F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH 3 concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information, results of laboratory tests

  4. Passivation of fluorinated activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Simmons, D.W.; Williams, D.F.; Toth, L.M.

    1997-10-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969 when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N tanks at the reactor site. In 1995, a multiyear project was launched to remediate the potentially hazardous conditions generated by the movement of fissile material and reactive gases from the storage tanks into the piping system and an auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB). The top 12 in. of the ACB is known by gamma scan and thermal analysis to contain about 2.6 kg U-233. According to the laboratory tests, a few feet of fluorinated charcoal are believed to extend beyond the uranium front. The remainder of the ACB should consist of unreacted charcoal. Fluorinated charcoal, when subjected to rapid heating, can decompose generating gaseous products. Under confined conditions, the sudden exothermic decomposition can produce high temperatures and pressures of near-explosive characteristics. Since it will be necessary to drill and tap the ACB to allow installation of piping and instrumentation for remediation and recovery activities, it is necessary to chemically convert the reactive fluorinated charcoal into a more stable material. Ammonia can be administered to the ACB as a volatile denaturing agent that results in the conversion of the C{sub x}F to carbon and ammonium fluoride, NH{sub 4}F. The charcoal laden with NH{sub 4}F can then be heated without risking any sudden decomposition. The only consequence of heating the treated material will be the volatilization of NH{sub 4}F as a mixture of NH{sub 3} and HF, which would primarily recombine as NH{sub 4}F on surfaces below 200 C. The planned scheme for the ACB denaturing is to flow diluted ammonia gas in steps of increasing NH{sub 3} concentration, 2% to 50%, followed by the injection of pure ammonia. This report summarizes the planned passivation treatment scheme to stabilize the ACB and remove the potential hazards. It also includes basic information

  5. ACTIVATED CARBON (CHARCOAL OBTAINING . APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CIOFU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The activated carbon is a microporous sorbent with a very large adsorption area that can reach in some cases even 1500sqm / gram. Activated carbon is produced from any organic material with high carbon content: coal, wood, peat or moor coal, coconut shells. The granular activated charcoal is most commonly produced by grinding the raw material, adding a suitable binder to provide the desired hardness and shape. Enabling coal is a complete process through which the raw material is fully exposed to temperatures between 600-900 degrees C, in the absence of oxygen, usually in a domestic atmosphere as gases such as nitrogen or argon; as material that results from this process is exposed in an atmosphere of oxygen and steam at a temperature in the interval from 600 - 1200 degrees C.

  6. Charcoal Increases Microbial Activity in Eastern Sierra Nevada Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary W. Carter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire is an important component of forests in the western United States. Not only are forests subjected to wildfires, but fire is also an important management tool to reduce fuels loads. Charcoal, a product of fire, can have major impacts on carbon (C and nitrogen (N cycling in forest soils, but it is unclear how these effects vary by dominant vegetation. In this study, soils collected from Jeffrey pine (JP or lodgepole pine (LP dominated areas and amended with charcoal derived from JP or LP were incubated to assess the importance of charcoal on microbial respiration and potential nitrification. In addition, polyphenol sorption was measured in unamended and charcoal-amended soils. In general, microbial respiration was highest at the 1% and 2.5% charcoal additions, but charcoal amendment had limited effects on potential nitrification rates throughout the incubation. Microbial respiration rates decreased but potential nitrification rates increased over time across most treatments. Increased microbial respiration may have been caused by priming of native organic matter rather than the decomposition of charcoal itself. Charcoal had a larger stimulatory effect on microbial respiration in LP soils than JP soils. Charcoal type had little effect on microbial processes, but polyphenol sorption was higher on LP-derived than JP-derived charcoal at higher amendment levels despite surface area being similar for both charcoal types. The results from our study suggest that the presence of charcoal can increase microbial activity in soils, but the exact mechanisms are still unclear.

  7. Improving the palatability of activated charcoal in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2007-06-01

    To compare the taste preference and ease of swallowing of activated charcoal among healthy teenagers when mixed separately with 3 different additives: chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, and water. Healthy volunteers between 14 to 19 years of age were selected for the study. Five grams of activated charcoal (25 mL of 0.2 g/mL of Charcodote [Pharma Science, Montreal, Canada]) was mixed with 25 mL of chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, or water individually to make up 50 mL. The volunteers drank the 3 cups of the charcoal-additive mixture separately and then rated taste and ease of swallowing on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. The subjects then indicated their preferred charcoal-additive mixture if he/she had to drink 9 more portions of charcoal (this would estimate the dose of charcoal for a 50-kg child). A total of 44 subjects were recruited (25 boys and 19 girls). The mean scores for taste preference for chocolate milk, Coca-Cola, and water mixtures of charcoal were 5.5, 6.3, and 2.0, respectively, on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. Thus, subjects preferred the taste of charcoal mixed with chocolate milk or Coca-Cola over charcoal mixed with water (P = 0.0003 for both comparisons). The subjects did not show a statistically significant difference for ease of swallowing between the 3 charcoal-additive mixtures. Overall, 48% preferred the chocolate milk mixture, 45% preferred the Coca-Cola mixture, and 7% preferred charcoal mixed with water. Healthy teenaged subjects identified that activated charcoal (Charcodote) mixed with chocolate milk or Coca-Cola (in a 1:1 ratio) improved taste but had no significant effect on improving ease of swallowing. Overall, the addition of chocolate milk or coke improves the palatability of charcoal and is favored over charcoal mixed with water alone.

  8. Effect of service aging on iodine retention of activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1976-01-01

    The Savannah River reactor confinement systems are continuously operated offgas cleanup systems whose components include moisture separators, HEPA filters, and halogen adsorber beds of activated charcoal. Charcoal is removed from the system periodically and subjected to a variety of physical, chemical, and iodine penetration tests to ensure that the system will perform within specification in the event of an accidental release of activity from the reactor. Tests performed on the charcoals include pH measurement of water extracts, particle size distribution, ignition temperature, high-temperature (180 0 C) iodine penetration, and iodine penetration in an intense radiation field at high humidity. Charcoals used in the systems include carbon Types 416 (unimpregnated), G-615 (impregnated with 2 percent TEDA and 2 percent KI), and GX-176 (impregnated with 1 percent TEDA and 2 percent KI). Performance data are presented and compared

  9. Effect of humidity on thoron adsorption in activated charcoal bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudeep Kumara, K.; Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Sapra, B.K.; Sahoo, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Kanse, S.D.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2014-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a well-known adsorber of 222 Rn and 220 Rn gases. This property can be effectively used for remediation of these gases in the workplaces of uranium and thorium processing facilities. However, the adsorption on charcoal is sensitive to variation in temperature and humidity. The successful designing and characterization of adsorption systems require an adequate understanding of these sensitivities. The study has been carried out towards this end, to delineate the effect of relative humidity on the efficacy of 220 Rn mitigations in a charcoal bed. Air carrying 220 Rn from a Pylon source was passed through a column filled with coconut shell-based granular activated charcoal. The relative humidity of the air was controlled, and the transmission characteristics were examined at relative humidity varying from 45% to 60%. The mitigation factor was found to decrease significantly with an increase of humidity in the air. (author)

  10. Performance improvements on passive activated charcoal 222Rn samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Suxia

    1996-01-01

    Improvements have been made on passive activated charcoal 222 Rn samplers with sintered metal filters. Based on the samplers of good adaptability to temperature and humidity developed before, better charcoal was selected to further improve their performance in radon absorption ability and moisture-resistance. And charcoal quantity in samplers was strictly controlled. The integration time constant of the improved samplers was about 4.3 days. As the sampler was combined with gamma spectrometer to measure radon concentration, the calibration factor was 0.518 min -1 ·Bq -1 ·m 3 for samplers of 7 days exposure time, and the minimum detectable concentration 0.28 Bq·m -3 if counting time for both background and sample is 1000 minutes. The improved samplers are suited to accurately determine the indoor and outdoor average radon concentration under conditions of great variation in temperature and humidity

  11. The role of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Activated charcoal has a very fine network of pores with large inner surface area on which many substances can be adsorbed. Activated charcoal is often used in tissue culture to improve cell growth and development. It plays a critical role in micropropagation, orchid seed germination, somatic embryogenesis, anther culture, synthetic seed production, protoplast culture, rooting, stem elongation, bulb formation etc. The promotary effects of AC on morphogenesis may be mainly due to its irreversible adsorption of inhibitory compounds in the culture medium and substancially decreasing the toxic metabolites, phenolic exudation and brown exudate accumulation. In addition to this activated charcoal is involved in a number of stimulatory and inhibitory activities including the release of substances naturally present in AC which promote growth, alteration and darkening of culture media, and adsorption of vitamins, metal ions and plant growth regulators, including abscisic acid and gaseous ethylene. The effect of AC on growth regulator uptake is still unclear but some workers believe that AC may gradually release certain adsorbed products, such as nutrients and growth regulators which become available to plants. This review focuses on the various roles of activated charcoal in plant tissue culture and the recent developments in this area.

  12. Effect of activated charcoal, abscisic acid and polyethylene glycol on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Generation of horse chestnut somatic embryos is commonly achieved by transferring embryo- genic tissue onto an ABA, PEG and manitol-containing maturation media (Capuana and Deberg, 1997). Activated charcoal is commonly used in tissue culture media to darken the immediate media surroundings ...

  13. Dose Determination of Activated Charcoal in Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the doses of activated charcoal currently used in the management of acute amitriptyline-induced drug poisoning and explore the possibility of using lower doses. Methods: Albino male Wistar rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were used for the study. The animals were divided into four groups of eight animals ...

  14. Activated charcoal-alum-zeolite improve the water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saryati; Sutisna; Sumarjo; ZL, Wildan; Wahyuningsih; Suprapti, Siti

    2002-01-01

    The composite of charcoal-tawas-zeolite has been studied to improve a drinking water quality. This study was doing to find the optimum composition in preparation of a simple technology og bath and small volume drinking treatment this treatment consist of coagulation, floculation, precipitation, ion exchange and adsorption. The improvement of water quality has been observed from a turbidity, a permanganate number and a quality of Cu, Cd, Pb, Al ions and coli bactery containing in the water after processing. It has been concluded that the composite materials has an ability to decrease the turbidity more than its components. The starch addition in the composite can be accelerate water clarity process. By this composite the turbidity, the permanganate number and the coli bacteria in the water can be decreased significantly. The optimum composite composition is 1000 mg activated charcoal, 1000 mg zeolite, 60 mg tawas, 40 mg natrium bicarbonate and 50 mg starch with grains size less than 80 mesh

  15. Radon adsorption on present activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazankin, Yu.N.; Trofimov, A.M.; Mikhajlova, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    Radon adsorption from helium and air has been studied on modern activated carbons of SKT-1, SKT-2a, SKT-3, SKT-2b, SKT-6, PAU-1 within the temperature range from 100 to 80 deg. It has been shown that PAU-1 carbon has the highest activity with respect to radon in the temperature range studied. With decreasing temperature the adsorption coefficients increase sharply. It has been found that for the case of radon adsorption from helium the logarythm of the Henry coefficient linearly depends on the inverse value of absolute temperature. Adsorption of radon from air is inhibited and the above-cited relationship is deviated from linear. The results of calculating differential heats of radon and air adsorption as well as coefficients of radon and air separation on carbons are presented

  16. Comparison of the adsorption capacities of an activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture versus activated-charcoal--water slurry in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Christophersen, Anne-Bolette; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An activated charcoal--yogurt mixture was evaluated in vivo to determine the effect on the gastrointestinal absorption of paracetamol, as compared to activated-charcoal--water slurry. The potential advantage of the activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture is a better palatability and general...... acceptance by the patients without loss of efficacy. In addition, paracetamol adsorption studies were carried out in vitro to calculate the maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated-charcoal--yogurt mixture. METHODS: In vivo: A randomized crossover study on 15 adult volunteers, using...... paracetamol 50 mg/kg as a simulated overdose. Each study day volunteers were given a standard meal 1 h before paracetamol, then 50 g activated charcoal 1 h later in either of two preparations: standard water slurry or mixed with 400 mL yogurt. Paracetamol serum concentrations were measured using HPLC...

  17. Study of properties of active charcoal used for measuring of low radon activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.

    2011-01-01

    We used the German charcoal Silicarbon for adsorption of radon from the air. From the column with activated carbon arranged in a row, we obtain cut-off dependence of radon on activated carbon at various temperatures, cooling and also at different speeds, drawing radon air through activated charcoal. From information we have chosen the most appropriate combination of temperature and cooling flow in order to maximize capture efficiency of radon in the first column of active charcoal. To change active carbon and optimization of operation allows us to measure the radon exhalation rate from various materials up to the level of 3·10 -9 Bq/s. (authors)

  18. Radon determination by activated charcoal adsorption and liquid scintillation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, F.O.; Canoba, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    A passive diffusion method for the determination of radon concentration has been optimised and calibrated. The device consists of a scintillation vial containing activated charcoal, a diffusion barrier and a desiccant agent. The response to diverse atmospheric humidity and variable exposure intervals was studied. The result is a detector, which is independent of atmospheric humidity for at least (up to) 7 days of exposure. The method was compared with electret detectors (US EPA) with very satisfactory results. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, low cost, low detection limit, the total automatization of the measurement and its total independence of humidity to measure in a wide range of radon concentrations. (author) [es

  19. The adsorption of argon, krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Charcoal adsorption beds are commonly used to remove radioactive noble gases from contaminated gas streams. The design of such beds requires the adsorption coefficient for the noble gas. Here an extension of the Dubinin-Radushkevich theory of adsorption is developed to correlate the effects of temperature, pressure, concentration, and carrier gas on the adsorption coefficients of krypton, xenon, and argon on activated carbon. This model is validated with previously published adsorption measurements. It accurately predicts the equilibrium adsorption coefficient at any temperature and pressure if the potential energies of adsorption, the micropore volume, and the van der Waals constants of the gases are known. 18 refs., 4 figs

  20. Evaluation of activated charcoal for dynamic adsorption of krypton and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Ramarathinam, K.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    From the standpoint of radiation safety, the release of radioactive krypton and xenon from power reactors should be kept as low as practicable. The decay of shortlived isotopes of krypton and xenon by adsorptive delay on activated charcoal has shown promising results for this purpose. The delay provided by activated charcoal is proportional to the dynamic adsorption coefficients of these gases which are characteristic of the adsorbent. These coefficients were determined for krypton and xenon on indigenous gas-adsorbing activated charcoal at different moisture contents of carrier air stream and activated charcoal, concentrations of krypton around ambient temperatures, to find its suitability for designing adsorber columns. (author)

  1. Radon removal from gaseous xenon with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K.; Hieda, K.; Hiraide, K.; Hirano, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Koshio, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Liu, J.; Martens, K. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H.; Ogawa, H.; Sekiya, H.; Shinozaki, A. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Takachio, O.; Takeda, A.; Ueshima, K.; Umemoto, D. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); and others

    2012-01-01

    Many low background experiments using xenon need to remove radioactive radon to improve their sensitivities. However, no method of continually removing radon from xenon has been described in the literature. We studied a method to remove radon from xenon gas through an activated charcoal trap. From our measurements we infer a linear relationship between the mean propagation velocity v{sub Rn} of radon and v{sub Xe} of xenon in the trap with v{sub Rn}/v{sub Xe}=(0.96{+-}0.10) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} at -85 Degree-Sign C. As the mechanism for radon removal in this charcoal trap is its decay, knowledge of this parameter allows us to design an efficient radon removal system for the XMASS experiment. The verification of this system found that it reduces radon by a factor of 0.07, which is in line with its expected average retention time of 14.8 days for radon.

  2. Charcoal and activated carbon as adsorbate of phytotoxic compounds - a comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the potential of natural charcoal from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and activated carbon to improve germination under the hypothesis that natural charcoal adsorbs phytotoxins produced by dwarf-shrubs, but due to it's chemical properties to a lesser extent than activated

  3. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-09-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F{sub 2}) and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F{sub 2} and UF{sub 6} to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F{sub 2}, the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F{sub 2}-UF{sub 6} gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined.

  4. Some Investigations of the Reaction of Activated Charcoal with Fluorine and Uranium Hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Cul, G.D.; Fiedor, J.N.; Simmons, D.W.; Toth, L.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.; Williams

    1998-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been shut down since 1969, when the fuel salt was drained from the core into two Hastelloy N drain tanks at the reactor site. Over time, fluorine (F 2 ) and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) moved from the salt through the gas piping to a charcoal bed, where they reacted with the activated charcoal. Some of the immediate concerns related to the migration of F 2 and UF 6 to the charcoal bed were the possibility of explosive reactions between the charcoal and F 2 , the existence of conditions that could induce a criticality accident, and the removal and recovery of the fissile uranium from the charcoal. This report addresses the reactions and reactivity of species produced by the reaction of fluorine and activated charcoal and between charcoal and F 2 -UF 6 gas mixtures in order to support remediation of the MSRE auxiliary charcoal bed (ACB) and the recovery of the fissile uranium. The chemical identity, stoichiometry, thermochemistry, and potential for explosive decomposition of the primary reaction product, fluorinated charcoal, was determined

  5. Theoretical and experimental study of radon measurement with designing and calibration domestic canister with active charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urosevic, V.; Nikezic, D.; Zekic, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon concentration in air may change significantly large variation due to atmospheric variation. Measurement with active charcoal can be inaccurate because the variation in radon concentration. We made model to simulate radon measurements with active charcoal in order to optimize and improve integration characteristic. A numerical method and computer code based on the method of finite elements is developed for the case of variable radon concentration in air. This program simulates radon adsorption by the activated charcoal bed, enabling determination of sensitivity. The dependence of sensitivity on different parameters, such as temperature, thickness of the charcoal, etc. was studied using this program. Using results of theoretical investigation we designed and calibrated our canister with active charcoal for radon measurements. (author)

  6. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, Mitsuo

    1978-01-01

    The adsorption effect was measured for several kinds of heavy metal ions, Pb 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ by passing them through activated charcoal beds and changing the pH values of solutions. The test procedure is to keep the pH value of solution more than 10 at first, filter heavy metal hydroxide deposit, measure the remaining ion concentration in filtrate, and also test the influence of the addition of alkali to each kind of ions. The individual test procedure for each kind of ions is explained. As for the Cd ions, after the detailed experimental procedure is explained, the adsorption characteristic line is shown as the relation between the adsorption quantity and the equilibrium concentration of Cd 2+ . The similar test procedure and the adsorption characteristic lines are shown and evaluated about Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ . These lines are all linear, but have different adsorption quantity and inclination in relation to heavy metal ion concentration. Concerning the influence of pH to adsorption, the characteristics of pH increase are presented, when alkali is added by various quantities to Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ and Cd 2+ . The pH of Pb 2+ increased to about 10 by adding 0.4 cc alkali and saturates, but the pH of the other ions did not saturate by adding less than 1.5 cc alkali. When the water containing heavy metals are treated, Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ and Zn 2+ are removed almost satisfactorily by passing them through active charcoal filters and keeping pH at 10. The experimental concentrations are 0.05 ppm at pH 10 in Cd, 0.86 ppm at 10.3 in Pb, 0 ppm at pH 9.6 in Cu, 0.06 ppm at pH 8.8 and 12.4 ppm at pH 9.8 in Zn. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. Temperature calibration formula for activated charcoal radon collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Alexandre; Le, Thiem Ngoc; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso

    2011-01-01

    Radon adsorption by activated charcoal collectors such as PicoRad radon detectors is known to be largely affected by temperature and relative humidity. Quantitative models are, however, still needed for accurate radon estimation in a variable environment. Here we introduce a temperature calibration formula based on the gas adsorption theory to evaluate the radon concentration in air from the average temperature, collection time, and liquid scintillation count rate. On the basis of calibration experiments done by using the 25 m 3 radon chamber available at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan, we found that the radon adsorption efficiency may vary up to a factor of two for temperatures typical of indoor conditions. We expect our results to be useful for establishing standardized protocols for optimized radon assessment in dwellings and workplaces. - Research highlights: → The temperature effect on radon adsorption is proportional to αe β/T . → The calibration formula is CF(T,t)=3.1x10 -5 e (2887)/((T+273)) [1-e -0.080t ]. → The radon adsorption efficiency varies up to a factor of two for T = 8.5-31 o C. → The average temperature is suitable for estimating CF(T,t) in a fluctuating environment.

  8. Temperature calibration formula for activated charcoal radon collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.cooper@gmail.co [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Le, Thiem Ngoc [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Radon adsorption by activated charcoal collectors such as PicoRad radon detectors is known to be largely affected by temperature and relative humidity. Quantitative models are, however, still needed for accurate radon estimation in a variable environment. Here we introduce a temperature calibration formula based on the gas adsorption theory to evaluate the radon concentration in air from the average temperature, collection time, and liquid scintillation count rate. On the basis of calibration experiments done by using the 25 m{sup 3} radon chamber available at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan, we found that the radon adsorption efficiency may vary up to a factor of two for temperatures typical of indoor conditions. We expect our results to be useful for establishing standardized protocols for optimized radon assessment in dwellings and workplaces. - Research highlights: {yields} The temperature effect on radon adsorption is proportional to {alpha}e{sup {beta}/T}. {yields} The calibration formula is CF(T,t)=3.1x10{sup -5}e{sup (2887)/((T+273))} [1-e{sup -0.080t}]. {yields} The radon adsorption efficiency varies up to a factor of two for T = 8.5-31 {sup o}C. {yields} The average temperature is suitable for estimating CF(T,t) in a fluctuating environment.

  9. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... dose (0.080 g) to all samples. Drug concentrations in the liquid phase were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-detection. Results. Q(m), amitriptyline, were 0.49 g/g Carbomix® and 0.70 g/g Norit Ready-To-Use, and Q(m), paracetamol, were 0.63 g/g Carbomix® and 0.72 g/g Norit...

  10. Combined paracetamol and amitriptyline adsorption to activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Groenlykke, Thor Buch; Abildtrup, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. High-gram drug doses seen in multiple-drug poisonings might be close to the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal (AC). The aim was to determine the maximum adsorption capacities (Q(m)) of amitriptyline and paracetamol, separately and in combination, to AC. Methods. ACs (Carbomix......® and Norit Ready-To-Use) were tested in vitro. At pH 1.2 and pH 7.2, 0.250 g AC and paracetamol and/or amitriptyline were mixed and incubated. The AC: drug ratios were 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, and 1:1. The mixed-drug adsorption vials contained the same AC: paracetamol ratios, but amitriptyline was added as fixed...... Ready-To-Use. The tested pH differences had minor effect on the adsorption. The mixed-drug adsorption showed about 40% Q(m) reduction of each drug with increasing amounts of drug/g AC, but the total gram of drug adsorbed to AC was increased compared to one-drug conditions. Conclusion. The adsorption...

  11. Dose-dependent adsorptive capacity of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination of a simulated paracetamol overdose in human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gude, Anne-Bolette Jill; Hoegberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Riis Angelo, Helle

    2010-01-01

    The amount of activated charcoal needed to treat drug overdoses has arbitrarily been set at a charcoal-drug ratio of 10:1. Recent in vitro studies have shown a larger adsorptive capacity for activated charcoal when used in a model of paracetamol overdose. In the present study, we investigated...... whether this reserve capacity exists in vivo. This is clinically relevant in cases of large overdoses or if the full standard dose of 50 g activated charcoal cannot be administered. We performed a randomized, cross-over study (n = 16). One hour after a standard breakfast, 50 mg/kg paracetamol...... was administered, followed 1 hr later by an activated charcoal-Water slurry containing 50 (control), 25 or 5 g activated charcoal. The areas under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol were used to estimate the efficacy of each activated charcoal dose. The AUC of the 25-g dose was found...

  12. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, Arun; Srinivas, C R; Mathew, Anil C

    2008-01-01

    Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall's Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  13. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  14. Study on radon concentration monitoring using activated charcoal canisters in high humidity environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing; Wang Haijun; Yang Yifang; Qin Sichang; Wang Zhentao; Zhang Zhenjiang

    2009-01-01

    The effects of humidity on the sensitivity using activated charcoal canisters for measuring radon concentrations in high humidity environments were studied. Every canister filled with 80 g of activated charcoal, and they were exposed to 48 h or 72 h in the relative humidity of 68%, 80%, 88% and 96% (28 degree C), respectively. The amount of radon absorbed in the canisters was determined by counting the gamma rays from 214 Pb and 214 Bi (radon progeny). The results showed that counts decreased with the increase of relative humidity. There was a negative linear relationship between count and humidity. In the relative humidity range of 68%-96%, the sensitivity of radon absorption decreased about 2.4% for every 1% (degree)rise in humidity. The results also showed that the exposure time of the activated charcoal canisters should be less than 3 days. (authors)

  15. Molecular and structural properties of polymer composites filled with activated charcoal particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, Dahlang, E-mail: dtahir@fmipa.unhas.ac.id; Bakri, Fahrul [Department of Physics, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia); Liong, Syarifuddin [Department of Chemistry, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    We have studied the molecular properties, structural properties, and chemical composition of composites by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, respectively. FTIR spectra shows absorption band of hydroxyl group (-OH), methyl group (-CH{sub 3}) and aromatic group (C-C). The absorption band for aromatic group (C-C) shows the formation of carbonaceous in composites. XRF shows chemical composition of composites, which the main chemicals are SO{sub 3}, Cl, and ZnO. The loss on ignition value (LOI) of activated charcoal indicates high carbonaceous matter. The crystallite size for diffraction pattern from hydrogel polymer is about 17 nm and for activated charcoal are about 19 nm. The crystallite size of the polymer is lower than that of activated charcoal, which make possible of the particle from filler in contact with each other to form continuous conducting polymer through polymer matrix.

  16. SUPPLEMENTAL ACTIVATED CHARCOAL AND ENERGY INCREASE INTAKE OF MEDITERRANEAN SHRUBS BY SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozo Rogošić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of the Mediterranean shrubby vegetation is often limited by secondary compounds, such as terpenes, which at too high concentrations can adversely affect forage intake and animal health. Ingesting compounds such as activated charcoal and energy can ameliorate the negative effects of secondary compounds and enable animals to eat more shrubs. Thus, our objectives were to determine if supplemental charcoal, energy and numbers of shrub species offered influenced intake of shrubs by sheep and goats. We conducted three experiments each with 12 lambs and 12 kids (6 activated charcoal vs. 6 controls. In the first experiment, we initially offered three shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea, Helichrysum italicum and Juniperus oxicedrus, then in the second one, two shrubs (Juniperus phoenicea and Helichrysum italicum, and finally one shrub (Juniperus phoenicea in the third experiment. In all three experiments (Exp. 1, P<0.001; Exp. 2, P < 0.0003 and Exp. 3, P < 0.03, supplemental charcoal and energy had a positive effect on total shrub intake for both lambs and kids. Kids ate more shrubs than lambs did in all three experiments (P<0.01. Regardless of experiment, both species of animals showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake, with or without supplemental charcoal and energy, as the number of shrub species on offer decreased. Our findings support the hypothesis that biochemical diversity plays an important role in diet selection, thus enabling animals to better meet their nutritional needs and avoid toxicity.

  17. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu.

    2003-01-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use 67 Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with 67 Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the 67 Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the 67 Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of 67 Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the 67 Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients with constipation. In

  18. Gallium-67 activated charcoal: a new method for preparation of radioactive capsules for colonic transit study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan [Department of Radiological Technology, ChungTai Institute of Health Sciences and Technology, Taichung (Taiwan); Tsai, Shih-Chuan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua (Taiwan); Lin, Wan-Yu. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, 160 Taichung Harbor Road, Section 3, 40705, Taichung (Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    Indium-111 is currently the radionuclide of choice for colonic transit study. However, it is expensive and not available in many hospitals. Technetium-99m has been proposed for colonic transit study but the short half-life has limited its use. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and available in most countries. Most importantly, it has a suitable half-life for colonic transit study. Attempts have been made in some studies to use {sup 67}Ga citrate to label activated charcoal, but the results have not been good because of poor stability. In this study, we successfully labelled activated charcoal with {sup 67}Ga citrate by adding alcohol and 5% glucose solution. To evaluate the in vitro stability, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was incubated in a milieu mimicking the intestinal content, containing lipase, trypsin and glycochenodeoxycholate at different pH values (6.0, 7.0, 7.4 and 8.0) and for different durations (0 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h). For the in vivo study, the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was loaded into a commercial empty enteric capsule. Colonic transit scintigraphy was performed in five volunteers, including three healthy people and two constipated patients, after intake of the radioactive capsule. Images were obtained at 2 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 24h, 48 h, 72 h etc. until no radioactivity was detected in the bowel. Our data show that the in vitro stability of {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal was good. The labelling efficiency still exceeded 91% at 96 h at pH values of 6.0, 7.0 and 7.4. In the group with a pH value of 8.0, the labelling efficiency gradually fell during the 4-day incubation but was still higher than 88% at the end of the fourth day. In the in vivo study, most capsules disintegrated in the caecum/colon region, and the {sup 67}Ga-activated charcoal mixed very well with bowel content. In addition, the radioactive charcoal could be detected clearly on the 72-h image, which is very important for the evaluation of colonic transit time in patients

  19. Review of the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.W.; Moeller, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a critical review of the published literature on the adsorption of radioactive krypton and xenon on activated charcoal. This review, which was supported by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, showed that (a) individual charcoals have a wide range of adsoprtion coefficients and therefore the performance of a given bed is heavily dependent on the quality of the charcoal it contains; (b) because of the detrimental effects of mass transfer on noble gas adsorption, consideration should be given to including this factor in developing technical specifications for adsorption beds; and (c) additional research is needed on the determination of the inter-relationship of moisture and temperature and their effects on adsorption bed performance

  20. The determination, by x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry, of gold in activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austen, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the determination of gold in activated charcoal by X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Compensation for matrix effects is achieved by means of platinum that is added for use as an internal standard. Calibration is achieved by use of a series of synthetic standards that are made by the spiking of barren charcoal with gold and platinum. The limit of determination is about 8 p.p.m. of gold, and the relative standard deviation is 1,2 per cent at a concentration level of 2300 p.p.m

  1. Advanced Electrocardiogram Analysis in the Amitriptyline-poisoned Pig Treated with Activated Charcoal Haemoperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Tejs; Hoegberg, Lotte C.G.; Eriksen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Coated activated charcoal haemoperfusion (CAC-HP) does not reduce the plasma concentration in amitriptyline (AT)-poisoned pigs. The aim of this non-blinded, randomized, controlled animal trial was to determine if CAC-HP reduces the pathological ECG changes caused by AT poisoning. Fourteen female...

  2. The effect of activated charcoal on drug exposure in healthy volunteers: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgens, G; Hoegberg, L C Groth; Graudal, N A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the effect of activated charcoal (AC) administered during the first 6 h after drug intake and the effect of drug properties on drug exposure. Sixty-four controlled studies were integrated in a meta-analysis. AC administered 0-5 min after administration...

  3. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  4. Effect of sorbitol, single, and multidose activated charcoal administration on carprofen absorption following experimental overdose in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigshof, Amy M; Beal, Matthew W; Poppenga, Robert H; Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of single dose activated charcoal, single dose activated charcoal with sorbitol, and multidose activated charcoal in reducing plasma carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Randomized, four period cross-over study. University research setting. Eight healthy Beagles. A 120 mg/kg of carprofen was administered orally to each dog followed by either (i) a single 2 g/kg activated charcoal administration 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (AC); (ii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal with 3.84 g/kg sorbitol 1 hour following carprofen ingestion (ACS); (iii) 2 g/kg activated charcoal 1 hour after carprofen ingestion and repeated every 6 hours for a total of 4 doses (MD); (iv) no treatment (control). Plasma carprofen concentrations were obtained over a 36-hour period following carprofen ingestion for each protocol. Pharmacokinetic modeling was performed and time versus concentration, area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, time to maximum concentration, and elimination half-life were calculated and compared among the groups using ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparisons test. Activated charcoal, activated charcoal with sorbitol (ACS), and multiple-dose activated charcoal (MD) significantly reduced the area under the curve compared to the control group. AC and MD significantly reduced the maximum concentration when compared to the control group. MD significantly reduced elimination half-life when compared to ACS and the control group. There were no other significant differences among the treatment groups. Activated charcoal and ACS are as effective as MD in reducing serum carprofen concentrations following experimental overdose in dogs. Prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of AC, ACS, and MD in the clinical setting. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  5. Adsorption and Pore of Physical-Chemical Activated Coconut Shell Charcoal Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, E.; Umiatin, U.; Nasbey, H.; Bintoro, R. A.; Wulandari, Fi; Erlina, E.

    2018-04-01

    The adsorption of activated carbon of coconut shell charcoal on heavy metals (Cu and Fe) of the wastewater and its relation with the carbon pore structure was investigated. The coconut shell was pyrolized in kiln at temperature about 75 - 150 °C for about 6 hours to produce charcoal and then shieved into milimeter sized granule particles. Chemical activation was done by immersing the charcoal into chemical solution of KOH, NaOH, HCl and H3PO4, with various concentration. The activation was followed by physical activation using horizontal furnace at 400°C for 1 hours in argon gas environment with flow rate of 200 kg/m3. The surface morphology of activated carbon were characterized by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Wastewater was made by dissolving CuSO4.5H2O and FeSO4.7H2O into aquades. The metal adsorption was analized by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The result shows that in general, the increase of chemical concentration cause the increase of pore number of activated carbon due to an excessive chemical attack and lead the increase of adsorption. However it tend to decrease as further increasing in chemical activator concentration due to carbon collapsing. In general, the adsorption of Cu and Fe metal from wastewater by activated carbon increased as the activator concentration was increased.

  6. Efficiency of moso bamboo charcoal and activated carbon for adsorbing radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chien, Chuan-Chi; Huang, Ying-Pin; Wang, Wie-Chieh [ITRI South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan (China); Chao, Jun-Hsing; Wei, Yuan-Yao [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu (China)

    2011-02-15

    Preventing radioactive pollution is a troublesome problem but an urgent concern worldwide because radioactive substances cause serious health-related hazards to human being. The adsorption method has been used for many years to concentrate and remove radioactive pollutants; selecting an adequate adsorbent is the key to the success of an adsorption-based pollution abatement system. In Taiwan, all nuclear power plants use activated carbon as the adsorbent to treat radiation-contaminated air emission. The activated carbon is entirely imported; its price and manufacturing technology are entirely controlled by international companies. Taiwan is rich in bamboo, which is one of the raw materials for high-quality activated carbon. Thus, a less costly activated carbon with the same or even better adsorptive capability as the imported adsorbent can be made from bamboo. The objective of this research is to confirm the adsorptive characteristics and efficiency of the activated carbon made of Taiwan native bamboo for removing {sup 131}I gas from air in the laboratory. The study was conducted using new activated carbon module assembled for treating {sup 131}I-contaminated air. The laboratory results reveal that the {sup 131}I removal efficiency for a single-pass module is as high as 70%, and the overall efficiency is 100% for four single-pass modules operated in series. The bamboo charcoal and bamboo activated carbon have suitable functional groups for adsorbing {sup 131}I and they have greater adsorption capacities than commercial activated carbons. Main mechanism is for trapping of radioiodine on impregnated charcoal, as a result of surface oxidation. When volatile radioiodine is trapped by potassium iodide-impregnated bamboo charcoal, the iodo-compound is first adsorbed on the charcoal surface, and then migrates to iodide ion sites where isotope exchange occurs. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Quantitative measurement of 222Rn in water by the activated charcoal passive collector method: 1. The effect of water in a collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Inoue, Yoriteru; Yoshimoto, Keizo

    1994-01-01

    The activated charcoal passive collector method can be applied to measure the concentration of 222 Rn in river water. The 222 Rn collector is composed of dry activated charcoal sealed in a polyethylene bag. However, we found it very difficult to keep activated charcoal in a collector dry during the period the collector was left in a river. The degree of dampness and the time lapsed when activated charcoal became wet were thought to affect the quantity of 222 Rn collected. First, we studied the effect of some parameters in the activated charcoal passive collector method qualitatively in three experiments. We found that the quantity of 222 Rn collected in a collector was not so sensitive to the quantity of activated charcoal in the collector or the thickness of polyethylene film under the condition of wet activated charcoal, and that wet activated charcoal accumulated less 222 Rn than dry activated charcoal. We present some equations which could explain how much 222 Rn was collected in a collector when activated charcoal was submerged directly in water and when activated charcoal was packed in a polyethylene bag but completely wet. These equations were proved effective by being compared with the results of the other experiments. Finally, we recommended some conditions which proved useful when measuring at an actual river

  8. Development of activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media : their characteristics and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.A.; Ramarathinam, K.; Gupta, S.K.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Kishore, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    Because of its low maximum permissible concentration in air, air-borne radioiodine must be accurately monitored in contaminated air streams, in the working environment and handling facilities, before release to the environment from the nuclear facilities. Activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media are found to be most suitable for monitoring airborne iodine-131. Because of its simplicity and reproducible nature in assessment of air-borne radioactive iodine, the work on the development of such media was undertaken in order to find a suitable substitute for imported activated charcoal impregnated air sampling filter media. Eight different media of such type were developed, evaluated and compared with two imported media. Best suitable medium is recommended for its use in air-borne iodine sampling which was found to be even better suited than imported media of such type. (author)

  9. Evaluation of photocatalytic activities of supported catalysts on NaX zeolite or activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brites-Nóbrega, Fernanda F. de [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Polo, Aldino N.B.; Benedetti, Angélica M. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Leão, Mônica M.D. [Sanitary and Environmental Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Campus Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Slusarski-Santana, Veronice, E-mail: veronice.santana@unioeste.br [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNIOESTE), Rua da Faculdade, 645, CEP 85903-000 Toledo, PR (Brazil); Fernandes-Machado, Nádia R.C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidade Estadual de Maringá (UEM), Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX was positive, which increased its activity. • The best results were obtained at pH 3 and 9 with ZnO/NaX and at pH 3 with Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC. • High degradation and considerable mineralization were attained with 10% ZnO/NaX. • ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} supported on NaX and AC are promising alternatives as photocatalysts. -- Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalysts, both supported on NaX zeolite and activated charcoal (AC). The synergistic effect between oxide and support and the influence of solution pH (3, 7 and 9) on photocatalytic degradation of reactive blue 5G (C.I. 222) were analyzed. The catalysts Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NaX, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/AC and ZnO/NaX, ZnO/AC with 5 and 10% (wt%) were prepared by wet impregnation. The results showed that the catalysts exhibit quite different structural and textural properties. The synergic effect between ZnO and NaX support was higher than that with the activated charcoal, showing that these catalysts were more efficient. The most photoactive catalyst was 10% ZnO/NaX which showed 100% discoloration of the dye solution at pH 3, 7 and 9 after 0.5, 5 and 2 h of irradiation, respectively. The hydrolytic nature of zeolite favored the formation of surface hydroxyl radicals, which increased the activity of the photocatalyst. Thus, catalysts supported on NaX zeolite are promising for use in photocatalysis.

  10. Lead Testing in Soil Contaminated with Pesticides and Reducing its Effects by the Activity of Activated Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Chand Thakur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead poisoning is classically defined as exposure to high levels of lead typically associated with severe health effects, but being a heavy metal which is potentially toxic, if present at even minor concentrations, it is of great concern to environmentalists and medical professionals alike. Activated charcoal has been known to adsorb heavy metals and thus, was used in this study as well. Aim: The main aim of this study was to decrease the lead content of agricultural soil which is attributed to the use of pesticides containing lead by using activated charcoal. Material and Methods: The lead contamination in agricultural soil and plant dry mass samples which increases due to the effect of pesticides was detected by using Field Portable X-Ray Fluroscence (FP-XRF spectrophotometer. Soil was taken in plastic trays and the plants were grown and watered daily. The collected ground water was also tested. For the estimation of lead in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS was employed. Results: This study suggested the remediation of soil lead content by using activated charcoal. The study also revealed that activated charcoal not only adsorbs lead but also inhibits the accumulation of lead in ground water. Conclusion: This study promotes a cost effective process to treat agricultural lands polluted with leaded pesticides. Water purifiers, refrigerator etc. contain varying amounts of activated charcoal, after usage of these appliances it can be recycled and used as a source of activated charcoal. This can be applied in pesticide contaminated fields either in the form of slurry or by spraying.

  11. Liquid phase adsorption behavior of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kecheng; Liu, Song; Xing, Ronge; Yu, Huahua; Qin, Yukun; Li, Pengcheng

    2015-05-20

    This study describes liquid phase adsorption characteristics of inulin-type fructan onto activated charcoal. Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of inulin. Nearly neutral solution (pH 6-8) was favorable to the adsorption and the equilibrium was attained after 40 min with the maximum adsorption Qmax 0.182 g/g (adsorbate/adsorbent) at 298 K. The experimental data analysis indicated that the adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model (R(2) = 1) and Langmuir isotherms model (R(2) > 0.99). Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic with a physical nature. Inulin desorption could reach 95.9% using 50% ethanol solution and activated charcoal could be reused without significant losses in adsorption capacity. These results are of practical significance for the application of activated charcoal in the production and purification of inulin-type fructan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of food and ice cream on the adsorption capacity of paracetamol to high surface activated charcoal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle Riis; Christophersen, Anne Bolette

    2003-01-01

    , the reductions compared to control (Hoegberg et al. 2002) varied between 11% and 26%. Even though a reduction in drug adsorption to activated charcoal was observed when food mixture or ice cream was added, the remaining adsorption capacity of both types of activated charcoal theoretically was still able......The effect of added food mixture (as if food was present in the stomach of an intoxicated patient) or 4 different types of ice cream (added as a flavouring and lubricating agent) on the adsorption of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to 2 formulations of activated charcoal was determined in vitro......, and paracetamol were mixed with either food mixture or ice cream followed by one hr incubation. The maximum adsorption capacity of paracetamol to activated charcoal was calculated using Langmuirs adsorption isotherm. Paracetamol concentration was analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography. In the presence...

  13. Influence of the particle size of activated charcoal on labeling efficiency with 67Ga-citrate for colonic transit study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Yu Lin; Shih-Chuan Tsai; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Bor-Tsung Hsieh

    2008-01-01

    Indium-111 and 99m Tc have been proposed for colonic transit study, but 111 In is expensive and the half-life of 99m Tc is too short for the study. Gallium-67 citrate is inexpensive and has a suitable half-life. In our previous study, we successfully labeled 67 Ga-citrate activated charcoal, and the labeling efficiency exceeded 91% after a 96 hour incubation period. In this work, we evaluated the influence of the size of activated charcoal particles on the labeling efficiency with 67 Ga-citrate. The data showed that the influence of particle size on the labeling efficiency of activated charcoal with 67 Ga was insignificant. Both sizes of activated charcoal particles can be used for labeling with 67 Ga in colonic transit study. (author)

  14. Dose Determination of Activated Charcoal in Management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for dose determination of activated ... paracetamol, benzodiazepines and alcohol [11]. .... Stability. The stability (short term) of standard and amitriptyline sample solutions was ...

  15. Preparation of reusable conductive activated charcoal plate as a new electrode for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoubi-Feiz, Baharak; Aber, Soheil [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A conductive activated charcoal plate (ACP) was prepared from a low-cost, abundant, and non-conductive charcoal. The prepared ACP was characterized using N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of the charcoal and the ACP was 0.58m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 461.67m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The ACP was employed in textile wastewater treatment using electrosorption process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to design the experiments. The decolorization efficiency of 76% at optimum conditions of voltage=450mV, pH=4, and contact time=120 min indicated that the ACP has promising potential to decolorize textile wastewater. Moreover, the results of the kinetic analyses demonstrated that wastewater treatment followed pseudo-first order kinetic model. The ACP electrode could be regenerated and reused effectively at five successive cycles of electrosorption/electrodesorption.

  16. Determination of gold in natural waters by neutron activation-#betta#-spectrometry after preconcentration on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.W.; Ellis, J.; Florence, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the determination of gold at very low levels in waters is presented. The method involves batchwise pre-concentration of gold from 1 l of water at pH 3-4 onto 0.1 g of activated charcoal by shaking for 5 min and subsequent treatment of the activated charcoal by instrumental neutron activation-#betta#-spectrometry. Activated charcoal quantitatively adsorbs ionic and colloidal gold from solutions prepared with distilled water and also from natural surface waters spiked and equilibrated with these two forms of gold. Three ion-exchange resins were evaluated for pre-concentration purposes; ionic gold removal was quantitative but colloidal gold removal was incomplete. Electrodeposition at a carbon fibre electrode gave similar results. The charcoal pre-concentration technique was tested on solutions containing 198 Au tracer and a total gold concentration of 1 μg l - 1 . The limit of detection of total gold (ionic and colloidal) for the carbon adsorption/neutron activation-#betta#-spectrometry procedure is 0.3 ng l - 1 . The method was used to determine gold in surface waters from auriferous regions. (Auth.)

  17. Use of Activated Charcoal for 220Rn Adsorption for Operations Associated with the Uranium Deposit in the Auxiliary Charcoal Bed at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements have been collected with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of activated charcoal for the removal of 220 Rn from process off-gas at the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A series of bench-scale tests were performed at superficial flow velocities of 10, 18, 24, and 33 cm/s (20, 35, 47, and 65 ft/min) with a continuous input concentration of 220 Rn in the range of 9 x 10 3 pCi/L. In addition, two tests were performed at the MSRE facility by flowing helium through the auxiliary charcoal bed uranium deposit. These tests were performed so that the adsorptive effectiveness could be evaluated with a relatively high concentration of 220 Rn. In addition to measuring the effectiveness of activated charcoal as a 220 Rn adsorption media, the source term for available 220 Rn in the deposit is actually available for removal and that the relative activity of fission gases is very small when compared to 220 Rn. The measurement data were then used to evaluate the expected effectiveness of a proposed charcoal adsorption bed consisting of a right circular cylinder having a diameter of 43 cm and a length of 91 cm (17 in. I.D. x 3 ft.). The majority of the measurement data predicts an overall 220Rn activity reduction factor of about 1 x 10 9 for such a design; however, two measurements collected at a flow velocity of 18 cm/s (35 ft/min) indicated that the reduction factor could be as low as 1 x 10 6 . The adsorptive capacity of the proposed trap was also evaluated to determine the expected life prior to degradation of performance. Taking a conservative vantage point during analysis, it was estimated that the adsorption effectiveness should not begin to deteriorate until a 220 Rn activity on the order of 10 10 Ci has been processed. It was therefore concluded that degradation of performance would likely occur as the result of causes other than filling by radon progeny

  18. Kinetics and adsorption isotherm of lactic acid from fermentation broth onto activated charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seankham Soraya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated charcoal was applied for the recovery of lactic acid in undissociated form from fermentation broth. Lactic acid was obtained from the fermentation of Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1340 using acid hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke as a carbon source. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm and kinetics for the lactic acid separation were investigated. The experimental data for lactic acid adsorption from fermentation broth were best described by the Freundlich isotherm and the pseudo-second order kinetics with R2 values of 0.99. The initial adsorption rate was 41.32 mg/g⋅min at the initial lactic acid concentration of 40 g/L.

  19. Airborne radon-222 measurement by active sampling with charcoal adsorption and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Wen, Xiao-qiong; Fukami, Kenji; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hamanaka, Shun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    A simple method for measuring radon concentration in air is presented. Airborne radon is adsorbed in a charcoal bed by an active air sampling. In time, the adsorbed radon comes to attain radioactive equilibrium with its short-lived progeny 214 Pb. Utilizing this fact, radon concentration is derived from γ-ray measurement of 214 Pb. This method is estimated to be capable of detecting radon concentration in air down to 0.79 Bq·m -3 . The adsorption coefficient obtained with the method is compared with what is obtainable with passive sampling. Applications of this method to indoor and outdoor radon measurements are described. (author)

  20. The retention of radioactive noble gases in nuclear power stations by means of activated charcoal delay systems. A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1970s off-gas systems using activated charcoal have been used in BWRs and PWRs to minimize the release of radioactive noble gases and the resultant exposure of the environment. In practice, the power-related noble gas emission rate achieved is 1-10 Ci/MWa in the case of BWRs and 0.1-1 Ci/MWa for PWRs. The systems are relatively simple in design and operators state that they are easy and cheap to run. The activated charcoal used shows no signs of becoming spent and, if protected from humidity, retains its full efficiency. On the basis of the information to hand it has never been necessary to replace it. Experience to date suggests that a charge of activated charcoal can last the life of the facility as a whole. All knowledge and experience gained so far indicate that off-gas systems using activated delay systems for BWR facilities are indispensable and must therefore be considered an integral part of such facilities. Capital expenditure amounts to approximately 1% of the total cost and should, therefore, not be unacceptable. In PWRs off-gas systems using pressure vessels as delay trains are in competition with off-gas systems based on activated charcoal delay systems. The activated charcoal systems have proved themselves and their use, which involves capital expenditure equivalent to approximately of 0.5% to the overall cost, can be recommended without reservation

  1. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilber, Isabel [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Wyss, Gabriela S., E-mail: gabriela.wyss@fibl.or [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Maeder, Paul [Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Ackerstrasse, CH-5070 Frick (Switzerland); Bucheli, Thomas D. [Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon Research Station ART, Reckenholzstr. 191, CH-8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer [Institute of Terrestrial Ecosystems, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstr. 16, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-08-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg{sup -1} of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg{sup -1}, and total uptake from 2 to 1 mug in the 800 mg kg{sup -1} AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  2. Influence of activated charcoal amendment to contaminated soil on dieldrin and nutrient uptake by cucumbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilber, Isabel; Wyss, Gabriela S.; Maeder, Paul; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Meier, Isabel; Vogt, Lea; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendments have been suggested as a promising, cost-effective method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments over two years with cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) grown in agricultural soil with 0.07 mg kg -1 of weathered dieldrin and 0, 200, 400, and 800 mg AC per kg soil. Dieldrin fresh weight concentrations in cucumber fruits were significantly reduced from 0.012 to an average of 0.004 mg kg -1 , and total uptake from 2 to 1 μg in the 800 mg kg -1 AC treatment compared to the untreated soil. The treatment effects differed considerably between the two years, due to different meteorological conditions. AC soil treatments did neither affect the availability of nutrients to the cucumber plants nor their yield (total fruit wet weight per pot). Thus, some important prerequisites for the successful application of AC amendments to immobilize organic pollutants in agricultural soils can be considered fulfilled. - The addition of activated charcoal to soil reduced dieldrin residues in cucumbers and did not affect nutrients availability.

  3. Lack of beneficial effect of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel James Offor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various diseases including testicular toxicity. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated a beneficial role of activated charcoal in lead induced testicular toxicity in male albino rats. Materials and Method: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats received deionised water (10 ml/kg, group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Absolute and relative weights of testis, epididymal sperm reserve, testicular sperm count, percent sperm motility and percent sperm viability were monitored. Results: AC failed to show any significant beneficial effect in ameliorating lead induced testicular toxicity. Conclusions: There seem to be a poor adsorption on lead onto AC in vivo.

  4. In vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by SuperChar, USP and Darco G-60 activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curd-Sneed, C.D.; Parks, K.S.; Bordelon, J.G.; Stewart, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro adsorption of sodium pentobarbital by three activated charcoals. Solutions of sodium pentobarbital (20 mM) were prepared in distilled water and in 70% sorbitol (w/v). Radiolabeled ( 14 C) sodium pentobarbital was added to each solution to serve as a concentration marker. Two ml of each drug solution was added to test tubes containing 40 mg of either Darco G-60, USP, or SuperChar activated charcoal. The drug-charcoal mixtures were incubated at 37 degrees C for O, 2.5, 5, 7.5 or 10 min. Equilibrium, indicated by a constant percentage of drug bound for two consecutive time periods, was established immediately for the aqueous mixtures and for Darco G-60 in sorbitol. The time to equilibrium was prolonged for USP (2.5 min) and SuperChar (5 min) in the presence of sorbitol. In the second series of experiments, solutions of sodium pentobarbital (1.25 to 160 mM) were prepared in either distilled water or sorbitol. Amount of drug bound by 10 to 320 mg of activated charcoal within a 10 min incubation period was determined. Scatchard analysis determined maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and dissociation constants (Kd) for each activated charcoal. In water, Bmax (mumoles/gm) was greatest for SuperChar (1141), followed by USP (580) and Darco G-60 (381), while the Kd's did not differ. Sorbitol did not change the Bmax or Kd of USP or Darco G-60, but the additive significantly decreased the Bmax (717) and increased the Kd for SuperChar (3.3 to 10.1 mM). The results suggest that relative binding capacity of activated charcoal is directly proportional to surface area, and that sorbitol significantly reduces sodium pentobarbital binding to SuperChar

  5. A comparative study of reverse osmosis and activated charcoal, two inexpensive and very effective ways to remove waterborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, K.T.; Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A two year comparative study of waterborne radon removal reveals that reverse osmosis is consistently more effective than the use of activated charcoal. Reverse osmosis is a process by which water is forced under a pressure sufficient to overcome osmotic pressure through a semipermeable membrane, leaving behind impurities. Removal effectiveness for dissolved organic, dissolved ionic and suspended impurities are typically above 90%. Systems designed for home use to remove impurities from water dispensed at a convenient tap cost about $2000 and commonly consist of a sediment filter, a carbon prefilter, and a reverse osmosis container. A tank of activated charcoal can work equally well, and cost $500-$1000. However, the tank of charcoal becomes measurably enriched in gamma-emitters

  6. Removal of Dissolved Cadmium by Adsorption onto Walnut and Almond Shell Charcoal: Comparison with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Saeedi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, adsorption of dissolved Cadmium (Cd onto walnut and almond shell charcoal and the standard granular activated carbon (GAC has been investigated and compared. The effect of pH value, initial concentration of dissolved Cadmium and amount of adsorbent on the adsorption of Cd by the mentioned adsorbents were investigated. Results showed that the adsorption process was highly dependent on pH. Maximum Cd removal was achieved when the final pH of the mixture fell within 6.5-7. Adsorption test results revealed that Cd adsorption on the studied adsorbents could be better described by Longmuir isotherm. Maximum Cd removal efficiencies were obtained by walnut shell charcoal (91%, almond shell charcoal (85%, and GAC (81%.

  7. Production of activated charcoal beads or green moldnings useful in stationary or fluidized bed uses rotary stirrer(s) for mixing carbonaceous powder with binder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s).......In the production of activated charcoal beads or green moldings by mixing carbonaceous powder with a binder, mixing is carried out in a stirred vessel with rotary stirrer(s)....

  8. Retrofitting of activated charcoal filters in the iodine removal system of Cirus reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, M.K.; Thomas, Shibu; Ullas, O.P.; Sharma, V.K.; Singh, Kapil Deo S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The emergency exhaust system for removal of iodine in the 40 MWt Cirus reactor consisted of a caustic scrubber followed by a bank of silver-coated copper mesh filters. The latter filter elements are no longer commercially available, and moreover, there is need to upgrade the system to meet the current safety norms. An iodine removal system based on activated charcoal adsorbers has been selected for this purpose. The design of the system ensures high iodine removal efficiency and thermal safety of the filters for a postulated accident condition beyond design basis accident. The new iodine removal system has been retrofitted during the current refurbishing programme of Cirus and it has been commissioned and tested satisfactorily

  9. Parametric study on removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, H.; Yuasa, Y.; Tani, A.; Ohki, M.; Nakagawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    The removal efficiency of impregnated activated charcoal and silver zeolite for radioactive methyl iodide is influenced by various parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, face velocity and packing density. This study is to evaluate the dependency of the removal efficiency on each parameter and these combined parameters, quantitatively. Four types of adsorbents, BC-727, AgX, CHC-50 and SS 208C 5KI 3 , were tested. From experimental data and mass transfer theory, an experimental equation for evaluating the removal efficiency of adsorbents was derived under a series of experiments for radioactive methyl iodine-131. It was concluded that the removal efficiency calculated from the experimental equation agreed well with the experimental value. Effects of experimental specific parameters, such as Pre-flow time, methyl iodide injection time and After-flow time, on the removal efficiency of adsorbent are also described

  10. Selection of design parameters of diffusion barrier in a passive 222Rn sampler based on activated charcoal adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Suxia

    1992-01-01

    A method concerning selection of design parameters of diffusion barrier in a passive 222 Rn sampler based on activated charcoal adsorption. The proper parameter value of diffusion barrier is obtained by means of linearization of 222 Rn adsorption versus the exposure time. Thus, the influence of temperature on measured results may be greatly decreased, and higher sensitivity of the detector may be maintained

  11. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.

    2012-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  12. In vitro adsorption of oxalic acid and glyoxylic acid onto activated charcoal, resins and hydrous zirconium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, R.; Scholten, J.; de Koning, H. W.; Tijssen, J.; ten Hoopen, H. W.; Olthuis, F. M.; Feijen, J.

    1982-01-01

    Patients suffering from primary hyperoxaluria show elevated plasma concentrations of oxalic acid and glyoxylic acid. The in vitro adsorption of these compounds into activated charcoal, a series of neutral and ion exchange resins and onto hydrous zirconium oxide has been investigated. Hydrous

  13. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T

    2011-01-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m 2 /g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  14. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuaprakone, T.; Wongphaet, N.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-04-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 °C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 °C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  15. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T, E-mail: tonggogo@hotmail.com [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 {mu}m. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m{sup 2}/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  16. The influence of physical parameters on the adsorption of iodine 131 by activated charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Chevalier, G.; Caron, J.; Van Der Meersch, J.

    1966-01-01

    Following an outline of the means of generating iodine 131 in the gas phase and a brief description of the apparatus used, the authors analyse the experimental results obtained on the trapping of iodine 131 by activated charcoal. The efficiency depends concurrently on the relative humidity and the iodine concentration of the air. While it is independent of this concentration in dry air, it does not exceed 50 in moist air, whatever the bed depth, when the concentration is less than 1 mCi/m 3 , then it increases with the concentrations to reach values close to those obtained in dry air for concentrations of around 1000 Ci/m 3 . At the same time the efficiency of a dust filter with respect to iodine remains very low in dry air whatever the iodine concentration; in moist air this efficiency, which is high at low concentrations, decreases when the latter increases. In addition if a charcoal bed is divided into several beds, separated by an amount corresponding to a passage time of about a second, it is found that the efficiency of the whole is appreciably higher than that of the initial bed. These results appear to establish the existence of at least two forms of iodine, one molecular form and one particulate form probably formed by clusters, the forms equilibrium being functions of the relative concentrations of iodine and water vapour in the air. The third form evidence, a gaseous form compound, remains hypothetical; the experimental curves can be explained either by the molecular and particular forms reversibility or by the increase of clusters size with the relative humidity of the air. (authors) [fr

  17. Production of active charcoal and characteristic of volatile organic compounds in condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalik, V.; Knoskova, L.

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade a production of charcoal and products from charcoal has been taking on an important position in a field of environmental technologies. Technological process of the production of charcoal is accompanied by formation of fluid and gaseous elements. These elements are ranked as pollutants from the legal point of view. There are mainly carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and other oxide compounds from the chemical point of view. Particularly acetic acid, methanol, 2-furaldehyde. Then aliphatic alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and other groups of substances. Law limits the quantity and concentration of these essentials emitted into the open air. This matter has to be taken care of during the production of charcoal. It is usually solved by condensation cooling and following burning gases and steams. Condensate is industrially processed or smaller technologies handle with it similar to taking care of wastewater. (authors)

  18. Nitrate Removal from Aqueous Solutions Using Almond Charcoal Activated with Zinc Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Arbabi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nitrate is one of the most important contaminants in aquatic environments that can leached to water resources from various sources such as sewage, fertilizers and decomposition of organic waste. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite in infant’s blood stream can cause “blue baby” disease in infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nitrate removal from aqueous solutions using modified almond charcoal with zinc chloride. Materials &Methods: This study is an experimental survey. At the first charcoal almond skins were prepared in 5500C and then modified with ZnCl2. Morphologies and characterization of almond shell charcoal were evaluated by using FTIR, EDX, BET and FESEM. Adsorption experiments were conducted with 500 ml sample in Becker. The nitrate concentration removal, contact time, pH and charcoal dosage were investigated. The central composite design method was used to optimizing the nitrate removal process. The results analyzed with ANOVA test. Results: The best condition founded in 48 min, 1250 ppm, 125 mg/l and 3 for retention time, primary nitrate concentration, charcoal dosage and pH respectively. The results showed that the nitrate removal decreases with increasing pH. Modification of skin charcoal is show increasing of nitrate removal from aquatic solution. Conclusion: In this study, the maximum nitrate removal efficiency for raw charcoal and modified charcoal was determined 15.47% and 62.78%, respectively. The results showed that this method can be used as an effective method for removing nitrate from aqueous solutions.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  20. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m 2 g −1 was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m 2 g −1 . Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm −2 (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g −1 ). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg −1 and 1.63 kW kg −1 , respectively, were achieved for EDLC

  1. Fabrication and characterization of energy storing supercapacitor devices using coconut shell based activated charcoal electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Amrita; Tripathi, S.K., E-mail: sktripathi16@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • CST with specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} was synthesized using impregnation method. • XRD studies of CST confirm the formation of graphite and amorphous C. • EDLC cell has been successfully fabricated using CST as an electrode material having good energy and power density. - Abstract: In the present studies coconut shell based treated activated charcoal (CST) was synthesized by chemical activation method using KOH (potassium hydroxide) as an activating agent. Surface area analysis shows that CST has mesopores of size 3 nm having specific surface area of 1640 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. Electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) was fabricated using CST as an electrode material with blend polymer electrolyte having specific capacitance of 534 mF cm{sup −2} (equivalent to single electrode specific capacitance of 356.2 F g{sup −1}). The corresponding energy and power density of 88.8 Wh kg{sup −1} and 1.63 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively, were achieved for EDLC.

  2. Study of adsorption properties of impregnated charcoal for airborne iodine and methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi-dong, L.; Sui-yuang, H.

    1985-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of airborne radioiodine and methyl iodide on impregnated charcoal were investigated. The activated charcoal tested was made from home-made oil-palm shells, and KI and TEDA were used as impregnants. A new technique was used to plot the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm at challenge concentrations (concentration range of iodine: 1-20 ppm v/v). Some adsorption properties of the impregnated charcoal were estimated with the dynamic partial adsorption isotherm. The dependences of the adsorption capacity and penetration behavior for airborne iodine and methyl iodide on the ambient conditions (temperature, relative humidity, and superficial velocity) were studied

  3. Generic conditional clearance for very low level active charcoal generated in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Perales, J. J.; Burgos Gallego, J.; Alvarez Mir, F.; Luis de Diego, J.; Adrada Garcia, J.

    1998-01-01

    This report proposes a generic conditional exemption to the very low level active charcoal generated in the operation of a NPP. The project has been developed in two parts: a common one (applied to the stream to be exempted) and a specific one (specific to the NPP that fulfills already the common part requirements). The common project specifies the methodology and the disposal options. It provides derived exemption levels and maximum amount of activity the exemption of which be feasible, demonstrating the viability of their conventional management. The specific project of each NPP will develop the amount of waste to be managed and other details that supplement the previous project, adjusting to the methodology and disposal options in the common project. The proposed management suggestion consists in burning the waste in a coal-burning plant and disposing of the scum in a controlled landfill. The resultant radiological dose is considered negligible according to the document Safety Series N 89 of the IAEA. The calculation of the radiological dose associated to several stages has been carried out using the IMPACTS-BRC code, contained in NUREG/CR-3585 and NUREG/5517. The methodology used in the radiological dose evaluation is as recommended in the Safety Guide n. 7.8 of the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council. (Author)

  4. Commercial Charcoal Characterisation For Water Purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saryati; Sumardjo; Sutisna; Handayani, Ari; Suprapti, Siti

    2001-01-01

    In order to provide a drinking water purification substance, has been studied the charcoal characterisation that based on a porous profile and an adsorption properties of the charcoal. There were using the commercial charcoal like wood charcoals, coconut shell charcoals and activated charcoals. The porous profile was studied by using an electron microscope SEM-EDX and the adsorption properties was studied by using the water sample simulation that contains several metal ions. The concentration of all ions was ten times greater that the maximum ions concentration that permissible in the drinking water. From the grain surface microscopic analysis was shown that the pore structure of the wood charcoal was more regular than the coconut shell charcoal. Mean while the activated charcoal has pore more than wood and coconut shell charcoal. Grains size was not an adsorption parameter. The absorptivitas charcoal was affected by pH solution, but this effect was not linear proportion. There are no significant deference in the adsorptivitas among the tree charcoals that has been studied for Al 3 + , Cr 3+ , Ag 1 +, and Pb 2+ ions the adsorption was large enough (> 60%), for Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Se 4+ , Cd 2+ and Ba 2+ ions was 20%-60% dan for Mg 2+ , Na 1+ , Ca 2+ , and Zn 2+ ions was less than 20 %. Generally the wood and coconut shell charcoal absorptivity in the pH 4 solutions was lower than in the pH 5-7 solutions

  5. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalumiana, O.S.; Hibajene, S.H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1998-01-01

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase 'excess' charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka's different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  6. The charcoal storage disaster. The Lusaka charcoal supply stabilization project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalumiana, O.S. [Department of Energy (Zambia); Hibajene, S.H. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia); Ellegaard, A. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden)

    1998-12-31

    The aims of the project were to study the charcoal price development and market structure, assess the possibility to purchase `excess` charcoal during the dry season and finally to implement an experimental storage facility. While the experimental storage could never be large enough to actually affect the charcoal price structure other than very locally, several important aspects of charcoal storage could be learnt, for example: the structure of the market in which charcoal producers and traders operate; logistics of charcoal storage; commercial risks of charcoal storage; the role of government in charcoal storage; an update of the charcoal price structure and development in Lusaka; and an indication of daily charcoal trade in Lusaka`s different markets. The experimental storage showed that there are several practical problems associated with storing charcoal. Storage involves more handling of the charcoal than common trade, which reduces the quality. Termites attacks the bags. Exposure to the sun and the (slight) rains that fell caused covering and packaging material to disintegrate, and the charcoal to become soft and friable. This type of charcoal was not in demand by the traders and urban consumers. Almost half of the charcoal stored was unsellable, causing the project to be a commercial disaster. Marketing costs were underestimated. The absence of a retail organization forced the project to sell to retailers to a large extent. These obviously needed a profit margin visavis the final customers, and so charcoal had to be sold below cost. Distribution of charcoal directly to the consumers in residential areas was tried but proved to be too costly. From the commercial point of view charcoal storage does not appear to be an activity which can attract free entrepreneurs, due to the impossibility of predicting the rains and thus the supply situation. This suggests that the only feasible actor to venture into storage would be the government, with the argument that the

  7. Adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (ADN) from aqueous solutions. 1. Adsorption on powdered activated charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Venkatachalam, S; Ninan, K N; Sadhana, R; Alwan, S; Abarna, V; Joseph, M A

    2003-03-17

    Investigations on the adsorption of ammonium dinitramide (NH(4)N(NO(2))(2)) (ADN) from aqueous solutions on powdered activated charcoal (PAC) were carried out in order to find out an effective and easier method of separating ADN from aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of PAC in the selective adsorption of ADN from aqueous solutions of ADN (ADN-F) and ADN in presence of sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) ions (ADN-PS) was examined and compared using batch and column methods. The adsorption process follows both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the isotherm parameters for the models were determined. The observed data favor the formation of monolayer adsorption. The adsorption capacities were found to be 63.3, 119, 105.3 and 82 mg of ADN per g of PAC for ADN-F (batch), ADN-PS (batch), ADN-F (column) and ADN-PS (column), respectively. Break-through curves for ADN-F and ADN-PS were obtained for the optimization of separation of ADN from aqueous solutions. Elution curves were generated for the desorption of ADN from PAC using hot water as eluent. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science B.V.

  8. Effects of p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, arabinogalactan, and activated charcoal on microspore embryogenesis in kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, R Q; Zhang, Y; Tong, Y; Liu, Z Y; Wang, Y H; Feng, H

    2015-04-27

    To improve embryogenesis in microspore cultures of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.), 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), arabinogalactan (AG), p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid (PCIB), and activated charcoal (AC) were added to the medium using four varieties of kale. The results showed that the addition of AG (0.1-0.2 g/L), AC (0.1-0.2 g/L) or a combination of 6-BA (0.1-0.2 mg/L) and NAA (0.1-0.2 mg/L) promoted embryo-genesis. Adding 40 μM PCIB or a combination of 40 μM PCIB and 0.2 g/L AC to NLN-13 medium at pH 5.8 effectively enhanced embryogenesis. Treatment with a combination of 40 μM PCIB and 10 mg/L AG gave the highest rate of embryonic induction, especially in genotype "Y007," which showed a twelve-fold increase in yield.

  9. Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipper, Beatriz I.A.; Madureira, Luiz A.S. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: madureira@qmc.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry X. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria

    2001-07-01

    The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianopolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3) for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 {mu}g g{sup -1} ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g{sup -1}. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes. (author)

  10. Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaipper Beatriz I. A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianópolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3 for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 mug g-1 ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g-1. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes.

  11. Radon adsorbed in activated charcoal- a simple and safe radiation source for teaching practical radioactivity in schools and colleges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, D.S.

    2014-01-01

    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, an ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal. Radon gas from ambient air in the laboratory was adsorbed into about 70 gram of activated charcoal inside metallic canisters. Gamma radiation was subsequently emitted from the canisters, following the radioactive decay of radon and its progenies. The intensities of the emitted gamma-rays were measured at suitable intervals using a NaI gamma-ray detector. The counts obtained were analysed and used to demonstrate the radioactive decay law and determine the half-life of radon. In addition to learning the basic properties of radioactivity, the students also get practical experience about the existence of natural sources of radiation in the environment. (author)

  12. Effects of growth regulators and activated charcoal for the micropropagation improvement of Dendrobium friedericksianum Rchb.f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasertsongskun, S. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of growth regulators and activated charcoal on micropropagation were studied. Seedlings of orchid, Dendrobium friedericksianum Rchb.f, cultured on Vacin and Went medium containing 1.0 mg/l α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA and 1.0 mg/l kinetin (KN significantly yielded per cultured plant, the highest average number of leaves (4.40, roots (8.30, shoot length (1.67 centimeters and fresh weight (0.23 grams. Particularly when activated charcoal was added (0.3% w/v the average number of leaves, roots, shoot length and fresh weight per cultured plant increased. Percentage survival of the plantlet after 21 days of transplantation was 85%.

  13. A survey of the effect of explants type, plant growth regulators and activated charcoal on callus induction in Papaver bracteatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus culture is necessary for production of suspension cell culture in plant breeding programs. Regarding to the application of Papaver bracteatum as an important medicinal plant in production of benzophenantridine alkaloids, this study was performed to find the most suitable hormone combination and explant type for achieving to high percentage of callus induction fresh weight and somatic embryogenesis in this plant. For this purpose, hypocotyl explants were cultured in ½MS media containing active charcoal (2 and 4 mgL-1 in combination of different concentrations of NAA, 2,4-D (0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mgL-1 and BA (0, 0.1 and 0.5 mgL-1. The seed explants were cultured in same treatments without active charcoal. Also, somatic embryogesis induction using seed explants in ½MS media containing different concentrations of NAA and 2,4-D (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 mgL-1 with BA 0.5 mgL-1 were investigated. The results showed that the highest percentage of callus induction (43.6%, 54% in hypocotyls explants were obtained in the ½MS media containing 2 mgL-1 active charcoal and 2 mgL-1 2,4-D and 5 mgL-1 NAA in companion with BA 0.5 mgL-1 respectively. The maximum callus induction (84% was obtained in ½MS medium with 1 mgL-1 2,4-D without active charcoal. The highest callus fresh weight (0.35% was obtained in MS media with 0.5 mgL-1 2,4-D andthe maximum rate of somatic embryogenesis induction (77% was observed in ½MS media containing 1 mgL-1 2,4-D with 0.5 mgL-1 BA.

  14. Analysis for iodide in groundwater by x-ray fluorescence spectrometry after collection as silver iodide on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, P.T.

    1980-01-01

    The report describes the determination of microgram quantities of iodide in water by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The iodide is concentrated by precipitation as silver iodide on activated charcoal. If a 60-mL sample is available, a concentration of 0.12 mg/L can be detected. Precision (2σ) at the 1-mg/L level is +- 0.08 mg/L. (auth)

  15. Adsorption equilibria of krypton, xenon, nitrogen and their mixtures on Molecular Sieve 5A and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Kenzo; Nishikawa, Masabumi; Fukumatsu, Teruki; Yamatsuki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption equilibria of Kr, Xe and N 2 , which are constituents of the off-gas from nuclear reprocessing processes, on representative adsorbents (Molecular Sieve 5A (MS5A) and activated charcoal) were studied. Adsorption experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 77 to 323 K using a packed bed column. The adsorption isotherms for the activated charcoal adsorbent were successfully correlated by the vacancy solution model. The adsorption isotherms for the MS5A adsorbent were properly correlated by the Langmuir model and the vacancy solution model. The adsorption experiments for the binary component systems (Kr-Xe, Kr-N 2 systems) were also performed, and the results suggest that the coexistence of Xe greatly inhibits the adsorption of Kr. The coexistence of large amounts of N 2 was also found to inhibit the adsorption of Kr. The experimental results for the adsorption equilibrium of binary component systems on the activated charcoal adsorbent were well reproduced by the vacancy solution model without parameter fitting. The binary adsorption equilibrium on the MS5A adsorbent is rather well predicted by the ideal adsorbed solution model without parameter fitting. The use of the vacancy solution model for this adsorption system requires the optimization of parameters, but the binary adsorption equilibrium is well reproduced with the optimized parameters. (author)

  16. Determination of gold of No. 501 uranium deposits and soil samples by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Maogen; Yao Liying.

    1989-01-01

    The gold determination method is described by cold leaching gold in dilute aqua regia and collection on activated charcoal and presents the results obtained in determining gold of uranium deposits and soil samples

  17. Effect of ethanol and pH on the adsorption of acetaminophen (paracetamol) to high surface activated charcoal, in vitro studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Angelo, Helle R; Christophersen, A Bolette

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (acetaminophen) intoxication often in combination with ethanol, is seen commonly in overdose cases. Doses of several grams might be close to the maximum adsorption capacity of the standard treatment dose (50g) of activated charcoal. The aim of this study was to determine...... the maximum adsorption capacity for paracetamol for two types of high surface-activated charcoal [Carbomix and Norit Ready-To-Use (not yet registered trademark in Denmark) both from Norit Cosmara, Amersfoort, The Netherlands] in simulated in vivo environments: At pH 1.2 (gastric environment), at pH 7.......2 (intestinal environment), and with and without 10% ethanol. METHODS: Activated charcoal, at both gastric or intestinal pHs, and paracetamol were mixed, resulting in activated charcoal-paracetamol ratios from 10:] to 1:1. In trials with ethanol, some of the gastric or intestinal fluid was replaced...

  18. Comparison of Deferoxamine, Activated Charcoal, and Vitamin C in Changing the Serum Level of Fe in Iron Overloaded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ghafari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron is an essential mineral for normal cellular physiology but its overload can lead to cell injury. For many years, deferoxamine injection has been used as an iron chelator for treatment of iron overload. The aim of this study is to compare oral deferoxamine, activated charcoal, and vitamin C, as an absorbent factor of Fe, in changing the serum level of iron in iron overload rats. Methods: In this experimental study, all groups were administered 150 mg iron dextran orally by gavage. After eight hours, rats in the first group received oral deferoxamine while those in the second and third groups received oral activated charcoal 1 mg/kg and oral vitamin C 150 mg, respectively. Then, serum levels of iron ware measured in all rats. Results: The mean serum level of iron in rats that received oral deferoxamine was 258.11±10.49 µg/dl, whereas mean levels of iron in charcoal and vitamin C groups were 380.88±11.21 µg/dl and 401.22±13.28 µg/dl, respectively. None of the measurements were within safety limits of serum iron. Conclusion: It seems that oral deferoxamine per se may not help physicians in the management of cases presented with iron toxicity. Activated charcoal did not reduce serum iron significantly in this study and further investigations may be warranted to assess the potential clinical utility of its mixture with oral deferoxamine as an adjunct in the clinical management of iron ingestions.

  19. The Influence of Coconut Water and Activated Charcoal in MS Medium on In Vitro Callus Regeneration of Dendrobium sp. Cultivar Bertha Chong Orchids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Novita Sari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dendrobium is one of the most commercial orchids. In Vitro technique is one of solution to fulfill the market demand of Dendrobium. Organic matters, such as coconut water, and activated charcoal are often given to in vitro medium to regenerate orchids callus. The addition of activated charcoal is not only adsorbing toxic substances but also organic matters. The aimof this researchistofindthe best combination for callus regeneration medium. The research was conducted at the Biological Cell and Molecular Laboratory, Mathematics and Natural Science Faculty of Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh since March to November 2013. The method used is experimental with Completely Randomized Factorial Design with two factor; treatments of coconut water and activated charcoal. The result showed that the combinationof 150mL/Lcoconut waterand2,0g/Lactivated charcoal is the best resultbecauseit is the onlytreatment that have capability in producingplantletswithin60days.

  20. Effects of urine alkalization and activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered carprofen in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raekallio, Marja R; Honkavaara, Juhana M; Säkkinen, Mia S; Peltoniemi, S Marikki

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effects of oral administration of activated charcoal (AC) and urine alkalinization via oral administration of sodium bicarbonate on the pharmacokinetics of orally administered carprofen in dogs. 6 neutered male Beagles. Each dog underwent 3 experiments (6-week interval between experiments). The dogs received a single dose of carprofen (16 mg/kg) orally at the beginning of each experiment; after 30 minutes, sodium bicarbonate (40 mg/kg, PO), AC solution (2.5 g/kg, PO), or no other treatments were administered. Plasma concentrations of unchanged carprofen were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography at intervals until 48 hours after carprofen administration. Data were analyzed by use of a Student paired t test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank test. Compared with the control treatment, administration of AC decreased plasma carprofen concentrations (mean +/- SD maximum concentration was 85.9 +/- 11.9 mg/L and 58.1 +/- 17.6 mg/L, and area under the time-concentration curve was 960 +/- 233 mg/L x h and 373 +/- 133 mg/L x h after control and AC treatment, respectively). The elimination half-life remained constant. Administration of sodium bicarbonate had no effect on plasma drug concentrations. After oral administration of carprofen in dogs, administration of AC effectively decreased maximum plasma carprofen concentration, compared with the control treatment, probably by decreasing carprofen absorption. Results suggest that AC can be used to reduce systemic carprofen absorption in dogs receiving an overdose of carprofen. Oral administration of 1 dose of sodium bicarbonate had no apparent impact on carprofen kinetics in dogs.

  1. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of escitalopram in overdose and the effect of activated charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gorp, Freek; Duffull, Stephen; Hackett, L Peter; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PKPD) of escitalopram in overdose and its effect on QT prolongation, including the effectiveness of single dose activated charcoal (SDAC). METHODS The data set included 78 escitalopram overdose events (median dose, 140 mg [10–560 mg]). SDAC was administered 1.0 to 2.6 h after 12 overdoses (15%). A fully Bayesian analysis was undertaken in WinBUGS 1.4.3, first for a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis followed by a PKPD analysis. The developed PKPD model was used to predict the probability of having an abnormal QT as a surrogate for torsade de pointes. RESULTS A one compartment model with first order input and first-order elimination described the PK data, including uncertainty in dose and a baseline concentration for patients taking escitalopram therapeutically. SDAC reduced the fraction absorbed by 31% and reduced the individual predicted area under the curve adjusted for dose (AUCi/dose). The absolute QT interval was related to the observed heart rate with an estimated individual heart rate correction factor (α = 0.35). The heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) was linearly dependent on predicted escitalopram concentration [slope = 87 ms/(mg l–1)], using a hypothetical effect-compartment (half-life of effect-delay, 1.0h). Administration of SDAC significantly reduced QT prolongation and was shown to reduce the risk of having an abnormal QT by approximately 35% for escitalopram doses above 200 mg. CONCLUSIONS There was a dose-related lengthening of the QT interval that lagged the increase in drug concentration. SDAC resulted in a moderate reduction in fraction of escitalopram absorbed and reduced the risk of the QT interval being abnormal. PMID:21883384

  2. Preparing activated carbon from charcoal and investigation of the selective uranium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuetahyali, C.; Eral, M.

    2001-01-01

    Preconcentration and separation procedures based on adsorption phenomena are important in nuclear and especially radiation chemistry, industry, medicine and daily life. Adsorption of uranium onto various solids is important from purification, environmental and radioactive waste disposal points of view . The treatment of aqueous nuclear waste solutions containing soluble metal ions requires concentration of the metal ions into smaller volume followed by recovery or secure disposal. For this purpose, many processes are being utilized such as precipitation, ion-exchange, solvent extraction and adsorption on solids etc. Interest in the adsorption of metal ions for recovery purposes has increased manyfold in recent years, because of its simplicity, selectivity and efficiency . The main advantage of adsorption is the separation of trace amount of elements from large volumes of solutions. In recent years, several studies have been made to recover radionuclides by adsorption using natural and synthetic adsorbents. Adsorption on charcoal is one of the most efficient techniques used in water treatment processes for the removal of organics and micropollutants from wastes and drinking waters. Adsorption processes have long been used in the removal of color, odor, and organic pollution. These processes are usually based on the use of activated carbon . Activated carbon consists mainly of carbon and is produced from every carbonaceous material. Activated carbon characterized by its high surface area and its wide distribution of porosity. The textural properties (surface area and porosity) of activated carbons play an important role in determining the capacity of the material in adsorption from aqueous solution. Chemistry of the surface is also important . Generally, activated carbons are mainly microporous, but in addition to micropores they contain meso- and macropores, which are very important in facilitating acces of the adsorbate molecules to the interior of carbon particles

  3. Towards the use of small amounts of activated charcoal along with well-type NaI(Tl) detector for indoor radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, D.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of using small quantities of activated charcoal and a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI(Tl) well-type detector was investigated for indoor radon measurements. Vials, filled with 10 g of charcoal, were exposed for different indoor radon concentration levels typical of Kuwait dwellings. After exposure, the vials were sealed and kept for 3 h to allow radon to come into radioactive equilibrium with its progenies and were then analysed by gamma-ray spectrometry using the well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The variation of radon absorption by the vials filled with charcoal with exposure time was also studied. A comparative study of the present technique with the standard technique of using 70 g charcoal canisters and flat NaI detector was also performed. After establishing the suitability of the technique, the charcoal vials were then used to investigate the effect of air-ventilation on the concentration levels of the indoor radon. Results show that there is a reduction in the radon concentration level (up to 25%) when the air-ventilation system was switched on. The paper presents the results of the study on the feasibility of combining small amounts of activated charcoal with a well-type NaI(Tl) detector in the measurement of indoor radon concentrations. (authors)

  4. A passive radon dosimeter based on the combination of a track etch detector and activated charcoal

    CERN Document Server

    Deynse, A V; Poffijn, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to test a combination of a Makrofol track detector with a new type of charcoal (Carboxen-564) to design a personal radon dosimeter. The intention is to use this dosimeter as a personal radon dosimeter to measure the monthly radon exposure in workplaces, especially when the occupancy is not exactly known. The proposed combination was exposed to low and high concentrations of radon in a large range of relative humidity (RH). For the optimal layer thickness, a charcoal bed of 2.2 mm, a specific track density of 5.1 tracks cm sup - sup 2 /kBq h m sup - sup 3 was obtained. For a monthly working exposure (170 h) at an average radon concentration of 100 Bq/m sup 3 , this means 87 tracks/cm sup 2 or 10 times the background of the Makrofol detector, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%.

  5. Evaluation of the activated charcoals and adsorption conditions used in the treatment of sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Marton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol has sweetening, anticariogenic and clinical properties that have attracted the attention of the food and pharmaceutical industries. The conversion of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass into xylitol by D-xylose-fermenting yeast represents an alternative to the chemical process for producing this polyol. A good source of D-xylose is sugarcane bagasse, which can be hydrolyzed with dilute acid. However, acetic acid, which is toxic to the yeast, also appears in the hydrolysate, inhibiting microbe metabolism. Xylitol production depends on the initial D-xylose concentration, which can be increased by concentrating the hydrolysate by vacuum evaporation. However, with this procedure the amount of acetic acid is also increased, aggravating the problem of cell inhibition. Hydrolysate treatment with powdered activated charcoal is used to remove or decrease the concentration of this inhibitor, improving xylitol productivity as a consequence. Our work was an attempt to improve the fermentation of Candida guilliermondii yeast in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by treating the medium with seven types of commercial powdered activated charcoals (Synth, Carbon Delta A, Carbon Delta G, Carbon 117, Carbon 118L, Carbon 147 and Carvorite, each with its own unique physicochemical properties. Various adsorption conditions were established for the variables temperature, contact time, shaking, pH and charcoal concentration. The experiments were based on multivariate statistical concepts, with the application of fractional factorial design techniques to identify the variables that are important in the process. Subsequently, the levels of these variables were quantified by overlaying the level curves, which permitted the establishment of the best adsorption conditions for attaining high levels of xylitol volumetric productivity and D-xylose-to-xylitol conversion. This procedure consisted in increasing the original pH of the hydrolysate to 7.0 with CaO and reducing it

  6. Wildfire Activity Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in the Polish Basin: Evidence from New Fossil Charcoal & Carbon-isotope Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointer, R.; Belcher, C.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hodbod, M.; Pieńkowski, G.

    2017-12-01

    New fossil charcoal abundance and carbon-isotope data from two sedimentary cores provide new evidence of extreme environmental conditions in the Polish Basin during the Latest Triassic to Earliest Jurassic. Sedimentary cores from the Polish Basin provide an excellent record of terrestrial environmental conditions across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary, a time of climatic extremes. Previous work has shown that the marine realm was affected by a large perturbation to the carbon cycle across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary (manifested by large negative and positive carbon-isotope excursions) and limited records of charcoal abundance and organic geochemistry have indicated important changes in fire regime in the coeval ecosystems. Here we present two new carbon-isotope records generated from fossil plant matter across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, and present new charcoal records. The charcoal abundance data confirm that there was variation in wildfire activity during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the Polish Basin. Peaks in the number of fossil charcoal fragments present occur in both sedimentary cores, and increases in fossil charcoal abundance are linked to wildfires, signalling a short-lived rise in wildfire activity. Fossil charcoal abundance does not appear to be fully controlled by total organic matter content, depositional environment or bioturbation. We argue that increased wildfire activity is likely caused by an increase in ignition of plant material as a result of an elevated number of lightning strikes. Global warming (caused by a massive input of carbon into the atmosphere, as indicated by carbon-isotope data) can increase storm activity, leading to increased numbers of lightning strikes. Previous Triassic-Jurassic Boundary wildfire studies have found fossil charcoal abundance peaks at other northern hemisphere sites (Denmark & Greenland), and concluded that they represent increases in wildfire activity in the earliest Jurassic. Our new charcoal and

  7. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arao, Tomohito; Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji

    2011-01-01

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: → Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). → Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. → MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. → MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. → AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  8. Comparative removal of congo red dye from water by adsorption on grewia asiatica leaves, raphanus sativus peels and activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Abbas, A.; Murtaza, S.; Mahmud, T.; Waheed-uz-Zaman; Salman, M.; Shafiq, U.

    2012-01-01

    Water treatment by adsorption methodology is being evolved in recent years. Various researchers are searching new adsorbents for water treatment which can replace activated charcoal. In the following study, the efficiency of removing Congo Red dye from water using two novel adsorbents, i.e. Raphanus sativus (Radish) peels and Grewia asiatica (Phalsa) leaves was evaluated and compared with activated charcoal. The adsorption process is carried out batch wise by using different concentrations of the aqueous dye solution with different adsorbent doses, agitation rate, varying contact time intervals, at a range of initial pH values and at different temperatures. Various chemicals were used for enhancing the adsorption capacity of adsorbents. The suitability of the adsorbent for using it is tested by fitting the adsorption data on Langmuir isotherm. The results showed that the Phalsa leaves powder is more effective adsorbent than Reddish peels for removing Congo Red dye from water. It can be used for removing Congo Red dye from waste water. (author)

  9. Reduction in uptake by rice and soybean of aromatic arsenicals from diphenylarsinic acid contaminated soil amended with activated charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arao, Tomohito, E-mail: arao@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan); Maejima, Yuji; Baba, Koji [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, Soil Environmental Division, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Activated charcoal (AC) amendment has been suggested as a promising method to immobilize organic contaminants in soil. We performed pot experiments with rice and soybean grown in agricultural soil polluted by aromatic arsenicals (AAs). The most abundant AA in rice grains and soybean seeds was methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA). MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 2% and 3% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil in the first year of rice cultivation. In the second year, MPAA concentration in rice grains was significantly reduced to 15% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was significantly reduced to 44% in 0.2% AC treated soil compared to untreated soil. AC amendment was effective in reducing AAs in rice and soybean. - Highlights: > Pot experiments using agricultural soil contaminated with aromatic arsenicals (AAs). > Methylphenylarsinic acid (MPAA) was the most abundant AA in rice and soybean. > MPAA concentration in rice grains was dramatically reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > MPAA concentration in soybean seeds was also reduced via 0.2% AC amendment. > AC amendment effectively reduced AAs in rice and soybean. - Activated charcoal amendment to soil contaminated with diphenylarsinic acid reduced aromatic arsenicals in rice and soybean.

  10. [Clinical presentation, therapeutic approach and outcomes in acute poisoning treated with activated charcoal. Are there differences between men and women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigó-Tadín, Montserrat; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Miró-Andreu, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether there are gender-based differences in the clinical presentation, therapeutic approaches and outcomes in acute poisoning treated with activated charcoal. A descriptive study conducted in the Emergency Department of the Hospital Clínic de Barcelona over the 7 years between the years 2001 and 2008. The study included poisoned patients who had received activated charcoal. The variables included, epidemiological data, clinical and toxicological presentation, therapeutic approach, time in emergency department and outcomes. A total of 575 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 37.8 (SD 14.8) years and 65.7% were females. No differences were observed between males and females with respect to age, number of drugs involved in the poisoning or the number of tablets ingested, but a higher prevalence of benzodiazepine poisoning was observed in females compared to males (69.8 vs. 61.2%; Ppoisoning was more common in males than in females (32.4 vs.18.8%; Ppoisoning was also more common in males than in females (7.9 vs. 3.2%; Ppoisonings, delays in care, hours of emergency department stay, treatment or outcome. Benzodiazepine poisoning was more prevalent in females than in males. Non-drug poisonings and alcohol combined with drug ingestion were more common in males. The clinical outcomes of the poisonings, delays in care, therapeutic requirements and admissions were similar between genders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Chi-kin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men, they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59 were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  12. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Chi-kin; Leung, Candi M C

    2012-07-06

    Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20-59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific.

  13. Temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides among the working age population in Hong Kong SAR: the influence of economic activity status and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Charcoal burning in a sealed room has recently emerged as the second most common suicide means in Hong Kong, causing approximately 200 deaths each year. As charcoal burning suicide victims have a unique sociodemographic profile (i.e., predominantly economically active men), they may commit suicide at specific times. However, little is known about the temporal patterns of charcoal burning suicides. Methods Suicide data from 2001 to 2008 on victims of usual working age (20–59) were obtained from the registered death files of the Census and Statistics Department of Hong Kong. A total of 1649 cases of charcoal burning suicide were analyzed using a two-step procedure, which first examined the temporal asymmetries in the incidence of suicide, and second investigated whether these asymmetries were influenced by sex and/or economic activity status. Poisson regression analyses were employed to model the monthly and daily patterns of suicide by economic activity status and sex. Results Our findings revealed pronounced monthly and daily temporal variations in the pattern of charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong. Consistent with previous findings on overall suicide deaths, there was an overall spring peak in April, and Monday was the common high risk day for all groups. Although sex determined the pattern of variation in charcoal burning suicides, the magnitude of the variation was influenced by the economic activity status of the victims. Conclusion The traditional classification of suicide methods as either violent or nonviolent tends to elide the temporal variations of specific methods. The interaction between sex and economic activity status observed in the present study indicates that sex should be taken into consideration when investigating the influence of economic activity status on temporal variations of suicide. This finding also suggests that suicide prevention efforts should be both time- and subgroup-specific. PMID:22770504

  14. Theoretical study of the diffusion 222Rn gas on activated charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Fabio O.; Canoba, Analia C.

    2001-01-01

    The 222 Rn adsorption coefficient is the fundamental parameter characterizing activated carbon's ability to adsorb 222 Rn . In this work, it has been determined the 222 Rn coefficient adsorption for 222 Rn activated carbon detectors. Scintillation vials were used as detectors. The measurement of the 222 Rn activity adsorbed in activated carbon was made by a liquid scintillation measurement of its alpha-beta progeny decay. On the other hand, in this work a diffusion and adsorption model has been developed for the transport of 222 Rn in an activated carbon porous bed. The equation that describes these processes is a partial differential equation, of the second order with respect to axial coordinate, and the first order with respect to time. The equation was numerically solved using a finites differences method. With this model the 222 Rn activity adsorbed in the detector, for several situations, was calculated. The results were tested with the data obtained from series of experiences made in our laboratories. (author)

  15. The addition of salt in the water media containing zeolite and active charcoal on closed system transportation of gourami fish fry Osphronemus goramy Lac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Nirmala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of fish fry with high density in closed system will reduce levels of O2, increasing CO2 and NH3, will also elevate the fish stress so that increase fish mortality. To reduce the effects of increased CO2 and NH3 can be applied by using zeolite and activated charcoal, while to reduce the fish stress is through the addition of salt. This study aims to determine the dose of salt added into the water containing zeolite and activated charcoal in a closed transportation system with a high fry density for 72 hours. The study was conducted two stages, namely the preliminary study and the primary study. The preliminary study involved the observation of the survival rate of fish fry during fasting, oxygen consumption rate of fish fry, the rate of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN excretion of fish fry, and the adsorption capacity of TAN by zeolite and activated charcoal. In the primary study, fry transport simulations was carried out for 72 hours in the laboratory. Gourami fry (body length of 4 cm and body weight of 1.7 g with the fry density of 50 fish/L were placed in the packing bag which has been filled with zeolite as much as 20 g/L and activated charcoal as much as 10 g/L. The study used a completely randomized design with five treatments and two replications: A: blank (without zeolite, activated charcoal, and salt, B: control (20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal, C: 20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 1 g/L salt, D: 20 g/L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 3 g/L of salt, and E: 20 g/ L zeolite+10 g/L activated charcoal and 5 g/L salt. The results of preliminary study showed that the survival rate of fish fry was 100% and active swimming for five days without food, the level of oxygen consumption as much as 1340.28 mgO2, produce NH3 as much as 22.64 mg/L, while zeolite and activated charcoal adsorbs >50% of TAN in time of 120 seconds. In the primary study, the survival rate of fish fry during the 72-hour transportation for

  16. Effects of weathering on impregnated charcoal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.

    1977-10-01

    Commercial activated charcoals have been exposed to known contaminants under controlled laboratory conditions and also to large volumes of outdoor air and each sample then evaluated for methyl iodide penetration. There is strong evidence that the interaction of water vapor and the charcoal is a significant factor in the degradation of the charcoals when the relative humidity is 70% and greater. The laboratory air mixtures studied were water vapor, water vapor and sulfur dioxide, water vapor and ozone, and water vapor and carbon monoxide. The charcoal in each of the four 0.5-in. layers making up the 2-in. test bed was degraded by the contaminants, but the first layer was influenced most. For the same charcoal the cumulative effect during one, two, and three months of weathering with outdoor air led to a progressive increase in methyl iodide penetration. The experimentation is being extended to additional commercial charcoals and to additional contaminant species in the laboratory experiments

  17. Effect of fermentation inhibitors in the presence and absence of activated charcoal on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee; Song, Se Hee; Wee, Young-Jung; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2013-06-01

    The acidic hydrolysis of biomass generates numerous inhibitors of fermentation, which adversely affect cell growth and metabolism. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of fermentation inhibitors on growth and glucose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We also conducted in situ adsorption during cell cultivation in synthetic broth containing fermentation inhibitors. In order to evaluate the effect of in situ adsorption on cell growth, five inhibitors, namely 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, levulinic acid, furfural, formic acid, and acetic acid, were introduced into synthetic broth. The existence of fermentation inhibitors during cell culture adversely affects cell growth and sugar consumption. Furfural, formic acid, and acetic acid were the most potent inhibitors in our culture system. The in situ adsorption of inhibitors by the addition of activated charcoal to the synthetic broth increased cell growth and sugar consumption. Our results indicate that detoxification of fermentation media by in situ adsorption may be useful for enhancing biofuel production.

  18. Evaluation of Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were investigated in treated and untreated diabetics as well as ... decrease the availability of these proteins which affect the clotting ... calcum rabbit brain thromboplastin reagent placed in.

  19. Binding affinities of cationic dyes in the presence of activated charcoal and anionic surfactant in the premicellar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farman; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Fawad; Bibi, Iram; Shah, Syed W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Binding preferences of cationic dyes malachite green and methylene blue in a mixed charcoal-sodium dodecyl sulfate system have been investigated using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The dye adsorption shows surfactant-dependent patterns, indicating diverse modes of interactions. At low surfactant concentration, a direct binding to charcoal is preferred. Comparatively greater quantities of surfactant lead to attachment of dye-surfactant complex to charcoal through hydrophobic interactions. A simple model was employed for determination of equilibrium constant K eq and concentration of dye-surfactant ion pair N DS for both dyes. The values of binding parameters revealed that malachite green was directly adsorbed onto charcoal, whereas methylene blue was bound through surfactant monomers. The model is valid for low surfactant concentrations in the premicellar region. These findings have significance for material and environmental sciences.

  20. Producing charcoal from wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental works to use wood wastes for producing charcoal are examined, which are being conducted in the Sverdlovsk assembly and adjustment administration of Soyuzorglestekhmontazh. A wasteless prototype installation for producing fine charcoal is described, along with its subsequent briqueting, which is made on the basis of units which are series produced by the factories of the country. The installation includes subassemblies for preparing and drying the raw material and for producing the charcoal briquets. In the opinion of specialists, the charcoal produced from the wastes may be effectively used in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy and in the production of pipes.

  1. In Vitro Study of Adsorption Kinetics of Dextromethorphan Syrup onto Activated Charcoal in Simulated Gastric and Intestinal Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Regmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption kinetics of dextromethorphan (DXM syrup in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids onto activated charcoal (AC were investigated in an in vitro model. The adsorption studies were performed as a function of time, initial concentration, and temperature. The quantification of DXM adsorbed onto AC was obtained from the Langmuir adsorption isotherms using HPLC. The maximum adsorption capacities (at 95% confidence limits of AC for DXM were 111.615 [106.38; 126.85] mg in simulated intestinal environment (pH 6.8 and 78.314 [86.206; 70.422] mg in simulated gastric environment (pH 1.2. The adsorption capacity of AC for DXM in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2 was not significantly different from the adoption capacity of AC for DXM in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8. Moreover, the adsorption kinetics behavior of dextromethorphan onto AC followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. Our results show that AC in therapeutically acceptable doses can be beneficial in the majority of oral overdose of DXM.

  2. Adsorption Kinetics of Cd(ll and Pb(ll Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bamboo-Based Activated Charcoal and Bamboo Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bamboo dust (BD and bamboo-based activated charcoal for adsorption of Pb(ll and Cd(ll ions from aqueous solutions were assessed in this work. The effect of contact time on the uptake of these metal ions was studied in batch process. The adsorption data were correlated with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and diffusivity kinetic models. Results show that pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description for the adsorption process. Kinetic studies further showed that the adsorption transport mechanism was particle-diffusion controlled for the adsorption process. Results obtained generally showed that lead(ll ions were better adsorbed onto both adsorbents as compared to cadmium(ll. Comparison of sorption capacity for the two adsorbents shows that bamboo-based activated charcoal exhibited better removal for the metal ions than the bamboo dust.

  3. The immobilized NaHSO4·H2O on activated charcoal: a highly efficient promoter system for N-formylation of amines with ethyl formate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Zeynizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The immobilized NaHSO4·H2O on activated charcoal was used as a highly efficient promoter system for facile N-formylation of amines with ethyl formate. All reactions were carried out in refluxing ethyl formate (54 ºC under mild conditions within 10-100 min to afford the product formamides in high to excellent yields (80-94%.

  4. The determination of gold in activated charcoal by use of a loose-powder technique and x-ray-fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaes, A.M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The method of analysis described is applicable to samples of activated charcoal with a gold concentration of 15g/t and higher. The use of a loose-powder technique minimizes the time taken for the preparation of samples. A platinum internal standard is used for the correction for matrix effects and for differences that could be caused by the packing of the loose charcoal into liquid-sample cups. The precision of the method ranges from a relative standard deviation of 0,085 to 0,016 for concentrations of gold from 67 to 3800g/t respectively. The agreement between the recommended values for a set of reference samples and the values obtained by the X-ray-fluorescence method is better than 3 per cent. The overall time required for the analysis of ten samples and standards is approximately 1 hour. A detailed laboratory method and a computer programme for the calculations are given as appendices

  5. Selection of a method to produce activated charcoal using four forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Builes, Jhon Fredy; Morales Yepes, Wilmar Alexander; Perez Schile, Juan David

    2004-01-01

    This investigation was conducted in the coal and of forest products laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Medellin. It was oriented towards the selection of a method to obtain activated carbon form the following forest species; pino patula (Pinus patula), chingale Jacaranda copaia) pino tecunumani (pinus tecunumani) and roble (Quercus humboldti). The wood of each was characterized determining their physical properties of density and contraction. Seven different methods were tested; chemical activation chemical-physical activation with CO 2 chemical-physical activation with CO 2 and water vapor; chemical-physical activation with water vapor; physical activation with CO 2 ; physical activation with water vapor and physical activation with CO 2 and water vapor. The variables studied were residence time and temperature. Taking as a parameter the Iodine index, the chemical-physical activation with water vapor was selected, obtaining an Iodine index of over 800 for all the species studied with the exception of roble that only attained 764 which is still acceptable for water treatment

  6. A new method activation analysis of 131I in charcoal cartridge sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Caifeng; Xu Jiayun; Qin Jianguo; Wang Dalun

    2011-01-01

    Instead of the traditional method for measuring 1311 activation by calibrating the detecting efficiency, MCNP5 calculation and ill-posed equation solution were used in a new method for analysing 131 I activation and depth distribution in sample box. Because of no necessary to prepare for standard sample and calibrate the efficiency, it makes the survey of 131 I more quickly and accurately and is able to take into account the physics processes of 131 I in the sample box. (authors)

  7. Production of high quality adsorbent charcoal from Phil. Wood II. Granulated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arida, V.P.; Atienza, O.G.; Quilao, T.A.; Caballero, A.R.; Laxamana, J.S.; Pugal, D.L.; Guce, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    Two Philippine wood species out of twelve earlier studied in part I namely ''ipil-ipil'' Leucaena leucocephala (Lann) de Wit and coconut coir dust were selected for the production of good quality granulated activated carbon. Fluidization method was used in the study. The conditions for the granulation of the carbonized chars using molasses were established. An optimum ratio of 1:0.5 and 1:0.8 (char:binder) was used in the granulation process for ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust, respectively. Carbonization was done at gradually increasing temperature of 3 0 C/min at 600 0 C. Carbonized granules with particle sizes ranging from 0.5-2.0 mm were used for the activation study. The produced granules were activated in an external heat type stainless steel reactor as mentioned in Part I using steam as activating agent. The physical properties and adsorptive capacity of the activated granular products obtained at varying activation were determined and correlated. Methylene blue adsorption and internal surface area obtained at varying conditions were determined and correlated. Maximum values obtained for methylene blue adsorption and internal surface area are 290 mg/g AC and 1,200m 2 /g AC at 900 0 C, respectively for ''ipil-ipil'' and 390 mg/g AC and 1,000m 2 g AC at 850 0 C respectively for coir dust. Gas adsorption tests done using benzene acetone and carbon tetrachloride for both ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust activated granular char products showed that both exhibited maximum absorbability at 900 0 C. Results of the study have shown that good quality granulated activated carbon can be produced from ''ipil-ipil'' and coir dust which find suitable applications in various adsorption processes such as organic solvent adsorption, gas adsorption, water purification, oil and sugar refining, among others. (auth.). 3 refs.; 4 tabs.; 14 figs

  8. Activated carbon, biochar and charcoal: Linkages and synergies across pyrogenic carbon's ABC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar and activated carbon, both carbonaceous pyrogenic materials, are important products for environmental technology and intensively studied for a multitude of purposes. A strict distinction between these materials is not always possible, and also a generally accepted terminology is lacking. How...

  9. An exploratory study; the therapeutic effects of premixed activated charcoal-sorbitol administration in patients poisoned with organophosphate pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeongmi; Chun, Byeongjo; Song, Kyounghwan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of activated charcoal (AC) mixed with cathartics for gastric decontamination in the management of organophosphate (OP) poisoning remain unknown due to limited clinical evidence. This exploratory study assessed the effectiveness of premixed AC-sorbitol as a treatment for OP poisoning. This retrospective observational case study included patients who either did not receive AC-sorbitol or received a single dose of AC-sorbitol within 24 h after OP ingestion. The patients were divided into three groups: no AC-sorbitol treatment, patients who received AC-sorbitol within 1 h of OP ingestion, and patients who received AC-sorbitol more than 1 h after OP ingestion. Mortality, the development of respiratory failure, and the duration of mechanical ventilation were used as outcome measurements for effectiveness, whereas aspiration pneumonia and electrolyte imbalance were employed as safety measurements. Among 262 patients with OP poisoning, 198 were included. Of these, 133 patients did not receive AC-sorbitol, whereas 14 and 51 patients received AC-sorbitol within 1 h or more than 1 h after ingestion, respectively. The time from ingestion to hospital arrival and time from ingestion to administration of atropine and pralidoxime differed among the groups, whereas other characteristics, including age, amount ingested, and type of ingested OP, were similar among the groups. Univariate and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the administration of AC-sorbitol was not associated with outcome measures for effectiveness and did not significantly increase either aspiration pneumonia or electrolyte imbalances during hospitalization. The administration of AC-sorbitol exerted neither beneficial nor harmful effects on the outcomes of OP-poisoned patients regardless of the time from OP ingestion to administration, compared with those of patients who did not receive AC-sorbitol. However, this study enrolled a small number of patients who received AC-sorbitol; further qualified

  10. Adsorption of methyl iodide on charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidajat, K.; Aracil, J.; Kenney, C.N.

    1990-01-01

    The adsorption of non-radioactive methyl iodide has been measured experimentally over a range of conditions of concentration, and temperature on an activated charcoal. This is of interest since methyl iodide is formed from iodine fission products in gas cooled nuclear reactors. A mathematical model has also been developed which describes the rate of adsorption, under isothermal and linear adsorption isotherm conditions in a recycle adsorber. This model takes into account the resistance to adsorption caused by the surface adsorption, as well as the external and internal mass transfer resistances. The solution to the model for the recycle adsorber was obtained using a semidiscretisation method to reduce the partial differential equations to a system of stiff ordinary differential equations, and the resulting differential equations solved by a standard numerical technique. (author)

  11. Bactericidal activity of partially oxidized nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Julia; Dringen, Ralf; Zare, Richard N; Maas, Michael; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2014-06-24

    Nanodiamonds are a class of carbon-based nanoparticles that are rapidly gaining attention, particularly for biomedical applications, i.e., as drug carriers, for bioimaging, or as implant coatings. Nanodiamonds have generally been considered biocompatible with a broad variety of eukaryotic cells. We show that, depending on their surface composition, nanodiamonds kill Gram-positive and -negative bacteria rapidly and efficiently. We investigated six different types of nanodiamonds exhibiting diverse oxygen-containing surface groups that were created using standard pretreatment methods for forming nanodiamond dispersions. Our experiments suggest that the antibacterial activity of nanodiamond is linked to the presence of partially oxidized and negatively charged surfaces, specifically those containing acid anhydride groups. Furthermore, proteins were found to control the bactericidal properties of nanodiamonds by covering these surface groups, which explains the previously reported biocompatibility of nanodiamonds. Our findings describe the discovery of an exciting property of partially oxidized nanodiamonds as a potent antibacterial agent.

  12. TAXATION IN CHARCOAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Rainier Imaña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In past decades, the Brazilian tax burden has been the subject of discussion and analysis in the academic, political and social arena. In 2008, Brazilian tax burden reached the tax level from OECD countries, although the social issue in Brazil is in lower level than those countries. This paper has analyzed the tax burden from charcoal production. Eleven kinds of taxes were analyzed: IRPJ, ITR, CSLL, COFINS, PIS, TF, TCFA, TFAMG, ECRRA, INSS and FGTS. The tax burden for the production of charcoal was 9.76%. There was no municipal tax for charcoal. State taxes accounted 10% of the tax burden, the rest are federal taxes. COFINS was responsible for the largest tax burden: 3%, which confirms the Brazilian tax system is very non progressive. In Minas Gerais, Brazilian tax on goods and services (ICMS is deferred, the charcoal buyer has the obligation to collect this tax. This means the steel company accounts for the total burden of ICMS.

  13. Reconstructions of Fire Activity in North America and Europe over the Past 250 Years: A comparison of the Global Charcoal Database with Historical Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, B. I.; Marlon, J. R.; Mouillot, F.; Daniau, A. L.; Bartlein, P. J.; Schaefer, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fire is intertwined with climate variability and human activities in terms of both its causes and consequences, and the most complete understanding will require a multidisciplinary approach. The focus in this study is to compare data-based records of variability in climate and human activities, with fire and land cover change records over the past 250 years in North America and Europe. The past 250 years is a critical period for contextualizing the present-day impact of human activities on climate. Data are from the Global Charcoal Database and from historical reconstructions of past burning. The GCD is comprised of sediment records of charcoal accumulation rates collected around the world by dozens of researchers, and facilitated by the PAGES Global Paleofire Working Group. The historical reconstruction extends back to 1750 CE is based on literature and government records when available, and completed with non-charcoal proxies including tree ring scars or storylines when data are missing. The key data sets are independent records, and the methods and results are independent of any climate or fire-model simulations. Results are presented for Europe, and subsets of North America. Analysis of fire trends from GCD and the historical reconstruction shows broad agreement, with some regional variations as expected. Western USA and North America in general show the best agreement, with departures in the GCD and historical reconstruction fire trends in the present day that may reflect limits in the data itself. Eastern North America shows agreement with an increase in fire from 1750 to 1900, and a strong decreasing trend thereafter. We present ideas for why the trends agree and disagree relative to historical events, and to the sequence of land-cover change in the regions of interest. Together with careful consideration of uncertainties in the data, these results can be used to constrain Earth System Model simulations of both past fire, which explicitly incorporate

  14. Activated Charcoal Hemoperfusion in the Treatment of Experimental Amitriptyline Poisoning in Pigs - The Effect on Amitriptyline Plasma Concentration and Hemodynamic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Tejs; Petersen, Henrik; Malskaer, Cecilie M

    2017-01-01

    Coated activated charcoal hemoperfusion (CAC-HP) is a well-known treatment modality. Case reports have revealed conflicting results about the efficacy of CAC-HP in the treatment of amitriptyline (AT) poisoning, and no randomised clinical trials have been identified in the literature. This study a...... of AT compared to standard treatment alone. We hypothesize that the effect of modern CAC-HP as a treatment modality in AT poisoned human patients may be inadequate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  15. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra

  16. Charcoal production and environmental degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosier, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of continued tree harvesting for charcoal production to supply the urban areas in Tanzania. Woodlands appear to recover relatively well following harvesting for charcoal production. Selective harvesting, where the high quality, low cost fuel production species and specimens are culled first from a piece of land, serves to maintain the viability of the woodlands resource while providing charcoal. This recovery period can be prolonged through any number of human induced activities, such as heavy grazing, multiple burns and extended cultivation periods. At the same time, post-harvest management techniques, such as coppice management, sprout protection and fertilization, can also improve the ability of woodlands to recover following harvesting. The environmental history of a given area determines why certain areas continue to be strong suppliers of woodfuel while others are not. For example, Shinyanga started from a low productivity base and has been degraded by successive waves of tree harvesting compounded by heavy grazing pressure. It is this multiple complex of pressures over a long period of time on land which is intrinsically of low productivity, and not the harvesting of woodlands for fuels, which has led to the environmental degradation in these areas. (author)

  17. Confirmatory research program: effects of atmospheric contaminants on commercial charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.; Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    The increased use of activated charcoals in engineered-safety-feature and normal ventilation systems of nuclear power stations to continually remove radioiodine from flowing air prior to release to the environment has added importance to the question of the effect of atmospheric contaminants on the useful life of the charcoal. In January of 1977 the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began an investigation to determine the extent to which atmospheric contaminants in ambient concentrations degrade the efficiency of various commercially-available charcoals for removing methyl iodide. The approach employed by NRL is two-fold. First, charcoal samples are exposed to unmodified outdoor air for periods of one to nine months, then examined for methyl iodide retention, increase in weight, and the pH of water extract. The atmospheric contaminants are identified by the NRL Air Quality Monitoring Station, and concentrations of the various contaminants (ozone, SO 2 , NO 2 , CO 2 , methane and total hydrocarbons) are also available. Second, additional charcoal samples are exposed to the same pollutants under controlled laboratory conditions in various pollutant combinations. Results indicate that the water vapor-charcoal interaction is an important factor in the degradation of the commercial charcoals. Laboratory results indicate the pollutant sulfur dioxide plus water vapor can result in significant charcoal deterioration, as did ozone plus water vapor. Conversely, carbon monoxide did not appear to affect the charcoal. Also, differences were observed for various charcoals

  18. A Novel Activated-Charcoal-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Hybrid for Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Outperforming Pt Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Choi, Yun Seon; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2016-03-23

    Highly conductive mesoporous carbon structures based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and activated charcoal (AC) were synthesized by an enzymatic dispersion method. The synthesized carbon configuration consists of synchronized structures of highly conductive MWCNT and porous activated charcoal morphology. The proposed carbon structure was used as counter electrode (CE) for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The AC-doped MWCNT hybrid showed much enhanced electrocatalytic activity (ECA) toward polymer gel electrolyte and revealed a charge transfer resistance (RCT) of 0.60 Ω, demonstrating a fast electron transport mechanism. The exceptional electrocatalytic activity and high conductivity of the AC-doped MWCNT hybrid CE are associated with its synchronized features of high surface area and electronic conductivity, which produces higher interfacial reaction with the quasi-solid electrolyte. Morphological studies confirm the forms of amorphous and conductive 3D carbon structure with high density of CNT colloid. The excessive oxygen surface groups and defect-rich structure can entrap an excessive volume of quasi-solid electrolyte and locate multiple sites for iodide/triiodide catalytic reaction. The resultant D719 DSSC composed of this novel hybrid CE fabricated with polymer gel electrolyte demonstrated an efficiency of 10.05% with a high fill factor (83%), outperforming the Pt electrode. Such facile synthesis of CE together with low cost and sustainability supports the proposed DSSCs' structure to stand out as an efficient next-generation photovoltaic device.

  19. Zambian charcoal production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidumayo, E.N.

    1993-01-01

    The recovery of miombo woodlands following clearance for woodfuel is being monitored at four sites in central Zambia. Charcoal production removes 50% of the total woody biomass and the woodland regenerates from a pool of stunted old seedlings and stumps of cut trees. Productivity is correlated to tree density before felling. Clearing of successive regrowth miombo does not appear to affect productivity. Annual wood biomass increment in unmanaged regrowth miombo is estimated at 2-3 t/ha pa of which about 1.1 t is cord wood suitable for charcoal production. However, the charcoal spots within the deforested area are severely impacted by the carbonization process which destroys soil structure, seedlings and root stocks. Woodland regeneration on such spots is protracted. Fortunately, charcoal spots only cover 2-3% of the deforested area. The concern about land degradation due to deforestation caused by woodfuel harvesting for urban charcoal in the miombo woodland region of central and southern Africa is not supported by the results of this study. (author)

  20. Synthesis of activated charcoal supported Bi-doped TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite under solar light irradiation for enhanced photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandraboss, V.L.; Kamalakkannan, J.; Senthilvelan, S., E-mail: dr_senthilvel@yahoo.co.in

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Particle size and band gap of TiO{sub 2} is decreased upon Bi doping. • Methylene blue is successfully degraded over Bi/TiO{sub 2} and AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2}. • AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} is more active photocatalyst than TiO{sub 2} and Bi/TiO{sub 2}. • AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} led to a maximum extension of the spectral wavelength. • AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} with enhanced photocatalytic activity produced much more reactive ·OH. - Abstract: In this study, activated charcoal (AC) supported bismuth (Bi)-doped Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite was synthesized by precipitation method. The photocatalytic activity of AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} was investigated for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution under solar light irradiation. The incorporation of Bi{sup 3+} into the TiO{sub 2} lattice shifts the absorbance of TiO{sub 2} to the visible region then the addition of high adsorption capacity activated charcoal to improve the efficiency of TiO{sub 2}. AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2} is found to be more efficient than Bi/TiO{sub 2} and undoped TiO{sub 2} for the degradation of MB under solar light irradiation. Surface morphology and bulk composition of the composite was obtained using high resolution-scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The crystal structure evolution and elemental composition were analyzed by combining Fourier transform-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectra show that the absorption edge for the composite with Bi{sup 3+} has red shift as compared with that of undoped TiO{sub 2}. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra demonstrated a decrease in the direct band gap of AC-Bi/TiO{sub 2}. BET surface area, pore radius and pore volume of the materials were calculated by applying the BET equation to the sorption isotherms. The production of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) on the surface of solar light irradiated materialswere detected by

  1. The influence of pH, temperature and hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C.L.B. Rodrigues

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the influence of pH, temperature and degree of hydrolyzate concentration on the removal of volatile and nonvolatile compounds from sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolyzate treated with activated charcoal before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Furfural and 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural were almost totally removed in all the experiments, irrespective of pH and temperature and whether the charcoal was added before or after the vacuum evaporation process. Adding activated charcoal before the vacuum evaporation process favored the removal of phenolic compounds for all values of pH. Acetic acid, on the contrary, was most effectively removed when the activated charcoal was added after the vacuum evaporation process at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4. However, addition of activated charcoal before or after vacuum evaporation at an acid pH (0.92 and at the highest degree of hydrolyzate concentration (f=4 favored the removal of both acetic acid and phenolic compounds.

  2. Charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John K; Bashirelahi, Nasir; Reynolds, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Sales of charcoal dentifrices and powders have rapidly emerged into the Internet marketplace. The authors conducted a literature review to examine the efficacy and safety of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. The authors searched the MEDLINE and Scopus databases for clinical studies on the use of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices and laboratory investigations on the bioactivity or toxicity of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices, published through February 2017. The authors used a defined search strategy to identify randomized, controlled clinical trials with a follow-up duration of 3 months or longer. In addition, the authors selected the first 50 consecutive charcoal dentifrices from Google.com and Amazon.com for ascertainment of product assortment and advertising promotions. The authors' literature search identified 118 potentially eligible articles. Thirteen studies reported brushing the teeth with raw charcoal or soot; however, none of these studies met the inclusion criteria. Two studies offered nonspecific caries reductions, 3 studies reported deleterious outcomes (increased caries, enamel abrasion, nonquantified negative impact), and 1 study indicated only that brushing with raw charcoal had no adverse effects on oral hygiene. Seven other studies reported only on the use of charcoal for oral hygiene. Internet advertisements included unsubstantiated therapeutic claims-such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and oral detoxification, as well as potentially misleading product assertions. One-third of the charcoal dentifrices contained bentonite clay, and 1 contained betel leaves. The results of this literature review showed insufficient clinical and laboratory data to substantiate the safety and efficacy claims of charcoal and charcoal-based dentifrices. Larger-scale and well-designed studies are needed to establish conclusive evidence. Dental clinicians should advise their patients to be cautious when using charcoal and charcoal

  3. Different carbonization process of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, S. S. M.; Ramli, M. M.; Halin, D. S. C.; Anhar, N. A. M.; Hambali, N. A. M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Bamboo charcoal has attracted a lot of interests due to their microporous structure, high surface area and great adsorption properties. Some of the applications utilizing this material focused on these advantages such as water purification, electromagnetic wave absorber and blood purification. However, these advantages really depend on the carbonization and activation process of bamboo charcoal. The production must be carried out in properly control environment with precise temperatures and timing. This paper report the production of bamboo charcoal using Gigantochloa Albociliata in controlled environment at 500 °C for 1 hour (lab-prepared). Then the material was characterized for their dispersibility and adsorption behaviour. Furthermore, the bamboo charcoal that was produced commercially, by company, was also characterized and compared. The results show, bamboo charcoal produced by lab-prepared has similar qualities with the commercial bamboo charcoal.

  4. Charcoal from paper sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M

    1980-03-06

    Paper sludge containing less than or equal to 50% water is mixed with coffee shells and greater than or equal to 1 almond shells, orange skin, walnut shells, or bean jam waste, compacted, and dry distilled at 300-600 degrees to prepare charcoal. Thus, 1 ton of paper sludge was mixed with 100 kg each of coffee shells, almond shells, orange skin, and walnut shells; compacted and dry distilled 24 hours at approximately 450 degrees. The calorific value of the charcoal produced was approximately 7300 kcal/kg.

  5. Charcoal filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this very brief, informal presentation, a representative of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission outlines some problems with charcoal filter testing procedures and actions being taken to correct the problems. Two primary concerns are addressed: (1) the process to find the test method is confusing, and (2) the requirements of the reference test procedures result in condensation on the charcoal and causes the test to fail. To address these problems, emergency technical specifications were processed for three nuclear plants. A generic or an administrative letter is proposed as a more permanent solution. 1 fig.

  6. Utilization of radioanalytical methods for the determination of isotopes of U, Pu and Am in activated charcoal from IEA-R1 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: bgeraldo@ipen.br, E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Activated charcoal is a radioactive waste arising from the water purification system of the nuclear research reactor. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to identify and quantify the existing radionuclides, including those known as 'difficult-to-measure radionuclides' (RDM). The analysis of these RDM usually involves complex radiochemical costly and time consuming procedures for the purification and separation of them. The objective of this work was to define a methodology of sequential analysis of isotopes of U, Pu and Am, present in activated charcoal, evaluating chemical recovery, analysis time, quantity of radioactive waste generated and cost. Ion exchange and the chromatographic extraction methodologies were compared. Both methods showed high chemical recoveries, ranged from 74 and 100% for U, 76 and 100% for Pu and 87 and 100% for Am, demonstrating that these methods provide accurate and reliable results. However, chromatographic extraction method is more suitable for the determination of the radionuclides because it generates the smaller volume of waste and is more cost-effectively. (author)

  7. Utilization of radioanalytical methods for the determination of isotopes of U, Pu and Am in activated charcoal from IEA-R1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Bianca; Marumo, Julio T.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.

    2013-01-01

    Activated charcoal is a radioactive waste arising from the water purification system of the nuclear research reactor. The management of this waste includes its characterization in order to identify and quantify the existing radionuclides, including those known as 'difficult-to-measure radionuclides' (RDM). The analysis of these RDM usually involves complex radiochemical costly and time consuming procedures for the purification and separation of them. The objective of this work was to define a methodology of sequential analysis of isotopes of U, Pu and Am, present in activated charcoal, evaluating chemical recovery, analysis time, quantity of radioactive waste generated and cost. Ion exchange and the chromatographic extraction methodologies were compared. Both methods showed high chemical recoveries, ranged from 74 and 100% for U, 76 and 100% for Pu and 87 and 100% for Am, demonstrating that these methods provide accurate and reliable results. However, chromatographic extraction method is more suitable for the determination of the radionuclides because it generates the smaller volume of waste and is more cost-effectively. (author)

  8. The synthesis of corncobs (zea mays) active charcoal and water hyacinth (eichornia crassipes) adsorbent to adsorb Pb(II) with it’s analysis using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Kurniastuti, D.

    2018-03-01

    This research aim to examine the effect of the combination between corncobs and water hyacinth to adsorb lead (II), the most effective combination have determined by compared the ratio of corncobs adsorbent and water hyacinth to the increasing adsorption of the Pb(II), prove the effectiveness of the solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps) to determine the levels of Pb(II) as the result of the corncobs active charcoal adsorption and water hyacinth in the level of µg/L. The research method used is experimental method. The data collecting technique is carried out by several stages, which are carbonization using muffle furnace at a temperature of 350°C for 1.5 hours, activation of the corncobs charcoal and water hyacinth using HCl 1M and HCl 5M activator, contacting the adsorbent of corncobs active charcoal and water hyacinth with liquid waste simulation of Pb(II) using variation of corncobns and water hyacinth, 1:0; 0:1; 1:1; 2:1; 1:2, analysis of Pb(II) using an sps, characterization of corncobs active charcoal adsorbent and water hyacinth using FTIR. Research results show that the combined effect of activated charcoal corncobs and water hyacinth can increase the ability of the adsorbent to absorb Pb(II), the optimum adsorbent mass ratio of 1:1 with the absorption level of 90.33%, SPS is an effective method to analyze the decreasing level of Pb(II) as the adsorbtion result of the corncobs active charcoal and water hyacinth in the level of µg/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 µg/L.

  9. Activated charcoal adsorber bed as a 222Rn hold up system for application in uranium mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudeep Kumara, K.; Karunakara, N.; Sahoo, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2018-01-01

    222 Rn, produced due to the decay of 226 Ra, can accumulate to high concentrations, and if adequate ventilation is not provided the workers may inhale the 222 Rn laden air, which would result in elevated inhalation dose in Uranium mining and milling operations. Similarly, in thorium mining and processing plants, the 220 Rn generated during monazite processing and thorium handling facility is of concern. In a previous publication it has been shown that adsorption in a flow-through charcoal bed offers an excellent method of alleviating the release of 220 Rn into occupational and public domain. In this paper we examine the utility of TMS as a 222 Rn hold up/delay system by evaluating its performance parameters such as breakthrough time (τ) and adsorption coefficient (K) at different flow rates

  10. Behavior of highly radioactive iodine on charcoal in moist air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Manning, S.R.; Martin, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The behavior of highly radioactive iodine adsorbed on charcoal exposed to moist air (110 torr water vapor partial pressure) was investigated in a series of six experiments. The amount of radioactive 130 I on the well-insulated 28-cm 3 bed ranged from 50 to 570 Ci, and the relative humidity was 47 percent at the bed inlet temperature of 70 0 C. Radioactive iodine was released from the test beds at a continuous fractional release rate of approximately 7 x 10 -6 /hr for all types of charcoal tested. The chemical form of the released iodine was such that it was very highly penetrating with respect to the nine different types of commercial impregnated charcoals tested in backup collection beds. Two types of silver-nitrate-coated adsorption materials behaved similarly to the charcoals. Silver-exchanged type 13-X molecular sieve adsorbers were 20 to 50 times more efficient for adsorbing the highly penetrating iodine, but not as efficient as normally found for collecting methyl iodide. The chemical form of the highly penetrating iodine was not determined. When the moist air velocity was decreased from 28.5 fpm (25 0 C) to as low as 0.71 fpm (25 0 C), the charcoal bed temperature rose slowly and reached the ignition temperature in three of the experiments. At 0.71 fpm (25 0 C) the ignited charcoal beds reached maximum temperatures of 430 to 470 0 C because of the limited oxygen supply. The charcoal exposed for four years at Oak Ridge ignited at 283 0 C compared with 368 0 C for unused charcoal from the same batch. Two of the experiments used charcoal containing 1 or 2 percent TEDA (triethylene-diamine) and a proprietary flame retardant. The oxidation and ignition behavior of these charcoals did not appear to be affected adversely by the presence of the TEDA

  11. Design of a PWR gaseous effluent treatment system combining delay-storage vessels, volume-reduction and activated-charcoal beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuyt, G.; Glibert, R.; Lahaye, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The usual technique for the treatment of gaseous effluents is to store them in radioactive decay tanks and to carry out a range of operations such as recycling, volume-reduction and discharge. Although presenting undeniable advantages, this technique has a number of weaknesses which have become apparent with experience. This paper describes and analyses a system designed to alleviate these difficulties and to permit greater flexibility in gaseous effluent treatment, especially for power stations in the load-following mode of operation, by means of a combination of storage techniques and retention of short-lived isotopes in activated charcoal beds. The attractiveness of the proposed system is apparent from an analysis of operational, maintenance, safety and cost aspects. (author)

  12. Back to charcoal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areklett, Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The ferro-alloy industry is currently evaluating the feasibility of using charcoal rather than fossil coal and coke. This is to avoid the emission of climate gases. Ferro-alloys are used in a wide variety of important products. However, the climate gas carbon dioxide is formed during their production. Oxides are the raw material in the production of these alloys. For the Norwegian company Elkem, the starting point is quartz, SiO 2 . The only reducing agent strong enough to break the bond between silicon and oxygen is solid carbon, which reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, the climate gas. Cleaning the waste gases is too expensive to be relevant, as they are very voluminous and have low concentration of CO 2 . The carbon source currently used by the ferro-alloy industry is fossil coal or coke, which can be replaced by charcoal by burning what is not carbon in the wood so that the result is coal with a high carbon fraction. Although the burning of charcoal is not free of CO 2 emission, biological material containing carbon will over time emit CO 2 to the atmosphere anyhow. Thus, CO 2 emission from biomass does not count in the climate accounts. With rational forest management, the use of biomass implies sustainable climate policy. The ferro-alloy industry is currently exempt from climate taxes, but this situation may not last long, which is why the sector is now considering biomass

  13. Partial purification, characterization and hydrolytic activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Amylase and amyloglucosidase produced by amylolytic Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus niger isolated from plantain and yam peels media were partially purified and characterized. Following cultivation of the microbial isolates on the agricultural residue media, crude enzyme solutions were obtained by filtration and ...

  14. Late Neolithic phytolith and charcoal records of human activities and vegetation change in Shijiahe culture, Tanjialing site, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hong Zhu

    Full Text Available There is significant archaeological evidence marking the collapse of the Shijiahe culture in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China during the late Neolithic Period. However, the causes for this cultural collapse remain unclear. Our sedimentary records from a 3.3 m long profile and 76 phytolith and charcoal samples from the Tanjialing archaeological sites provide records of interactions between an ancient culture and vegetation change. During the early Shijiahe culture (c, 4850-4400 cal BP, the climate was warm and humid. Fire was intensively used to clear the vegetation. In the mid-period of the Shijiahe culture (c, 4400-4200 cal BP, the climate became slightly dry-cold and this was accompanied by decreasing water, leading to settlements. From c, 4200 cal BP, severe drought eroded the economic foundation of rice-cultivation. These conditions forced people to abandon the Shijiahe ancient city to find water in other regions, leading to the collapse of the Shijiahe culture.

  15. Impact of land-use and long-term (>150 years) charcoal accumulation on microbial activity, biomass and community structure in temperate soils (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Dufey, Joseph E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade, biochar has been increasingly investigated as a soil amendment for long-term soil carbon sequestration while improving soil fertility. On the short term, biochar application to soil generally increases soil respiration as well as microbial biomass and activity and affects significantly the microbial community structure. However, such effects are relatively short-term and tend to vanish over time. In our study, we investigated the long-term impact of charcoal accumulation and land-use on soil biota in temperate haplic Luvisols developed in the loess belt of Wallonia (Belgium). Charcoal-enriched soils were collected in the topsoil of pre-industrial (>150 years old) charcoal kilns in forest (4 sites) and cropland (5 sites). The topsoil of the adjacent charcoal-unaffected soils was sampled in a comparable way. Soils were characterized (pH, total, organic and inorganic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na, cation exchange capacity and available P) and natural soil organic matter (SOM) and black carbon (BC) contents were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. After rewetting at pF 2.5, soils were incubated during 140 days at 20 °C. At 70 days of incubation, 10 g of each soil were freeze dried in order to measure total microbial biomass and community structure by PLFA analysis. The PLFA dataset was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) while soil parameters were used as supplementary variables. For both agricultural and forest soils, the respiration rate is highly related to the total microbial biomass (R²=0.90). Both soil respiration and microbial biomass greatly depend on the SOM content, which indicates that the BC pool is relatively inert microbiologically. Land-use explains most of the variance in the PLFA dataset, largely governing the first principal component of the ACP. In forest soils, we observe a larger proportion of gram + bacteria, actinomycetes and an increased bacteria:fungi ratio compared to cropland, where gram

  16. Research report: Charcoal type used for hookah smoking influences CO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford, Marlon A; Gasier, Heath G; Hexdall, Eric; Moffat, Andrew D; Freiberger, John J; Moon, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    A hookah smoker who was treated for severe carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen reported using a different type of charcoal prior to hospital admission, i.e., quick-light charcoal. This finding led to a study aimed at determining whether CO production differs between charcoals commonly used for hookah smoking, natural and quick-light. Our hypothesis was that quick-light charcoal produces significantly more CO than natural charcoal. A medium-sized hookah, activated charcoal filter, calibrated syringe, CO gas analyzer and infrared thermometer were assembled in series. A single 9-10 g briquette of either natural or quick-light charcoal was placed atop the hookah bowl and ignited. CO output (ppm) and temperature (degrees C) were measured in three-minute intervals over 90 minutes. The mean CO levels produced by quick-light charcoal over 90 minutes was significantly higher (3728 ± 2028) compared to natural charcoal (1730 ± 501 ppm, p = 0.016). However, the temperature was significantly greater when burning natural charcoal (292 ± 87) compared to quick-light charcoal (247 ± 92 degrees C, p = 0.013). The high levels of CO produced when using quick-light charcoals may be contributing to the increase in reported hospital admissions for severe CO poisoning.

  17. Charcoal anatomy of forest species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inés Bolzon de Muñiz1

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal charcoal retains the anatomical structure of the wood and may permit its botanical identification, which depends on species characteristics, the charcoal fragments size and preservation state. Anatomical characterization of ten forest species charcoal was done envisaging the identification and control of illegal charcoal. Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms are evident in carbonized wood. Vessel diameter was statistically different between wood and charcoal in Vatairea guianensis, Mezilaurus itauba, Calophyllum brasiliense e Qualea cf. acuminata, and vessel frequency in Vatairea guianensis, Manilkara huberi, Qualea cf. acuminata e Simarouba amara. The anatomical structure from wood, in general aspects, is constant during carbonization process using temperature of 450°C, being possible to identify the material by using its cellular components.

  18. Evaluation of partial beta-adrenoceptor agonist activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipworth, B J; Grove, A

    1997-01-01

    A partial beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonist will exhibit opposite agonist and antagonist activity depending on the prevailing degree of adrenergic tone or the presence of a beta-AR agonist with higher intrinsic activity. In vivo partial beta-AR agonist activity will be evident at rest with low endogenous adrenergic tone, as for example with chronotropicity (beta 1/beta 2), inotropicity (beta 1) or peripheral vasodilatation and finger tremor (beta 2). beta-AR blocking drugs which have partial agonist activity may exhibit a better therapeutic profile when used for hypertension because of maintained cardiac output without increased systemic vascular resistance, along with an improved lipid profile. In the presence of raised endogenous adrenergic tone such as exercise or an exogenous full agonist, beta-AR subtype antagonist activity will become evident in terms of effects on exercise induced heart rate (beta 1) and potassium (beta 2) responses. Reduction of exercise heart rate will occur to a lesser degree in the case of a beta-adrenoceptor blocker with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity compared with a beta-adrenoceptor blocker devoid of partial agonist activity. This may result in reduced therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of angina on effort when using beta-AR blocking drugs with partial beta 1-AR agonist activity. Effects on exercise hyperkalaemia are determined by the balance between beta 2-AR partial agonist activity and endogenous adrenergic activity. For predominantly beta 2-AR agonist such as salmeterol and salbutamol, potentiation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs. For predominantly beta 2-AR antagonists such as carteolol, either potentiation or attenuation of exercise hyperkalaemia occurs at low and high doses respectively. beta 2-AR partial agonist activity may also be expressed as antagonism in the presence of an exogenous full agonist, as for example attenuation of fenoterol induced responses by salmeterol. Studies are required to investigate whether

  19. The ageing and poisoning of charcoal used in nuclear plant air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, D.

    1986-01-01

    Ageing and Poisoning are terms which are used to describe the in-service deterioration or weathering of activated charcoals used to remove radioiodine from air cleaning systems. This paper describes an investigation aimed at identifying the relative importance of the two effects and at comparing the resistance to weathering of potassium iodide (KI) impregnated charcoal with triethylene diamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoal. Some preliminary results are given on the rates of oxidative ageing of charcoals as a function of temperature and relative humidity. The effect on charcoal performance of organic poisons has been examined by measuring the index of performance (k-factor) of charcoals preloaded with a range of organic solvents. Finally the combined effect of oxidative ageing and organic poisoning has been measured using realistic operating conditions of temperature and relative humidity. The in-service deterioration of charcoal in air cleaning systems can be accounted for by a combination of oxidative ageing and poisoning by airborne organic solvents. (author)

  20. LEACH ARCILLAS ACTIVATED PARTIAL ACID SULFURICO

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Y Otiniano, P.; Pizarra Cabrera, R.

    2014-01-01

    This work is concerned with the activation of calcium bentonite from Junín- Perú (with a moisture content of 24.1% and an average of particle size 40 µ ) with sulphuric acid. The parameters studied are the ratio of bentonite to acid solution, acid concentration and reaction time to boiling temperatura of the mixture. The optimum conditions obtained are the following: 0.47 kg. of bentonite/kg. of acid solution to 4.8 N, 4 h of treatment to 104 ºC and the conversion of 45.6% alumina and 73.5% o...

  1. Browns Ferry charcoal adsorber incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    The article reviews the temperature excursion in the charcoal adsorber beds of the Browns Ferry Unit 3 off-gas system that occurred on July 17, 1977. Significant temperature increases were experienced in the charcoal adsorber beds when charcoal fines were ignited by the ignition of a combustible mixture of hydrogen and oxygen in the off-gas system. The Browns Ferry off-gas system is described, and events leading up to and surrounding the incident are discussed. The follow-up investigation by Tennessee Valley Authority and General Electric Company personnel and their recommendations for system and operational modifications are summarized

  2. Preparation Of Charcoal Using Agricultural Wastes | Bogale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: As compared to wood charcoal the charcoal briquette produced from agricultural wastes are economical, environmentally friendly, healthy (no smoke at all) and reduce impact of deforestation. Key words: Pollution, deforestation, extruder, carbonizer, wood charcoal, briquette charcoal, agricultural wastes, ...

  3. The analysis of charcoal in peat and organic sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Mooney

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of charcoal in sediments has been interpreted as a ‘fire history’ at about 1,000 sites across the globe. This research effort reflects the importance of fire in many ecosystems, and the diversity of processes that can be affected by fire in many landscapes. Fire appears to reflect climate through the intermediary of vegetation, but arguably responds faster than vegetation to climate change or variability. Fire and humans are also intricately linked, meaning that the activity of fire in the past is also of relevance to prehistoric and historic human transitions and to contemporary natural resource management. This article describes recent advances in the analysis of charcoal in peat and other sediments, and offers a simple method for the quantification of larger charcoal fragments (>100 µm and a standardised method for the quantification of microscopic charcoal on pollen slides. We also comment on the challenges that the discipline still faces.

  4. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds ( Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the ...

  5. THE USE OF SILICA SAND, ZEOLITE AND ACTIVE CHARCOAL TO REDUCE BOD, COD AND TSS OF LAUNDRY WASTE WATER AS A BIOLOGY LEARNING RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Assiddieq

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment contaminated with detergent waste in high concentrations can endanger the lives human and biota in the water. This study aimed to determine the decrease of BOD, COD and TSS content of laundry liquid waste by using filter media of silica sand, zeolite, and activated charcoal. Filter medium 1a can reduce BOD level from 98.6 mg/L to 58.80 mg/L (40.36%, while medium 1b can decrease BOD level to 21.20 mg/L (78.48%. It showed that media 1a had not fulfilled the quality standard of BOD of waste water that is 50 mg/L, while media 1b had fulfilled the standard of quality. Filter media 1a can decrease COD level from 210 mg/L to 78.80 mg/L (62.47%, whereas medium 1b can decrease COD to 25.60 mg/L (87.80%. This showed that media 1a and media 1b had met the quality standard of COD of waste water that is 100 mg/L. Filter media 1a can decrease TSS level from 465 mg/L to 122.5 mg/L (73.65%, whereas medium 1b can decrease TSS level to 52.3 mg/L (88.75%. This showed that media 1a and media 1b had met the quality standard of TSS of waste water that is 150 mg/L.

  6. Essential Oils of Myrtaceae Species Growing Wild in Tunisia: Chemical Variability and Antifungal Activity Against Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the Causative Agent of Charcoal Canker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangui, Islem; Zouaoui Boutiti, Meriem; Boussaid, Mohamed; Messaoud, Chokri

    2017-07-01

    The chemical composition of five Eucalyptus species and five Myrtus communis L. populations was investigated using GC/MS and GC-FID. For Eucalyptus essential oils, 32 compounds, representing 88.56 - 96.83% of the total oil according to species, were identified. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-gurjunene, α-aromadendrene, and β-phellandrene. For Myrtle essential oils, 26 compounds, representing 93.13 - 98.91% of the total oil were identified. α-Pinene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, and myrtenyl acetate were found to be the major compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed chemical differentiation between Eucalyptus species and between Myrtle populations. Biscogniauxia mediterranea, the causative agent of charcoal canker, was identified according to its morphological and molecular characteristics. Essential oils of the investigated Eucalyptus species and Myrtle populations were tested for their antifungal capacity against this fungus. The antifungal activity varied according to the essential oil composition. Biscogniauxia mediterranea exhibited powerful resistance to some essential oils including them of Eucalyptus lehmannii and Eucalyptus sideroxylon but it was very sensitive to Eucalyptus camaldulensis oil (IC 50  = 3.83 mg/ml) and M. communis oil from Zaghouan (IC 50  = 1 mg/ml). This sensitivity was found to be correlated to some essential oil compounds such as p-cymene, carvacrol, cuminaldehyde, and linalool. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. [Hygienic study of an activated fibrous charcoal material as a sorbing filtering element for drinking water afterpurification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Mironets, N V; Gakal, R K; Maktaz, E D; Dugan, A M; Teteneva, I A; Tarabarova, S B; Martyshchenko, N V; Nadvornaia, Zh D

    1993-01-01

    The results of complex toxicological and hygienic study showed that the quality of pipe water filtered through the activated carbonic fibrous material (ACFM) "Dnepr-F" forming a part of absorptive filtering element improved markedly. The content of organic substances decreased drastically as well as that of nitrates and iron. Microbiological indices did not suffer appreciable changes and were within permissible limits. The water filtered through the absorptive element with ACFM had no adverse influence on the organisms of warm-blooded animals. Proceeding from foregoing one can conclude that the "Dnepr-F" may be recommended as a part of absorptive filtering element for the final refinement of drinking water.

  8. Cultivo de embriões imaturos de citros em diferentes concentrações de carvão ativado e ácido giberélico Activated charcoal and giberellic acid concentrations on immature embryos culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan Alves Chagas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Adição de carvão ativado e giberelina no meio de cultura podem proporcionar melhores condições no desenvolvimento de embriões imaturos de citros. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de carvão ativado e GA3 (ácido giberélico no cultivo de embriões imaturos provenientes do cruzamento entre laranjeira 'Pêra Rio' x tangerineira 'Poncã'. Após 118 dias da polinização, frutos imaturos, com 3 a 4 cm de diâmetro, foram coletados, suas sementes removidas e tratadas com álcool (70% por cinco minutos, hipoclorito de sódio (2% por 20 minutos e, posteriormente, lavadas três vezes em água destilada e autoclavada. Em condições assépticas, os tegumentos das sementes foram separados, os embriões globulares excisados e inoculados em tubos de ensaio contendo 15 mL do meio MT, acrescido de carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 g L-1 e GA3 (0; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 mg L-1. Após a inoculação, os embriões permaneceram por 90 dias em sala de crescimento a 27+1ºC, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e irradiância de 32 mmol m-2 s-1. Maior comprimento da parte aérea foi obtido em meio MT, acrescido de 0,1 e 1 mg L-1 de GA3, combinado com 2 g L-1 de carvão ativado. Maior comprimento do sistema radicular, massa da matéria fresca e número de folhas de plântulas foram obtidos em meio MT, acrescido de 0,01 mg L-1 de GA3, na ausência de carvão ativado. A adição de carvão ativado influenciou na concentração de ácido giberélico acrescido no meio de cultura.Activated charcoal and gibberelin provides better conditions on development of citrus immature embryos. Activated charcoal and GA3 (gibberelic acid on 'Pêra Rio' sweet orange x 'Poncã' mandarin immature embryos culture was evaluated. After 118 days-pollination, imature fruits with 3 to 4 cm of diameter were collected, seeds removed and treated with alcohol (70% for five min., sodium hypoclorite (2% for 20 min. and three times washed with distilled and autoclaved water. In aseptic conditions, the teguments

  9. Soil particles reworking evidences by AMS 14C dating of charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcaillet, C.

    2001-01-01

    Soil charcoal dating is a time proxy for soil pedogenesis. I test the stratification hypothesis by AMS 14 C dating of charcoal fragments from soil profiles between 1700 and 1900 m with respect to altitude within the Alps. The charcoal fragments are around 1 mm in size. There is no age/depth relationship for charcoal particles of the size millimeter. The results are discussed in light of the role of soil fauna, up-rooting and colluvial processes. Although biotic pedoturbation is poorly described in mountain and sub-alpine elevation, I hypothesize that this process is very active and plays a major role on the soil functioning. (author)

  10. Sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron in soils amended with charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Ying, Guang-Guo; Kookana, Rai S

    2006-11-01

    Charcoal derived from the partial combustion of vegetation is ubiquitous in soils and sediments and can potentially sequester organic contaminants. To examine the role of charcoal in the sorption and desorption behaviors of diuron pesticide in soil, synthetic charcoals were produced through carbonization of red gum (Eucalyptus spp.) wood chips at 450 and 850 degrees C (referred to as charcoals BC450 and BC850, respectively, in this paper). Pore size distribution analyses revealed that BC850 contained mainly micropores (pores approximately 0.49 nm mean width), whereas BC450 was essentially not a microporous material. Short-term equilibration (diuron in a soil amended with various amounts of charcoals of both types. The sorption coefficients, isotherm nonlinearity, and apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis markedly increased with increasing content of charcoal in the soil, more prominently in the case of BC850, presumably due to the presence of micropores and its relatively higher specific surface area. The degree of apparent sorption-desorption hystersis (hysteresis index) showed a good correlation with the micropore volume of the charcoal-amended soils. This study indicates that the presence of small amounts of charcoal produced at high temperatures (e.g., interior of wood logs during a fire) in soil can have a marked effect on the release behavior of organic compounds. Mechanisms of this apparent hysteretic behavior need to be further investigated.

  11. Effect of Activated Charcoals and a Coupled Biochar on Growth of Crops%活性木炭材料及生物耦合炭对植物生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余仲东; 任争争; 彭少兵; 张帅

    2014-01-01

    选用活性石炭、椰壳活性炭和杉木活性炭3种活性木炭与杨凌地区3种不同利用型土壤(农耕土、雪松林下土和桃园土)组合测定生菜种苗萌发情况。然后用筛选出的杉木活性炭与内生细菌Bacillus sp.进行耦合,并测定该耦合炭的制备条件及对小麦生长的影响。结果表明:3种类型的土壤对生菜胚根均有一定的化感抑制作用,活性木炭及活性木炭-土壤交互作用对生菜生长影响差异显著,以杉木活性炭对农耕土和老桃园土改良效果显著,胚轴/胚根净炭作用率分别为178.8%/90.9%、178.9%/106.1%,酸性的活性石炭对雪松林下土生菜胚轴的生长有轻微抑制作用,净炭作用率为-120.7%。在此基础上,筛选出优良杉木活性木炭,并与内生细菌Bacillus sp.在40℃下热耦合30 min,再在27℃恒温培养1 d,获得优良的生物耦合炭。该生物耦合炭有较强的土壤持水能力,对小麦在质量分数为1%的高盐浓度下生长有显著促进作用。1250 g农耕土,加入3 g耦合炭处理组10 d高度生长促进率最大(37.3%,α=0.05);加入6 g耦合炭处理组20 d生物量促进率最大(18.8%,α=0.05),6 g处理组对小麦生长促进效果最好。%Seedlings growth of Chinese lettuce were dated under combination of 3 kinds of activated charcoal and 3 use patterns of soil respectively in Yangling region. An activated fir charcoal was picked up for making coupled biochar with endophytic bacteria, Bacillus sp. , and the coupled fir biochar was further tested in pot planting with winter wheat. Results showed that of three charcoals, activated coal, activated coconut carbon and activated fir charcoal, significantly affected the growth of Chinese lettuce, as well as interactions between charcoal and soil. Fir charcoal showed 178. 8%/90. 9% and 178. 9%/106. 1% net carbon rate of promotion on hypocotyl/radicle of lettuce seedlings in agriculture soil and peach orchard soil respectively. Whereas, the

  12. Adsorption Properties and Potential Applications of Bamboo Charcoal: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa S.S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo charcoal was produced by pyrolysis or carbonization process with extraordinary properties such as high conductivity, large surface area and adsorption property. These properties can be improved by activation process that can be done thermally or chemically. In this paper, carbonization and activation process of bamboo, its structural and adsorption properties will be presented. Herein, the adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal that has fully utilized in solar cell as the electrode, adsorbent for water purification and electromagnetic wave absorber are reviewed.

  13. Reproducing the organic matter model of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia and testing the ecotoxicity of functionalized charcoal compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Linhares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to obtain organic compounds similar to the ones found in the organic matter of anthropogenic dark earth of Amazonia (ADE using a chemical functionalization procedure on activated charcoal, as well as to determine their ecotoxicity. Based on the study of the organic matter from ADE, an organic model was proposed and an attempt to reproduce it was described. Activated charcoal was oxidized with the use of sodium hypochlorite at different concentrations. Nuclear magnetic resonance was performed to verify if the spectra of the obtained products were similar to the ones of humic acids from ADE. The similarity between spectra indicated that the obtained products were polycondensed aromatic structures with carboxyl groups: a soil amendment that can contribute to soil fertility and to its sustainable use. An ecotoxicological test with Daphnia similis was performed on the more soluble fraction (fulvic acids of the produced soil amendment. Aryl chloride was formed during the synthesis of the organic compounds from activated charcoal functionalization and partially removed through a purification process. However, it is probable that some aryl chloride remained in the final product, since the ecotoxicological test indicated that the chemical functionalized soil amendment is moderately toxic.

  14. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabir, Ehsanul [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Hyun, E-mail: khkim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Goon Ja Dong, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, H.O. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul Center, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (As) to 118 mg kg{sup -1} (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  15. Trace metal contents in barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, Ehsanul; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, H.O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the concentrations of trace elements contained in solid barbeque (BBQ) charcoal products have been investigated. Eleven brands of charcoal products were analyzed, consisting of both Korean (3 types) and imported products (eight types from three countries) commonly available in the Korean market places. The concentrations of trace metals in solid charcoal varied widely across metal types and between samples with the overall range of 5 μg kg -1 (As) to 118 mg kg -1 (Zn). The patterns of metal distribution between different products appeared to be affected by the properties of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. Although concentrations of certain trace metals were significantly high in certain charcoal samples, their emission concentrations were below legislative guidelines (e.g., the permissible exposure limit (PEL) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)). In light of the potential harm of grilling activities, proper regulation should be considered to control the use of BBQ charcoal from a toxicological viewpoint to help reduce the potential health risks associated with its use.

  16. Methyl iodide trapping efficiency of aged charcoal samples from Bruce-A emergency filtered air discharge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Moore, C.J.; Rasmussenn, M.T.; Weaver, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Charcoal filters are installed in the emergency filtered air discharge system (EFADS) of multiunit stations to control the release of airborne radioiodine in the event of a reactor accident. These filters use highly activated charcoal impregnated with triethylenediamine (TEDA). The TEDA-impregnated charcoal is highly efficient in removing radioiodine from flowing airstreams. The iodine-removal efficiency of the charcoal is presumed to deteriorate slowly with age, but current knowledge of this effect is insufficient to predict with confidence the performance of aged charcoal following an accident. Experiments were performed to determine the methyl iodide removal efficiency of aged charcoal samples taken from the EFADS of Ontario Hydro's Bruce-A nuclear generating station. The charcoal had been in service for ∼4 yr. The adsorption rate constant and capacity were measured under post-loss-of-coolant accident conditions to determine the efficiency of the aged charcoal. The adsorption rate constants of the aged charcoal samples were observed to be extremely high, yielding a decontamination factor (DF) for a 20-cm-deep bed of the aged charcoal >1 X 10 15 . The results show that essentially no CH 3 I would escape from a 20-cm-deep bed of the aged charcoal and that the requirement for a DF of 1000 for organic iodides in the EFADS filters would be exceeded by a tremendous margin. With such high DFs, the release of iodine from a 20-cm-deep bed would be virtually impossible to detect. The adsorption capacities observed for the aged charcoal samples approach the theoretical chemisorption capacity of 5 wt% TEDA charcoal, indicating that aging in the EFADS for 4 yr has had a negligible impact on the adsorption capacity. The results indicate that the short- and long-term performances of the aged charcoal in the EFADS of Bruce-A following an accident would still far exceed performance requirements. (author)

  17. Charcoal as a capture material for silver nanoparticles in the aquatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillicuddy, Eoin; Morrison, Liam; Cormican, Martin; Morris, Dearbháile

    2017-04-01

    Background: The reported antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has led to their incorporation into numerous consumer products including; textiles, domestic appliances, food containers, cosmetics, paints, medical and medicinal products. The AgNPs incorporated into these products can be released into the environment and aquatic system during their production, use and end of life disposal. In the aquatic environment, uncertainties surround the concentration, fate and effects of AgNPs. The aim of this project is to examine charcoal as a potential material for capture of silver nanoparticles from the aquatic environment. Material/methods: Activated charcoal is a commonly used filter material and was selected for this project to determine its suitability as a capture material for AgNPs in water samples. Activated charcoal (Norit® CA1 (Sigma-Aldrich)) was exposed to 100 ppb, 25 nm PVP coated AgNPs (nanoComposix) prepared in Milli-Q water. These solutions were exposed to unaltered charcoal granules for 20 hours after which the decrease of silver in the solution was measured using ICP-MS. In order to improve the removal, the surface area of the charcoal was increased firstly by grinding with a pestle and mortar and secondly by milling the charcoal. The milled charcoal was prepared using an agate ball mill running at 500 rpm for 5 minutes. The activated charcoal was then exposed to samples containing 10 ppb AgNPs. Results: In the initial tests, approximately 10% of the silver was removed from the water samples using the unaltered activated charcoal granules. Further experiments were carried out to compare the unaltered granules with the ground and milled charcoal. These tests were carried out similarly to the previous test however lower concentration of 10 ppb was used. After 20 hours of exposure the granule samples, as previously, showed approximately a 10% reduction in silver content with the ground charcoal giving approximately 30% reduction in silver

  18. Effects of Carbonization Parameters of Moso-Bamboo-Based Porous Charcoal on Capturing Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hsing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis- based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000°C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120 h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000°C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorption capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.

  19. ECONOMICAL PLANS EFFECTS ON CHARCOAL PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Pereira Rezende

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy is essential for human needs satisfaction. With the evolution of machinery, man becomes more and more dependent on the energy stocked in fossil fuels, comparatively to the primitive economy. Wood charcoal is a thermal-reducer used in Brazilian pig iron and steel industries, and its price is formed in an oligopsonic market. Over time, the charcoal prices have varied in function of endogenous and exogenous factors, needing, therefore, to be deflated so that they can be compared in two or more points in time. This work analyzed the variations of charcoal real prices, in national currency; compared and analyzed the real charcoal price in nominal and in real US Dollar and; analyzed the real prices of charcoal, comparatively to the real oil prices. The analyses were accomplished in the period from January 1975 to December 2002. The time series of charcoal prices, in domestic currency were deflated using IGP-DI, considering august, 1994=100, and charcoal prices were also converted to American dollar and deflated using CPI, considering the period 1982-84=100. It was compared, then, the real and nominal charcoal prices. It concluded that the real charcoal prices in Brazilian domestic currency, or in American dollar, presented a decreasing tendency along time. The inflationary disarray, in the 80´s and the first half of the 90 ´s, provoked a big price variation in the period; from the beginning the XXI century, charcoal prices were more influenced by the exchange rate; in the energy crisis period, charcoal prices suffered big changes that, however, did not persist along time.

  20. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smokeABSTRACTBrazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  1. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 222 Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m 3 could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m 3 /kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author)

  2. Development of the charcoal adsorption technique for determination of radon content in natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paewpanchon, P.; Chanyotha, S.

    2017-01-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. (authors)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHARCOAL ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF RADON CONTENT IN NATURAL GAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paewpanchon, P; Chanyotha, S

    2017-11-01

    A technique for the determination of the radon concentration in natural gas using charcoal adsorption has been developed to study the effects of parameters that influence the adsorption efficiency of radon onto activated charcoal. Several sets of experiments were conducted both in the laboratory and in an actual natural gas field for comparison. The results show that the adsorption capability of radon onto activated charcoal varies inversely with temperature, hydrocarbon concentration and the humidity contained within the natural gas. A technique utilizing dry ice as a coolant was found to be the most effective for trapping radon in natural gas samples at the production site. A desiccant can be used to remove moisture from the sampling gas. The technique described here increases the adsorption efficiency of activated charcoal by 10-20% compared to our previous study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  5. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L.; Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E.

    2006-01-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of 131 I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  6. Domestic fuel question and the charcoal solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna Rao, E G

    1981-06-01

    Domestic fuel for cooking forms one of the basic needs of human society. In India, the pressure of this need has exceeded the regeneration potential of the growing forests which supply a large proportion of this basic need. The pressure can be greatly relieved by converting wood to charcoal before it reaches the consumer. The present paper examines this aspect and reviews the modern methods of charcoal production on fuelwood resources. Besides being a choice domestic fuel, charcoal is a valuable raw material in various industries. Charcoal making industry can be established as a rural based industry (as part of community forestry projects) and would generate much needed cash income at grassroot level. The strategy would be important in dealing with the problem of chronic poverty at this level. (Refs. 5).

  7. Measurements of 222Rn flux with charcoal coanisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countess, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used to measure the 222 Rn flux from the ground are discussed. The most common method is the direct accumulation of radon in a closed container resting on the soil surface. An aliquot of the air is transferred from the accumulator either to an ionization chamber or to an alpha scintillation flask for radon analysis. An alternate method consists of entraining the radon emanating from a small area of the ground in an airstream moving in a closed system through a charcoal trap or cold trap. At the end of the sampling period, the trap is sealed and returned to the laboratory where the radon is transferred into an evacuated scintillation flask for analysis. Still another method consists of adsorbing radon in a layer of granular, activated charcoal spread directly on the ground. For analysis, the charcoal is bagged and the 0.61-MeV gamma activity of 214 Bi (RaC) is measured in a gamma spectrometer. These last two methods have the disadvantage that some radon may be lost in transfer prior to analysis. In an improved method, which is simpler than the preceding methods and eliminates this transfer problem, a modified U.S. Army M11 gas mask canister containing activated charcoal is placed directly in contact with the emanating surface and after an exposure period from several hours to several days, depending on the anticipated flux density, the canister is removed from the surface and counted directly in a gamma spectrometer. In addition to precluding losses in sample transfer, a major advantage is that numerous measurements can be made inexpensively due to the low cost of the canisters and their ease of deployment and recovery

  8. Performance study of coal-base charcoals for removing radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuying; Wu Yanwei; Guo Liangtian; Jia Ming; Lu Xueshi; Zhang Hong

    1988-01-01

    In authos' laboratory sveral types of domestic coal-base charcoals are selected and impregnated and examined for their main physical and chemical performances. The results show that under the test conditions the iodine-removing efficiencies of these impregnated coal-base charcoals charcoals are not poorer than that of the impregnated fruit-shell base charcoals (such as coconut shell charcoal) and most of their physical properties can satisfy the requirements of the nuclear grade charcoals assigned in USA standards. More detailed studies will be made in the next programme

  9. Forestry policy and charcoal production in Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribot, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the historical, social and political-economic dynamics of environmental policy implementation in Senegal's charcoal market. It explores the relationship between urban demand for charcoal and its rural environmental consequences. It focuses on the ways in which the social and political-economic relations within the market and between the market and state shape production, exchange, regulation, and ultimately the social and econological consequences of charcoal production and use. The article begins by characterizing the patterns of woodfuel supply and use in Senegal and by recounting the historical perception and response to environmental problems associated with the woodfuel trade. It describes the social and economic organization of production and exchange, followed by an analysis of policy implementation. It also shows that where social relations dominate production and exchange, environmental policy making and implementation will be an iterative process. Sustainable resource management is not implemented once and for ever, but will come and go. (author)

  10. Assessment of household charcoal consumption in urban areas: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... respondents used charcoal as their main source of energy for cooking followed by gas (16.9%). ... sources of energy in order to reduce pressure on natural forests for the supply of charcoal.

  11. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  12. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Cruz G, S. De la; Lopez M, A.

    2003-01-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  13. Partial characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from Philomycusbilineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rongjun; Ye, Jiaming; Zhao, Yuejun; Su, Weike

    2014-04-01

    Four polysaccharides (PBP60-A, PBP60-B, PBP60-C and PBP60-D) were purified from slug (Philomycusbilineatus) by ion-exchange chromatography. The antioxidant activities were studied by ABTS, DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and reducing power assay. In vitro antitumor activities were evaluated by MTT assay. Results demonstrated that PBP60-A was mainly composed of Man, Rha, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc in a mole ratio of 6.13:3.08:8.97:5.22:2.46:1.13. PBP60-B was composed of Man, GlcN, Rha, GalN, GlcU, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc in a mole ratio of 0.90:0.31:1.15:0.37:0.24:1.02:3.84:0.93:1.99. PBP60-C and PBP60-D were composed of Man, GlcN, Rha, GalN, GlcU, Glc, Gal, Xyl, Fuc and an unknown monosaccharide. Antioxidant tests indicated that four polysaccharides exhibited significant antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. PBP60-D presented relative stronger antioxidant activity. PBP60-C showed higher antitumor activity against A549 and MCF-7 cells in vitro. At concentration of500 μg/mL, the antitumor activities of PBP60-C on theA549 and MCF-7 cells were 65.30% and 42.45%, respectively. These results indicated that polysaccharides from Philomycusbilineatus could be explored as potential natural antioxidants and cancer prevention agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sympathoadrenal activity during exercise in partial diabetic and diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, H; Strubbe, J.H.; Bruggink, J.E; Steffens, A.B

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is associated with altered fat and carbohydrate metabolism and disturbed sympathoadrenal functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the short-term diabetic state alters the activity of the sympathoadrenal system and of the adrenal cortex during

  15. In vitro Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of a Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract and protein fraction of Atlantia monophylla Linn (Rutaceae) leaf. Methods: Ammonium sulphate (0 – 80 %) precipitation method was used to extract protein from the leaves of A. monophylla Linn (Rutaceae). In vitro antifungal ...

  16. Guides to manufacturing and marketing charcoal in the Northeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons

    1957-01-01

    Charcoal manufacture has become the subject of a tremendous new interest in the Northeast in the past few years. In many communities, retailers have been unable to find enough charcoal to fill the demands - even though in the same localities there are large supplies of surplus wood that could be used in making charcoal. As a result of this unfilled demand, we have...

  17. Effect of charcoal on water purification

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hirotaka; Kawahigashi, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    [Abstract] A natural basin system purifies water through self-purification, but the water pollution load of a river might exceed its self-purification capacity. Charcoal, which is used for other uses aside from heating, such as air purification, was evaluated experimentally for water quality purification. The experiment described herein is based on simple water quality measurements. Some experimentally obtained results are discussed.

  18. Charcoal cuts the CO2-emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakervik, Anne Lise.

    1999-01-01

    According to this article, bio carbon, or charcoal, may be the way out for the Norwegian processing industry in attempting to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide. Norwegian ferro-alloy plants emit 3 million ton carbon dioxide per year, which comes from the use of coal and coke as reducing agents in the smelting process. If the fraction of bio carbon is increased by 15%, the emission of CO 2 may be reduced by about 1/2 million tonne per year. But the price of charcoal is much greater than that of fix C from coal and coke. Research is in progress on trying to produce bio carbon cheaper. Charcoal can be produced from all types of forest by pyrolysis. Waste heat from the pyrolysis can be sold and used for district heating. The most expensive part in the use of bio carbon will be timber felling and transport to the log pile. Small-scale and large-scale tests will be made to see if it is possible to make adequate charcoal from subarctic timber

  19. Respiratory health effects of occupational exposure to charcoal dust in Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgabi, Nnenesi

    2016-01-01

    Background Charcoal processing activities can increase the risk of adverse respiratory outcomes. Objective To determine dose–response relationships between occupational exposure to charcoal dust, respiratory symptoms and lung function among charcoal-processing workers in Namibia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 307 workers from charcoal factories in Namibia. All respondents completed interviewer-administered questionnaires. Spirometry was performed, ambient and respirable dust levels were assessed in different work sections. Multiple logistic regression analysis estimated the overall effect of charcoal dust exposure on respiratory outcomes, while linear regression estimated the exposure-related effect on lung function. Workers were stratified according to cumulative dust exposure category. Results Exposure to respirable charcoal dust levels was above occupational exposure limits in most sectors, with packing and weighing having the highest dust exposure levels (median 27.7 mg/m3, range: 0.2–33.0 for the 8-h time-weighted average). The high cumulative dust exposure category was significantly associated with usual cough (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–4.0), usual phlegm (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–4.1), episodes of phlegm and cough (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–6.1), and shortness of breath. A non-statistically significant lower adjusted mean-predicted % FEV1 was observed (98.1% for male and 95.5% for female) among workers with greater exposure. Conclusions Charcoal dust levels exceeded the US OSHA recommended limit of 3.5 mg/m3 for carbon-black-containing material and study participants presented with exposure-related adverse respiratory outcomes in a dose–response manner. Our findings suggest that the Namibian Ministry of Labour introduce stronger enforcement strategies of existing national health and safety regulations within the industry. PMID:27687528

  20. Artificial intelligence, regression model, and cost estimation for removal of chlorothalonil pesticide by activated carbon prepared from casuarina charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Gar Alalm

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorothalonil is a pesticide that can contaminate water bodies, detriment aquatic organisms, and cause cancers of the forestomach and kidney. In this study, a powdered activated carbon prepared from casuarina wood was used for the adsorption of chlorothalonil from aqueous solutions. Based on Scanning Electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analyses, the adsorbent material comprised pores and multiple functional groups that favored the entrapment of chlorothalonil onto its surface. At initial chlorothalonil concentration of 480 mg L−1, the equilibrium uptake capacity was 187 mg g−1 at pH: 7, adsorbent dosage: 0.5 g L−1, contact time: 40 min, and room temperature (25 ± 4 °C. The kinetic and isotherm studies indicated that the rate constant of pseudo-second-order model (k2 was 0.003 g mg−1 min−1, and the monolayer adsorption capacity was 192 mg g−1. Results from a quadratic model demonstrated that the plot of adsorption capacity versus pH, chlorothalonil concentration, adsorbent dosage, and contact time caused quadratic-concave, linear-up, flat, and quadratic-linear concave up curves, respectively. An artificial neural network with a structure of 4–5–1 was able to predict the adsorption capacity (R2: 0.982, and the sensitivity analysis using connection weights showed that pH was the most influential factor. An economic estimation using amortization and operating costs revealed that an adsorption unit subjected to 100 m3 d−1 containing chlorothalonil concentration of 250 ± 50 mg L−1 could cost 1.18 $ m−3. Keywords: Activated carbon, Artificial neural network, Chlorothalonil pesticide, Cost estimation, Kinetics and isotherms

  1. The charcoal-degradation nexus: contested 'fuelscapes' in the sub-Saharan drylands of northern Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christoph; Petersen, Maike; Roden, Paul; Nüsser, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    Charcoal ranks amongst the most commercialized but least regulated commodities in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite its prevalence as an energy source for cooking and heating, localized environmental and livelihood impacts of charcoal production are poorly understood so far. The identified research deficit is amplified by widespread negative views of this activity as a poverty-driven cause of deforestation and land degradation. However, the charcoal-degradation nexus is apparently more complicated, not least because the extraction of biomass from already degraded woodlands can also be interpreted as an appropriate option under given management regimes. In order to better calibrate existing research agendas to site-specific geographies of charcoal production, we propose a re-conceptualization of such energy landscapes as 'fuelscapes' with complex material and social dimensions. The concept is tested with reference to a case study in Central Pokot, northern Kenya, where charcoal production only began in the early 1990's. Based on the assumption that the fine line between sustainable land management and degradation in dryland energy landscapes is not only highly variable but also increasingly contested, our study combines the knowledge input of different stakeholders with longitudinal time series of remote sensing data. Based on the results of our interdisciplinary analyses, we outline an integrated tool for the co-operative monitoring and management of prevailing degradation processes against the background of diversified livelihood activities in sub-Saharan drylands.

  2. A passive integrating charcoal detector for indoor radon survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing; Ren Tianshan; Li Guiyun

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the principle, design, calibration and characteristics of a passive integrating charcoal detector for measuring average radon concentration indoors. The uncertainties of the detector are also evaluated. Under conditions of room temperature at 17 deg C and relative humidity at 30%, the minimum limit of detection is 0.16 pCi/1 for 72 hours exposure. Besides higher sensitivity, the other advantages of this detector are passive, simple and less expensive. It requires no power and makes no noise and gives no interference to daily activities of the residents of dwellings being surveyed. Therefore the detector is suitable for a large-scale survey of radon levels indoors

  3. Theory and practice of radon monitoring with charcoal adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L; Cohen, E S

    1983-08-01

    Because of interest in charcoal adsorption as an inexpensive radon monitoring technique that may be suitable for mass data collection, the theory of radon adsorption from air by a charcoal bed is developed, giving numerical estimates at all stages. The method is practical down to air concentrations of about 0.1 pCi/l. A simple charcoal bed is limited by the fact that its response is highly sensitive to the time interval before termination of the exposure, but two simple methods of avoiding this problem are developed. Simple methods for determining the diffusion constant for the charcoal being used, and for optimizing the depth of the charcoal bed, are presented.

  4. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  5. Activation analysis of copper in foodstuffs after their partial destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, V.; Bludovsky, R.

    1978-01-01

    The samples analyzed (0.1 to 0.8 g) and the standards were irradiated for 24 hours with thermal neutrons (2x10 12 n/cm 2 s), the ampoules were opened 2 hours after irradiation, 1 mg of non-active Cu carrier was added and the samples were mineralized for about 15 to 20 mins at 600 degC. The ash was leached with 5 ml of hot 10% HCl and following neutralization with ammonia and dilution with 20 ml of 10 -3 M HCl, 10 ml of an α-benzoineoxime (2 g), pyridine (100 ml) and chloroform (900 ml) mixture was extracted at pH>=2. The extract was used for measuring radioactivity (6 hours after irradiation) and for spectrophotometric determination of the separation yield by the reverse IDA method (600 nm). The least measurable amount was 10 -9 g, the standard deviation +-3.5%, the simultaneous processing of 20 samples took about 3 hours. With this method the results have higher values than with nonradiometric procedures burdened with a systematic error due to Cu losses. (M.K.)

  6. Immunomodulatory activity and partial characterisation of polysaccharides from Momordica charantia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan-Yuan; Yi, Yang; Zhang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Zhen-Cheng; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Ming-Wei

    2014-08-29

    Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant's polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP) fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg-·d⁻¹ of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55×10⁴ Da and 4.41×10⁵ Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  7. Immunomodulatory Activity and Partial Characterisation of Polysaccharides from Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Yuan Deng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Momordica charantia Linn. is used as an edible and medicinal vegetable in sub-tropical areas. Until now, studies on its composition and related activities have been confined to compounds of low molecular mass, and no data have been reported concerning the plant’s polysaccharides. In this work, a crude polysaccharide of M. charantia (MCP fruit was isolated by hot water extraction and then purified using DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange chromatography to produce two main fractions MCP1 and MCP2. The immunomodulatory effects and physicochemical characteristics of these fractions were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that intragastric administration of 150 or 300 mg·kg−·d−1 of MCP significantly increased the carbolic particle clearance index, serum haemolysin production, spleen index, thymus index and NK cell cytotoxicity to normal control levels in cyclophosphamide (Cy-induced immunosuppressed mice. Both MCP1 and MCP2 effectively stimulated normal and concanavalin A-induced splenic lymphocyte proliferation in vitro at various doses. The average molecular weights of MCP1 and MCP2, which were measured using high-performance gel permeation chromatography, were 8.55 × 104 Da and 4.41 × 105 Da, respectively. Both fractions exhibited characteristic polysaccharide bands in their Fourier transform infrared spectrum. MCP1 is mainly composed of glucose and galactose, and MCP2 is mainly composed of glucose, mannose and galactose. The results indicate that MCP and its fractions have good potential as immunotherapeutic adjuvants.

  8. Study on a charcoal-based monitor for Rn-220 in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yiqiao; Solomon, S.B.

    1993-01-01

    Activated charcoal has been used in both passive monitors (Cohen, Pondy et al. 1987) and active monitors (Solomon and Gan, 1989) for the measurements of 222 Rn in air. Cooled, charcoal-impregnated filters, viewed in-situ by a solid state alpha detector, have been used for 220 Rn-in-breath studies. In general, γ ray counting of 220 Rn samples collected on activated charcoal has not been used. This paper describes the development and calibration of a charcoal based monitor designed to measure 220 Rn levels down to a lower limit of 10 Bq m -3 over sampling periods of 4 to 15 h. The activity of 212 Pb (10.6 h) produced from 220 Rn (55.6 s) collected in an activated charcoal-based sampler is 1/700 the total 220 Rn activity. A typical Hp-Ge detector has a MDL for a two-hours count of approximately 0.1 Bq of 212 Pb for the 239 keV γ-ray. For a MDL of 10 Bq·m -3 of 220 Rn in air, a volume of at least 7 m 3 must be sampled, assuming no breakthrough. The present charcoal-based 220 Rn monitor is designed to maximize the path length through the activated charcoal while sufficient cross-sectional area is retained to allow flow rates up to 0.03 m 3 ·kg -1 is packed into a specially designed aluminum container. The container is modeled on a Marinelli beaker to maximize the counting efficiency, while the sample flow through the chambers of the monitor is optimized to maintain radial symmetry. experiments demonstrated that 94% of 220 Rn was adsorbed by the charcoal in the monitor under a flow rate of 0.03 m 3 ·min -1 at 25 degree C and 85%. RH in 15 h. The monitor is designed to fit over a 70 mm diameter Hp-Ge detector. Preliminary measurements of 220 Rn in two buildings and a cave, using the active monitors and 'grabing' samples under a flow rate of 0.03 m 3 ·min -1 and a period of 4 h, indicated concentrations of between 18.6 and 142.0 Bq·m 3

  9. Comparing charcoal and zeolite reflection filters for volatile anaesthetics: A laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturesson, Louise W; Frennström, Jan O; Ilardi, Marcella; Reinstrup, Peter

    2015-08-01

    A modified heat-moisture exchanger that incorporates a reflecting filter for use with partial rebreathing of exhaled volatile anaesthetics has been commercially available since the 1990 s. The main advantages of the device are efficient delivery of inhaled sedation to intensive care patients and reduced anaesthetic consumption during anaesthesia. However, elevated arterial CO2 values have been observed with an anaesthetic conserving device compared with a conventional heat and moisture exchanger, despite compensation for larger apparatus dead space. The objective of this study is to thoroughly explore the properties of two reflecting materials (charcoal and zeolites). A controlled, prospective, observational laboratory study. Lund University Hospital, Sweden, from December 2011 to December 2012. None. Three filters, with identical volumes, were compared using different volatile anaesthetics at different conditions of temperature and moisture. The filtering materials were charcoal or zeolite. Glass spheres were used as an inert control. Consumption of volatile anaesthetics using different reflecting materials in filters at different conditions regarding temperature and moisture. CO2 reflection by the filtering materials: glass spheres, charcoal or zeolite. Isoflurane consumption in an open system was 60.8 g h(-1). The isoflurane consumption in dry, warm air was 39.8 g h(-1) with glass spheres. Changing to charcoal and zeolite had a profound effect on isoflurane consumption, 11.8 and 10.7 g h(-1), respectively. Heating and humidifying the air as well as the addition of N2O created only minor changes in consumption. The percentage of isoflurane conserved by the charcoal filter was independent of the isoflurane concentration (0.5 to 4.5%). Reflection of sevoflurane, desflurane and halothane by the charcoal filter was similar to reflection of isoflurane. Both charcoal and zeolite filters had CO2 reflecting properties and end-tidal CO2 increased by 3 to 3.7% compared

  10. Neuronal Activity in the Subthalamic Cerebrovasodilator Area under Partial-Gravity Conditions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeredo L Zeredo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduced-gravity environment in space is known to cause an upward shift in body fluids and thus require cardiovascular adaptations in astronauts. In this study, we recorded in rats the neuronal activity in the subthalamic cerebrovasodilator area (SVA, a key area that controls cerebral blood flow (CBF, in response to partial gravity. “Partial gravity” is the term that defines the reduced-gravity levels between 1 g (the unit gravity acceleration on Earth and 0 g (complete weightlessness in space. Neuronal activity was recorded telemetrically through chronically implanted microelectrodes in freely moving rats. Graded levels of partial gravity from 0.4 g to 0.01 g were generated by customized parabolic-flight maneuvers. Electrophysiological signals in each partial-gravity phase were compared to those of the preceding 1 g level-flight. As a result, SVA neuronal activity was significantly inhibited by the partial-gravity levels of 0.15 g and lower, but not by 0.2 g and higher. Gravity levels between 0.2–0.15 g could represent a critical threshold for the inhibition of neurons in the rat SVA. The lunar gravity (0.16 g might thus trigger neurogenic mechanisms of CBF control. This is the first study to examine brain electrophysiology with partial gravity as an experimental parameter.

  11. Adsorption of krypton from helium by low temperature charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.; Simmons, C.R.; Taylor, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Adsorption of krypton from helium by charcoal at temperatures from -100 0 C to -140 0 C was experimentally investigated to verify adsorption system design methods and to determine effects of regeneration for the Gas Purification System of the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. Helium with two krypton concentrations, traced by krypton-85 at 0.0044 μCi/cm 3 , was passed through a 1/2-inch diameter, three-inch long trap packed with coconut charcoal. Breakthrough curves were measured by continuously recording the activity of the effluent gas using a sampler with a krypton-85 detection limit of about 5 x 10 -7 μCi/cm 3 . Experimental breakthrough curves with continuous feed for both concentrations and for superficial gas velocities of 5 to 28 cm/sec were closely fitted when the pore diffusion term was omitted from the Anzelius linear equilibrium adsorption model indicating that the adsorption process for this system was controlled by gas phase mass transport kinetics. Adsorption capacities determined in these experiments at -140 0 C agreed closely with published data. A discontinuity, however, was observed in the krypton adsorption coefficient between -100 and -120 0 C. This discontinuity may be caused by capillary condensation of krypton in the charcoal pores. Breakthrough times for pulse experiments at 400 ppM (vol.) krypton concentration were several times greater than breakthrough for continuous feed experiments at equivalent conditions. The differences in breakthrough times indicate that the adsorption isotherms are non-linear in this concentration range. Regeneration experiments showed that purging with helium at room temperature for 16 hours was inadequate, since lower breakthrough times were obtained after this treatment. Regeneration under vacuum at 100 0 C or 200 0 C for 16 hours resulted in satisfactory regeneration (i.e., no reduction in breakthrough times occurred in subsequent runs). (U.S.)

  12. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the suburbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  13. Consumer Preferences for Coconut Shell Charcoal in Suburban Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitri Yandri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Suburbs in Indonesia are not only characterized by the presence of residential areas, but also trading activities. These activities exist in order to support the needs of residents for goods and/or services. The complicated process that involves pull and push factors causes the su-burbs to be well-known as economically potential areas, especially for micro, small, medium and large enterprises. One example of the trading subsectors is restaurants, both micro enterprises with traditional management and franchises patterns with professional management. Most of these restaurants provide barbequed menus which consume shell coconut charcoal. Then the question arises, is the quality of those commodity is the only reason for the restaurants in using it? This paper presents the elaboration of the research on consumer preferences in a suburban area of the consumption of coconut shell charcoal. By using the Fishbein Model, it is concluded that the aspect of belief and price attribute are in the first rank, which shows that those commodity is an expensive fuel, while the second rank is quality. The rest are models and after-sales service, respectively. From the aspect of evaluation, the respondents believe that quality is in the first rank that should be improved in the future. The second is price and the rest are after-sales service, packaging and models, respectively.

  14. Briquetting of Charcoal from Sesame Stalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alula Gebresas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the easy availability of wood in Ethiopia, wood charcoal has been the main source fuel for cooking. This study has been started on sesame stalk biomass briquetting which can potentially solve the health problems and shortage of energy, which consequently can solve deforestation. The result of the data collection shows that, using 30% conversion efficiency of carbonizer, it was found that more than 150,000 tonnes of charcoal can be produced from the available sesame stalk in Humera, a place in north Ethiopia. The clay binders that are mixed with carbonized sesame stalk were found to have 69 liquid limits; thus, the optimum amount of clay that should be added as a binder is 15%, which results in better burning and heat holding capacity and better heating time. The developed briquetting machine has a capacity of producing 60 Kg/hr but the carbonization kiln can only carbonize 3.1 Kg in 2 : 40 hours; hence, it is a bottle neck for the briquette production. The hydrocarbon laboratory analysis showed that the calorific value of the charcoal produced with 15% clay content is 4647.75 Cal/gm and decreases as clay ratio increases and is found to be sufficient energy content for cooking.

  15. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  16. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  17. Activated charcoal and graphite for the micropropagation of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. and a orchid double-hybrid ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’=Carvão ativado e grafite para a micropropagação de Cattleya bicolor Lindl. e um duplo híbrido de orquídea ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Aparecida Mangolin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous studies have investigated the use of graphite instead of activated charcoal in orchids. In this work, different concentrations of activated charcoal or graphite were added to KC medium to darken the culture medium and stimulate the in vitro propagation of Cattleya bicolor and of a double hybrid orchid (‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’. The seedlings were inoculated on growth regulator-free KC medium; the effects of activated charcoal (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 g L-1 and graphite (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 g L-1 concentrations were tested separately. Each flask contained fifteen seedlings, and the experiments had a randomised, two-way factorial design. The two tested variables were culture medium and illumination levels; eleven culture levels (different concentrations of graphite or activate charcoal and two illumination levels (14-hr photoperiod or continuous illumination were evaluated. Three replicates of each combination were utilised. After six months of culture, the average numbers of induced buds and roots per seedling were recorded for each concentration of activated charcoal or graphite. Whereas the largest number of buds in C. bicolor seedlings occurred on media containing 6.0 or 7.5 g L-1 graphite, the largest number of roots occurred on media containing 6.0 g L-1 activated charcoal. In the hybrid ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’, the largest number of buds and roots was reported in medium with 4.5 g L-1 activated charcoal. When using graphite in place of activated charcoal, we obtained disparate the results in root formation that suggest that graphite is not a recommended substitute for activated charcoal.Nenhum estudo prévio tem investigado o uso de grafite como substituto do carvão ativado em orquídeas. No presente trabalho, concentrações diferentes de carvão ativado ou de grafite foram adicionadas ao meio KC para escurecer o meio de cultura e estimular a propagação in vitro de Cattleya bicolor e de um

  18. The addition of charcoals to broiler diets did not alter the recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium during grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K M; Bourassa, D V; Davis, A J; Freeman, M E; Buhr, R J

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments evaluated prebiotics added to feed on the recovery of Salmonella in broilers during grow-out and processing. In Experiment 1, "seeder" chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium and placed with penmates. Treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.6% bamboo charcoal, or 0.12% Aromabiotic (medium chain fatty acids). The ceca from seeders and penmates were sampled to confirm Salmonella colonization at 3, 4, and 6 wk, and pen litter was sampled weekly. At 3 wk, charcoal fed chicks had significantly lower cecal recovery (37% lower) of Salmonella via direct plating but no differences at wk 4 or 6. At 6 wk, broilers fed Aromabiotic had no recovery of Salmonella from ceca with direct plating and significantly, 18%, lower recovery with enrichment. In Experiment 2, the treatments were: basal control diet, added 0.3% bamboo charcoal, 0.3% activated bamboo charcoal, or 0.3% pine charcoal. At placement, 2 seeders were challenged with Salmonella and commingled with penmates and ceca sampled at 1 and 2 wk, and ceca from 5 penmates/pen at 3 to 6 wk. Weekly, the pH of the crop and duodenum was measured from 1 penmate/pen and the litter surface sampled. At the end of grow-out broilers were processed. Results showed that penmates had colonized at 1 and 2 wk. Cecal Salmonella showed no differences except at 4 wk, when activated bamboo charcoal had a 18% lower recovery of Salmonella (enrichment) compared to the control (88%). Similar to Experiment 1, the recovery of Salmonella from the litter was not significantly different among treatments, however an overall decrease in recovery by 4 wk with direct plating reoccurred. The pH of the duodenum and the crop were not different among treatments. Crop pH (6.0) for all treatments were significantly higher at wk 1 compared to wk 2 to 6. Charcoals had minimal effect on Salmonella recovery in the ceca, but following defeathering, broilers fed charcoals had significantly lower Salmonella

  19. Validation of computer code TRAFIC used for estimation of charcoal heatup in containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D.H.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P.K.; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Standard Indian PHWRs are provided with a Primary Containment Filtration and Pump-Back System (PCFPB) incorporating charcoal filters in the ventilation circuit to remove radioactive iodine that may be released from reactor core into the containment during LOCA+ECCS failure which is a Design Basis Accident for containment of radioactive release. This system is provided with two identical air circulation loops, each having 2 full capacity fans (1 operating and 1 standby) for a bank of four combined charcoal and High Efficiency Particulate Activity (HEPA) filters, in addition to other filters. While the filtration circuit is designed to operate under forced flow conditions, it is of interest to understand the performance of the charcoal filters, in the event of failure of the fans after operating for some time, i.e., when radio-iodine inventory is at its peak value. It is of interest to check whether the buoyancy driven natural circulation occurring in the filtration circuit is sufficient enough to keep the temperature in the charcoal under safe limits. A computer code TRAFIC (Transient Analysis of Filters in Containment) was developed using conservative one dimensional model to analyze the system. Suitable parametric studies were carried out to understand the problem and to identify the safety of existing system. TRAFIC Code has two important components. The first one estimates the heat generation in charcoal filter based on 'Source Term'; while the other one performs thermal-hydraulic computations. In an attempt validate the Code, experimental studies have been carried out. For this purpose, an experimental set up comprising of scaled down model of filtration circuit with heating coils embedded in charcoal for simulating the heating effect due to radio iodine has been constructed. The present work of validation consists of utilizing the results obtained from experiments conducted for different heat loads, elevations and adsorbent

  20. In vivo experiments with powder charcoal haemoperfusion (filmadsorber) in a pig model of hepatic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berlo, G.M.W.; Groot, de G.H.; Schalm, S.W.; Jansen, P.P.; Vries, de E.H.; Fick, T.; Reuvers, C.; Boks, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    The filmadsorber, an experimental haemoperfusion column containing activated powder charcoal embedded in a colloidal film, has been tested in pigs with ischaemicnecrosis of the Iiver. Haemoperfusion with aflow of 200 mI/min was perfermed for a duration of 4 to 6 hours. Bile acid clearances varied

  1. Waste glass as partial mineral precursor in alkali-activated slag/fly ash system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, S.; Keulen, A.; Arbi, K.; Ye, G.

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of a waste glass powder residue (GP) from glass recycling as partial mineral precursor to produce alkali-activated materials is investigated. GP served as powder coal fly ash (PCFA) replacement within a reference system composed of 50% PCFA and 50% ground granulated blast furnace

  2. Highly Active, Carbon-supported, PdSn Nano-core, Partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbon-supported, Pt partially covered, PdSn alloy nanoparticles (Pt-PdSn/C) were synthesized via a metathetical reaction of PdSn alloy nanoparticles, and a platinum precursor. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by methanol oxidation. The Pt-PdSn/C catalysts were characterized by transmission electron ...

  3. Motor unit activation order during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, CK; Nelson, G; Than, L; Zijdewind, Inge

    The activation order of motor units during electrically evoked contractions of paralyzed or partially paralyzed thenar muscles was determined in seven subjects with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. The median nerve was stimulated percutaneously with pulses of graded intensity to produce

  4. Measures and experiments to the reduction of mercury in the waste recycling plant Bonn. The gold amalgam procedure - Attempt of precipitation in the scrubber with TMT 15 - enrichment of the Dioxorb absorbent with activated charcoal; Massnahmen und Versuche zur Quecksilberminderung in der Abfallverwertungsanlage Bonn. Das Gold-Amalgamverfahren: Faellungsversuch im Waescher mit TMT 15 - Anreicherung des Dioxorb-Absorbens mit Aktivkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, R. [Muellverwertungsanlage Bonn GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    MVA Bonn GmbH (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) operates a plant for the thermal utilization of settlement wastes. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on measures and attempts according to the reduction of mercury in the waste processing plant Bonn. In particular, three procedures are discussed: (a) The gold amalgam procedure; (b) attempt of precipitation in the scrubber with TMT-15; (c) enrichment of the adsorbent Dioxorb with activated charcoal. The gold amalgam procedure is a reliable procedure for the reduction of the mercury content in exhaust gases. Additionally, it is a very expensive procedure. The filling material containers of all three procedures should be replaced in the next revisions gradually with new containers. The danger of an enrichment of considerable quantities of mercury on the filling material packing is large. A further possibility is the filling of the finished solution over a mist eliminator. Here the danger of the blockage plays a substantial role. A thorough and reliable lowering of the mercury emission can be achieved by means of the active charcoal containing Dioxorb.

  5. Return to Sports and Physical Activities After Primary Partial Arthrodesis for Lisfranc Injuries in Young Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Aoife; Kim, Paul; Levine, David S; Burket, Jayme; Roberts, Matthew M; Drakos, Mark C; Deland, Jonathan T; Elliott, Andrew J; Ellis, Scott J

    2016-04-01

    Research regarding outcomes in sports and physical activities after primary partial arthrodesis for Lisfranc injuries has been sparse. The purposes of this study were to assess various sports and physical activities in young patients following primary partial arthrodesis for Lisfranc injuries and to compare these with clinical outcomes. Patients who underwent primary partial arthrodesis for a Lisfranc injury were identified by a retrospective registry review. Thirty-eight of 46 eligible patients (83%) responded for follow-up at a mean of 5.2 (range, 1.0 to 9.3) years with a mean age at surgery of 31.8 (range, 16.8 to 50.3) years. Physical activity participation was assessed with a new sports-specific, patient-administered questionnaire. Clinical outcomes were assessed with the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS). Patients participated in 29 different and 155 total physical activities preoperatively, and 27 different and 145 total physical activities postoperatively. Preoperatively, 47.1% were high impact, and postoperatively, 44.8% were high impact. The most common activities were walking, bicycling, running, and weightlifting. Compared to preoperatively, difficulty was the same in 66% and increased in 34% of physical activities. Participation levels were improved in 11%, the same in 64%, and impaired in 25% of physical activities. Patients spent on average 4.2 (range, 0.0 to 19.8) hours per week exercising postoperatively. In regard to return to physical activity, 97% of respondents were satisfied with their operative outcome. Mean postoperative FAOS subscores were significantly worse for patients who had increased physical activity difficulty. Most patients were able to return to their previous physical activities following primary partial arthrodesis for a Lisfranc injury, many of which were high-impact. However, the decreased participation or increase in difficulty of some activities suggests that some patients experienced postoperative limitations in exercise

  6. Biological regeneration of humic acid-loaded partially exhausted activated carbon (down flow system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, M.A.Q.J.; Martin, R.J.; Khaliq, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper represents the report on the biological regeneration of partially exhausted (down flow) activated carbon following the experimental studies carried out at the university of Birmingham, UK. The Research investigated the extent of bio regeneration of humic acid of concentration 100 mg/l. Bio regeneration in the partial exhaustion system (down flow) was evaluated in terms of substrate removal. Bacterial counts in the effluents of regenerated GAC columns were significantly more than those of fresh carbon effluents. The regeneration performance of the bio regeneration, partially exhausted (with humic acid) carbon increased during initial cycles, later on, it deteriorated significantly with each successive regeneration cycle. Microbial fouling of the carbon, especially at the bottom of the carbon bed was found to produce a substantial deterioration of the bio regeneration performance. (author)

  7. Research on removal of radioiodine by charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wangchang; Huang Yuying; Wu Yianwei; Jia Ming; Guo Liangtian

    1993-01-01

    The major R and D work carried out in the CIRP laboratory on removal of radioiodine is introduced, which involves the adsorption performances of various kinds of fruit shell base and coal base charcoal impregnated with chemicals, the influence of various parameters, the technique of non-destructive test for commercial scale iodine adsorber, and the iodine samplers for both gross iodine and iodine in different forms. The experimental results have been applied to the design and test of iodine adsorber and the monitoring of airborne radioiodine

  8. Activation of charcoal made from japanese cypress as oxygen electrode in fuel cell by deposition of Pd-metal/Heteropolyacids of the micropores; Kinzokuparajiumu-heteroporisan no bunsan tanzi niyoru hinoki mokutan no nenryo denchisansokyoku to shiteno kinouka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumine, Takuya.; Kominami, Hiroshi.; Kera, Yoshiya. [Kinki University, osaka (Japan); Abe, Ikuo. [Osaka Municipal Technology Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    Pd- and Pt-metal were observed by TEM to be highly disperdsed on charcoal prepared from Japanese Cypress [Hinoki] at 900degreeC (Pd, Pt/H2). Nafion-sheet was hot-pressed with Pd/H2 and Pt/H2 disc-pellets placed in the other sides to make a fuel cell-electrode unit. The 1-V curve in the H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} fuel were measured : The voltage certainly grew with increase in the amount of Pd-metal (1{yields}13wt%) and with a mixing of [Nafion] powder (11wt%). The discharge character was greatly improved with the addition of heteropolyacid (H{sub 3}PMo{sub 11}VO{sub 42};PVMo{sub 11}). When a charcoal prepared from Hinoki at 2400degreeC (HG) was used, the inner resistivity was about 10-times lower than the case of H2 used, although the dispersed states of Pd-metal became considerably poor on HG rather than H2. The actuvuty also increased further with the addition of Nafion and PVMo{sub 11}. (author)

  9. [Adsorption mechanism of furfural onto modified rice husk charcoals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Yunchao; Shao, Jing'ai; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Hanping

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the absorptive characteristics of furfural onto biomass charcoals derived from rice husk pyrolysis, we studied the information of the structure and surface chemistry properties of the rice husk charcoals modified by thermal treatment under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow and adsorption mechanism of furfural. The modified samples are labeled as RH-N2 and RH-CO2. Fresh rice husk charcoal sample (RH-450) and modified samples were characterized by elemental analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and Boehm titration. The results show that fresh rice husk charcoal obtained at 450 degrees C had a large number of organic groups on its surface and poor pore structure. After the modification under nitrogen and carbon dioxide flow, oxygenic organics in rice husk charcoals decompose further, leading to the reduction of acidic functional groups on charcoals surface, and the increase of the pyrone structures of the basic groups. Meanwhile, pore structure was improved significantly and the surface area was increased, especially for the micropores. This resulted in the increase of π-π dispersion between the surfaces of rice husk charcoals and furfural molecular. With making comprehensive consideration of π-π dispersion and pore structure, the best removal efficiency of furfural was obtained by rice husk charcoal modified under carbon dioxide flow.

  10. Production of charcoal briquettes from biomass for community use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttibak, S.; Loengbudnark, W.

    2018-01-01

    This article reports of a study on the production of charcoal briquettes from biomass for community use. Manufacture of charcoal briquettes was done using a briquette machine with a screw compressor. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of biomass type upon the properties and performance of charcoal briquettes. The biomass samples used in this work were sugarcane bagasse (SB), cassava rhizomes (CR) and water hyacinth (WH) harvested in Udon Thani, Thailand. The char from biomass samples was produced in a 200-liter biomass incinerator. The resulting charcoal briquettes were characterized by measuring their properties and performance including moisture content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash contents, elemental composition, heating value, density, compressive strength and extinguishing time. The results showed that the charcoal briquettes from CR had more favorable properties and performance than charcoal briquettes from either SB or WH. The lower heating values (LHV) of the charcoal briquettes from SB, CR and WH were 26.67, 26.84 and 16.76 MJ/kg, respectively. The compressive strengths of charcoal briquettes from SB, CR and WH were 54.74, 80.84 and 40.99 kg/cm2, respectively. The results of this research can contribute to the promotion and development of cost-effective uses of agricultural residues. Additionally, it can assist communities in achieving sustainable self-sufficiency, which is in line with our late King Bhumibol’s economic sufficiency philosophy.

  11. Passive and partially active fault tolerance for massively parallel stream processing engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Li; Zhou, Yongluan

    2018-01-01

    . On the other hand, an active approach usually employs backup nodes to run replicated tasks. Upon failure, the active replica can take over the processing of the failed task with minimal latency. However, both approaches have their own inadequacies in Massively Parallel Stream Processing Engines (MPSPE...... also propose effective and efficient algorithms to optimize a partially active replication plan to maximize the quality of tentative outputs. We implemented PPA on top of Storm, an open-source MPSPE and conducted extensive experiments using both real and synthetic datasets to verify the effectiveness...

  12. Remediation of cadmium contaminated vertisol mediated by Prosopis charcoal and coir pith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaninaicker Senthilkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal contamination of soil due to industrial and agricultural activities is increasingly becoming a global problem, thereby affecting animal and human life, thus rendering soil unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Remediation of cadmium (Cd contaminated soil (Vertisol using agricultural by products as source of organic amendments, Coir pith- a by-product of the coir industry and Prosopis charcoal- prepared by burning Prosopis plant wood (Prosopis juliflora L. was investigated. The alleviation potential of Prosopis charcoal and Coir pith on the negative effects of Cd in soil was evaluated in pot culture experiments with Vigna radiata as the test plant, a Cd accumulator. Cadmium addition to soil resulted in accumulation of Cd in all plant parts of V. radiata predominantly in roots. The influence of Cd in the presence and absence of organic amendments on the various biological and chemical parameters of the soil, on the levels of Cd accumulation and on the growth attributes of V. radiata has been assessed. Among the organic amendments, Prosopis charcoal was found to be more effective in reducing the bioavailable levels of Cd in the soil artificially spiked with Cd in graded concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 µg g-1 and its accumulation in V. radiata, thus resulting in an increase in the root, leaf and stem biomass. Coir pith, however, was effective in increasing the total mycorrhizal colonization of roots and second in reducing Cd levels in plants. Therefore, Prosopis charcoal was considered best for stabilization of Cd in soil.

  13. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Yehya, E-mail: yelsayed@aus.edu; Dalibalta, Sarah, E-mail: sdalibalta@aus.edu; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-11-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  14. Chemical analysis and potential health risks of hookah charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsayed, Yehya; Dalibalta, Sarah; Abu-Farha, Nedal

    2016-01-01

    Hookah (waterpipe) smoking is a very common practice that has spread globally. There is growing evidence on the hazardous consequences of smoking hookah, with studies indicating that its harmful effects are comparable to cigarette smoking if not worse. Charcoal is commonly used as a heating source for hookah smoke. Although charcoal briquettes are thought to be one of the major contributors to toxicity, their composition and impact on the smoke generated remains largely unidentified. This study aims to analyze the elemental composition of five different raw synthetic and natural charcoals by using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-Ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS). Elemental analysis showed that the raw charcoals contain heavy metals such as zinc, iron, cadmium, vanadium, aluminum, lead, chromium, manganese and cobalt at concentrations similar, if not higher than, cigarettes. In addition, thermal desorption-gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD-GC–MS) was used to analyze the chemical composition of the smoke produced from burning the charcoal samples. The smoke emitted from charcoal was found to be the source of numerous compounds which could be hazardous to health. A total of seven carcinogens, 39 central nervous system depressants and 31 respiratory irritants were identified. - Highlights: • Hookah charcoals, mainly synthetic brands, contains trace/heavy metals in concentrations exceeding those in cigarettes. • The concentration of lead in synthetic charcoal briquettes may impose adverse effects on human health. • The amount of nitrogen in synthetic charcoal is comparable to that reported in cigarettes. • Chemical profiling of smoke emitted from hookah charcoal reveals many compounds associated with potential health risks.

  15. Conceptual Analysis: The Charcoal-Agriculture Nexus to Understand the Socio-Ecological Contexts Underlying Varied Sustainability Outcomes in African Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Iiyama

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of charcoal is an important socio-economic activity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. Charcoal production is one of the leading drivers of rural land-use changes in SSA, although the intensity of impacts on the multi-functionality of landscapes varies considerably. Within a given landscape, charcoal production is closely interconnected to agriculture production both as major livelihoods, while both critically depend on the same ecosystem services. The interactions between charcoal and agricultural production systems can lead to positive synergies of impacts, but will more often result in trade-offs and even vicious cycles. Such sustainability outcomes vary from one site to another due to the heterogeneity of contexts, including agricultural production systems that affect the adoption of technologies and practices. Trade-offs or cases of vicious cycles occur when one-off resource exploitation of natural trees for charcoal production for short-term economic gains permanently impairs ecosystem functions. Given the fact that charcoal, as an important energy source for the growing urban populations and an essential livelihood for the rural populations, cannot be readily substituted in SSA, there must be policies to support charcoal production. Policies should encourage sustainable technologies and practices, either by establishing plantations or by encouraging regeneration, whichever is more suitable for the local environment. To guide context-specific interventions, this paper presents a new perspective—the charcoal-agriculture nexus—aimed at facilitating the understanding of the socio-economic and ecological interactions of charcoal and agricultural production. The nexus especially highlights two dimensions of the socio-ecological contexts: charcoal value chains and tenure systems. Combinations of the two are assumed to underlie varied socio-economic and ecological sustainability outcomes by conditioning incentive mechanisms to affect

  16. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Hussein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  17. Alterations in knee kinematics after partial medial meniscectomy are activity dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edd, Shannon N; Netravali, Nathan A; Favre, Julien; Giori, Nicholas J; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2015-06-01

    Alterations in knee kinematics after partial meniscectomy have been linked to the increased risk of osteoarthritis in this population. Understanding differences in kinematics during static versus dynamic activities of increased demand can provide important information regarding the possible underlying mechanisms of these alterations. Differences in the following 2 kinematics measures will increase with activity demand: (1) the offset toward external tibial rotation for the meniscectomized limb compared with the contralateral limb during stance and (2) the difference in knee flexion angle at initial foot contact between the meniscectomized and contralateral limbs. Controlled laboratory study. This study compared side-to-side differences in knee flexion and rotation angles during static and dynamic activities. Thirteen patients (2 female) were tested in a motion capture laboratory at 6 ± 2 months after unilateral, arthroscopic, partial medial meniscectomy during a static reference pose and during 3 dynamic activities: walking, stair ascent, and stair descent. The meniscectomized limb demonstrated more external tibial rotation compared with the contralateral limb during dynamic activities, and there was a trend that this offset increased with activity demand (repeated-measures analysis of variance [ANOVA] for activity, P = .07; mean limb difference: static pose, -0.1° ± 3.3°, P = .5; walking, 1.2° ± 3.8°, P = .1; stair ascent, 2.0° ± 3.2°, P = .02; stair descent, 3.0° ± 3.5°, P = .005). Similarly, the meniscectomized knee was more flexed at initial contact than the contralateral limb during dynamic activities (repeated-measures ANOVA for activity P = .006; mean limb difference: reference pose, 1.0° ± 2.5°, P = .09; walking, 2.0° ± 3.9°, P = .05; stair ascent, 5.9° ± 5.3°, P = .009; stair descent, 3.5° ± 4.0°, P = .004). These results suggest both a structural element and a potential muscular element for the differences in kinematics after

  18. Factors Contributing to Pelvis Instability in Female Adolescent Athletes During Unilateral Repeated Partial Squat Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, Donna Moxley; Linderman, Shannon; Berkson, Eric M.; Oh, Luke S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Unilateral partial squat tasks are often used to assess athletes’ lower extremity (LE) neuromuscular control. Single squat biomechanics such as lateral drop of the non-stance limb’s pelvis have been linked to knee injury risk. Yet, there are limited studies on the factors contributing to pelvic instability during the unilateral partial squat such as anatomical alignment of the knee and hip strength. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the influence of leg dominance on pelvic drop among female athletes during the repeated unilateral partial squat activity and 2) to investigate the contributions that lower limb kinematics and hip strength have on pelvis drop. Methods: 42 female athletes (27= softball pitchers, 15=gymnasts, avg age=16.48 ± 2.54 years) underwent lower limb assessment. The quadriceps angle (Q angle) and the average of 3 trials for hip abduction and extension strength (handheld dynamometer measurements) were used for analyses. 3D biomechanical analysis of the repeated unilateral partial squat activity followed using a 20 motion capture camera system which created a 15 segment model of each subject. The subject stood on one leg at the lateral edge of a 17.78 cm box with hands placed on the hips and squatted so that the free hanging contralateral limb came as close to the ground without contact for 5 continuous repetitions. One trial for each limb was performed. Peak pelvic drop and ankle, knee and hip angles and torques (normalized by weight) at this time point were calculated using Visual 3D (C-Motion) biomechanical software. Paired T-test, Spearman correlations and multiple regression model statistical analyses were performed. Results: Peak pelvic drop during the unilateral partial squat did not differ significantly on the basis of limb dominance (p=0.831, Dom: -3.40 ± 5.10° , ND: -3.46 ± 4.44°). Peak pelvic drop displayed a Spearman correlation with the functional measure of hip abduction/adduction (ABD/ADD) angle (rs= 0

  19. FTIR spectroscopy and reflectance of modern charcoals and fungal decayed woods: implications for studies of inertinite in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Bustin, R.M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    1998-09-01

    The chemical and physical characteristics of laboratory produced charcoals, natural charcoals, fungal decayed woods and inertinite from a variety of Western Canadian coals were investigated using FTIR and standard petrologic techniques. The studies confirm and extend earlier work in showing that almost all inertinite macerals can be attributed to wildfire in peat swamps, and that variation in the petrological characteristics of inertinite are a product of temperature, duration of heating and the nature of the initial plant material. The relationships between reflectance and temperature, as well as heating duration of charcoal formation are established as a reference for the examination of inertinite, and the probable temperature of inertinite precursor (fossil charcoal) formation in paleo-widlfire. Fungi do not directly contribute to the formation of charcoal and inertinite apart from the fungal bodies themselves (funginite: sclerotia and hyphae) and perhaps by increasing the extent of shrinkage and cracking (increasing surface area) of the plant materials and thus susceptibility to charring. Evidence of fungal activity progressively decreases with increasing degree of charing in response to duration of heating or increased charing temperature. The reflectance values and FTIR spectral characteristics of inertinites in Western Canadian coal suggest that most inertinite formed by wildfires at temperatures over 400{degree}C. The great abundance of semifusinite in Western Canadian coal may reflect frequent but short duration wildfires in precursor peat swamps. 44 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Avaliação de diferentes tipos de carvão ativo na destoxificação de hidrolisado de palha de arroz para produção de xilitol Evaluation of different kinds of activated charcoal used for rice straw hydrolysate detoxification for xylitol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available O hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz foi tratado com cinco tipos de carvão ativo (pó e granulado com o objetivo de remover, por adsorção, compostos tóxicos que podem agir como inibidores no processo de bioconversão de xilose em xilitol, por Candida guilliermondii. Os valores máximos de fator de rendimento em xilitol (Y P/S = 0,67g g-1 e produtividade volumétrica (Q P = 0,61g L-1 h-1 foram atingidos quando o hidrolisado foi tratado com carvão ativo em pó de partículas de tamanho pequeno (0,043mm, baixa granulometria (32% retidos em peneira de 325mesh e grande área superficial (860m² g-1, características as quais favoreceram a adsorção dos compostos tóxicos.Rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate was treated with five kinds of activated charcoal (powdered and granulated in order to remove, by adsorption, toxic compounds that can be act as inhibitors in the bioconversion of xylose to xylitol, by Candida guilliermondii. Maximum values of xylitol yield factor (Y P/S= 0.67g g-1 and volumetric productivity (Q P=0.61g L-1h-1 were provided by powdered activated charcoal with small particles size (0.043mm, low granulometry (32% restrained in 325mesh and large surface area (860m² g-1, characteristics which favoured the toxic compounds adsorption.

  1. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vizoná Liberato

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM, but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs. We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10 bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5, linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  2. Remediation of cadmium contaminated vertisol mediated by Prosopis charcoal and coir pith

    OpenAIRE

    Palaninaicker Senthilkumar; Duraisamy Prabha; Subpiramaniyan Sivakumar; Chandra Venkatasamy Subbhuraam

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination of soil due to industrial and agricultural activities is increasingly becoming a global problem, thereby affecting animal and human life, thus rendering soil unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Remediation of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil (Vertisol) using agricultural by products as source of organic amendments, Coir pith- a by-product of the coir industry and Prosopis charcoal- prepared by burning Prosopis plant wood (Prosopis juliflora L.) was investigated. The allevi...

  3. Combining charcoal and elemental black carbon analysis in sedimentary archives: Implications for past fire regimes, the pyrogenic carbon cycle, and the human-climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenon, Florian; Williamson, David; Bard, Edouard; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Beaufort, Luc; Cachier, Hélène

    2010-07-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of combustion-derived products in oceanic and continental sediments by optical and chemical approaches, and the interest of combining such methods for reconstructing past biomass burning activity and the pyrogenic carbon cycle. In such context, the dark particles > 0.2 µm 2 remaining after the partial digestion of organic matter are optically counted by automated image analysis and defined as charcoal, while the elemental carbon remaining after thermal and chemical oxidative treatments is quantified as black carbon (BC). The obtained pyrogenic carbon records from three sediment core-based case studies, (i) the Late Pleistocene equatorial Pacific Ocean, (ii) the mid-Holocene European Lake Lucerne, and (iii) the Late Holocene African Lake Masoko, are interpreted as proxy records of regional transportation mechanisms and biomass burning activities. The results show that the burial of dark carbon-rich particles in the 360 kyr-long record from the west equatorial Pacific is controlled by the combination of sea-level changes and low-latitude atmospheric circulation patterns (summer monsoon dynamics). However, the three fold increases in charcoal and BC sediment influxes between 53-43 and 12-10 kyr BP suggest that major shifts in fire activity occur synchronously with human colonization in the Indo/Pacific region. The coarse charcoal distribution from a 7.2 kyr record from Lake Lucerne in Switzerland closely matches the regional timing of major technical, land-use, and socio-economic changes during the Neolithic (between ca. 5.7 and 5.2 kyr BP and 4.9-4.5 kyr BP), the Bronze and Iron Ages (at ca. 3.3 and 2.4 kyr BP, respectively), and the industrialization (after AD 1838), pointing to the key impact of human activities on the sources, transportation processes and reservoirs of refractory carbon during the Holocene. In the tropical Masoko maar lake in Tanzania, where charcoal and BC records are highly sensitive to the local climate

  4. Constructed wetland using corncob charcoal substrate: pollutants removal and intensification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mao; Li, Boyuan; Xue, Yingwen; Wang, Hongyu; Yang, Kai

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using corncob charcoal substrate in constructed wetlands, four laboratory-scale vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) were built. Effluent pollutant (chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH 4 + -N, total phosphorus (TP)) concentrations during the experiment were determined to reveal pollutant removal mechanisms and efficiencies at different stages. In the stable stage, a VFCW using clay ceramisite substrate under aeration attained higher COD (95.1%), and NH 4 + -N (95.1%) removal efficiencies than a VFCW using corncob charcoal substrate (91.5% COD, 91.3% NH 4 + -N) under aeration, but lower TP removal efficiency (clay ceramisite 32.0% and corncob charcoal 40.0%). The VFCW with raw corncob substrate showed stronger COD emissions (maximum concentration 3,108 mg/L) than the corncob charcoal substrate (COD was lower than influent). The VFCW using corncob charcoal substrate performed much better than the VFCW using clay ceramisite substrate under aeration when the C/N ratio was low (C/N = 1.5, TN removal efficiency 36.89%, 4.1% respectively). These results suggest that corncob charcoal is a potential substrate in VFCWs under aeration with a unique self -supplying carbon source property in the denitrification process.

  5. Determination of the attrition resistance of granular charcoals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, V.R.

    1979-01-01

    A laboratory procedure has been developed to evaluate the attrition of granular adsorbent charcoals on passing an air flow through the bed. Two factors observed in plant operations were selected as relevant: (1) the characteristic structural vibrations in plant scale equipment (motors, fans, etc.) that are transmitted to charcoal particles and cause the particles to move and rub each other, and (2) the rapid air flow that results in the movement of the attrited dust. In the test a container for charcoal [50 mm diameter and 50 mm high] was vibrated at a frequency of 60 Hz and at a constant energy input manually controlled using a vibration meter in the acceleration mode. Simultaneously, air was applied and exited through glass fiber filter paper. The quantity of dust trapped on the exit filter was then determined, either optically or gravimetrically. The dust formed per minute (attrition coefficient) was found to approach a constant value. The plateau-values from sequential determinations varied with the source of the charcoal; a 5-fold difference was found among a large variety of commercial products. The first testing of a sample released the excess dust accumulated in previous handling of the charcoal. The plateau values were then attained in the succeeding tests and these were characteristic of the material. The results were compared with those obtained for the same charcoals using older test methods such as the Ball and Pan Hardness Test described in RDTM16-1T

  6. Interaction of atomic hydrogen with charcoal at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorodetsky, A.E.; Vnukov, S.P.; Zalavutdinov, R.Kh.; Zakharov, A.P.; Buryak, A.K.; Ulyanov, A.V.; Federici, G.; Day, Chr.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal is a working material of sorption cryopumps in the ITER project. The interaction of thermal hydrogen molecules and atoms with charcoal has been analyzed by TDS (77-300 K) and sorption measurements at 77 K. A stream quartz reactor with an H 2 RF discharge was used for the production of H atoms. The ratio of H and H 2 in the gas mixture in the afterglow zone was ∼10 -4 , hydrogen flow and inlet pressure were 6.9 sccm and 30 Pa, respectively. After exposure in the H/H 2 mixture during 1 hour the marked change in the shape of the TD spectra and decrease of the charcoal sorption capacity for hydrogen and nitrogen were detected. A wide spectrum of hydrocarbon fragments formed at 77 K was registered by mass-spectrometry at charcoal heating up to 700 K. The specific adsorption volume of charcoal, which was measured by N 2 adsorption at 77 K, decreased directly as amount of H atoms passed through the section with charcoal. (author)

  7. Partial replacement of Portland cement by red ceramic waste in mortars: study of pozzolanic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.R. da; Cabral, K.C.; Pinto, E.N. de M.G.l.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the pozzolanic activity of red ceramic residue on the partial replacement of Portland cement in mortars. The mortars were prepared by substituting 25% of the Portland cement for ground of ceramic residue with water cement’s factor of 0.48. The concrete used to construct the reference mortars and those with addiction was CPII-Z-32 (compound of Portland pozzolana cement). The chemical analysis and physical ceramic waste showed that this meets the requirements of NBR12653 (2014) for use as pozzolanic material. The pozzolanic activity index (IAP) obtained for the ceramic waste to twenty-eight days cure rate was 80.28%. (author)

  8. Global Asymptotic Stability of Impulsive CNNs with Proportional Delays and Partially Lipschitz Activation Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueli Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches global asymptotic stability of impulsive cellular neural networks with proportional delays and partially Lipschitz activation functions. Firstly, by means of the transformation vi(t=ui(et, the impulsive cellular neural networks with proportional delays are transformed into impulsive cellular neural networks with the variable coefficients and constant delays. Secondly, we provide novel criteria for the uniqueness and exponential stability of the equilibrium point of the latter by relative nonlinear measure and prove that the exponential stability of equilibrium point of the latter implies the asymptotic stability of one of the former. We furthermore obtain a sufficient condition to the uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point of the former. Our method does not require conventional assumptions on global Lipschitz continuity, boundedness, and monotonicity of activation functions. Our results are generalizations and improvements of some existing ones. Finally, an example and its simulations are provided to illustrate the correctness of our analysis.

  9. QA/QC For Radon Concentration Measurement With Charcoal Canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Zivanovic, M.; Rajacic, M.; Krneta Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.

    2015-01-01

    The primary concern of any measuring of radon or radon progeny must be the quality of the results. A good quality assurance program, when properly designed and diligently followed, ensures that laboratory staff will be able to produce the type and quality of measurement results which is needed and expected. Active charcoal detectors are used for testing the concentration of radon in dwellings. The method of measurement is based on radon adsorption on coal and measurement of gamma radiation of radon daughters. Upon closing the detectors, the measurement was carried out after achieving the equilibrium between radon and its daughters (at least 3 hours) using NaI or HPGe detector. Radon concentrations as well as measurement uncertainties were calculated according to US EPA protocol 520/5-87-005. Detectors used for the measurements were calibrated by 226Ra standard of known activity in the same geometry. Standard and background canisters are used for QA and QC, as well as for the calibration of the measurement equipment. Standard canister is a sealed canister with the same matrix and geometry as the canisters used for measurements, but with the known activity of radon. Background canister is a regular radon measurement canister, which has never been exposed. The detector background and detector efficiency are measured to ascertain whether they are within the warning and acceptance limits. (author).

  10. Muscle activity and masticatory efficiency with bilateral extension base removable partial dentures with different cusp angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K

    2018-03-01

    Whether masticatory efficiency and electromyographic activity are influenced by type of artificial teeth and food is unclear. The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the influence of extension base removable partial dentures (RPDs) with different cusp angles: anatomic (33 degrees), semianatomic (20 degrees), and nonanatomic (0 degrees) teeth on masticatory efficiency and muscle activity during the mastication of test foods with different textures. Twelve participants with RPDs were selected to perform masticatory efficiency and electromyographic tests. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were used to record the activities of the masseter and temporalis muscles during the mastication of different types of test foods. The maximal voltage and duration were measured on the integrated EMG signal in each muscle during food mastication, and the mean reading of both sides was then recorded. Analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc test were used to perform statistical analyses (α=.05). The masticatory efficiency of RPDs with nonanatomic teeth was significantly inferior to that of RPDs with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P.05). Also, muscle activity (according to EMG) with RPDs with NA teeth was significantly higher than that with anatomic and semianatomic teeth (P<.05). RPDs with NA teeth were associated with higher EMG muscle activity and reduced masticatory efficiency than anatomic or semianatomic teeth. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements

  12. Modelling and Vibration Control of Beams with Partially Debonded Active Constrained Layer Damping Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, D.; TONG, L.

    2002-05-01

    A detailed model for the beams with partially debonded active constraining damping (ACLD) treatment is presented. In this model, the transverse displacement of the constraining layer is considered to be non-identical to that of the host structure. In the perfect bonding region, the viscoelastic core is modelled to carry both peel and shear stresses, while in the debonding area, it is assumed that no peel and shear stresses be transferred between the host beam and the constraining layer. The adhesive layer between the piezoelectric sensor and the host beam is also considered in this model. In active control, the positive position feedback control is employed to control the first mode of the beam. Based on this model, the incompatibility of the transverse displacements of the active constraining layer and the host beam is investigated. The passive and active damping behaviors of the ACLD patch with different thicknesses, locations and lengths are examined. Moreover, the effects of debonding of the damping layer on both passive and active control are examined via a simulation example. The results show that the incompatibility of the transverse displacements is remarkable in the regions near the ends of the ACLD patch especially for the high order vibration modes. It is found that a thinner damping layer may lead to larger shear strain and consequently results in a larger passive and active damping. In addition to the thickness of the damping layer, its length and location are also key factors to the hybrid control. The numerical results unveil that edge debonding can lead to a reduction of both passive and active damping, and the hybrid damping may be more sensitive to the debonding of the damping layer than the passive damping.

  13. Suboptimal Partial Transmit Sequence-Active Interference Cancellation with Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarasak Poramate

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Active interference cancellation (AIC is an effective technique to provide interference avoidance feature for an ultrawideband (UWB OFDM transmitter. Partial transmit sequence-AIC (PTS-AIC, which was recently proposed as an improvement of AIC, requires high computational complexity by doing the exhaustive search of all possible weighting factors whose number grows exponentially with the number of subblocks used. To reduce the complexity of PTS-AIC, this paper proposes a suboptimal way, called particle swarm optimization (PSO, to choose the weighting factors suboptimally without much performance degradation. Both continuous and discrete versions of PSO have been evaluated, and it has been shown that the discrete PSO is able to reduce the complexity significantly without sacrificing the performance of PTS-AIC in many cases.

  14. The analysis of false prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (activator: silica): Interference of C-reactive protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Li, Fanfan; Shu, Kuangyi; Chen, Tao; Wang, Xiaoou; Xie, Yaoqi; Li, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhaohua; Jin, Susu; Jiang, Minghua

    2018-05-13

    To investigate the effect of C-reactive protein on the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (different activators) in different detecting systems. The C-reactive protein and coagulation test of 112 patients with the infectious disease were determined by automation protein analyzer IMMAG 800 and automation coagulation analyzer STA-R Evolution, respectively. The pooled plasma APTT with different concentrations of C-reactive protein was measured by different detecting system: STA-R Evolution (activator: silica, kaolin), Sysmex CS-2000i (activator: ellagic acid), and ACL TOP 700 (activator: colloidal silica). In addition, the self-made platelet lysate (phospholipid) was added to correct the APTT prolonged by C-reactive protein (150 mg/L) on STA-R Evolution (activator: silica) system. The good correlation between C-reactive protein and APTT was found on the STA-R Evolution (activator: silica) system. The APTT on the STA-R Evolution (activator: silica) system was prolonged by 24.6 second, along with increasing C-reactive protein concentration. And the APTT of plasma containing 150 mg/L C-reactive protein was shortened by 3.4-6.9 second when the plasma was mixed with self-made platelet lysate. However, the APTT was prolonged unobviously on other detecting systems including STA-R Evolution (activator: kaolin), Sysmex CS-2000i, and ACL TOP 700. C-reactive protein interferes with the detection of APTT, especially in STA-R Evolution (activator: silica) system. The increasing in C-reactive protein results in a false prolongation of the APTT (activator: silica), and it is most likely that C-reactive protein interferes the coagulable factor binding of phospholipid. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Environmentally friendly production of charcoal from empty fruit bunches using pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normah Mulop; Mohd Suffian Abdul Rahim

    2000-01-01

    Empty fruit bunches (EFB) from palm oil milling process are classified as palm oil waste. The EFB can be turned into valuable product such as charcoal, which can be processed further to activated carbon in order to solve some of the disposal problems. In this project, raw EFB was converted to charcoal by means of a pilot plant. A burner generating indirect heat controls the temperature of the process. The carbonization process was carried out in the absence of air at various temperatures and durations to find the optimum carbonization parameters. The study shows that the optimum operating, temperature for carbonization of EFB is 500 o C for the duration of 11/2 hours. The average fixed carbon content of the charcoal is 61.08. The high percentage of volatile matter is prevented from escaping into the air by trapping them in a series of cyclones. The double layered cyclones using water as the cooling medium, condense more volatile matter and reduces smoke exhaust. 50.7 % of ,gaseous product is condensed and 49.2 % is emitted to the atmosphere. The result is an environmental friendly pilot plant. (author)

  16. Radon measurements with charcoal canisters temperature and humidity considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Miloš Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon testing by using open-faced charcoal canisters is a cheap and fast screening method. Many laboratories perform the sampling and measurements according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency method - EPA 520. According to this method, no corrections for temperature are applied and corrections for humidity are based on canister mass gain. The EPA method is practiced in the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences with recycled canisters. In the course of measurements, it was established that the mass gain of the recycled canisters differs from mass gain measured by Environmental Protection Agency in an active atmosphere. In order to quantify and correct these discrepancies, in the laboratory, canisters were exposed for periods of 3 and 4 days between February 2015 and December 2015. Temperature and humidity were monitored continuously and mass gain measured. No significant correlation between mass gain and temperature was found. Based on Environmental Protection Agency calibration data, functional dependence of mass gain on humidity was determined, yielding Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves. The results of mass gain measurements of recycled canisters were plotted against these curves and a discrepancy confirmed. After correcting the independent variable in the curve equation and calculating the corrected mass gain for recycled canisters, the agreement between measured mass gain and Environmental Protection Agency mass gain curves was attained. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43009: New Technologies for Monitoring and Protection of Environment from Harmful Chemical Substances and Radiation Impact

  17. Production of charcoal from woods and bamboo in a small natural draft carbonizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayawong, Nakorn; Saengow, Nakarin; Chaiya, Ekarin

    2010-07-01

    There is a strong domestic market for charcoal in Thailand and many developing countries. Charcoal is usually made from biomass materials in small scale, simple kilns. Traditional charcoal making kilns adopts a process that is very inefficient, and damaging to the environment. In this work, an alternative charcoal reactor based on natural draft, pyrolysis gas burning concept was proposed and demonstrated. Tests with longan woods and bamboo showed that good quality charcoal can be produced in shorter time with lower pollution emissions, compared with traditional kilns. The proposed carbonizer proved to be suitable for small scale, charcoal production in rural area.

  18. Numerical and analytical assessment of radon diffusion in various media and potential of charcoal as radon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalkin, Andrey

    Numerical assessments of radon diffusion together with analytical estimates for short-time and long-time exposure were the first objective of this thesis with the goal to demonstrate how radon propagates in various media. Theoretical predictions were compared to numerical simulations, and obtained values of total radon activities inside each material match quite well with the analytical estimates. These estimates, for activated and nonactivated charcoal, were then used to evaluate the possibility of designing a charcoal system to be used as a radon detector. Another objective was to use nonactivated charcoal samples and measure the level of radon accumulation, and use these data to estimate radon diffusion and adsorption coefficients. The analytical approach was developed to estimate these values. Radon adsorption coefficient in nonactivated charcoal was found to be from 0.2 to 0.4 m3/kg. Radon diffusion coefficient for nonactivated charcoal is in the range of 1.2×10-11 to 5.1×10-10 m2/s in comparison to activated charcoal with adsorption coefficient of 4 m3/kg and diffusion coefficient of 1.43×10-9 m2/s. The third objective was to use GEANT4 numerical code to simulate decay of 238U series and 222Rn in an arbitrary soil sample. Based on that model, the goal was to provide a guideline for merging GEANT4 radioactive decay modeling with the diffusion of radon in a soil sample. It is known that radon can be used as an earthquake predictor by measuring its concentration in groundwater, or if possible, along the faults. Numerical simulations of radon migration by diffusion only were made to estimate how fast and how far radon can move along the fault strands. Among the known cases of successful correlations between radon concentration anomalies and earthquake are the 1966 Tashkent and 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquakes. Thus, an idea of radon monitoring along the Wasatch Fault, using system of activated/nonactivated charcoals together with solid state radon detectors is

  19. COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS AND CHARCOAL MADE FROM BABASSU NUTSHELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, studies have examined the use of lignocellulosic wastes for energy generation. However, there is a lack of information on the combustibility of the residual biomass, especially the bark and charcoal of babassu nut. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential thermal analysis (DTA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were used to achieve the following objectives: to evaluate the combustion of the residual biomass from the babassu nut; to evaluate the combustion of charcoal produced from this biomass, considering different final carbonization temperatures; and to determine the effect of the final carbonization temperature on the thermal stability of charcoal and on its performance in combustion. Thermal analyses were performed in synthetic air. In order to evaluate the characteristics of charcoal combustion and fresh biomass, the ignition temperature (Ti, the burnout temperature (Tf, characteristic combustion index (S, ignition index (Di, time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate (tp, and ignition time (tig were considered. The combustion of the babassu nutshell occurred in three phases and it was observed that this lignocellulosic material is suitable for the direct generation of heat. The increase in the final carbonization temperature caused an increase in the ignition temperature, as well as in the burnout temperature, the ignition time and the time corresponding to the maximum combustion rate. The results indicate that the increase in the carbonization temperature causes a decrease in combustion reactivity and, consequently, the charcoals produced at lower temperatures are easier to ignite and exhibit better performance in ignition.

  20. Agonists and partial agonists of rhodopsin: retinal polyene methylation affects receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Reiner; Lüdeke, Steffen; Siebert, Friedrich; Sakmar, Thomas P; Hirshfeld, Amiram; Sheves, Mordechai

    2006-02-14

    Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy, we have studied the impact of sites and extent of methylation of the retinal polyene with respect to position and thermodynamic parameters of the conformational equilibrium between the Meta I and Meta II photoproducts of rhodopsin. Deletion of methyl groups to form 9-demethyl and 13-demethyl analogues, as well as addition of a methyl group at C10 or C12, shifted the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium toward Meta I, such that the retinal analogues behaved like partial agonists. This equilibrium shift resulted from an apparent reduction of the entropy gain of the transition of up to 65%, which was only partially offset by a concomitant reduction of the enthalpy increase. The analogues produced Meta II photoproducts with relatively small alterations, while their Meta I states were significantly altered, which accounted for the aberrant transitions to Meta II. Addition of a methyl group at C14 influenced the thermodynamic parameters but had little impact on the position of the Meta I/Meta II equilibrium. Neutralization of the residue 134 in the E134Q opsin mutant increased the Meta II content of the 13-demethyl analogue, but not of the 9-demethyl analogue, indicating a severe impairment of the allosteric coupling between the conserved cytoplasmic ERY motif involved in proton uptake and the Schiff base/Glu 113 microdomain in the 9-demethyl analogue. The 9-methyl group appears therefore essential for the correct positioning of retinal to link protonation of the cytoplasmic motif with protonation of Glu 113 during receptor activation.

  1. Crescimento in vitro e aclimatização de Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae com carvão ativado sob dois espectros luminosos In vitro growth and acclimatization of Cattleya loddigesii Lindley (Orchidaceae with actived charcoal in two light spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adição de concentrações de carvão ativado em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração dos macronutrientes sob dois espectros luminosos para a obtenção de plântulas in vitro de Cattleya loddigesii. Plântulas com aproximadamente 90 dias foram subcultivadas em oito tratamentos, nos quais foi testada a adição ao meio de cultura ½ MS com carvão ativado (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0g L-1 e combinados sob espectro de luz branca e luz vermelha. Após 180 dias da germinação, foram mensurados dados biométricos (raiz e parte aérea, massa fresca e teores de pigmentos fotossintéticos. Em plântulas aclimatizadas em casa de vegetação, foram avaliadas a taxa de sobrevivência após 120 dias. As concentrações de clorofila total, clorofila a e carotenoides foram maiores nos tratamentos sob luz branca, enquanto a luz vermelha influenciou significativamente maior clorofila b, plântulas com menos raízes e de menor comprimento e elevada mortalidade ex vitro. A adição de 2,0g L-1 de carvão ativado ao meio de cultura e o uso de luz branca proporcionaram maior eficiência de desenvolvimento tanto para as culturas in vitro quanto para a sobrevivência ex vitro das plantas.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of activated charcoal in ½ MS (half concentration of macronutrients culture medium under two light spectra on the in vitro growth of Cattleya loddigesii seedlings. Plantlets with approximately 90 days were subcultured under eight treatments, consisting of different active charcoal concentrations (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0g L-1 in ½ MS medium combined with white and red light spectra. After 180 days of germination, biometric data, fresh weight, and the level of photosynthetic pigments were evaluated. Plantlets acclimatized in a greenhouse were evaluated for survival after 120 days. Total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a, and carotenoid concentrations were higher in

  2. Licensing activities for the partial decommissioning of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolov, T.; Ilieva, Kr.; Papukchiev, A.; Kalchev, B.

    2001-01-01

    The project for refurbishment of IRT-2000 research reactor in Sofia into low-power reactor (200 kW) is based on the retention of some IRT-2000 buildings, facilities and equipment. The activities, which determine the partial decommissioning should be realized in accordance with preliminary developed licensing documents as General Plan, Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact assessment Report. The goal of these documents is to provide and guarantee safe and effective activities with radioactive materials, to define strictly the dismantling procedures, and in the same time to minimize their influence on the environment. The Technical Tasks for General Plan, Safety Analysis Report and Environment Impact Assessment Report have been prepared and will be presented as preliminary licensing documents to the National Regulatory Body for approval before their application. A Quality Management system is being developed nowadays at INRNE. After its certification some requirements of the regulatory body will be completed. This certified QA system is a major part of the licensing procedure for the reconstruction of IRT-2000 research reactor. (author)

  3. Activity of Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Rye Phytase toward Partially Phosphorylated myo-Inositol Phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ralf

    2017-11-08

    Kinetic parameters for the dephosphorylation of sodium phytate and a series of partially phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates were determined at pH 3.0 and pH 5.0 for three phytase preparations (Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, rye). The enzymes showed lower affinity and turnover numbers at pH 3 compared to pH 5 toward all myo-inositol phosphates included in the study. The number and distribution of phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring affected the kinetic parameters. Representatives of the individual phytate dephosphorylation pathways were identified as the best substrates of the phytases. Within the individual phytate dephosphorylation pathways, the pentakisphosphates were better substrates compared to the tetrakisphosphates or phytate itself. E. coli and rye phytase showed comparable activities at both pH values toward the tetrakis- and trisphosphate, whereas A. niger phytase exhibited a higher activity toward the tetrakisphosphate. A myo-inositol phosphate with alternate phosphate groups was shown to be not significantly dephosphorylated by the phytases.

  4. A DFT approach to discriminate the antagonist and partial agonist activity of ligands binding to the NMDA receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslak, Zeynep Pinar; Bozkurt, Esra; Dutagaci, Bercem; De Proft, Frank; Aviyente, Viktorya; De Vleeschouwer, Freija

    2018-02-01

    The activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors is found to be intimately associated with neurodegenerative diseases which make them promising therapeutic targets. Despite the significantly increasing multidisciplinary interests centred on this ionotropic channel, design of new ligands with intended functional activity remains a great challenge. In this article, a computational study based on density functional theory is presented to understand the structural factors of ligands determining their function as antagonists and partial agonists. With this aim, the GluN1 subunit is chosen as being one of the essential components in the activation mechanism, and quantum chemical calculations are implemented for 30 antagonists and 30 partial agonists known to bind to this subunit with different binding affinities. Several quantum chemical descriptors are investigated which might unlock the difference between antagonists and partial agonists.

  5. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertiwi, U. I.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness changes of tooth enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. Thirty specimens were brushed using distilled water (the first group), Strong® Formula toothpaste (the second group), and Charcoal® Formula toothpaste for four minutes and 40 seconds (equivalent to one month) and for 14 minutes (equivalent to three months) using a soft fleece toothbrush with a mass of 150 gr. The roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester, and the results were tested with repeated ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA. The value of the surface roughness of tooth enamel was significantly different (penamel.

  6. Partial neutron capture cross sections of actinides using cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genreith, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste needs to be characterized for its safe handling and storage. In particular long-lived actinides render the waste characterization challenging. The results described in this thesis demonstrate that Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA) with cold neutrons is a reliable tool for the non-destructive analysis of actinides. Nuclear data required for an accurate identification and quantification of actinides was acquired. Therefore, a sample design suitable for accurate and precise measurements of prompt γ-ray energies and partial cross sections of long-lived actinides at existing PGAA facilities was presented. Using the developed sample design the fundamental prompt γ-ray data on 237 Np, 241 Am and 242 Pu were measured. The data were validated by repetitive analysis of different samples at two individual irradiation and counting facilities - the BRR in Budapest and the FRM II in Garching near Munich. Employing cold neutrons, resonance neutron capture by low energetic resonances was avoided during the experiments. This is an improvement over older neutron activation based works at thermal reactor neutron energies. 152 prompt γ-rays of 237 Np were identified, as well as 19 of 241 Am, and 127 prompt γ-rays of 242 Pu. In all cases, both high and lower energetic prompt γ-rays were identified. The most intense line of 237 Np was observed at an energy of E γ =182.82(10) keV associated with a partial capture cross section of σ γ =22.06(39) b. The most intense prompt γ-ray lines of 241 Am and of 242 Pu were observed at E γ =154.72(7) keV with σ γ =72.80(252) b and E γ =287.69(8) keV with σ γ =7.07(12) b, respectively. The measurements described in this thesis provide the first reported quantifications on partial radiative capture cross sections for 237 Np, 241 Am and 242 Pu measured simultaneously over the large energy range from 45 keV to 12 MeV. Detailed uncertainty assessments were performed and the validity of the given uncertainties was

  7. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Association between Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time and the Amount of Infused Heparin at Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Machiko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Misaki, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Kazuki; Gomyo, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Jin; Tamaki, Masaharu; Akahoshi, Yu; Ugai, Tomotaka; Kameda, Kazuaki; Wada, Hidenori; Ishihara, Yuko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Kako, Shinichi; Tanihara, Aki; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-03-27

    The actual heparin concentration of harvested allogeneic bone marrow varies among harvest centers. We monitor the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the patient during bone marrow infusion and administer prophylactic protamine according to the APTT. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of consecutive patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation without bone marrow processing at our center between April 2007 and March 2016 (n = 94). APTT was monitored during marrow transfusion in 52 patients. We analyzed the relationship between the APTT ratio and several parameters related to heparin administration. As a result, the weight-based heparin administration rate (U/kg/hour) seemed to be more closely related to the APTT ratio (r = .38, P = .005) than to the total amount of heparin. There was no significant correlation between the APTT ratio and renal or liver function. Bleeding complications during and early after infusion were seen in 3 of 52 patients, and included intracranial, nasal, and punctured-skin bleeding. The APTT ratio during transfusion was over 5.88 in the former 2 patients and 2.14 in the latter. All of these patients recovered without sequelae. In conclusion, slow bone marrow infusion is recommended to decrease the weight-based heparin administration rate when the heparin concentration per patient body weight is high. Copyright © 2018 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of PPARgamma partial agonists of natural origin (II: in silico prediction in natural extracts with known antidiabetic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally, we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPARγ partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPARγ partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPARγ partial agonists obtained from the literature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARγ partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused

  10. Potency of bio-charcoal briquette from leather cassava tubers and industrial sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citrasari, Nita; Pinatih, Tety A.; Kuncoro, Eko P.; Soegianto, Agoes; Salamun, Irawan, Bambang

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of the bio-charcoal briquette with materials from leather cassava tubers and sludge of wastewater treatment plant. The first, bio-charcoal briquette analized stability test and compressive strength. Then, bio-charcoal briquette with best value analyzed for parameter including moisture content, ash content, calorific content, and burned test. The result briquette quality based on compressive strength for bio-charcoal briquettes carbonated water content between 3.8%-4.5% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes between 5.2%-7.6%. Bio-charcoal carbonation briquette ash content was between 5.30%-7.40% and non-carbonated bio-charcoal briquettes was between 6.86%-7.46%. Bio-charcoal carbonation levels briquettes heated between 578.2 calories/g-1837.7 calories/g and non carbonatedbio-charcoal briquettes between 858.1 calories/g-891.1 calories/g. Carbonated bio-charcoal burned test was between 48-63 minutes and non-carbonated bio-charcoal was between 22-42 minutes. Emissions resulted from the bio-charcoal briquettes for carbonated and non carbonated composition according to the government regulations ESDM No. 047 of 2006 which, at 128 mg/Nm3 and 139 mg/Nm3.

  11. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf Jaffe; Yan Ding; Jutta Niggemann; Anssi V. Vahatalo; Aron Stubbins; Robert G. M. Spencer; John Campbell; Thorsten Dittmar

    2013-01-01

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent...

  12. Short-Term Changes in Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil Charcoal Support Enhanced Landscape Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Lacey A.; Magee, Kate L.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Hockaday, William C.; Masiello, Caroline A.

    2017-11-01

    Charcoal is a major component of the stable soil organic carbon reservoir, and the physical and chemical properties of charcoal can sometimes significantly alter bulk soil properties (e.g., by increasing soil water holding capacity). However, our understanding of the residence time of soil charcoal remains uncertain, with old measured soil charcoal ages in apparent conflict with relatively short modeled and measured residence times. These discrepancies may exist because the fate of charcoal on the landscape is a function not just of its resistance to biological decomposition but also its physical mobility. Mobility may be important in controlling charcoal landscape residence time and may artificially inflate estimates of its degradability, but few studies have examined charcoal vulnerability to physical redistribution. Charcoal landscape redistribution is likely higher than other organic carbon fractions owing to charcoal's low bulk density, typically less than 1.0 g/cm3. Here we examine both the physical and chemical properties of soil and charcoal over a period of two years following a 2011 wildfire in Texas. We find little change in properties with time; however, we find evidence of enhanced mobility of charcoal relative to other forms of soil organic matter. These data add to a growing body of evidence that charcoal is preferentially eroded, offering another explanation for variations observed in its environmental residence times.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of rice husk charcoal bio briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaningsih, S.; Nurhilal, O.; Yuliah, Y.; Salsabila, E.

    2018-02-01

    Rice husk is the outermost part of the rice seed which is a hard layer and a waste material from rice milling. Rice husk includes biomass that can be exploited for various requirements such as industrial raw materials as well as energy sources or fuel but only a small group of people use it. This research is conducted utilizing the rice husk as an alternative fuel by making it as a charcoal briquette. To make the treatment easy, firstly the rice husk biomass was converted into charcoal powder by carbonization method using two kinds of furnace which have different heating behavior. The best carbonization results are obtained from the furnace, which has a constant temperature heating behavior. The process of making briquettes is prepared by adding tapioca starch of 6% concentration by weight as charcoal adhesive and then printed with the aid of pressing tools using loads at 1,000 kg/cm2. The resulting briquette has a calorific value about 3.126 cal/g, mass density is 0.86 g/cm3 and compressive strength is about 2.02 kg/cm2, so that the bio-briquette of charcoal produced can be used as alternative energy to replace the fossil fuel for domestic or household purposes.

  14. Determinants of Charcoal Production Efficiency in Ibarapa North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage and frequency and stochastic frontier production function. The study revealed that mean age of producers was 36 years; 96.9% were males and 3.1 were females. Majority of the producers (76.9%) had no formal training on how to produce charcoal, ...

  15. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  16. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 kg...

  17. Turbidity removal: Gravel and charcoal as roughing filtration media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah A. Adeyemo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Roughing filtration is an important pre-treatment process for wastewater, because it efficiently separates fine solid particles over prolonged periods, without the addition of chemicals. For this study, a pilot plant was designed at Delmas Coal Mine in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The design and sizing of the pilot plant was guided by Wegelin’s design criteria. Gravel was used as a control medium because it is one of the most commonly used roughing filter media and because it was used in developing the criteria. We compared the performance of gravel as a filter medium to that of another locally available material, charcoal, for the removal of turbidity in wastewater. The pilot plant was monitored continuously for 90 days from commissioning until the end of the project. The overall performance of the roughing filter in turbidity removal, using gravel or charcoal, was considered efficient for the pre-treatment of waste water. Charcoal performed slightly better than gravel as a filter medium for the removal of turbidity, possibly because charcoal has a slightly higher specific surface area and porosity than gravel, which could enhance sedimentation and other filtration processes, such as adsorption, respectively.

  18. Factors Contributing to Pelvis Instability in Female Adolescent Athletes During Unilateral Repeated Partial Squat Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Scarborough, Donna Moxley; Linderman, Shannon; Berkson, Eric M.; Oh, Luke S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Unilateral partial squat tasks are often used to assess athletes? lower extremity (LE) neuromuscular control. Single squat biomechanics such as lateral drop of the non-stance limb?s pelvis have been linked to knee injury risk. Yet, there are limited studies on the factors contributing to pelvic instability during the unilateral partial squat such as anatomical alignment of the knee and hip strength. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the influence of leg dominance on pelvi...

  19. Achieving partial nitrification in a novel six basins alternately operating activated sludge process treating domestic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, Rusul Naseer; Arab, Saad; Xiwu, Lu [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2013-11-15

    A novel technology was developed to achieve partial nitrification at moderately low DO and short HRT, which would save the aeration cost and have the capacity to treat a wide range of low-strength real wastewater. The process enables a relatively stable whereas nitrite accumulation rate (NO{sub 2}-AR) was stabilized over 94% in the last aerobic basin on average of each phase through a combination of short HRT and low DO level. Low DO did not produce sludge with poorer settleability. The morphology and internal structure of the granular sludge was observed by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis during a long-term operation. The images indicated that thick clusters of spherical cells and small rod-shaped cells (NOB and AOB are rod-shaped to spherical cells) were the dominant population structure, rather than filamentous and other bacteria under a combination of low DO and short HRT, which gives a good indication of nitrite accumulation achievement. MPN method was used to correlate AOB numbers with nutrient removal. It showed that an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (AOB) was the dominant nitrifying bacteria, whereas high NO{sub 2}-AR was achieved at AOB number of 5.33x10{sup 8} cell/g MLSS. Higher pollutant removal efficiency of 86.2%, 98% and 96.1%, for TN, NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, and TP, respectively, was achieved by a novel six basin activated sludge process (SBASP) at low DO level and low C/N ratio which were approximately equal to the complete nitrification-denitrification with the addition of sodium acetate (NaAc) at normal DO level of (1.5-2.5 mg/L)

  20. Softlithographic partial integration of surface-active nanoparticles in a PDMS matrix for microfluidic biodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demming, Stefanie; Buettgenbach, Stephanus [Institute for Microtechnology (IMT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Alte Salzdahlumer Strasse 203, 38124 Braunschweig (Germany); Hahn, Anne; Barcikowski, Stephan [Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH), Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Edlich, Astrid; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer [Institute of Biochemical Engineering (IBVT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Gaussstrasse 17, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The mergence of microfluidics and nanocomposite materials and their in situ structuring leads to a higher integration level within microsystems technology. Nanoparticles (Cu and Ag) produced via laser radiation were suspended in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) to permanently modify surface material. A microstructuring process was implemented which allows the incorporation of these nanomaterials globally or partially at defined locations within a microbioreactor (MBR) for the determination of their antiseptic and toxic effects on the growth of biomass. Partially structured PDMS with nanoparticle-PDMS composite. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: Application to fire history in northwestern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S.

    1988-07-01

    Results of stratigraphic charcoal analysis from thin sections of varved lake sediments have been compared with fire scars on red pine trees in northwestern Minnesota to determine if charcoal data accurately reflect fire regimes. Pollen and opaque-spherule analyses were completed from a short core to confirm that laminations were annual over the last 350 yr. A good correspondence was found between fossil-charcoal and fire-scar data. Individual fires could be identified as specific peaks in the charcoal curves, and times of reduced fire frequency were reflected in the charcoal data. Charcoal was absent during the fire-suppression era from 1920 A.D. to the present. Distinct charcoal maxima from 1864 to 1920 occurred at times of fire within the lake catchment. Fire was less frequent during the 19th century, and charcoal was substantially less abundant. Fire was frequent from 1760 to 1815, and charcoal was abundant continuously. Fire scars and fossil charcoal indicate that fires did not occur during 1730-1750 and 1670-1700. Several fires occurred from 1640 to 1670 and 1700 to 1730. Charcoal counted from pollen preparations in the area generally do not show this changing fire regime. Simulated "sampling" of the thin-section data in a fashion comparable to pollen-slide methods suggests that sampling alone is not sufficient to account for differences between the two methods. Integrating annual charcoal values in this fashion still produced much higher resolution than the pollen-slide method, and the postfire suppression decline of charcoal characteristic of my method (but not of pollen slides) is still evident. Consideration of the differences in size of fragments counted by the two methods is necessary to explain charcoal representation in lake sediments.

  2. Analysis of Partial Discharge Activity for Evaluation of the State of High Power Electric Generators Stator Windings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrescu Sorin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the importance of trending of partial discharge activity in assessing the insulation condition. It is presented the principle of the measurement method and the quantities that characterize partial discharges and also the criteria utilized for the assessement of the insulation condition of the hydrogenerators. Results of the measurements made on several hydrogenerators are presented, like the variation with time of the two main quantities that characterize the partial discharges, maximum magnitude, Qm and the normalized quantity, NQN over a period of about 10 years. Further, a classification of the insulation condition by 3 main and 2 intermediary categories and the definition of these categories are given. The criteria used for the assessment of the insulation condition are presented in the form of a table: quantitative criteria by the ± NQN and ± Qm values and qualitative criteria for the analysis of the 2D and 3D diagrams. At the end of each set of measurements, an analyze of the insulation condition annual evaluation is made, also a verdict is put, and of course, the recommendations made relating to the maintenance and the decisions that have been taken. The paper ends with several considerations on the method of on-line partial discharges and especially, on the conditions for valid trending activity in time.

  3. Influence of Partial Neutralization on Catalytic Activity of Ion Exchange Resin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holub, Ladislav; Jeřábek, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 231, 1-2 (2005), s. 21-26 ISSN 1381-1169 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/02/1104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : catalysis * partial neutralization * polymer supports Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.348, year: 2005

  4. Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 interacts with cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase and partially inhibits its activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Ping Fang

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is etiologically involved in liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and B-cell lymphomas. It has been demonstrated previously that HCV non-structural protein 3 (NS3 is involved in cell transformation. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screening experiment was conducted to identify cellular proteins interacting with HCV NS3 protein. Cytosolic 5'(3'-deoxyribonucleotidase (cdN, dNT-1 was found to interact with HCV NS3 protein. Binding domains of HCV NS3 and cellular cdN proteins were also determined using the yeast two-hybrid system. Interactions between HCV NS3 and cdN proteins were further demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal analysis in cultured cells. The cellular cdN activity was partially repressed by NS3 protein in both the transiently-transfected and the stably-transfected systems. Furthermore, HCV partially repressed the cdN activity while had no effect on its protein expression in the systems of HCV sub-genomic replicons and infectious HCV virions. Deoxyribonucleotidases are present in most mammalian cells and involve in the regulation of intracellular deoxyribonucleotides pools by substrate cycles. Control of DNA precursor concentration is essential for the maintenance of genetic stability. Reduction of cdN activity would result in the imbalance of DNA precursor concentrations. Thus, our results suggested that HCV partially reduced the cdN activity via its NS3 protein and this may in turn cause diseases.

  5. Alexandria's Eastern Harbor, Egypt: Pollen, microscopic charcoal, and the transition from natural to human-modified basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.-D.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen and microscopic charcoal examined in Holocene sediment core samples record major environmental modifications affecting Alexandria's Eastern Harbor through time. We assess whether such changes on Egypt's coastal margin were influenced primarily by natural, or natural plus human, or primarily human factors. We focus on (1) the times when pollen assemblages and microscopic charcoal content changed in the core, (2) how they changed, and (3) why this occurred. The analysis takes into account the core's stratigraphy, regional climate variability, human history, and local archaeological record. Four pollenmicroscopic charcoal zones are identified. The earliest change occurred at ca. 6000 YBP, during Egypt's earlier Predynastic (Neolithic) period, coinciding with a lithologic break from sand to muddy sand. Pollen during this time indicates a transition to a much drier climate rather than effects of human activity. The second change in pollen occurred 3600-2900 YBP, during a period of continued aridity with no lithologic variation in this core interval. Pollen (cereal taxa, agricultural weeds, grape) and a sharp increase in microscopic charcoal indicate that human activity became prevalent at least 700 y before Alexander the Great's arrival in this region, and these results highlight the transition from a largely natural climatecontrolled environment to one influenced by both climate and anthropogenic activity. The third shift up-core in pollen assemblages is dated at ca. 2300 YBP, at the boundary between a sand and mud unit. It coincides with construction by the Ptolemies of the Heptastadion between Alexandria and Pharos Island. From this time onward, harbor sediment in the nearly enclosed catchment basin indicates a near-continuous record of dominant proximal human activity. ?? 2010 Coastal Education and Research Foundation.

  6. Apparatus for producing charcoal from fine lignocellulose wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babicki, R; Perzynski, B

    1979-05-15

    A continuous retort for the production of charcoal from sawdust, nut shells, wood chips, etc. consists of a cylindrical tower separated from the top into the drying, pyrolyzing, and cooling sections. Dry feed is introduced at the top where it is spread by stirrer blades on 2 trays kept at 120 degrees and 160 degrees by external heating. The feed falls through discharge slots into a 2nd section where it is contacted with a limited supply of hot air while the temperature rises to about 600 degrees. Hot charcoal is swept by stirrer blades toward discharge slots and falls into a 3rd section where it is cooled and discharged. Off gases are used for predrying the incoming feed, scrubbed, and vented through a stack.

  7. Stable carbon isotope ratios from archaeological charcoal as palaeoenvironmental indicators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available specific pyrolysis products, mostly furans and pyrans, and released (Steinbeiss et al., 2006). The removal of these compounds is driven by their relative chemical stability and strength of molecular cross bonds. Differences between how... to simulate natural burning conditions and left until completely charred. This produced charcoal under oxidizing (O2-rich) conditions. This process took less than 15 min for the largest disc (60 mm in diameter) and about five minutes for the smallest (30...

  8. REDUCTION OF BENZO (A PYRENE IN CHARCOAL GRILLED DUCK MEAT BY MARINATING WITH ANDALIMAN (Zanthoxylum acanthopodium, DC FRUIT JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sinaga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of andaliman fruit juice marination on the amounts of benzo (a pyrene in charcoal grilled duck meat were investigated in this research. Completely randomized design was used to determine the effect of 4 treatments of andaliman fruit juice concentration (w/v. Twenty four duck meat samples were devided into 4 treatment groups, those were 0% (I, 10% (II, 20% (III and 30% (IV. Each group consisted of 6 samples. Total Fat, Tio Barbituric Acid (TBA value and antioxidant activity were measured from all samples. The result showed there was no effect on total fat of duck meat. Antioxidant activity was 18.60 %, 18.06 %, 19.99 % and 7.54 % for andaliman fruit juice of 10%, 20%, 30% and 0%, respectively. TBA value was 1.03 %, 0.89 %, 0.09 % and 0.10 % for treatment II, III, IV and I, respectively. Antioxidant activity of andaliman fruit was decreased the amounts of Benzo (a pyrene of duckmeat. Charcoal duck meat without andaliman fruit produced 787 ng, it was higher than charcoal duck meat with andaliman fruit (295 ng.

  9. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) wh...

  10. Ashes to ashes, charcoal to dust: micromorphological evidence for ash-induced disintegration of charcoal in Early Neolithic (LBK) soil features in Elsloo (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, D.J.; Braadbaart, F.; Wijk, I.M. van; Os, B.J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    Charcoal and other forms of charred organic material e an important part of the archaeological record e consist of benzenoids. Such components are unstable in basic or alkaline conditions. Since ashes are alkaline, this means that archaeological charcoal may have been disintegrated and lost if

  11. SELECCIÓN DE UN MÉTODO PARA PRODUCIR CARBÓN ACTIVADO UTILIZANDO CUATRO ESPECIES FORESTALES SELECTION OF A METHOD TO PRODUCE ACTIVATED CHARCOAL USING FOUR FOREST SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Fredy Herrera Builes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó en los laboratorios de Carbones y de Productos Forestales, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Medellín. Ésta se orientó hacia la selección de un método para obtener carbón activado a partir de las especies forestales pino pátula (Pinus patula, chingalé (Jacaranda copaia, pino tecunumani (Pinus tecunumanii y roble (Quercus humboldtii. Cada una de las maderas se caracterizó, determinando sus propiedades físicas de densidades y contracciones. Se experimentaron siete métodos; activación química, activación químico - física con CO2, activación químico - física con CO2 y vapor de agua, activación químico - física con vapor de agua, activación física con CO2, activación físico con vapor de agua y activación física con CO2 y vapor de agua. Las variables que se estudiaron fueron el tiempo de residencia y la temperatura. Tomando como parámetro el índice de yodo se seleccionó el método de activación químico - física con vapor de agua, obteniéndose índices de yodo, por encima de 800 para todas las especies estudiadas, a excepción del roble que solo alcanzó 764, que aun es aceptable para el tratamiento de aguas.This investigation was conducted in the Coal and of Forest Products Laboratory of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia , Sede Medellín. It was oriented towards the selection of a method to obtain activated carbon form the following forest species; pino pátula (Pinus patula, chingalé (Jacaranda copaia, pino tecunumani (Pinus tecunumanii and roble (Quercus humboldtii. The wood of each was characterized determining their physical properties of density and contraction. Seven different methods were tested; chemical activation, chemical-physical activation with CO2, chemical-physical activation with CO2 and water vapor; chemical-physical activation with water vapor; physical activation with CO2; physical activation with water vapor, and physical activation with CO2

  12. Development and Evaluation of Charcoal-Powered Bread Baking Oven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimasunya E

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal-powered bread baking oven was developed and evaluated with functional efficiencies of 91.2% and 92.1% for baking dough of mass 0.5kg and 1.5 kg to bread at BP of 27.7minutes, 35.9 minutes with the baking temperature (BT of 153.8 oC and 165.9 oC respectively. Baking temperature-heating interval of the oven as computed at 100 oC at 20 minutes at charcoal emitted heat of 861000 KJ. The oven has the capacity of generating 455.9 oC at 270 minutes time interval. The oven has bread baking capacities of 56, 36, 28, 22 and 18 pieces of bread per batch operation using dough mass of 0.5kg, 0.75kg, 1.00kg, 1.250kg and 1.500kg respectively. It is sensitive to the baking time and temperature in relation to dough mass with resolution value of 0.22. Charcoal-powered oven, is cheap and efficient and can be used both in the rural and urban settlement for domestic consumption and smallscale business.

  13. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  14. Development and application of charcoal sorbents for cryopumping fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedgley, D.W. (Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Space Systems Div.)

    1989-06-01

    Progress has been made in defining the capabilities of charcoal as the most promising absorbent to be used in cryopumps for fusion power application. The capabilities of alternative methods of cryopumping helium have been examined in a literature survey and by test, and the results are described here. Considerations include pumping speed, capacity to accumulate pumped gas, ease of reconditioning, use of alternative materials and tolerance to the fusion environment. Vacuum pumps for future fusion devices must handle large quantities of helium/hydrogen isotopes and other impurities. Cryopumps or turbomolecular pumps have demonstrated the capability on a small scale, and each has an important advantage: TMPs do not accumulate gases; cryopumps can separate helium from other effluents. This paper includes a review of a method for selecting charcoals for helium cryopumping, testing of a continuously operating cryopump system, and definition of a design that is based on the requirements of the Next European Torus. Tritium limits are satisfied. The pump design incorporates the charcoal sorbent system that has been recently developed and is based on a reasonable extrapolation of current state-of-the-art. Evaluation of alternative methods of separating helium and other gases led to selection of a movable barrier as the preferred solution. (orig.).

  15. The Marginalization of Sustainable Charcoal Production in the Policies of a Modernizing African Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nike Doggart

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal is the main cooking fuel for urban populations in many African countries. Urbanization and population growth are driving an increase in demand for charcoal, whilst deforestation reduces biomass stocks. Given increasing demand for charcoal, and decreasing availability of biomass, policies are urgently needed that ensure secure energy supplies for urban households and reduce deforestation. There is potential for charcoal to be produced sustainably in natural woodlands, but this requires supportive policies. Previous research has identified policy issues that have contributed to the charcoal sector remaining informal and environmentally destructive. In this paper, we describe how national policies in Tanzania on energy, forests, agriculture, land, and water, consider charcoal, and the degree to which they do, and do not, support sustainable charcoal production. The paper identifies policy gaps and a cross-sector tendency to marginalize natural forest management. By adopting a nexus approach, the paper highlights the inter-connections between sustainable charcoal production, ecosystem services, and trade-offs in the allocation of land, labor, and net primary production. In conclusion, sustainable charcoal production has been marginalized in multiple national policies. As a result, potential benefits of sustainable charcoal production are lost to multiple sectors.

  16. Charcoal from a prehistoric copper mine in the Austrian Alps: dendrochronological and dendrological data, demand for wood and forest utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Thomas; Nicolussi, Kurt; Goldenberg, Gert; Hanke, Klaus; Kovács, Kristóf; Thurner, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    During prehistory fire-setting was the most appropriate technique for exploiting ore deposits. Charcoal fragments found in the course of archaeological excavations in a small mine called Mauk E in the area of Schwaz/Brixlegg (Tyrol, Austria) are argued to be evidence for the use of this technology. Dendrochronological analyses of the charcoal samples yielded calendar dates for the mining activities showing that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine lasted approximately one decade in the late 8th century BC. Dendrological studies show that the miners utilised stem wood of spruce and fir from forests with high stand density for fire-setting and that the exploitation of the Mauk E mine had only a limited impact on the local forests.

  17. Determination of Pb2+ metal ion level in liquid waste from adsorption process by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal using solid-phase spectrophotometry (sps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputro, S.; Masykuri, M.; Mahardiani, L.; Hidayah, AN

    2018-03-01

    This research are to find out the influence of adsorbent composition between rice husk and water hyacinth in decreasing of Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste; the optimumcomposition of combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal on Pb2+ ion adsorption; and theeffectivenessof SPS as a method to determine the decreasing level of Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal in µg/L level. Rice husk and water hyacinth carbonization using muffle furnace at 350°C for 1 hour. Rice husk charcoal activation in a 2 N NaOH solution and water hyacinth charcoal activated in a 5 M HCl solution. Contacting the combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal with a Pb2+ solution with variation of mass composition, 1:0 ; 0:1 ; 1:1 ; 1:2 and 2:1. Analysis of the Pb2+ ion level using SPS method. Characterization of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal using the FTIR. The results showed that the combination adsorbent composition of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal have an impact on decreasing Pb2+ ion level. The optimum composition of combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth charcoal on the adsorption Pb2+ ion is 1:2. SPS is an effective method to determine the decreasing Pb2+ ion in simulation liquid waste from the adsorption process by combination adsorbent of rice husk and water hyacinth in µg/L, with Limit of Detection (LOD) was 0,06 µg/L.

  18. The influence of N-acetylcysteine on the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, S; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    mg kg-1 h-1 for 32 h in six male subjects. The intrinsic, extrinsic and common pathway of coagulation were monitored with activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time, respectively. In addition, the extrinsic coagulation pathway was monitored with the clotting activity of single...... factors II, VII, and X. No effect on the intrinsic coagulation pathway was observed. There was a significant and rapid decrease in prothrombin time. Coagulation factors II, VII and X, the three components of prothrombin time, decreased significantly to different degrees. We conclude that infusion of N...

  19. Partial characterization of soluble polysaccharides leaves Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae): prebiotic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boual, Z.; Kemassi, A.; Oudjana, A.H.; Michaud, P.; Didi, O.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae), a spontaneous plant used in traditional medicine is found inGhardaia (Septentrional EastAlgerian Sahara). This paper reports on the extraction and partial characterization of water-soluble polysaccharides from M. parviflorleaves. These polysaccharides were obtained by elimination of the ethanol extract and sequential extraction in distilled water, followed by precipitation in 75% ethanol. The yield of extract is of 1.46%. The crude water soluble polysaccharide extract was further characterized and revealed the average values:15 ± 2,64% total ashes, 17,14 ± 1,43% proteins and 68,18 ± 0,94% carbohydrates, among them 44,96 ± 0,42% are acidic monosaccharides and the rest 55 ± 0,62% are neutral monosaccharides. The considered optimum conditions of hydrolysis by trifluoroacetic acid were: 4 M during 5 hours at 80°C. Anion exchange high performance chromatography of hydrosoluble polysaccharides of Malva leaves indicates the presence of galactose (56.86%), glucuronic acid (20.57%), arabinose (9.04%), rhamnose (8.46%) and mannose (5.05%). The oligosaccharides resulting from the partial hydrolys is of the hydrosoluble polysaccharides stimulate significantly (concentration of 0,333 mg/mL) for 0,1 DO after 24 hours, the growth of Bifido bacterium longum. Their prebiotic effect is notable. (author)

  20. Global charcoal mobilization from soils via dissolution and riverine transport to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rudolf; Ding, Yan; Niggemann, Jutta; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Stubbins, Aron; Spencer, Robert G M; Campbell, John; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2013-04-19

    Global biomass burning generates 40 million to 250 million tons of charcoal every year, part of which is preserved for millennia in soils and sediments. We have quantified dissolution products of charcoal in a wide range of rivers worldwide and show that globally, a major portion of the annual charcoal production is lost from soils via dissolution and subsequent transport to the ocean. The global flux of soluble charcoal accounts to 26.5 ± 1.8 million tons per year, which is ~10% of the global riverine flux of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). We suggest that the mobilization of charcoal and DOC out of soils is mechanistically coupled. This study closes a major gap in the global charcoal budget and provides critical information in the context of geoengineering.

  1. Charcoal production technologies: Environmental and socio-economic impacts with Brazilian examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paula Fernandes, M. de.

    1991-01-01

    The indirect use of solar energy through photosynthesis, wood and charcoal requires reforestation with fast-growing species to supply continuously charcoal for industrial and domestic needs. This concept, sometimes referred to as an energy farms, is the conversion of sunshine into food, fibre, furniture, paper and pulp products. It the charcoal production uses primitive, low-yield technologies, it endangers the economic viability of the wood energy source and causes negative environmental impacts. 19 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Numerical study of three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in a cubical cavity with partially active vertical walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A.A.A Al-Rashed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural convection and entropy generation due to the heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities in a three-dimensional cubical cavity with partially heated and cooled vertical walls has been investigated numerically using the finite volume method. Four different arrangements of partially active vertical sidewalls of the cubical cavity are considered. Numerical calculations are carried out for Rayleigh numbers from (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, various locations of the partial heating and cooling vertical sidewalls, while the Prandtl number of air is considered constant as Pr=0.7 and the irreversibility coefficient is taken as (φ=10−4. The results explain that the total entropy generation rate increases when the Rayleigh number increases. While, the Bejan number decreases as the Rayleigh number increases. Also, it is found that the arrangements of heating and cooling regions have a significant effect on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of natural convection and entropy generation in a cubical cavity. The Middle-Middle arrangement produces higher values of average Nusselt numbers.

  3. Fall Detection for Elderly from Partially Observed Depth-Map Video Sequences Based on View-Invariant Human Activity Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Alazrai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for fall detection from partially-observed depth-map video sequences. The proposed approach utilizes the 3D skeletal joint positions obtained from the Microsoft Kinect sensor to build a view-invariant descriptor for human activity representation, called the motion-pose geometric descriptor (MPGD. Furthermore, we have developed a histogram-based representation (HBR based on the MPGD to construct a length-independent representation of the observed video subsequences. Using the constructed HBR, we formulate the fall detection problem as a posterior-maximization problem in which the posteriori probability for each observed video subsequence is estimated using a multi-class SVM (support vector machine classifier. Then, we combine the computed posteriori probabilities from all of the observed subsequences to obtain an overall class posteriori probability of the entire partially-observed depth-map video sequence. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we have utilized the Kinect sensor to record a dataset of depth-map video sequences that simulates four fall-related activities of elderly people, including: walking, sitting, falling form standing and falling from sitting. Then, using the collected dataset, we have developed three evaluation scenarios based on the number of unobserved video subsequences in the testing videos, including: fully-observed video sequence scenario, single unobserved video subsequence of random lengths scenarios and two unobserved video subsequences of random lengths scenarios. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieved an average recognition accuracy of 93 . 6 % , 77 . 6 % and 65 . 1 % , in recognizing the activities during the first, second and third evaluation scenario, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach to detect falls from partially-observed videos.

  4. Purification and Partial Characterization of Catalase from Chicken Erythrocytes and the Effect of Various Inhibitors on Enzyme Activity

    OpenAIRE

    AYDEMİR, Tülin; KURU, Kevser

    2003-01-01

    Catalase plays a major role in the protection of tissues from the toxic effects of H2O2 and partially reduced oxygen species. A nearly 136-fold enzyme purification was obtained from chicken erythrocyte by acetone precipitation, ethanol-chloroform treatment, CM-cellulose and Sephadex G-200 chromatography. The specific activity of purified enzyme was 42,556 U/mg. The molecular weight of the native chicken erythrocyte catalase was estimated at 240 kDa by gel filtration. SDS-gel electr...

  5. Solubilization, partial purification, and reconstitution of glutamate- and N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated cation channels from brain synaptic membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, A.M.; Michaelis, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    L-Glutamate-activated cation channel proteins from rat brain synaptic membranes were solubilized, partially purified, and reconstituted into liposomes. Optimal conditions for solubilization and reconstitution included treatment of the membranes with nonionic detergents in the presence of neutral phospholipids plus glycerol. Quench-flow procedures were developed to characterize the rapid kinetics of ion flux induced by receptor agonists. [ 14 C]Methylamine, a cation that permeates through the open channel of both vertebrate and invertebrate glutamate receptors, was used to measure the activity of glutamate receptor-ion channel complexes in reconstituted liposomes. L-Glutamate caused an increase in the rate of [ 14 C]methylamine influx into liposomes reconstituted with either solubilized membrane proteins or partially purified glutamate-binding proteins. Of the major glutamate receptor agonists, only N-methyl-D-aspartate activated cation fluxes in liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins. In liposomes reconstituted with glutamate-binding proteins, N-methyl-D-aspartate- or glutamate-induced influx of NA + led to a transient increase in the influx of the lipid-permeable anion probe S 14 CN - . These results indicate the functional reconstitution of N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive glutamate receptors and the role of the ∼69-kDa protein in the function of these ion channels

  6. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    is irreversible and currently there is no effective treatment aimed at curing this fatal ..... overexpression of Bax, a member of the Bcl-2 family. After treatment with ..... consequences of smoking: nicotine addiction: a report of the. Surgeon General ...

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of soils actinomycetes with antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Belén Parada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty four actinobacteria strains were isolated from Argentinian and Peruvian soil in order to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against multidrug resistant bacteria On the basis of their antagonist activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and two vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (EVR-Van A and  EVR Van B,13 strains were selected. The presence of NRPS, PKS-I and PKS-II genes were also investigated by PCR techniques. Among the 13 selected actinobacteria, strain AC69C displayed the higher activity in diffusion tests in solid medium and was further evaluated for the production of antagonist metabolites in liquid media. The best results were obtained using fermentation broth with carbohydrates, when starch and glucose were used in combination. Antimicrobial activities of 640 arbitrary units (AU, 320 AU, 320 AU and 80 AU were obtained against EVR-Van A, EVR-Van B, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 and MRSA, respectively. PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of AC69C strain displayed a 100 % homology with Streptomyces antibioticus NRRL B-1701. It was not possible to establish a correlation between the amplified genes and antimicrobial activity of the 13 selected strains. The results of this work show the wide distribution of actinobacteria in soil and the importance of the isolation of strain to screen novel active metabolites against multidrug resistant bacteria of clinical origin.

  8. Evaluation, partial characterization and purification of acetylcholine esterase enzyme and antiangiogenic activity from marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maushmi Shailesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata Keller, 1891; Spirastrella pachyspira (S. pachyspira Levi, 1958 and Cliona lobata Hancock, 1849 for the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE in both young and developed samples from western coastal area of India. S. pachyspira methanolic extract was selected for anti/pro angiogenic activity. Methods: They were evaluated for AChE activity using Ellman’s assay based on production of yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate. Purification of the enzyme was planned using ammonium sulphate precipitation and characterization by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chorioallantoic membrane (ChAM assay model was used for angiogenic/ antiangiogenic testing. Results: All the three sponges showed good specific enzyme activity and S. pachyspira contained maximum specific enzyme activity. Sixty percent of ammonium sulphate precipitation of crude protein sample gave single band at 66 kDa corresponding to the true AChE. ChAM assay was performed at 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 µg/mL. Dosage beyond 250 µg/mL extract showed toxic response with anti angiogenic activity at all the concentrations. Conclusions: AChE activity was detected in all samples. Extract showed good anti-angiogenic response at 62.5 µg/mL. Extract was highly toxic affecting microvasculature of ChAM as well as normal growth and development of the embryo at 500 µg/mL. With further characterization of bioactive compounds from the extract of S. pachyspira, the compounds can be developed for anti tumor activity.

  9. 3D magneto-convective heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled cavity under partially active magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rashed, Abdullah A. A. A.; Kolsi, Lioua; Oztop, Hakan F.; Aydi, Abdelkarim; Malekshah, Emad Hasani; Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal; Borjini, Mohamed Naceur

    2018-05-01

    A computational study has been performed to investigate the effects of partially active magnetic field on natural convection heat transfer in CNT-nanofluid filled and three-dimensional differentially heated closed space. Two cases are considered to see this effect as magnetic field is applied to upper half (Case I) and lower half (Case II) while remaining walls are insulated. The finite volume method is used to solve governing equations and results are obtained for different governing parameters as Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 100), nanoparticle volume fraction (0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.05) and height of the active zone (0 ≤ LB ≤ 1). It is found that location of magnetic field plays an important role even at the same Hartmann number. Thus, it can be a good parameter to control heat and fluid flow inside the closed space.

  10. Influence of posterior dental arch length on brain activity during chewing in patients with mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoi, K; Fueki, K; Usui, N; Taira, M; Wakabayashi, N

    2014-07-01

    It is well known that shortened dental arch decreases masticatory function. However, its potential to change brain activity during mastication is unknown. The present study investigates the effect of a shortened posterior dental arch with mandibular removable partial dentures (RPDs) on brain activity during gum chewing. Eleven subjects with missing mandibular molars (mean age, 66.1 years) on both sides received experimental RPDs with interchangeable artificial molars in a crossover trial design. Brain activity during gum chewing with RPDs containing (full dental arch) and lacking artificial molars (shortened dental arch) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, masticatory function was evaluated for each dental arch type. Food comminuting and mixing ability and the perceived chewing ability were significantly lower in subjects with a shortened dental arch than those with a full dental arch (P chewing with the full dental arch occurred in the middle frontal gyrus, primary sensorimotor cortex extending to the pre-central gyrus, supplementary motor area, putamen, insula and cerebellum. However, middle frontal gyrus activation was not observed during gum chewing with the shortened dental arch. These results suggest that shortened dental arch affects human brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus during gum chewing, and the decreased middle frontal gyrus activation may be associated with decreased masticatory function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Leisure Activity Engagement and Positive Affect Partially Mediate the Relationship Between Positive Views on Aging and Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Stephanie A; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2017-03-01

    To examine leisure activity engagement and positive affect as potential mediators for the relationships between positive views on aging (PVA) and two health outcomes: subjective health and physical limitations. Data from 5,194 participants from the German Ageing Survey (aged 40-91 years) were used to examine relationships between PVA to subjective health (assessed by self-rated health and perceived health change from past) and physical limitations (assessed via self-reported limitations on 10 activities). Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were examined as potential mediators in latent variable path analyses. Age moderation among these relationships was also examined. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect separately and jointly served to partially mediate the relationships between PVA and the health outcomes. When entered as joint mediators, positive affect no longer significantly predicted physical limitations, indicating a shared variance with leisure activity engagement. Age moderated the relationship between PVA and physical limitations; the relationship was stronger among older adults than among middle-aged adults. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were shown to help explain the relationship between PVA and health, but differently for different health constructs and also among middle-aged and older adults. Findings provide further insight into ways in which PVA influence health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Modeling the Effects of Future Growing Demand for Charcoal in the Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.; Dekker, S.C.; Daioglou, Vasileios; Braakhekke, M.C.; van Vuuren, Detlef

    Global demand for charcoal is increasing mainly due to urban population in developing countries. More than half the global population now lives in cities, and urban-dwellers are restricted to charcoal use because of easiness of production, access, transport, and tradition. Increasing demand for

  13. Rapid spread of suicide by charcoal burning from 2007 to 2011 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah-Rong; Ahn, Myung Hee; Lee, Tae Yeop; Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-11-30

    Despite rapid increase of suicide by charcoal burning within 5 years, little is known about the characteristics of charcoal burning suicide in Korea. This study aimed to examine the trends and risk factors in the spread of suicide using this method. We identified an association between media reporting of suicide by charcoal burning and its incidence. Data on suicide from 2007 to 2011 were obtained from the Korean National Statistical Office. Cross-correlation analysis was used. Increasing incidence of suicide by charcoal burning was correlated with higher education levels, male sex, and the latter half of the year. Victims of charcoal burning suicide were more likely to be young, male, single, highly educated, professional, urban-based, and to die between October and December. Internet reports of suicide via charcoal burning tended to precede the increased incidence of suicide using this method, but only during the early period of the suicide epidemic. Our findings suggest that one episode of heavy media coverage of a novel method, such as charcoal burning, is sufficient to increase the prevalence of suicide by that method even after media coverage decreases. These findings are expected to contribute to the prevention of increasing rates of suicide by charcoal burning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Criscuoli

    Full Text Available The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2 with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2. After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  15. Charcoal as an alternative energy carrier. Pt. 2: Conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstad, A

    1978-12-01

    Terrestrial biomass, residues from forestry, agriculture and farming can be converted by biochemical or thermochemical techniques to fuels. The charcoal yield depends on the raw materials, moisture contents, the temperature of carbonisation and the processing equipment. The yield is reduced by 2 - 3% when using softwood and furthermore with higher temperature of carbonisation. Generally charcoal contains 80 - 90% carbon, 0,5 - 10% ash and 7 - 30% volatile matter. Theoretically the following products are obtained when pyrolising wood: 34,7% Charcoal, 24,9% H/sub 2/O, 10,9% CO/sub 2/, 4,15 CO, 1,6% Methanol, 5,9% Acetic Acid and 17,9% Tar. Units for production of charcoal are large and small kilns, transportable Thomas retorts and Cornell retorts with a production of 1,3 - 6 tons charcoal/day, and the large Lambiotte retort, multiple-hearth furnaces and fluidized-bed reactors. Interesting is also the new equipment of Skogens Kol in Sweden. These large units have a production capacity of 16 - 80 tons charcoal/day. Important production parameters include charcoal yield, labour requirements, air pollution and cost. Based on these parameters the Cornell retort is considered the best unit for production of small quantities of charcoal and Skogens Kol seems to be the most interesting large unit. 17 drawings, 14 tables.

  16. Implications of Charcoal Briquette Produced by Local Communities on Livelihoods and Environment in Nairobi- Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Njenga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Nairobi, Kenya, use 700 tonnes of charcoal per day, producing about88 tonnes of charcoal dust that is found in most of the charcoal retailing stalls that is disposed of inwater drainage systems or in black garbage heaps. The high costs of cooking fuel results in poorhouseholds using unhealthy materials such as plastic waste. Further, poor households are opting tocook foods that take a short time to prepare irrespective of their nutritional value. This articlepresents experiences with community self-help groups producing charcoal fuel briquettes fromcharcoal dust in poorer nieghbourhoods of Nairobi for home use and sale. Households thatproduced charcoal fuel briquettes for own use and those that bought them saved 70% and 30% ofmoney spent on cooking energy respectively. The charcoal fuel briquettes have been found to beenvironmentally beneficial since they produce less smoke and increase total cooking energy bymore than 15%, thereby saving an equivalent volume of trees that would be cut down for charcoal.Charcoal briquette production is a viable opportunity for good quality and affordable cooking fuel.Bioenergy and waste management initiatives should promote recovery of organic by-products forcharcoal briquette production.

  17. Dermal exposure assessment to benzene and toluene using charcoal cloth pads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Tielemans, E.; Vermeulen, R.; Wegh, H.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Charcoal cloth pads have been used to assess volatile chemicals on the skin in a laboratory setting; however, they have not yet been applied to measure dermal exposure in occupational settings. This study aimed at evaluating whether charcoal pads can be used to assess dermal exposure to benzene and

  18. Biocontrol of charcoal-rot of sorghum by actinomycetes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Streptomyces but with different species in BLAST analysis. This study indicates that the selected actinomycetes have the potential for PGP and control of charcoal-rot disease in sorghum. Key words: Antagonistic actinomycetes, biocontrol, charcoal-rot, Macrophomina phaseolina. INTRODUCTION.

  19. Rational synthesis of zerovalent iron/bamboo charcoal composites with high saturation magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingshan Wu; Jianfeng Ma; Zhiyong Cai; Genlin Tian; Shumin Yang; Youhong Wang; Xing' e Liu

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of magnetic biochar composites is a major new research area in advanced materials sciences. A series of magnetic bamboo charcoal composites (MBC800, MBC1000 and MBC1200) with high saturation magnetization (Ms) was fabricated in this work by mixing bamboo charcoal powder with an aqueous ferric chloride solution and subsequently...

  20. Effect of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of isoproturon in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Youbin; Wang, Midao; Tian, Chao; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Dongmei

    2011-04-01

    The effects of charcoal amendment on adsorption, leaching and degradation of the herbicide isoproturon in soils were studied under laboratory conditions. The adsorption data all fitted well with the Freundlich empirical equation. It was found that the adsorption of isoproturon in soils increased with the rate of charcoal amended (correlation coefficient r = 0.957 **, P isoproturon in leachate decreased with the increase of the amount of charcoal addition to soil column, while the retention of isoproturon in soils increased with an increase in the charcoal content of soil samples. Biodegradation was still the most significant mechanism for isoproturon dissipation from soil. Charcoal amendment greatly reduced the biodegradation of isoproturon in soils. The half-lives of isoproturon degradation ( DT50) in soils greatly extended when the rate of added charcoal inceased from 0 to 50 g kg - 1 (for Paddy soil, DT50 values increased from 54.6 to 71.4 days; for Alfisol, DT50 from 16.0 to 136 days; and for Vertisol, DT50 from 15.2 to 107 days). The degradation rate of isoproturon in soils was significantly negatively correlated with the amount of added charcoal. This research suggests that charcoal amendment may be an effective management practice for reducing pesticide leaching and enhancing its persistence in soils.

  1. Carbon sequestration and fertility after centennial time scale incorporation of charcoal into soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuoli, Irene; Alberti, Giorgio; Baronti, Silvia; Favilli, Filippo; Martinez, Cristina; Calzolari, Costanza; Pusceddu, Emanuela; Rumpel, Cornelia; Viola, Roberto; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-01-01

    The addition of pyrogenic carbon (C) in the soil is considered a potential strategy to achieve direct C sequestration and potential reduction of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, we investigated the long term effects of charcoal addition on C sequestration and soil physico-chemical properties by studying a series of abandoned charcoal hearths in the Eastern Alps of Italy established in the XIX century. This natural setting can be seen as an analogue of a deliberate experiment with replications. Carbon sequestration was assessed indirectly by comparing the amount of pyrogenic C present in the hearths (23.3±4.7 kg C m(-2)) with the estimated amount of charcoal that was left on the soil after the carbonization (29.3±5.1 kg C m(-2)). After taking into account uncertainty associated with parameters' estimation, we were able to conclude that 80±21% of the C originally added to the soil via charcoal can still be found there and that charcoal has an overall Mean Residence Time of 650±139 years, thus supporting the view that charcoal incorporation is an effective way to sequester atmospheric CO2. We also observed an overall change in the physical properties (hydrophobicity and bulk density) of charcoal hearth soils and an accumulation of nutrients compared to the adjacent soil without charcoal. We caution, however, that our site-specific results should not be generalized without further study.

  2. Sucrase Activity and Exopolysaccharide Partial Characterization From Three Weissella confusa Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarila Malik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPSs produced by lactic acid bacteria have been well known for their important economic value in food, pharmaceutical and health industries. Large extracellular enzyme sucrases are used by lactic acid bacteria to polymerize EPS, i.e. fructansucrase and glucansucrase. This study aimed to characterize sucrase activity of three Weissella confusa strains MBF8-1, MBF8-2 and MBFCNC-2(1, which were isolated previously from local beverages and their EPS products as well. All strains showed ability to form mucoid and slimy colonies by visual inspection on agar plate using raffinose as substrate suggesting that they possessed fructansucrase activity besides glucansucrase. Obtained EPS products were characterized by HPLC analysis after hydrolysis using 3% TCA at 100 °C for 1 hour, and by viscosity as well. All strains exhibited similar peak patterns, assuming that all of them possessed fructan EPS product. Supernatant and cell pellet were also analyzed by in situ activity assay performing periodic acid Schiff staining after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; only cell pellet showed sucrase activity. Viscosity observation showed that EPS products from all strains were able to increase the viscosity slightly.

  3. Antifatigue Activity of Liquid Cultured Tricholoma matsutake Mycelium Partially via Regulation of Antioxidant Pathway in Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tricholoma matsutake has been popular as food and biopharmaceutical materials in Asian countries for its various pharmacological activities. The present study aims to analyze the antifatigue effects on enhancing exercise performance of Tricholoma matsutake fruit body (ABM and liquid cultured mycelia (TM in mouse model. Two-week Tricholoma matsutake treatment significantly enhances the exercise performance in weight-loaded swimming, rotating rod, and forced running test. In TM- and ABM-treated mice, some factors were observed at 60 min after swimming compared with nontreated mice, such as the increased levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP, antioxidative enzymes, and glycogen and the reduced levels of malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species in muscle, liver, and/or serum. Further data obtained from western blot show that CM and ABM have strongly enhanced the activation of 5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and the expressions of peroxisome proliferator have activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α and phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1 in liver. Our data suggest that both Tricholoma matsutake fruit body and liquid cultured mycelia possess antifatigue effects related to AMPK-linked antioxidative pathway. The information uncovered in our study may serve as a valuable resource for further identification and provide experimental evidence for clinical trials of Tricholoma matsutake as an effective agent against fatigue related diseases.

  4. Action of mercurials on activity of partially purified soluble protein kinase C from mice brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Saijoh, K.; Sumino, K.

    1988-01-01

    The enzymatic activity of soluble protein kinase C from mice brain was inhibited by mercuric chloride (II) (HgCl 2 ) and organic mercurials, i.e. methyl mercury, phenyl mercury and p-chloromercuribenzoic acid (PCMB). The IC50 was 0.08 μM for HgCl 2 and about 1 μM for organic mercurials. Sulfhydryl blocking reagents such as 5.5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were less potent but nevertheless inhibited the enzymic activity of protein kinase C. The Hill coefficients of HgCl 2 , DTNB and NEM were close to unity whereas the values for organic mercurials were 1.3 to 1.5. The inhibition was of a non-competitive type with respect to Hl histone. 3 H-PDBu binding activity was also inhibited by all of the reagents in a non-competitive manner. Mercurials apparently bind to sulfhydryl groups of protein kinase C to inhibit the enzymatic activity. (author)

  5. Spatial analysis of charcoal kiln remains in the former royal forest district Tauer (Lower Lusatia, North German Lowlands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Alexandra; Schneider, Anna; Bonhage, Alexander; Takla, Melanie; Hirsch, Florian; Müller, Frank; Rösler, Horst; Heußner, Karl-Uwe

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological excavations have revealed more than thousand charcoal kiln remains (CKRs) in the prefield of the active opencast lignite mine Jänschwalde, situated about 150 km SE of Berlin (SE Brandenburg, Germany). The charcoal was mainly produced for the ironwork Peitz nearby, which operated from the 16th to the mid-19th centuries. In a first approach, to estimate the dimension of the charcoal production, CKRs were mapped on shaded-relief maps (SRMs) derived from high-resolution LiDAR data (Raab et al. 2015). Subsequently, for a selected test area, identified CKRs on the SRMs were compared with archaeologically excavated CKRs in the field. This survey showed a considerably number of falsely detected sites. Therefore, the data was critically re-evaluated using additional relief visualisations. Further, we extended the CKR mapping to areas which are not archaeologically investigated. The study area, the former royal forest district Tauer, consists of two separate areas: the Tauersche Heide (c. 96 km2 area) N of Peitz and the area Jänschwalde (c. 32 km2 area) NE of Peitz. The study area is characterized by a flat topography. Different former and current anthropogenic uses (e.g., military training, solar power plant, forestry measures) have affected the study area, resulting in extensive disturbances of the terrain surface. The revised CKR abundance in the study area Jänschwalde was considerably smaller than the numbers produced by our first approach. Further, the CKR mapping revealed, that a total record of the CKRs is not possible for various reasons. Despite these limitations, a solid database can be provided for a much larger area than before. Basic statistic parameters of the CKR diameters and all comparative statistical tests were calculated using SPSS. To detect underlying spatial relationships in the CKR site distribution, we applied the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a method to test for local spatial autocorrelation between neighbouring sites. The test is

  6. Evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of bamboo charcoal/silver biological protective material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.-C. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, K.-H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: khwu@ccit.edu.tw; Liu, M.-J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.-P. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, M.-K. [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) was prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution, silver ion (Ag{sup +}) release and antibacterial properties. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) showed that the Ag particles were distributed uniformly on the BC matrix. The Ag particle size was found to be less than 150 nm based on TEM. The Ag content and surface morphology of the BC/Ag composites depended on the initial concentration of AgNO{sub 3}, and the higher the Ag content, the smaller the specific surface area obtained on the BC. The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and by the plate-counting method, and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered.

  7. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES PRODUCED BY A WILD STRAIN OF A. NIGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus niger, isolated from decay citrus peels in the province of Misiones, was able to produce pectinases by submerged fermentation. The enzymatic extract exhibited polygalacturonase, pectinesterase and lyase activities. Others enzymes capable of degrading cell wall polymers were also detected in the enzymatic extract such as cellulases and xylanases. Polygalacturonase was an endo-polygalacturonase. The enzyme exhibited a maximal activity at pH range between 4.5 to 5.0, was stable in the pH range from 2.5 to 5.5 and remained unchanged when was incubated at temperatures lower than 50 ºC. The fungi produced three PG isoenzymes. The enzymatic extract was able to clarify apple juice. The results observed make the pectinolytic enzymes produced by A. niger appropriate for future application in fruit juice processing industries.

  8. Baking sunflower hulls within an aluminum envelope in a common laboratory oven yields charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pablo Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Charcoals have been widely used by scientist to research the removal of contaminants from water and air. One key feature of charcoal is that it keeps macropores from the parent material - though anisotropically contracted - and can even develop meso- and micropores. However, the controlled thermochemical conversion of biomass into charcoal at laboratory scale normally requires special setups which involve either vacuum or inert gas. Those setups may not be affordable in research groups or educational institutions where the research of charcoals would be highly welcome. In this work, I propose a simple and effective method to steer the thermochemical process that converts sunflower hulls (SFH) into charcoal with basic laboratory resources. The carbonization method: •Place SFH in an airtight aluminum envelope.•Thermally treat SFH within the envelope in a common laboratory oven.•Open the envelope to obtain the carbonized sunflower hulls.

  9. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    particles, extractable DOC was lower and less aromatic than in the adjacent control soil, likely due to strong sorption of dissolved organic matter (DOM) onto charcoal particles. We suggest that higher sorption of DOM onto the surface of biochar in the control soil provided additional acid functional groups and thus increased the surface charge to a greater extent than in the DOC poorer kiln soil. Hence, biochars incubated in the kiln soil showed less changes in CEC and surface acidity. Higher availability of DOM in the control soil could also stimulate microbial activity to a larger extent, resulting in higher oxidation rates of biochars incubated in the control soil.

  10. Adsorption of actinides by chelating agents containing benzene rings, fixed on charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini Ganzerli, M.T.; Crespi Caramella, V.; Maggi, L.

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the analysis of the actinides in the hydrosphere to study their environmental dispersion. The 8-hydroxyquinoline family and the benzohydroxamic acid have a complexing ability towards the actinides, even if in different oxidation states. Taking advantage of this ability, their salts with some organic acids or bases were prepared. In this way compounds were obtained easily incorporated into active charcoal. Only a small amount of the prepared adsorber may be equilibrated with large sample volumes. Subsequently it can be recovered by filtration. The adsorbed ions may be then re-dissolved with a small volume of the appropriate eluting solution. The 8-hydroxy-quinolines and the 8-hydroxyquinoline produced salts with the benzilic acid. These compounds similarly behave and show wide adsorption coefficients for solutions of pH higher than 3. The adsorption takes place by means of the formation of a complex of the actinide ion with the hydroxyquinoline moiety and also with the benzilic anion. Provided that the active extracting agent is not dissolved in a medium but fixed into a solid phase, the whole adsorption process may be regarded as a solvent extraction reaction. The benzohydroxamic acid was treated with the diphenylamine or with the tribenzylamine to obtain salts, later adsorbed into the charcoal. The adsorption of actinide ions seems to take place by means of a precipitation mechanism of the actinide ions with the hydroxamate ions for solution of pH higher than 3.5. Also in this case high values were obtained for the distribution coefficients. The actinide ions act similarly in the +4 or +6 oxidation state towards the prepared adsorber series. Therefore, it is possible to use only one adsorber to concentrate all actinides. Methods of analysis of actinides in the environment may be suitably set up and the concentration step based on these new prepared adsorber may improve the whole procedure. (authors)

  11. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    OpenAIRE

    Protásio, Thiago de Paula; Trugilho, Paulo Fernando; Mirmehdi, Seyedmohammad; Silva, Marcela Gomes da

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal ...

  12. Semi-active control of a sandwich beam partially filled with magnetorheological elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with the semi-active control of vibrations of structural elements. Elastomer composites with ferromagnetic particles that act as magnetorheological fluids are used. The damping coefficient and the shear modulus of the elastomer increases when it is exposed to an electro-magnetic field. The control of this process in time allows us to reduce vibrations more effectively than if the elastomer is permanently exposed to a magnetic field. First the analytical solution for the vibrations of a sandwich beam filled with an elastomer is given. Then the control problem is defined and applied to the analytical formula. The numerical solution of the minimization problem results in a periodic, perfectly rectangular control function if free vibrations are considered. Such a temporarily acting magnetic field is more efficient than a constantly acting one. The surplus reaches 20-50% or more, depending on the filling ratio of the elastomer. The resulting control was verified experimentally in the vibrations of a cantilever sandwich beam. The proposed semi-active control can be directly applied to engineering vibrating structural elements, for example helicopter rotors, aircraft wings, pads under machines, and vehicles.

  13. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, M. A.; Bendahou, M.; Bendiabdellah, A.; Djabou, N.; Allali, H.; Tabti, B.; Paolini, J.; Costa, J.

    2010-07-01

    The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots) were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively) and other long chain fatty acids (until C22). Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively). The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. (Author) 35 refs.

  14. Partial structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a phenolic-xylan from Castanea sativa hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Emmanuel; Barbat-Rogeon, Aline; Chaleix, Vincent; Calliste, Claude-Alain; Colas, Cyril; Gloaguen, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    4-O-Methylglucuronoxylans (MGX) were isolated from chestnut wood sawdust using two different procedures: chlorite delignification followed by the classical alkaline extraction step, and an unusual green chemistry process of delignification using phthalocyanine/H2O2 followed by a simple extraction with hot water. Antioxidant properties of both MGX were evaluated against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by electronic spin resonance (ESR). IC50 of water-extracted MGX was found to be less than 225 μg mL(-1), in contrast with alkali-extracted MGX for which no radical scavenging was observed. Characterization of extracts by colorimetric assay, GC, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy provided some clues to understanding structure-function relationships of MGX in connection with their antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aggregate size and architecture determine biomass activity for one-stage partial nitritation and anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2010-01-01

    to the inoculation and operation of the reactors. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) was applied on aggregate sections to quantify AerAOB and AnAOB, as well as to visualize the aggregate architecture. The activity balance of the aggregates was calculated as the nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR), i...... and nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the autotrophic space in these granules consisted of AerAOB- and AnAOB-specific EPS. Large B aggregates were...... thin film-like nitrite sinks (NARR,

  16. Partial activation of SA- and JA-defensive pathways in strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO AMIL-RUIZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5 and FaPR10 were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  17. Measurement of activated rCBF by the 133Xe inhalation technique: a comparison of total versus partial curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leli, D.A.; Katholi, C.R.; Hazelrig, J.B.; Falgout, J.C.; Hannay, H.J.; Wilson, E.M.; Wills, E.L.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An initial assessment of the differential sensitivity of total versus partial curve analysis in estimating task related focal changes in cortical blood flow measured by the 133 Xe inhalation technique was accomplished by comparing the patterns during the performance of two sensorimotor tasks by normal subjects. The validity of these patterns was evaluated by comparing them to the activation patterns expected from activation studies with the intra-arterial technique and the patterns expected from neuropsychological research literature. Subjects were 10 young adult nonsmoking healthy male volunteers. They were administered two tasks having identical sensory and cognitive components but different response requirements (oral versus manual). The regional activation patterns produced by the tasks varied with the method of curve analysis. The activation produced by the two tasks was very similar to that predicted from the research literature only for total curve analysis. To the extent that the predictions are correct, these data suggest that the 133 Xe inhalation technique is more sensitive to regional flow changes when flow parameters are estimated from the total head curve. The utility of the total head curve analysis will be strengthened if similar sensitivity is demonstrated in future studies assessing normal subjects and patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders

  18. The HEART mobile phone trial: The partial mediating effects of self-efficacy on physical activity among cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph eMaddison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ubiquitous use of mobile phones provides an ideal opportunity to deliver interventions to increase physical activity levels. Understanding potential mediators of such interventions is needed to increase their effectiveness. A recent randomized controlled trial of a mobile phone and Internet (mHealth intervention was conducted in New Zealand to determine the effectiveness on exercise capacity and physical activity levels in addition to current cardiac rehabilitation (CR services for people (n=171 with ischaemic heart disease (IHD. Significant intervention effect was observed for self-reported leisure time physical activity and walking, but not peak oxygen uptake (PVO2 at 24 weeks. There was also significant improvement in self-efficacy.Objective: To evaluate the mediating effect of self-efficacy on physical activity levels in an mHealth delivered exercise CR programme. Methods: Treatment evaluations were performed on the principle of intention to treat (ITT. Adjusted regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the main treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, with and without change in self-efficacy as the mediator of interest. Results: Change in self-efficacy at 24 weeks significantly mediated the treatment effect on leisure time physical activity by 13%, but only partially mediated the effect on walking by 4% at 24 weeks. Conclusion: An mHealth intervention involving text messaging and Internet support had a positive treatment effect on leisure time physical activity and walking at 24 weeks, and this effect was likely mediated through changes in self-efficacy. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention.

  19. Rare earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinhuan; Yang Xia; Yu Xiaodan; Xu, Leilei; Kang Wanli; Yan Wenhua; Gao Hongfeng; Liu Zhonghe; Guo Yihang

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites (RE 3+ /TiO 2 , where RE = Eu 3+ , Pr 3+ , Gd 3+ , Nd 3+ , and Y 3+ ) were prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method. The products exhibited anatase phase structure, mesoporosity, and interesting surface compositions with three oxygen species and two titanium species. The products were used as the photocatalysts to degrade a partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide (HPAM) under UV-light irradiation, a very useful polymer in oil recovery. For comparison, Degussa P25 and as-prepared pure TiO 2 were also tested under the same conditions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was obtained on as-prepared Eu 3+ (Gd 3+ , Pr 3+ )/TiO 2 composites, and the reasons were explained. Finally, the degradation pathway of HPAM over the RE 3+ /TiO 2 composite was put forward based on the intermediates produced during the photocatalysis procedure.

  20. Soil charcoal from the plains to tundra in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, R. L.; Licata, C.

    2010-12-01

    Throughout the forests of the central Rockies, soil charcoal from Holocene wildfires has been produced in response to wildland natural fire regimes. The extent and spatial distribution of soil charcoal production is poorly documented in this region, especially with regard to forests and shrublands at different elevations. Soil charcoal is a super-passive C pool derived from woody biomass that can be sequestered for millennia in forest soils. Recent research indicates that soil charcoal may promote enhanced soil fertility. Additionally, soil charcoal is an often overlooked component of soil C mass and flux. We hypothesize that differences in forest and shrubland fire regimes over the millennia have resulted in different soil charcoal amounts. Geospatial data were used to locate random sample plots in foothills shrublands (Cercocarpus montanus), and four forest types; ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and spruce-fir (Picea engelmannii - Abies lasiocarpa). Sample plots were stratified to occur with the mid 200 m elevation band of each vegetation type with east aspect, and 10-30% slope. Soils were sampled widely at 0-10 cm depth and analyzed for total soil C and soil charcoal C via chemical digestion and dry combustion techniques. Overall, soil charcoal is four times more abundant in spruce-fir forests than in foothills shrublands (1.9 +/- 0.92 Mg C/ha versus 0.54 +/- 0.44 Mg C/ha). Soil charcoal is also abundant in lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine soils (1.4 +/- 1.02 Mg C/ha and 1.4 +/- 0.54 Mg C/ha respectively) but is less plentiful in Douglas-fir soils (1.0 +/- 0.67). Spruce-fir forests have the most above ground biomass, slower decomposition rates and a less frequent mean fire return interval than the other four forests, hence it makes sense that high per-fire rates of charcoal production would occur in the spruce-fir zone, given large amounts of surface fuels at the time of fire. In contrast

  1. Partial characterization of cold active amylases and proteases of Streptomyces sp. from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Cotârleţ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate novel enzyme-producing bacteria from vegetation samples from East Antarctica and also to characterize them genetically and biochemically in order to establish their phylogeny. The ability to grow at low temperature and to produce amylases and proteases cold-active was also tested. The results of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the 4 Alga rRNA was 100% identical to the sequences of Streptomyces sp. rRNA from Norway and from the Solomon Islands. The Streptomyces grew well in submerged system at 20ºC, cells multiplication up to stationary phase being drastically increased after 120 h of submerged cultivation. The beta-amylase production reached a maximum peak after seven days, while alpha-amylase and proteases were performing biosynthesis after nine days of submerged cultivation at 20ºC. Newly Streptomyces were able to produce amylase and proteases in a cold environment. The ability to adapt to low temperature of these enzymes could make them valuable ingredients for detergents, the food industry and bioremediation processes which require low temperatures.

  2. Salicylate removal by charcoal heamoperfusion in experimental intoxication in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookings, C.H.; Ramsey, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The removal of salicylate by extracorporeal circulation of blood through a column of encapsulated charcoal (haemoperfusion) has been studied experimentally in intoxicated dogs (greyhounds). The average time taken to reduce the whole blood salicylate level to one-half of the initial equilibrium level in 30 kg dogs was 2 hrs. A half-life of 3 hrs is predicted for salicylate removal by haemoperfusion in a 70 kg man and this rate of removal is shown to be comparable to that reported for haemodialysis. No unacceptable adverse physiological, biochemical, or haematological effects were found to result from haemoperfusion. The possible use of this technique in the management of severe salicylate poisoning in man is discussed. Haemoperfusion is foreseen as providing a method of rapid removal of salicylate in circumstances where forced diuresis is contra-indicated or inadequate and haemodialysis is not readily available. (orig.) [de

  3. Effect of starch binder on charcoal briquette properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Gabriel; Stępniewski, Witold; Wójcik-Oliveira, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the results of a study on the effect of starch binder on the mechanical, physical and burning properties of charcoal briquettes. Two types of binders were repeatedly used to make briquettes of native wheat starch and modified wheat starch, at 8% of the whole. Briquetting was performed in a roller press unit, and pillow-shaped briquettes were made. The moisture of the mixed material ranged from 28 to 32%. The product, whether the former or the latter, was characterized by very good mechanical properties and satisfactory physical properties. Moreover, the type of starch binder had no effect on toughness, calorific heating value, volatiles, fixed carbon content and ash content. However, the combustion test showed quite different burning properties. As briquettes should have short firing up time and lower smokiness, as well as high maximum temperature and long burning time, we have concluded that briquettes with native wheat starch as a binder are more appropriate for burning in the grill.

  4. Partial chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Daucus crinitus Desf. extracts

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    Paolini, J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of fatty acids and the unsaponifiable fraction of the roots, leaves and stems from Daucus crinitus Desf. were, determined using gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The fatty acid fractions of different organs (leaves, stems and roots were characterized by lauric acid (17.9, 17.5 and 18.1 % respectively and other long chain fatty acids (until C22. Qualitative and quantitative differences were reported between the unsaponifiable fractions of different organs from D. crinitus. The unsaponifiable fractions of the leaves, roots and stem showed high amounts of aliphatic components (83.4%, 87.2% and 91.4%, respectively. The monoterpen, diterpen and sesquiterpen components were only present in small percentages. The antimicrobial properties of the D. critinus extracts were tested on four different microorganisms. These extracts were found to be active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans.La composición química de los ácidos grasos y la fracción insaponificable de raíces, hojas, y tallos de Daucus crinitus Desf. fueron establecidas utilizando cromatografía de gases (GC y cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. La fracción de ácidos grasos de los diferentes órganos (hojas, tallos y raíces se caracterizó por el ácido láurico (17.9, 17.5 y 18.1% respectivamente y otros ácidos grasos de cadena larga (hasta C22. Diferencias cualitativas y cuantitativas se registraron entre las fracciones insaponificable de los diferentes órganos de D. crinitus. De hecho, las fracciones insaponificable de la raíz, de la hoja y del tallo mostraron cantidades altas de componentes alifáticos (83.4%, 87.2% y 91.4%, respectivamente. Los componentes monoterpénicos, diterpénicos y sesquiterpénicos solo estuvieron presentes en un pequeño porcentaje. Las propiedades antimicrobianas de los extractos de D. critinus fueron ensayadas en cuatro

  5. Partial antiviral activities detection of chicken Mx jointing with neuraminidase gene (NA against Newcastle disease virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Zhang

    Full Text Available As an attempt to increase the resistance to Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV and so further reduction of its risk on the poultry industry. This work aimed to build the eukaryotic gene co-expression plasmid of neuraminidase (NA gene and myxo-virus resistance (Mx and detect the gene expression in transfected mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells, it is most important to investigate the influence of the recombinant plasmid on the chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF cells. cDNA fragment of NA and mutant Mx gene were derived from pcDNA3.0-NA and pcDNA3.0-Mx plasmid via PCR, respectively, then NA and Mx cDNA fragment were inserted into the multiple cloning sites of pVITRO2 to generate the eukaryotic co-expression plasmid pVITRO2-Mx-NA. The recombinant plasmid was confirmed by restriction endonuclease treatment and sequencing, and it was transfected into the mouse fibroblasts (NIH-3T3 cells. The expression of genes in pVITRO2-Mx-NA were measured by RT-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into CEF cells then RT-PCR and the micro-cell inhibition tests were used to test the antiviral activity for NDV. Our results showed that co-expression vector pVITRO2-Mx-NA was constructed successfully; the expression of Mx and NA could be detected in both NIH-3T3 and CEF cells. The recombinant proteins of Mx and NA protect CEF cells from NDV infection until after 72 h of incubation but the individually mutagenic Mx protein or NA protein protects CEF cells from NDV infection till 48 h post-infection, and co-transfection group decreased significantly NDV infection compared with single-gene transfection group (P<0. 05, indicating that Mx-NA jointing contributed to delaying the infection of NDV in single-cell level and the co-transfection of the jointed genes was more powerful than single one due to their synergistic effects.

  6. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of

  7. Anticoagulant effects of inhaled unfractionated heparin in the dog as determined by partial thromboplastin time and factor Xa activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manion, Jill S; Thomason, John M; Langston, Vernon C; Claude, Andrew K; Brooks, Marjory B; Mackin, Andrew J; Lunsford, Kari V

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the anticoagulant effects of inhaled heparin in dogs. This study was conducted in 3 phases. In phase 1, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) was collected to generate an in vitro calibration curve to relate heparin concentration to the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). In phase 2, heparin was administered via nebulization to determine the threshold dose needed to prolong systemic aPTT. In phase 3, the local anticoagulant activity of inhaled heparin was determined by measurement of BALf anti-Xa activity and aPTT. University teaching hospital. Six healthy intact female Walker Hounds were used in this study. Two dogs were used for each phase. Inhaled unfractionated sodium heparin was administered in doses ranging from 50,000 to 200,000 IU. In vitro addition of heparin to BALf caused a prolongation in aPTT. Inhaled heparin at doses as high as 200,000 IU failed to prolong systemic aPTT, and a threshold dose could not be determined. No significant local anticoagulant effects were detected. Even at doses higher than those known to be effective in people, inhaled heparin appears to have no detectable local or systemic anticoagulant effects in dogs with the current delivery method. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  8. Peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor-γ deficiency in a Canadian kindred with familial partial lipodystrophy type 3 (FPLD3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Henian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial partial lipodystrophy (Dunnigan type 3 (FPLD3, Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] 604367 results from heterozygous mutations in PPARG encoding peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Both dominant-negative and haploinsufficiency mechanisms have been suggested for this condition. Methods We present a Canadian FPLD3 kindred with an affected mother who had loss of fat on arms and legs, but no increase in facial, neck, suprascapular or abdominal fat. She had profound insulin resistance, diabetes, severe hypertriglyceridemia and relapsing pancreatitis, while her pre-pubescent daughter had normal fat distribution but elevated plasma triglycerides and C-peptide and depressed high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results The mother and daughter were each heterozygous for PPARG nonsense mutation Y355X, whose protein product in vitro was transcriptionally inactive with no dominant-negative activity against the wild-type receptor. In addition the mutant protein appeared to be markedly unstable. Conclusion Taken together with previous studies of human PPARG mutations, these findings suggest that PPAR-γ deficiency due either to haploinsufficiency or to substantial activity loss due to dominant negative interference of the normal allele product's function can each contribute to the FPLD3 phenotype.

  9. Catalytic Activity Studies of Vanadia/Silica–Titania Catalysts in SVOC Partial Oxidation to Formaldehyde: Focus on the Catalyst Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Koivikko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, silica–titania supported catalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method with various compositions. Vanadia was impregnated on SiO2-TiO2 with different loadings, and materials were investigated in the partial oxidation of methanol and methyl mercaptan to formaldehyde. The materials were characterized by using N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM, NH3-TPD, and Raman techniques. The activity results show the high importance of an optimized SiO2-TiO2 ratio to reach a high reactant conversion and formaldehyde yield. The characteristics of mixed oxides ensure a better dispersion of the active phase on the support and in this way increase the activity of the catalysts. The addition of vanadium pentoxide on the support lowered the optimal temperature of the reaction significantly. Increasing the vanadia loading from 1.5% to 2.5% did not result in higher formaldehyde concentration. Over the 1.5%V2O5/SiO2 + 30%TiO2 catalyst, the optimal selectivity was reached at 415 °C when the maximum formaldehyde concentration was ~1000 ppm.

  10. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil aggregate distribution, hydraulic conductivity and available water contente were also determined

  11. Performance Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery in a Charcoal Stove using a Thermo-Electric Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Judges Ajah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal stoves have widespread use among the poorer households and outdoor food vendors in Nigeria. In order to improve the efficiency of charcoal stoves, various researches have tried integrating a thermoelectric module in the charcoal stove. The researches, however did not exploit the performance of the thermoelectric modules at different ambient temperatures. To evaluate the performance of thermoelectric integrated charcoal stoves in the sub-Saharan Africa, a self-powered, forced air induced thermoelectric charcoal stove experiment was carried out at five different ambient temperatures of 36ºC, 33ºC, 32ºC, 30ºC and 29ºC and an average fuel hotbed temperature of 1023.75ºC. The thermoelectric charcoal stove generated a maximum voltage of 5.25V at an ambient temperature of 29ºC. The least maximum voltage was generated at the highest ambient temperature of 36ºC. It was observed that the maximum voltage increased with decreasing ambient temperature, this could be attributed to the ambient air being used to cool the thermoelectric generator. Therefore, it could be said that the performance of a forced draft thermoelectric charcoal stove increases with decrease in ambient temperature.

  12. The Impact of Charcoal Production on Forest Degradation: a Case Study in Tete, Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, F.; Silva. J. A.; Machoco, R.; Meque, C. H.; Sitoe, A.; Ribeiro, N.; Anderson, K.; Ombe, Z. A.; Baule, S. H.; Tucker, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Charcoal production for urban energy consumption is a main driver of forest degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Urban growth projections for the continent suggest that the relevance of this process will increase in the coming decades. Forest degradation associated to charcoal production is difficult to monitor and commonly overlooked and underrepresented in forest cover change and carbon emission estimates. We use a multi-temporal dataset of very high-resolution remote sensing images to map kiln locations in a representative study area of tropical woodlands in central Mozambique. The resulting maps provided a characterization of the spatial extent and temporal dynamics of charcoal production. Using an indirect approach we combine kiln maps and field information on charcoal making to describe the magnitude and intensity of forest degradation linked to charcoal production, including aboveground biomass and carbon emissions. Our findings reveal that forest degradation associated to charcoal production in the study area is largely independent from deforestation driven by agricultural expansion and that its impact on forest cover change is in the same order of magnitude as deforestation. Our work illustrates the feasibility of using estimates of urban charcoal consumption to establish a link between urban energy demands and forest degradation. This kind of approach has potential to reduce uncertainties in forest cover change and carbon emission assessments in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Radiation inactivation analysis of assimilatory NADH:nitrate reductase. Apparent functional sizes of partial activities associated with intact and proteolytically modified enzyme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomonson, L.P.; McCreery, M.J.; Kay, C.J.; Barber, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated that target sizes for the partial activities of nitrate reductase were considerably smaller than the 100-kDa subunit which corresponded to the target size of the full (physiologic) activity NADH:nitrate reductase. These results suggested that the partial activities resided on functionally independent domains and that radiation inactivation may be due to localized rather than extensive damage to protein structure. The present study extends these observations and addresses several associated questions. Monophasic plots were observed over a wide range of radiation doses, suggesting a single activity component in each case. No apparent differences were observed over a 10-fold range of concentration for each substrate, suggesting that the observed slopes were not due to marked changes in Km values. Apparent target sizes estimated for partial activities associated with native enzyme and with limited proteolysis products of native enzyme suggested that the functional size obtained by radiation inactivation analysis is independent of the size of the polypeptide chain. The presence of free radical scavengers during irradiation reduced the apparent target size of both the physiologic and partial activities by an amount ranging from 24 to 43%, suggesting that a free radical mechanism is at least partially responsible for the inactivation. Immunoblot analysis of nitrate reductase irradiated in the presence of free radical scavengers revealed formation of distinct bands at 90, 75, and 40 kDa with increasing doses of irradiation rather than complete destruction of the polypeptide chain

  14. Evaluation of efficacy of mineral oil, charcoal, and smectite in a rat model of equine cantharidin toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, H J; Holbrook, T C; Gilliam, L L; Njaa, B L; Panciera, R J; Pope, C N; Payton, M E

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of orally administered therapeutics for the treatment of cantharidin intoxication has not been evaluated in controlled studies. To develop a model of acute cantharidin intoxication in laboratory rats and to evaluate in this model the relative efficacy of 3 gastrointestinal therapies used to treat equine cantharidin toxicosis. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats. A blinded, randomized, controlled study was performed on rats surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters for evaluating heart rate, locomotor activity, and body temperature. Orogastric administration of cantharidin was performed within 15 seconds before administration of mineral oil, activated charcoal, or smectite. Negative control groups received therapeutic agents alone. Urine was collected for cantharidin analysis. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after intoxication, and tissues were collected for histopathologic evaluation. Data analysis included ANOVA procedures and contingency tables. Six of 8 cantharidin-intoxicated rats treated with mineral oil died; bradycardia and hypothermia developed in the animals of this group 0-8 hours after intoxication. Rats treated with mineral oil had higher urine cantharidin concentrations than rats receiving cantharidin alone or with smectite (P = .04). The most severe hypothermia (30.6°C ± 1.0) developed in rats administered mineral oil at 4-8 hours after intoxication, whereas those treated with charcoal (35.2°C ± 0.8) had mean body temperatures higher than all other treatment groups (P = .03). Survival times in the charcoal (P = .16) and smectite (P = .12) treatment groups were not statistically different from negative controls. Mineral oil is often used in the treatment of equine cantharidin toxicosis. Our findings suggest that mineral oil increases cantharidin absorption, worsening morbidity and fatality in rats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Troponin C Mutations Partially Stabilize the Active State of Regulated Actin and Fully Stabilize the Active State When Paired with Δ14 TnT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Tamatha; Johnson, Dylan; Pinto, Jose R; Chalovich, Joseph M

    2017-06-13

    Striated muscle contraction is regulated by the actin-associated proteins tropomyosin and troponin. The extent of activation of myosin ATPase activity is lowest in the absence of both Ca 2+ and activating cross-bridges (i.e., S1-ADP or rigor S1). Binding of activating species of myosin to actin at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration stabilizes the most active state (M state) of the actin-tropomyosin-troponin complex (regulated actin). Ca 2+ binding alone produces partial stabilization of the active state. The extent of stabilization at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration depends on the isoform of the troponin subunits, the phosphorylation state of troponin, and, in the case of cardiac muscle, the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-producing mutants of troponin T and troponin I. Cardiac dysfunction is also associated with mutations of troponin C (TnC). Troponin C mutants A8V, C84Y, and D145E increase the Ca 2+ sensitivity of ATPase activity. We show that these mutants change the distribution of regulated actin states. The A8V and C84Y TnC mutants decreased the inactive B state distribution slightly at low Ca 2+ concentrations, but the D145E mutants had no effect on that state. All TnC mutants increased the level of the active M state compared to that of the wild type, at a saturating Ca 2+ concentration. Troponin complexes that contained two mutations that stabilize the active M state, A8V TnC and Δ14 TnT, appeared to be completely in the active state in the presence of only Ca 2+ . Because Ca 2+ gives full activation, in this situation, troponin must be capable of positioning tropomyosin in the active M state without the need for rigor myosin binding.

  16. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of removing methyliodide 131 gas from the effluent of a reactor, comprises passing the effluent gas through a charcoal sorbent formed by first contacting charcoal with a liquid containing a hypoiodite obtained when an aqueous mixture of a first component comprising a salt of an iodine oxyacid selected from periodate, iodate and hypoiodite and a second component selected from iodine and/or an iodide salt is adjusted to a pH of about 10 by the addition of an inorganic base, and then contacting the resulting impregnated charcoal with a tertiary amine. (author)

  17. Effects of insulin-free plasma on the charcoal-separation method for radioimmunoassay of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frayn, K N [Medical Research Council, Carshalton (UK). Toxicology Unit

    1976-03-01

    Radioimmunoassay of insulin in rat plasma using a popular method involving charcoal-separation of free and antibody-bound insulin was found to be unsatisfactory despite inclusion in standard tubes of insulin-free plasma prepared in either of two ways. Insulin-free plasma and untreated plasma had different effects on adsorption of free insulin to the charcoal. It was concluded that separation with charcoal is very sensitive to any prior treatment of the plasma. Particular care must be taken to ensure that hormone-free plasma is identical in all other respects to untreated plasma.

  18. Nexusing Charcoal in South Mozambique: A Proposal To Integrate the Nexus Charcoal-Food-Water Analysis With a Participatory Analytical and Systemic Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Martins

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nexus analysis identifies and explores the synergies and trade-offs between energy, food and water systems, considered as interdependent systems interacting with contextual drivers (e.g., climate change, poverty. The nexus is, thus, a valuable analytical and policy design supporting tool to address the widely discussed links between bioenergy, food and water. In fact, the Nexus provides a more integrative and broad approach in relation to the single isolated system approach that characterizes many bioenergy analysis and policies of the last decades. In particular, for the South of Mozambique, charcoal production, food insecurity and water scarcity have been related in separated studies and, thus, it would be expected that Nexus analysis has the potential to provide the basis for integrated policies and strategies focused on charcoal as a development factor. However, to date there is no Nexus analysis focused on charcoal in Mozambique, neither is there an assessment of the comprehensiveness and relevance of Nexus analysis when applied to charcoal energy systems. To address these gaps, this work applies the Nexus to the charcoal-food-water system in Mozambique, integrating national, regional and international studies analysing the isolated, or pairs of, systems. This integration results in a novel Nexus analysis graphic for charcoal-food-water relationship. Then, to access the comprehensiveness and depth of analysis, this Nexus analysis is critically compared with the 2MBio-A, a systems analytical and design framework based on a design tool specifically developed for Bioenergy (the 2MBio. The results reveal that Nexus analysis is “blind” to specific fundamental social, ecological and socio-historical dynamics of charcoal energy systems. The critical comparison also suggests the need to integrate the high level systems analysis of Nexus with non-deterministic, non-prescriptive participatory analysis tools, like the 2MBio-A, as a means to

  19. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ-dependent activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Fukuda, Masaya; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Dong, Yi-Fei; Ogawa, Hisao; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPARγ agonist. → The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NFκB activation and TNF α. → PPARγ activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPARγ downregulation in diabetic mice. → We provided the first evidence indicating that PPARγ activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPARγ agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPARγ activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist), and losartan with no PPARγ activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and tumor necrosis factor α. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPARγ activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of vascular PPARγ in db/db mice and this effect of telmisartan was cancelled by the coadministration

  20. Telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications in a mouse model of obesity and type 2 diabetes, partially through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-{gamma}-dependent activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Kensuke; Nakamura, Taishi; Kataoka, Keiichiro [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Yasuda, Osamu [Department of Cardiovascular Clinical and Translational Research, Kumamoto University Hospital, Kumamoto (Japan); Fukuda, Masaya; Tokutomi, Yoshiko; Dong, Yi-Fei [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Ogawa, Hisao [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei, E-mail: kimmitsu@gpo.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. {yields} The protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular injury were associated with attenuation of vascular NF{kappa}B activation and TNF {alpha}. {yields} PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan was involved in the normalization of vascular PPAR{gamma} downregulation in diabetic mice. {yields} We provided the first evidence indicating that PPAR{gamma} activity of telmisartan contributed to the protective effects of telmisartan against diabetic vascular complication. -- Abstract: Experimental and clinical data support the notion that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) activation is associated with anti-atherosclerosis as well as anti-diabetic effect. Telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), acts as a partial PPAR{gamma} agonist. We hypothesized that telmisartan protects against diabetic vascular complications, through PPAR{gamma} activation. We compared the effects of telmisartan, telmisartan combined with GW9662 (a PPAR{gamma} antagonist), and losartan with no PPAR{gamma} activity on vascular injury in obese type 2 diabetic db/db mice. Compared to losartan, telmisartan significantly ameliorated vascular endothelial dysfunction, downregulation of phospho-eNOS, and coronary arterial remodeling in db/db mice. More vascular protective effects of telmisartan than losartan were associated with greater anti-inflammatory effects of telmisartan, as shown by attenuation of vascular nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B) activation and tumor necrosis factor {alpha}. Coadministration of GW9662 with telmisartan abolished the above mentioned greater protective effects of telmisartan against vascular injury than losartan in db/db mice. Thus, PPAR{gamma} activity appears to be involved in the vascular protective effects of telmisartan in db/db mice. Moreover, telmisartan, but not losartan, prevented the downregulation of

  1. The Utilization of Bottom Ash Coal for Briquette Products by Adding Teak Leaves Charcoal, Coconut Shell Charcoal, and Rice Husk Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafrudin Syafrudin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of the availability of energy sources especially fuel oil has become a serious threat for the society. The use of coal for energy source as the replacement of fuel oil, in one hand, is very profitable, but on the other hand, will cause problem which is the coal ash residue. This coal ash is a by-product of coal combustion. This coal ash contains bottom ash. Through this observation, the bottom ash can be processed to be charcoal if added by teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. Also, this observation needs to add binder materials for further processing in order to form briquette. It can be used as alternative fuel, the utilization of bottom ash and biomass will give positive impact to the environment. This observation was conducted by using compositions such as bottom ash, teak leaves, coconut shell, and rice husk. The treatment was using comparison 100%:0% ; 80%:20% ; 60%:40% ; 50%:50% ; 40%:60% ; 20%:80% ; 0%:100%. The result that the best briquette was on the composition of 20% bottom ash : 80% coconut shell. The characteristic values from that composition were moisture content of 3.45%, ash content of 17,32%, calorific value of 7.945,72 Cal/gr, compressive strength of 2,18 kg/cm2, level of CO of 105 mg/m3, and heavy metals Cu of 29,83 µg/g and  Zn 32,99 µg/g. The characteristic value from each briquette composition treatment showed that the increasing usage proportion of biomass as added material for briquette was able to increase its moisture content and calorific value. Besides, it is also able to decrease its ash content and compressive strength

  2. Effects of Chilling and Partial Freezing on Rigor Mortis Changes of Bighead Carp (Aristichthys nobilis) Fillets: Cathepsin Activity, Protein Degradation and Microstructure of Myofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Han; Liu, Xiaochang; Zhang, Yuemei; Wang, Hang; Luo, Yongkang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of chilling and partial freezing on rigor mortis changes in bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis), pH, cathepsin B, cathepsin B+L activities, SDS-PAGE of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins, texture, and changes in microstructure of fillets at 4 °C and -3 °C were determined at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after slaughter. The results indicated that pH of fillets (6.50 to 6.80) was appropriate for cathepsin function during the rigor mortis. For fillets that were chilled and partially frozen, the cathepsin activity in lysosome increased consistently during the first 12 h, followed by a decrease from the 12 to 24 h, which paralleled an increase in activity in heavy mitochondria, myofibrils and sarcoplasm. There was no significant difference in cathepsin activity in lysosomes between fillets at 4 °C and -3 °C (P > 0.05). Partially frozen fillets had greater cathepsin activity in heavy mitochondria than chilled samples from the 48 to 72 h. In addition, partially frozen fillets showed higher cathepsin activity in sarcoplasm and lower cathepsin activity in myofibrils compared with chilled fillets. Correspondingly, we observed degradation of α-actinin (105 kDa) by cathepsin L in chilled fillets and degradation of creatine kinase (41 kDa) by cathepsin B in partially frozen fillets during the rigor mortis. The decline of hardness for both fillets might be attributed to the accumulation of cathepsin in myofibrils from the 8 to 24 h. The lower cathepsin activity in myofibrils for fillets that were partially frozen might induce a more intact cytoskeletal structure than fillets that were chilled. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Investigations of 131I concentration in indoor air using charcoal filters and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, H.W.; Pittauerova, D.; Foschepoth, S.; Poppe, B.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radiation protection standards require the recording of staff radiation dose in nuclear medicine thyroid radiotherapy. A commonly used method measures the 131 I thyroid activity externally with a gamma detector, followed by calculation of the committed equivalent thyroid dose. The main disadvantages are the low sensitivity and the uncertainty of the time of uptake, which can only be compensated by long measurement times and short measurement intervals. The measurements have to be applied to all staff members. An alternative can be provided by the measurement of the cumulated concentration of 131 I in indoor air using charcoal filters. The filters are placed in patient rooms at representative locations, exposed for several days and then investigated for absorbed 131 I activity. Both above mentioned disadvantages can be overcome: the measurement records the cumulated concentration history of the room and the obtained value can be used for dose calculation for all staff members knowing their working history. Standard charcoal filters (PicoRad vials, Accustar Labs, normally used for indoor radon measurements) were placed into patient rooms in a thyroid therapy department and exposed to room air for 72 hours. The vials were then subjected to high resolution low level gamma spectroscopy using a high purity germanium (hpGe) detector (50% relative efficiency, 10 cm lead shielding). Absolute activity determination was based on the net count rate in the 364 keV gamma peak and absolute counting efficiency obtained mathematically from detector and vial geometry using the commercial Labsocs (Canberra Inc.) program. Using the mean air activity/vial activity calibration factor obtained in a similar study pioneering this application, but using liquid scintillation spectroscopy as detection method (F. Jimenez et al, 2nd. European IRPA Congress, Paris 2006), mean air concentrations between 0.09 and 2.01 Bq/m 3 were found. The data correlated well with patient administered

  4. Achieving mainstream nitrogen removal through simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process in an integrated fixed film activated sludge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Xiaochen; Zhang, Chaolei; Wang, Dong; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-07-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is becoming a critical technology for energy neutral in mainstream wastewater treatment. However, the presence of chemical oxygen demanding in influent would result in a poor nitrogen removal efficiency during the deammonification process. In this study, the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification process (SNAD) for mainstream nitrogen removal was investigated in an integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor. SNAD-IFAS process achieved a total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency of 72 ± 2% and an average COD removal efficiency was 88%. The optimum COD/N ratio for mainstream wastewater treatment was 1.2 ± 0.2. Illumina sequencing analysis and activity tests showed that anammox and denitrifying bacteria were the dominant nitrogen removal microorganism in the biofilm and the high COD/N ratios (≥2.0) leaded to the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria (Hydrogenophaga) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrospira) in the suspended sludge. Network analysis confirmed that anammox bacteria (Candidatus Kuenenia) could survive in organic matter environment due to that anammox bacteria displayed significant co-occurrence through positive correlations with some heterotrophic bacteria (Limnobacter) which could protect anammox bacteria from hostile environments. Overall, the results of this study provided more comprehensive information regarding the community composition and assemblies in SNAD-IFAS process for mainstream nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamine responses following a single partial-body cryostimulation and a whole-body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a single whole-body cryostimulation (WBC and a partial-body cryostimulation (PBC (i.e., not exposing the head to cold on indices of parasympathetic activity and blood catecholamines. Two groups of 15 participants were assigned either to a 3-min WBC or PBC session, while 10 participants constituted a control group (CON not receiving any cryostimulation. Changes in thermal, physiological and subjective variables were recorded before and during the 20-min after each cryostimulation. According to a qualitative statistical analysis, an almost certain decrease in skin temperature was reported for all body regions immediately after the WBC (mean decrease±90% CL, -13.7±0.7°C and PBC (-8.3±0.3°C, which persisted up to 20-min after the session. The tympanic temperature almost certainly decreased only after the WBC session (-0.32±0.04°C. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were very likely increased after the WBC session, whereas these changes were trivial in the other groups. In addition, heart rate almost certainly decreased after PBC (-10.9% and WBC (-15.2% sessions, in a likely greater proportion for WBC compared to PBC. Resting vagal-related heart rate variability indices (the root-mean square difference of successive normal R-R intervals, RMSSD, and high frequency band, HF were very likely increased after PBC (RMSSD: +54.4%, HF: +138% and WBC (RMSSD: +85.2%, HF: +632% sessions without any marked difference between groups. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations were likely to very likely increased after PBC (+57.4% and WBC (+76.2%, respectively. Finally, cold and comfort sensations were almost certainly altered after WBC and PBC, sensation of discomfort being likely more pronounced after WBC than PBC. Both acute cryostimulation techniques effectively stimulated the autonomic nervous system (ANS, with a predominance of parasympathetic tone activation. The results of this study also suggest

  6. Desulphurization characteristics of bamboo charcoal from sulfur solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengbo Ge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur powder and sulfur dioxide (SO2 often floated in air, produced acid rain and algal blooms, and could cause diseases. Bamboo charcoal could have adsorption and filtration properties. In order to figure out the optimal adsorption condition and the intrinsic change of the bamboo charcoal, five chemicals were adsorbed by bamboo charcoal and were analyzed by FT-IR. Fe2(SO43’s, Na2SO4’s, Na2S2O8’s, S’s, and Na2SO3’s optimal adsorption condition was the concentration of 19 g/1000 g and stir time of 20 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, 7 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 11 g/1000 g and stir time of 120 min, 21 g/1000 g and stir time of 60 min, respectively. FT-IR spectra showed that for FT-IR spectra of Fe2(SO43, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 and 2925 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 60 min and the concentration was 7 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO4, the transmissivity of the peaks at 1630 cm−1, 1060 cm−1 and 660 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 13 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2S2O8, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 19 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of S, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1, 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 20 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g, 17 g/1000 g and 21 g/1000 g. For FT-IR spectra of Na2SO3, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3435 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 5 g/1000 g, the transmissivity of the peaks at 2925 cm−1, 1630 cm−1 and 1060 cm−1 achieved the maximum for 120 min and the concentration was 11 g/1000 g. In these states, the

  7. Development of a Metal Kiln for the Production of Charcoal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... The study established that the design upon modification would be environmentally safe, viable and an economic alternative for ... Keywords: Production, Smoking, Charcoal, Kiln, Design ...

  8. Determination of the suitability of certain deciduous species for production of furfural and charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, P.

    1979-01-01

    Determination of the suitability of chips of certain deciduous species for production of furfural and charcoal is discussed. The results of determination of suitability of unpeeled chips from cut branches (beech, birch, alder) and oak chips from wastes of production of furfural and also the suitability of cellolignin obtained from these chips for the production of charcoal are cited. An industrial unit of Swedish make equipped with a continuous hydrolyzer was used in hydrolysis tests of the deciduous chips. Unstripped birch, beech, and alder chips and oak chips from the wastes of wood processing contained 17-20 percent pentozanes and are suitable for industrial production of furfural. The content of substances soluble in an alcohol-benzene mixture in cellolignin from this feedstock was 21.1-30.5 percent. The amount of cellolignin obtained from chips of these species satisfied the demands of charcoal production. The charcoal yield was approximately 20 percent relative to the dry mass of carbonized cellolignin.

  9. Modeling the Effects of Future Growing Demand for Charcoal in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Global demand for charcoal is increasing mainly due to urban population in developing countries. More than half the global population now lives in cities, and urban-dwellers are restricted to charcoal use because of easiness of production, access, transport, and tradition. Increasing demand for charcoal, however, may lead to increasing impacts on forests, food, and water resources, and may even create additional pressures on the climate system. Here we assess how different charcoal scenarios based on the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP relate to potential biomass supply. For this, we use the energy model TIMER to project the demand for fuelwood and charcoal for different socio-economic pathways for urban and rural populations, globally, and for four tropical regions (Central America, South America, Africa and Indonesia. Second, we assess whether the biomass demands for each scenario can be met with current and projected forest biomass estimated with remote sensing and modeled Net Primary Productivity (NPP using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-GUESS. Currently one third of residential energy use is based on traditional bioenergy, including charcoal. Globally, biomass needs by urban households by 2100 under the most sustainable scenario, SSP1, are of 14.4 mi ton biomass for charcoal plus 17.1 mi ton biomass for fuelwood (31.5 mi ton biomass in total. Under SSP3, the least sustainable scenario, we project a need of 205 mi tons biomass for charcoal plus 243.8 mi ton biomass for fuelwood by 2100 (total of 450 mi ton biomass. Africa and South America contribute the most for this biomass demand, however, all areas are able to meet the demand. We find that the future of the charcoal sector is not dire. Charcoal represents a small fraction of the energy requirements, but its biomass demands are disproportionate and in some regions require a large fraction of forest. This could be because of large growing populations moving to urban areas

  10. Salts of the iodine oxyacids in the impregnation of adsorbent charcoal for trapping radioactive methyliodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, V.R.; Blachly, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    Radioactive iodine and radioactive methyliodide can be more than 99.7 percent removed from the air stream of a nuclear reactor by passing the air stream through a 2-inch thick filter which is made up of impregnated charcoal prepared by contacting the charcoal with a solution containing KOH, iodine or an iodide, and an oxyacid, followed by contacting with a solution containing a tertiary amine. 3 claims

  11. Physico-chemical characteristics and market potential of sawdust charcoal briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akowuah, Joseph O.; Kemausuor, Francis [Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering; Mitchual, Stephen J. [Univ. of Education, Winneba, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Design and Technology Education

    2012-11-01

    In the absence of the widespread distribution of modern cooking fuels in developing countries, efforts are being made to utilise biomass residues which abound in most of these countries. This is intended to replace portions of firewood and charcoal and thereby reduce the cutting down of forests for fuel purposes. Briquettes from agro-residues have therefore been promoted as a better replacement to firewood and charcoals for heating, cooking and other industrial applications in both urban and rural communities. This study sought to assess the physico-chemical properties of charcoal briquettes produced in Ghana and also establish demand for and willingness of potential users to substitute charcoal and firewood with a charcoal briquette. A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the briquettes. This was done prior to the distribution of the briquette to potential users to collaborate their views or otherwise on the handling and burning characteristics of the charcoal briquette. A survey was undertaken a week later using questionnaires to access the willingness of the potential users to use the briquettes. Sixty respondents were purposively selected from households and the hospitality industry for the survey. Results of the physico-chemical assessment of the briquettes were as follows: length (75 to 120 mm), moisture content (5.7% dry basis), density (1.1 g/cm{sup 3}), ash content (2.6%), fixed carbon (20.7%), volatile matter (71%) and calorific value (4,820 kcal/kg). Responses from the survey indicated that the briquette is easy to ignite, has a long burning time and has good heat output. Respondents also observed that the briquettes did not give off sparks and had less smoke and ash content as compared to the regular charcoal they often used. Finally, 93% of the respondents indicated their willingness to use the briquettes if the price was comparable to charcoal. (orig.)

  12. Evaluation of usher wood and karkadeh stem for charcoal in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan)); Vergnet, L. (CTFT, 94 - Nogent s/Marne (France). Energie Div.)

    1993-01-01

    Two unusual biomass materials Hibiscus sabdariffa var. sabdariffa (karkadeh) stem and Calotropis procera (usher) wood were investigated in the laboratory as potential raw materials for charcoal making in Sudan. The materials were characterised physically and chemically and despite the low density and high bark-to-wood ratio by volume, good yields and quality of charcoal were predicted. The carbonization trials with a laboratory retort at conditions close to those of field metal kiln gave very good charcoal yields (35% for karkadeh and 38% for usher) with high energy transformation (58% and 62%, respectively). The karkadeh charcoal, except for a somewhat high ash content, was good for domestic uses (79% fixed carbon and 30.3 MJ kg[sup -1] heat value). The usher charcoal was better with respect to fixed carbon (86.5%) and gross heat value (32.4 MJ kg[sup -1]). Both charcoals were of low density (140-160 kg m[sup -3]) and further assessment of their economic suitability should be carried out under field conditions. The carbonization by-products were also collected and characterized by means of gas chromatography. (author)

  13. The pH-dependent adsorption of tributyltin to charcoals and soot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Liping; Borggaard, Ole K.; Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E.; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    Widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) poses a serious environmental problem. Adsorption by black carbon (BC) may strongly affect its behavior. The adsorption of TBT to well characterized soot and two charcoals with specific surface area in the range of 62-111 m 2 g -1 have been investigated with main focus on pH effects. The charcoals but not soot possess acidic functional groups. TBT adsorption reaches maximum at pH 6-7 for charcoals, and at pH > 6 for soot. Soot has between 1.5 and 15 times higher adsorption density (0.09-1.77 μmol m -2 ) than charcoals, but charcoals show up to 17 times higher sorption affinities than soot. TBT adsorption is successfully described by a new pH-dependent dual Langmuir model considering electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, and pH effects on TBT speciation and BC surface charge. It is inferred that strong sorption of the TBTOH species to BC may affect TBT toxicity. - Tributyltin adsorption to black carbon increases at increasing pH but charcoal exhibits electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, whereas soot only adsorbs hydrophobically.

  14. The pH-dependent adsorption of tributyltin to charcoals and soot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Liping, E-mail: fang@life.ku.d [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Borggaard, Ole K.; Marcussen, Helle; Holm, Peter E.; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    Widespread use of tributyltin (TBT) poses a serious environmental problem. Adsorption by black carbon (BC) may strongly affect its behavior. The adsorption of TBT to well characterized soot and two charcoals with specific surface area in the range of 62-111 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} have been investigated with main focus on pH effects. The charcoals but not soot possess acidic functional groups. TBT adsorption reaches maximum at pH 6-7 for charcoals, and at pH > 6 for soot. Soot has between 1.5 and 15 times higher adsorption density (0.09-1.77 {mu}mol m{sup -2}) than charcoals, but charcoals show up to 17 times higher sorption affinities than soot. TBT adsorption is successfully described by a new pH-dependent dual Langmuir model considering electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, and pH effects on TBT speciation and BC surface charge. It is inferred that strong sorption of the TBTOH species to BC may affect TBT toxicity. - Tributyltin adsorption to black carbon increases at increasing pH but charcoal exhibits electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption, whereas soot only adsorbs hydrophobically.

  15. Analysis of the thermal profiles and the charcoal gravimetric yield in three variations of rectangular brick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br

    2010-07-01

    Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)

  16. Carbon sequestration potential and physicochemical properties differ between wildfire charcoals and slow-pyrolysis biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Merino, Agustin; Bucheli, Thomas D; Bryant, Rob; Ascough, Philippa; Gao, Xiaodong; Masiello, Caroline A

    2017-09-11

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC), produced naturally (wildfire charcoal) and anthropogenically (biochar), is extensively studied due to its importance in several disciplines, including global climate dynamics, agronomy and paleosciences. Charcoal and biochar are commonly used as analogues for each other to infer respective carbon sequestration potentials, production conditions, and environmental roles and fates. The direct comparability of corresponding natural and anthropogenic PyC, however, has never been tested. Here we compared key physicochemical properties (elemental composition, δ 13 C and PAHs signatures, chemical recalcitrance, density and porosity) and carbon sequestration potentials of PyC materials formed from two identical feedstocks (pine forest floor and wood) under wildfire charring- and slow-pyrolysis conditions. Wildfire charcoals were formed under higher maximum temperatures and oxygen availabilities, but much shorter heating durations than slow-pyrolysis biochars, resulting in differing physicochemical properties. These differences are particularly relevant regarding their respective roles as carbon sinks, as even the wildfire charcoals formed at the highest temperatures had lower carbon sequestration potentials than most slow-pyrolysis biochars. Our results challenge the common notion that natural charcoal and biochar are well suited as proxies for each other, and suggest that biochar's environmental residence time may be underestimated when based on natural charcoal as a proxy, and vice versa.

  17. Socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Olarinde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many households in developing countries experience low energy consumption and this make them depend upon wood fuels for their energy. This study examined socio-economic impacts of charcoal production in Oke-Ogun, Oyo State, Nigeria. Two Local Government Areas were selected based on the accessibility and the availability of charcoal farmers among ten Local Government Areas. Results show that 74% of the respondents were male while 26% were female that are into production of charcoal in the study area. 37.5% of the age range (41–50 of respondent produces more charcoal than other age range. The respondent did not go beyond primary school educationally and they are all married. However, respondents with over 11–20 years of experience in the production of charcoal have higher percentage of frequency. Some of the problem faced by the producers of charcoal in Oke Ogun area are scarcity of trees, wildfire, government disturbance and transportation. Trees commonly used for production are from inherited farms and most of the trees used are Butyrosopermum paradoxium, Dialium guineense, Terminalia glaucencens, Khaya ivorensis. Production is once in a month and later exported. Energy provision is a basic human need and consumption is closely related to the level of a country’s development.

  18. 3D-nuclear heat generation in PCC-charcoal filter in TAPP-3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Manish; Pradhan, A.S.; Kumar, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the calculations of 3D nuclear heat generation profile in the charcoal filter and subsequently the commencement time of Primary Containment Cleanup (PCC) system of 540MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR). Fuel failure is predicted due to overheating of the fuel under loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) without Emergency Core Cooling System (LOCA without ECCS). Subsequently fission product gasses along with water vapours are released to Reactor Building (RB) atmosphere. Plate-out and water trapping mechanism stabilizes the concentration of significant fission products i.e. radioiodines in about 4 hours before being circulated through charcoal filters of Containment Cleanup system. After cleaning up the RB atmosphere, it is discharged to outside atmosphere through stack. The isotopes of radioiodine emit beta and gamma radiations. Gamma radiations are partly stopped within the charcoal and heat is generated. The part of gamma radiations escaping the bed produce heat in the adjacent beds also. PCC system can be operated, after 4 hours of LOCA, based on radioiodine concentration in RB atmosphere. During iodine removal, the iodine concentration in the charcoal filter goes through a peak value. Maximum heat is generated in the filter if PCC fans stops eventually when iodine concentration in the filter is maximum. Analysis done by TRAFIC code indicates that the system can be commenced after 7 hrs of LOCA so that desorption temperature of charcoal is not reached. Accuracy in estimating heat generation rates in charcoal helps in deciding commencement of the system after LOCA

  19. Prothrombin Time, Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time, Fibrinogen, dan D-dimer Sebagai Prediktor Decompensated Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Sisseminated pada Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a systemic response to infection especially in pneumonia case. Sepsis can cause complications such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC which can be divided into compensated and decompensated DIC. The purpose of this study was to assess whether the value of prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels can be used as predictors of decompensated DIC in sepsis patients. This study was conducted at the Laboratory of Clinical Pathology Rumah Sakit Hasan Sadikin Bandung since September 2008 to June 2010. Subjects were patients with sepsis caused by pneumonia. PT and aPTT values, fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels was recorded from all sepsis patients then patients were observed until diagnosed decompensated or non-decompensated DIC, then the value of PT, aPTT, fibrinogen and D-dimer levels in the group of decompensated DIC and non-decompensated DIC were analysed. This study used cohort design. Subjects were 39 sepsis patients (58% with outcome decompensated DIC and 28 sepsis patients (42% with outcome non-decompensated DIC. From the hemostasis parameter test out, it was found that PT, aPTT, and fibrinogen were the predictor of decompensated DIC in patients with sepsis with relative risk 240.500, 7.157, and 6.421; respectively. Conclusions, prothrombin time, aPTT, fibrinogen are the test to know coagulation activation. Hemostasis parameter to predict decompensated DIC in sepsis patients are the shorten PT, aPTT, and the increased fibrinogen

  20. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-09-01

    Hamstring graft has substantial differences with BPTB graft regarding initial mechanical strength, healing sequence, and vascularization, which may imply that a different approach during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities. The hypothesis was that there would be a decrease in tibial rotation in the ACL-reconstructed braced knee as compared to the unbraced knee. Twenty male patients having undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus/gracilis autograft were assessed. Kinematic data were collected with an eight-camera optoelectronic system during two stressful tasks: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting; and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. In each patient, three different experimental conditions were evaluated: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition); (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition); (C) without brace (unbraced condition). The intact knee without brace served as a control. Tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared to all three conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P≤0.01 for both tasks). Presence of a brace or sleeve resulted in lower tibial rotation than in the unbraced condition (p=0.003 for descending/pivot and P=0.0004 for landing/pivot). The braced condition resulted in lower rotation than the sleeved condition for descending/pivoting (P=0.031) while no differences were found for landing/pivoting (P=0.230). Knee bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation during pivoting under high loading activities in ACL-reconstructed knees with a hamstring graft. This partial restoration of normal kinematics may have a potential beneficial effect in patients recovering from ACL reconstruction with a hamstring autograft. Level III, case-control therapeutic study. Copyright

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation and adsorption of methylene blue via TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals supported on graphene-like bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fangjun; Liu, Wei, E-mail: wlscau@163.com; Qiu, Jielong; Li, Jinzhen; Zhou, Wuyi; Fang, Yueping; Zhang, Shuting, E-mail: zhangshuting@gmail.com; Li, Xin, E-mail: Xinliscau@yahoo.com

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: In this study, a novel efficient photocatalytic nanomaterial, TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals supported on graphene-like bamboo charcoal, has been successfully synthesized via a facile multi-step process. The structural and optical properties of the as-prepared samples were characterized by different techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectra (PL), Raman spectra and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities under sunlight were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results indicated that the ternary hybrid photocatalysts exhibited much higher photocatalytic activities toward the degradation of MB than the pure TiO{sub 2} under UV light irradiation. Moreover, the optimum weight content of graphene-like bamboo charcoal in composite photocatalysts was 6 wt% for achieving the maximum photocatalytic degradation rate. The apparent rate constant of the best sample (0.0509 min{sup −1}) was about 3 times greater than that of the commercial P25 (0.0170 min{sup −1}). The adsorption and degradation kinetics of MB can be described by the pseudo-first-order model and apparent first-order kinetics model, respectively. The highly enhanced photocatalytic performance was attributed to the synergetic effect of graphene-like carbon and bamboo charcoal, which lead to the promoted charge separation and reduction reaction of oxygen, and enhanced adsorption capacities of MB, respectively. The composite photocatalysts displayed a high photochemical stability under repeated irradiation. This work may provide new insights and understanding on the graphene-like bamboo charcoal as an excellent support for photocatalyst nanoparticles to enhance their visible-light photocatalytic activity.

  2. Development and Performance Evaluation of Charcoal-Fired Cooking Stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndirika, V. I. O.

    2002-01-01

    Three different sizes of cooking stoves which utilizes charcoal as source of fuel with fuel capacities 15.7 kg, 10.6 kg and 3.5 kg for the large, medium and small stoves respectively were designed and fabricated for domestic cooking of food by the rural communities. The stoves were evaluated for performance in terms of fuel efficiency, fuel consumption rate, cooking efficiency and boiling time during testing operation with water. From the result it was revealed that the rate of fuel consumption for the large, medium and small cooking stove were 7.2 kg/h, 5.9 kg/h and 2.3 kg/h respectively, and their fuel efficiencies were 88%, 86% and 82% respectively. Also the cooking efficiencies of these stoves were 94%, 83% and 72% respectively. A comparative evaluation of the cooking efficiencies, fuel efficiencies, fuel consumption rate and cooking time between the three types of stoves and the traditional three stone open fire system, reveals that the cooking efficiencies and fuel efficiencies obtained were greater than the values obtained with the traditional three stone open fire system. But the values of the fuel consumption rate and boiling time obtained for the three stoves were lower than the values obtained with the traditional system. And the difference between their means was statistically significant at 5 % level of significance

  3. Methane partial oxidation over a LaCr0.85Ru0.15O3 catalyst : Characterization, activity tests and kinetic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchiori, T.; Di Felice, L.; Mota, N.; Navarro, R.M.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Gallucci, F.

    2014-01-01

    A new LaCr0.85Ru0.15O3 perovskite-type catalyst for CH4 partial oxidation with a high activity and selectivity for syngas with good thermal stability and resistance against coking has been developed. In this paper, the catalyst preparation method, catalyst characterization, results of catalytic

  4. Familial partial lipodystrophy phenotype resulting from a single-base mutation in deoxyribonucleic acid-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monajemi, Houshang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Gang; Jeninga, Ellen H.; Cao, Henian; Maas, Mario; Brouwer, C. B.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Stroes, Erik; Hegele, Robert A.; Leff, Todd

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) results from coding sequence mutations either in LMNA, encoding nuclear lamin A/C, or in PPARG, encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). The LMNA form is called FPLD2 (MIM 151660) and the PPARG form is called FPLD3 (MIM

  5. Influence of beer marinades on the reduction of carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in charcoal-grilled pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Olga; Moreira, Patrícia S; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2015-01-01

    The effect of beer marinades on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAs) was examined in charcoal-grilled pork. Pilsner, non-alcoholic pilsner and black beers (coded respectively as PB, P0B and BB) were assayed and unmarinated samples cooked under similar conditions provided reference HAs levels. Two thermic (PhIP and 4,8-DiMeIQx) and three pyrolytic HAs (Trp-P-1, AαC, MeAαC) were quantified in unmarinated meat samples. Marinating meat in beer resulted in a significant decrease of PhIP, Trp-P-1 and AαC (p beers reduced total HA formation in charcoal-grilled pork, black beer being the most efficient with a level of 90% inhibition. A strong positive correlation was observed between the inhibitory effect of beer on total HA formation and their antioxidant activity. Beer marinades mitigate the impact of consumption of well-done grilled pork meat reducing the formation of cooking carcinogens.

  6. Indium-111-labeled platelets: effect of heparin on uptake by venous thrombi and relationship to the activated partial thromboplastin time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Moser, K.M.; Moser, K.S.; Konopka, R.; Hartman, M.T.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of heparin thepapy in deep vein thrombosis is to prevent thrombus extension. The relationship between thrombus extension and the results of coagulation tests used to monitor heparin thepapy is unclear. To expose this relationship, we studied the effect of several heparin regimens on the accretion of indium-111-labeled platelets on fresh venous thrombi, as detected by gamma imaging, and monitored the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Six dogs were treated with a 300-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 90-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, a dose of heparin sufficient to increase the APTT to levels greater than eight times baseline (APTT ratio); platelet accretion (thrombus imaging) occurred only after the heparin effect was reversed with protamine sulfate. Nineteen dogs were treated with a 150-U/kg bolus of heparin followed by a 4-hour, 45-U/kg/hour heparin infusion; a thrombus was demonstrated only after protamine injection in 12 (mean APTT ratio 1.3 +/- 0.19) and before protamine injection in seven. In thirteen of these 19 dogs, 30 minutes separated the platelet injection from heparin therapy, while in six this duration was less than 30 minutes. In four of these six dogs, thrombi were demonstrated before protamine therapy and at APTT ratios greater than 3.0. Finally, 10 dogs were treated with a 100-U/kg bolus followed by a 3-hour, 50-U/kg/hour heparin infusion, after which the APTT was allowed to return to baseline values spontaneously. In all 10 dogs, a thrombus was demonstrated only after cessation of the heparin infusion, and at a mean APTT ratio of 1.4 +/- 0.15 times baseline. These results suggest that, except with very early platelet injection, platelet accretion by thrombi is consistently inhibited by heparin at APTT ratios greater than 2.5

  7. Inhalation Exposure to PM-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Released from Barbecue Grills Powered by Gas, Lump Charcoal, and Charcoal Briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badyda, Artur J; Widziewicz, Kamila; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Majewski, Grzegorz; Jureczko, Izabela

    2018-01-01

    The present study seeks to define the possible cancer risk arising from the inhalation exposure to particle (PM)-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in barbecue emission gases and to compare the risk depending on the type of fuel used for grill powering. Three types of fuel were compared: liquid propane gas, lump charcoal, and charcoal briquettes. PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-100 were collected during grilling. Subsequently, 16 PAHs congeners were extracted from the PM samples and measured quantitatively using gas chromatography. The content of PM-bound PAHs was used to calculate PAHs deposition in the respiratory tract using the multiple path particle dosimetry model. Finally, a probabilistic risk model was developed to assess the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) faced by people exposed to PAHs. We found a distinctly greater PAHs formation in case of grills powered by charcoal briquettes. The summary concentration of PAHs (Σ16PAH) ranged from inhale barbecue particles for 5 h a day, 40 days a year exceeds the acceptable level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. We conclude that the type of heat source used for grilling influences the PM-bound PAHs formation. The greatest concentration of PAHs is generated when grilling over charcoal briquettes. Loading grills with food generates conspicuously more PAHs emissions. Traditional grilling poses cancer risk much above the acceptable limit, as opposed to much less risk involving gas powered grills.

  8. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  9. Manufacture of mold of polymeric composite water pipe reinforced charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar; Misdawati; Idris, M.; Nasution, F. K.; Harahap, U. N.; Simanjuntak, R. K.; Jufrizal; Pranoto, S.

    2018-03-01

    In general, household wastewater pipelines currently use thermoplastic pipes of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). This material is known to be not high heat resistant, contains hazardous chemicals (toxins), relatively inhospitable, and relatively more expensive. Therefore, researchers make innovations utilizing natural materials in the form of wood charcoal as the basic material of making the water pipe. Making this pipe requires a simple mold design that can be worked in the scale of household and intermediate industries. This research aims to produce water pipe mold with simple design, easy to do, and making time relatively short. Some considerations for molding materials are weight of mold, ease of raw material, strong, sturdy, and able to cast. Pipe molds are grouped into 4 (four) main parts, including: outer diameter pipe molding, pipe inside diameter, pipe holder, and pipe alignment control. Some materials have been tested as raw materials for outer diameter of pipes, such as wood, iron / steel, cement, and thermoset. The best results are obtained on thermoset material, where the process of disassembling is easier and the resulting mold weight is relatively lighter. For the inside diameter of the pipe is used stainless steel, because in addition to be resistant to chemical processes that occur, in this part of the mold must hold the press load due to shrinkage of raw materials of the pipe during the process of hardening (polymerization). Therefore, it needs high pressure resistant material and does not blend with the raw material of the pipe. The base of the mold is made of stainless steel material because it must be resistant to corrosion due to chemical processes. As for the adjustment of the pipe is made of ST 37 carbon steel, because its function is only as a regulator of the alignment of the pipe structure.

  10. Thoron Mitigation System based on charcoal bed for applications in thorium fuel cycle facilities (part 1): Development of theoretical models for design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, B K; Sudeep Kumara, K; Karunakara, N; Gaware, J J; Sapra, B K; Mayya, Y S

    2017-06-01

    Regulating the environmental discharge of 220 Rn (historically known as thoron) and its decay products from thorium processing facilities is important for protection of environment and general public living in the vicinities. Activated charcoal provides an effective solution to this problem because of its high adsorption capacity to gaseous element like radon. In order to design and develop a charcoal based Thoron Mitigation System, a mathematical model has been developed in the present work for studying the 220 Rn transport and adsorption in a flow through charcoal bed and estimating the 220 Rn mitigation factor (MF) as a function of system and operating parameters. The model accounts for inter- and intra-grain diffusion, advection, radioactive decay and adsorption processes. Also, the effects of large void fluctuation and wall channeling on the mitigation factor have been included through a statistical model. Closed form solution has been provided for the MF in terms of adsorption coefficient, system dimensions, grain size, flow rate and void fluctuation exponent. It is shown that the delay effects due to intra grain diffusion plays a significant role thereby rendering external equilibrium assumptions unsuitable. Also, the application of the statistical model clearly demonstrates the transition from the exponential MF to a power-law form and shows how the occurrence of channels with low probability can lower mitigation factor by several orders of magnitude. As a part of aiding design, the model is further extended to optimise the bed dimensions in respect of pressure drop and MF. The application of the results for the design and development of a practically useful charcoal bed is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes in fire regimes since the Last Glacial Maximum: an assessment based on a global synthesis and analysis of charcoal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.J. [University of Edinburgh, Institute of Geography, School of Geosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Marlon, J.; Ortiz, N.; Bartlein, P.J.; Harrison, S.P.; Mayle, F.E.; Ballouche, A.; Bradshaw, R.H.W.; Carcaillet, C.; Cordova, C.; Mooney, S.; Moreno, P.I.; Prentice, I.C.; Thonicke, K.; Tinner, W.; Whitlock, C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Ali, A.A.; Anderson, R.S.; Beer, R.; Behling, H.; Briles, C.; Brown, K.J.; Brunelle, A.; Bush, M.; Camill, P.; Chu, G.Q.; Clark, J.; Colombaroli, D.; Connor, S.; Daniau, A.L.; Daniels, M.; Dodson, J.; Doughty, E.; Edwards, M.E.; Finsinger, W.; Foster, D.; Frechette, J.; Gaillard, M.J.; Gavin, D.G.; Gobet, E.; Haberle, S.; Hallett, D.J.; Higuera, P.; Hope, G.; Horn, S.; Inoue, J.; Kaltenrieder, P.; Kennedy, L.; Kong, Z.C.; Larsen, C.; Long, C.J.; Lynch, J.; Lynch, E.A.; McGlone, M.; Meeks, S.; Mensing, S.; Meyer, G.; Minckley, T.; Mohr, J.; Nelson, D.M.; New, J.; Newnham, R.; Noti, R.; Oswald, W.; Pierce, J.; Richard, P.J.H.; Rowe, C.; Sanchez Goni, M.F.; Shuman, B.N.; Takahara, H.; Toney, J.; Turney, C.; Urrego-Sanchez, D.H.; Umbanhowar, C.; Vandergoes, M.; Vanniere, B.; Vescovi, E.; Walsh, M.; Wang, X.; Williams, N.; Wilmshurst, J.; Zhang, J.H.

    2008-06-15

    Fire activity has varied globally and continuously since the last glacial maximum (LGM) in response to long-term changes in global climate and shorter-term regional changes in climate, vegetation, and human land use. We have synthesized sedimentary charcoal records of biomass burning since the LGM and present global maps showing changes in fire activity for time slices during the past 21,000 years (as differences in charcoal accumulation values compared to pre-industrial). There is strong broad-scale coherence in fire activity after the LGM, but spatial heterogeneity in the signals increases thereafter. In North America, Europe and southern South America, charcoal records indicate less-than-present fire activity during the deglacial period, from 21,000 to {proportional_to}11,000 cal yr BP. In contrast, the tropical latitudes of South America and Africa show greater-than-present fire activity from {proportional_to}19,000 to {proportional_to}17,000 cal yr BP and most sites from Indochina and Australia show greater-than-present fire activity from 16,000 to {proportional_to}13,000 cal yr BP. Many sites indicate greater-than-present or near-present activity during the Holocene with the exception of eastern North America and eastern Asia from 8,000 to {proportional_to}3,000 cal yr BP, Indonesia and Australia from 11,000 to 4,000 cal yr BP, and southern South America from 6,000 to 3,000 cal yr BP where fire activity was less than present. Regional coherence in the patterns of change in fire activity was evident throughout the post-glacial period. These complex patterns can largely be explained in terms of large-scale climate controls modulated by local changes in vegetation and fuel load. (orig.)

  12. Oxygen partial pressure modulates 67-kDa laminin receptor expression, leading to altered activity of the green tea polyphenol, EGCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Yamashita, Shuya; Kim, Yoon Hee; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Huang, Yuhui; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2012-09-21

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) exhibits anti-tumor activity mediated via the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR). In this study, we found that 67LR protein levels are reduced by exposure to low O(2) levels (5%), without affecting the expression of HIF-1α. We also found that EGCG-induced anti-cancer activity is abrogated under low O(2) levels (5%) in various cancer cells. Notably, treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, prevented down-regulation of 67LR and restored sensitivity to EGCG under 5% O(2). In summary, 67LR expression is highly sensitive to O(2) partial pressure, and the activity of EGCG can be regulated in cancer cells by O(2) partial pressure. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural bamboo charcoal (BC powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10−2 S·cm−1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and mKOH:mPVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g−1.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lidan; Wang, Mengyue; Zhang, Zhen; Qin, Gang; Hu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Qiang

    2018-04-26

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside and on the surface of the membranes, indicating a three-dimension network formed in the polymer framework. The ionic conductivity was measured by the alternating-current (AC) impedance method, and the highest conductivity value of 6.63 × 10 −2 S·cm −1 was obtained with 16 wt % of BC content and m KOH : m PVA = 2:1.5 at 30 °C. The contents of BC and KOH could significantly influence the conductivity. The temperature dependence of the bulk electrical conductivity displayed a combination of Arrhenius nature, and the activation energy for the ion in polymer electrolyte has been calculated. The electrochemical stability window of the electrolyte membrane was over 1.6 V. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the degradation temperatures of PVA-BC-KOH ASPE membranes shifted toward higher with adding BC. A simple nickel-hydrogen battery containing PVA-BC-KOH electrolyte membrane was assembled with a maximum discharge capacity of 193 mAh·g −1 .

  15. Waste water purification using new porous ceramics prepared by recycling waste glass and bamboo charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Tetsuaki; Morimoto, Akane; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kubuki, Shiro

    2017-12-01

    New porous ceramics (PC) prepared by recycling waste glass bottle of soft drinks (80 mass%) and bamboo charcoal (20 mass%) without any binder was applied to the waste water purification under aeration at 25 °C. Artificial waste water (15 L) containing 10 mL of milk was examined by combining 15 mL of activated sludge and 750 g of PC. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed a marked decrease from 178 to 4.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.0 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 7 days, which was equal to the Environmental Standard for the river water (class A) in Japan. Similarly, chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from 158 to 3.6 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 5 days and to 2.2 (±0.1) mg L-1 in 9 days, which was less than the Environmental Standard for the Seawater (class B) in Japan: 3.0 mg L-1. These results prove the high water purification ability of the PC, which will be effectively utilized for the purification of drinking water, fish preserve water, fish farm water, etc.

  16. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  17. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  18. Environmental impact assessment of the charcoal production and utilization system in central Zambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serenje, W.; Chidumayo, E.N.; Chipuwa, J.H.; Egneus, H.; Ellegaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study is the outcome of the Zambia Charcoal Utilization Programme, which is based on cooperation that started in 1989 between the Department of Energy, Ministry of Energy and Water Development (then Ministry of Power, Transport and Communications) and the Stockholm Environmental Institute (SEI). The programme, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA), consists of a number of studies focusing on different aspects of the wood and charcoal industry in Zambia. Selection of this energy system for detailed study was based on the fact that wood provides the largest contribution to total energy supply in Zambia, and the fact that wood is a renewable resource that could be exploited on a sustainable basis if properly managed. The studies therefore range from those that look at sustainability of the natural forests exploited for charcoal, to those that deal with transportation and health aspects of charcoal production and use. The present report focuses on the environmental and socio-economic effects of charcoal production and use. 72 refs., 20 figs., 38 tabs

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Bamboo Charcoal/TiO2 Composites Using Four Sizes Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Visible-light-active bamboo biochar/TiO2 composites were fabricated by the calcination method using C16H36O4Ti as the titanium source and bamboo powder with different sizes as the carbon source. The TiO2 nanoparticles were observed to disperse onto the surface of bamboo biochar fiber. The sizes of the bamboo powder played an important role in the microstructures and the properties of bamboo biochar/TiO2 composites. The bamboo biochar/TiO2 composites displayed the photocatalytic activities both under visible light irradiation and UV irradiation. The adsorption isotherms better fitted Freundlich isotherm models and the photodegradation reactions followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. Bamboo charcoal/TiO2 composites exhibited high stability after up to four cycles. This research could pave the way for high-value applications of biomass in the environmental field.

  20. Chronic ethanol intake induces partial microglial activation that is not reversed by long-term ethanol withdrawal in the rat hippocampal formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Catarina; Meireles, Manuela; Silva, Susana M

    2017-05-01

    Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several disorders. Activation of microglia leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial-mediated neuroinflammation has been proposed as one of the alcohol-induced neuropathological mechanisms. The present study aimed to examine the effect of chronic ethanol exposure and long-term withdrawal on microglial activation and neuroinflammation in the hippocampal formation. Male rats were submitted to 6 months of ethanol treatment followed by a 2-month withdrawal period. Stereological methods were applied to estimate the total number of microglia and activated microglia detected by CD11b immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal formation. The expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, COX-2 and IL-15 were measured by qRT-PCR. Alcohol consumption was associated with an increase in the total number of activated microglia but morphological assessment indicated that microglia did not exhibit a full activation phenotype. These data were supported by functional evidence since chronic alcohol consumption produced no changes in the expression of TNF-α or COX-2. The levels of IL-15 a cytokine whose expression is increased upon activation of both astrocytes and microglia, was induced by chronic alcohol treatment. Importantly, the partial activation of microglia induced by ethanol was not reversed by long-term withdrawal. This study suggests that chronic alcohol exposure induces a microglial phenotype consistent with partial activation without significant increase in classical cytokine markers of neuroinflammation in the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, long-term cessation of alcohol intake is not sufficient to alter the microglial partial activation phenotype induced by ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Highly stable rice-straw-derived charcoal in 3700-year-old ancient paddy soil: evidence for an effective pathway toward carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengxiong; Yang, Min; Han, Xingguo; Zhong, Ting; Zheng, Yunfei; Ding, Pin; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Recalcitrant charcoal application is predicted to decelerate global warming through creating a long-term carbon sink in soil. Although many studies have showed high stability of charcoal derived from woody materials, few have focused on the dynamics of straw-derived charcoal in natural environment on a long timescale to evaluate its potential for agricultural carbon sequestration. Here, we examined straw-derived charcoal in an ancient paddy soil dated from ~3700 calendar year before present (cal. year BP). Analytical results showed that soil organic matter consisted of more than 25% of charcoal in charcoal-rich layer. Similarities in morphology and molecular structure between the ancient and the fresh rice-straw-derived charcoal indicated that ancient charcoal was derived from rice straw. The lower carbon content, higher oxygen content, and obvious carbonyl of the ancient charcoal compared with fresh rice straw charcoal implied that oxidation occurred in the scale of thousands years. However, the dominant aromatic C of ancient charcoal indicated that rice-straw-derived charcoal was highly stable in the buried paddy soil due to its intrinsic chemical structures and the physical protection of ancient paddy wetland. Therefore, it may suggest that straw charcoal application is a potential pathway for C sequestration considering its longevity.

  2. Adsorptive removal of SO{sub 2} from coal burning by bamboo charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Zengqiang; Qiu, Jianrong; Xiang, Jun; Zeng, Hancai [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Bamboo charcoal (BC) is an environmentally friendly, low-cost and renewable bioresource with porous structure. The adsorption property of bamboo charcoal for sulfur dioxide was investigated through a parametric study conducted with a bench-scale bed and mechanism study by BET, XPS, and temperature pro-grammed desorption (TPD). The varying parameters investigated include particle size of BC, moisture, oxygen, nitric oxide. The experimental data suggest that BC has a good adsorption potential for SO{sub 2}, which removal efficiency is greatly dependent upon the operation conditions. This study provides a good reference for BC to be used for SO{sub 2} removal in the actual flue gas over a wide range of conditions and further provided the preliminary experimental studies and theoretical discussion for bamboo charcoal to be used in multiple pollutants removing.

  3. Emissions of air toxics from a simulated charcoal kiln. Final report, October 1997--September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, P.M.

    1999-06-01

    The report gives results of experiments in a laboratory-scale charcoal kiln simulator to evaluate emissions of hazardous air pollutants from the production of charcoal in Missouri-type kilns. Fixed combustion gases were measured using continuous monitors. In addition, other pollutants, including methanol, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, and particle emission rates and size distributions were measured using various techniques. Emissions of all pollutants are reported in units of grams emitted per unit mass of initial wood converted to charcoal. Two burn conditions--slow and fast--were examined. High levels of methanol, benzene, and fine particulate were emitted in all tests. The estimated emissions from the fast burn conditions were significantly higher than those from the slow burn conditions

  4. Preparation and Photocatalytic Performance of Bamboo-Charcoal-Supported Nano-ZnO Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong ZHOU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were prepared by precipitation with bamboo charcoal as support. Nano-ZnO/bamboo charcoal composites were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDS. Photocatalytic degradation processes of methyl orange were studied. The results indicate that the structure of nano-ZnO is of the wurtzite type and the grain size is about 19-54 nm. The best preparation temperature for these composites is 500℃. The composites have better photocatalytic degradation ability than pure ZnO under UV irradiation. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange with the composites obeys first-order kinetics, and the composites can be recycled.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.24.1.17397

  5. Emissions from street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling). Final report, January 1998--March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-06-01

    The report discusses a joint US/Mexican program to establish a reliable emissions inventory for street vendor cooking devices (charcoal grilling), a significant source of air pollutants in the Mexicali-Imperial Valley area of Mexico. Emissions from these devices, prevalent in the streets of Mexicali, Mexico, were investigated experimentally by measuring levels of particulate matter, particle size distributions, volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, aldehydes, and oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, emitted when meat is cooked on a grill over a charcoal fire. To investigate the emission rate, both beef and chicken were tested. Furthermore, both meats were marinated with a mixture similar to that used by the street vendors. Some tests were conducted with non-marinated beef for comparison. Two blank runs were performed sampling charcoal fires without meat. Finally, a simple control device, normally used in an exhaust fan to trap grease over a kitchen stove, was evaluated for its effectiveness in reducing emissions

  6. Charcoal and siderurgy in Brazilian Amazonia: what environmental improvement paths? Example of the Carajas pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Fonseca Morello, Thiago; Bouillet, Jean-Pierre; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Behling, Maurel; Caldeira Pires, Armando; Oliveira Rodrigues, Thiago; Rousset, Patrick; Dufour, Thomas; Durieux, Laurent; Sist, Plinio; Vieira, Paulo; Lemenager, Tiphaine; Ernst, Guillaume

    2011-05-01

    The pig iron sector of Carajas, in the Brazilian Amazon, uses charcoal which is strongly criticized because of the charcoal production direct and indirect impacts on deforestation and forests degradation. This publication identifies and analyzes some alternatives to decrease the charcoal production environmental negative externalities and the main technical, economic and institutional factors that may limit their adoption. Several alternatives are possible, based on more efficient carbonization technologies, reforestation or afforestation of degraded lands, and, to a lesser extent, the use of reduced impact logging residues. Some of the alternatives are cost-efficient in the long term and financing support is available to promote their adoption. Land tenure and environmental regularization is a necessary pre-requisite for their expansion. (authors)

  7. Partial purification and characterization of a wortmannin-sensitive and insulin-stimulated protein kinase that activates heart 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Deprez, J; Bertrand, L; Alessi, D R; Krause, U; Hue, L; Rider, M H

    2000-01-01

    A wortmannin-sensitive and insulin-stimulated protein kinase (WISK), which phosphorylates and activates cardiac 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK-2), was partially purified from perfused rat hearts. Immunoblotting showed that WISK was devoid of protein kinase B (PKB), serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated protein kinase and protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta). Comparison of the inhibition of WISK, PKCalpha and PKCzeta by different protein kinase inhibitors suggested that WISK was not a member of the PKC...

  8. Evaluation of adsorption capacity of acetaminophen on activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate varying dosage forms of activated charcoal obtained from community pharmacy outlets in Nigeria for their adsorption capacity when challenged with acetaminophen. Methods: Equilibruim kinetics of acetaminophen adsorption onto activated charcoal surface was determined via batch studies at ...

  9. Development of ion-exchange properties of bamboo charcoal modified with concentrated nitric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, S.; Kuba, T.; Toyohara, Y.; Kamida, S.; Uchikawa, Y.

    2017-08-01

    The surface chemistry and the structural properties of activated carbon can be altered by the acidic modification. The objective of this study is to investigate the changes occurring in bamboo charcoal (BC) during activation with concentrated nitric acid. Low temperature (500°C) carbonized BC has been prepared and oxidized with 70% concentrated boiling nitric acid (BC-AC). The porous properties of the BC are analyzed with nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K. The surface structure is observed by Field emission scanning electronic microscope (FESEM) and the surface functional groups are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the pH of the point of zero charge (pHPZC). The results reveal that severe oxidation with HNO3 considerably decreases the surface area of BC with enhanced pore widening and FESEM observation demonstrates the erosive effect of oxidation. The FTIR analysis detects that some absorption bands are assigned for carboxyl, aldehyde and ketone groups on BC-AC. The XPS analysis also clearly shows that the ratio of oxygen and acidic functional groups has been enriched significantly on the BC-AC. The low pHPZC value of BC-AC confirms that the surface is highly acidic for the fixation of acidic functional groups on surface. In general, the existence of the abundant amount of acidic functional groups on adsorbents enhances the sorption of heavy metals ions in aqueous solution. Therefore, it is strongly expected that the modified BC, activated under the proposed conditions would be a promising ion exchanger in aqueous solution and can be applied for the adsorption of different heavy metal ions and radioactive materials from effluent.

  10. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchinda Maurice

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. Results The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4 was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. Conclusions We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country

  11. The charcoal trap: Miombo forests and the energy needs of people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner L; Merbold, Lutz; Ziegler, Waldemar; Mukelabai, Mukufute M; Muchinda, Maurice; Kolle, Olaf; Scholes, Robert J

    2011-08-19

    This study evaluates the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas fluxes to the atmosphere resulting from charcoal production in Zambia. It combines new biomass and flux data from a study, that was conducted in a miombo woodland within the Kataba Forest Reserve in the Western Province of Zambia, with data from other studies. The measurements at Kataba compared protected area (3 plots) with a highly disturbed plot outside the forest reserve and showed considerably reduced biomass after logging for charcoal production. The average aboveground biomass content of the reserve (Plots 2-4) was around 150 t ha-1, while the disturbed plot only contained 24 t ha-1. Soil carbon was not reduced significantly in the disturbed plot. Two years of eddy covariance measurements resulted in net ecosystem exchange values of -17 ± 31 g C m-2 y-1, in the first and 90 ± 16 g C m-2 in the second year. Thus, on the basis of these two years of measurement, there is no evidence that the miombo woodland at Kataba represents a present-day carbon sink. At the country level, it is likely that deforestation for charcoal production currently leads to a per capita emission rate of 2 - 3 t CO2 y-1. This is due to poor forest regeneration, although the resilience of miombo woodlands is high. Better post-harvest management could change this situation. We argue that protection of miombo woodlands has to account for the energy demands of the population. The production at national scale that we estimated converts into 10,000 - 15,000 GWh y-1 of energy in the charcoal. The term "Charcoal Trap" we introduce, describes the fact that this energy supply has to be substituted when woodlands are protected. One possible solution, a shift in energy supply from charcoal to electricity, would reduce the pressure of forests but requires high investments into grid and power generation. Since Zambia currently cannot generate this money by itself, the country will remain locked in the charcoal trap such as many other

  12. Newspaper reporting and the emergence of charcoal burning suicide in Taiwan: A mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Tsai, Chi-Wei; Biddle, Lucy; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Gunnell, David

    2016-03-15

    It has been suggested that extensive media reporting of charcoal burning suicide was a key factor in the rapid spread of this novel method in many East Asian countries. But very few empirical studies have explored the relationship between media reporting and the emergence of this new method of suicide. We investigated the changing pattern of media reporting of charcoal burning suicides in Taiwan during 1998-2002 when this method of suicide increased most rapidly, assessing whether the characteristics of media reporting were associated with the changing incidence of suicide using this method. A mixed method approach, combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of newspaper content during 1998-2002 was used. We compared differences in reporting characteristics before and after the rapid increase in charcoal burning suicide. Point-biserial and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to quantify the associations between the media item content and changes in suicide rates. During the period when charcoal burning suicide increased rapidly, the number of reports per suicide was considerably higher than during the early stage (0.31 vs. 0.10). Detailed reporting of this new method was associated with a post-reporting increase in suicides using the method. Qualitative analysis of news items revealed that the content of reports of suicide by charcoal burning changed gradually; in the early stages of the epidemic (1999-2000) there was convergence in the terminology used to report charcoal burning deaths, later reports gave detailed descriptions of the setting in which the death occurred (2001) and finally the method was glamourized and widely publicized (2001-2002). Our analysis was restricted to newspaper reports and did not include TV or the Internet. Newspaper reporting was associated with the evolution and establishment of charcoal burning suicide. Working with media and close monitoring of changes in the incidence of suicide using a new method might help

  13. Removal of Mn, Fe, Ni and Cu Ions from Wastewater Using Cow Bone Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cow bone charcoal (CBC was synthesized and used for the removal of metals ions (manganese, iron, nickel and copper from aqueous solutions. Two different adsorption models were used for analyzing the data. Adsorption capacities were determined: copper ions exhibit the greatest adsorption on cow bone charcoal because of their size and pH conditions. Adsorption capacity varies as a function of pH. Adsorption isotherms from aqueous solution of heavy metals on CBC were determined. Adsorption isotherms are consistent with Langmuir´s adsorption model. Adsorbent quantity and immersion enthalpy were studied.

  14. What Does Psychological Autopsy Study Tell Us about Charcoal Burning Suicide--A New and Contagious Method in Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sandra S. M.; Chiu, Helen F. K.; Chen, Eric Y. H.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Wong, Paul W. C.; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Law, Y. W.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong between 2002-2004 in the 15 to 59-year-old age group were investigated using the psychological autopsy method. The psychopathological profiles of charcoal burning suicides (N = 53) were compared against "other suicides" (N = 97). The two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of…

  15. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum

  16. Long and Short-Term Effects of Fire on Soil Charcoal of a Conifer Forest in Southwest Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Morrissette

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the Biscuit Wildfire burned a portion of the previously established, replicated conifer unthinned and thinned experimental units of the Siskiyou Long-Term Ecosystem Productivity (LTEP experiment, southwest Oregon. Charcoal C in pre and post-fire O horizon and mineral soil was quantified by physical separation and a peroxide-acid digestion method. The abrupt, short-term fire event caused O horizon charcoal C to increase by a factor of ten to >200 kg C ha−1. The thinned wildfire treatment produced less charcoal C than unthinned wildfire and thinned prescribed fire treatments. The charcoal formation rate was 1 to 8% of woody fuels consumed, and this percentage was negatively related to woody fuels consumed, resulting in less charcoal formation with greater fire severity. Charcoal C averaged 2000 kg ha−1 in 0–3 cm mineral soil and may have decreased as a result of fire, coincident with convective or erosive loss of mineral soil. Charcoal C in 3–15 cm mineral soil was stable at 5500 kg C ha−1. Long-term soil C sequestration in the Siskiyou LTEP soils is greatly influenced by the contribution of charcoal C, which makes up 20% of mineral soil organic C. This research reiterates the importance of fire to soil C in a southwestern Oregon coniferous forest ecosystem.

  17. USE OF POWDERED COCONUT CHARCOAL AS A TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION MANIPULATION FOR ORGANIC TOXICANTS IN MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a procedure using powdered coconut charcoal to sequester organic contaminants and reduce toxicity in sediments as part of a series of toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) methods. Powdered coconut charcoal (PCC) was effective in reducing the toxicity of endos...

  18. Has the woodfuel crisis returned? Urban charcoal consumption in Tanzania and its implications to present and future forest availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwampamba, Tuyeni Heita

    2007-01-01

    By lumping together charcoal and firewood consumption to determine the threats to forests from widespread use of woodfuel energy in sub-Sahara African, studies have greatly underestimated the individual impact of charcoal. Where high consumption levels are coupled with poor forest management and negligible regulation of the charcoal trade, the threat of an impending crisis caused by charcoal alone needs to be revisited. This study uses a survey of 244 households in six Tanzanian cities to determine whether current consumption levels, charcoal production techniques and forest management practices are sufficient to meet present and future charcoal demand. Projections to year 2100 were made to determine whether forests can continue to meet future demand under 24 scenarios that capture the numerous uncertainties that exist of converting charcoal consumption into forest needed. The findings suggest that the scenarios containing median consumption levels, low kiln efficiencies and low replenishment of harvested forests could deplete forests on public land by 2028. Best-case scenarios occurred when the opposite conditions existed. The study concludes that charcoal consumption is a real threat to the long-term persistence of forests in Tanzania and proposes policy interventions for alleviating forest loss

  19. Review of the sustainability of the forest sector to produce charcoal from planted forests; Analise da sustentabilidade do setor florestal para producao de carvao vegetal a partir de florestas plantadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Thiago Oliveira [Fundacao de Tecnologia Florestal e Geoprocessamento (NUPA/FUNTEC), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Nucleo de Projetos Ambientais

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is the world's greater producer of charcoal and most of this production takes care of to the siderurgical sector. Thus, one understands that the Brazilian steel is produced of sustainable form. However, such sustainability is not based only on a renewable energy source. The origin of the wood for the carbonization, if proceeding from planted forests or native bushes, is crucial factor in this analysis. Beyond the ambient dimension, the sustainability of the charcoal segment also is influenced by its social, economic and technological aspects. In this context, the present article searches, through the construction and the analysis of the diagnosis of the charcoal in Brazil, to evaluate the sustainability of the sector and to consider alternatives to reach it. The current model of production of charcoal in the country is unsustainable. The main adopted systems of carbonization in Brazil are low level technological with consequent decrease production. The activity is unhealthy, beyond having many cases of enslaved and infantile work. The coal of native forests is much cheaper and the fiscalization is poor, fact that discourages its production from planted forests. But if the vegetal coal will be understood as an energy solution for the siderurgical sector measures can be taken to search a model of sustainable production. (author)

  20. 76 FR 58246 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... Locomotive Coal & Chemicals Co., Ltd.; Datong Tianzhao Activated Carbon Co., Ltd.; DaTong Tri-Star & Power... Activated Carbon; Huzhou Zhonglin Activated Carbon; Inner Mongolia Taixi Coal Chemical Industry Limited... Co., Ltd.; Ningxia Xingsheng Coal and Active Carbon Co., Ltd.; Ningxia Xingsheng Coke & Activated...

  1. Eastern Andean environmental and climate synthesis for the last 2000 years BP from terrestrial pollen and charcoal records of Patagonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottile, G. D.; Echeverria, M. E.; Mancini, M. V.; Bianchi, M. M.; Marcos, M. A.; Bamonte, F. P.

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Hemisphere Westerly Winds (SWW) constitute an important zonal circulation system that dominates the dynamics of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude climate. Little is known about climatic changes in the Southern South America in comparison to the Northern Hemisphere due to the low density of proxy records, and adequate chronology and sampling resolution to address environmental changes of the last 2000 years. Since 2009, new pollen and charcoal records from bog and lakes in northern and southern Patagonia at the east side of the Andes have been published with an adequate calibration of pollen assemblages related to modern vegetation and ecological behaviour. In this work we improve the chronological control of some eastern Andean previously published sequences and integrate pollen and charcoal dataset available east of the Andes to interpret possible environmental and SWW variability at centennial time scales. Through the analysis of modern and past hydric balance dynamics we compare these scenarios with other western Andean SWW sensitive proxy records for the last 2000 years. Due to the distinct precipitation regimes that exist between Northern (40-45° S) and Southern Patagonia (48-52° S) pollen sites locations, shifts on latitudinal and strength of the SWW results in large changes on hydric availability on forest and steppe communities. Therefore, we can interpret fossil pollen dataset as changes on paleohydric balance at every single site by the construction of paleohydric indices and comparison to charcoal records during the last 2000 cal yrs BP. Our composite pollen-based Northern and Southern Patagonia indices can be interpreted as changes in latitudinal variation and intensity of the SWW respectively. Dataset integration suggest poleward SWW between 2000 and 750 cal yrs BP and northward-weaker SWW during the Little Ice Age (750-200 cal yrs BP). These SWW variations are synchronous to Patagonian fire activity major shifts. We found an in phase

  2. 75 FR 48644 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ...; Huaxin Active Carbon Plant; Huzhou Zhonglin Activated Carbon; Inner Mongolia Taixi Coal Chemical Industry... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-904] Certain Activated Carbon... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the...

  3. Effects of false yam tuber meals and charcoal on broiler chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors investigated the effects of replacing a portion of a commercial broiler feed with false yam tuber meals on broiler growth performance, feed conversion rate (FCR) and blood parameters. Furthermore, wood charcoal was added at various levels to the meals to explore their potential to attenuate toxic effects.

  4. Structural, morphological, and thermal characterization of kraft lignin and its charcoals obtained at different heating rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Brazil, Tayra; Nunes Costa, Rogeria; Massi, Marcos; Cerqueira Rezende, Mirabel

    2018-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable resource that is becoming more import due to environmental concerns and possible oil crisis. Thus, optimizing its use is a current challenge for many researchers. Lignin, which is a macromolecule with complex chemical structure, valuable physicochemical properties, and varied chemical composition, is available in large quantities in pulp and paper companies. The objective of this work is the physicochemical characterization of two Kraft lignin samples with different purities, and the study of its thermal conversion into charcoal. The lignin characterization was based on chemical, TGA, DSC, FT-IR, particle sizes, and FEG-SEM analyses. These analyses show that the lignins are mainly composed of guaiacyl and syringyl units, with residues of 30–36 wt.%, in inert atmosphere, depending on the lignin purity. From these results, the more purified lignin with higher carbon yield (%C) was selected for charcoal production. The heat treatment (HT) for carbonization of lignin, at different times (90, 180, and 420 min), resulted in different %C (41–44 wt.%). Longer HT resulted in higher %C and in charcoals with smaller pore sizes. Nanopores (∼50 nm) are observed for the charcoal obtained with the longest HT.

  5. Adsorption of p-Nitrophenol (PNP) on new adsorbents prepared from diatomite and charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdi, B.; Khelifa, N.; Chernai-Hamdi, S.; Hadjari, H.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to mesoporous materials with high surface area and narrow pore size distribution because of their diverse applications (e. g., adsorbents, catalysts, and host materials). Inorganic composite materials (ICM) prepared by a mixture of natural diatomite (macroporous materials) and charcoal (microporous material) in particular operative conditions. (Author)

  6. A comparison of charcoal- and slag-based constructed wetlands for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (CW) with charcoal- or slag-based bed matrices were investigated for their potential use in remediating acid mine drainage (AMD). A CW is effectively a reactor in which some components of the wastewater are broken down by the organisms occurring within the CW, whilst others may ...

  7. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  8. Unsustainable charcoal production as a contributing factor to woodland fragmentation in southeast Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruuska, Eeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a holistic research approach, this paper contributes to the studies of land cover change and sustainable development in Kenya, and to the planning of sustainable future in Dakatcha Woodland, SE Kenya. As an un-protected global hotspot for biodiversity, Dakatcha Woodland has suffered from unsustainable forest resource use. The relation of charcoal production to land cover change and its socio-economic impact are studied in detail. A supervised land cover classification formed using four SPOT satellite images from 2005/06 and 2011 revealed that the woodland is fragmenting and the Important Bird Area (IBA demarcation should be reconsidered. Through in-situ observation, household questionnaires and semi-structured expert interviews it was found that more than half of the 90 households assessed are involved in charcoal production which is higher figure than peer studies have suggested, and that the charcoal network offers income to many, but bears an negative impact on the environment. It was discovered that, like in Kenya, in Dakatcha Woodland, too, the demand for woodfuels (charcoal and fuelwood is one of the key drivers of deforestation and land degradation. As such, woodfuel energy is a cross cutting issue, tying together forest resources, livelihoods and sustainable development, and thus demands further research. Forest management of Dakatcha Woodland must be planned in accordance with all stakeholders in a sustainable manner, drawing from agroforestry and participatory forest management systems, and keeping environmental factors in mind for the maintenance of ecosystem services.

  9. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-01-01

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of β-SiC with traces of α-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time

  10. Preparation of biomorphic SiC ceramic by carbothermal reduction of oak wood charcoal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Junmin; Wang Jiping; Jin Zhihao

    2004-04-25

    Highly porous silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic with woodlike microstructure has been prepared at 1400-1600 deg. C by carbothermal reduction reaction of charcoal/silica composites in static argon atmosphere. These composites were fabricated by infiltrating silica sol into a porous biocarbon template from oak wood using a vacuum/pressure infiltration process. The morphology of resulting porous SiC ceramic, as well as the conversion mechanism of wood to porous SiC ceramic, have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Experimental results show that the biomorphic cellular morphology of oak wood charcoal is remained in the porous SiC ceramic with high precision that consists of {beta}-SiC with traces of {alpha}-SiC. Silica in the charcoal/silica composites exists in the cellular pores in form of fibers and rods. The SiC strut material is formed by gas-solid reaction between SiO (g) and C (s) during the charcoal-to-ceramic conversion. The densification of SiC strut material may occur at moderate temperatures and holding time.

  11. A Study of Polishing Feature of Ultrasonic-Assisted Vibration Method in Bamboo Charcoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Min Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the feature of porosity in bamboo charcoal, this study applies the ultrasonic-assisted vibration method to perform surface polishing of the silicon wafer workpiece. The self-developed bamboo charcoal polishing spindle and ultrasonic- assisted vibration mechanism are attached to a single lapping machine. In the machining process, ultrasonic vibration enables the diamond slurry to smoothly pass through the microscopic holes of bamboo charcoal; the end of the bamboo charcoalis able to continue machining on the surface of the workpiece through the grasping force which exists in the microscopic holes. Under the polishing and machining parameters of ultrasonic-assisted vibration, with a diamond slurry concentration of 0.3%, the experimental results show a polishing time of 20 min, a loading of 25 N on the workpiece surface, a spindle speed of 1200 rpm, a vibration frequency of 30 kHz and the original surface roughness value of Ra 0.252 μm equals that of a mirror-like surface at Ra 0.017 μm. These research results prove that by using bamboo charcoal and ultrasonic-assisted vibration for polishing, a very good improvement can be achieved on the workpiece surface.

  12. Design, Fabrication and Installation of the Charcoal Filter Housing in RIPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Jin; Lim, I. C.; Bang, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    In the Hot Cell Bank 3 of the Radioisotope Production Facility, production and dispense of I-131 solution and capsule that are used for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer are made. The original charcoal filter housings installed in 1994 and were utilized until the leakage of a very small amount of radio-iodine was found due to the erroneous installation of the charcoal filter in the filter housing. Thus the production of I-131 was discontinued until the repair and performance testing of the filter housing and the inspection by the regulatory body were finished. Although the production of I-131 was resumed, there was a desire for installing the brand-new charcoal filter housing which has an intrinsically safe design and no possibility of leakage. This report describes the design, fabrication and installation of brand-new charcoal filter housing. And also were described the dismantlement of the old housings, the assessment of the structural integrity of the shielding concrete wall and the installation of the shielding doors

  13. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths c...

  14. Pyrolysis of blended animal manures to produce combustible gas and value-added charcoal adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and rye grass were pyrolyzed using a skid-mounted sytem. Produced gas composition was analyzed for major hydrocarbons and S-containing compounds. Charcoal was analyzed for its surface functional groups, contact angles, HHV, and total element contents. Some of th...

  15. Methyl iodide retention on charcoal sorbents at parts-per-million concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, G.O.; Vogt, G.J.; Kasunic, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Breakthrough curves for charcoal beds challenged by air containing parts-per-million methyl iodide ( 127 I) vapor concentrations were obtained and analyzed. A goal of this research is to determine if sorbent tests at relatively high vapor concentrations give data that can be extrapolated many orders of magnitude to the region of interest for radioiodine retention and removal. Another objective is to identify and characterize parameters that are critical to the performance of a charcoal bed in a respirator cartridge application. Towards these ends, a sorbent test system was built that allows experimental variations of the parameters of challenge vapor concentration, volumetric flow rate, bed depth, bed diameter, and relative humidity. Methyl iodide breakthrough was measured at a limit of 0.002 ppM using a gas chromatograph equipped with a linearized electron capture detector. Several models that have been proposed to describe breakthrough curves were tested against experimental data. A variety of charcoals used or proposed for use in radioiodine air filtration systems have been tested against 25.7 ppM methyl iodide to obtain these parameters and protection (decomtamination) factors. Effects of challenge concentration, relative humidity, and bed diameter were also investigated. Significant challenge concentration dependence was measured (more efficiency at lower concentration) for two types of charcoals. Increased relative humidity greatly decreased breakthrough times for a given protection factor. Increased bed diameter greatly increased breakthrough times for a given protection factor. Implications of these effects for a test method are discussed

  16. Selection of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria with biocontrol potential for growth in phosphorus rich animal bone charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Nijhuis, E.H.; Sommeus, E.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria with the ability to solubilize phosphorus (P) and to improve plant health were selected and tested for growth and survival in P-rich animal bone charcoal (ABC). ABC is suggested to be suitable as a carrier for biocontrol agents, offering them a protected niche as well as delivering

  17. Refinement of the charcoal meal study by reduction of the fasting period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Helen; Ewart, Lorna; Bright, Jonathan; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether a shorter fasting period than the one historically employed for the charcoal meal test, could be used when measuring gastric emptying and intestinal transit within the same animal, and to ascertain whether the scientific outcome would be affected by this benefit to animal welfare. Rats and mice were fasted for 0, 3, 6 or 18 hours before the oral administration of vehicle or atropine. One hour later, the animals were orally administered a charcoal meal, then 20 minutes later, they were killed and the stomach and small intestine were removed. Intestinal transit time (the position of the charcoal front as a percentage of the total length of the small intestine) and relative gastric emptying (weight of stomach contents) were measured. Rats and mice fasted for six hours showed results for gastric emptying and intestinal transit which were similar to those obtained in animals fasted for 18 hours. Reducing the fasting period reduced the body weight loss in both species, and mice on shorter fasts could be group-housed, as hunger-induced fighting was lessened. Therefore, a fasting period of six hours was subsequently adopted for charcoal meal studies at our institution. 2011 FRAME.

  18. The rapid determination of 230Th by preconcentration of charcoal absorbing N-1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jiayuan; Wu Hanzhen.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation was made on concentration of 230 Th using charcoal, which had adsorbed amine N-1923 before hand. The separation of α-emitter U, Ra, Po also has been investigated. α-source was prepared by Powder-Pulp method. This method is simple, convenient and esay to operate

  19. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  20. Genetic Architecture of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) Resistance in Soybean Revealed Using a Diverse Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methodologies available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient ...

  1. Spectral analysis of charcoal on soils: Implications for wildland fire severity mapping methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Jan U. H. Eitel; Andrew T. Hudak

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in the Western United States have supported climate scenarios that predict a higher occurrence of large and severe wildfires. Knowledge of the severity is important to infer long-term biogeochemical, ecological, and societal impacts, but understanding the sensitivity of any severity mapping method to variations in soil type and increasing charcoal (char...

  2. Airborne radioiodine species sampler and it's application for measuring removal efficiencies of large charcoal adsorbers for ventilation exhaust air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel, D.; Hetzer, D.; Pelletier, C.A.; Barefoot, E.D.; Cline, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    A program, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, is underway to determine the chemical species of radioiodine coming from LWR power plants and their persistence in the nearby environment. In support of this program, an airborne radioiodine sampler, developed and used by the AEC was modified and tested. This sampler consists of five components. The components are: (1) a particulate filter, (2) CdI 2 on a matrix of chromosorb-P to retain I 2 , (3) 4-Iodophenol on a matrix of activated alumina to retain HOI, (4) silver exchanged molecular sieve-13X to retain organic iodides, and (5) impregnated charcoal to serve as a control. The AEC sampler has not been proof-tested for periods over 48 hours or for flow rates above 0.10 l/s. For maximum sensitivity, a sampler is required to be used for periods of one to two weeks and at a flow rate giving a bed residence time of 0.1 sec. The AEC sampler was scaled up in size to attain an air sampling rate of 0.9 l/s. Each media for this sampler (except the particulate filter) was tested in the laboratory for retention of the iodine species; I 2 , Organic, and HOI. The tests were conducted at typical conditions observed at the main iodine release points at nuclear power plants. Confirmatory tests were run at operating nuclear power plants. The test results showed that under normal plant conditions the sampler could be operated at flow rates up to 0.80 l/s and differentiate the iodine species I 2 , HOI, and CH 3 I. The retention efficiencies of each media for its specie of radioiodine were found to be: I 2 on CdI 2 - 87 +- 5%, HOI on IPH 94 +- 4%, and CH 3 I on Ag 13-X or KI charcoal 99 +- 1%

  3. Evaluation of nutrient supplementation to charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hydrolysate for xylitol production by Candida guilliermondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Inês Mussatto

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol was produced by Candida guilliermondii from charcoal-treated and untreated rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate with or without nutrients (ammonium sulphate, calcium chloride, rice bran extract. Both, xylitol yield and volumetric productivity decreased significantly when the nutrients were added to treated and untreated hydrolysates. In the treated hydrolysate, the efficiency of xylose conversion to xylitol was 79% when the nutrients were omitted. The results demonstrated that rice straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate treated with activated charcoal was a cheap source of xylose and other nutrients for xylitol production by C. guilliermondii. The non-necessity of adding nutrients to the hydrolysate media would be very advantageous since the process becomes less costly.Este trabalho avaliou a produção de xilitol pela levedura Candida guilliermondii, a partir de hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz não tratado e tratado com carvão ativo, ambos suplementados ou não com nutrientes (sulfato de amônio, cloreto de cálcio e extrato de farelo de arroz. Os resultados mostraram que tanto o rendimento como a produtividade volumétrica em xilitol diminuíram quando os nutrientes foram adicionados em ambos hidrolisados, tratado e não tratado. Em hidrolisado tratado, a eficiência de conversão de xilose em xilitol foi de 79% quando em ausência de nutrientes. Estes resultados mostram que o hidrolisado hemicelulósico de palha de arroz tratado com carvão ativo é uma fonte barata de xilose e outros nutrientes, para a produção de xilitol por Candida guilliermondii. A não necessidade de adicionar nutrientes ao meio a base de hidrolisado é muito vantajosa, uma vez que o processo se torna mais econômico.

  4. 75 FR 51754 - Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China: Notice of Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Carbon Co., Ltd.; Datong Juqiang Activated Carbon Co., Ltd.; Datong Locomotive Coal & Chemicals Co., Ltd....; Xingtai Coal Chemical Co., Ltd; Zhejiang Xingda Activated Carbon Co., Ltd. \\1\\ See Memo to the File from... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-904] Certain Activated Carbon...

  5. Effects of whole-body and partial-body x irradiation upon epidermal mitotic activity during wound healing in mouse skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1977-01-01

    Mitotic activity of normal (unwounded) and wounded skin was measured in the control (nonirradiated) and whole-body or partial-body x-irradiated mouse. Higher mitotic activity in the anterior than in the posterior region of the body was found in both the normal and the wounded skin of the control mouse. Whole-body irradiation (500 R) depressed completely the mitotic activity of normal skin 2 to 4 days after irradiation. In spite of this depression in mitotic activity, a surgical incision made 1 to 3 days after irradiation could induce a burst of proliferation after an inhibition of an initial mitosis increase. When the animals were partially irradiated with 500 R 3 days before wounding, it was shown that mitosis at 24 hr after wounding was inhibited markedly by the local effect of irradiation and that mitosis also could be inhibited diversely by the abscopal effect of irradiation. Because of a close similarity of sequential mitotic patterns between whole-body-irradiated and flapped-skin-only-irradiated groups (direct irradiation), the effect of irradiation upon mitosis was considered to be primarily local. Some discussions were made concerning the possible reasons which made a difference in mitotic patterns between the head-only-irradiated group, the irradiated group including the head and other parts of the body except for the skin flap

  6. Open charcoal chamber method for mass measurements of radon exhalation rate from soil surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsapalov, Andrey; Kovler, Konstantin; Miklyaev, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface can serve as an important criterion in the evaluation of radon hazard of the land. Recently published international standard ISO 11665-7 (2012) is based on the accumulation of radon gas in a closed container. At the same time since 1998 in Russia, as a part of engineering and environmental studies for the construction, radon flux measurements are made using an open charcoal chamber for a sampling duration of 3–5 h. This method has a well-defined metrological justification and was tested in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. The article describes the characteristics of the method, as well as the means of sampling and measurement of the activity of radon absorbed. The results of the metrological study suggest that regardless of the sampling conditions (weather, the mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil, soil properties and conditions), uncertainty of method does not exceed 20%, while the combined standard uncertainty of radon exhalation rate measured from the soil surface does not exceed 30%. The results of the daily measurements of radon exhalation rate from the soil surface at the experimental site during one year are reported. - Highlights: • Radon exhalation rate from the soil surface area of 32 cm"2 can be measured at level of 10 mBq/(m"2s) at the uncertainty ≤30%. • The method has a metrological justification. • No need to consider climate conditions, soil properties and conditions, mechanism and rate of radon transport in the soil.

  7. Effect of temperature on the breakthrough of a charcoal tube during vinyl chloride monomer sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, J; Park, Y J; Kim, C N; Lim, N G; Lee, S H; Song, J S; Won, J U; Talaska, G

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of temperature on breakthrough of two standard collection media at various concentrations during vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) sampling. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods were evaluated. To determine whether breakthrough of VCM would occur at the extremes of exposure and temperature that might be encountered in some workplaces, air samples containing 4 ppm (10.24 mg/m3), 8 ppm (20.45 mg/m3), 16 ppm (40.98 mg/m3), and 32 ppm (81.80 mg/m3) of VCM were collected at temperatures of 4, 22, and 40 degrees C. Five liters of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 100 min using the activated charcoal tube recommended by NIOSH. A second tube was added to the sampling train to collect any VCM that might not have been absorbed in the first tube. To collect VCM air samples by the OSHA method, two carbon molecular sieve tubes were connected serially and 3 L of air was sampled at the rate of 0.05 L/min for 60 min. A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and ultra 2 capillary column was used to analyze VCM. Significant breakthrough was found when sampling at higher temperatures with the NIOSH method. No breakthrough was found when samples were collected using the OSHA media at different temperatures and concentrations. Therefore, under hot ambient conditions (>22 degrees C), the possibility of breakthrough should be considered when sampling VCM by the NIOSH method.

  8. Simultaneous imaging of cerebral partial pressure of oxygen and blood flow during functional activation and cortical spreading depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadžić, Sava; Yuan, Shuai; Dilekoz, Ergin; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Ayata, Cenk; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a novel imaging technique that provides real-time two-dimensional maps of the absolute partial pressure of oxygen and relative cerebral blood flow in rats by combining phosphorescence lifetime imaging with laser speckle contrast imaging. Direct measurement of blood oxygenation based on phosphorescence lifetime is not significantly affected by changes in the optical parameters of the tissue during the experiment. The potential of the system as a novel tool for quantitative analysis of the dynamic delivery of oxygen to support brain metabolism was demonstrated in rats by imaging cortical responses to forepaw stimulation and the propagation of cortical spreading depression waves. This new instrument will enable further study of neurovascular coupling in normal and diseased brain. PMID:19340106

  9. The Charcoal Trap: Miombo woodlands versus the energy needs of people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbold, Lutz; Maurice, Muchinda; Mukufute M, Mukelabai; J, Scholes Robert; Waldemar, Ziegler; L, Kutsch Werner

    2010-05-01

    Miombo woodlands cover the transition zone between the dry open savannas and the moist forests in Southern Africa and occupy the vast area of 2.7 Mio km2. These ecosystems are highly disturbed by deforestation, mostly for charcoal production. Charcoal has become the largest source to satisfy urban energy demands. Even though when charcoal is a less energy-efficient fuel compared to firewood but by having higher energy densities and thus being cheaper to transport. Over the last decades, charcoal production has become a full-time employment for migrant workers, resulting in very different and no longer sustainable deforestation patterns. Strategies to reduce the pressure on the miombo woodlands have to take aspects of employment and energy demand into account. The objectives of the study were to examine above- and belowground carbon losses from an intact miombo woodland (protected forest reserve) in comparison to a highly disturbed surrounding area due to charcoal production. Detection of changes in carbon concentrations and stocks were made possible by applying biomass- and soil inventories as well as the eddy-covariance method. These local results were up-scaled to countrywide estimates of carbon lost to the atmosphere by deforestation in addition to carbon losses fossil fuel combustion. The results show, that in the worst case scenario which does not assume any regeneration, a developing country as Zambia, can easily emit as much carbon per capita as a developed Western world country such as France, when deforestation is included in the national inventory (up to 9.1 t of CO2 per capita). However, regeneration is very probably when post-harvest disturbance is low. Further studies on miombo regeneration are highly demanded.

  10. Metabolite Profiling of Feces and Serum in Hemodialysis Patients and the Effect of Medicinal Charcoal Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sixiu; Liang, Shanshan; Liu, Hua; Chen, Lei; Sun, Lingshuang; Wei, Meng; Jiang, Hongli; Wang, Jing

    2018-05-22

    Recently, the colon has been recognized as an important source of various uremic toxins in patients with end stage renal disease. Medicinal charcoal tablets are an oral adsorbent that are widely used in patients with chronic kidney disease in China to remove creatinine and urea from the colon. A parallel fecal and serum metabolomics study was performed to determine comprehensive metabolic profiles of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). The effects of medicinal charcoal tablets on the fecal and serum metabolomes of HD patients were also investigated. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to investigate the fecal and serum metabolic profiles of 20 healthy controls and 31 HD patients before and after taking medicinal charcoal tablets for 3 months. There were distinct metabolic variations between the HD patients and healthy controls both in the feces and serum according to multivariate data analysis. Metabolic disturbances of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism figured prominently in the serum. However, in the feces, alterations of tryptophan metabolism, lysine degradation and beta-alanine metabolism were pronounced, and the levels of several amino acids (leucine, phenylalanine, lysine, histidine, methionine, tyrosine, and tryptophan) were increased dramatically. Nineteen fecal metabolites and 21 serum metabolites were also identified as biomarkers that contributed to the metabolic differences. Additionally, medicinal charcoal treatment generally enabled the serum and fecal metabolomes of the HD patients to draw close to those of the control subjects, especially the serum metabolic profile. Parallel fecal and serum metabolomics uncovered the systematic metabolic variations of HD patients, especially disturbances in amino acid metabolism in the colon. Medicinal charcoal tablets had an impact on the serum and fecal metabolomes of HD patients, but their exact effects still need to be studied further

  11. Partial sleep deprivation activates the DNA damage response (DDR) and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in aged adult humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Judith E; Cole, Steven W; Seeman, Teresa E; Breen, Elizabeth C; Witarama, Tuff; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Ma, Jeffrey; Irwin, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Age-related disease risk has been linked to short sleep duration and sleep disturbances; however, the specific molecular pathways linking sleep loss with diseases of aging are poorly defined. Key cellular events seen with aging, which are thought to contribute to disease, may be particularly sensitive to sleep loss. We tested whether one night of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) would increase leukocyte gene expression indicative of DNA damage responses (DDR), the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), and senescence indicator p16(INK4a) in older adult humans, who are at increased risk for cellular senescence. Community-dwelling older adults aged 61-86years (n=29; 48% male) underwent an experimental partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol over 4 nights, including adaptation, an uninterrupted night of sleep, partial sleep deprivation (sleep restricted 3-7AM), and a subsequent full night of sleep. Blood samples were obtained each morning to assess peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Analyses of microarray results revealed that SASP (psleep deprivation activates PBMC gene expression patterns consistent with biological aging in this older adult sample. PSD enhanced the SASP and increased the accumulation of damage that initiates cell cycle arrest and promotes cellular senescence. These findings causally link sleep deprivation to the molecular processes associated with biological aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Charcoal from biomass residues of a Cryptomeria plantation and analysis of its carbon fixation benefit in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    Charcoal production as an age-old industry not only supplies fuel in developing countries, in recent decades, it has also become a means of supplying new multifunctional materials for environmental improvement and agricultural applications in developed countries. These include air dehumidification and deodorization, water purification, and soil improvement due to charcoal's excellent adsorption capacity. Paradoxically, charcoal production might also help curb greenhouse gas emissions. In this study, we made charcoal from discarded branches and tops of wood from a Cryptomeria plantation after thinning using a still-operational earthen kiln. Woody biomass was used as the carbonization fuel. The effect of carbonization on carbon fixation was calculated and its benefits evaluated. The results showed that the recovered fixed carbon reached 33.2%, i.e., one-third of the biomass residual carbon was conserved as charcoal which if left on the forest ground would decompose and turn into carbon dioxide, and based on a net profit of US$1.13 kg -1 for charcoal, an annual net profit of US$14,665 could be realized. Charcoaling thus appears to be a feasible alternative to promote reutilization of woody resides which would not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also provide potential benefits to regional economies in developing countries.

  13. A case of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma in a breast cancer patient: Ultrasound,CT, PET/CT and breast-specific gamma imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Seon Jeong; Shin, Hyuck Jai; Lee, Jeong Ju [Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Charcoal remains stable without causing a foreign body reaction and it may be used for preoperative localization of a non-palpable breast mass. However, cases of post-charcoal-marking granuloma have only rarely been reported in the breast, and a charcoal granuloma can be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Herein, we report the ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT, and breast-specific gamma imaging findings of recurrence-mimicking charcoal granuloma after breast conserving surgery, following localization with charcoal in a breast cancer patient.

  14. Enrichment Conditions of Krypton Onto Activated Carbons%活性炭对氪的富集条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈莉云; 曾宝珠; 张昌云; 武山; 刘龙波; 杨静; 韦冠一

    2012-01-01

    In order to monitor radioactive krypton distribution in the environment, active charcoal is used to enrich krypton before the sample can be submitted to further laboratory analysis. The importance and method of krypton enrichment were presented. The absorption behavior of krypton by charcoal was analyzed. The experimental setup was designed to investigate effects of working temperature, linear velocities, partial-pressure of krypton on the enrichment of krypton by charcoal. The micro-structure parameters of the absorbing material to characterize its absorbing property was used, and the experimental data with theoretical analysis to conclude that for CF-1450 was fitted. The saturation absorption capacity at 191 K is 32. 9 mL/g.%从环境监测角度,叙述了开展活性炭对氪富集条件研究的重要意义.以氪在活性炭上的动态吸附实验为基础,研究了活性炭、温度、气体线流速和氪的分压对氪富集的影响,利用吸附材料的微结构,通过吸附理论模型拟合实验数据,得到CF-1450活性炭在191 K下对氪的饱和吸附量为32.9 mL/g.

  15. Purification and characterization of a gentiohexaose obtained from botryosphaeran by partial acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Iara Ribeiro; Monteiro, Nilson Kobori; Martinez, Paula Felippe; Izeli, Nataly Lino; Vasconcelos, Ana Flora Dalberto; Cardoso, Marilsa de Stefani; Silva, Maria de Lourdes Corradi da; Silva, Gil Valdo Jose da; Moraes, Luis Alberto Beraldo de

    2008-01-01

    A hexa-oligosaccharide was obtained by partial acid hydrolysis from botryosphaeran, an exopolysaccharide (EPS) β(1→3; 1→6)-D-glucan type, produced by the ascomyceteous fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina. The oligosaccharide was purified by gel filtration and charcoal-Celite column chromatography and the analysis was followed by HPAEC/ PAD. The structure was determined by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, which showed that the oligosaccharide consists of six β-D-glucopyranosyl units O-6 substituted (gentiohexaose). (author)

  16. Charcoal records reveal past occurrences of disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshibamba Mukendi, John; Hubau, Wannes; Ntahobavuka, Honorine; Boyemba Bosela, Faustin; De Cannière, Charles; Beeckman, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Past disturbances have modified local density, structure and floristic composition of Central African rainforests. As such, these perturbations represent a driving force for forest dynamics and they were presumably at the origin of present-day forest mosaics. One of the most prominent disturbances within the forest is fire, leaving behind charcoal as a witness of past forest dynamics. Quantification and identification of ancient charcoal fragments found in soil layers (= pedoanthracology) allows a detailed reconstruction of forest history, including the possible occurrence of past perturbations. The primary objective of this study is to present palaeoenvironmental evidence for the existence of past disturbances in the forests of the Kisangani region (Democratic Republic of the Congo) using a pedoanthracological approach. We quantified and identified charcoal fragments from pedoanthracological excavations in the Yangambi, Yoko, Masako and Kole forest regions. Charcoal sampling was conducted in pit intervals of 10 cm, whereby pottery fragments were also registered and quantified. Floristic identifications were conducted using former protocols based on wood anatomy, which is largely preserved after charcoalification. 14 excavations were conducted and charcoal was found in most pit intervals. Specifically, 52 out of 56 sampled intervals from the Yangambi forest contained charcoal, along with 47 pit intervals from the Yoko forest reserve, 34 pit intervals from the Masako forest and 16 from the Kole forest. Highest specific anthracomasses were recorded in Yoko (167 mg charcoal per kg soil), followed by Yangambi (133 mg/kg), Masako (71,89 mg/kg) and finally Kole (42,4 mg/kg). Charcoal identifications point at a manifest presence of the family of Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae). This family is characteristic for the tropical humid rainforest. The presence of charcoal fragments from these taxa, associated with pottery sherds on different depths within the profiles, suggests

  17. Does Management Matter?: Using MISR to Assess the Effects of Charcoal Production and Management on Woodland Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, K.

    2008-12-01

    In much of Sub-Saharan Africa, more than 75 percent of a rapidly growing urban population depends on charcoal as their primary source of energy for cooking. The high demand for charcoal has led many to believe that charcoal harvesting catalyzes widespread deforestation. The Senegalese government and international donors have initiated projects within protected areas to combat deforestation and created land management plans to sustainably harvest charcoal. To date, the effects of forest management techniques on forest sustainability are still in question. This research uses a multiphase approach integrating satellite analysis with field surveys to assess the effect of varying forest management strategies on forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Phase I involved testing the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellites capability in detecting structural changes in vegetative cover caused by charcoal harvesting and production. Analysis of the MISR derived k(red) parameter showed MISR can consistently differentiate between forest cover types and successfully differentiates between sites at pre- and post-charcoal harvest stages. Phase II conducted forestry and social surveys comparing and contrasting local effects of land management, land use, and charcoal production on forest regeneration. Phase III uses the local surveys to validate and train the regional remote sensing data to assess the effectiveness of land management in promoting forest regeneration and sustainability after charcoal harvesting. Combining detailed local knowledge with the regional capabilities of MISR provide valuable insight into the factors that control woodland regeneration and sustainability. Preliminary results from phases II and III indicate that both field and remotely sensed variations in forest cover, tree regeneration, and land use change does not vary when compared against land management type. Final results will provide managers with additional

  18. A Model-Based Approach to Infer Shifts in Regional Fire Regimes Over Time Using Sediment Charcoal Records

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    Itter, M.; Finley, A. O.; Hooten, M.; Higuera, P. E.; Marlon, J. R.; McLachlan, J. S.; Kelly, R.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment charcoal records are used in paleoecological analyses to identify individual local fire events and to estimate fire frequency and regional biomass burned at centennial to millenial time scales. Methods to identify local fire events based on sediment charcoal records have been well developed over the past 30 years, however, an integrated statistical framework for fire identification is still lacking. We build upon existing paleoecological methods to develop a hierarchical Bayesian point process model for local fire identification and estimation of fire return intervals. The model is unique in that it combines sediment charcoal records from multiple lakes across a region in a spatially-explicit fashion leading to estimation of a joint, regional fire return interval in addition to lake-specific local fire frequencies. Further, the model estimates a joint regional charcoal deposition rate free from the effects of local fires that can be used as a measure of regional biomass burned over time. Finally, the hierarchical Bayesian approach allows for tractable error propagation such that estimates of fire return intervals reflect the full range of uncertainty in sediment charcoal records. Specific sources of uncertainty addressed include sediment age models, the separation of local versus regional charcoal sources, and generation of a composite charcoal record The model is applied to sediment charcoal records from a dense network of lakes in the Yukon Flats region of Alaska. The multivariate joint modeling approach results in improved estimates of regional charcoal deposition with reduced uncertainty in the identification of individual fire events and local fire return intervals compared to individual lake approaches. Modeled individual-lake fire return intervals range from 100 to 500 years with a regional interval of roughly 200 years. Regional charcoal deposition to the network of lakes is correlated up to 50 kilometers. Finally, the joint regional charcoal

  19. Diagnostic of the charcoal's productive and commercialize in the Pinar del Río's Integral Forest Company by matrix SWOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Anh Thi Nguyen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to diagnose the situation productive of charcoal in Pinar del Río EFI by SWOT matrix (weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities which consists of the collection of information from different sources related to the production of charcoal and thus a screening of ideas and through the technical working group with the presence of specialists proceeded develop the matrix with all components was performed. The results of the assessment of the productive situation of charcoal indicate an unfavorable position, resulting in a strategy of adaptive type, conditioned by economic, political and cultural factors.

  20. Macro-particle charcoal C content following prescribed burning in a mixed-conifer forest, Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Morgan L; Hurteau, Matthew D; Kaye, Jason P; Miesel, Jessica R

    2015-01-01

    Fire suppression and changing climate have resulted in increased large wildfire frequency and severity in the western United States, causing carbon cycle impacts. Forest thinning and prescribed burning reduce high-severity fire risk, but require removal of biomass and emissions of carbon from burning. During each fire a fraction of the burning vegetation and soil organic matter is converted into charcoal, a relatively stable carbon form. We sought to quantify the effects of pre-fire fuel load and type on charcoal carbon produced by biomass combusted in a prescribed burn under different thinning treatments and to identify more easily measured predictors of charcoal carbon mass in a historically frequent-fire mixed-conifer forest. We hypothesized that charcoal carbon produced from coarse woody debris (CWD) during prescribed burning would be greater than that produced from fine woody debris (FWD). We visually quantified post-treatment charcoal carbon content in the O-horizon and the A-horizon beneath CWD (> 30 cm diameter) and up to 60 cm from CWD that was present prior to treatment. We found no difference in the size of charcoal carbon pools from CWD (treatment means ranged from 0.3-2.0 g m-2 of A-horizon and 0.0-1.7 g m-2 of O-horizon charcoal) and FWD (treatment means ranged from 0.2-1.7 g m-2 of A-horizon and 0.0-1.5 g m-2 of O-horizon charcoal). We also compared treatments and found that the burn-only, understory-thin and burn, and overstory-thin and burn treatments had significantly more charcoal carbon than the control. Charcoal carbon represented 0.29% of total ecosystem carbon. We found that char mass on CWD was an important predictor of charcoal carbon mass, but only explained 18-35% of the variation. Our results help improve our understanding of the effects forest restoration treatments have on ecosystem carbon by providing additional information about charcoal carbon content.

  1. The influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on charcoal alteration in a tropical biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Philippa; Bird, Michael; Meredith, Will; Large, David; Snape, Colin; Manion, Corinne

    2014-05-01

    Natural and anthropogenic burning events are a key link in the global carbon cycle, substantially influencing atmospheric CO2 levels, and consuming c.8700 teragrams yr-1 of dry biomass [1,2,3]. An important result of this process is charcoal, when lignocellulosic structures in biomass (e.g. wood) are converted to aromatic domains with high chemical stability. Charcoal is therefore not readily re-oxidized to CO2, with estimates of 5-7 ky for the half-life of charcoal carbon in soils [3,4]. Charcoal's high carbon content coupled with high environmental resistance has led to the concept of biochar as a valuable means of global carbon sequestration, capable of carbon offsets comparable to annual anthropogenic fuel emissions [5,6,7]. Charcoal is not, however, an environmentally inert substance, and at least some components of charcoal are susceptible to alteration in depositional environments. Despite the importance of charcoal in global carbon cycling, the mechanisms by which charcoal is altered in the environment remain, as yet, poorly understood. This fact limits our ability to properly incorporate both natural environmental charcoal and biochar into global carbon budgets. This study aimed to improve understanding of charcoal alteration in the environment by examining the influence of production conditions, starting material and deposition environment on the physical and chemical characteristics of charcoal at a field site in the Daintree rainforest. These factors have been identified as critical in determining the dynamics of charcoal in depositional environments [8,9] and climatic conditions at the field site (in Tropical Queensland, Australia) are likely to result in extensive alteration of charcoal. Charcoal from wood (Nothofagus spp.), algae (Enteromorpha spp.), and sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) biomass was produced at temperatures over 300-500°C and exposed to conditions of varying pH and vegetation cover. The effect of these variables on charcoal chemistry

  2. Partial Characterization of α-Galactosidic Activity from the Antarctic Bacterial Isolate, . LX-20 as a Potential Feed Enzyme Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyung Park

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An Antarctic bacterial isolate displaying extracellular α-galactosidic activity was named Paenibacillus sp. LX-20 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Optimal activity for the LX-20 α-galactosidase occurred at pH 6.0–6.5 and 45°C. The enzyme immobilized on the smart polymer Eudragit L-100 retained 70% of its original activity after incubation for 30 min at 50°C, while the free enzyme retained 58% of activity. The enzyme had relatively high specificity for α-D-galactosides such as p-nitrophenyl-α-galactopyranoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, and was resistant to some proteases such as trypsin, pancreatin and pronase. Enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited by Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but activity was not affected by β-mercaptoethanol or EDTA. LX-20 α-galactosidase may be potentially useful as an additive for soybean processing in the feed industry.

  3. Holocene fire, vegetation, and climate dynamics inferred from charcoal and pollen record in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenwei; Zhao, Yan; Qin, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Understanding fire history and its driving mechanisms can provide valuable insights into present fire regime (intensity, severity and frequency), the interplay between vegetation and fire, and trigger of fire activities. Here we reconstruct the Holocene fire history in the Zoige Basin on the eastern Tibetan Plateau, on the basis of sedimentary micro-charcoal record over the last 10.0 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) and discuss the influences of vegetation and climate on fire dynamics. Our results show that regional fire was active at 10.0-3.3 ka and a significant decrease in fire activity characterized the period after 3.3 ka. The high regional fire frequency at 10.0-3.3 ka is consistent with the forested landscape suggested by high affinity scores of cool mixed forest biome (mainly consisted of spruce), implying that fire dynamics during this period was generally controlled by the variations of arboreal biomass and summer temperature. During 6.3-4.6 ka the prevailing Asian summer monsoon provided increased moisture to this region and thus suppressed fire activities to an extent, despite the availability of abundant biomass. Declined tree biomass after 3.3 ka probably accounted for the decreased fire activities. In addition, two successive fire events at ca. 3.5-3.3 ka were likely responsible for the subsequent abrupt decline of forest components in the landscape.

  4. The Relationship Between Structural and Catalytic Activity of α and γ-Bismuth-Molybdate Catalysts for Partial Oxidation of Propylene to Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansuri, H.; Pham, G. H.; Wibawanta, S.; Zhang, D. K.; French, David

    Bismuth-molybdate catalysts are known to be effective for catalytic partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. Their properties and the kinetics and reaction mechanisms for acrolein production have been extensively studied, especially in their basic forms, such as α, β, and γ-bismuth-molybdate. Although the reaction mechanisms have been reported widely in the literature, a general agreement has not been reached, especially from a catalyst-structure point of view. The present contribution reports an effort to understand the structural changes of α and γ-bismuth-molybdate catalysts at varying temperatures as examined using high temperature XRD and to relate the catalyst performance (activity and selectivity) for propylene partial oxidation to acrolein. The XRD analysis was performed at temperature between 250 and 450°C in ambient atmosphere and the Rietveld refinement method was used to extract unit cell parameters. The results showed a distinct similarity between the shapes of the thermal expansion of the catalysts and their activity and selectivity curves, indicating a significant role that the catalyst interatomic structure plays in the overall reaction mechanism.

  5. Changes in head and cervical-spine postures and EMG activities of masticatory muscles following treatment with complete upper and partial lower denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, M A; Raustia, A M; Huggare, J A

    1994-10-01

    A clinical stomatognathic, cephalometric and electromyographic (EMG) study was performed in relation to 14 subjects (10 women, 4 men), each with an edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular dentition before and six months after treatment with complete upper and partial lower dentures. The mean age of the subjects was 54.4 years (range 43-64 years). The mean period of edentulousness and age of dentures were 22.5 years (range 15-33 years) and 14.1 (range 1.5-30 years), respectively. Natural head position was recorded (using a fluid-level method) and measured from cephalograms. EMG activity was measured in relation to masseter and temporal muscles. A decrease in clinical dysfunction index was noted in 12 of 14 subjects (86%). There was no change in cervical inclination, but a slight extension of the head was noted after treatment. Rapid recovery of the masticatory muscles was reflected in increased EMG activity, especially when biting in the maximal intercuspal position. In cases of edentulous maxilla and residual mandibular anterior dentition, treatment with a complete upper and lower partial denture had a favorable effect on craniomandibular disorders and masticatory-muscle function.

  6. Activated Fps/Fes partially rescues the in vivo developmental potential of Flk1-deficient vascular progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jody J; Ema, Masatsugu; Haigh, Katharina; Gertsenstein, Marina; Greer, Peter; Rossant, Janet; Nagy, Andras; Wagner, Erwin F

    2004-02-01

    Relatively little is known about the modulators of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)/Flk1 signaling cascade. To functionally characterize this pathway, VEGF-A stimulation of endothelial cells was performed. VEGF-A-mediated Flk1 activation resulted in increased translocation of the endogenous Fps/Fes cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase to the plasma membrane and increased tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting a role for Fps/Fes in VEGF-A/Flk1 signaling events. Addition of a myristoylation consensus sequence to Fps/Fes resulted in VEGF-A-independent membrane localization of Fps/Fes in endothelial cells. Expression of the activated Fps/Fes protein in Flk1-deficient embryonic stem (ES) cells rescued their contribution to the developing vascular endothelium in vivo by using ES cell-derived chimeras. Activated Fps/Fes contributed to this rescue event by restoring the migratory potential to Flk1 null progenitors, which is required for movement of hemangioblasts from the primitive streak region into the yolk sac proper. Activated Fps/Fes in the presence of Flk1 increased the number of hemangioblast colonies in vitro and increased the number of mesodermal progenitors in vivo. These results suggest that Fps/Fes may act synergistically with Flk1 to modulate hemangioblast differentiation into the endothelium. We have also demonstrated that activated Fps/Fes causes hemangioma formation in vivo, independently of Flk1, as a result of increasing vascular progenitor density.

  7. Fluocinolone acetonide partially restores the mineralization of LPS-stimulated dental pulp cells through inhibition of NF-κB pathway and activation of AP-1 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongning; Jiang, Ting; Wang, Xinzhi; Wang, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Fluocinolone acetonide (FA) is commonly used as a steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We recently found that in dental pulp cells (DPCs) FA has osteo-/odonto-inductive as well as anti-inflammatory effects. However, the mechanism by which FA induces these effects in DPCs is poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of FA on the mineralization of DPCs during inflammatory conditions and the underlying mechanism were investigated by real-time PCR, Western blot, EMSA, histochemical staining, immunostaining and pathway blockade assays. KEY RESULTS FA significantly inhibited the inflammatory response in LPS-treated DPCs not only by down-regulating the expression of pro–inflammation-related genes, but also by up-regulating the expression of the anti-inflammatory gene PPAR-γ and mineralization-related genes. Moreover, histochemical staining and immunostaining showed that FA could partially restore the expressions of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and mineralization in LPS-stimulated DPCs. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that FA up-regulated DSPP and runt-related transcription factor 2 expression by inhibiting the expression of phosphorylated-NF-κB P65 and activating activator protein-1 (AP-1) (p-c-Jun and Fra-1). These results were further confirmed through EMSA, by detection of NF-κB DNA-binding activity and pathway blockade assays using a NF-κB pathway inhibitor, AP-1 pathway inhibitor and glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Inflammation induced by LPS suppresses the mineralization process in DPCs. FA partially restored this osteo-/odonto-genesis process in LPS-treated DPCs and had an anti-inflammatory effect through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and activation of the AP-1 pathway. Hence, FA is a potential new treatment for inflammation-associated bone/teeth diseases. PMID:24024985

  8. Evaluation of the Effects of Lime-bassanite-charcoal Amendment on the Immobilization of Cadmium in Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shunhong; Yang, Yi; Li, Qian; Su, Zhen; Yuan, Cuiyu; Ouyang, Kun

    2017-03-01

    The effects of amendments, such as lime, bassanite, sodium phosphate, steel slag and charcoal, and their compounds on the immobilization of cadmium (Cd) are investigated. The lime-bassanite-charcoal compound shows the best remediation performance compared to other agents in conducted experiments. The optimum condition for lime-bassanite-charcoal application in contaminated soil is lime-bassanite-charcoal with a mass ratio of 1:1/3:2/3, a dose of 2% of the soil weight, and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 35%-40%; additionally, the agents should be added before water addition. The highest Cd removal rate was 58.94% (±1.19%) with a ∆pH of 0.23, which is much higher than the rates reported in previous studies. The compound amendment was used in a field experiment, demonstrating a Cd removal efficiency of 48.78% (±4.23), further confirming its effectiveness.

  9. Removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water using a bamboo-based charcoal adsorbent modified with chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangjun; Zhu, Guoying; Jia, Xiuying; Ding, Ying; Zhang, Mi; Gao, Qing; Hu, Ciming; Xu, Shuying

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of low-cost syntactic adsorbent from bamboo charcoal and chitosan was developed for the removal of microcystin-LR from drinking water. Removal efficiency was higher for the syntactic adsorbent when the amount of bamboo charcoal was increased. The optimum dose ratio of bamboo charcoal to chitosan was 6:4, and the optimum amount was 15 mg/L; equilibrium time was 6 hr. The adsorption isotherm was non-linear and could be simulated by the Freundlich model (R2 = 0.9337). Adsorption efficiency was strongly affected by pH and natural organic matter (NOM). Removal efficiency was 16% higher at pH 3 than at pH 9. Efficiency rate was reduced by 15% with 25 mg/L NOM (UV254 = 0.089 cm(-1)) in drinking water. This study demonstrated that the bamboo charcoal modified with chitosan can effectively remove microcystin-LR from drinking water.

  10. In vitro antiproliferative activity of partially purified Trigona laeviceps propolis from Thailand on human cancer cell lines

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    Puthong Songchan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancers are some of the leading causes of human deaths worldwide and their relative importance continues to increase. Since an increasing proportion of cancer patients are acquiring resistance to traditional chemotherapeutic agents, it is necessary to search for new compounds that provide suitable specific antiproliferative affects that can be developed as anticancer agents. Propolis from the stingless bee, Trigona laeviceps, is one potential interesting source that is widely available and cultivatable (as bee hives in Thailand. Methods Propolis (90 g was initially extracted by 95% (v/v ethanol and then solvent partitioned by sequential extractions of the crude ethanolic extract with 40% (v/v MeOH, CH2Cl2 and hexane. After solvent removal by evaporation, each extract was solvated in DMSO and assayed for antiproliferative activity against five cancer (Chago, KATO-III, SW620, BT474 and Hep-G2 and two normal (HS27 fibroblast and CH-liver cell lines using the MTT assay. The cell viability (% and IC50 values were calculated. Results The hexane extract provided the highest in vitro antiproliferative activity against the five tested cancer cell lines and the lowest cytotoxicity against the two normal cell lines. Further fractionation of the hexane fraction by quick column chromatography using eight solvents of increasing polarity for elution revealed the two fractions eluted with 30% and 100% (v/v CH2Cl2 in hexane (30DCM and 100DCM, respectively had a higher anti-proliferative activity. Further fractionation by size exclusion chromatography lead to four fractions for each of 30DCM and 100DCM, with the highest antiproliferative activity on cancer but not normal cell lines being observed in fraction# 3 of 30DCM (IC50 value of 4.09 - 14.7 μg/ml. Conclusions T. laeviceps propolis was found to contain compound(s with antiproliferative activity in vitro on cancer but not normal cell lines in tissue culture. The more enriched propolis

  11. Conductometric Studies Of Adsorption Of Sulfide On Charcoal From Aqueous Solution

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    Md. Rezwan Miah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of sulfide S2- from aqueous solution on commercial charcoal was studied using conductometric technique. A proportionally constant for concentration of S2- and its conductance was obtained by measuring conductance of S2- solution over a concentration range of 0.0005amp614850.02 M. The time-dependent measured conductance of S2- solution was converted to concentration using the obtained constant. The adsorption data were analyzed by both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms. A surface coverage equal to 2.5 mg per gram of charcoal was obtained. The adsorption was found to follow first-order kinetics having rate constant equal to 2.65 amp61620 10amp614853 s-1.

  12. Penelitian Pembuatan Arang Bambu (Bamboo Charcoal pda Suhu Rendah untuk Produk Kerajinan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suheryanto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakProses pengarangan terjadi bila ada suatu benda yang dipanasi sampai mencapai titik bakarnya sehingga benda terlihat membara, kemudian pemasukan oksigen dihentikan atau dibatasi agar benda tersebut tidak terbakar menjadi abu. Untuk melakukan uji coba penelitiaan pengarangan bambu menggunakan 2 jenis tungku, yaitu: tungku Tipe-1 tungku pengarangan suhu rendah (<120°C, dan tungku Tipe-2 tungku pengarangan suhu menengah 120°C -260°C, yang terbuat dari drum dengan Ǿ 35 cm. Bahan bambu yang digunakan terdiri dari 3 jenis bambu, yaitu; bambu cendani, petung, dan legi, dan produk bambu setengan jadi. Prosedur pengerjaan meliputi, penyiapan bahan (pemotongan dan seleksi, pengeringan, pengukuanr kandungan air awal, pengarangan, pengamatan proses pengarangan, dan identifikasi tingkat keberhasilan pengarangan. Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui faktor yang mempengaruhi proses pengarangan dan kinerja tungku suhu rendah dan menengah. Dari hasil pengukuran kandungan air awal dari ke 3 jenis bambu yaitu dibawah 15%, sedangkan dari hasil pengamatan dan identifikasi pengarangan, pengarangan dengan menggunakan tungku Tipe-1, temperatur tertinggi rata-rata yang dapat dicapai 107,4 ºC dalam waktu 5 jam, dengan tingkat keberhasilan pengarang antara 60 % - 90 %, atau rata-rata 73 %;  dengan tungku Tipe-2, temperatur tertinggi rata-rata yang dapat dicapai 112,8 ºC dalam waktu 3,5 jam, dengan tingkat keberhasilan pengarang antara 50 % - 90 %, atau rata-rata 81 %. Kata kunci: arang bambu (bamboo charcoal, pengarangan, suhu, tungku pengarangan ABSTRACTA charcoal formation process occurs when an object is being heated until it reaches its burning point and smoldered, then the oxygen intake is stopped or restricted, so the object will not get burned into ashes. In this research, there are two tipes of furnaces being used, those are: Furnace Tipe-1, with low temperature (120°C and Furnace Tipe-2, with medium temperature (120°C 260

  13. Torrefaction of corncob to produce charcoal under nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Xian; Chen, Chang-Zhou; Li, Ming-Fei; Xiao, Xiao

    2018-02-01

    Corncob was torrefied under nitrogen and carbon dioxide atmospheres at 220-300 °C, obtaining solid products with mass yields of 69.38-95.03% and 67.20-94.99% and higher heating values of 16.58-24.77 MJ/kg and 16.68-24.10 MJ/kg, respectively. The changes of physicochemical properties of the charcoal was evaluated by many spectroscopies, contact angle determination, and combustion test. Hemicelluloses were not detected for the torrefaction under the hard conditions. As the severity increased, C concentration raised while H and O concentrations reduced. Combustion test showed that the burnout temperature of charcoal declined with the elevation of reaction temperature, and torrefaction at a high temperature shortened the time for the whole combustion process. Base on the data, torrefaction at 260 °C under carbon dioxide was recommended for the torrefaction of corncob. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing land availability to produce biomass for energy: The case of Brazilian charcoal for steel making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle; Wichert, Marcos; Fallot, Abigail; Aimola, Luis

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses the availability of biomass in Brazil to supply charcoal to the steel industry on the bases of an initial global assessment of land potentially available for plantations and of Brazilian data that allows refining the assessment and specifying the issue of practical availability. Technical potentials are first assessed through a series of simple rules against direct competition with agriculture, forests and protected areas, and of quantitative criteria, whether geo-climatic (rainfall), demographic (population density) or legal (reserves). Institutional, social and economic factors are then identified and discussed so as to account for the practical availability of Brazilian biomass through six criteria. The ranking of nine Brazilian States according to these criteria brings out the necessary trade-offs in the selection of land for plantations that would efficiently supply charcoal to the steel industry. (author)

  15. Anatomy Of Archaeological Wood Charcoals From Yenibademli Mound (Imbros), Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, B.

    In this study, the qualitative and quantitative anatomy of six wood charcoals from an early Bronze Age settlement in the island Imbros (Gökçeada) were presented. Taxonomic identification on the basis of wood anatomy showed that two of them belong to the genus Quercus (section Ilex and cf Quercus), and four of them belong to the genus Pinus. Any fireplace is absent at the location of wood charcoals in G9 plan square. It appears that the woody branches on the horizontal roof of the building fell down to the floor after a big fire. It is most likely that the woody genera identified in the study were used for roof construction.

  16. Radioactive gas standby treatment apparatus with high efficiency rechargeable charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.

    1975-01-01

    Described is a standby gas treatment system for removal of radioactive release from a nuclear containment structure not only during normal purge operations but also in the event of a design basis accident. Ventiduct trains arranged in parallel so that one is redundant are each operative to extract dust in excess of 0.3 microns and adsorb radioactive iodine and compounds thereof at 99.9 percent plus efficiency. A rechargeable gasketless charcoal filter in each train can be filled or emptied without removing the filter enclosures per se. Laminar flow filter beds entirely encapsulate the gas stream to provide low gas velocity and even distribution across the charcoal cage without channeling, thereby securing long residence time

  17. Radioactive gas standby treatment apparatus with high efficiency rechargeable charcoal filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, T.N.; Spulgis, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a standby gas treatment system for removal of radioactive release from a nuclear containment structure not only during normal purge operations but also in the event of a design basis accident. Ventiduct trains arranged in parallel so that one is redundant are each operative to extract dust in excess of 0.3 microns and adsorb radioactive iodine and compounds thereof at 99.9 percent plus efficiency. A rechargeable gasketless charcoal filter in each train can be filled or emptied without removing the filter enclosures per se. Laminar flow filter beds entirely encapsulate the gas stream to provide low gas velocity and even distribution across the charcoal cage without channeling, thereby securing long residence time. 2 claims, 9 drawing figures

  18. Quality and energetic evaluation of the charcoal made of babassu nut residues used in the steel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the only country in the world that uses large scale charcoal in steel-making blast furnaces. Meantime, the monoculture plantations of Eucalyptus are not able to meet the demand for charcoal from the steel industries.Therefore, research is necessary, in order to use lignocellulosic residues for the production of charcoal with technological properties which are suitable for the reduction of iron ore. Given the above, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of charcoal which was made with babassu nut shell and designed for utilization in the steel industry in the function of the final carbonization temperature. All three layers of babassu nut shell (epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp were used together. The initial temperature of the test was 100ºC and the final temperatures were: 450ºC, 550ºC, 650ºC, 750ºC and 850ºC. For the charcoals produced, the following properties were determined: apparent relative density, energy density and fixed carbon stock, in addition to chemical compositions (immediate and elemental and heating values (higher and lower. Charcoal made of babassu nut shell showed high values of apparent density and energy density, and has a potential to replace coal and wood charcoal in the steel industry. The effect of the final carbonization temperature was expressed for all characteristics evaluated, except for the nitrogen content. Babassu nut shell must be carbonized at temperatures higher than 550ºC, so that the charcoal produced can be used in steel-making blast furnaces.

  19. Studies on entrained DNPPA separation by charcoal adsorption from aqueous solutions generated during uranium recovery from strong phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.

    2010-01-01

    During the separation of metal ions by solvent extraction technique in hydrometallurgical operations, organic solvents either get entrained or dissolved in various types of aqueous streams, which need to be separated out to prevent environmental pollution and solvent loss. Generally entrained solvents are separated on plant scale by parallel plate separators or by froth floatation cells, while the dissolved solvents are recovered either by organic diluent wash or by charcoal adsorption. A novel process has been developed to recover uranium from merchant grade phosphoric acid (MGA) employing synergistic mixture of DNPPA (di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid ) and TOPO (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) dissolved in petrofin. After recovery of uranium, MGA has to be returned to the host company for the production of fertilizer. This MGA has to be free from any contamination due to DNPPA and TOPO. Separation of DNPPA and TOPO from MGA by diluent wash method has been reported. There is no information available in literature for the separation of DNPPA and TOPO from such aqueous streams by carbon adsorption. The present investigation describes the methodology based on charcoal adsorption study (batch and continuous column operation) to separate DNPPA from MGA. Three different types of charcoal namely coconut shell based, coal based and pelletized charcoal were evaluated for DNPPA separation from MGA containing 100 mg/L DNPPA. It was found that the % DNPPA adsorptions in single contact (0.5g C/50 ml) were 57, 34 and 10 in coconut shell, coal based and pelletised charcoal respectively. Based on the results, the coconut shell based charcoal was selected for further study. Adsorption of DNPPA by coconut shell based charcoal was investigated by carrying out the experiments with 50 ml MGA containing 770 mg/L DNPPA by adding 1 to 7 g charcoal respectively in separate beakers

  20. IRSN's opinion on the partial activity resumption for the Plutonium Technology Workshop (ATPu - INB 32) of the Cadarache Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    As operations had been suspended for stations where fissile materials were handled in the ATPu (Atelier de Technologie du Plutonium, Plutonium Technology Workshop) of the Cadarache Centre, this document briefly describes the concerned operations (waste treatment and evacuation, glove box dismantling, transfer section dismantling), specifies and comments the measures undertaken by the operator, and gives the IRSN opinion about the resumption of the concerned activities

  1. Isolation And Partial Characterization Of Bacteria Activity Associated With Gorgonian Euplexaura sp. Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, R.; Ayuningrum, D.; Asagabaldan, M. A.; Nuryadi, H.; Sabdono, A.; Radjasa, O. K.; Trianto, A.

    2017-02-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection has emerged in around the world and has been resistance to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin. The aims of this study were to isolate, to investigate and to characterize bacterial symbionts gorgonian having activity against MRSA. Euplexaura sp. was collected from Panjang Island, Jepara, Indonesia by snorkling 2-5 m in depth. Bacterias were isolated by using spesific media with dilution method. Bacterias were conducted by using the streak method. Antibacterial activity was investigated by overlay method. The potent bacteria was identified by using molecular identification (DNA extraction, electrophoresis, PCR and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA genes with actinobacteria-spesific primers) and bio-chemical test (among 5 isolated bacteria from gorgonian showed activity against MRSA). The strain PG-344 was the best candidat that has an inhibition zone against MRSA. The result of sequencing bacteria is 100% closely related with Virgibacillus salarius. This becomes a potential new bioactive compounds to against MRSA that can be a new drug discovery.

  2. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storm, J.R.; Patterson, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported

  3. Soil charcoal as long-term pyrogenic carbon storage in Amazonian seasonal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Maryory M; Jaramillo, Margarita M A; do Vale, José F; Fearnside, Philip M; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires (paleo + modern) have caused charcoal particles to accumulate in the soil vertical profile in Amazonia. This forest compartment is a long-term carbon reservoir with an important role in global carbon balance. Estimates of stocks remain uncertain in forests that have not been altered by deforestation but that have been impacted by understory fires and selective logging. We estimated the stock of pyrogenic carbon derived from charcoal accumulated in the soil profile of seasonal forest fragments impacted by fire and selective logging in the northern portion of Brazilian Amazonia. Sixty-nine soil cores to 1-m depth were collected in 12 forest fragments of different sizes. Charcoal stocks averaged 3.45 ± 2.17 Mg ha(-1) (2.24 ± 1.41 Mg C ha(-1) ). Pyrogenic carbon was not directly related to the size of the forest fragments. This carbon is equivalent to 1.40% (0.25% to 4.04%) of the carbon stocked in aboveground live tree biomass in these fragments. The vertical distribution of pyrogenic carbon indicates an exponential model, where the 0-30 cm depth range has 60% of the total stored. The total area of Brazil's Amazonian seasonal forests and ecotones not altered by deforestation implies 65-286 Tg of pyrogenic carbon accumulated along the soil vertical profile. This is 1.2-2.3 times the total amount of residual pyrogenic carbon formed by biomass burning worldwide in 1 year. Our analysis suggests that the accumulated charcoal in the soil vertical profile in Amazonian forests is a substantial pyrogenic carbon pool that needs to be considered in global carbon models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Carbon isotopes and charcoal in soils, vegetation changes and climate inferences in the southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gouveia, S.E.M; Aravena, R; Boulet, R; Bendassolli, J.A

    2001-01-01

    The use of carbon isotopes in studies of soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics have been applied to infer information about vegetation and climate changes during the late Quaternary (Schwartz et al., 1986; Pessenda et al., 1996). This approach had also been used in different areas in Brazil to document vegetation changes during the Holocene (Desjardins et al., 1996; Gouveia et al., 1997; Pessenda et al., 1998a, b, 2001) and late Pleistocene/Holocene (Freitas et al., 2001). The application of carbon isotopes is based on the different 13 C composition of C 3 and C 4 plants and its preservation in SOM. 13 C values of C 3 plant species range from approximately -32% o to -20% o PDB, with a mean of -27% o . In contrast, δ 13 C of C 4 species range from -17% o to -9% o with mean of -13% o . Thus, C 3 and C 4 plant species have distinct δ 13 C values and differ from each other by approximately 14% o (Boutton, 1991). The study of charcoal fragments found in sediments and soils also supplies information about climatic conditions. Charcoal distribution in the soil profiles can provide information about the occurrence of paleofires (Pessenda et al., 1996), possibly associated with drier climate periods and/or human disturbance. In this paper we report δ 13 C data of soil and 14 C dates on charcoal from five soil profiles collected under natural vegetation in the Parana and Sao Paulo states, southeastern Brazil. Carbon isotopes are used to evaluate vegetation changes during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Charcoal distribution in the soil and its dating are used to infer linkage between forest fires and climate changes and to establish the chronology (au)

  5. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  6. A charcoal canister survey of radon emanation at the rehabilitated uranium mine site at Nabarlek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm, J R; Patterson, J R [University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA (Australia). Department of Physics and Mathematical Physics

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a recent survey of radon emanation measurements from the rehabilitated Nabarlek mine site. It was mined out in 1979, decommissioned in 1995 and provided a good test bed for assessment of rehabilitation in terms of radon flux attenuation. Measurements have been made with charcoal canisters. Studies to measure the radon-220 flux by observing Tl-208 progeny of thoron the effectiveness of trial covers and meteorological considerations will be reported.

  7. Use of wood anatomy to identify poisonous plants: Charcoal of Spirostachys africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. Lennox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spirostachys africana Sond. (tamboti/tambotie is a woodland tree that is often found near water. It has a poisonous and purgative latex. The archaeological site of Sibudu, a rock shelter in KwaZulu-Natal, has evidence, from well-preserved charcoal and seeds, of past environments and wood use from approximately 77–38 thousand years ago (ka. As their uses and environmental indicators are different, it is critical to confidently distinguish among the three anatomically similar woods of the Euphorbiaceae: Spirostachys africana, Sclerocroton integerrimus and Shirakiopsis elliptica. A detailed anatomical study of reference and archaeological charcoal shows that xylem vessel width increases proportionally as vessel frequency decreases, from Spirostachys africana, Sclerocroton integerrimus to Shirakiopsis elliptica. Crystals of calcium oxalate are present in ray cells of Spirostachys africana, whereas silica bodies are present in ray cells of Sclerocroton integerrimus and Shirakiopsis elliptica. Using these features, the presence of Spirostachys africana was confirmed amongst hearth charcoal of the Spotty Camel layer, with an age of approximately 58 ka and of the Mottled Deposit occupational layer, with an age of approximately 49 ka. The presence of this charcoal, collected from ancient fireplaces or sieved from surrounding sediments, implies that people at Sibudu understood and used this poisonous tree to their advantage. We are encouraged in this view by the presence of many Cryptocarya woodii leaves found on the surface of 77-ka sedge bedding at Sibudu (Wadley L et al., Science. 2011;334:1388–1391. Cryptocarya woodii has insecticidal and larvacidal properties and members of the Laurel family are well known for their medicinal properties.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of PVA Alkaline Solid Polymer Electrolyte with Addition of Bamboo Charcoal

    OpenAIRE

    Lidan Fan; Mengyue Wang; Zhen Zhang; Gang Qin; Xiaoyi Hu; Qiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Natural bamboo charcoal (BC) powder has been developed as a novel filler in order to further improve performances of the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE) by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction patterns of composite polymer electrolyte with BC revealed the decrease in the degree of crystallinity with increasing content of BC. Scanning electron microscopy images showed pores on a micrometer scale (average diameter about 2 μm) distributed inside a...

  9. Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhangmei; Wang, Yan; Bian, Liang; Liu, Qingqing; Long, Jian-Er

    2017-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. However, the role of STAT3 in EV71 infection remains unknown. This study found that the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 (p Y705 -STAT3) are closely related to EV71 infection. Further experiments revealed that STAT3 exerts an anti-EV71 activity. However, the antiviral activity of STAT3 is partially antagonized by EV71-induced miR-124, which directly targets STAT3 mRNA. Similarly, IL-6R, the α-subunit of the IL-6 receptor complex, exhibits anti-EV71 activity and is directly targeted by the virus-induced miR-124. These results indicate that EV71 can evade host IL-6R- and STAT3-mediated antiviral activities by EV71-induced miR-124. This suggests that controlling miR-124 and the downstream targets, IL-6R and STAT3, might benefit the antiviral treatment of EV71 infection.

  10. The contribution of charcoal burning to the rise and decline of suicides in Hong Kong from 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, Paul S F; Caine, Eric D

    2011-09-01

    There has been scant research exploring the relationship between choice of method (means) of self-inflicted death, and broader social or contextual factors. The recent emergence and growth of suicide using carbon monoxide poisoning resulting from burning charcoal in an enclosed space (hereafter, "charcoal burning") was related to an increase in the overall suicide rate in Hong Kong. The growth of this method coincided with changing economic conditions. This paper expands upon previous work to explore possible relationships further. This study aims to discern the role of charcoal burning in overall suicide rate transition during times of both economic recession and expansion, as captured in the unemployment rate of Hong Kong, and to examine whether there was evidence of an effect from means-substitution. Age and gender specific suicide rates in Hong Kong by suicide methods from 1997 to 2007 were calculated. To model the transition of suicide rate by different methods, Poisson regression analyses were employed. Charcoal burning constituted 18.3% of all suicides, 88% of which involved individuals drawn from the middle years (25-59) of life. During both periods of rising and declining unemployment, charcoal burning played an important role in the changing suicide rates, and this effect was most prominent among for those in their middle years. Means-substitution was found among the married women during the period of rate advancement (1997-2003). Compared to others, working-age adults preferentially selected carbon monoxide poisoning from charcoal burning.

  11. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaoma, J.; Kasali, G.B.; Ellegaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    An improved chamber method was used to evaluate the thermal performance and emission characteristics of charcoal in an unvented cookstove known as the Improved Mbaula. Emission factors and rates for pollutants, burn rate and stove efficiency were determined. The pollutants that were continuously monitored were carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP). Concentrations of CO, nitrogen oxides and RSP in the test chamber (a simulated kitchen) reached levels in excess of guidelines recommended in industrialized countries. Concentrations of SO 2 did not exceed known levels. If the test chamber actually is a good simulation of a common kitchen, the levels reached warrant concern for the health of people exposed, mostly women and children. Levels of pollution in actual kitchens will be assessed in a later study. The adjustable opening of the stove proved effective in regulating the burn rate. At half air input, burn rate decreased by about 40%, while emissions increased by about 60% compared to operation at full air input. Emissions of CO were 340 g/kg charcoal at full air input, which was taken to be the normal mode of operation. The average thermal efficiency (PHU) of the improved mbaula was 25% compared to 29% for the traditional charcoal stove. 16 refs, 4 figs, 12 tabs

  12. Effect of carbon black on thermal properties of charcoal and salacca leafstalk briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thassana, Chewa; Nuleg, Witoon

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the effect of a carbon black (CB) on the thermal properties of briquettes produced from the charcoal and the salacca leafstalk with and without CB have been investigated. Four thermal properties of a briquettes compose of the burning time, the calorific value, the percentage moisture (PMC) and an percentage ash content (PAC) were analyzed using standard laboratory methods. Our results were indicated that the sallacca leafstalk mix a carbon black is the long burning times, high heating but a few ash content. Results shown that the burning time and the calorific value of a charcoal, a charcoal with CB, the salacca leafstalk and the salacca leafstalk with carbon black particles is about 58, 63, 76, 81 minutes, and 10.33, 12.96, 13.12, 14.63 MJ/kg, respectively. In addition, the PMC and PAC were in range of 11.6 - 8.14% and 9.33 - 5.42%. So, we can conclude that a cabon black affect on the thermal properties of a briquettes and salacca leaftstalk mixed CB has been most suited for briquetting.

  13. Efficiency and emissions of charcoal use in the improved Mbaula cookstove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaoma, J; Kasali, G B [Building and Industrial Mineral