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Sample records for partial trisomy 2p

  1. Trisomy 2p: Analysis of unusual phenotypic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lurie, I.W.; Ilyina, H.G.; Gurevich, D.B. [Belorussian Research Institute of Hereditary Disease, Minsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-01-16

    We present three probands with partial trisomies 2p21-23 due to ins(4;2)(q21;p21p23) pat, 2p23-pter due to t(2;4)(p23;q35)mat, and 2p21-pter due to t(2;11)(p21;q23.3)mat. More than 50 cases of partial trisomy 2p have been reviewed and some abnormalities, unusual for most other types of structural autosomal imbalance, have been found in patients with inherited forms of 2p trisomy and in their non-karyotyped sibs. Neural tube defects (anencephaly, occipital encephalocele, and spina bifida) were found in five probands and 4/6 affected non-karyotyped sibs. The only triplicated segment common to all was 2p24. Different forms of {open_quotes}broncho-pulmonary a/hypoplasia{close_quotes} (including two cases of lung agenesis) were described in four patients (overlapping triplicated segment was 2p21-p25). Three patients (with overlapping triplicated segment 2p23-p25) had diaphragmatic hernia. Abnormal rotation of the heart or L-transposition of large vessels (with or without visceral heterotaxia) was found in two infants (overlapping triplicated segment 2p23-p24). In two patients with common triplicated segment 2p22.3-p25, neuroblastoma has been described. The occurrence of all these defects may be explained either by the action of the same gene(s) mapped to 2p24 or by action of some independent factors located in different segments of the short arm. Although the latter hypothesis is much less probable, it can not be rejected at the present time. We propose the existence of a genetic system controlling surveillance of an abnormal embryo to explain the phenotypic differences between patients with the same imbalance within a family. In some {open_quotes}restrictive{close_quotes} combinations the abnormal embryos will die, although in {open_quotes}permissive{close_quotes} combinations they can survive. 47 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Two cases of partial trisomy 4p and partial trisomy 14q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeo-Hyang; Kim, Heung-Sik; Ryoo, Nam-Hee; Ha, Jung-Sook

    2013-01-01

    We present clinical and cytogenetic data on 2 cases of partial trisomy 4p and partial trisomy 14q. Both patients had an extra der(14)t(4;14)(p15.31;q12) chromosome due to a 3:1 segregation from a balanced translocation carrier mother. Array analyses indicated that their chromosomal breakpoints were similar, but there was no relationship between the 2 families. Both patients showed prominent growth retardation and psychomotor developmental delay. Other phenotypic manifestations were generally mild and variable; for example, patient 1 had a short palpebral fissure and low-set ears whereas patient 2 had a round face, asymmetric eyes, small ears, a short neck, finger/toe abnormalities, and behavioral problems.

  3. PARTIAL TRISOMY 4p AND PARTIAL MONOSOMY 13q: CASE REPORT AND A LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvabanditsin, S; Herrera-Garcia, G; Gengel, N; Hussein, K; February, M; Mayne, J; Mehta, R

    2016-01-01

    We report on a term first born dichorionic-diamniotic twin with deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 13, partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 4, intrauterine growth retardation, and multiple anomalies including microcephaly, colpocephaly, absent corpus callosum, bulbous tip of the nose, large and low set ears, macroglossia, thin upper lip, double outlet right ventricle, atria/ventricular septal defect, cleft mitral valve, pulmonary stenosis, single umbilical artery, multicystic dysplastic left kidney, sacral dimple, anterior displacement of anus, simian creases, abnormal thumb (congenital clasped thumb), overlapping toes, and congenital hypothyroidism. This is the first report of a patient with partial trisomy 4p and partial monosomy 13q.

  4. Partial monosomy 8q and partial trisomy 9q due to the maternal translocation t(8;9(q24.3;q34.1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tos, T; Alp, M Y; Eker, H K

    2014-01-01

    Partial trisomy 9q34-qter and partial monosomy 8q24.3-qter are very rare chromosomal abnormalities. Characteristic features of partial trisomy 9q34-qter are hypotonia, developmental delay, mild intellectual disability, dolichocephaly, distinct facial phenotype, long and thin fingers, and cardiac...

  5. Case report of newborn with de novo partial trisomy 2q31.2–37.3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Case report of newborn with de novo partial trisomy 2q31.2–37.3 and monosomy 9p24.3 ... This is the first report of molecular cytogenetic characterization of a partial trisomy 2q31.2–37.3 with monosomy 9p24.3. ... Manuscript received: 10 November 2016; Manuscript revised: 13 March 2017; Accepted: 21 March 2017 ...

  6. Small supernumerary marker chromosome causing partial trisomy 6p in a child with craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Olaya; Del Campo, Miguel; Salido, Marta; Gener, Blanca; Astier, Laura; Del Valle, Jesús; Gallastegui, Fátima; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A; Solé, Francesc

    2007-05-15

    We report on a child with a small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) causing partial trisomy 6p. The child showed a phenotype consisting of neonatal craniosynostosis, microcephaly, and borderline developmental delay. By molecular techniques the sSMC has been shown to contain approximately 16 Mb of genomic DNA from 6p21.1 to 6cen, being de novo and of maternal origin.

  7. [Cytogenetic and molecular genetic diagnosis of a neonate with partial 13q trisomy and partial 5p monosomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wenjun; Gao, Zhenkui; Meng, Qian; Zhang, Man

    2014-12-01

    To diagnose a neonate presenting with multiple dysmorphic features, Cri-du-chat signs and hypoglycemia and to correlate the phenotype with the genotype. The patient was diagnosed with conventional cytogenetics and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (QF-PCR). The phenotype was then correlated with the genotype through a review of literature. The neonate was diagnosed with a partial 13q trisomy (q12 → qter) and partial 5p monosomy (p15 →pter). A rare diagnosis has been established with combined cytogenetic and molecular genetic techniques. QF-PCR has a broad application in genetic diagnosis.

  8. Partial trisomy 16p in an adolescent with autistic disorder and Tourette`s syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebebrand, J.; Martin, M.; Remschmidt, H. [Philipps-Univ., Marburg (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    A partial trisomy 16p was identified in a 14-year-old male adolescent with autistic disorder. He additionally showed complex motor and vocal phenomena, including some simple tics which had first appeared in childhood. Whereas these simple tics were of subclinical significance, an additional diagnosis of Tourette`s syndrome (TS) appears justified. The case report illustrates the diagnostic difficulties in assessing psychiatric symptomatology associated with both disorders, especially complex motor and vocal phenomena. The cytogenetic finding is discussed critically in the light of other chromosome abnormalities reported in both TS and autistic disorder. Chromosome 16p should be considered as a candidate region especially for autistic disorder. 21 refs.

  9. Partial trisomy 14q and monosomy 20q due to an unbalanced familial translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menasse-Palmer, L; Leo, J.; Cannizaro, L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Partial trisomy of distal 14q and monosomy of 20q are rare. There have been several reports of a partial distal trisomy 14q with characteristic clinical findings, including hypogonadism and a conotruncal cardiac anomaly. There is no deletion distal 20q syndrome. We have recently examined a newborn with this unique duplication/deletion syndrome. Case report: J.S. was the 2980 gm product of a term uneventful pregnancy delivered to a 24-year-old gravida 2, para 1001 mother. The newborn exam revealed a dysmorphic newborn male with a sloping forehead, bitemporal narrowing, glabellar furrowing and micrognathia. A systolic murmur was audible. The genital abnormalities were micropenis, hypospadias with chordee and bifid scrotum with prominent raphe, and gonads were palpable. A CAT scan of the head revealed grade I IVH. An echocardiogram showed a VSD, ASD and an AP window. A sonogram of the liver showed absence of the gallbladder. Chromosome analysis revealed an abnormal male karyotype containing a derivative 20, subsequently shown to be inherited as a result of malsegregation of a paternal translocation: 46,XY,-20,+der(20)t(14;20)(q32.1;q13.3)pat. The infant fed poorly and required tube feedings and was treated for congestive heart failure with Digoxin, Lasix and oxygen. A decreased cortisol level and cholestasis were noted. The infant died after a cardiopulmonary arrest at one month of age. No post-mortem was obtained. Clinical cytogenetic correlation (conotruncal abnormality and hypogonadism) with partial duplication of distal 14q was positive. This case helps to further delineate duplication 14q and a syndrome due to partial deletion 20q.

  10. Cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia in a child with a partial monosomy for the short arm of chromosome 5 and partial trisomy for the short arm of chromosome 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, W F M; Hofstee, Y; Drejer, G F; Beverstock, G C; Oosterwijk, J C

    A child with hypoplasia of the cerebellum and brainstem in association with an unbalanced translocation, resulting in a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and a partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10, is described. A balanced translocation was present in his mother and

  11. Partial trisomy 5q resulting from chromosome 7 insertion: An expansion of the phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, M.H.; Reilly, P.A.; Williams, T.C. [Keesler Medical Center, MS (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Partial trisomy 5q has been categorized into three separate phenotypes; however, a distinctive phenotype has not been described for duplications spanning 5q23-q35. We report a case of partial trisomy 5q for this region as a result of a ins(7,5)(q31.3;q23.2q35.1)mat. The liveborn male infant was delivered by emergency cesarean section at 37 weeks after a pregnancy notable for oligohydramnios, with birth weight 1792 g (<3%). Postnatal course was marked by psychomotor delay, failure to thrive, and biopsy demonstrated neonatal giant cell hepatitis with a paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. His appearance was remarkable for lack of subcutaneous fat, midline displaced hair whorl, bitemporal narrowing with frontal bossing, wide anterior fontanel, widow`s peak, protuberant eyes with periorbital and lid edema, short flat nasal bridge with broad flattened nasal tip, long smooth philtrum, wide mouth with thin lips, wide gingival ridges, micrognathia, posteriorly rotated low-set ears, hepatomegaly, flexion contractions of elbows, and generalized hypertonicity. Urine organic acids, oligosaccharide/mucopolysaccharide screen, and plasma amino acids were negative. GTG-banding on prometaphase chromosomes showed an unbalanced translocation involving chr. 7. This was identified as an insertion of chr. 5 (q23.2q35.1) into distal 7q after FISH using chr. 5 and chr. 7 painting probes. The infant`s mother carries the balanced insertional rearrangement: 46,XX,dir ins(7,5)(q31.3;q23.2q35.1). This phenotype overlaps that of previously described duplications with the addition of giant cell hepatitis, coarsened facial features, gingival thickening, and flexion contractures, suggestive of a yet undiagnosed storage disorder.

  12. Investigation of a Patient With a Partial Trisomy 16q Including the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene (FTO): Fine Mapping and FTO Gene Expression Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, L.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Han, J.C.; Ylstra, B.; Eijk, P.; Nesterova, M.; Heutink, P.; Stratakis, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    A female patient with a partial trisomy 16q was described previously. Her clinical characteristics included obesity, severe anisomastia, moderate to severe mental retardation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dysmorphic facies, and contractions of the small joints. In this article, we

  13. Partial trisomy 8 mosaicism not detected by cultured amniotic-fluid cells

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    Meng-Che Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Conventional karyotyping through amniocentesis has limitations particularly in detecting rare trisomy mosaicism if trisomic cells show growth disadvantage. Array-CGH using uncultured cells may be of help in providing more information on genetic dosage variations in such cases.

  14. Partial trisomy 9p derivatived from a maternal reciprocal translocation 9;15. Case reports.

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    Elodia Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to highlight the importance of performing karyotype in children with congenital malformations in order to have a confirmatory diagnosis, in parents to exclude the possibility of being carriers of chromosomal abnormalities and perform the genetic counseling. Clinical cases description: Female patient with 3 years and 2 months old to whom karyotype was performed by global neurodevelopmental delay and microcephaly, and her mother with 34 years old without any clinical manifestations, to both patients, lymphocyte culture and chromosomal analysis with a High Resolution Banding techniques GTG and C were performed. The mother’s karyotype was 46,XX,t(9;15(q10;q10(p10;p10,add14p. The father’s karyotype was normal, 46,XY, and the girl’s karyotype resulted in a pure Trisomy 9p:  47,XX,+del(9(q11. Discussion: This chromosomal rearrangement in mother included a nonhomologous reciprocal translocation between the long arms of pair chromosomes 9 and 15 and between the short arms of the same chromosomes, additional to it, an unknown origin material was also observed in short arm from one chromosome of the 14 pair. In meiosis of this type of rearrangement, the father’s normal homologous chromosomes are paired with the mother’s translocated chromosomes and as a result of 3:1 segregation a gamete with one chromosome else was originated that after fertilization resulted in an unbalanced translocation confirming the pure trisomy in the patient.

  15. Partial Trisomy 16p (16p12.2→pter and Partial Monosomy 22q (22q13.31 →qter Presenting With Fetal Ascites and Ventriculomegaly: Prenatal Diagnosis and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization Characterization

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Partial trisomy 16p can be associated with fetal ascites and ventriculomegaly in the second trimester. Prenatal sonographic detection of fetal ascites in association with ventriculomegaly should alert chromosomal abnormalities and prompt cytogenetic investigation, which may lead to the identification of an unexpected parental translocation involving chromosomal segments associated with cerebral and vascular abnormalities.

  16. Partial trisomy 13 in an infant with a mild phenotype: application of fluorescence in situ hybridization in cytogenetic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begovic, D; Hitrec, V; Lasan, R; Letica, L; Baric, I; Sarnavka, V; Galic, S

    1998-06-01

    We report on a month-old infant with dysmorphic face and several anomalies known to be associated with trisomy 13. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies performed on metaphase cells allowed us to identify an extra material on the short arm of the chromosome 13 as a duplication of 13q22-qter.

  17. Opposite phenotypes of muscle strength and locomotor function in mouse models of partial trisomy and monosomy 21 for the proximal Hspa13-App region.

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    Véronique Brault

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21, which causes Down syndrome (DS, is the most common viable human aneuploidy. In contrast to trisomy, the complete monosomy (M21 of Hsa21 is lethal, and only partial monosomy or mosaic monosomy of Hsa21 is seen. Both conditions lead to variable physiological abnormalities with constant intellectual disability, locomotor deficits, and altered muscle tone. To search for dosage-sensitive genes involved in DS and M21 phenotypes, we created two new mouse models: the Ts3Yah carrying a tandem duplication and the Ms3Yah carrying a deletion of the Hspa13-App interval syntenic with 21q11.2-q21.3. Here we report that the trisomy and the monosomy of this region alter locomotion, muscle strength, mass, and energetic balance. The expression profiling of skeletal muscles revealed global changes in the regulation of genes implicated in energetic metabolism, mitochondrial activity, and biogenesis. These genes are downregulated in Ts3Yah mice and upregulated in Ms3Yah mice. The shift in skeletal muscle metabolism correlates with a change in mitochondrial proliferation without an alteration in the respiratory function. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS production from mitochondrial complex I decreased in Ms3Yah mice, while the membrane permeability of Ts3Yah mitochondria slightly increased. Thus, we demonstrated how the Hspa13-App interval controls metabolic and mitochondrial phenotypes in muscles certainly as a consequence of change in dose of Gabpa, Nrip1, and Atp5j. Our results indicate that the copy number variation in the Hspa13-App region has a peripheral impact on locomotor activity by altering muscle function.

  18. Opposite phenotypes of muscle strength and locomotor function in mouse models of partial trisomy and monosomy 21 for the proximal Hspa13-App region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Véronique; Duchon, Arnaud; Romestaing, Caroline; Sahun, Ignasi; Pothion, Stéphanie; Karout, Mona; Borel, Christelle; Dembele, Doulaye; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Messaddeq, Nadia; Sharp, Andrew J; Roussel, Damien; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Dierssen, Mara; Hérault, Yann

    2015-03-01

    The trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), which causes Down syndrome (DS), is the most common viable human aneuploidy. In contrast to trisomy, the complete monosomy (M21) of Hsa21 is lethal, and only partial monosomy or mosaic monosomy of Hsa21 is seen. Both conditions lead to variable physiological abnormalities with constant intellectual disability, locomotor deficits, and altered muscle tone. To search for dosage-sensitive genes involved in DS and M21 phenotypes, we created two new mouse models: the Ts3Yah carrying a tandem duplication and the Ms3Yah carrying a deletion of the Hspa13-App interval syntenic with 21q11.2-q21.3. Here we report that the trisomy and the monosomy of this region alter locomotion, muscle strength, mass, and energetic balance. The expression profiling of skeletal muscles revealed global changes in the regulation of genes implicated in energetic metabolism, mitochondrial activity, and biogenesis. These genes are downregulated in Ts3Yah mice and upregulated in Ms3Yah mice. The shift in skeletal muscle metabolism correlates with a change in mitochondrial proliferation without an alteration in the respiratory function. However, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from mitochondrial complex I decreased in Ms3Yah mice, while the membrane permeability of Ts3Yah mitochondria slightly increased. Thus, we demonstrated how the Hspa13-App interval controls metabolic and mitochondrial phenotypes in muscles certainly as a consequence of change in dose of Gabpa, Nrip1, and Atp5j. Our results indicate that the copy number variation in the Hspa13-App region has a peripheral impact on locomotor activity by altering muscle function.

  19. Trisomy 2q11.2-->q21.1 resulting from an unbalanced insertion in two generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, I A; Stormer, P; Oei, P T; Hacking, E; Cotter, P D

    1998-01-01

    In this communication, we describe two cases of proximal 2q trisomy (2q11.2--> q21.1) resulting from an interchromosomal insertion. The chromosomal origin of the insertion was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. An unbalanced karyotype, 46,XX,der(8) ,ins(8;2) (p21.3; q21.1q11.2), was found in the proband and her mother, who both have mild mental retardation, short stature, dysmorphic features, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, and a psychotic illness. This family is a rare example of direct transmission of a partial autosomal trisomy. Images PMID:9598728

  20. Oral health needs in individuals with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13: Implications for dental professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah; Martinez, Alyssa; Campbell, Emily All

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine oral health needs and dental care in individuals with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 (full, mosaic, partial and other, mixed types). Primary feeding method was also examined. Data was collected from a parent-completed, mixed method survey (TRIS Survey). Mean age in months was 120.2 (range 38 to 394 months) and 133 (range 36 to 405 months), respectively, for trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 individuals. Results indicated the majority of individuals received routine dental care from their family dentist. Approximately 80% in both groups needed some form of specialized dental care. Close to 25% and 30% of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 individuals, respectively, required hospital admission for specialized dental care. Responses indicated the presence of excessive plaque and tooth decay across the groups with a higher incidence for individuals with trisomy 13. Although not the primary form of intake, over half of the individuals received oral feedings. Implications for dental care and management are provided along with the need for additional research to confirm or disconfirm this study's findings. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Genotype/phenotype analysis in a male patient with partial trisomy 4p and monosomy 20q due to maternal reciprocal translocation (4;20): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong; Zhang, Hui; Hou, Qiaofang; Wang, Hongdan; Wang, Tao; Liao, Shixiu

    2017-11-01

    Translocations are the most frequent structural aberration in the human genome. Carriers of balanced chromosome rearrangement exhibit an increased risk of abortion and/or a chromosomally‑unbalanced child. The present study reported a clinical and cytogenetic analysis of a child who exhibited typical trisomy 4p and monosomy 20q features, including intellectual disability, delayed speech, tall stature, seizures and facial dysmorphism. The karyotype of the proband exhibited 46, XY, add(20) (q13.3). The karyotype of the mother indicated a balanced translocation karyotype: 46, XX, t(4;20) (p15.2;q13.1). The array‑based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis identified partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 4 and partial monosomy of distal 20q in the proband due to maternal balanced reciprocal translocation 4;20. The analysis of genotype/phenotype correlation demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and msh homeobox 1 may be the important genes for 4p duplication, and that potassium voltage‑gated channel subfamily Q member 2, myelin transcription factor 1 and cholinergic receptor nicotinic α4 subunit may be the important genes for 20q deletion. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to report an unbalanced translocation involving chromosomes 4p and 20q. The present study additionally demonstrated that aCGH analysis is able to reliably detect unbalanced submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations.

  2. Partial 2p deletion in a girl with a complex chromosome rearrangement involving chromosomes 2, 6, 11, and 21.

    OpenAIRE

    Young, R S; Medrano, M A; Hansen, K L

    1985-01-01

    We describe the clinical and cytogenetic findings of a 9 1/2 month old girl with a complex chromosome rearrangement resulting in a probable deletion of band 2p14. She does not resemble other reported cases of del(2p).

  3. Communication ability in persons with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara; McDaniel, Jena; Spragge, Sara; Loncke, Filip; Braddock, Stephen R; Carey, John C

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess communication abilities among a sample of 10 individuals with Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13. These 10 individuals were diagnosed with Trisomy 18 (n = 8) or Trisomy 13 (n = 2) and had a mean age of 15.96 years. The sample consisted of one male and nine females. Caregivers completed a case history and reported on words and gestures understood and/or produced. Participants were also videotaped during communication temptation tasks. Auditory comprehension was reported to be higher than expressive language. No participant produced intelligible words or word approximations, yet most produced hand gestures. The process and results of these 10 cases point to a potentially promising approach for assessing communication abilities in individuals with Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 13.

  4. Placental Abnormalities and Preeclampsia in Trisomy 13 Pregnancies

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    Chih-Ping Chen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Women who are carrying a trisomy 13 fetus are prone to have an abnormal placenta as well as to develop preeclampsia in the second and third trimesters. This article provides a comprehensive review of placental abnormalities, such as small placental volume, reduced placental vascularization, a partial molar appearance of the placenta and placental mesenchymal dysplasia, and preeclampsia associated with trisomy 13 pregnancies. The candidate preeclampsia-causing genes on chromosome 13, such as sFlt1, COL4A2 and periostin, are discussed.

  5. [Trisomy 21 in visual art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, A; Tourame, P

    2013-12-01

    In 1866, J. Langdon Down published a paper on "an ethnic classification of idiots" and noted their facial resemblance with individuals of the Mongolian people. In 1959, J. Lejeune, M. Gautier, and R. Turpin demonstrated that the children with Down syndrome had an extra copy of chromosome 21. There is now a debate within the medical literature on the age of trisomy 21 as a disease affecting mankind. Since it was not described before 1866, some authors questioned whether this disease is an old or new condition in humans. Three methods of investigation are useful for demonstrating that trisomy 21 has been present in humans for a long time: the figuration of this condition in historical paintings, figurines, and pottery; its presence in old skeletal remains; and the origin of human chromosome 21 during primate phylogeny. Figurines strongly suggestive of trisomy 21 have been found in the Greco-Roman world, in many Central and South American pre-Columbian cultures, and in Khmer temples. In Europe, during the Renaissance, Italian and Flemish artists represented trisomy 21 in paintings of religious inspiration. Studies on the origin and pathology of chromosome 21 have shown that the ancestral human chromosome 21 arose 30-50 million years ago and that trisomy 21 has existed since time immemorial. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. Congenital anomalies associated with trisomy 18 or trisomy 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springett, Anna; Wellesley, Diana; Greenlees, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of trisomies 18 and 13 in Europe and the prevalence of associated anomalies. Twenty-five population-based registries in 16 European countries provided data from 2000-2011. Cases included live births, fetal deaths (20+ weeks' gestation), and term...

  7. Partial monosomy Xq(Xq23 --> qter) and trisomy 4p(4p15.33 --> pter) in a woman with intractable focal epilepsy, borderline intellectual functioning, and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartocci, Arnaldo; Striano, Pasquale; Mancardi, Maria Margherita; Fichera, Marco; Castiglia, Lucia; Galesi, Ornella; Michelucci, Roberto; Elia, Maurizio

    2008-06-01

    Studies of epilepsy associated with chromosomal abnormalities may provide information about clinical and EEG phenotypes and possibly to identify new epilepsy genes. We describe a female patient with intractable focal epilepsy, borderline intellectual functioning, and facial dysmorphisms, in whom genetic study (i.e., karyotype and array-CGH analysis) revealed a distal trisomy 4p and distal monosomy Xq. Although any genetic hypothesis remains speculative, several genes are located in the 4p chromosome segment involved in the rearrangement, some of which may be related to epilepsy.

  8. Origin of nondisjunction in trisomy 8 and trisomy 8 mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadima, G; Bugge, M; Nicolaidis, P; Vassilopoulos, D; Avramopoulos, D; Grigoriadou, M; Albrecht, B; Passarge, E; Annerén, G; Blennow, E; Clausen, N; Galla-Voumvouraki, A; Tsezou, A; Kitsiou-Tzeli, S; Hahnemann, J M; Hertz, J M; Houge, G; Kuklík, M; Macek, M; Lacombe, D; Miller, K; Moncla, A; López Pajares, I; Patsalis, P C; Petersen, M B

    1998-01-01

    Causes of chromosomal nondisjunction is one of the remaining unanswered questions in human genetics. In order to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying nondisjunction we have performed a molecular study on trisomy 8 and trisomy 8 mosaicism. We report the results on analyses of 26 probands (and parents) using 19 microsatellite DNA markers mapping along the length of chromosome 8. The 26 cases represented 20 live births, four spontaneous abortions, and two prenatal diagnoses (CVS). The results of the nondisjunction studies show that 20 cases (13 maternal, 7 paternal) were probably due to mitotic (postzygotic) duplication as reduction to homozygosity of all informative markers was observed and as no third allele was ever detected. Only two cases from spontaneous abortions were due to maternal meiotic nondisjunction. In four cases we were not able to detect the extra chromosome due to a low level of mosaicism. These results are in contrast to the common autosomal trisomies (including mosaics), where the majority of cases are due to errors in maternal meiosis.

  9. Trisomy 12p and monosomy 4p: phenotype-genotype correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, Daniela Gambel; Costa, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Murdolo, Marina; Petix, Vincenzo; Carrozzi, Marco; Pecile, Vanna

    2009-04-01

    4p Monosomy and 12p trisomy have been discussed and redefined along with recently reviewed chromosomal syndromes. 12p Trisomy syndrome is characterized by normal or increased birth weight, developmental delay with early hypotonia, psychomotor delay, and typical facial appearance. Most likely, the observed phenotypic variability depends on the type and extent of the associated partial monosomy. Partial deletions of the short arm of one chromosome 4 cause the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Affected patients present Greek helmet face, growth and mental retardation, hypotonia, and seizures. The combination of these characteristics constitutes the phenotypic core of WHS. We present a clinical and molecular cytogenetic characterization of a 4-year old mentally retarded girl with macrosomy, facial dysmorphisms, and epilepsy, in whom an unbalanced t(4;12)(p16.3;p13.3) translocation was detected, giving rise to partial 4p monosomy and partial 12p trisomy. Because the patient shows most of the phenotypic characteristics of 12p trisomy, this case could contribute to a better definition of the duplicate critical region that determines the phenotype of the 12p trisomy syndrome.

  10. Prenatal Diagnosis and Genetic Counseling for Mosaic Trisomy 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Counseling parents of a fetus with trisomy 13 mosaicism remains difficult because of the phenotypic variability associated with the condition; some patients exhibit the typical phenotype of complete trisomy 13 with neonatal death, while others have few dysmorphic features and prolonged survival. This article provides a comprehensive review of the prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling for mosaic trisomy 13, including confined placental mosaicism 13, mosaic trisomy 13 diagnosed at amniocentesis, and phylloid hypomelanosis in association with mosaic trisomy 13.

  11. Trisomy 9 Mosaicism Diagnosed In Utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of trisomy 9 mosaicism diagnosed by amniocentesis with ongoing pregnancies after referral to our center due to fetal abnormalities. Two cases were associated with severe fetal growth restriction (FGR, each of which resulted in an intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD in the third trimester. The other case involved mild FGR with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia and resulted in a live birth with severe development delay. A major prenatal finding of trisomy 9 mosaicism is FGR. Fetuses with trisomy 9 mosaicism can rarely survive in the case of severe FGR.

  12. Methods for genetic linkage analysis using trisomies.

    OpenAIRE

    Feingold, E; Lamb, N E; Sherman, S L

    1995-01-01

    Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population, but more common in individuals with specific trisomies. Examples of this include leukemia and duodenal atresia in trisomy 21. This paper presents a linkage analysis method for using trisomic individuals to map genes for such traits. It is based on a very general gene-specific dosage model that posits that the trait is caused by specific effects of different alleles at one or a few loci and that duplicate copies of "susceptibility" ...

  13. Noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 by maternal plasma DNA sequencing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, E.Z.; Chiu, R.W.; Sun, H; Akolekar, R.; Chan, K.C.; Leung, T.Y.; Jiang, P.; Zheng, Y.W.; Lun, F.M.; Chan, L.Y.; Jin, Y.; Go, A.T.; Lau, E.T; To, W.W.; Leung, W.C.; Tang, R.Y.; Au-Yeung, S.K.; Lam, H.; Kung, Y.Y.; Zhang, X.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Minekawa, R.; Tang, M.H.; Wang, J.; Oudejans, C.B.; Lau, T.K.; Nicolaides, K.H.; Lo, Y.M.

    2011-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of DNA molecules in the plasma of pregnant women has been shown to allow accurate and noninvasive prenatal detection of fetal trisomy 21. However, whether the sequencing approach is as accurate for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 and 18 is unclear due

  14. An unusual case of Trisomy 13

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) is a well-recognised, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome, characterised by the cardinal triad of orofacial clefts, microphthalmia and postaxial polydactyly of the limbs. With an estimated worldwide live- born prevalence (after the advent of prenatal diagnosis) of 1/10 000, it is an important.

  15. A review of trisomy X (47,XXX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Nicole R; Howell, Susan; Sutherland, Ashley; Wilson, Rebecca; Wilson, Lennie

    2010-05-11

    Trisomy X is a sex chromosome anomaly with a variable phenotype caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome in females (47,XXX instead of 46,XX). It is the most common female chromosomal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1 in 1,000 female births. As some individuals are only mildly affected or asymptomatic, it is estimated that only 10% of individuals with trisomy X are actually diagnosed. The most common physical features include tall stature, epicanthal folds, hypotonia and clinodactyly. Seizures, renal and genitourinary abnormalities, and premature ovarian failure (POF) can also be associated findings. Children with trisomy X have higher rates of motor and speech delays, with an increased risk of cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in the school-age years. Psychological features including attention deficits, mood disorders (anxiety and depression), and other psychological disorders are also more common than in the general population. Trisomy X most commonly occurs as a result of nondisjunction during meiosis, although postzygotic nondisjunction occurs in approximately 20% of cases. The risk of trisomy X increases with advanced maternal age. The phenotype in trisomy X is hypothesized to result from overexpression of genes that escape X-inactivation, but genotype-phenotype relationships remain to be defined. Diagnosis during the prenatal period by amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling is common. Indications for postnatal diagnoses most commonly include developmental delays or hypotonia, learning disabilities, emotional or behavioral difficulties, or POF. Differential diagnosis prior to definitive karyotype results includes fragile X, tetrasomy X, pentasomy X, and Turner syndrome mosaicism. Genetic counseling is recommended. Patients diagnosed in the prenatal period should be followed closely for developmental delays so that early intervention therapies can be implemented as needed. School-age children and adolescents benefit from a

  16. A review of trisomy X (47,XXX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherland Ashley

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trisomy X is a sex chromosome anomaly with a variable phenotype caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome in females (47,XXX instead of 46,XX. It is the most common female chromosomal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1 in 1,000 female births. As some individuals are only mildly affected or asymptomatic, it is estimated that only 10% of individuals with trisomy X are actually diagnosed. The most common physical features include tall stature, epicanthal folds, hypotonia and clinodactyly. Seizures, renal and genitourinary abnormalities, and premature ovarian failure (POF can also be associated findings. Children with trisomy X have higher rates of motor and speech delays, with an increased risk of cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in the school-age years. Psychological features including attention deficits, mood disorders (anxiety and depression, and other psychological disorders are also more common than in the general population. Trisomy X most commonly occurs as a result of nondisjunction during meiosis, although postzygotic nondisjunction occurs in approximately 20% of cases. The risk of trisomy X increases with advanced maternal age. The phenotype in trisomy X is hypothesized to result from overexpression of genes that escape X-inactivation, but genotype-phenotype relationships remain to be defined. Diagnosis during the prenatal period by amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling is common. Indications for postnatal diagnoses most commonly include developmental delays or hypotonia, learning disabilities, emotional or behavioral difficulties, or POF. Differential diagnosis prior to definitive karyotype results includes fragile X, tetrasomy X, pentasomy X, and Turner syndrome mosaicism. Genetic counseling is recommended. Patients diagnosed in the prenatal period should be followed closely for developmental delays so that early intervention therapies can be implemented as needed. School-age children and

  17. Alobar holoprosencephaly and Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Dias Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Holoprosencephaly (HPE is a congenital defect of the brain, median structures, and face resulting from an incomplete cleavage of the primitive brain during early embryogenesis. The authors report a case of trisomy 13 syndrome diagnosed at prenatal follow up. The preterm newborn lived only 5 hours, and died because of severe respiratory failure. The autopsy findings disclosed facial, skull, limbs, cardiac, and cerebral malformations. Among the latter, the presence of alobar HPE, the central theme of this report, was evident. The most common nonrandom chromosomal abnormality in patients with HPE is trisomy 13. The most severe variant, namely alobar HPE, is shown in this case report. Discussion on this severe anomaly, along with the case report with details of Patau’s syndrome, is the goal of this report.

  18. Trisomy 18 Syndrome with Incomplete Cantrell Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Hou

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentalogy of Cantrell was first described in 1958 by Cantrell and coworkers, who reported five cases in which they described a pentad of findings including a midline supraumbilical thoracoabdominal wall defect, a defect of the lower sternum, abnormalities of the diaphragmatic pericardium and the anterior diaphragm, and congenital cardiac anomalies. Trisomy 18 has an incidence of about 0.3 per 1000 newborns. We present a case of trisomy 18 with incomplete Cantrell syndrome. The patient presented with hypogenesis of the corpus callosum, vermian-cerebellar hypoplasia (Dandy-Walker variant, ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia, patent ductus arteriosus, a defect of the lower sternum, a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect with omphalocele, congenital left posterior diaphragmatic hernia (Bochdalek hernia, micrognathia, low-set and malformed ears, rocker-bottom feet, dorsiflexed hallux, hypoplastic nails, short neck, and wrist deformity. Trisomy 18 syndrome was unusually combined with the pentalogy of Cantrell. We present this case because of its rarity and high risk of mortality.

  19. Lymphocyte respiration in children with Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aburawi Elhadi H

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study measured lymphocyte mitochondrial O2 consumption (cellular respiration in children with trisomy 21. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from whole blood of trisomy 21 and control children and these cells were immediately used to measure cellular respiration rate. [O2] was determined as a function of time from the phosphorescence decay rates (1/τ of Pd (II-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl-tetrabenzoporphyrin. In sealed vials containing lymphocytes and glucose as a respiratory substrate, [O2] declined linearly with time, confirming the zero-order kinetics of O2 conversion to H2O by cytochrome oxidase. The rate of respiration (k, in μM O2 min-1, thus, was the negative of the slope of [O2] vs. time. Cyanide inhibited O2 consumption, confirming that oxidation occurred in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Results For control children (age = 8.8 ± 5.6 years, n = 26, the mean (± SD value of kc (in μM O2 per min per 107 cells was 1.36 ± 0.79 (coefficient of variation, Cv = 58%; median = 1.17; range = 0.60 to 3.12; -2SD = 0.61. For children with trisomy 21 (age = 7.2 ± 4.6 years, n = 26, the values of kc were 0.82 ± 0.62 (Cv = 76%; median = 0.60; range = 0.20 to 2.80, pp6.1 mU/L. Fourteen of 26 (54% children with trisomy 21 had kc values of 0.20 to 0.60 (i.e., kc positively correlated with body-mass index (BMI, R >0.302, serum creatinine (R >0.507, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, R >0.535 and albumin (R >0.446. Conclusions Children with trisomy 21 in this study have reduced lymphocyte bioenergetics. The clinical importance of this finding requires further studies.

  20. Clinical, Cytogenetic, and Biochemical Analyses of a Family with a t(3;13(q26.2;p11.2: Further Delineation of 3q Duplication Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abreu-González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal abnormalities that result in genomic imbalances are a major cause of congenital and developmental anomalies. Partial duplication of chromosome 3q syndrome is a well-described condition, and the phenotypic manifestations include a characteristic facies, microcephaly, hirsutism, synophrys, broad nasal bridge, congenital heart disease, genitourinary disorders, and mental retardation. Approximately 60%–75% of cases are derived from a balanced translocation. We describe a family with a pure typical partial trisomy 3q syndrome derived from a maternal balanced translocation t(3;13(q26.2;p11.2. As the chromosomal rearrangement involves the short arm of an acrocentric chromosome, the phenotype corresponds to a pure trisomy 3q26.2-qter syndrome. There are 4 affected individuals and several carriers among three generations. The report of this family is relevant because there are few cases of pure duplication 3q syndrome reported, and the cases described here contribute to define the phenotype associated with the syndrome. Furthermore, we confirmed that the survival until adulthood is possible. This report also identified the presence of glycosaminoglycans in urine in this family, not related to the chromosomal abnormality or the phenotype.

  1. Trisomy/tetrasomy 13 in seven cases of acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekantaiah, C; Baer, M R; Morgan, S; Isaacs, J D; Miller, K B; Sandberg, A A

    1990-11-01

    We report the clinical presentation and the morphologic, histochemical, and immunophenotypic characteristics of seven patients with acute leukemia who had trisomy/tetrasomy 13 as the sole cytogenetic abnormality in their leukemia. Five patients had trisomy 13 at diagnosis of acute leukemia. All five of these patients had undifferentiated leukemias. The sixth patient, who had French-American-British (FAB) type M2 acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), and the seventh patient with biphenotypic acute leukemia developed the trisomic clone as a new abnormality late in the course of their disease. A review of the literature revealed 28 previously reported hematologic malignancies with trisomy 13 or tetrasomy 13q as a solitary cytogenetic abnormality. Trisomy 13 appears to represent another rare but nonrandom cytogenetic abnormality in acute leukemia. In our series trisomy 13 is largely associated with acute leukemia with little myeloid or lymphoid differentiation.

  2. Repair of x-ray induced chromosomal damage in trisomy 2- and normal diploid lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Countryman, P.I.; Heddle, J.A.; Crawford, E.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency of chromosomal aberrations produced by x-rays is greater in lymphocytes cultured from trisomy 21 patients (Down's syndrome) than from normal diploid donors. This increase, which can be detected by a micronucleus assay for chromosomal damage, was postulated by us to result from a defect in the rejoining system which repairs chromosomal breaks. The postulated defect would result in a longer rejoining time, therapy permitting more movement of broken ends and thus enhancing the frequency of exchanges. To test this possibility, the time required for the rejoining (repair) of chromosome breaks was measured in lymphocytes from five Down's syndrome (four trisomy 21 and one D/G translocation partial trisomy 21) donors, from a monosomy 21 donor, and from five diploid donors. The rejoining time was reduced in the Down's syndrome lymphocytes in comparison to the normal diploid and monosomy 21 lymphocytes. Thus the repair of chromosome breaks, far from being defective as evidenced by a longer rejoining time in Down's syndrome cells, occurred more rapidly than in normal cells

  3. Trisomy 21 and facial developmental instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    The most common live-born human aneuploidy is trisomy 21, which causes Down syndrome (DS). Dosage imbalance of genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21) affects complex gene-regulatory interactions and alters development to produce a wide range of phenotypes, including characteristic facial dysmorphology. Little is known about how trisomy 21 alters craniofacial morphogenesis to create this characteristic appearance. Proponents of the "amplified developmental instability" hypothesis argue that trisomy 21 causes a generalized genetic imbalance that disrupts evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways by decreasing developmental homeostasis and precision throughout development. Based on this model, we test the hypothesis that DS faces exhibit increased developmental instability relative to euploid individuals. Developmental instability was assessed by a statistical analysis of fluctuating asymmetry. We compared the magnitude and patterns of fluctuating asymmetry among siblings using three-dimensional coordinate locations of 20 anatomic landmarks collected from facial surface reconstructions in four age-matched samples ranging from 4 to 12 years: (1) DS individuals (n = 55); (2) biological siblings of DS individuals (n = 55); 3) and 4) two samples of typically developing individuals (n = 55 for each sample), who are euploid siblings and age-matched to the DS individuals and their euploid siblings (samples 1 and 2). Identification in the DS sample of facial prominences exhibiting increased fluctuating asymmetry during facial morphogenesis provides evidence for increased developmental instability in DS faces. We found the highest developmental instability in facial structures derived from the mandibular prominence and lowest in facial regions derived from the frontal prominence. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Constitutional trisomy 8 mosaicism syndrome: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayakumar, Achandira M; Al-Kindy, Adila

    2013-12-01

    Trisomy 8 mosaicism (Warkany syndrome) is a rare viable condition with variable phenotypes, ranging from mild dysmorphic features to severe malformations. Karyotyping and fluorescence in-situ hybridization potentially help detecting this low mosaic clone to confirm the diagnosis of patients with classical and unusual clinical presentations. This report reviews few previous cases to describe our case - a boy who had trisomy 8 mosaicism with severe dysmorphic features, born to a consanguineous Arabic couple. This study concludes that careful cytogenetic diagnoses of trisomy 8 mosaicism is essential for appropriate management and follow up of this rare disorder.

  5. Wilms tumor in a child with trisomy 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H; Pelegano, J

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year-old black boy with trisomy 13, a history of frequent urinary tract infections, and a horseshoe kidney with painless gross hematuria was examined. An abdominal mass was detected and surgically resected. Examination of the surgical specimen revealed a Wilms tumor. Given the concurrence of trisomy 13 and Wilms tumor and the presence of another such case in the literature, there may be just cause to suspect a locus on chromosome 13 that affects the probability of developing Wilms tumor. Given the increasingly longer survival of patients with trisomy 13, clinicians may need to be aware of the possibility of renal malignant disease in this population of patients.

  6. MicroRNA-15a and -16-1 act via MYB to elevate fetal hemoglobin expression in human trisomy 13

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Vijay G.; Menne, Tobias F.; Šćepanović, Danilo; Vergilio, Jo-Anne; Ji, Peng; Kim, Jinkuk; Thiru, Prathapan; Orkin, Stuart H.; Lander, Eric S.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2011-01-01

    Many human aneuploidy syndromes have unique phenotypic consequences, but in most instances it is unclear whether these phenotypes are attributable to alterations in the dosage of specific genes. In human trisomy 13, there is delayed switching and persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and elevation of embryonic hemoglobin in newborns. Using partial trisomy cases, we mapped this trait to chromosomal band 13q14; by examining the genes in this region, two microRNAs, miR-15a and -16-1, appear as t...

  7. Trisomy 1q42-qter associated with monosomy 6q27-qter: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Edoardo; Mastrantonio, Pasquale; Costa, Davide; Giugliano, Brunella; Porcellini, Antonio; Costagliola, Ciro

    2011-01-01

    Partial trisomy 1q42-qter is a rare chromosomal aberration. Most cases arise from de novo unbalanced translocations or from unbalanced inheritance of parental balanced rearrangements. Descriptive case report. A 4-year-old boy had shown an increased neck translucency at the fetal ultrasound examination performed at the 11th week of gestation. Amniocentesis, performed at the 18th week of gestation, did not demonstrate any genetic abnormality. A second fetal ultrasound examination, carried out at the 35th week of gestation, showed congenital clubfeet and hydrocephalus. At birth, clinical examination revealed congenital bilateral ventriculomegaly, bilateral congenital equinovarus clubfeet, low-set ears, plagiocephaly, micrognathia, hypertelorism, prominent forehead, broad nasal bridge, hypertonic syndrome, and inguinal hernia. Ophthalmologic consultation showed the presence of optic pit in his left eye. Genetic counseling was performed. Chromosome analysis demonstrated a partial trisomy 1q42.2-qter associated with a partial monosomy 6q27-qter. Moreover, deletions of the distal region on the long arm of chromosome 6 are frequently associated with both ocular abnormalities and several solid tumor types. Moderate mental and psychomotor retardation has occurred. This case emphasizes the importance of scheduling a screening test for eye diseases and tumor in these patients.

  8. Double trisomy 48,XXX,+18 with multiple dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zi-Yan; Wu, Xiao-Hui; Zou, Chao-Chun

    2015-02-01

    Chromosomal abnormality is a common cause of congenital anomalies, psychiatric disorders, and mental retardation. However, the double trisomy 48,XXX,+18 is a rare chromosome abnormality. Case report and literature review. A 7-hour-old girl presented to our unit because of poor response after birth. She presented with multiple dysmorphic features, including small for gestational age infant, flat nasal bridge, widely-spaced eyes, the left thumb deformities, flat facial profile, raised sternum, ventricular septal defect, the third lateral brain ventricle enlargement, and small liver. This case expands the spectrum of malformations reported in association with the double trisomy 48,XXX,+18. The literature on 16 fetuses or infants with the 48,XXX,+18 were also reviewed. These data suggested that in patients with clinical features similar to trisomy 18, especially with anomalies of the ears and/or reproductive malformations, double trisomy (48,XXX,+18) should be considered and karyotyping should be performed although it is a rare disease.

  9. Trisomy 10 in acute myeloid leukemia: three new cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, I E; Morris, C M; Stanworth, S; Heaton, D C; Spearing, R L

    2000-04-15

    Trisomy 10 is a rare nonrandom cytogenetic abnormality found in association with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The hematological and clinical features associated with this finding have not yet been clearly defined. A literature review revealed 13 cases of trisomy 10 in AML, some reported as a minority component of a more comprehensive AML study and therefore lacking a full description of both clinical and hematological features. We present a summary of these reports and add three new cases to the literature.

  10. Double trisomy (48,XXX,+18) with features of Roberts syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descartes, M.; Longshore, J.W.; Crawford, E. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report an infant with double trisomy 48,XXX,+18, who also displayed features of Roberts syndrome. All previously published cases with similar double trisomy have presented with features of trisomy 18 syndrome. The chromosome analysis done at birth revealed the double trisomy; parental chromosomes were normal. The proband presented with microbrachycephaly, unilateral cleft lip and palate, choanal atresia, midfacial capillary hemanioma, thin nares, shallow orbits, malformed ears, sparse hair, hypomelia of the upper limbs, rocker-bottom feet, auricular septal defect and agenesis of the corpus callosum. Characteristic features of Roberts syndrome included hypomelia, midfacial defects, and severe growth deficiency. Among the many different features reported in the literature for patients with trisomy 18 syndrome, the most consistent were growth deficiency, clenched fingers and congenital heart defects (e.g. VSD, ASD, PDA). Although some of our patient`s features such as cleft lip and cleft palate, low-set malformed ears, ASD, defects of the corpus callosum, choanal atresia, radial aplasia could also be seen in trisomy 18 syndrome (in 10-50% of the cases), her phenotype was more typical of Roberts syndrome because of symmetrical hypomelia and midfacial defects. Our patient`s chromosomes did not show premature separation of centromeric heterochromatin, a feature reported to occur in approximately one-half of individuals with Roberts syndrome. Sporadic aneuploidy involving different chromosomes has been found in lymphocyte cultures from some Roberts syndrome patients and is considered by some authors as a mitotic mutant. This aneuploidy is most likely to be chromosome gain. The simultaneous occurrence of trisomy X and 18 is extremely rare with only 11 cases having been reported in the literature. Our patient is unique since she has the double trisomy in addition to the characteristic features of Roberts syndrome.

  11. Natural histroy of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13: I. Growth, physical assessment, medical histories, survival, and recurrence risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, B.J.; Blackburn, B.L.; Carey, J.C. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1994-01-15

    The natural history of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 was investigated using data derived from parent questionnaires and medical records from 98 families with an index case of trisomy 18 and 32 families with an index case of trisomy 13. Data are presented on pregnancy, delivery, survival, medical complications, immunizations, growth, cause of death, cytogenetics, and recurrence risk. Half of the trisomy 18 babies were delivered by C-section. Fetal distress was a factor in half, and the only reason in a third of C-section deliveries. One minute Apgar scores were significantly lower in C-section and breech deliveries. There were more small-for-gestational-age babies than in the general population, but most of the low-birth-weight newborns were small for gestational age, unlike the general population. Survival in this group of children was better than in other studies due to ascertainment bias. There were more girls than boys at all ages for both conditions, and the sex ratio decreased with time. Growth curves for length, weight, head circumference, and weight vs height are provided. Long-term survival did not appear to be due to mosaicism. There were no adverse reactions attributable to immunizations. At age 1 year there was an average of approximately 2 operations per living child. The authors report the second case of successful major cardiac surgery in a trisomy 18 child. Almost 70% of deaths were attributed to cardiopulmonary arrest. The sibling recurrence risk for trisomy 18 or trisomy 13 was 0.55%. 86 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Parental hopes, interventions, and survival of neonates with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Annie; Farlow, Barbara; Barrington, Keith J

    2016-09-01

    Trisomy 13 and 18 are life-limiting conditions for which a palliative approach is frequently recommended. The objective of this study was to examine parental goals/decisions, the length of life of their child and factors associated with survival. Parents of children who lived with trisomy 13 or 18 that were part of English-speaking social networks were invited to participate in a questionnaire study. Participants answered questions about their hopes/goals, decisions regarding neonatal interventions, and the duration of their children's lives. The participants were 332 parents who answered questions about their 272 children (87% response rate based on site visits; 67% on invitations sent). When parents were asked about their hope after the diagnosis, the main themes invoked by parents were the following: meet their child alive (80% of parents with a prenatal diagnosis), spend some time as a family (72%), bring their child home (52%), and give their child a good life (66%). Parents wanted to give them a chance, but also reported their fears were medical complexity, pain and/or life in the hospital (61%). Healthcare providers recommended comfort care at birth to all parents. Life-sustaining interventions "as for any other child" was chosen as a plan of care by 25% of parents. Of the 216 children with full trisomy, 69% were discharged home after birth and 40% lived >1 y. The presence of a prenatal diagnosis was the strongest independent factor negatively associated with longevity: 36% of children with a prenatal diagnosis lived survival (P care at birth consisted of limited interventions, whereas after a postnatal diagnosis (median age of 6 days) it consisted of various interventions, including oxygen, ventilation, tube feeding and intravenous fluids, complicating the analysis. In conclusion, the goals of parents of children with trisomy 13 or 18 were to meet their child, be discharged home and be a family. Having a postnatal diagnosis was the independent factor

  13. An unusual case of Trisomy 13 | Feben | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trisomy 13 is a common chromosome abnormality with a recognisable clinical phenotype, which should prompt its early diagnosis. This case report describes a patient with Trisomy 13 with unusual limb malformations and expands on the clinical phenotype of the disorder.

  14. Prenatal detection of microtia by MRI in a fetus with trisomy 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milic, Andrea; Blaser, Susan; Robinson, Ashley; Viero, Sandra; Halliday, William; Winsor, Elizabeth; Toi, Ants; Thomas, Micki; Chitayat, David

    2006-01-01

    Trisomy 22 is a rare chromosomal abnormality infrequently detected prenatally. External ear abnormalities, in particular microtia, are often associated with trisomy 22, but prenatal detection of microtia has not been reported in association with trisomy 22. We report a fetus with trisomy 22, with fetal MRI findings of microtia, craniofacial dysmorphism, and polygyria. Fetal MRI is a useful tool for auricular assessment and might have utility in the prenatal detection of chromosomal abnormalities, especially among fetuses with structural anomalies. (orig.)

  15. Constitutional trisomy 8 and Behçet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kristin; Fitzgerald, Oliver; Green, Andrew J; Keogan, Mary; Newbury-Ecob, Ruth; Greenhalgh, Lynn; Withers, Stephen; Hollox, Edward J; Aldred, Patricia M R; Armour, John A L

    2009-05-01

    The characteristic clinical features of constitutional trisomy 8 include varying degrees of developmental delay, joint contractures and deep palmar and plantar creases. There is an established literature, which describes features of Behçet syndrome occurring in phenotypically normal individuals with myelodysplastic syndromes and trisomy 8 in their bone marrow. In this article, we describe four patients with constitutional trisomy 8, all with varying clinical phenotypes, who developed features of Behçet, in particular but not exclusively mucocutaneous ulceration. In addition, we examined gene copy numbers of the variable-number neutrophil defensin genes DEFA1A3 in one of the cases (case 1) and her parents, together with 14 cases of Behçet syndrome in comparison with 121 normal controls. The gene copy number was highest in case 1 (copy number 14) and was also increased in her parents (both copy number 9). However the mean copy number for DEFA1A3 among the 14 Behçet syndrome patients was actually lower (5.1) than among the controls (mean of 6.8 copies). Thus, we conclude that patients with constitutional trisomy 8 and those with trisomy 8 confined to the bone marrow are both at increased risk of developing features of Behçet syndrome. The mechanism may relate to increased chromosome 8 gene dosage with further analysis of candidate genes on chromosome 8 required.

  16. Mouse trisomy 16: An animal model of human trisomy 21 (Down syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, C.J.; Cox, D.R.; Epstein, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    One of the principal difficulties in studying human disorders of development, particularly if the nervous system is involved, is our inability for both technical and ethical reasons to study more than a very restricted number of tissues and developmental processes. The developing human fetus is inaccessible to any type of systematic study, and the brain can only be approached postmortem or, during life, by a limited number of noninvasive techniques. Whereas the latter methods, particularly positron emission tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, are beginning to be applied to the study of central nervous system metabolism, their view of the details of nervous system function is still limited. Therefore, to study the mechanisms underlying the development of abnormalities associated with a condition such as trisomy 21, abnormalities both of prenatal somatic and neurologic development, and probably neurologic development and function as well, it is necessary to have experimental systems that lend themselves to convenient analysis. To accomplish this the authors sought to develop an animal model for human trisomy 21 and its phenotypic representation, Down syndrome

  17. Overexpression of esterase D in kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughna, S.; Moore, G. (Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London (United Kingdom)); Gau, G.; Blunt, S. (Cytogenetics Lab., London (United Kingdom)); Nicolaides, K. (King' s College School of Medicine and Dentistry, London (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Human trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) occurs in approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is compatible with life, but prolonged survival is rare. Anomalies often involve the urogenital, cardiac, craniofacial, and central nervous systems. It is possible that these abnormalities may be due to the overexpression of developmentally important genes on chromosome 13. The expression of esterase D (localized to chromosome 13q14.11) has been investigated in both muscle and kidney from trisomy 13 fetuses and has been compared with normal age- and sex-matched fetal tissues, by using northern analysis. More than a twofold increase in expression of esterase D was found in the kidney of two trisomy 13 fetuses, with normal levels in a third. Overexpression was not seen in the muscle tissues from these fetuses. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Trisomy 21 and Risk of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsas, Tammy Z; Spitzer, Alan R; Gewolb, Ira H

    2015-08-01

    Trisomy 21 is known to decrease the risk of several (nonocular) angiogenic-mediated diseases. The objective of this study was to determine whether trisomy 21 can also be shown to be significantly protective against ocular angiogenic-mediated disorders such as retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A retrospective analysis of deidentified data from the Pediatrix BabySteps Clinical Warehouse. This large repository of neonatal data is approved for use in research studies by the Western Institutional Review Board. The study population consisted of 99,080 infants with very low birth weights (BWs; BW 300 US NICUs, and who had been discharged alive from hospital. Statistical significance for unadjusted comparisons between groups was determined with Pearson's χ(2) test or Student's t test. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of ROP (of any stage) and advanced ROP (stage 3 or greater) for infants with trisomy 21 compared with all other infants. The prevalence of trisomy 21 was 0.3% in the study population (321 of 99,080). After adjustment for BW, gestational age, oxygen exposure, and other potential confounders, there was an odds ratio of 0.6 (95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.8) for ROP in infants with trisomy 21compared with other infants and an odds ratio of 0.4 (95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.9) for advanced-stage ROP. Trisomy 21 significantly decreases the odds for ROP in very low BW infant survivors. This study unmasks a potentially identifiable genetic component to ROP risk, paving the way for the development of a laboratory-based ROP screening tool. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Dysregulation of gene expression in the artificial human trisomy cells of chromosome 8 associated with transformed cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisakatsu Nawata

    Full Text Available A change in chromosome number, known as aneuploidy, is a common characteristic of cancer. Aneuploidy disrupts gene expression in human cancer cells and immortalized human epithelial cells, but not in normal human cells. However, the relationship between aneuploidy and cancer remains unclear. To study the effects of aneuploidy in normal human cells, we generated artificial cells of human primary fibroblast having three chromosome 8 (trisomy 8 cells by using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer technique. In addition to decreased proliferation, the trisomy 8 cells lost contact inhibition and reproliferated after exhibiting senescence-like characteristics that are typical of transformed cells. Furthermore, the trisomy 8 cells exhibited chromosome instability, and the overall gene expression profile based on microarray analyses was significantly different from that of diploid human primary fibroblasts. Our data suggest that aneuploidy, even a single chromosome gain, can be introduced into normal human cells and causes, in some cases, a partial cancer phenotype due to a disruption in overall gene expression.

  20. Prenatal ultrasonography of trisomy 18 with radial aplasia: A case report

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    Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Yeon Hee [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    Trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) is the second most common chromosomal anomaly of the autosomal trisomy. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 is extremely important because of the complex malformations and lethal prognosis. Prenatal sonographic findings at 17 weeks of gestation showing radial aplasia with upper limb contracture, omphalocele, and suspicious esophageal atresia suggested the diagnosis and led to amniocentesis. Karyotyping revealed trisomy 18 (47 XX, +18, and characteristic autopsy findings were identified. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 18 with a review of literatures.

  1. Prenatal ultrasonography of trisomy 18 with radial aplasia: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jee Young; Lee, Yeon Hee

    2002-01-01

    Trisomy 18 (Edward syndrome) is the second most common chromosomal anomaly of the autosomal trisomy. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 18 is extremely important because of the complex malformations and lethal prognosis. Prenatal sonographic findings at 17 weeks of gestation showing radial aplasia with upper limb contracture, omphalocele, and suspicious esophageal atresia suggested the diagnosis and led to amniocentesis. Karyotyping revealed trisomy 18 (47 XX, +18, and characteristic autopsy findings were identified. We report a case of prenatally diagnosed trisomy 18 with a review of literatures.

  2. Identification of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and Down syndrome from maternal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekas, Jean; Langlois, Sylvie; Ravitsky, Vardit; Audibert, François; van den Berg, David-Gradus; Haidar, Hazar; Rousseau, François

    2014-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies (including trisomy 21 [T21]) generally relies on an initial biochemical serum-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) after which women who are deemed to be at high risk are offered an invasive confirmatory test (amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling for a fetal karyotype), which is associated with a risk of fetal miscarriage. Recently, genomics-based NIPT (gNIPT) was proposed for the analysis of fetal genomic DNA circulating in maternal blood. The diffusion of this technology in routine prenatal care could be a major breakthrough in prenatal diagnosis, since initial research studies suggest that this novel approach could be very effective and could reduce substantially the number of invasive procedures. However, the limitations of gNIPT may be underappreciated. In this review, we examine currently published literature on gNIPT to highlight advantages and limitations. At this time, the performance of gNIPT is relatively well-documented only in high-risk pregnancies for T21 and trisomy 18. This additional screening test may be an option for women classified as high-risk of aneuploidy who wish to avoid invasive diagnostic tests, but it is crucial that providers carefully counsel patients about the test's advantages and limitations. The gNIPT is currently not recommended as a first-tier prenatal screening test for T21. Since gNIPT is not considered as a diagnostic test, a positive gNIPT result should always be confirmed by an invasive test, such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Validation studies are needed to optimally introduce this technology into the existing routine workflow of prenatal care.

  3. De novo case of a partial trisomy 4p and a partial monosomy 8p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrlec, Ivana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pubeljić, Silvija; Heffer, Marija; Stipoljev, Feodora

    2014-03-01

    The extent of clinical expression in cases of segmental aneuploidy often varies depending on the size of the chromosomal region involved. Here we present clinical and cytogenetic findings in a 5-month old boy with a duplication of a chromosomal segment 4p16.1-->4pter and a deletion of a chromosomal segment 8p23.1-->8pter. His karyotype was determined by applying classical GTG banding and FISH method (WHCR region, centromere 4, centromere 8, telomere 8p) as 46,XY,der(8)t(4;8)(p16.1;p23.1).ish der(8)t(4;8)(D8S504-,WHCR+,D8Z2+)dn. Parents are not related and have normal karyotypes, indicating de novo origin. We have compared similarity of the clinical features in our proband to other patients carrying only a duplication of the distal part of 4p or a deletion of distal part of 8p or similar combination described in the literature.

  4. [Prevalence of congenital abnormalities identified in fetuses with 13, 18 and 21 chromosomal trisomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emer, Caroline Soares Cristofari; Duque, Julio Alejandro Peña; Müller, Ana Lúcia Letti; Gus, Rejane; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; da Silva, André Anjos; Magalhães, José Antonio de Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    To describe the prevalence of malformations found in fetuses with trisomy of chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 by identifying the most frequent within each condition. A retrospective cross-sectional study with the analysis of trisomy cases of chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 diagnosed through fetal karyotype obtained by amniocentesis/cordocentesis, between October 1994 and May 2014, at a Teaching Hospital in Brazil Southern Region. Malformations identified through morphological ultrasonography were described and, subsequently, confirmed in newborn examinations and/or fetal autopsy. The results were analyzed using Fisher's test and analysis of variance (ANOVA), with a 5% level of significance (p=0.05). Sixty-nine cases of trisomy were diagnosed among 840 exams; nine were excluded due to outcome outside Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre or incomplete records, remaining 60 cases (nine cases of chromosome 13 trisomy, 26 of chromosome 18, and 25 of chromosome 21). In all three groups, heart disease occurred in most cases; the ventricular septal defect was more prevalent and occurred in 66.7% of the trisomy 13 group. Gastrointestinal abnormalities were more prevalent in the trisomy 18 group, especially omphalocele (38.5%; pmalformations significantly differed among the trisomy groups. Hand defects occurred in 50% of trisomy 18 cases, and in 44.4% of all trisomy 13 cases (pmalformations identified at ultrasound are suggestive of trisomy and represent an important tool for etiologic diagnosis and prenatal and pre-conception genetic counseling.

  5. Identification of trisomy 18, trisomy 13, and Down syndrome from maternal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gekas J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean Gekas,1,2 Sylvie Langlois,3 Vardit Ravitsky,4 François Audibert,5 David-Gradus van den Berg,6 Hazar Haidar,4 François Rousseau2,71Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Department of Medical Genetics and Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Québec City, Quebec, Canada; 2Department of Medical Biology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec City, Quebec, Canada; 3Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; 4Bioethics Program, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada; 5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sainte Justine Hospital, Montreal, Canada; 6Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, 7Department of Molecular Biology, Medical Biochemistry and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Québec City, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Current prenatal diagnosis for fetal aneuploidies (including trisomy 21 [T21] generally relies on an initial biochemical serum-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT after which women who are deemed to be at high risk are offered an invasive confirmatory test (amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling for a fetal karyotype, which is associated with a risk of fetal miscarriage. Recently, genomics-based NIPT (gNIPT was proposed for the analysis of fetal genomic DNA circulating in maternal blood. The diffusion of this technology in routine prenatal care could be a major breakthrough in prenatal diagnosis, since initial research studies suggest that this novel approach could be very effective and could reduce substantially the number of invasive procedures. However, the limitations of gNIPT may be underappreciated. In this review, we examine currently published literature on gNIPT to highlight advantages and limitations. At this time, the performance of gNIPT is relatively well-documented only in high-risk pregnancies for T21 and trisomy 18. This additional screening test may be an

  6. Prenatal Isolated Ventricular Septal Defect May Not Be Associated with Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Shen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine if isolated fetal ventricular septal defect (VSD is associated with trisomy 21. One hundred twenty six cases with prenatal VSD diagnosed by a pediatric cardiologist were reviewed. Cases with known risk factors for congenital heart disease, the presence of other major anomalies, soft signs for trisomy 21 or a positive screen test for trisomy 21 were excluded. Ninety two cases formed the study group. None of the cases in the study group had trisomy 21. The upper limit of prevalence for trisomy 21 in isolated VSD is 3%. When prenatal VSD is not associated with other major anomalies, soft markers for trisomy 21 or a positive nuchal translucency or biochemical screen, a decision whether to perform genetic amniocentesis should be individualized. The currently unknown association between isolated VSD and microdeletions and microduplications should be considered when discussing this option.

  7. Complete trisomy 14 mosaicism: first live-born case in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jung Hur

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Trisomy 14 mosaicism is a rare chromosome disorder characterized by delayed development, failure to thrive, and facial dysmorphism. Only approximately 30 trisomy 14 mosaicism cases have been reported in the literature because trisomy 14 is associated with early spontaneous abortion. We report a case of a 17-month-old girl with abnormal skin pigmentation, delayed development, facial dysmorphism, and failure to thrive with the 47,XX,+14/46,XX chromosome complement.

  8. Multiple ocular abnormalities associated with trisomy 4p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Samin; Kang, Sung Yong; Seong, Gong Je; Shin, Joo Youn; Kim, Chan Yun

    2008-01-01

    Ocular features associated with trisomy 4p have rarely been described. The authors have experienced multiple ocular abnormalities (bilateral cataracts, posterior synechiae, and posterior segment changes) associated with this chromosomal abnormality. It was presumed that these intraocular findings might be associated with the previous inflammatory process. In the current case, the patient recovered some useful vision after surgical removal of cataracts and intraocular lens implantations in both eyes. A detailed ophthalmic examination for patients with the autosomal imbalance is recom-mended.

  9. Mosaic trisomy 8 detected by fibroblasts cultured of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Ana M; Mora, Lina; Suarez-Obando, Fernando; Moreno, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mosaic trisomy 8 or "Warkany's Syndrome" is a chromosomopathy with an estimated prevalance of 1:25,000 to 1:50,000, whose clinical presentation has a wide phenotypic variability. Case Description: Patient aged 14 years old with antecedents of global retardation of development, moderate cognitive deficit and hypothyroidism of possible congenital origin. Clinical Findings: Physical examination revealed palpebral ptosis, small corneas and corectopia, hypoplasia of the upper maxilla and prognathism, dental crowding, high-arched palate, anomalies of the extremities such as digitalization of the thumbs, clinodactyly and bilateral shortening of the fifth finger, shortening of the right femur, columnar deviation and linear brown blotches that followed Blaschko's lines. Cerebral nuclear magnetic resonance revealed type 1 Chiari's malformation and ventriculomegaly. Although the karyotype was normal in peripheral blood (46,XY), based on the finding of cutaneous mosaicism the lesions were biopsied and cytogenetic analysis demonstrated mosaic trisomy 8: mos 47,XY,+8[7]/46,XY[93]. Clinical Relevance: Trisomy 8 is clinically presented as a mosaic, universal cases being unfailingly lethal. In this particular case, cutaneous lesions identified the mosaic in tissue, although the karyotype was normal in peripheral blood. The cutaneous mosaicism represented by brown linear blotches which follow Blaschko's lines is a clinical finding that has not previously been described in Warkany's syndrome. PMID:27546932

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of craniomaxillofacial malformations: a characterization of phenotypes in trisomies 13, 18, and 21 by ultrasound and pathology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, A.M.; Wenghoefer, M.; Hansmann, M.; Carels, C.E.L.; Borstlap, W.A.; Berge, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between trisomies 13, 18, and 21 and craniofacial malformations detected by prenatal sonography. DESIGN: During a 29-year period (1976 through 2004), prenatal sonographic findings of 69 fetuses with trisomy 13; 171 fetuses with trisomy 18; 302 fetuses with

  11. Clinical delineation of a patient with trisomy 12q23q24

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Arjan; Schuitema, Anke; Pfundt, Rolph; van de Zande, Guillaume; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2013-01-01

    Trisomies of 12q23q24 have been described rarely in literature. Only a few case-reports have been published so far almost exclusively reporting on neonates or young infants. We present a 16-year-old patient with a trisomy of 12q23.3q24.3. Full phenotypic evaluation at this age comprised: severe

  12. Tetralogy of fallot in down syndrome (trisomy 21) - an uncommon association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.K.M.M.; Basu, B.; Rahman, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Down Syndrome (trisomy 21) is the common disorder among chromosomal anomalies. This is frequently associated with congenital a cyanotic heart disease. Tetralogy of fallot is an uncommon event in the trisomy 21. Tetralogy of fallot presents with cyanosis usually in the later part of infancy, but cyanosis is present since birth if Tetralogy of Fallot is accompanied with Down Syndrome. (author)

  13. Comparison of brain imaging and neuropathology in cases of trisomy 18 and 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, M.; Tottori Prefectural Central Hospital; Ando, Y.; Mito, T.; Ieshima, A.; Takashima, S.; Takeshita, K.; Ohtani, K.

    1987-01-01

    A comparative study of intracranial imaging and brain pathology in cases of trisomy 18 and 13 was performed. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) revealed disproportional dilatation of the lateral ventricles, a wide Sylvian fissure and a large extracerebellar space with a small cerebellum in each case. In addition, it was characteristic that the occipital poles of the cerebrum protruded in the infero-posterior direction in trisomy 18, and the pontine basis was relatively wide in trisomy 13. The brain pathology in trisomy 18 and 13 demonstrated that the large extracerebellar space is due to the cerebellar dysplasia and protruding occipital poles, the wide Sylvian fissures due to the temporal lobes or external capsular dysplasia, and the relatively wide pontine basis due to meningeal glioneuronal heterotopia. Thus, the characteristic intracranial image in trisomy 18 and 13 suggests microdysgenesis of the brain and might be useful for understanding the pathological structure of the central nervous system in these conditions. (orig.)

  14. Trisomy 19 as the sole chromosomal anomaly in hematologic neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B; Billström, R; Mauritzson, N; Mitelman, F

    1994-05-01

    Trisomy 19 was found as the sole chromosomal aberration in three hematologic malignancies: one chronic myelomonocytic leukemia and two cases of of immunophenotypically immature acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A compilation of previously published hematologic neoplasms with +19 as the only change reveals that this anomaly is strongly associated with myeloid malignancies; 25 of 31 cases have been myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or AML. Eight of the 11 MDS cases have been either refractory anemia (RA) or RA with excess of blasts, and four of the 14 AML cases have had preleukemic myelodysplastic cases phase, with the +19 accruing during the time of leukemic transformation. The AML cases have, in general, been either or early maturation arrest, i.e. undifferentiated or AML-M1/M2, or of myelomonocytic-monoblastic origin, i.e., AML-M4/M5. None of the MDS or AML cases with +19 had had a previous history of radio- or chemotherapy. We conclude that trisomy 19, as the sole anomaly, is a characteristic abnormality in de novo myeloid malignancies. No clinical features seem to characterize patients with +19 AML and MDS and the prognostic impact of the aberration remains to be elucidated.

  15. Trisomy 19 and T(9;22 In a Patient with Acute Basophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rojas-Atencio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute basophilic leukemia with two coexisting clonal abnormalities, t(9;22 and trisomy 19. The blast showed positive reaction with myeloperoxidase but negative reaction with chloroacetate esterase and acid phosphatase. Metachromatic features of the blast were observed with toluidine blue stain. Ultrastructure study showed the presence of azurophilic granules in basophils and blast mast cells. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies revealed, t(9;22 with BCR/ABL positive and trisomy 19 in all metaphase cells. To our knowledge, this paper here is the first to present acute basophilic leukemia with trisomy 19 and t(9;22.

  16. Towards P2P XML Database Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractTo ease the development of data-intensive P2P applications, we envision a P2P XML Database Management System (P2P XDBMS) that acts as a database middle-ware, providing a uniform database abstraction on top of a dynamic set of distributed data sources. In this PhD work, we research which

  17. Trisomy 4 in a case of acute undifferentiated myeloblastic leukemia with hand-mirror cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Y S; McCormick, C; Vial, R

    1990-04-01

    A case of acute undifferentiated myelocytic leukemic with trisomy 4 is described. The patient is a 61-year-old woman who developed leukemia 4 1/2 years after receiving radiation therapy for uterine carcinoma. Many leukemic cells exhibited hand-mirror configuration after the bone marrow aspirate was left at room temperature overnight. The relationship between trisomy 4 and hand-mirror cells in acute myelocytic leukemia is unknown.

  18. Cytogenetic profile in 1,921 cases of trisomy 21 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramírez, Francisco; Palacios-Guerrero, Claudia; García-Delgado, Constanza; Morales-Jiménez, Ariadna Berenice; Arias-Villegas, Christian Martín; Cervantes, Alicia; Morán-Barroso, Verónica Fabiola

    2015-08-01

    Trisomy 21 is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. It is caused by different cytogenetic aberrations: free trisomy, Robertsonian translocations, mosaicism, duplication of the critical region and other structural rearrangements of chromosome 21. The aim of the study was to identify in Mexican trisomy 21 patients who attended Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez from 1992-2011 the type and frequency of the cytogenetic aberration and to evaluate the effect of maternal age. A retrospective analysis of epidemiological data and karyotype reports were carried out; type and frequency of the cytogenetic variants were determined. We identified 2,018 cases referred with a clinical diagnosis of trisomy 21. In 1,921 analyses (95.2%) a cytogenetic variant of trisomy 21 was identified: free trisomy 21 in 1,787 cases (93.02%), four cases (0.21%) had an additional non-contributory aberration; Robertsonian translocations in 92 cases (4.79%); mosaicism in 31 cases (1.61%) and seven cases (0.36%) had other chromosomal abnormalities, five (0.26%) had other contributory structural rearrangements and two corresponded to double aneuploidies (0.10%). Gender distribution was 1,048 (54.56%) males and 873 (45.44%) females. A maternal age effect was observed in patients with free trisomy 21 with mothers >36 years of age. The present work reports the experience of a Mexican referral center regarding the karyotype diagnosis of patients with trisomy 21 and is one of the most extensive studies published so far. Percentages of the cytogenetic abnormalities present in our population reflect the ones previously reported for these cytogenetic alterations worldwide. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Influence of trisomy 21 on facial form and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Cole, Theodore M; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2017-11-01

    Triplication of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21) results in Down syndrome (DS), the most common live-born human aneuploidy. Individuals with DS have a unique facial appearance that can include form changes and altered variability. Using 3D photogrammatic images, 3D coordinate locations of 20 anatomical landmarks, and Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis methods, we quantitatively test the hypothesis that children with DS (n = 55) exhibit facial form and variance differences relative to two different age-matched (4-12 years) control samples of euploid individuals: biological siblings of individuals with DS (n = 55) and euploid individuals without a sibling with DS (n = 55). Approximately 36% of measurements differ significantly between DS and DS-sibling samples, whereas 46% differ significantly between DS and unrelated control samples. Nearly 14% of measurements differ significantly in variance between DS and DS sibling samples, while 18% of measurements differ significantly in variance between DS and unrelated euploid control samples. Of those measures that showed a significant difference in variance, all were relatively increased in the sample of DS individuals. These results indicate that faces of children with DS are quantitatively more similar to their siblings than to unrelated euploid individuals and exhibit consistent, but slightly increased variation with most individuals falling within the range of normal variation established by euploid samples. These observations provide indirect evidence of the strength of the genetic underpinnings of the resemblance between relatives and the resistance of craniofacial development to genetic perturbations caused by trisomy 21, while underscoring the complexity of the genotype-phenotype map. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Prognostic value of trisomy 8 as a single anomaly and the influence of additional cytogenetic aberrations in primary myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumell, Sílvia; Florensa, Lourdes; Luño, Elisa; Sanzo, Carmen; Cañizo, Consuelo; Hernández, Jesus M; Cervera, José; Gallart, Miguel A; Carbonell, Félix; Collado, Rosa; Arenillas, Leonor; Pedro, Carme; Bargay, Joan; Nomdedeu, Benet; Xicoy, Blanca; Vallespí, Teresa; Raya, José M; Belloch, Luis; Sanz, Guillermo F; Solé, Francesc

    2012-11-01

    Trisomy 8 is the most common chromosomal gain in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), however, little is known about the features of MDS with isolated trisomy 8 and the influence of additional cytogenetic aberrations. We determined the characteristics and prognostic factors of 72 patients with trisomy 8 as a single anomaly and analysed also the impact of other aberrations added to trisomy 8 in another 62 patients. According to our study, MDS with isolated trisomy 8 was more frequent in men, with more than one cytopenia in most patients (62%) and having about 4% bone marrow blasts. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that platelet count and percentage bone marrow blasts had the strongest impact on overall survival (OS). The median OS for isolated trisomy 8, trisomy 8 plus one aberration (tr8 + 1), plus two (tr8 + 2) and plus three or more aberrations (tr8 + ≥3) was 34·3, 40, 23·4 and 5·8 months, respectively (P < 0·001). Trisomy 8 confers a poorer prognosis than a normal karyotype in MDS patients with ≥5% bone marrow blasts. This study supports the view that MDS with isolated trisomy 8 should be included in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Congenital Anomalies Associated with Trisomy 18 or Trisomy 13 : A Registry-Based Study in 16 European Countries, 2000-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springett, Anna; Wellesley, Diana; Greenlees, Ruth; Loane, Maria; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Bergman, Jorieke; Cavero-Carbonell, Clara; Csaky-Szunyogh, Melinda; Draper, Elizabeth S.; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; Klungsoyr, Kari; Lynch, Catherine; Dias, Carlos Matias; McDonnell, Robert; Nelen, Vera; O'Mahony, Mary; Pierini, Anna; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Catherine; Stoianova, Sylvia; Tuckerz, David; Zymak-Zakutnia, Natalya; Morris, Joan K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of trisomies 18 and 13 in Europe and the prevalence of associated anomalies. Twenty-five population-based registries in 16 European countries provided data from 2000-2011. Cases included live births, fetal deaths (20+ weeks' gestation), and

  2. Prenatal Diagnosis of Bilateral Ectrodactyly and Radial Agenesis Associated with Trisomy 10 Mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lévy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectrodactyly or split hand and foot malformations (SHFMs are rare malformations of the limbs, characterized by median clefts of the hands and feet, syndactyly, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges. They represent a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder, with both sporadic and familial cases. Most of the genomic rearrangements identified to date in some forms of SHFM are autosomal dominant traits, involving various chromosome regions. Bilateral radial ray defects comprise also a large heterogenous group of disorders, including trisomy 18, Fanconi anemia, and thrombocytopenia-absent-radius syndrome, not commonly associated with ectrodactyly. The present paper describes a case of ectrodactyly associated with bilateral radial ray defects, diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy, in a fetus affected by trisomy 10. Only four cases of sporadic and isolated ectrodactyly, diagnosed by ultrasonography between 14 and 22 weeks’ gestation, have been reported. To our knowledge, the present case is the first report of mosaic trisomy 10 associated with SHFM and radial aplasia. Trisomy 10 is a rare lethal chromosomal abnormality, most frequently found in abortion products. Only six liveborn mosaic trisomy 10 infants, with severe malformations, dead in early infancy, have been reported. A severe clinical syndrome can be defined, comprising ear abnormalities, cleft lip/palate, malformations of eyes, heart, and kidneys, and deformity of hands and feet and most often associated with death neonatally or in early infancy.

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 4p: a new locus for holoprosencephaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmous-Benailly, Houda; Tabet, Anne-Claude; Thaly, Adeline; Dupuy, Olivier; Huten, Yolène; Luton, Dominique; Baumann, Clarisse; Delezoide, Anne-Lise

    2005-03-01

    Trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 4 is a well-known syndrome, and several observations have been made in the last 30 years. Herein, we report a new observation of trisomy 4p in a fetus with a semi-lobar holoprosencephaly (HPE), dysmorphic features and multiple malformations. The diagnosis of HPE was made, at 33 weeks' gestation, on the fetus of a healthy G1P0 woman. Amniocentesis was performed for chromosome analysis and additional material was found on a chromosome 22. The couple elected to terminate the pregnancy and fetal examination was realized. Conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies were performed on the fetus and the parents, which showed that the additional material found on one chromosome 22 corresponded to the short arm of chromosome 4 and therefore led us to establish a diagnosis of trisomy 4p inherited from the malsegregation of a paternal translocation t(4;22)(q12;q11.1). The etiology of HPE is very heterogeneous; it includes non-genetic factors such as maternal diabetes and genetic causes. HPE cases have been described in association with many chromosomal anomalies, trisomy 13 being the most frequent. However, to our knowledge, HPE has never been previously reported in association with a trisomy involving solely the short arm of chromosome 4. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Extending an Afrikaans pronunciation dictionary using Dutch resources and P2P/GP2P

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . This is compared to the more common approach of extending the Afrikaans dictionary by means of graphemeto-phoneme (G2P) conversion. The results indicate that the Afrikaans pronunciations obtained by P2P and GP2P from the Dutch dictionary are more accurate than...

  5. Severe acute abdomen caused by symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum in three children with trisomy 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Anri; Kumada, Tomohiro; Furukawa, Oki; Nozaki, Fumihito; Hiejima, Ikuko; Shibata, Minoru; Kusunoki, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    Meckel's diverticulum (MD) is the most prevalent congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract and often presents a diagnostic challenge. Patients with trisomy 18 frequently have MD, but the poor prognosis and lack of consensus regarding management for neonates has meant that precise information on the clinical manifestations in infants and children with MD is lacking. We describe the cases of three children with trisomy 18 who developed symptomatic MD. Intussusception was diagnosed in Patient 1, intestinal volvulus in Patient 2, and gastrointestinal bleeding in Patient 3. All three patients underwent surgical treatment and only the Patient 1 died due to pulmonary hypertensive crisis. The other two patients experienced no further episodes of abdominal symptoms. In patients with trisomy 18, although consideration of postoperative complications and prognosis after surgical treatment is necessary, symptomatic MD should carry a high index of suspicion in patients presenting with acute abdomen. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anonymity in P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares-Lopez, Pilar; Muñoz-Gea, Juan Pedro; Malgosa-Sanahuja, Josemaria; Sanchez-Aarnoutse, Juan Carlos

    In the last years, the use of peer-to-peer (P2P) applications to share and exchange knowledge among people around the world has experienced an exponential growth. Therefore, it is understandable that, like in any successful communication mechanism used by a lot of humans being, the anonymity can be a desirable characteristic in this scenario. Anonymity in P2P networks can be obtained by means of different methods, although the most significant ones are broadcast protocols, dining-cryptographer (DC) nets and multiple-hop paths. Each of these methods can be tunable in order to build a real anonymity P2P application. In addition, there is a mathematical tool called entropy that can be used in some scenarios to quantify anonymity in communication networks. In some cases, it can be calculated analytically but in others it is necessary to use simulation to obtain the network entropy.

  7. Non-invasive prenatal testing for trisomies 21, 18 and 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, H.; Gao, Y.; Jiang, F.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report the clinical performance of massively parallel sequencing-based non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in detecting trisomies 21, 18 and 13 in over 140 000 clinical samples and to compare its performance in low-risk and high-risk pregnancies. METHODS: Between 1 January 2012...... samples, for which outcome data were available in 112 669 (76.7%). Repeat blood sampling was required in 3213 cases and 145 had test failure. Aneuploidy was confirmed in 720/781 cases positive for trisomy 21, 167/218 cases positive for trisomy 18 and 22/67 cases positive for trisomy 13 on NIPT. Nine false...... difference in test performance between the 72 382 high-risk and 40 287 low-risk subjects (sensitivity, 99.21% vs 98.97% (P = 0.82); specificity, 99.95% vs 99.95% (P = 0.98)). The major factors contributing to false-positive and false-negative NIPT results were maternal copy number variant and fetal...

  8. Trisomy 8 in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia. A NOPHO-AML Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Cathrine Lund; Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Kjeldsen, Eigil

    2016-01-01

    Trisomy 8 (+8) is a common cytogenetic aberration in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the impact of +8 in pediatric AML is largely unknown. We retrospectively investigated 609 patients from the NOPHO-AML database to determine the clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of +8 in pediatric AML...

  9. Facial profile markers in second- and third-trimester fetuses with trisomy 18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, F. I.; De Jong-Pleij, E. A P; Bakker, M.; Tromp, E.; Manten, G. T R; Bilardo, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate nasal bone length (NBL), maxilla-nasion-mandible (MNM) angle, fetal profile (FP) line, prenasal thickness (PT), prenasal thickness to nasal bone length (PT:NBL) ratio and prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) as markers of trisomy 18 in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

  10. Differences in the Clinical Presentation of Trisomy 21 with and without Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, C. A.; Murray, D. S.; Kinsman, A.; Castillo, H.; Mitchell, T.; Hickey, F. J.; Patterson, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autism occurs 10 times more often in children with Down syndrome than in the general population, but diagnosing co-occurring autism in Down syndrome with severe intellectual disability is challenging. The objective of this case-control study was to identify characteristics differentiating children with trisomy 21 with and without…

  11. Altered hematopoiesis in trisomy 21 as revealed through in vitro differentiation of isogenic human pluripotent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Glenn A.; Menne, Tobias F.; Guo, Guoji; Sanchez, Danielle J.; Park, In-Hyun; Daley, George Q.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2012-01-01

    Trisomy 21 is associated with hematopoietic abnormalities in the fetal liver, a preleukemic condition termed transient myeloproliferative disorder, and increased incidence of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Human trisomy 21 pluripotent cells of various origins, human embryionic stem (hES), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, were differentiated in vitro as a model to recapitulate the effects of trisomy on hematopoiesis. To mitigate clonal variation, we isolated disomic and trisomic subclones from the same parental iPS line, thereby generating subclones isogenic except for chromosome 21. Under differentiation conditions favoring development of fetal liver-like, γ-globin expressing, definitive hematopoiesis, we found that trisomic cells of hES, iPS, or isogenic origins exhibited a two- to fivefold increase in a population of CD43+(Leukosialin)/CD235+(Glycophorin A) hematopoietic cells, accompanied by increased multilineage colony-forming potential in colony-forming assays. These findings establish an intrinsic disturbance of multilineage myeloid hematopoiesis in trisomy 21 at the fetal liver stage. PMID:23045682

  12. Vocal and Gestural Productions of 24-Month-Old Children with Sex Chromosome Trisomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Laura; Draghi, Lara; Silibello, Gaia; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Rigamonti, Claudia; Suttora, Chiara; Zanchi, Paola; Salerni, Nicoletta; Lalatta, Faustina; Vizziello, Paola

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children with sex chromosome trisomies (SCT) frequently show problems in language development. However, a clear description of the communicative patterns of these children is still lacking. Aims: To describe the first stages of language development in children with SCT in comparison with those in typically developing (TD) children. The…

  13. Sex chromosome trisomies in Europe: prevalence, prenatal detection and outcome of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Patricia Anne; Loane, Maria; Garne, Ester

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to assess prevalence and pregnancy outcome for sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs) diagnosed prenatally or in the first year of life. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) database on SCT cases delivered 2000-2005 from 19 population-based registries ...

  14. Twenty-year trends in the prevalence of Down syndrome and other trisomies in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loane, Maria; Morris, Joan K; Addor, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    This study examines trends and geographical differences in total and live birth prevalence of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 with regard to increasing maternal age and prenatal diagnosis in Europe. Twenty-one population-based EUROCAT registries covering 6.1 million births between 1990 and 2009 participa...

  15. Changing Paradigms in Down Syndrome : The First International Conference of the Trisomy 21 Research Society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delabar, Jean Maurice; Allinquant, Bernadette; Bianchi, Diana; Blumenthal, Tom; Dekker, Alain; Edgin, Jamie; O'Bryan, John; Dierssen, Mara; Potier, Marie Claude; Wiseman, Frances; Guedj, Faycal; Créau, Nicole; Reeves, Roger; Gardiner, Katheleen; Busciglio, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID) in humans with an incidence of ∼1:1,000 live births worldwide. It is caused by the presence of an extra copy of all or a segment of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). People with DS present with a

  16. Novel elastic, lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties of metallic single-layer transition metal phosphides: 2H-M 2P (Mo2P, W2P, Nb2P and Ta2P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiuren; Wu, Bozhao; Wang, Yanggang; Li, Zhimi; Yao, Yuanpeng; Jiang, Yong; Ding, Yanhuai; Xu, Fu; Zhang, Ping

    2018-04-01

    Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the research of two-dimensional (2D) phosphides due to their unique physical properties and wide applications. Transition metal phosphides 2H-M 2Ps (Mo2P, W2P, Nb2P and Ta2P) show considerable catalytic activity and energy storage potential. However, the electronic structure and mechanical properties of 2D 2H-M 2Ps are still unrevealed. Here, first-principles calculations are employed to investigate the lattice dynamics, elasticity and thermodynamic properties of 2H-M 2Ps. Results show that M 2Ps with lower stiffness exhibit remarkable lateral deformation under unidirectional loads. Due to the largest average Grüneisen parameter, single-layer Nb2P has the strongest anharmonic vibrations, resulting in the highest thermal expansion coefficient. The lattice thermal conductivities of Ta2P, W2P and Nb2P contradict classical theory, which would predict a smaller thermal conductivity due to the much heavier atom mass. Moreover, the calculations also demonstrate that the thermal conductivity of Ta2P is the highest as well as the lowest thermal expansion, owing to its weak anharmonic phonon scattering and the lowest average Grüneisen parameter. The insight provided by this study may be useful for future experimental and theoretical studies concerning 2D transition metal phosphide materials.

  17. Effect of deviation of nuchal translucency measurements on the performance of screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Wright, D; Etchegaray, A; Zhou, Y; Nicolaides, K H

    2009-06-01

    To examine the effect of deviations in median nuchal translucency thickness (NT) and the spread in measurements on the performance of screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age and fetal NT, and by maternal age, fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry. We simulated the NT and multiples of the median values for pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) for 500 000 euploid and 500 000 trisomy 21 pregnancies at 12 weeks of gestation. Detection rates for trisomy 21 and false-positive rates were calculated without adjustments in NT and by adding or subtracting values ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mm to each observed measurement. In addition, the effects of variation in the scatter of NT measurements were examined by applying a multiplicative factor ranging from 0.5 to 2 to the SD. The detection rate of trisomy 21 for a fixed false-positive rate of 3% in screening by maternal age and fetal NT was 72%, and in screening by maternal age, fetal NT and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A it was 86%. A consistent underestimate or overestimate in the measured NT reduced the detection rate of trisomy 21 for a fixed-false positive rate. At a fixed screen-positive cut-off an underestimate in fetal NT reduced the detection rate whereas an overestimate in NT increased the false-positive rate. A widening in the scatter of measurements had only a small impact on the detection rate but it caused a major increase in the false-positive rate. High performance of screening necessitates appropriate measurement of fetal NT. This paper demonstrates the effect of deviations in the median and SD of NT from the expected on the performance of screening and can form the basis of audit of results of individual sonographers. (c) 2009 ISUOG.

  18. Trisomy 15 mosaicism and uniparental disomy (UPD) in a liveborn infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milunsky, J.M. [Boston Univ. School Med, MA (United States)]|[Tufts-New England Med. Ctr, Boston, MA (United States); Wyandt, H.E.; Amos, J.A. [Boston Univ. School Med., MA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We describe a liveborn infant with UPD in association with trisomy 15 mosaicism. Third trimester amniocentesis was performed for suspected IUGR. Results revealed 46,XX/47,XX,+15. The infant initially had respiratory distress and fed poorly. Symmetrical growth retardation, craniofacial dysmorphism, excess nuchal folds, a heart murmur, hypermobile joints, minor limb abnormalities, absent spontaneous movement and an abnormal cry were noted. Further study showed complex heart defects, including VSD and PDA, a left choroid plexus cyst, 13 ribs bilaterally, abnormal optic discs, abnormal visual evoked potentials and abnormal auditory brain stem responses. The infant died at 6 weeks of life from cardio-respiratory complications. Blood chromosomes were normal, 46,XX in 100 cells. Parental blood chromosomes were normal. Skin biopsy revealed 46,XX/47,XX,+15 in 40/50 (80%) cells as did autopsy lung tissue. Molecular analysis of the infant`s blood revealed maternal uniparental heterodisomy for chromosome 15 in the 46,XX cell line. Microsatellite analysis demonstrated that the extra chromosome originated from a maternal meiosis I nondisjunction. To our knowledge, this is the first liveborn infant with mosaic trisomy 15 and UPD in the diploid cells. Trisomy 15, heretofore, has been regarded as nonviable, even in mosaic form. While maternal UPD is associated with the Prader-Willi syndrome phenotype, mosaicism for trisomy 15 has been reported only when confined to the placenta. UPD in this case generally complicated prediction of the phenotype and raises the question whether all cases with UPD 15 should have more than one tissue studied to determine undetected trisomy 15.

  19. Natural history and parental experience of children with trisomy 18 based on a questionnaire given to a Japanese trisomy 18 parental support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosho, Tomoki; Kuniba, Hideo; Tanikawa, Yuko; Hashimoto, Yoko; Sakurai, Hiroko

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a questionnaire-based study in collaboration with a Japanese trisomy 18 parental support group. Sixty-five children (female, 68%) with full trisomy 18 were evaluated. Diagnosis was made prenatally in 17% (11/65) and 57% (37/65) were born following a cesarean. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks and 6 days, and the mean birth weight was 1,920 g (-2.6SD). A total of 51% (24/47) of children had apneic episodes. Thirteen children experienced generalized seizures, and a minority was seizure-free with medication. Parents of 36% (18/50) of children were offered intensive treatment. A total of 45% (27/60) of children received intermittent mandatory ventilation, which was weaned off in half of them. Nine had surgeries, including esophageal atresia/omphalocele correction, cardiac surgery, and tracheostomy. A total of 15% (8/55) were fed fully orally, and 45% (29/64) were discharged home. Slow but constant psychomotor development was observed, and in four long-term survivors over 10 years, two walked unassisted. Factors significantly associated with survival over 1 year included diagnosis after birth, absence of prematurity, heavier birth weight, absence of esophageal atresia, extubation, ability to feed orally without medical assistance, and home discharge. Parents appeared to be positive about caring for their children, and the children seemed to interact with parents and siblings as long as they lived, resulting in quality family time. The family point of view, as well as knowledge of natural history, should be considered when policy statements about the care of children with trisomy 18 are made. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Coexistence of Trisomy 13 and SRY (-) XX Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ürel Demir, Gizem; Doğan, Özlem Akgün; Şimşek Kiper, Pelin Özlem; Utine, Gülen Eda; Boduroğlu, Koray; Gucer, Safak; Alikaşifoğlu, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Ovotesticular disorder of sex development (OT-DSD) is a rare disorder of sexual differentiation characterized by the presence of both testicular and ovarian tissue in an individual and the majority of cases have been reported with 46,XX karyotype. In 46,XX cases, testicular differentiation may occur due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or to an autosome. Herein, we present a female newborn with a combination of trisomy 13 and SRY (-) XX OT-DSD. Trisomy 13 is a relatively common and well-known chromosomal disorder in which disorders of sexual differentiation are not frequent. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of pro-testis genes, or decreased expression of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes have been suggested as underlying mechanisms of testicular formation. The findings in this patient were suggestive of an underlying genomic disorder associated with FGF9 and/or SPRY2.

  1. Cryptogenic embolic stroke in a girl with a trisomy 21 mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöllberger, Claudia; Weiss, Simone; Zlabinger, Gerhard; Finsterer, Josef

    2012-06-01

    Stroke in trisomy 21 may be due to cardioembolism, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, moyamoya disease, sinus venous thrombosis, internal carotid hypoplasia or infections like endocarditis with septic emboli, meningitis or brain abscess. In rare cases, however, stroke etiology remains unexplained. We present a 19 year old Caucasian girl with trisomy 21 with a 47XX+21 karyotype who suffered at age 11 years from a transient ischemic attack with left hemiparesis, and at age 17 years from an ischemic stroke in the territory of the right cerebral medial artery. She suffered from arterial hypertension, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. Since blood coagulation studies, immunologic parameters, blood cultures, 24-h Holter monitoring, transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, magnetic resonance angiography of the extra- and intracranial vessels, thoracic and abdominal aorta and renal arteries did not provide any explanation for the stroke, implantation of a loop recorder is considered in order to detect episodes of clinically silent atrial fibrillation.

  2. Placental Histomorphology in a Case of Double Trisomy 48,XXX,+18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujal I. Shah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Approximately 50% of early spontaneous abortions are found to have chromosomal abnormalities. In these cases, certain histopathologic abnormalities are suggestive of, although not diagnostic for, the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. However, placental histomorphology in cases of complex chromosomal abnormalities, including double trisomies, is virtually unknown. Case Report. We present the case of a 27-year-old G3P22002 female presenting at 19 weeks and 1 day of gestation by last menstrual period for scheduled prenatal visit. Ultrasound revealed a single fetus without heart tones and adequate amniotic fluid. Limited fetal measurements were consistent with estimated gestational age of 17 weeks. Labor was induced with misoprostol due to fetal demise. Autopsy revealed an immature female fetus with grade 1-2 maceration. The ears were low-set and posteriorly rotated. The fingers were short bilaterally, and the right foot showed absence of the second and third digits. Evaluation of the organs showed predominantly marked autolysis consistent with retained stillbirth. Placental examination revealed multiple findings, including focal pseudovillous papilliform trophoblastic proliferation of the undersurface of the chorionic plate and clustering of perpendicularly oriented sclerotic chorionic villi in the chorion laeve, which have not been previously reported in cases of chromosomal abnormalities. Karyotype of placental tissue revealed a 48,XXX,+18 karyotype and the same double trisomy of fetal thymic tissue by FISH. Conclusion. In addition to convoluted outlines of chorionic villi, villous trophoblastic pseudoinclusions, and clusters of villous cytotrophoblasts, the previously unreported focal pseudovillous papilliform trophoblastic proliferation of the undersurface of the chorionic plate and clustering of perpendicularly oriented sclerotic chorionic villi in the chorion laeve were observed in this double trisomy case. More cases have to

  3. Placental Histomorphology in a Case of Double Trisomy 48,XXX,+18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sujal I; Dyer, Lisa; Stanek, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 50% of early spontaneous abortions are found to have chromosomal abnormalities. In these cases, certain histopathologic abnormalities are suggestive of, although not diagnostic for, the presence of chromosomal abnormalities. However, placental histomorphology in cases of complex chromosomal abnormalities, including double trisomies, is virtually unknown. We present the case of a 27-year-old G3P22002 female presenting at 19 weeks and 1 day of gestation by last menstrual period for scheduled prenatal visit. Ultrasound revealed a single fetus without heart tones and adequate amniotic fluid. Limited fetal measurements were consistent with estimated gestational age of 17 weeks. Labor was induced with misoprostol due to fetal demise. Autopsy revealed an immature female fetus with grade 1-2 maceration. The ears were low-set and posteriorly rotated. The fingers were short bilaterally, and the right foot showed absence of the second and third digits. Evaluation of the organs showed predominantly marked autolysis consistent with retained stillbirth. Placental examination revealed multiple findings, including focal pseudovillous papilliform trophoblastic proliferation of the undersurface of the chorionic plate and clustering of perpendicularly oriented sclerotic chorionic villi in the chorion laeve, which have not been previously reported in cases of chromosomal abnormalities. Karyotype of placental tissue revealed a 48,XXX,+18 karyotype and the same double trisomy of fetal thymic tissue by FISH. In addition to convoluted outlines of chorionic villi, villous trophoblastic pseudoinclusions, and clusters of villous cytotrophoblasts, the previously unreported focal pseudovillous papilliform trophoblastic proliferation of the undersurface of the chorionic plate and clustering of perpendicularly oriented sclerotic chorionic villi in the chorion laeve were observed in this double trisomy case. More cases have to be examined to show if the histology is specific for

  4. Tracking Subtle Stereotypes of Children with Trisomy 21: From Facial-Feature-Based to Implicit Stereotyping

    OpenAIRE

    Enea-Drapeau , Claire; Carlier , Michèle; Huguet , Pascal

    2012-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundStigmatization is one of the greatest obstacles to the successful integration of people with Trisomy 21 (T21 or Down syndrome), the most frequent genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability. Research on attitudes and stereotypes toward these people still focuses on explicit measures subjected to social-desirability biases, and neglects how variability in facial stigmata influences attitudes and stereotyping.Methodology/Principal FindingsThe parti...

  5. Segmental trisomy of chromosome 17: a mouse model of human aneuploidy syndromes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacík, Tomáš; Ort, Michael; Gregorová, Soňa; Strnad, P.; Conte, N.; Bradley, A.; Blatný, Radek; Bureš, Jan; Forejt, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 12 (2005), s. 4500-4505 ISSN 0027-8424 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/03/0715 Grant - others:Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) 55000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : dosage-sensitive genes * Down's syndrome * mouse segmental trisomy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.231, year: 2005

  6. Trisomy 9 syndrome: Report of a case with Crohn disease and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolldridge, J.; Zuncih, J. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Gary, IN (United States)

    1995-04-10

    We report on a 6-year-old boy with mosaic trisomy 9. The patient was born at 42 weeks of gestation to a 27-year-old G1 white woman. Birth weight was 2,820 g, length 52 cm, and Apgar scores were 4 and 6 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. The infant presented with apparently low-set ears, overfolded helices, epicanthal folds, prominent nasal bridge, high-arched palate, micrognathia, bilateral dislocated hips, left genu recurvatum, and cryptorchidism. Chromosome analysis showed an unusual karyotype: 47,XY,+inv(9qh+)/47,XY,+mar. The marker chromosome was thought to be a remnant of the inv (9qh+), while the father`s was 46,XY. At age 5 months, the patient developed seizures and gastroesophageal reflux. Crohn disease was diagnosed at age 2 years, although symptoms began at age 1 year. Recurrent bouts of pneumonia have occurred since the patient`s birth. Severe psychomotor retardation was also noted. Trisomy 9 syndrome was first reported in 1973. Over 30 cases have been reported since then. Of these case reports, only 5 patients were older than 1 year. Inflammatory bowel disease has been reported in association with other chromosome abnormalities, but to our knowledge, has not been reported in trisomy 9 syndrome. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Trisomy 8, a Cytogenetic Abnormality in Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Is Constitutional or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumell, Sílvia; Solé, Francesc; Arenillas, Leonor; Montoro, Julia; Valcárcel, David; Pedro, Carme; Sanzo, Carmen; Luño, Elisa; Giménez, Teresa; Arnan, Montserrat; Pomares, Helena; De Paz, Raquel; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Jerez, Andrés; Martínez, Ana B; Sánchez-Castro, Judith; Rodríguez-Gambarte, Juan D; Raya, José M; Ríos, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Rivera, María; Espinet, Blanca; Florensa, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Isolated trisomy 8 is not considered presumptive evidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in cases without minimal morphological criteria. One reason given is that trisomy 8 (+8) can be found as a constitutional mosaicism (cT8M). We tried to clarify the incidence of cT8M in myeloid neoplasms, specifically in MDS, and the diagnostic value of isolated +8 in MDS. Twenty-two MDS and 10 other myeloid neoplasms carrying +8 were studied. Trisomy 8 was determined in peripheral blood by conventional cytogenetics (CC) and on granulocytes, CD3+ lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In peripheral blood CC, +8 was seen in 4/32 patients. By FISH, only one patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia showed +8 in all cell samples and was interpreted as a cT8M. In our series +8 was acquired in all MDS. Probably, once discarded cT8M by FISH from CD3+ lymphocytes and non-hematological cells, +8 should be considered with enough evidence to MDS.

  8. Trisomy 8, a Cytogenetic Abnormality in Myelodysplastic Syndromes, Is Constitutional or Not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Saumell

    Full Text Available Isolated trisomy 8 is not considered presumptive evidence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS in cases without minimal morphological criteria. One reason given is that trisomy 8 (+8 can be found as a constitutional mosaicism (cT8M. We tried to clarify the incidence of cT8M in myeloid neoplasms, specifically in MDS, and the diagnostic value of isolated +8 in MDS. Twenty-two MDS and 10 other myeloid neoplasms carrying +8 were studied. Trisomy 8 was determined in peripheral blood by conventional cytogenetics (CC and on granulocytes, CD3+ lymphocytes and oral mucosa cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. In peripheral blood CC, +8 was seen in 4/32 patients. By FISH, only one patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia showed +8 in all cell samples and was interpreted as a cT8M. In our series +8 was acquired in all MDS. Probably, once discarded cT8M by FISH from CD3+ lymphocytes and non-hematological cells, +8 should be considered with enough evidence to MDS.

  9. Positive cell-free fetal DNA testing for trisomy 13 reveals confined placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, April L; Drendel, Holli M; Verbrugge, Jennifer L; Reese, Angela M; Schumacher, Katherine L; Griffith, Christopher B; Weaver, David D; Abernathy, Mary P; Litton, Christian G; Vance, Gail H

    2013-09-01

    We report on a case in which cell-free fetal DNA was positive for trisomy 13 most likely due to confined placental mosaicism. Cell-free fetal DNA testing analyzes DNA derived from placental trophoblast cells and can lead to incorrect results that are not representative of the fetus. We sought to confirm commercial cell-free fetal DNA testing results by chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. These results were followed up by postnatal chromosome analysis of cord blood and placental tissue. First-trimester cell-free fetal DNA test results were positive for trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villus sampling yielded a mosaic karyotype of 47,XY,+13[10]/46,XY[12]. G-banded analysis of amniotic fluid was normal, 46,XY. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of cord blood was normal. Karyotyping of tissues from four quadrants of the placenta demonstrated mosaicism for trisomy 13 in two of the quadrants and a normal karyotype in the other two. Our case illustrates several important aspects of this new testing methodology: that cell-free fetal DNA may not be representative of the fetal karyotype; that follow-up with diagnostic testing of chorionic villus sampling and/or amniotic fluid for abnormal test results should be performed; and that pretest counseling regarding the full benefits, limitations, and possible testing outcomes of cell-free fetal DNA screening is important.

  10. Managing P2P services via the IMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.; Lin, L.

    2007-01-01

    The key aim of our work was to illustrate the benefits and means to deploy P2P services via the IMS. Having demonstrated the technical viability of P2P-IMS we have also found a way to add a new management dimension to existing P2P systems. P2P-IMS comes with a natural "data management" mechanism,

  11. Microscopic model accounting of 2p2p configurations in magic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    A model for account of the 2p2h configurations in magic nuclei is described in the framework of the Green function formalism. The model is formulated in the lowest order in the phonon production amplitude, so that the series are expansions not over pure 2p2h configurations, but over con figurations of the type ''1p1h+phonon''. Equations are obtained for the vertex and the density matrix, as well as an expression for the transition probabilities, that are extensions of the corresponding results of the theory of finite Fermi systems, or of the random-phase approximation to the case where the ''1p1h+phonon'' configurations are taken into account. Corrections to the one-particle phenomenological basis which arise with account for complicated configurations are obtained. Comparison with other approaches, using phonons, has shown that they are particular cases of the described model

  12. Facial markers in second- and third-trimester fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Sonek, J; Berg, X; Berg, C; Mallmann, M; Abele, H; Hoopmann, M; Geipel, A

    2015-07-01

    To examine the effectiveness of nasal bone (NB) evaluation (including NB length (NBL)), prenasal thickness (PT) measurement, the PT:NBL ratio and the prefrontal space ratio (PFSR) in the identification of fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome. This was a retrospective study using stored midsagittal two-dimensional images of the facial profile of fetuses with trisomy 18 or 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome in the second and third trimesters. For images of acceptable quality, measurements were obtained of NBL (where NB was present), PT, the PT:NBL ratio and PFSR, and these measurements were compared with previously published normal ranges. The search of databases identified 189 fetuses that met the study criteria: 132 (69.8%) with trisomy 18, 40 (21.2%) with trisomy 13, 10 (5.3%) with triploidy and seven (3.7%) with Turner syndrome. The NB was either absent or its measurement was below the 5(th) centile in 67 (50.8%), 20 (50.0%), five (50.0%) and two (28.6%) of the fetuses with trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome, respectively. The PT measurement was above the 95(th) centile in 24 (18.2%), six (15.0%), one (10.0%) and one (14.3%) of the affected fetuses, respectively. The PFSR was abnormal in 72 (54.5%), 29 (72.5%), seven (70%) and four (57.1%) of the cases and the PT:NBL ratio was above the 95(th) centile or the nasal bone was absent in 72 (54.5%), 20 (50.0%), six (60.0%) and four (57.1%) cases, respectively. Although each of the facial markers considered provides some useful information in screening for trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome, the performance of none of the markers appears to be as good as that in screening for trisomy 21. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Distal trisomy 10q syndrome, report of a patient with duplicated q24.31 – qter, autism spectrum disorder and unusual features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sarraj, Yasser; Al-Khair, Hakam Abu; Taha, Rowaida Ziad; Khattab, Namat; El Sayed, Zakaria H; Elhusein, Bushra; El-Shanti, Hatem

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message We report on a patient with distal trisomy 10q syndrome presenting with a few previously undescribed physical features, as well as, autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We recommend that patients with distal trisomy 10q syndrome should have a behavioral evaluation for ASD for the early institution of therapy. PMID:25614812

  14. Maternal serum protein profile and immune response protein subunits as markers for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21, 18, and 13

    KAUST Repository

    Narasimhan, Kothandaraman

    2013-02-01

    Objectives: To use proteomics to identify and characterize proteins in maternal serum from patients at high-risk for fetal trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and trisomy 13 on the basis of ultrasound and maternal serum triple tests. Methods: We performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis on 23 trisomy cases and 85 normal cases during the early second trimester of pregnancy. Protein profiling along with conventional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/Tandem mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to characterize proteins associated with each trisomy condition and later validated using Western blot. Results: Protein profiling approach using surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass (SELDI-TOF/MS) spectrometry resulted in the identification of 37 unique hydrophobic proteomic features for three trisomy conditions. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight/Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and western blot, glyco proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein H, and serum carrier protein transthyretin were identified as potential maternal serum markers for fetal trisomy condition. The identified proteins showed differential expression at the subunit level. Conclusions: Maternal serum protein profiling using proteomics may allow non-invasive diagnostic testing for the most common trisomies and may complement ultrasound-based methods to more accurately determine pregnancies with fetal aneuploidies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Trisomy 11 as an Additional Chromosome Alteration in a Child with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia with Poor Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Ferreira Bastos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic significance of the additional abnormalities to the t(15; 17 remains controversial. We report a case of promyelocytic leukemia (APL in a ten-year-old boy. Classical and molecular cytogenetic (FISH studies of a bone marrow sample obtained at diagnosis revealed the presence of trisomy of chromosome 11 as an additional chromosomal abnormality to the t(15; 17. The presence of the translocation t(15; 17, the cytogenetic marker of APL, is usually associated with good response to treatment with ATRA. In this case, although the patient had risk factors associated with good prognosis, he evolved and died quickly. So it seems that the presence of the trisomy 11 may be associated with disease progression and the poor outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of t(15; 17 associated with trisomy of chromosome 11 in a child with APL.

  16. Analysis of the origin of the extra chromosome in trisomy 8 in 4 cases of spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, P; von Beust, G; Bugge, M; Karadima, G; Vassilopoulos, D; Brøndum-Nielsen, K; Petersen, M B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the origin of the extra chromosome in trisomy 8 in spontaneous abortions. We analyzed 4 cases of nonmosaic trisomy 8 in 1st-trimester spontaneous abortions and their parents with DNA polymorphism analysis using microsatellite DNA markers. In 3 cases the extra chromosome was maternal in origin and in 1 case paternal in origin. In 2 of the cases the nondisjunction had occurred in maternal meiosis, while the other 2 cases were consistent with a postzygotic (mitotic) origin of the additional chromosome. Although a small number of cases studied, these results suggest differences from the common autosomal trisomies 21, 18, 16, and 13 where the vast majority of cases are due to errors in maternal meiosis.

  17. Prospective validation of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, K O; Etchegaray, A; Zhou, Y; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2009-07-01

    To examine the performance of the new algorithm in screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age, fetal nuchal translucency (NT) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A). This was a prospective screening study for trisomy 21 in singleton pregnancies at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation using an algorithm combining maternal age, fetal NT thickness based on the mixture model for the assessment of NT, and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A based on a multiple regression model for the assessment of serum biochemistry. The NT measurements were performed by 60 operators who had obtained The Fetal Medicine Foundation certificate of competence in the 11-13-week scan. The study population consisted of 19 614 pregnancies with a normal karyotype or delivery of a phenotypically normal baby (euploid group) and 122 cases of trisomy 21. In the euploid fetuses the NT was above the previously defined 50(th), 95(th) and 99(th) centiles in 10 033 (51.2%), 618 (3.2%) and 123 (0.6%) cases and the respective values for trisomy 21 were 117 (95.9%), 94 (77.0%) and 57 (46.7%). The median fetal NT was within 0.1 mm of the expected in 47 (78.3%) of the 60 sonographers and within 0.2 mm in all. In the euploid fetuses the median free beta-hCG was 1.0 (range, 0.1-29.4) multiples of the median (MoM) and the median PAPP-A was 1.0 (range, 0.2-3.3) MoM. The median MoM values were 1.0 or close to 1.0 MoM for each subgroup of pregnancy characteristics, including gestations of 11, 12 and 13 weeks, maternal weight of 80 kg, different ethnic origins, cigarette smokers and non-smokers, natural conception and in vitro fertilization. For a false-positive rate of 3%, the detection rate of trisomy 21 in screening by maternal age and fetal NT was 81% (95% CI, 73-89%), by maternal age and maternal serum biochemistry it was 63% (95% CI, 56-72%) and by combined screening based on maternal age, fetal NT and maternal

  18. Placental disease and abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms in trisomy 21 pregnancy: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Edward; Mone, Fionnuala; Segurado, Ricardo; Downey, Paul; McParland, Peter; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Mooney, Eoghan E

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were firstly to determine the proportion of placental pathology in fetuses affected by trisomy 21 (T21) using current pathological descriptive terminology and secondly to examine if a correlation existed between the finding of an abnormal umbilical artery Doppler (UAD) waveform, the presence of T21 and defined placental pathological categories. This case-control study assessed singleton fetuses with karyotypically confirmed trisomy 21 where placental histopathology had been conducted from 2003 to 2015 inclusive, within a university tertiary obstetric centre. This was compared with unselected normal singleton control pregnancies matched within a week of gestation at delivery. Data included birthweight centiles and placental histopathology. Comparisons of Doppler findings across placental pathological categories were performed using statistical analysis. 104 cases were analysed; 52 cases of trisomy 21 and 52 controls. Fetal vascular malperfusion (48.1% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.001) and maturation defects (39.2% vs. 15.7%, p = 0.023) were more common in trisomy 21 placentas. Compared with controls, trisomy 21 fetuses were more likely to have shorter umbilical cords (p = 0.001) and had more UAD abnormalities. Amongst T21 pregnancies, umbilical artery Doppler abnormalities are associated with the presence of maternal vascular malperfusion. Fetal vascular malperfusion and maturation defects are more common in trisomy 21 placentas. Abnormal umbilical artery Doppler waveforms are more common in T21 and are associated with maternal vascular malperfusion. Placental disease may explain the increased rate of intrauterine death in T21. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prospective audit of a one-centre combined nuchal translucency and triple test programme for the detection of trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbur, Vijayalakshmi; Lees, Christoph C; Goodburn, Sandra F; Morris, Nigel; Breeze, Andrew C G; Hackett, Gerald A

    2005-06-01

    To determine detection and false-positive rates for trisomy 21 using two-stage combined nuchal translucency (NT) and triple testing, whilst disclosing abnormal nuchal measurements at the scan. A prospective audit in a UK women's hospital, of 3188 women with singleton pregnancies, requesting screening for trisomy 21. Median age was 37 years (range 19-46). Women were offered NT screening at 11 to 14 weeks. Those with NT > or =3 mm were offered chorionic villus sampling. Those declining CVS, and those with NT risk of trisomy 21 > or = 1:250, based on age, NT, and triple test results were offered amniocentesis. Using a 3-mm NT 'cut-off' identified 16/25 cases of trisomy 21 (64%; 95% CI 38.8, 78.9). Of 2725 women who had a combined nuchal plus triple test assessment, 79 (2.6%) had a > or = 1:250 term risk of trisomy 21. Forty (1.3%) had amniocentesis identifying 6/9 remaining cases (67%:95% CI:27.9, 92.5). Overall, the detection rate was 88% (95% CI:68.8, 97.5) for a 4.8% FPR. For the screened population, to achieve an 88% detection rate using the triple test alone, the predicted FPR would be 20%. Conversely, for an FPR of 4.8% using the triple test alone, the detection rate would be only 60%. In a high-risk group, the combination of NT with triple test offers detection of trisomy 21 at least equivalent to either test, while allowing disclosure of an abnormal NT at the scan and reducing the FPR. Importantly, the FPR is less than 5%, considerably lower than expected for triple test alone for this population.

  20. The feasibility study of non-invasive fetal trisomy 18 and 21 detection with semiconductor sequencing platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Jeon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT technologies are based on next-generation sequencing (NGS. NGS allows rapid and effective clinical diagnoses to be determined with two common sequencing systems: Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. The majority of NIPT technology is associated with Illumina platform. We investigated whether fetal trisomy 18 and 21 were sensitively and specifically detectable by semiconductor sequencer: Ion Proton. METHODS: From March 2012 to October 2013, we enrolled 155 pregnant women with fetuses who were diagnosed as high risk of fetal defects at Xiamen Maternal & Child Health Care Hospital (Xiamen, Fujian, China. Adapter-ligated DNA libraries were analyzed by the Ion Proton™ System (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA with an average 0.3× sequencing coverage per nucleotide. Average total raw reads per sample was 6.5 million and mean rate of uniquely mapped reads was 59.0%. The results of this study were derived from BWA mapping. Z-score was used for fetal trisomy 18 and 21 detection. RESULTS: Interactive dot diagrams showed the minimal z-score values to discriminate negative versus positive cases of fetal trisomy 18 and 21. For fetal trisomy 18, the minimal z-score value of 2.459 showed 100% positive predictive and negative predictive values. The minimal z-score of 2.566 was used to classify negative versus positive cases of fetal trisomy 21. CONCLUSION: These results provide the evidence that fetal trisomy 18 and 21 detection can be performed with semiconductor sequencer. Our data also suggest that a prospective study should be performed with a larger cohort of clinically diverse obstetrics patients.

  1. Variation of Ultrasound Findings in the First Trimester Examination of Recurrent Cases With Trisomy 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniilidis, Aggelos; Balaouras, Dimitrios; Chitzios, Dimitrios; Balaouras, Georgios; Capilna, Mihai; Asimakopoulos, Efstratios

    2015-01-01

    Increased nuchal translucency (NT) is present in about 50% of cases with trisomy 21. Very often the nuchal edema evolves in hydrops fetalis until the second trimester. Furthermore, a small amount of cases with a normal NT and trisomy 21 exhibit anatomical anomalies. We present a case of a 21-year-old woman, nulliparous, with a history of one termination of pregnancy and a smoking quitter. The prenatal control was negative for TORCH. During the first trimester scan on the 13th week, the NT was found 2.7 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present. Hydrops fetalis was present though, and the parents were advised for chorionic villus sampling (CVS), but they opted for termination of pregnancy. The molecular control by QF-PCR showed normal karyotype for 13 and 18, a male fetus, but non-dysjunction trisomy 21 was present. Parental karyotype was advised, but they refused to perform it. One year later, the couple had another pregnancy. On the 12th week scan, the NT was found 1.0 mm, the ductus venosus Doppler was normal, and the nasal bone was present, but encephalocele was also found, and the parents consented again for termination of pregnancy. The new molecular control showed the same results. This time parental karyotype was performed. The father had a normal one, whereas the mother showed reversed p11 and q13 zones in chromosome 2. Genetical consulting and prenatal cytological control was advised in before next pregnancy. PMID:25883716

  2. Double trisomy mosaic (47,XXX/48,XXX,+13) confirmed by FISH and skin fibroblast culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieber, E.; Grady, V.; Dosik, H. [Interfaith Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 4 lb 8 oz female was born to a 49-year-old woman (P1200G12) at 40 weeks. The baby had tetralogy of Fallot, polydactyly, microcephaly, low set simple ears, posterior cleft of the soft palate and overlapping flexion deformities of both hands. The eyes were deep set. The clinical impression was trisomy 13. The baby is not doing well and needs a gastrotomy tube for feeding. Sucking is allright but swallowing is impeded. An MRI showed an anomaly of the corpus callosum. The ophthalmological examination showed no abnormalities. A chromosome study on a 2-day peripheral blood sample resulted in poor growth and poor morphology; however, 20 Giemsa-banded cells revealed a 47,XXX karyotype. A second specimen was obtained to search for mosaicism and a blood smear revealed nuclear projections on the neutrophils. FISH analysis using whole chromosome painting probe (Life Technologies) first identified the extra chromosome number 13, the final results showing five of sixty metaphase cells (8.3%) with trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis using Giemsa-banding technique revealed four cells in fifty examined (8.0%) with a 48,XXX,+13 karyotype. In order to further evaluate the mosaicism, cytogenetic analysis of a skin fibroblast culture was performed. Twenty one of twenty three cells examined (91.3%) showed the 48,XXX,+13 karyotype. FISH analysis of the skin biopsy revealed eighteen of twenty cells (90.9%) with the trisomy 13. The FISH technique is an important enhancement to routine cytogenetic studies when they do not immediately correlate with clinical impressions.

  3. First-trimester screening for trisomies 18 and 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome by detailed early anomaly scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, P; Sonek, J; Hoopmann, M; Abele, H; Kagan, K O

    2016-10-01

    To examine the performance of first-trimester ultrasound screening for trisomies 18 and 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome based on fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), additional fetal ultrasound markers including anatomy of the nasal bone (NB), blood flow across the tricuspid valve (TV) and through the ductus venosus (DV) and a detailed fetal anomaly scan at 11-13 weeks' gestation. This was a retrospective case-matched study involving pregnant women at 11-13 weeks' gestation. The study population consisted of fetuses with trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy or Turner syndrome. For each fetus with an abnormal karyotype, 50 randomly selected euploid fetuses were added to the study population. In all cases, the crown-rump length and NT were measured. In addition NB, TV flow and DV flow were examined. The summed risk for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 was computed based on: first, maternal age (MA); second, MA and fetal NT; third, MA, NT and one of the markers NB, TV flow or DV flow; fourth, MA, NT and all these markers combined; fifth, MA, NT and fetal anomalies; and, finally, MA, NT, all markers and fetal anomalies. The study population consisted of 4550 euploid and 91 aneuploid fetuses. Median NT was 1.8 mm in euploid fetuses and 4.8, 6.8, 1.8 and 10.0 mm in fetuses with trisomy 18, trisomy 13, triploidy and Turner syndrome, respectively. The NB, TV flow and DV flow were abnormal in 48 (1.1%), 34 (0.7%) and 99 (2.2%) euploid fetuses, respectively, and in 42 (46.2%), 31 (34.1%) and 62 (68.1%) aneuploid fetuses, respectively. At least one defect was found in 60 (1.3%) euploid and in 76 (83.5%) aneuploid fetuses. For a false-positive rate of 3%, the detection rate for screening based on MA and fetal NT was 75.8%. It increased to 84.6-86.8% when including one of the additional ultrasound markers and it was 90.1% when all three markers were included. When screening was based on MA, fetal NT and a detailed anomaly scan, the detection rate was 94.5% and increased to 95

  4. Network-Aware DHT-Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayçal, Marguerite; Serhrouchni, Ahmed

    P2P networks lay over existing IP networks and infrastructure. This chapter investigates the relation between both layers, details the motivations for network awareness in P2P systems, and elucidates the requirements P2P systems have to meet for efficient network awareness. Since new P2P systems are mostly based on DHTs, we also present and analyse DHT-based architectures. And after a brief presentation of different existing network-awareness solutions, the chapter goes on effective cooperation between P2P traffic and network providers' business agreements, and introduces emerging DHT-based P2P systems that are network aware through a semantic defined for resource sharing. These new systems ensure also a certain context-awareness. So, they are analyzed and compared before an open end on prospects of network awareness in P2P systems.

  5. Risk Management of P2P Internet Financing Service Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalei, Li

    2017-09-01

    Since 2005, the world’s first P2P Internet financing service platform Zopa in UK was introduced, in the development of “Internet +” trend, P2P Internet financing service platform has been developed rapidly. In 2007, China’s first P2P platform “filming loan” was established, marking the P2P Internet financing service platform to enter China and the rapid development. At the same time, China’s P2P Internet financing service platform also appeared in different forms of risk. This paper focuses on the analysis of the causes of risk of P2P Internet financing service platform and the performance of risk management process. It provides a solution to the Internet risk management plan, and explains the risk management system of the whole P2P Internet financing service platform and the future development direction.

  6. Pattern of malformations in the axial skeleton in human trisomy 18 fetuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, I. [Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hansen, B.F. [Hvidovre Univ. Hospital (Denmark); Keeling, J.W. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-11

    We examined and described the development and abnormalities of the axial skeleton in 10 human trisomy 18 fetuses. Whole-body radiographs and radiographs of midsagittal tissue blocks of the cranial base and the spine were studied. In 3 fetuses no spinal radiographs were available. Seven osseous regions or fields along the body axis were analyzed, four in the spine, and three in the cranial base and nasal bones. Malformations occurred in the occipital field in all fetuses. This was a characteristic notching, either unilateral or bilateral, of the basilar part of the occipital bone. Nasal bones were abnormal in 8 cases, either absent or hypoplastic. Malformations were found in the thoracic and/or lumbosacral field in 7 fetuses. A single abnormality was found in the cervical spine in one fetus. The pattern of axial skeletal malformation in trisomy 18 fetuses recorded in the present study has not been described previously. Axial skeletal radiography should be included in autopsies of fetuses when chromosome disorders are present or suspected. The methods applied here are unaffected by autolysis. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Changing Paradigms in Down Syndrome: The First International Conference of the Trisomy 21 Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabar, Jean-Maurice; Allinquant, Bernadette; Bianchi, Diana; Blumenthal, Tom; Dekker, Alain; Edgin, Jamie; O'Bryan, John; Dierssen, Mara; Potier, Marie-Claude; Wiseman, Frances; Guedj, Faycal; Créau, Nicole; Reeves, Roger; Gardiner, Katheleen; Busciglio, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID) in humans with an incidence of ∼1:1,000 live births worldwide. It is caused by the presence of an extra copy of all or a segment of the long arm of human chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). People with DS present with a constellation of phenotypic alterations involving most organs and organ systems. ID is present in all people with DS, albeit with variable severity. DS is also the most frequent genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and ∼50% of those with DS will develop AD-related dementia. In the last few years, significant progress has been made in understanding the crucial genotype-phenotype relationships in DS, in identifying the alterations in molecular pathways leading to the various clinical conditions present in DS, and in preclinical evaluations of potential therapies to improve the overall health and well-being of individuals with DS. In June 2015, 230 scientists, advocates, patients, and family members met in Paris for the 1st International Conference of the Trisomy 21 Research Society. Here, we report some of the most relevant presentations that took place during the meeting.

  8. Neuropsychological and Behavioural Phenotype of Dandy-Walker Variant Presenting in Chromosome 22 Trisomy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searson, Ruth; Hare, Dougal Julian; Sridharan, Sridhar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a case of Dandy-Walker variant syndrome associated with trisomy 22 in a 17-year-old man is described. This is the first account of this combination in a person surviving into adulthood, and the neuropsychological and behavioural presentation is described in detail and a clinical formulation is presented for the benefit of…

  9. Proliferative kinetics and chromosome damage in trisomy 21 lymphocyte cultures exposed to gamma-rays and bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, K.; Kaneko, T.; Iijima, K.; Koizumi, A.

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocytes from patients with Down's syndrome (trisomy 21) have been investigated for cell cycle kinetics, cell proliferation delays, and chromosomal aberrations after exposure to gamma-rays or bleomycin. Analysis by sister chromatid differential staining revealed that trisomy 21 lymphocytes started cell cycling about 5 hr earlier than did normal diploid lymphocytes after phytohemagglutinin stimulation as a whole, but that cycling trisomic and normal cells had the same mean cell cycle times. When exposed to gamma-rays or bleomycin in G0, trisomy 21 lymphocytes showed a 30% or, on average, 50% longer duration of cell turnover times, respectively, than normal cells; only bleomycin-treated trisomic cells had a biphasic dose-response. Frequencies of dicentrics and rings in first-division cells after gamma-ray or bleomycin exposure were twice as high in trisomic cells as in normal cells. The frequency of aberrations decreased by 50% (gamma-ray-exposed) or 65 to 85% (bleomycin-treated) through successive divisions; trisomic cells showed a more marked decline in aberration yields compared to normal cells after bleomycin treatment. These data support the idea that circulating lymphocytes in trisomy 21 patients have a shorter average life span or a younger average age

  10. Neurocognitive Outcomes of Individuals with a Sex Chromosome Trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY--A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Victoria; Jacobs, Patricia; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method: A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results: We identified 35…

  11. Trisomy 13 in a patient with common acute lymphoblastic leukemia: description of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Francesca R; Mancini, Marco; Derme, Valentina; Cimino, Giuseppe; Testi, Anna Maria; Tafuri, Agostino; Vitale, Antonella; Foà, Robin

    2003-07-01

    Trisomy 13 occurring as a single cytogenetic abnormality has been associated with undifferentiated or biphenotypic acute leukemias and with an adverse prognostic outcome. We describe for the first time a case of B-cell common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with trisomy 13 at diagnosis in an 18-year-old boy. The leukemic cells did not express myelocytic or T-cell associated antigens and no molecular abnormalities were detected. Following treatment, according to the GIMEMA ALL 0496 protocol, the patient achieved a brief (2 months) complete remission. At relapse, cytogenetic analysis showed karyotypic evolution that included two novel subclones carrying a del(6q), a del(7q), and an add(17q) in association with trisomy 13. In addition, immunophenotypic analysis revealed the coexpression of the CD33 and CD7 antigens on common ALL blasts, in accordance with other reported cases that displayed a predominant biphenotypic leukemia profile. The patient failed to obtain a second remission and died soon after due to infective complications. This report indicates that trisomy 13 can be found also in B-lineage ALL and underlines that this cytogenetic abnormality may identify a subgroup of male patients with clonal evolution potential and an adverse clinical outcome.

  12. (p,2p) experiments at the University of Maryland cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.G.

    1976-11-01

    Some of the (p,2p) work which has been carried out at the Maryland Cyclotron is discussed. A brief introduction to the (p,2p) reaction is presented, and the types of experimental techniques utilized in (p,2p) studies are discussed. A brief introduction is given to the various theoretical treatments presently available to analyze (p,2p) reaction data. Secondly, experimental and theoretical studies of (p,2p) on d, 3 He, and 4 He carried out by the Maryland group are presented. Thirdly, (p,2p) results are discussed for 6 Li, 7 Li, and 12 C at 100 MeV. Fourthly, the effects of distortion on the experimental data are considered by presenting theoretical calculations for 12 C and 40 Ca at various bombarding energies

  13. Cryptocurrency Networks: A New P2P Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Delgado-Segura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available P2P networks are the mechanism used by cryptocurrencies to disseminate system information while keeping the whole system as much decentralized as possible. Cryptocurrency P2P networks have new characteristics that propose new challenges and avoid some problems of existing P2P networks. By characterizing the most relevant cryptocurrency network, Bitcoin, we provide details on different properties of cryptocurrency networks and their similarities and differences with standard P2P network paradigms. Our study allows us to conclude that cryptocurrency networks present a new paradigm of P2P networks due to the mechanisms they use to achieve high resilience and security. With this new paradigm, interesting research lines can be further developed, both in the focused field of P2P cryptocurrency networks and also when such networks are combined with other distributed scenarios.

  14. Supporting Collaboration and Creativity Through Mobile P2P Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Adam; Datta, Anwitaman; Żaczek, Łukasz; Rzadca, Krzysztof

    Among many potential applications of mobile P2P systems, collaboration applications are among the most prominent. Examples of applications such as Groove (although not intended for mobile networks), collaboration tools for disaster recovery (the WORKPAD project), and Skype's collaboration extensions, all demonstrate the potential of P2P collaborative applications. Yet, the development of such applications for mobile P2P systems is still difficult because of the lack of middleware.

  15. Comparison of two immunoassay systems for hCGβ and PAPP-A in prenatal screening for trisomy 21, 18, and 13 in the first trimester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, Anna Elise; Carlsson, Elin Rebecka; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The biochemical serum markers free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), used in screening for trisomy 21 (T21), trisomy 18 (T18), and trisomy 13 (T13) during the first trimester, can be measured on different laboratory instruments e.......g. Kryptor (Brahms) and Cobas (Roche). We compared the performance of these two analytical instruments when used for first trimester combined testing. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum samples from 944 singleton pregnant women attending for first trimester combined testing were routinely assayed for hCGβ and PAPP...

  16. Case report of newborn with de novo partial trisomy 2q31.2–37.3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAURIZIA COLANGELO

    2018-02-24

    Feb 24, 2018 ... Keywords. duplication of 2q31.2 and 2q37.3; monosomy 9p; array CGH. Introduction ... of gestation from a 39-year old Caucasian female. She is the second child of healthy and nonconsanguineous par- ents. She has a healthy ..... growth with intellectual disability, while duplications dis- tal to 2q33 show a ...

  17. Controlling P2P File-Sharing Networks Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    García Pineda, Miguel; HAMMOUMI, MOHAMMED; Canovas Solbes, Alejandro; Lloret, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Since the appearance of Peer-To-Peer (P2P) file-sharing networks some time ago, many Internet users have chosen this technology to share and search programs, videos, music, documents, etc. The total number of P2P file-sharing users has been increasing and decreasing in the last decade depending on the creation or end of some well known P2P file-sharing systems. P2P file-sharing networks traffic is currently overloading some data networks and it is a major headache for netw...

  18. Deletion of GOLGA2P3Y but not GOLGA2P2Y is a risk factor for oligozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sanjukta; Agarwal, Rupesh; Ambulkar, Prafulla; Hinduja, Indira; Zaveri, Kusum; Gokral, Jyotsna; Pal, Asoke; Modi, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    The AZFc locus on the human Y chromosome harbours several multicopy genes, some of which are required for spermatogenesis. It is believed that deletion of one or more copies of these genes is a cause of infertility in some men. GOLGA2LY is one of the genes in the AZFc locus and it exists in two copies, GOLGA2P2Y and GOLGA2P3Y. The involvement of GOLGA2LY gene copy deletions in male infertility, however, is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association of deletions of GOLGA2P2Y and GOLGA2P3Y gene copies with male infertility and with sperm concentration and motility. The frequency of GOLGA2P3Y deletion was significantly higher in oligozoospermic men compared with normozoospermic men (7.7% versus 1.2%; P = 0.0001), whereas the frequency of GOLGA2P2Y deletion was comparable between oligozoospermic and normozoospermic men (10.3% versus 11.3%). The deletion of GOLGA2P3Y but not GOLGA2P2Y was significantly higher (P = 0.03) in men with gr/gr rearrangements, indicating that GOLGA2P3Y deletions increase the susceptibility of men with gr/gr rearrangements to oligozoospermia. Furthermore, men with GOLGA2P3Y deletion had reduced sperm concentration and motility compared with men without deletion or with deletion of GOLGA2P2Y. These findings indicate GOLGA2P3Y gene copy may be candidate AZFc gene for male infertility. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Replacing Alpha-Fetoprotein With Alpha-Fetoprotein-L3 Increases the Sensitivity of Prenatal Screening for Trisomy 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huai, Lei; Leng, Jianhang; Ma, Shenglin; Huang, Fang; Shen, Junya; Ding, Yu

    This study aimed to investigate the serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-L3 in midterm pregnancies and its potential application in prenatal trisomy screening. The serum samples from 27 women with trisomy 21 fetuses and 800 women with normal fetuses were examined to measure the concentrations of AFP, AFP-L3, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and inhibin-A. The screening results of various tests consisting of these markers were analyzed. In normal pregnancies within 15-20 weeks of gestation, the medians of serum AFP-L3 were 4.63, 5.70, 5.78, 6.58, 7.03, and 7.25 pg/mL. The median of AFP-L3 MoM in the trisomy 21 group was 0.46, which was significantly lower than the value of 1 in the normal group (P < 0.05). When using a cutoff value of 1/270, the sensitivity of the triple marker test (AFP, hCG, uE3) was improved from 74% to 81% by replacing AFP with AFP-L3, with the false-positive rate slightly increased from 5.4% to 6.8%. Similarly, the sensitivity of the quad marker test (AFP, hCG, uE3, inhibin-A) was improved from 81% to 89% by replacing AFP with AFP-L3, with the false-positive rate slightly increased from 4.6% to 5.6%. Serum AFP-L3 concentration increases along with more weeks of gestation in the midterm pregnancies. Trisomy 21 screening tests with AFP replaced by AFP-L3 have higher sensitivities at the expense of slightly increased false-positive rates. This improvement in screening may help to better prepare the parents and caregivers for the special needs of newborns with trisomy 21.

  20. Trisomy of the Dscr1 gene suppresses early progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia driven by oncogenic Kras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Choon; Shin, Jimin; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck, E-mail: khbaek@skku.edu

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •A single extra copy of Dscr1 restrains progression of PanIN-1A to PanIN-1B lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy attenuates calcineurin–NFAT pathway in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •Dscr1 trisomy leads to upregulation of p15{sup INK4b} in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •A single extra copy of Dscr1 reduces epithelial proliferation in early PanIN lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy may protect Down syndrome individuals from pancreatic cancer. -- Abstract: Individuals with Down syndrome exhibit remarkably reduced incidence of most solid tumors including pancreatic cancer. Multiple mechanisms arising from the genetic complexity underlying Down syndrome has been suggested to contribute to such a broad cancer protection. In this study, utilizing a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we demonstrate that trisomy of the Down syndrome critical region-1 (Dscr1), an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor localized on chromosome 21, suppresses the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A (PanIN-1A) to PanIN-1B lesions without affecting the initiation of PanIN lesions mediated by oncogenic Kras{sup G12D}. In addition, we show that Dscr1 trisomy attenuates nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) accompanied by upregulation of the p15{sup Ink4b} tumor suppressor and reduction of cell proliferation in early PanIN lesions. Our data suggest that attenuation of calcineurin–NFAT signaling in neoplastic pancreatic ductal epithelium by a single extra copy of Dscr1 is sufficient to inhibit the progression of early PanIN lesions driven by oncogenic Kras, and thus may be a potential mechanism underlying reduced incidence of pancreatic cancer in Down syndrome individuals.

  1. Trisomy of the Dscr1 gene suppresses early progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia driven by oncogenic Kras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jang Choon; Shin, Jimin; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A single extra copy of Dscr1 restrains progression of PanIN-1A to PanIN-1B lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy attenuates calcineurin–NFAT pathway in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •Dscr1 trisomy leads to upregulation of p15 INK4b in neoplastic ductal epithelium. •A single extra copy of Dscr1 reduces epithelial proliferation in early PanIN lesions. •Dscr1 trisomy may protect Down syndrome individuals from pancreatic cancer. -- Abstract: Individuals with Down syndrome exhibit remarkably reduced incidence of most solid tumors including pancreatic cancer. Multiple mechanisms arising from the genetic complexity underlying Down syndrome has been suggested to contribute to such a broad cancer protection. In this study, utilizing a genetically engineered mouse model of pancreatic cancer, we demonstrate that trisomy of the Down syndrome critical region-1 (Dscr1), an endogenous calcineurin inhibitor localized on chromosome 21, suppresses the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1A (PanIN-1A) to PanIN-1B lesions without affecting the initiation of PanIN lesions mediated by oncogenic Kras G12D . In addition, we show that Dscr1 trisomy attenuates nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) accompanied by upregulation of the p15 Ink4b tumor suppressor and reduction of cell proliferation in early PanIN lesions. Our data suggest that attenuation of calcineurin–NFAT signaling in neoplastic pancreatic ductal epithelium by a single extra copy of Dscr1 is sufficient to inhibit the progression of early PanIN lesions driven by oncogenic Kras, and thus may be a potential mechanism underlying reduced incidence of pancreatic cancer in Down syndrome individuals

  2. ZrCu2P2 and HfCu2P2 phosphides and their crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomnitskaya, Ya.F.

    1986-01-01

    Isostructural ZrCu 2 P 2 and HfCu 2 P 2 compounds are prepared for the first time. X-ray diffraction analysis (of powder, DRON-2.0 diffractometer, FeKsub(α) radiation) was used to study crystal structure of HfCu 2 P 2 phosphide belonging to the CaAl 2 Si 2 structural type (sp. group P anti 3 m 1, R=0.095). Lattice parameters the compounds are as follows: for ZrCu 2 P 2 a=0.3810(1), c=0.6184(5); for HfCu 2 P 2 a=0.3799(1), c=0.6160(2) (nm). Atomic parameters in the HfCu 2 P 2 structure and interatomic distances are determined

  3. Resource trade-off in P2P streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alhaisoni, M.; Liotta, A.; Ghanbari, M.

    2009-01-01

    P2P TV has emerged as a powerful alternative solution for multimedia streaming over the traditional client-server paradigm. It has proven to be a valid substitute for online applications which offer video-on-demand and real-time video. This is mainly due to the scalability and resiliency that P2P

  4. Maternal serum protein profile and immune response protein subunits as markers for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 21, 18, and 13

    KAUST Repository

    Narasimhan, Kothandaraman; Lin, SuLin; Tong, Terry; Baig, Sonia; Ho, Sherry; Sukumar, Ponnusamy; Biswas, Arijit; Hahn, Sinuhe; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Choolani, Mahesh A.

    2013-01-01

    (MALDI-TOF/TOF) and western blot, glyco proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein H, and serum carrier protein transthyretin were identified as potential maternal serum markers for fetal trisomy condition. The identified

  5. The eXtroardinarY Babies Study: Natural History of Health and Neurodevelopment in Infants and Young Children With Sex Chromosome Trisomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-10

    Klinefelter Syndrome; Trisomy X; XYY Syndrome; XXXY and XXXXY Syndrome; Xxyy Syndrome; Xyyy Syndrome; Xxxx Syndrome; Xxxxx Syndrome; Xxxyy Syndrome; Xxyyy Syndrome; Xyyyy Syndrome; Male With Sex Chromosome Mosaicism

  6. Double trisomy (XXX+21 karyotype) in a six-year-old girl with down phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Mendez, Laura Daniela; Talero-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Velez-Van-Meerbeke, Alberto

    2018-03-01

    We describe a case of a six-year-old girl who presents multiple dysmorphic features characteristic of Down's syndrome. She has a significant general developmental delay, with a score that correspond to 32 months of developmental age. This delay is especially in language, with a very scant vocabulary. She communicates with some hand sign words or pointing, although her auditory responses in hearing test were normal. Two previous karyotype studies showed 47, XXX, +21 anomalies. This double trisomy is a rare condition described in isolated cases in the literature and none of these refers to the developmental aspects of these children (Balwan et al. 2008; Li et al. 2004; Park et al. 1995; Day et al. 1963).

  7. A contemporary, single-institutional experience of surgical versus expectant management of congenital heart disease in trisomy 13 and 18 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, John P; Weiderhold, Allison; Louis, Clauden; Shaughnessy, Conner; Peer, Syed M; Zurakowski, David; Jonas, Richard A; Nath, Dilip S

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine a large institutional experience of patients with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 in the setting of comorbid congenital heart disease and present the outcomes of surgical versus expectant management. It is a retrospective single-institution cohort study. Institutional review board approved this study. Thirteen consecutive trisomy 18 patients and three consecutive trisomy 13 patients (sixteen patients in total) with comorbid congenital heart disease who were evaluated by our institution's Division of Cardiovascular Surgery between January 2008 and December 2013 were included in the study. The primary outcome measures evaluated were operative mortality (for patients who received surgical management), overall mortality (for patients who received expectant management), and total length of survival during follow-up. Of the thirteen trisomy 18 patients, seven underwent surgical management and six received expectant management. With surgical management, operative mortality was 29 %, and 80 % of patients were alive after a median follow-up of 116 days. With expectant management, 50 % of patients died before hospital discharge. Of the three patients with trisomy 13, one patient underwent surgical management and two received expectant management. The patient who received surgical management with complete repair was alive at last follow-up over 2 years after surgery; both patients managed expectantly died before hospital discharge. Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 patients with comorbid congenital heart disease can undergo successful cardiac surgical intervention. In this population, we advocate that nearly all patients with cardiovascular indications for operative congenital heart disease intervention should be offered complete surgical repair over palliative approaches for moderately complex congenital cardiac anomalies.

  8. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  9. 25 years research at IN2P3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoccoz, J.; Beauvais, L.; Bimbot, R.; Falk-Vairant, P.; Longesqueue, JP.; Crozon, M.

    1996-01-01

    The french national institute for nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) was created in 1971 for the coordination of national and international nuclear and particle physics research programmes. This book offers an evaluation of scientific, political, institutional and sociological aspects after 25 years. The development of nuclear and particle physics, the contribution of IN2P3 to high energy physics at CERN and DESY as well as the international collaborations in nuclear physics are first related. By comparison, nuclear and particle physics research capacities and organizing aspects are mentioned in other european countries. Finally, the structure, organization and historical development of IN2P3 is explained. (N.T.)

  10. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raphaël Fournier; Thibault Cholez; Matthieu Latapy; Isabelle Chrisment; Clémence Magnien; Olivier Festor; Ivan Daniloff

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Peer-to-peer (P2P) systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and ...

  11. GHRSST Level 2P NEODAAS AVHRR18 Local SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The production of these AVHRR L2P data is a NEODAAS activity in collaboration with the UK National Centre for Ocean Forecasting (NCOF). NEODAAS-Dundee acquires...

  12. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AMSRE SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GHRSST-PP L2P data derived using Remote Sensing Systems BMAPS format AMSR-E SSTsub-skin data. Data are downloaded form Remote Sensing Systems every hour to capture...

  13. GHRSST Level 2P NEODAAS AVHRR17 Local SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The production of these AVHRR L2P data is a NEODAAS activity in collaboration with the UK National Centre for Ocean Forecasting (NCOF). NEODAAS-Dundee acquires...

  14. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration TMI SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GHRSST-PP L2P data derived using Remote Sensing Systems BMAPS format TMI SSTsub-skin data. Data are downloaded form Remote Sensing Systems every hour to capture the...

  15. GHRSST Level 2P USA NASA MODIS Terra SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The production of the MODIS L2P data is a joint collaboration between JPL, OBPG and RSMAS. RSMAS is responsible for sea surface temperature algorithm development,...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P USA NASA MODIS Aqua SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The production of the MODIS L2P data is a joint collaboration between JPL, OBPG and RSMAS. RSMAS is responsible for sea surface temperature algorithm development,...

  17. Data Sharing in DHT Based P2P Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, Claudia; Del Pilar Villamil, María; Labbé, Cyril; Serrano-Alvarado, Patricia

    The evolution of peer-to-peer (P2P) systems triggered the building of large scale distributed applications. The main application domain is data sharing across a very large number of highly autonomous participants. Building such data sharing systems is particularly challenging because of the “extreme” characteristics of P2P infrastructures: massive distribution, high churn rate, no global control, potentially untrusted participants... This article focuses on declarative querying support, query optimization and data privacy on a major class of P2P systems, that based on Distributed Hash Table (P2P DHT). The usual approaches and the algorithms used by classic distributed systems and databases for providing data privacy and querying services are not well suited to P2P DHT systems. A considerable amount of work was required to adapt them for the new challenges such systems present. This paper describes the most important solutions found. It also identifies important future research trends in data management in P2P DHT systems.

  18. P2P Data Management in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Sahar Sayeda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in wireless technologies has made wireless communication an important source for transporting data across different domains. In the same way, there are possibilities of many potential applications that can be deployed using WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks. However, very limited applications are deployed in real life due to the uncertainty and dynamics of the environment and scare resources. This makes data management in WSN a challenging area to find an approach that suits its characteristics. Currently, the trend is to find efficient data management schemes using evolving technologies, i.e. P2P (Peer-to-Peer systems. Many P2P approaches have been applied in WSNs to carry out the data management due to similarities between WSN and P2P. With the similarities, there are differences too that makes P2P protocols inefficient in WSNs. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency and to exploit the delay tolerant nature of WSNs, where ever possible, the mobile WSNs are gaining importance. Thus, creating a three dimensional problem space to consider, i.e. mobility, WSNs and P2P. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for data management using P2P techniques for mobile WSNs. The real world implementation and deployment of proposed algorithm is also presented

  19. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  20. Electronic structures of B 2p and C 2p levels in boron-doped diamond films studied using soft x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jin; Kabasawa, Eiki; Yamada, Nobuyoshi; Einaga, Yasuaki; Saito, Daisuke; Isshiki, Hideo; Yugo, Shigemi; Perera, Rupert C. C.

    2004-12-01

    X-ray absorption (XAS) and emission (XES) spectroscopy near B K and C K edges have been performed on metallic ( ˜0.1at.% B, B-diamond) and semiconducting ( ˜0.03at.% B and N, BN-diamond) doped diamond films. Both B K XAS and XES spectra show a metallic partial density of states (PDOS) with the Fermi energy of 185.3eV , and there is no apparent boron-concentration dependence in contrast to the different electric property. In C K XAS spectrum of B-diamond, the impurity state ascribed to boron is clearly observed near the Fermi level. The Fermi energy is found to be almost same with the top of the valence band of nondoped diamond: EV=283.9eV . C K XAS of BN-diamond shows both the B-induced shallow level and N-induced deep and broad levels as the in-gap states, in which the shallow level is in good agreement with the activation energy (Ea=0.37eV) estimated from the temperature dependence of the conductivity; namely, the change in C2p PDOS of impurity-induced metallization is directly observed. The electric property of this diamond is ascribed mainly to the electronic structure of C2p near the Fermi level. The observed XES spectra are compared with the discrete variational Xα ( DVXα ) cluster calculation. The DVXα result supports the strong hybridization between B2p and C2p observed in XAS and XES spectra, and suggests that the small amount of boron (⩽0.1at.%) in diamond occupies the substitutional site rather than interstitial site.

  1. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  2. Anesthetic management of a newborn with trisomy 18 undergoing closure of patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary artery banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Oguzha; Oc, Bahar; Oc, Mehmet; Duman, Ates

    2014-08-23

    Peri-operative management of infants with trisomy 18 syndrome is challenging due to various congenital cardiac and facial anomalies. We report the anaesthetic management of a 13-day-old neonate with 1 540 g body weight, undergoing closure of patent ductus arteriosus and pulmonary artery banding. Anaesthesia was induced with sevoflurane, fentanyl and rocuronium. Despite dysmorphic facial features, ventilation and endotracheal intubation were achieved uneventfully. Anaesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and fentanyl and was uneventful. The patient was transferred to the neonatal ICU intubated and with ventilatory support. The baby was extubated on the second day postoperatively. Our knowledge of the proper anaesthetic technique for children undergoing palliative or corrective surgery is limited. Further case reports will increase our experience in peri-operative management of children with trisomy 18.

  3. Benzazole derivatives: V. The reactivity of some 2-p-tolyl-and 2-p-methylstyryl-benzimidazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cernatescu Corina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of the p-substituted methyl group in 1-methyl-2-p-tolylbenzimidazolium and 1-methyl-2-p-methylstyrylbenzimidazolium iodides with p-nitroso-dimethylaniline (p-NDMA and aromatic aldehydes was studied. According to literature data on the steric effects produced by the bulky N-l methyl group, the 2-p-tolyl substituted salt does not react with p-NDMA. On the other hand, 2-p-methylstyryl substituted salts give condensation reactions, similarly to 1,2,3-trimethylbenzimidazolium iodides. The compounds obtained from the reaction with aromatic aldehydes can be used as dyeing substances, photosensitizers or as dienic monomers, due to the conjugated chain from C-2.

  4. Studies on the structural stability of Co2P2O7 under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. P.; Pang, H.; Jin, M. L.; Shen, X.; Yao, Y.; Wang, Y. G.; Li, Y. C.; Li, X. D.; Jin, C. Q.; Yu, R. C.

    2018-05-01

    The crystal structural evolution of Co2P2O7 was studied by using in situ high pressure angle dispersive x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation. The results demonstrate that the α phase of Co2P2O7 goes through a partially irreversible structural transformation to β phase under pressure. The pressure is conductive to reduce the longest Cosbnd O bond length of the α phase, and then more uniform Cosbnd O bonds and regular hexagonal arrangement of CoO6 octahedra of the β phase are favored. According to the Birch-Murnaghan equation, the fitted bulk modulus B0 is 158.1(±5.6) GPa for α phase and 276.5(±6.5) GPa for β phase. Furthermore, the first-principles calculations show that these two phases of Co2P2O7 have almost equal total energies, and also have similar band structures and spin-polarized density of states at their ground states. This may be the reason why these two phases of Co2P2O7 can coexist in the pressure released state. It is found that the band gap energies decrease with increasing pressure for both phases.

  5. Determining the role of mother race in neonatal outcome of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 using cell free DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmie Saadati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the role of mother race in neonatal outcome of trisomies 21, 18 and 13 using cell free DNA (cf-DNA analysis. All women administered for a sonographic imaging at their 10-22 weeks’ gestation which were qualified for cf-DNA testing were suggested for increasing aneuploidy risk, between March 1, 2015 to March 30 , 2016. The cf-DNA analysis was conducted after women received genetic counseling in a specialty laboratory. The results were validated by amniocentesis. A total of 1992 women were screened using cf-DNA analysis. The participants were 1631 Non Arabs (Fars, Kurd, and Lor and 361 Arabs. The fetus risk for trisomy 21 in the Arab women of Arab race was two as much as Non Arab race, but trisomies 18 and 13 in women of Non Arab race were more than Arab race. The role of mother race (such as Arab and Non Arab in neonatal outcome is very important.

  6. Constitutional Mosaic Trisomy 13 in Two Germ Cell Layers is Different from Patau Syndrome? A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Fulesh; Pandya, Vidhi; Bakshi, Sonal R

    2016-03-01

    The heterogeneous phenotype of known syndromes is a clinical challenge, and harmonized description using globally accepted ontology is desirable. This report attempts phenotypic analysis in a patient of constitutional mosaic trisomy 13 in mesoderm and ectoderm to make globally comparable clinical description. Phenotypic features (minor/major abnormalities) were recorded and matched with the Human Phenotype Ontology terms that were used to query web-based tool Phenomizer. We report here a case of 24-year-old girl born to non consanguineous parents with history of one abortion. Her phenotypic evaluation included short columella, low-set ears, seizures, enlarged naris, bifid tongue, infra-orbital fold, smooth philtrum, microtia, microcephaly, carious teeth, downslanted palpebral fissures, proportionate short stature, high palate, thin upper lip vermilion, small for gestational age, broad fingertip, broad hallux, mandibular prognathia and dental malocclusion. Karyotype and interphase FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization) was done in blood cells. Interphase FISH was also performed on buccal epithelial cells. Cytogenetic analysis demonstrated trisomy 13 mosaicism in 25% cells i.e. 47, XX,+13(9)/46,XX(27). The interphase FISH in blood cells showed trisomy 13 in 15%, whereas in buccal mucosa cells showed nearly 6%. Mosaic aneuploidy in constitutional karyotype can be responsible for variation in clinical and morphological presentation of patient with genetic disorder.

  7. Retrospective study evaluating the performance of a first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in an Italian unselected population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Francesco; Cignini, Pietro; Giannarelli, Diana; Brizzi, Cristiana; Coco, Claudio; D’Emidio, Laura; Giorgio, Elsa; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Mangiafico, Lucia; Mastrandrea, Marialuisa; Milite, Vincenzo; Mobili, Luisa; Nanni, Cinzia; Raffio, Raffaella; Taramanni, Cinzia; Vigna, Roberto; Mesoraca, Alvaro; Bizzoco, Domenico; Gabrielli, Ivan; Di Giacomo, Gianluca; Barone, Maria Antonietta; Cima, Antonella; Giorlandino, Francesca Romana; Emili, Sabrina; Cupellaro, Marina; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives to assess the performance of a combined first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 in an unselected Italian population referred to a specialized private center for prenatal medicine. Methods a retrospective validation of first-trimester screening algorithms [risk calculation based on maternal age and nuchal translucency (NT) alone, maternal age and serum parameters (free β-hCG and PAPP-A) alone and a combination of both] for fetal aneuploidies evaluated in an unselected Italian population at Artemisia Fetal-Maternal Medical Centre in Rome. All measurements were performed between 11+0 and 13+6 weeks of gestation, between April 2007 and December 2008. Results of 3,610 single fetuses included in the study, we had a complete follow-up on 2,984. Fourteen of 17 cases of trisomy 21 were detected when a cut-off of 1:300 was applied [detection rate (DR) 82.4%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 64.2–100; false-positive rate (FPR) 4.7%, 95% CI 3.9–5.4; false-negative rate (FNR) 17.6%, 95% CI 0–35.8%]. Conclusion in our study population the detection rate for trisomy 21, using the combined risk calculation based on maternal age, fetal NT, maternal PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels, was superior to the application of either parameter alone. The algorithm has been validated for first trimester screening in the Italian population. PMID:26266002

  8. Formation of Co2P in the combustion regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchaik, S.V.; Dubrov, A.N.; Lynchak, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Combustion of the system Co-P produces the compounds Co 2 P, CoP and CoP 3 , the first two being producible in the combustion regime, while for synthesis of stoichiometric Co 2 P at normal argon pressure, an original mixture with a certain excess of phosphorus is required. The present experiments were performed with electrolytic cobalt powder and red phosphorus. As the Co-P mixture is diluted by the final product (Co 2 P) there is a decrease in combustion temperature and rate, unaccompanied by any of the anomalies seen with dilution by cobalt. It can be suggested that although the combustion in the Co-P system and, possibly, i-- other phosphide systems, is not gasless in its kinetic aspects the combustion mechanism is similar to that in gasless systems. It is shown that formation of the phosphide Co=3''P and specimens wyth composition Co-Co 2 P in the combustion regime occurs with participation of a lIqui] phase of eutectic composition. Combustion occurs in a self-oscillating regime. The temperature for Co 2 P formation is close to its melting point, and the process activation energy comprises 205 kJ/mole

  9. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Serrano-Cinca

    Full Text Available This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449 from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  10. Determinants of Default in P2P Lending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Cinca, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Nieto, Begoña; López-Palacios, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies P2P lending and the factors explaining loan default. This is an important issue because in P2P lending individual investors bear the credit risk, instead of financial institutions, which are experts in dealing with this risk. P2P lenders suffer a severe problem of information asymmetry, because they are at a disadvantage facing the borrower. For this reason, P2P lending sites provide potential lenders with information about borrowers and their loan purpose. They also assign a grade to each loan. The empirical study is based on loans' data collected from Lending Club (N = 24,449) from 2008 to 2014 that are first analyzed by using univariate means tests and survival analysis. Factors explaining default are loan purpose, annual income, current housing situation, credit history and indebtedness. Secondly, a logistic regression model is developed to predict defaults. The grade assigned by the P2P lending site is the most predictive factor of default, but the accuracy of the model is improved by adding other information, especially the borrower's debt level.

  11. Mobile P2P Web Services Using SIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gehlen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Telecommunication networks and the Internet are growing together. Peer-to-Peer (P2P services which are originally offered by network providers, like telephony and messaging, are provided through VoIP and Instant Messaging (IM by Internet service providers, too. The IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS is the answer of the telecommunication industry to this trend and aims at providing Internet P2P and multimedia services controlled by the network operators. The IMS provides mobility and session management as well as message routing, security, and billing.

  12. The P2P approach to interorganizational workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Weske, M.H.; Dittrich, K.R.; Geppert, A.; Norrie, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes in an informal way the Public-To-Private (P2P) approach to interorganizational workflows, which is based on a notion of inheritance. The approach consists of three steps: (1) create a common understanding of the interorganizational workflow by specifying a shared public

  13. Measurement and Analysis of P2P IPTV Program Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of P2P technology, P2P IPTV applications have received more and more attention. And program resource distribution is very important to P2P IPTV applications. In order to collect IPTV program resources, a distributed multi-protocol crawler is proposed. And the crawler has collected more than 13 million pieces of information of IPTV programs from 2009 to 2012. In addition, the distribution of IPTV programs is independent and incompact, resulting in chaos of program names, which obstructs searching and organizing programs. Thus, we focus on characteristic analysis of program resources, including the distributions of length of program names, the entropy of the character types, and hierarchy depth of programs. These analyses reveal the disorderly naming conventions of P2P IPTV programs. The analysis results can help to purify and extract useful information from chaotic names for better retrieval and accelerate automatic sorting of program and establishment of IPTV repository. In order to represent popularity of programs and to predict user behavior and popularity of hot programs over a period, we also put forward an analytical model of hot programs.

  14. Measurement and analysis of P2P IPTV program resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenxian; Chen, Xingshu; Wang, Haizhou; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of P2P technology, P2P IPTV applications have received more and more attention. And program resource distribution is very important to P2P IPTV applications. In order to collect IPTV program resources, a distributed multi-protocol crawler is proposed. And the crawler has collected more than 13 million pieces of information of IPTV programs from 2009 to 2012. In addition, the distribution of IPTV programs is independent and incompact, resulting in chaos of program names, which obstructs searching and organizing programs. Thus, we focus on characteristic analysis of program resources, including the distributions of length of program names, the entropy of the character types, and hierarchy depth of programs. These analyses reveal the disorderly naming conventions of P2P IPTV programs. The analysis results can help to purify and extract useful information from chaotic names for better retrieval and accelerate automatic sorting of program and establishment of IPTV repository. In order to represent popularity of programs and to predict user behavior and popularity of hot programs over a period, we also put forward an analytical model of hot programs.

  15. What future for France's IN2P3?

    CERN Multimedia

    Balter, M

    1999-01-01

    French physicists are waiting for the publication of a report on the future of French research in nuclear and particle physics. It is believed it recommends some form of merger between IN2P3 part of CNRS, and DAPNIA part of CEA (1 page).

  16. A new characterization of L2(p) by NSE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we give a new characterization of simple group L2(p) with ... Introduction. Throughout this paper, all groups are finite and G denotes a group. .... [5] Mazurov V D and Khukhro E I, Unsolved Problems in Group Theory, the Kourovka.

  17. Comparing Pedophile Activity in Different P2P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Fournier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P systems are widely used to exchange content over the Internet. Knowledge of pedophile activity in such networks remains limited, despite having important social consequences. Moreover, though there are different P2P systems in use, previous academic works on this topic focused on one system at a time and their results are not directly comparable. We design a methodology for comparing KAD and eDonkey, two P2P systems among the most prominent ones and with different anonymity levels. We monitor two eDonkey servers and the KAD network during several days and record hundreds of thousands of keyword-based queries. We detect pedophile-related queries with a previously validated tool and we propose, for the first time, a large-scale comparison of pedophile activity in two different P2P systems. We conclude that there are significantly fewer pedophile queries in KAD than in eDonkey (approximately 0.09% vs. 0.25%.

  18. Inclusive χ(2P) production in Υ(3S) decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.; Schmidt, D.; Procario, M.; Johnson, D.R.; Lingel, K.; Rankin, P.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.; Artuso, M.; Bebek, C.; Berkelman, K.; Besson, D.; Browder, T.E.; Cassel, D.G.; Cheu, E.; Coffman, D.M.; Drell, P.S.; Ehrlich, R.; Galik, R.S.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Geiser, B.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Honscheid, K.; Kandaswamy, J.; Katayama, N.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lewis, J.D.; Ludwig, G.S.; Masui, J.; Mevissen, J.; Mistry, N.B.; Nandi, S.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; O'Grady, C.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Pisharody, M.; Riley, D.; Sapper, M.; Selen, M.; Worden, H.; Worris, M.; Avery, P.; Freyberger, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Yelton, J.; Kinoshita, K.; Pipkin, F.; Wilson, R.; Wolinski, J.; Xiao, D.; Sadoff, A.J.; Ammar, R.; Baringer, P.; Coppage, D.; Davis, R.; Haas, P.; Kelly, M.; Kwak, N.; Lam, H.; Ro, S.; Kubota, Y.; Nelson, J.K.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Schrenk, S.; Alam, M.S.; Kim, I.J.; Nemati, B.; Romero, V.; Sun, C.R.; Wang, P.; Zoeller, M.M.; Crawford, G.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Jensen, T.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Malchow, R.; Morrow, F.; Whitmore, J.; Wilson, P.; Butler, F.; Fu, X.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Lambrecht, M.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Wang, P.; Bortoletto, D.; Brown, D.N.; Dominick, J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Modesitt, M.; Schaffner, S.F.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.J.; Battle, M.; Kroha, H.; Sparks, K.; Thorndike, E.H.; Wang, C.; Goldberg, M.; Haupt, T.; Horwitz, N.; Jain, V.; Kennett, R.; Moneti, G.C.; Rozen, Y.; Rubin, P.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Thusalidas, M.; Yao, W.; Zhu, G.; Barnes, A.V.; Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Letson, T.; Mestayer, M.D.; Akerib, D.S.; Barish, B.; Cowen, D.F.; Eigen, G.; Stroynowski, R.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    Using the CsI calorimeter of the CLEO II detector, the spin triplet χ b (2P) states are observed in Υ(3S) radiative decays with much higher statistics than seen in previous experiments. The observed mass splittings are not described well by theoretical models, while the relative branching ratios agree with predictions that include relativistic corrections to the radiative transition rates

  19. Small-molecule aggregation inhibitors reduce excess amyloid in a trisomy 16 mouse cortical cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÉA C PAULA LIMA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously characterized a number of small molecule organic compounds that prevent the aggregation of the β-amyloid peptide and its neurotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cultures. We have now evaluated the effects of such compounds on amyloid precursor protein (APP accumulation in the CTb immortalized cell line derived from the cerebral cortex of a trisomy 16 mouse, an animal model of Down's syndrome. Compared to a non-trisomic cortical cell line (CNh, CTb cells overexpress APP and exhibit slightly elevated resting intracellular Ca2+ levéis ([Ca2+]¡. Here, we show that the compounds 2,4-dinitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol and 4-anisidine decreased intracellular accumulation of APP in CTb cells. Those compounds were non-toxic to the cells, and slightly increased the basal [Ca2+]¡. Results indícate that the compounds tested can be leads for the development of drugs to decrease intracellular vesicular accumulation of APP in trisomic cells.

  20. Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEGGETT, VICTORIA; JACOBS, PATRICIA; NATION, KATE; SCERIF, GAIA; BISHOP, DOROTHY V M

    2010-01-01

    Aim To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). Method A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. Results We identified 35 articles on five neonatally identified samples that had adequate power for our review. An additional 11 studies were included where cases had been identified for reasons other than neurodevelopmental concerns. Individuals with an additional X chromosome had mean IQs that were within broadly normal limits but lower than the respective comparison groups, with verbal IQ most affected. Cognitive outcomes were poorest for females with XXX. Males with XYY had normal-range IQs, but all three SCT groups (XXX, XXY, and XYY) had marked difficulties in speech and language, motor skills, and educational achievement. Nevertheless, most adults with SCTs lived independently. Less evidence was available for brain structure and for attention, social, and psychiatric outcomes. Within each group there was much variation. Interpretation Individuals with SCTs are at risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties. However, the evidence base is slender, and further research is needed to ascertain the nature, severity, and causes of these difficulties in unselected samples. PMID:20059514

  1. Neurocognitive outcomes of individuals with a sex chromosome trisomy: XXX, XYY, or XXY: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Victoria; Jacobs, Patricia; Nation, Kate; Scerif, Gaia; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2010-02-01

    To review systematically the neurodevelopmental characteristics of individuals with sex chromosome trisomies (SCTs). A bibliographic search identified English-language articles on SCTs. The focus was on studies unbiased by clinical referral, with power of at least 0.69 to detect an effect size of 1.0. We identified 35 articles on five neonatally identified samples that had adequate power for our review. An additional 11 studies were included where cases had been identified for reasons other than neurodevelopmental concerns. Individuals with an additional X chromosome had mean IQs that were within broadly normal limits but lower than the respective comparison groups, with verbal IQ most affected. Cognitive outcomes were poorest for females with XXX. Males with XYY had normal-range IQs, but all three SCT groups (XXX, XXY, and XYY) had marked difficulties in speech and language, motor skills, and educational achievement. Nevertheless, most adults with SCTs lived independently. Less evidence was available for brain structure and for attention, social, and psychiatric outcomes. Within each group there was much variation. Individuals with SCTs are at risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties. However, the evidence base is slender, and further research is needed to ascertain the nature, severity, and causes of these difficulties in unselected samples.

  2. Noninvasive Prenatal Detection of Trisomy 21 by Targeted Semiconductor Sequencing: A Technical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yanwei; Arbabi, Aryan; McNaughton, Amy J M; Hamilton, Alison; Hull, Danna; Perras, Helene; Chiu, Tillie; Morrison, Shawna; Goldsmith, Claire; Creede, Emilie; Anger, Gregory J; Honeywell, Christina; Cloutier, Mireille; Macchio, Natasha; Kiss, Courtney; Liu, Xudong; Crocker, Susan; Davies, Gregory A; Brudno, Michael; Armour, Christine M

    2017-01-01

    To develop an alternate noninvasive prenatal testing method for the assessment of trisomy 21 (T21) using a targeted semiconductor sequencing approach. A customized AmpliSeq panel was designed with 1,067 primer pairs targeting specific regions on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, and others. A total of 235 samples, including 30 affected with T21, were sequenced with an Ion Torrent Proton sequencer, and a method was developed for assessing the probability of fetal aneuploidy via derivation of a risk score. Application of the derived risk score yields a bimodal distribution, with the affected samples clustering near 1.0 and the unaffected near 0. For a risk score cutoff of 0.345, above which all would be considered at "high risk," all 30 T21-positive pregnancies were correctly predicted to be affected, and 199 of the 205 non-T21 samples were correctly predicted. The average hands-on time spent on library preparation and sequencing was 19 h in total, and the average number of reads of sequence obtained was 3.75 million per sample. With the described targeted sequencing approach on the semiconductor platform using a custom-designed library and a probabilistic statistical approach, we have demonstrated the feasibility of an alternate method of assessment for fetal T21. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Supporting seamless mobility for P2P live streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsam; Kim, Sangjin; Lee, Choonhwa

    2014-01-01

    With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  4. Supporting Seamless Mobility for P2P Live Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsam Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With advent of various mobile devices with powerful networking and computing capabilities, the users' demand to enjoy live video streaming services such as IPTV with mobile devices has been increasing rapidly. However, it is challenging to get over the degradation of service quality due to data loss caused by the handover. Although many handover schemes were proposed at protocol layers below the application layer, they inherently suffer from data loss while the network is being disconnected during the handover. We therefore propose an efficient application-layer handover scheme to support seamless mobility for P2P live streaming. By simulation experiments, we show that the P2P live streaming system with our proposed handover scheme can improve the playback continuity significantly compared to that without our scheme.

  5. Towards secure mobile P2P applications using JXME

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo Prieto, Marc; Prieto Blázquez, Josep; Herrera Joancomartí, Jordi; Arnedo Moreno, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Mobile devices have become ubiquitous, allowing the integration of new information from a large range of devices. However, the development of new applications requires a powerful framework which simplifies their construction. JXME is the JXTA implementation for mobile devices using J2ME, its main value being its simplicity when creating peer-to-peer (P2P) applications on limited devices. On that regard, an issue that is becoming very important in the recent times is being able to provide ...

  6. The rise in F$_{2}^{p}$ at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Richard D.; Forte, S

    1994-01-01

    We show that the rise in F_2^p at small x and large Q^2 seen at HERA is indeed the non-Regge double asymptotic scaling behaviour expected from the perturbative emission of strongly ordered hard gluons. An alternative explanation, in which there is no strong ordering, and a new hard Reggeon is generated, is also tried but found wanting: its theoretical short-comings are betrayed by its failure to properly account for the HERA data.

  7. "3"2P implants for radiotherapy: fabrication and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assmann, W.

    2016-01-01

    LDR brachytherapy can modulate wound healing avoiding hyper-proliferation and benign stenosis of endogenous tubular structures such as bile duct or urethra. Polymer foils filled with up to 10% "3"1P have been developed and tested for their radiation resistance during neutron activation of "3"1P to "3"2P, wash-out behavior and dose distribution. The therapeutic range of the pure electron emitter "3"2P was measured to be only a few millimeters delivering minimal dose to the healthy tissue surrounding the treated stenosis. Dose distribution was confirmed by Geant4 simulation. This newly developed "3"2P-foil offers a simple and safe way to irradiate very precisely tissue with a dose up to some 60 Gy, therefore irradiation of benign as well as malign proliferation could be possible. Radiation protection can be simply assured with 10 mm thick plexiglass devices. The LDR-brachytherapy seems to be better matched to modulate the wound-healing process than short term irradiation

  8. S2p core level spectroscopy of short chain oligothiophenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseggio, O.; Toffoli, D.; Stener, M.; Fronzoni, G.; de Simone, M.; Grazioli, C.; Coreno, M.; Guarnaccio, A.; Santagata, A.; D'Auria, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Near-Edge X-ray-Absorption Fine-Structure (NEXAFS) and X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) of short-chain oligothiophenes (thiophene, 2,2'-bithiophene, and 2,2':5',2″-terthiophene) in the gas phase have been measured in the sulfur L2,3-edge region. The assignment of the spectral features is based on the relativistic two-component zeroth-order regular approximation time dependent density functional theory approach. The calculations allow us to estimate both the contribution of the spin-orbit splitting and of the molecular-field splitting to the sulfur binding energies and give results in good agreement with the experimental measurements. The deconvolution of the calculated S2p NEXAFS spectra into the two manifolds of excited states converging to the LIII and LII edges facilitates the attribution of the spectral structures. The main S2p NEXAFS features are preserved along the series both as concerns the energy positions and the nature of the transitions. This behaviour suggests that the electronic and geometrical environment of the sulfur atom in the three oligomers is relatively unaffected by the increasing chain length. This trend is also observed in the XPS spectra. The relatively simple structure of S2p NEXAFS spectra along the series reflects the localized nature of the virtual states involved in the core excitation process.

  9. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeteman, M.A.; Baret, A.; Courtiere, A.; Rebuffel, P.; Mattei, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes

  10. First-trimester risk calculation for trisomy 13, 18, and 21: comparison of the screening efficiency between 2 locally developed programs and commercial software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; Momsen, Günther; Sundberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in mate......Reliable individual risk calculation for trisomy (T) 13, 18, and 21 in first-trimester screening depends on good estimates of the medians for fetal nuchal translucency thickness (NT), free β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP...

  11. Theoretical Stark broadening parameters for spectral lines arising from the 2p5ns, 2p5np and 2p5nd electronic configurations of Mg III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, C.; Moreno-Díaz, C.; Alonso-Medina, A.

    2013-10-01

    In the present work we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, corresponding to 237 spectral lines of Mg III. Data are presented for an electron density of 1017 cm-3 and temperatures T = 0.5-10.0 (104K). The matrix elements used in these calculations have been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s22p6, 2s22p53p, 2s22p54p, 2s22p54f and 2s22p55f for even parity and 2s22p5ns (n = 3-6), 2s22p5nd (n = 3-9), 2s22p55g and 2s2p6np (n = 3-8) for odd parity. For the intermediate coupling (IC) calculations, we use the standard method of least-squares fitting from experimental energy levels by means of the Cowan computer code. Also, in order to test the matrix elements used in our calculations, we present calculated values of 70 transition probabilities of Mg III spectral lines and 14 calculated values of radiative lifetimes of Mg III levels. There is good agreement between our calculations and experimental radiative lifetimes. Spectral lines of Mg III are relevant in astrophysics and also play an important role in the spectral analysis of laboratory plasma. Theoretical trends of the Stark broadening parameter versus the temperature for relevant lines are presented. No values of Stark parameters can be found in the bibliography.

  12. Factors related to home health-care transition in trisomy 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitase, Yuma; Hayakawa, Masahiro; Kondo, Taiki; Saito, Akiko; Tachibana, Takashi; Oshiro, Makoto; Ieda, Kuniko; Kato, Eiko; Kato, Yuichi; Hattori, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Seiji; Ito, Masatoki; Hyodo, Reina; Muramatsu, Yukako; Sato, Yoshiaki

    2017-10-01

    Trisomy 13 (T13) is accompanied by severe complications, and it can be challenging to achieve long-term survival without aggressive treatment. However, recently, some patients with T13 have been receiving home care. We conducted this study to investigate factors related to home health-care transition for patients with T13.We studied 28 patients with T13 born between January 2000 and December 2014. We retrospectively compared nine home care transition patients (the home care group) and 19 patients that died during hospitalization (the discharge at death group). The median gestational age of the patients was 36.6 weeks, with a median birth weight of 2,047 g. Currently, three patients (11%) have survived, and 25 (89%) have died. The home care group exhibited a significantly longer gestational age (38.9 vs. 36.3 weeks, p = 0.039) and significantly larger occipitofrontal circumference Z score (-0.04 vs. -0.09, p = 0.019). Congenital heart defects (CHD) was more frequent in the discharge at death group, with six patients in the home care group and 18 patients in the discharge at death group (67% vs. 95%, p = 0.047), respectively. Survival time was significantly longer in the home care group than in the discharge at death group (171 vs. 19 days, p = 0.012). This study has shown that gestational age, occipitofrontal circumference Z score at birth, and the presence of CHD are helpful prognostic factors for determining treatment strategy in patients with T13. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Tracking subtle stereotypes of children with trisomy 21: from facial-feature-based to implicit stereotyping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Enea-Drapeau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stigmatization is one of the greatest obstacles to the successful integration of people with Trisomy 21 (T21 or Down syndrome, the most frequent genetic disorder associated with intellectual disability. Research on attitudes and stereotypes toward these people still focuses on explicit measures subjected to social-desirability biases, and neglects how variability in facial stigmata influences attitudes and stereotyping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The participants were 165 adults including 55 young adult students, 55 non-student adults, and 55 professional caregivers working with intellectually disabled persons. They were faced with implicit association tests (IAT, a well-known technique whereby response latency is used to capture the relative strength with which some groups of people--here photographed faces of typically developing children and children with T21--are automatically (without conscious awareness associated with positive versus negative attributes in memory. Each participant also rated the same photographed faces (consciously accessible evaluations. We provide the first evidence that the positive bias typically found in explicit judgments of children with T21 is smaller for those whose facial features are highly characteristic of this disorder, compared to their counterparts with less distinctive features and to typically developing children. We also show that this bias can coexist with negative evaluations at the implicit level (with large effect sizes, even among professional caregivers. CONCLUSION: These findings support recent models of feature-based stereotyping, and more importantly show how crucial it is to go beyond explicit evaluations to estimate the true extent of stigmatization of intellectually disabled people.

  14. Non-invasive prenatal detection of trisomy 21 using tandem single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana Ghanta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Screening tests for Trisomy 21 (T21, also known as Down syndrome, are routinely performed for the majority of pregnant women. However, current tests rely on either evaluating non-specific markers, which lead to false negative and false positive results, or on invasive tests, which while highly accurate, are expensive and carry a risk of fetal loss. We outline a novel, rapid, highly sensitive, and targeted approach to non-invasively detect fetal T21 using maternal plasma DNA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Highly heterozygous tandem Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP sequences on chromosome 21 were analyzed using High-Fidelity PCR and Cycling Temperature Capillary Electrophoresis (CTCE. This approach was used to blindly analyze plasma DNA obtained from peripheral blood from 40 high risk pregnant women, in adherence to a Medical College of Wisconsin Institutional Review Board approved protocol. Tandem SNP sequences were informative when the mother was heterozygous and a third paternal haplotype was present, permitting a quantitative comparison between the maternally inherited haplotype and the paternally inherited haplotype to infer fetal chromosomal dosage by calculating a Haplotype Ratio (HR. 27 subjects were assessable; 13 subjects were not informative due to either low DNA yield or were not informative at the tandem SNP sequences examined. All results were confirmed by a procedure (amniocentesis/CVS or at postnatal follow-up. Twenty subjects were identified as carrying a disomy 21 fetus (with two copies of chromosome 21 and seven subjects were identified as carrying a T21 fetus. The sensitivity and the specificity of the assay was 100% when HR values lying between 3/5 and 5/3 were used as a threshold for normal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, a targeted approach, based on calculation of Haplotype Ratios from tandem SNP sequences combined with a sensitive and quantitative DNA measurement technology can be used to accurately detect fetal

  15. Detecting P2P Botnet in Software Defined Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Chiuan Su

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Network separates the control plane from network equipment and has great advantage in network management as compared with traditional approaches. With this paradigm, the security issues persist to exist and could become even worse because of the flexibility on handling the packets. In this paper we propose an effective framework by integrating SDN and machine learning to detect and categorize P2P network traffics. This work provides experimental evidence showing that our approach can automatically analyze network traffic and flexibly change flow entries in OpenFlow switches through the SDN controller. This can effectively help the network administrators manage related security problems.

  16. Trisomy 15 with loss of the paternal 15 as a cause of Prader-Willi syndrome due to maternal disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassidy, S.B.; Lai, Li-Wen; Erickson, R.P. (Univ. of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States)); Magnuson, L.; Thomas, E.; Herrmann, J. (Great Lakes Genetics, Milwaukee, AZ (United States)); Gendron, R. (Great Lakes Genetics, Kingsport, TN (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Uniparental disomy has recently been recognized to cause human disorders, including Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The authors describe a particularly instructive case which raises important issues concerning the mechanisms producing uniparental disomy and whose evaluation provides evidence that trisomy may precede uniparental disomy in a fetus. Chorionic villus sampling performed for advanced maternal age revealed trisomy 15 in all direct and cultured cells, though the fetus appeared normal. Chromosome analysis of amniocytes obtained at 15 wk was normal in over 100 cells studied. The child was hypotonic at birth, and high-resolution banding failed to reveal the deletion of 15q11-13, a deletion which is found in 50%-70% of patients with PWS. Over time, typical features of PWS developed. Molecular genetic analysis using probes for chromosome 15 revealed maternal disomy. Maternal nondisjunction with fertilization of a disomic egg by a normal sperm, followed by loss of the paternal 15, is a likely cause of confined placental mosaicism and uniparental disomy in this case of PWS, and advanced maternal age may be a predisposing factor. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Altered expression of mitochondrial and extracellular matrix genes in the heart of human fetuses with chromosome 21 trisomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olla Carlo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Down syndrome phenotype has been attributed to overexpression of chromosome 21 (Hsa21 genes. However, the expression profile of Hsa21 genes in trisomic human subjects as well as their effects on genes located on different chromosomes are largely unknown. Using oligonucleotide microarrays we compared the gene expression profiles of hearts of human fetuses with and without Hsa21 trisomy. Results Approximately half of the 15,000 genes examined (87 of the 168 genes on Hsa21 were expressed in the heart at 18–22 weeks of gestation. Hsa21 gene expression was globally upregulated 1.5 fold in trisomic samples. However, not all genes were equally dysregulated and 25 genes were not upregulated at all. Genes located on other chromosomes were also significantly dysregulated. Functional class scoring and gene set enrichment analyses of 473 genes, differentially expressed between trisomic and non-trisomic hearts, revealed downregulation of genes encoding mitochondrial enzymes and upregulation of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins. There were no significant differences between trisomic fetuses with and without heart defects. Conclusion We conclude that dosage-dependent upregulation of Hsa21 genes causes dysregulation of the genes responsible for mitochondrial function and for the extracellular matrix organization in the fetal heart of trisomic subjects. These alterations might be harbingers of the heart defects associated with Hsa21 trisomy, which could be based on elusive mechanisms involving genetic variability, environmental factors and/or stochastic events.

  18. Prolonged pancytopenia in a gene therapy patient with ADA-deficient SCID and trisomy 8 mosaicism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Barbara C; Podsakoff, Greg M; Ireland, Joanna L; Smogorzewska, E Monika; Carbonaro, Denise A; Wilson, Kathy; Shah, Ami; Kapoor, Neena; Sweeney, Mirna; Borchert, Mark; Crooks, Gay M; Weinberg, Kenneth I; Parkman, Robertson; Rosenblatt, Howard M; Wu, Shi-Qi; Hershfield, Michael S; Candotti, Fabio; Kohn, Donald B

    2007-01-15

    A patient with adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency (ADA-SCID) was enrolled in a study of retroviral-mediated ADA gene transfer to bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. After the discontinuation of ADA enzyme replacement, busulfan (75 mg/m2) was administered for bone marrow cytoreduction, followed by infusion of autologous, gene-modified CD34+ cells. The expected myelosuppression developed after busulfan but then persisted, necessitating the administration of untransduced autologous bone marrow back-up at day 40. Because of sustained pancytopenia and negligible gene marking, diagnostic bone marrow biopsy and aspirate were performed at day 88. Analyses revealed hypocellular marrow and, unexpectedly, evidence of trisomy 8 in 21.6% of cells. Trisomy 8 mosaicism (T8M) was subsequently diagnosed by retrospective analysis of a pretreatment marrow sample that might have caused the lack of hematopoietic reconstitution. The confounding effects of this preexisting marrow cytogenetic abnormality on the response to gene transfer highlights another challenge of gene therapy with the use of autologous hematopoietic stem cells.

  19. Superconductivity in SrNi2P2 single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bauer, Eric D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Tuscon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Heat capacity, magnetic susceptibility, and resistivity of SrNi{sub 2}P{sub 2} single crystals are presented, illustrating the structural transition at 325 K, and bulk superconductivity at 1.4 K. The magnitude of {Tc}, fits to the heat capacity data, the small upper critical field H{sub c2} = 390 Oe, and {kappa} = 2.1 suggests a conventional fully gapped superconductor. With applied pressure we find that superconductivity persists into the so-called 'collapsed tetragonal' phase, although the transition temperature is monotonically suppressed with increasing pressure. This argues that reduced dimensionality can be a mechanism for increasing the transition temperatures of layered NiP, as well as layered FeAs and NiAs, superconductors.

  20. Nuclear astrophysics. Irfu - IN2P3 prospective of 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assie, M.; Hammache, F.; Khan, E.; Margueron, J.; Sereville, N. de; Bastin, B.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Ploszajczak, M.; Sorlin, O.; Bernard, D.; Chieze, J.-P.; Decourchelle, A.; Ducret, J. E.; Foglizzo, T.; Gilles, D.; Schanne, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Coc, A.; Duprat, J.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Courtin, S.; Dufour, M.; Haas, F.; Gulminelli, F.; Gunsing, F.; Obertelli, A.; Maurin, D.; Renaud, M.; Smirnova, N.

    2011-01-01

    This document proposes a rather detailed overview of the different research works performed by nuclear astrophysicists belonging to the Irfu and to the IN2P3. It also presents the main results and envisaged researches. These issues are herein presented by distinguishing four main themes. The first one concerns the main issues of the field: cosmology and nuclear physics, hydrostatic nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution, explosive nucleosynthesis (supernovae, novae, X-bursts), neutron stars and protostars, galactic cosmic radiation and nuclear astrophysics, formation of the Solar System. The second theme concerns means of observation: astro-seismology, X astronomy, nuclear gamma astronomy, meteorites and micro-meteorites. The third theme concerns measurements in laboratory: steady beam accelerators, radioactive beam accelerators, neutron beams, production of radioactive targets, power lasers, isotopic analysis of extraterrestrial matter. The fourth theme concerns nuclear theories for astrophysics. Appendices propose summaries of objectives of current projects, and tables indicating involved staff and budgets

  1. Constitutional t(5;7)(q11;p15) rearranged to acquire monosomy 7q and trisomy 1q in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome transforming to acute myelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganly, Peter; McDonald, Margaret; Spearing, Ruth; Morris, Christine M

    2004-03-01

    We report the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and a t(5;7)(q11.2;p15) in her bone marrow cells. Subsequent analysis of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes and cultured skin fibroblasts showed that the translocation was constitutional. Disruption of chromosome bands 5q11.2 and 7p15 has been described recurrently in MDS and acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and, although the age of onset was not earlier than usual, it is nonetheless possible that genes interrupted by this translocation may been a predisposing factor for her condition. With progression to AML, a further rearrangement of the constitutional der(7)t(5;7) occurred, involving chromosome arm 1q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome paints showed that the result of the second rearrangement, a t(1;7)(q32.1;q32), was observed, leading to trisomy of the segment 1q32.1 approximately qter and monosomy of the segment 7q32.1 approximately qter. The acquired imbalances, particularly loss of 7q, are commonly associated with MDS/AML and a poor prognosis; however, this patient remained in remission after treatment for more than two years before AML relapse, perhaps because the affected regions fall outside of the critical regions of imbalance.

  2. Gastric low-grade MALT lymphoma, high-grade MALT lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma show different frequencies of trisomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M A; Gisbertz, I A; Schouten, H C; Schuuring, E; Bot, F J; Hermans, J; Hopman, A; Kluin, P M; Arends, J E; van Krieken, J H

    1999-01-01

    Gastric MALT lymphoma is a distinct entity related to Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Some studies suggest a role for trisomy 3 in the genesis of these lymphomas, but they mainly focused on low-grade MALT lymphoma. Gastric MALT lymphoma, however, comprises a spectrum from low- to high-grade cases.

  3. The Social Behavioral Phenotype in Boys and Girls with an Extra X Chromosome (Klinefelter Syndrome and Trisomy X): A Comparison with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Stockmann, Lex; Borghgraef, Martine; Bruining, Hilgo; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Hansson, Kerstin; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to gain more insight in the social behavioral phenotype, and related autistic symptomatology, of children with an extra X chromosome in comparison to children with ASD. Participants included 60 children with an extra X chromosome (34 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 26 girls with Trisomy X), 58 children with ASD and 106…

  4. Improved Degree Search Algorithms in Unstructured P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guole Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Searching and retrieving the demanded correct information is one important problem in networks; especially, designing an efficient search algorithm is a key challenge in unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P networks. Breadth-first search (BFS and depth-first search (DFS are the current two typical search methods. BFS-based algorithms show the perfect performance in the aspect of search success rate of network resources, while bringing the huge search messages. On the contrary, DFS-based algorithms reduce the search message quantity and also cause the dropping of search success ratio. To address the problem that only one of performances is excellent, we propose two memory function degree search algorithms: memory function maximum degree algorithm (MD and memory function preference degree algorithm (PD. We study their performance including the search success rate and the search message quantity in different networks, which are scale-free networks, random graph networks, and small-world networks. Simulations show that the two performances are both excellent at the same time, and the performances are improved at least 10 times.

  5. Meiotic errors followed by two parallel postzygotic trisomy rescue events are a frequent cause of constitutional segmental mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robberecht Caroline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Structural copy number variation (CNV is a frequent cause of human variation and disease. Evidence is mounting that somatic acquired CNVs are prevalent, with mosaicisms of large segmental CNVs in blood found in up to one percent of both the healthy and patient populations. It is generally accepted that such constitutional mosaicisms are derived from postzygotic somatic mutations. However, few studies have tested this assumption. Here we determined the origin of CNVs which coexist with a normal cell line in nine individuals. We show that in 2/9 the CNV originated during meiosis. The existence of two cell lines with 46 chromosomes thus resulted from two parallel trisomy rescue events during postzygotic mitoses.

  6. Comparison of two immunoassay systems for hCGβ and PAPP-A in prenatal screening for trisomy 21, 18, and 13 in the first trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elise Engell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The biochemical serum markers free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ and pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A, used in screening for trisomy 21 (T21, trisomy 18 (T18, and trisomy 13 (T13 during the first trimester, can be measured on different laboratory instruments e.g. Kryptor (Brahms and Cobas (Roche. We compared the performance of these two analytical instruments when used for first trimester combined testing. Design and methods: Serum samples from 944 singleton pregnant women attending for first trimester combined testing were routinely assayed for hCGβ and PAPP-A on Kryptor, and re-analyzed on Cobas. In addition, serum samples from 70 pregnant women carrying a fetus affected by T21, T18 or T13, were re-assayed on Cobas. Results: For the screening population, the hCGβ and PAPP-A results in multiples of the median (MoM from Kryptor and Cobas were significantly lower on Cobas when compared to Kryptor. The number of pregnant women with a risk above 1:300 for T21 was 48 for both Cobas and Kryptor, although a few patients only had a high risk with one of the methods. Overall, the screen positive rate was 5.1% for both instruments. In the trisomy groups the calculated risks for T21, T18, and T13 agreed well between Cobas and Kryptor. Conclusions: The screen positive rate for T21 (5.1% did not differ between the two analytical platforms in our screening population, although PAPP-A measurements form Cobas were significantly lower than those from Kryptor. The calculated risks for the pregnancies affected by trisomies using hCGβ MoM and PAPP-A MoM from Kryptor agreed well with those from Cobas. Keywords: Aneuploidy, Combined first trimester screening, First trimester risk assessment, Free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ, Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A, Trisomy screening

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae GTPase complex: Gtr1p-Gtr2p regulates cell-proliferation through Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ran-binding protein, Yrb2p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yonggang; Nakashima, Nobutaka; Sekiguchi, Takeshi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2005-01-01

    A Gtr1p GTPase, the GDP mutant of which suppresses both temperature-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RanGEF/Prp20p and RanGAP/Rna1p, was presently found to interact with Yrb2p, the S. cerevisiae homologue of mammalian Ran-binding protein 3. Gtr1p bound the Ran-binding domain of Yrb2p. In contrast, Gtr2p, a partner of Gtr1p, did not bind Yrb2p, although it bound Gtr1p. A triple mutant: yrb2Δ gtr1Δ gtr2Δ was lethal, while a double mutant: gtr1Δ gtr2Δ survived well, indicating that Yrb2p protected cells from the killing effect of gtr1Δ gtr2Δ. Recombinant Gtr1p and Gtr2p were purified as a complex from Escherichia coli. The resulting Gtr1p-Gtr2p complex was comprised of an equal amount of Gtr1p and Gtr2p, which inhibited the Rna1p/Yrb2 dependent RanGAP activity. Thus, the Gtr1p-Gtr2p cycle was suggested to regulate the Ran cycle through Yrb2p

  8. A recurrent deletion syndrome at chromosome bands 2p11.2-2p12 flanked by segmental duplications at the breakpoints and including REEP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Servi J C; Blom, Eveline W; Siegelaer, Ingrid T J; Smeets, Eric E J G L

    2015-04-01

    We identified an identical and recurrent 9.4-Mbp deletion at chromosome bands 2p11.2-2p12, which occurred de novo in two unrelated patients. It is flanked at the distal and proximal breakpoints by two homologous segmental duplications consisting of low copy repeat (LCR) blocks in direct orientation, which have >99% sequence identity. Despite the fact that the deletion was almost 10 Mbp in size, the patients showed a relatively mild clinical phenotype, that is, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, a happy disposition, speech delay and delayed motor development. Their phenotype matches with that of previously described patients. The 2p11.2-2p12 deletion includes the REEP1 gene that is associated with spastic paraplegia and phenotypic features related to this are apparent in most 2p11.2-2p12 deletion patients, but not in all. Other hemizygous genes that may contribute to the clinical phenotype include LRRTM1 and CTNNA2. We propose a recurrent but rare 2p11.2-2p12 deletion syndrome based on (1) the identical, non-random localisation of the de novo deletion breakpoints in two unrelated patients and a patient from literature, (2) the patients' phenotypic similarity and their phenotypic overlap with other 2p deletions and (3) the presence of highly identical LCR blocks flanking both breakpoints, consistent with a non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated rearrangement.

  9. Near-threshold electron-impact excitation of the (2p53s2)2P3/2,1/2 autoionizing states in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovik, A; Zatsarinny, O; Bartschat, K

    2008-01-01

    The ejected-electron excitation functions of the J = 3/2, 1/2 components of the (2p 5 3s 2 ) 2 P leading autoionizing doublet in sodium atoms were measured at an incident electron energy resolution of 0.25 eV over the incident electron energy range from the lowest excitation threshold up to 36 eV. On the basis of 56-state R-matrix (close-coupling) calculations, the observed strong near-threshold structures were classified as negative-ion resonances with likely configurations 2p 5 3s 2 3p and 2p 5 3s3p 2

  10. Theoretical Stark widths and shifts of spectral lines of 2p5nf and 2p55g configurations of Mg III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Díaz, Cristina; Alonso-Medina, Aurelia; Colón, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report theoretical Stark widths and shifts calculated using the Griem semi-empirical approach, which corresponds to 111 spectral lines of Mg III. The values of these Stark broadening parameters of spectral lines that arise from levels of 2p 5 nf and 2p 5 5g configurations of Mg III are presented in the literature for the first time. The aim of this work is to provide values to estimate the electron density of plasma Mg III in astrophysics and industrial applications. The data are presented for the temperatures T = 0.5–10.0 (10 4 K) and for an electron density of 10 17 cm −3 . The matrix of elements used in these calculations has been determined from 23 configurations of Mg III: 2s 2 2p 6 , 2s 2 2p 5 3p, 2s 2 2p 5 4p, 2s 2 2p 5 4f and 2s 2 2p 5 5f for the even parity and 2s 2 2p 5 ns (n = 3–6), 2s 2 2p 5 nd (n = 3–9), 2s 2 2p 5 5g and 2s2p 6 np (n = 3–8) for the odd parity. For the intermediate coupling calculations, we use the standard method of least square fitting from experimental energy levels by means of Cowan’s computer code. Lines with wavelengths of 134.6460, 135.2800, 189.0380, 190.0043, 192.8424, 408.2939 and 409.4375 nm have high probabilities and also have high values of broadening. Therefore, these lines can be used in some applications. A common regularity for the Stark width of the 189.038 nm spectral line of Mg III is discussed. (paper)

  11. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  12. Overlapping trisomies for human chromosome 21 orthologs produce similar effects on skull and brain morphology of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Dutka, Tara; Ratliff, Tabetha S; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2014-08-01

    Trisomy 21 results in gene-dosage imbalance during embryogenesis and throughout life, ultimately causing multiple anomalies that contribute to the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome. Down syndrome is associated with manifestations of variable severity (e.g., heart anomalies, reduced growth, dental anomalies, shortened life-span). Craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive dysfunction are consistently observed in all people with Down syndrome. Mouse models are useful for studying the effects of gene-dosage imbalance on development. We investigated quantitative changes in the skull and brain of the Dp(16)1Yey Down syndrome mouse model and compared these mice to Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography images of Dp(16)1Yey and euploid mouse crania were morphometrically evaluated. Cerebellar cross-sectional area, Purkinje cell linear density, and granule cell density were evaluated relative to euploid littermates. Skulls of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice displayed similar changes in craniofacial morphology relative to their respective euploid littermates. Trisomy-based differences in brain morphology were also similar in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. These results validate examination of the genetic basis for craniofacial and brain phenotypes in Dp(16)1Yey mice and suggest that they, like Ts65Dn mice, are valuable tools for modeling the effects of trisomy 21 on development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  14. Altered expression of two-pore domain potassium (K2P channels in cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams

    Full Text Available Potassium channels have become a focus in cancer biology as they play roles in cell behaviours associated with cancer progression, including proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Two-pore domain (K2P potassium channels are background channels which enable the leak of potassium ions from cells. As these channels are open at rest they have a profound effect on cellular membrane potential and subsequently the electrical activity and behaviour of cells in which they are expressed. The K2P family of channels has 15 mammalian members and already 4 members of this family (K2P2.1, K2P3.1, K2P9.1, K2P5.1 have been implicated in cancer. Here we examine the expression of all 15 members of the K2P family of channels in a range of cancer types. This was achieved using the online cancer microarray database, Oncomine (www.oncomine.org. Each gene was examined across 20 cancer types, comparing mRNA expression in cancer to normal tissue. This analysis revealed all but 3 K2P family members (K2P4.1, K2P16.1, K2P18.1 show altered expression in cancer. Overexpression of K2P channels was observed in a range of cancers including breast, leukaemia and lung while more cancers (brain, colorectal, gastrointestinal, kidney, lung, melanoma, oesophageal showed underexpression of one or more channels. K2P1.1, K2P3.1, K2P12.1, were overexpressed in a range of cancers. While K2P1.1, K2P3.1, K2P5.1, K2P6.1, K2P7.1 and K2P10.1 showed significant underexpression across the cancer types examined. This analysis supports the view that specific K2P channels may play a role in cancer biology. Their altered expression together with their ability to impact the function of other ion channels and their sensitivity to environmental stimuli (pO2, pH, glucose, stretch makes understanding the role these channels play in cancer of key importance.

  15. Factor VII deficiency and developmental abnormalities in a patient with partial monosomy of 13q and trisomy of 16p: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meck Jeanne M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unbalanced chromosomal translocations may present with a variety of clinical and laboratory findings and provide insight into the functions of genes on the involved chromosomal segments. Case Presentation A 9 year-old boy presented to our clinic with Factor VII deficiency, microcephaly, a seizure disorder, multiple midline abnormalities (agenesis of the corpus callosum, imperforate anus, bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia, developmental delay, hypopigmented macules, short 5th fingers, and sleep apnea due to enlarged tonsils. Cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed an unbalanced translocation involving the segment distal to 16p13 replacing the segment distal to 13q33 [46, XY, der(13t(13;16(q33;p13.3]. Specific BAC-probes were used to confirm the extent of the 13q deletion. Conclusion This unique unbalanced chromosomal translocation may provide insights into genes important in midline development and underscores the previously-reported phenotype of Factor VII deficiency in 13q deletions.

  16. Blepharophimosis and mental retardation (BMR) phenotypes caused by chromosomal rearrangements: description in a boy with partial trisomy 10q and monosomy 4q and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdi, Deborah; Toelle, Sandra P; Steiner, Bernhard; Boltshauser, Eugen; Schinzel, Albert; Riegel, Mariluce

    2008-01-01

    Blepharophimosis is a rare congenital anomaly of the palpebral fissure which is often associated with mental retardation and additional malformations. We report on a boy with blepharophimosis, ptosis and severe mental retardation carrying an unbalanced 4;10 translocation with terminal duplication of 10q [dup(10)(q25.1-->qter)] and monosomy of a small terminal segment of chromosome 4q [del(4)(34.3-->qter)]. Detailed clinical examination and review of the literature showed that the phenotype of the patient was mainly determined by the dup(10q). This paper reviews the chromosomal aberrations associated with BMR (blepharophimosis mental retardation) phenotypes. Searching different databases and reviewing the literature revealed 14 microscopically visible aberrations (among them UPD(14)pat) and two submicroscopic rearrangements causing blepharophimosis and mental retardation (BMR) syndrome. Some of these rearrangements-like the terminal dup(10q) identified in our patient or interstitial del(2q)-are associated with clearly defined phenotypes and can be well distinguished from each other on basis of clinical examination. This paper should assist clinicians and cytogeneticists when evaluating patients with BMR syndrome.

  17. Mapping Breakpoints of Complex Chromosome Rearrangements Involving a Partial Trisomy 15q23.1-q26.2 Revealed by Next Generation Sequencing and Conventional Techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong Pan

    Full Text Available Complex chromosome rearrangements (CCRs, which are rather rare in the whole population, may be associated with aberrant phenotypes. Next-generation sequencing (NGS and conventional techniques, could be used to reveal specific CCRs for better genetic counseling. We report the CCRs of a girl and her mother, which were identified using a combination of NGS and conventional techniques including G-banding, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and PCR. The girl demonstrated CCRs involving chromosomes 3 and 8, while the CCRs of her mother involved chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 11 and 15. HumanCytoSNP-12 Chip analysis identified a 35.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 15q21.3-q26.2 in the proband and a 1.6 Mb microdeletion at chromosome 15q21.3 in her mother. The proband inherited the rearranged chromosomes 3 and 8 from her mother, and the duplicated region on chromosome 15 of the proband was inherited from the mother. Approximately one hundred genes were identified in the 15q21.3-q26.2 duplicated region of the proband. In particular, TPM1, SMAD6, SMAD3, and HCN4 may be associated with her heart defects, and HEXA, KIF7, and IDH2 are responsible for her developmental and mental retardation. In addition, we suggest that a microdeletion on the 15q21.3 region of the mother, which involved TCF2, TCF12, ADMA10 and AQP9, might be associated with mental retardation. We delineate the precise structures of the derivative chromosomes, chromosome duplication origin and possible molecular mechanisms for aberrant phenotypes by combining NGS data with conventional techniques.

  18. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  19. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers organized by nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming; Fan, Hongsheng; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Rongming; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-01-01

    Hollow Co2P nanoflowers (Co2P HNF) are successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co2P HNF is assembled by nanorods, possesses abundant mesopores and a amorphous carbon shell. Density functional

  20. Music2Share - Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, Ton; Epema, Dick H.J.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.; van Steen, Martinus Richardus; van Steen, Maarten

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  1. Music2Share --- Copyright-Compliant Music Sharing in P2P Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalker, T.; Epema, D.; Hartel, P.; Lagendijk, I.; van Steen, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks are generally considered to be free havens for pirated content, in particular with respect to music. We describe a solution for the problem of copyright infringement in P2P networks for music sharing. In particular, we propose a P2P protocol that integrates the functions

  2. Observation of the Forbidden Magnetic Dipole Transition 6{sup 2}P{sub ½} --> 7{sup 2}P{sub ½} in Atomic Thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S.

    1976-10-01

    A measurement of the 6{sup 2}P{sub ½} --> 7{sup 2}P{sub ½} forbidden magnetic dipole matrix element in atomic thallium is described. A pulsed, linearly polarized dye laser tuned to the transition frequency is used to excite the thallium vapor from the 6{sup 2}P{sub ½} ground state to the 7{sup 2}P{sub ½} excited state. Interference between the magnetic dipole M1 amplitude and a static electric field induced E1 amplitude results in an atomic polarization of the 7{sup 2}P{sub ½} state, and the subsequent circular polarization of 535 nm fluorescence. The circular polarization is seen to be proportional to / as expected, and measured for several transitions between hyperfine levels of the 6{sup 2}P{sub ½} and 7{sup 2}P{sub ½} states. The result is = -(2.11 +- 0.30) x 10{sup -5} parallel bar e parallel bar dirac constant/2mc, in agreement with theory.

  3. The 2s2p 4P0sub(5/2) - 2p24Psup(e)sub(5/2)-transition in O VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoedin, R.; Pihl, J.; Hallin, R.; Lindskog, J.; Marelius, A.

    1976-03-01

    The Li-like doubly excited transitions 2s2p 4 P 0 sub(5/2) - 2p 2 4 Psup(e)sub(5/2) in O VI has been studied with the beam-foil technique. Oxygen ion beams with energies between 4.5 to 9 MeV were used. The wavelength of the transition was measured to 944.0+-0.5 A and the lifetime for the upper level 2p 2 4 Psup(e) was measured to be 0.51+-0.04 ns. (Auth.)

  4. New superhindered polydentate polyphosphine ligands P(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, PhP(CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)2, P(CH2CH2CH2P(t)Bu2)3, and their ruthenium(II) chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Wilson, Ryan; Field, Leslie D; Bhadbhade, Mohan M

    2012-03-05

    The synthesis and characterization of the extremely hindered phosphine ligands, P(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(2)P(3)(tBu), 1), PhP(CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(2) (PhP(2)P(2)(tBu), 2), and P(CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)P(t)Bu(2))(3) (P(3)P(3)(tBu), 3) are reported, along with the synthesis and characterization of ruthenium chloro complexes RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4), RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5), and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6). The bulky P(2)P(3)(tBu) (1) and P(3)P(3)(tBu) (3) ligands are the most sterically encumbered PP(3)-type ligands so far synthesized, and in all cases, only three phosphorus donors are able to bind to the metal center. Complexes RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) and RuCl(2)(P(3)P(3)(tBu)) (6) were characterized by crystallography. Low temperature solution and solid state (31)P{(1)H} NMR were used to demonstrate that the structure of RuCl(2)(P(2)P(3)(tBu)) (4) is probably analogous to that of RuCl(2)(PhP(2)P(2)(tBu)) (5) which had been structurally characterized.

  5. Facilitated recruitment of Pdc2p, a yeast transcriptional activator, in response to thiamin starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosaka, Kazuto; Esaki, Hiroyoshi; Onozuka, Mari; Konno, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yasunao; Akaji, Kenichi

    2012-05-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, genes involved in thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) synthesis (THI genes) and the pyruvate decarboxylase structural gene PDC5 are transcriptionally induced in response to thiamin starvation. Three positive regulatory factors (Thi2p, Thi3p, and Pdc2p) are involved in the expression of THI genes, whereas only Pdc2p is required for the expression of PDC5. Thi2p and Pdc2p serve as transcriptional activators and each factor can interact with Thi3p. The target consensus DNA sequence of Thi2p has been deduced. When TPP is not bound to Thi3p, the interactions between the regulatory factors are increased and THI gene expression is upregulated. In this study, we demonstrated that Pdc2p interacts with the upstream region of THI genes and PDC5. The association of Pdc2p or Thi2p with THI gene promoters was enhanced by thiamin starvation, suggesting that Pdc2p and Thi2p assist each other in their recruitment to the THI promoters via interaction with Thi3p. It is highly likely that, under thiamin-deprived conditions, a ternary Thi2p/Thi3p/Pdc2p complex is formed and transactivates THI genes in yeast cells. On the other hand, the association of Pdc2p with PDC5 was unaffected by thiamin. We also identified a DNA element in the upstream region of PDC5, which can bind to Pdc2p and is required for the expression of PDC5. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers organized by nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Ming

    2017-08-24

    Hollow Co2P nanoflowers (Co2P HNF) are successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co2P HNF is assembled by nanorods, possesses abundant mesopores and a amorphous carbon shell. Density functional theory calculation and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the high electrical conductivity of Co2P. Benefiting from the unique nanostructures, when employed as electrode material for supercapacitors, Co2P HNF exhibits a high specific capacitance, an outstanding rate capability, and an ultralong cycle stability. Furthermore,. the constructed Co2P HNF//AC ASC yields a high energy density of 30.5 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 850 W kg-1, along with an superior cycling performance (108.0% specific capacitance retained after 10000 cycles at 5 A g-1). These impressive results make Co2P HNF a promising candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  7. Hollow Co2P nanoflowers assembled from nanorods for ultralong cycle-life supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming; Fan, Hongsheng; Xu, Yingying; Wang, Rongming; Zhang, Xixiang

    2017-09-28

    Hollow Co 2 P nanoflowers (Co 2 P HNFs) were successfully prepared via a one-step, template-free method. Microstructure analysis reveals that Co 2 P HNFs are assembled from nanorods and possess abundant mesopores and an amorphous carbon shell. Density functional theory calculations and electrochemical measurements demonstrate the high electrical conductivity of Co 2 P. Benefiting from the unique nanostructures, when employed as an electrode material for supercapacitors, Co 2 P HNFs exhibit a high specific capacitance, an outstanding rate capability, and an ultralong cycling stability. Furthermore, the constructed Co 2 P HNF//AC ASC exhibits a high energy density of 30.5 W h kg -1 at a power density of 850 W kg -1 , along with a superior cycling performance (108.0% specific capacitance retained after 10 000 cycles at 5 A g -1 ). These impressive results make Co 2 P HNFs a promising candidate for supercapacitor applications.

  8. Suppression of Zeeman relaxation in cold collisions of 2P1/2 atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherbul, T. V.; Dalgarno, A.; Buchachenko, A. A.; Lu, M.-J.; Weinstein, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of angular momentum depolarization in cold collisions of 2 P atoms in the presence of an external magnetic field. We show that collision-induced Zeeman relaxation of Ga( 2 P 1/2 ) and In( 2 P 1/2 ) atoms in cold 4 He gas is dramatically suppressed compared to atoms in 2 P 3/2 states. Using rigorous quantum-scattering calculations based on ab initio interaction potentials, we demonstrate that Zeeman transitions in collisions of atoms in 2 P 1/2 electronic states occur via couplings to the 2 P 3/2 state induced by the anisotropy of the interaction potential. Our results suggest the feasibility of sympathetic cooling and magnetic trapping of 2 P 1/2 -state atoms, such as halogens, thereby opening up exciting areas of research in precision spectroscopy and cold-controlled chemistry.

  9. Tc1 mouse model of trisomy-21 dissociates properties of short- and long-term recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jessica H; Wiseman, Frances K; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Harwood, John L; Good, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined memory function in Tc1 mice, a transchromosomic model of Down syndrome (DS). Tc1 mice demonstrated an unusual delay-dependent deficit in recognition memory. More specifically, Tc1 mice showed intact immediate (30sec), impaired short-term (10-min) and intact long-term (24-h) memory for objects. A similar pattern was observed for olfactory stimuli, confirming the generality of the pattern across sensory modalities. The specificity of the behavioural deficits in Tc1 mice was confirmed using APP overexpressing mice that showed the opposite pattern of object memory deficits. In contrast to object memory, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in either immediate or long-term memory for object-in-place information. Similarly, Tc1 mice showed no deficit in short-term memory for object-location information. The latter result indicates that Tc1 mice were able to detect and react to spatial novelty at the same delay interval that was sensitive to an object novelty recognition impairment. These results demonstrate (1) that novelty detection per se and (2) the encoding of visuo-spatial information was not disrupted in adult Tc1 mice. The authors conclude that the task specific nature of the short-term recognition memory deficit suggests that the trisomy of genes on human chromosome 21 in Tc1 mice impacts on (perirhinal) cortical systems supporting short-term object and olfactory recognition memory. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sacrococcygeal teratoma in a female newborn with clinical features of trisomy 13: a case report from Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubala TK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Toni Kasole Lubala,1,2 Olivier Mukuku,1 Mick Pongombo Shongo,1,2 Augustin Mulangu Mutombo,1 Nina Lubala,1 Oscar Numbi Luboya,1 Prosper Lukusa-Tshilobo3 1Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, 2Center for Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lubumbashi, Lubumbashi, 3Department of Paediatrics and Centre for Human Genetics, University Hospital, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo Introduction: The objective of this report is to describe the first patient presenting clinical features of trisomy 13 in association with a sacrococcygeal teratoma. Case presentation: We present the case of a Congolese female infant born with bilateral cleft lip and palate, hypotelorism, microcephaly, and capillary hemangioma on her face. She presented with a large sacrococcygeal mass (15.0 cm ×12.0 cm ×5.0 cm with a cystic consistency and a positive transillumination. Conclusion: This observation suggests that overexpression of certain genes on chromosome 13 may lead to tumor formation from remnant cells of Hensen’s node. Keywords: Patau syndrome, Hensens’s Node, sacrococcygeal, teratoma  

  11. Diaphragm myoclonus followed by generalised atonia in a patient with trisomy 4p: unusual semiology in an unusual condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, James; Wehner, Tim; Sisodiya, Sanjay

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we describe a female patient with trisomy 4p, a rare genetic condition, with unusual seizure semiology. The patient is one of the oldest reported survivors with this condition. This semiology was noted while she was being monitored by inpatient video telemetry. We observed a series of myoclonic shoulder jerks, followed by hiccup-like episodes, and finally an atonic head drop. Corresponding ictal EEG showed semi-rhythmic high-amplitude slow waves with spikes superimposed over the frontotemporal areas. This semiology was confirmed as habitual by her parents. Subsequent hiccup-like episodes had no EEG correlate, and the head drop was again associated with semi-rhythmic high-amplitude slow waves and superimposed spikes, more prominent over the right hemisphere. In addition, we review the several cases in which hiccups have been associated with seizures and how this may relate to the neural pathways involved in the pathophysiology of hiccups. We believe the ictal hiccup-like episodes followed by atonia to be a seizure semiology that has not previously been documented. [Published with video sequence].

  12. Quadrupole and monopole generalized oscillator strength for 2p-3p, 2p-4p transition of neon atomic in the velocity formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, L; Diedhiou, I; Tall, M S; Diallo, S; Diatta, C S; Niassy, B

    2007-01-01

    The quadrupole and monopole generalized oscillator strengths (GOS) as a function of momentum transfer are calculated for the 2p-3p and 2p-4p transitions of the neon atom using the analytical Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunctions for the ground-state and the wavefunctions for the excited states which are obtained numerically from the modified HF Slater equation. Calculations are carried out by using the HF method and random phase approximation with exchange in the velocity formulation. The positions and the number of the extrema in the GOS have received particular attention in the evaluation. Our calculated monopole GOS of 2p-3p transition in velocity form reveals one maximum located between the experimental and theoretical results of other authors. The disagreement between our first maximum of the quadrupole GOS 2p-3p transition with the experimental and other theoretical ones is unimportant. The extrema of the monopole and quadrupole GOS of 2p-4p transition are given in this paper. The results of velocity form study also show that the electron correlation effects are important around the maxima and are found to influence the positions of the extrema insignificantly

  13. Research of using mobile agents for information discovery in P2P networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yan; Yao Qing

    2003-01-01

    The technology of P2P is a new network-computing model that has great value of commerce and technology. After analyzing the current information discovery technology in P2P network, a new solution that is based on mobile agent is proposed. The mobile agent solution can reduce the need of bandwidth, be adapt to the dynamic of P2P network, and be asynchronous and be very fault tolerant. (authors)

  14. Amperometric Formaldehyde Sensor Based on a Pd Nanocrystal Modified C/Co2P Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine Pd nanocrystals were grown on the cobalt phosphide (Co2P decorated Vulcan XC-72 carbon (C/Co2P, which is realized by first implementing the corresponding metal precursor and then the further chemical reduction process. The as-synthesized C/Co2P/Pd composite was further constructed to form a gas permeable electrode. This electrode can be applied for formaldehyde (HCHO detection. The results demonstrate that the Co2P nanocrystal can significantly improve the sensing performance of the C/Co2P/Pd electrode for catalytic oxidation of HCHO, which is considered to be attributed to the effective electron transfer from Co2P to Pd in the C/Co2P/Pd composites. Furthermore, the assembled C/Co2P/Pd sensor exhibits high sensitivity of 617 nA/ppm and good selectivity toward various interfering gases such as NO2, NO, SO2, CO2, and CO. It also shows the excellent linear response that the correlation coefficient is 0.994 in the concentration range of 1–10 ppm. Therefore, the proposed cost-effective C/Co2P/Pd nanocomposite, which owns advantages such as high activity and good stability, has the potential to be applied as an effective electrocatalyst for amperometric HCHO detection.

  15. R2P in the UN Security Council: Darfur, Libya and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gifkins, J

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that consensus on the responsibility to protect (R2P) was lost in the UN Security Council as a result of the NATO-led intervention in Libya in 2011. This argument assumes that there was more agreement on R2P before the Libyan intervention than there was afterwards. Yet a close examination of the Security Council’s use of language on R2P shows the opposite: R2P was highly contentious within the Security Council prior to the Libyan intervention, and less so afterwards. Not on...

  16. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  17. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  18. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  19. [Risk assessment for fetal trisomy 21 based on nuchal translucency measurement and biochemical screening at 11-13 weeks.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harðardóttir, H

    2001-05-01

    Screening for fetal aneuploidy during the first trimester using fetal nuchal translucency measurement and maternal serum free ss-hCG (ss-human chorionic gonadotropin) and PAPP-A (pregnancy associated plasma protein A) is commonly practised. An approach with a one stop clinic for assessment of risk for fetal anomalies, where pre-test counseling, blood test, ultrasound and post-test counseling is offered in one hour visit is described. Based on maternal age, biochemistry and fetal nuchal translucency measurement an estimated risk for fetal trisomies 13,18 and 21 is calculated. The main benefit of this approach in screening for fetal aneuploidy is the short turnaround time, with immediate results and a low screen positive rate. This approach leads to diagnosis of the majority (95%) of fetal aneuploidy cases. If screening is positive a diagnostic test is available with chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. In Iceland, fetal karyotyping is offered to women 35 years and older and performed during the second trimester, but by using this approach prenatal diagnosis can be moved to the first trimester and also offered to women of all ages. A screening approach with a series of steps from 10-15 weeks, including maternal blood test at 10 and again at 15 weeks, as well as an ultrasound and nuchal translucency measurement at 11-13 weeks, with integrated results at 15+ weeks has been proposed. This method offers even lower screen positive rate (1%) while detection rates of fetal aneuploides are high (>90%) but it requires four visits instead of one and the prolonged approach is likely to cause excess anxiety for the parents to be. If all women are to be offered prenatal sreening in the first trimester the structure of prenatal care in Iceland needs some modifications including scheduling the first prenatal visit at 8-10 weeks and teaching healthcare providers counseling regarding prenatal testing.

  20. Excitation mechanisms of 2s1/2-2p3/2 and 2p1/2-2p3/2 transitions in U82+ through U89+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decaux, V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Osterheld, A.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on detailed calculations of the electron-impact excitation of n = 2 electrons in the Li- to Ne-like uranium ions was developed to interpret and explain measurements on EBIT (Electron Beam Ion Trap). While only considering the direct excitation process provided a good model for the electric dipole (El) transitions, it was necessary for the magnetic dipole (Ml) spectrum to include various additional excitation processes in the model. In particular, the model was expanded to include electron-impact excitation of n = 3 levels followed by radiative cascades. Moreover, excitation by the ionization of 2s 1/2 , 2p 1/2 , and 2p 3/2 electrons and by radiative capture of beam electrons into excited levels was added. The new model demonstrates that the dipole-forbidden lines are almost exclusively produced by indirect excitation processes

  1. Evaluating Application-Layer Traffic Optimization Cost Metrics for P2P Multimedia Streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    To help users of P2P communication systems perform better-than-random selection of communication peers, Internet Engineering Task Force standardized the Application Layer Traffic Optimization (ALTO) protocol. The ALTO provided data-routing cost metric, can be used to rank peers in P2P communicati...

  2. Spin correlations in (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si) magnetocaloric compounds above Curie temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, X.F.; Caron, L.; Gubbens, P.C.M.; Yaouanc, A; Dalmas de Réotier, P; Luetkens, H.; Amato, A; van Dijk, N.H.; Brück, E.H.

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal-field muon-spin relaxation (LF-μSR) technique was employed to study the spin correlations in (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si) compounds above the ferromagnetic transition temperature (TC). The (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si) compound under study is found to show itinerant magnetism. The standard deviation of the

  3. P2P XQuery and the StreetTiVo application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Boncz (Peter); Y. Zhang (Ying)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the AmbientDB project, we are building MonetDB/XQuery, an open-source XML DBMS (XDBMS) with support for distributed querying and P2P services. Our work is motivated by the hypothesis that P2P is a disruptive paradigm that should change the nature of database technology. Most of the

  4. PD2P : PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. PD2P is an intelligent subsystem of PanDA to distribute data by taking the following factors into account: popularity, locality, the usage pattern of the data, the distribution of CPU and storage resources, ...

  5. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  6. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  7. Dissociation dynamics of anionic and excited neutral fragments of gaseous SiCl4 following Cl 2p and Si 2p core-level excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J M; Lu, K T; Lee, J M; Chou, T L; Chen, H C; Chen, S A; Haw, S C; Chen, T H

    2008-01-01

    The state-selective dissociation dynamics for anionic and excited neutral fragments of gaseous SiCl 4 following Cl 2p and Si 2p core-level excitations were characterized by combining measurements of the photon-induced anionic dissociation, x-ray absorption and UV/visible dispersed fluorescence. The transitions of core electrons to high Rydberg states/doubly excited states in the vicinity of both Si 2p and Cl 2p ionization thresholds of gaseous SiCl 4 lead to a remarkably enhanced production of anionic, Si - and Cl - , fragments and excited neutral atomic, Si*, fragments. This enhancement via core-level excitation near the ionization threshold of gaseous SiCl 4 is explained in terms of the contributions from the Auger decay of doubly excited states, shake-modified resonant Auger decay, or/and post-collision interaction. These complementary results provide insight into the state-selective anionic and excited neutral fragmentation of gaseous molecules via core-level excitation.

  8. Fabrication of a TiO2-P25/(TiO2-P25+TiO2 nanotubes junction for dye sensitized solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Huy Hao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which converts solar light into electric energy, is expected to be a promising renewable energy source for today's world. In this work, dye sensitized solar cells, one containing a single layer and one containing a double layer, were fabricated. In the double layer DSSC structure, the under-layer was TiO2-P25 film, and the top layer consisted of a mixture of TiO2-P25 and TiO2 nanotubes. The results indicated that the efficiency of the DSSC with the double layer structure was a significant improvement in comparison to the DSSC consisting of only a single film layer. The addition of TiO2-P25 in the top layer caused an improvement in the adsorption of dye molecules on the film rather than on the TiO2 nanotubes only. The presence of the TiO2 nanotubes together with TiO2-P25 in the top layer revealed the enhancement in harvesting the incident light and an improvement of electron transport through the film.

  9. Convergence of Internet and TV: The Commercial Viability of P2P Content Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boever, Jorn

    The popularity of (illegal) P2P (peer-to-peer) file sharing has a disruptive impact on Internet traffic and business models of content providers. In addition, several studies have found an increasing demand for bandwidth consuming content, such as video, on the Internet. Although P2P systems have been put forward as a scalable and inexpensive model to deliver such content, there has been relatively little economic analysis of the potentials and obstacles of P2P systems as a legal and commercial content distribution model. Many content providers encounter uncertainties regarding the adoption or rejection of P2P networks to spread content over the Internet. The recent launch of several commercial, legal P2P content distribution platforms increases the importance of an integrated analysis of the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT).

  10. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  11. Prospective evaluation of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using a double set of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan

    with an early blood sample taken prior to the NT scan, and another blood sample taken at the time of the NT scan. PAPP-A and free β-hCG were measured on both the early and the late samples, and Multiples of the Median (MoM) values were calculated in addition to the corresponding trisomy 21 risk. Using...... taken between gestational week 8+0 to 13+6, and the late samples were taken between week 11+3 and 14+6. The median interval between the samples was 17 days (range 1-40 days). The best performance of the combined screening was obtained using PAPP-A from the early sample and free β-hCG from the late...... sample, with a 95% DR for a 2.5 % FPR at a cut off 1:100. Conclusion: Using repeated biochemical sampling in the first trimester with early PAPP-A and late free β-hCG can optimize the screening performance of combined screening for trisomy 21....

  12. Our children are not a diagnosis: the experience of parents who continue their pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 or 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guon, Jennifer; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Farlow, Barbara; Brazg, Tracy; Janvier, Annie

    2014-02-01

    Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 (T13-18) are associated with high rates of perinatal death and with severe disability among survivors. Prenatal diagnosis (PND) may lead many women to terminate their pregnancy but some women choose to continue their pregnancy. We sent 503 invitations to answer a questionnaire to parents who belong to T13 and 18 internet support groups. Using mixed methods, we asked parents about their prenatal experience, their hopes, the life of their affected child, and their family experience. 332 parents answered questions about 272 children; 128 experienced PND. These parents, despite feeling pressure to terminate (61%) and being told that their baby would likely die before birth (94%), chose to continue the pregnancy. Their reasons included: moral beliefs (68%), child-centered reasons (64%), religious beliefs (48%), parent-centered reasons (28%), and practical reasons (6%). At the time of the diagnosis, most of these parents (80%) hoped to meet their child alive. By the time of birth, 25% chose a plan of full interventions. A choice of interventions at birth was associated with fewer major anomalies (P Parents describe "Special" healthcare providers as those who gave balanced and personalized information, respected their choice, and provided support. Parents make decisions to continue a pregnancy and choose a plan of care for their child according to their beliefs and their child's specific medical condition, respectively. Insights from parents' perspective can better enable healthcare providers to counsel and support families. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Bandwidth Reduction via Localized Peer-to-Peer (P2P Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Kerpez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent research into P2P distribution of video that can be highly localized, preferably sharing content among users on the same access network and Central Office (CO. Models of video demand and localized P2P serving areas are presented. Detailed simulations of passive optical networks (PON are run, and these generate statistics of P2P video localization. Next-Generation PON (NG-PON is shown to fully enable P2P video localization, but the lower rates of Gigabit-PON (GPON restrict performance. Results here show that nearly all of the traffic volume of unicast video could be delivered via localized P2P. Strong growth in video delivery via localized P2P could lower overall future aggregation and core network bandwidth of IP video traffic by 58.2%, and total consumer Internet traffic by 43.5%. This assumes aggressive adoption of technologies and business practices that enable highly localized P2P video.

  14. A Simple FSPN Model of P2P Live Video Streaming System

    OpenAIRE

    Kotevski, Zoran; Mitrevski, Pece

    2011-01-01

    Peer to Peer (P2P) live streaming is relatively new paradigm that aims at streaming live video to large number of clients at low cost. Many such applications already exist in the market, but, prior to creating such system it is necessary to analyze its performance via representative model that can provide good insight in the system’s behavior. Modeling and performance analysis of P2P live video streaming systems is challenging task which requires addressing many properties and issues of P2P s...

  15. Development of in vitro techniques for individual monitoring of "3"2P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.P.F.; Sousa, W.O.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Dantas, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The "3"2P is used in the form of liquid unsealed sources in medical facilities, research and teaching, representing a risk of internal exposure in routine activities and in case of accidental incorporation. The evaluation of "3"2P incorporation can be accomplished through in vitro bioanalysis of urine. This paper aims to provide a methodology to analyze "3"2P in biological samples, applicable to internal individual monitoring using liquid scintillation technique. The minimum detectable activity of the system was determined and the sensitivity of the technique was evaluated, based on the detected minimum effective dose. (author)

  16. The (2p, 2p) 11Δg state of 6Li2: Fourier transform spectrum of the 11Δg-B1IIu transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, C.; Martin, F.; Crozet, P.; Ross, A.J.; Bacis, R.

    1993-01-01

    The 1 1 Δ g -B 1 II u transition of 6 Li 2 has been observed in collisionally induced fluorescence following single frequency optical-optical double resonance excitation of the F 1 Σ g + state using a ring dye laser with DCM dye. Spectra of the s and a symmetry levels were obtained separately, at high resolution, in the near-infrared region using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The molecular constants (Dunham coefficients) of the 1 1 Δ g state have been calculated. Comparison of the constants and dissociation energy with ab initio calculations has shown that the 1 1 Δ g state correlates with Li(2p) + Li(2p) and has a dissociation energy of 9,579 ± 1 cm -1 . The energy transfer process responsible for excitation of the 1 1 Δ g state is discussed

  17. A prospective study evaluating the performance of first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeated sampling of the maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free β-hCG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Wright, Dave; Ball, Susan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (free β-hCG) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency...

  18. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  19. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  20. Two-stage approach for risk estimation of fetal trisomy 21 and other aneuploidies using computational intelligence systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neocleous, A C; Syngelaki, A; Nicolaides, K H; Schizas, C N

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the risk of fetal trisomy 21 (T21) and other chromosomal abnormalities (OCA) at 11-13 weeks' gestation using computational intelligence classification methods. As a first step, a training dataset consisting of 72 054 euploid pregnancies, 295 cases of T21 and 305 cases of OCA was used to train an artificial neural network. Then, a two-stage approach was used for stratification of risk and diagnosis of cases of aneuploidy in the blind set. In Stage 1, using four markers, pregnancies in the blind set were classified into no risk and risk. No-risk pregnancies were not examined further, whereas the risk pregnancies were forwarded to Stage 2 for further examination. In Stage 2, using seven markers, pregnancies were classified into three types of risk, namely no risk, moderate risk and high risk. Of 36 328 unknown to the system pregnancies (blind set), 17 512 euploid, two T21 and 18 OCA were classified as no risk in Stage 1. The remaining 18 796 cases were forwarded to Stage 2, of which 7895 euploid, two T21 and two OCA cases were classified as no risk, 10 464 euploid, 83 T21 and 61 OCA as moderate risk and 187 euploid, 50 T21 and 52 OCA as high risk. The sensitivity and the specificity for T21 in Stage 2 were 97.1% and 99.5%, respectively, and the false-positive rate from Stage 1 to Stage 2 was reduced from 51.4% to ∼1%, assuming that the cell-free DNA test could identify all euploid and aneuploid cases. We propose a method for early diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities that ensures that most T21 cases are classified as high risk at any stage. At the same time, the number of euploid cases subjected to invasive or cell-free DNA examinations was minimized through a routine procedure offered in two stages. Our method is minimally invasive and of relatively low cost, highly effective at T21 identification and it performs better than do other existing statistical methods. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright

  1. A Local Scalable Distributed EM Algorithm for Large P2P Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — his paper describes a local and distributed expectation maximization algorithm for learning parameters of Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in large peer-to-peer (P2P)...

  2. P2P-Based Data System for the EAST Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yantai; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Weifeng; Chen, Haiming; Luo, Jiarong

    2006-06-01

    A peer-to-peer (P2P)-based EAST Data System is being designed to provide data acquisition and analysis support for the EAST superconducting tokamak. Instead of transferring data to the servers, all collected data are stored in the data acquisition subsystems locally and the PC clients can access the raw data directly using the P2P architecture. Both online and offline systems are based on Napster-like P2P architecture. This allows the peer (PC) to act both as a client and as a server. A simulation-based method and a steady-state operational analysis technique are used for performance evaluation. These analyses show that the P2P technique can significantly reduce the completion time of raw data display and real-time processing on the online system, and raise the workload capacity and reduce the delay on the offline system.

  3. Mapping of novel powdery mildew resistance gene(s) from Agropyron cristatum chromosome 2P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Jingchang; Lu, Yuqing; Zhang, Jinpeng; Pan, Cuili; Yang, Xinming; Li, Xiuquan; Liu, Weihua; Li, Lihui

    2017-01-01

    A physical map of Agropyron cristatum 2P chromosome was constructed for the first time and the novel powdery mildew resistance gene(s) from chromosome 2P was(were) also mapped. Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, is highly resistant to powdery mildew. Previous studies showed that wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 displayed high resistance to powdery mildew, and the resistance was attributable to A. cristatum chromosome 2P. To utilize and physically map the powdery mildew resistance gene(s), 15 wheat-A. cristatum 2P translocation lines and three A. cristatum 2P deletion lines with different chromosomal segment sizes, obtained from II-9-3 using 60 Co-γ ray irradiation, were characterized using cytogenetic and molecular marker analysis. A. cristatum 2P chromosomal segments in the translocations were translocated to different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, 2B, 3B, 7B, 3D, 4D, and 6D. A physical map of the 2P chromosome was constructed with 82 STS markers, consisting of nine bins with 34 markers on 2PS and eight bins with 48 markers on 2PL. The BC 1 F 2 populations of seven wheat-A. cristatum 2P translocation lines (2PT-3, 2PT-4, 2PT-5, 2PT-6, 2PT-8, 2PT-9, and 2PT-10) were developed by self-pollination, tested with powdery mildew and genotyped with 2P-specific STS markers. From these results, the gene(s) conferring powdery mildew resistance was(were) located on 2PL bin FL 0.66-0.86 and 19 2P-specific markers were identified in this bin. Moreover, two new powdery mildew-resistant translocation lines (2PT-4 and 2PT-5) with small 2PL chromosome segments were obtained. The newly developed wheat lines with powdery mildew resistance and the closely linked molecular markers will be valuable for wheat disease breeding in the future.

  4. Determination of the 1s2{\\ell }2{{\\ell }}^{\\prime } state production ratios {{}^{4}P}^{o}/{}^{2}P, {}^{2}D/{}^{2}P and {{}^{2}P}_{+}/{{}^{2}P}_{-} from fast (1{s}^{2},1s2s\\,{}^{3}S) mixed-state He-like ion beams in collisions with H2 targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benis, E. P.; Zouros, T. J. M.

    2016-12-01

    New results are presented on the ratio {R}m={σ }{T2p}( {}4P)/{σ }{T2p}({}2P) concerning the production cross sections of Li-like 1s2s2p quartet and doublet P states formed in energetic ion-atom collisions by single 2p electron transfer to the metastable 1s2s {}3S component of the He-like ion beam. Spin statistics predict a value of R m = 2 independent of the collision system in disagreement with most reported measurements of {R}m≃ 1{--}9. A new experimental approach is presented for the evaluation of R m having some practical advantages over earlier approaches. It also allows for the determination of the separate contributions of ground- and metastable-state beam components to the measured spectra. Applying our technique to zero-degree Auger projectile spectra from 4.5 MeV {{{B}}}3+ (Benis et al 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 064701) and 25.3 MeV {{{F}}}7+ (Zamkov et al 2002 Phys. Rev. A 65 062706) mixed state (1{s}2 {}1S,1s2s {}3S) He-like ion collisions with H2 targets, we report new values of {R}m=3.5+/- 0.4 for boron and {R}m=1.8+/- 0.3 for fluorine. In addition, the ratios of {}2D/{}2P and {{}2P}+/{{}2P}- populations from either the metastable and/or ground state beam component, also relevant to this analysis, are evaluated and compared to previously reported results for carbon collisions on helium (Strohschein et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 022706) including a critical comparison to theory.

  5. A study of a sector spectrophotometer and auroral O+(2P-2D) emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    The metastable O+(2P-2D) auroral emission was investigated. The neighboring OH contaminants and low intensity levels of the emission itself necessitated the evolution of an instrument capable of separating the emission from the contaminants and having a high sensitivity in the wavelength region of interest. A new type of scanning photometer was developed and its properties are discussed. The theoretical aspects of auroral electron interaction with atomic oxygen and the resultant O+(2P-2D) emissions were examined in conjunction with N2(+)1NEG emissions. Ground based measurements of O+(2P-2D) auroral emission intensities were made using the spatial scanning photometer (sector spectrophotometer). Simultaneous measurements of N2(+)1NEG sub 1,0 emission intensity were made in the same field of view using a tilting photometer. Time histories of the ratio of these two emissions made in the magnetic zenith during auroral breakup periods are given. Theories of I sub 7319/I sub 4278 of previous investigators were presented. A rocket measurement of N2(+)1NEG sub 0,0 and O+(2P-2D) emission in aurora was examined in detail and was found to agree with the ground based measurements. Theoretical examination resulted in the deduction of the electron impact efficiency generating O+(2P) and also suggests a large source of O+(2P) at low altitude. A possible source is charge exchange of N+(1S) with OI(3P).

  6. Data transport and management in P2P Data Management in Mobile Wireless Sensor Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahar, S.; Shaikh, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth in wireless technologies has made wireless communication an important source for transporting data across different domains. In the same way, there are possibilities of many potential applications that can be deployed using WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks). However, very limited applications are deployed in real life due to the uncertainty and dynamics of the environment and scare resources. This makes data management in WSN a challenging area to find an approach that suits its characteristics. Currently, the trend is to find efficient data management schemes using evolving technologies, i.e. P2P (Peer-to-Peer) systems. Many P2P approaches have been applied in WSNs to carry out the data management due to similarities between WSN and P2P. With the similarities, there are differences too that makes P2P protocols inefficient in WSNs. Furthermore, to increase the efficiency and to exploit the delay tolerant nature of WSNs, where ever possible, the mobile WSNs are gaining importance. Thus, creating a three dimensional problem space to consider, i.e. mobility, WSNs and P2P. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is proposed for data management using P2P techniques for mobile WSNs. The real world implementation and deployment of proposed algorithm is also presented. (author)

  7. Interconnected Ni_2P nanorods grown on nickel foam for binder free lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qin; Ma, Jingjing; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Xia; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a moderate and simple approach to synthesize nickel phosphide nanorods on nickel foam (Ni_2P/NF), which was employed as anode material for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). In this paper, interconnected Ni_2P nanorods were fabricated through hydrothermal treatment of NF and subsequently by high temperature phosphating. NF is not only regarded as nickel source and metal current collector, but also as a support to grow electro-active material (Ni_2P). Therefore, Ni_2P/NF could act as a self-supported working electrode for LIBs without any extra addition of cohesive binders. Moreover, benefiting from the conductive capacity of Ni_2P/NF, the active compound behaved superior lithium storage performance and cycling reversibility during electrochemical cycling process. The Ni_2P/NF delivered excellent reversibility of 507 mAh g"−"1 at the current density of 50 mA g"−"1 after 100 cycles. This work may provide a potential method for preparation of metal phosphides as promising materials for LIBs, hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) or other fields.

  8. A high-resolution photoelectron imaging and theoretical study of CP- and C2P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekner, Joseph; Cheung, Ling Fung; Johnson, Eric L; Fortenberry, Ryan C; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2018-01-28

    The discovery of interstellar anions has been a milestone in astrochemistry. In the search for new interstellar anions, CP - and C 2 P - are viable candidates since their corresponding neutrals have already been detected astronomically. However, scarce data exist for these negatively charged species. Here we report the electron affinities of CP and C 2 P along with the vibrational frequencies of their anions using high-resolution photoelectron imaging. These results along with previous spectroscopic data of the neutral species are used further to benchmark very accurate quartic force field quantum chemical methods that are applied to CP, CP - , C 2 P, and two electronic states of C 2 P - . The predicted electron affinities, vibrational frequencies, and rotational constants are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. The electron affinities of CP (2.8508 ± 0.0007 eV) and C 2 P (2.6328 ± 0.0006 eV) are measured accurately and found to be quite high, suggesting that the CP - and C 2 P - anions are thermodynamically stable and possibly observable. The current study suggests that the combination of high-resolution photoelectron imaging and quantum chemistry can be used to determine accurate molecular constants for exotic radical species of astronomical interest.

  9. Strategies for P2P connectivity in reconfigurable converged wired/wireless access networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto, Gustavo; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2010-12-06

    This paper presents different strategies to define the architecture of a Radio-Over-Fiber (RoF) Access networks enabling Peer-to-Peer (P2P) functionalities. The architectures fully exploit the flexibility of a wavelength router based on the feedback configuration of an Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) and an optical switch to broadcast P2P services among diverse infrastructures featuring dynamic channel allocation and enabling an optical platform for 3G and beyond wireless backhaul requirements. The first architecture incorporates a tunable laser to generate a dedicated wavelength for P2P purposes and the second architecture takes advantage of reused wavelengths to enable the P2P connectivity among Optical Network Units (ONUs) or Base Stations (BS). While these two approaches allow the P2P connectivity in a one at a time basis (1:1), the third architecture enables the broadcasting of P2P sessions among different ONUs or BSs at the same time (1:M). Experimental assessment of the proposed architecture shows approximately 0.6% Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) degradation for wireless services and 1 dB penalty in average for 1 x 10(-12) Bit Error Rate (BER) for wired baseband services.

  10. A distributed incentive compatible pricing mechanism for P2P networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Zheng; Xiong, Xiao; Shi, Qingwei

    2007-09-01

    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems are currently receiving considerable interest. However, as experience with P2P networks shows, the selfish behaviors of peers may lead to serious problems of P2P network, such as free-riding and white-washing. In order to solve these problems, there are increasing considerations on reputation system design in the study of P2P networks. Most of the existing works is concerning probabilistic estimation or social networks to evaluate the trustworthiness for a peer to others. However, these models can not be efficient all the time. In this paper, our aim is to provide a general mechanism that can maximize P2P networks social welfare in a way of Vickrey-Clarke-Groves family, while assuming every peer in P2P networks is rational and selfish, which means they only concern about their own outcome. This mechanism has some desirable properties using an O(n) algorithm: (1) incentive compatibility, every peer truly report its connection type; (2) individually rationality; and (3) fully decentralized, we design a multiple-principal multiple-agent model, concerning about the service provider and service requester individually.

  11. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  12. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  13. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  14. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  15. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  16. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  17. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  18. P2P-based botnets: structural analysis, monitoring, and mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Guanhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eidenbenz, Stephan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ha, Duc T [UNIV AT BUFFALO; Ngo, Hung Q [UNIV AT BUFFALO

    2008-01-01

    Botnets, which are networks of compromised machines that are controlled by one or a group of attackers, have emerged as one of the most serious security threats on the Internet. With an army of bots at the scale of tens of thousands of hosts or even as large as 1.5 million PCs, the computational power of botnets can be leveraged to launch large-scale DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks, sending spamming emails, stealing identities and financial information, etc. As detection and mitigation techniques against botnets have been stepped up in recent years, attackers are also constantly improving their strategies to operate these botnets. The first generation of botnets typically employ IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels as their command and control (C&C) centers. Though simple and easy to deploy, the centralized C&C mechanism of such botnets has made them prone to being detected and disabled. Against this backdrop, peer-to-peer (P2P) based botnets have emerged as a new generation of botnets which can conceal their C&C communication. Recently, P2P networks have emerged as a covert communication platform for malicious programs known as bots. As popular distributed systems, they allow bots to communicate easily while protecting the botmaster from being discovered. Existing work on P2P-based hotnets mainly focuses on measurement of botnet sizes. In this work, through simulation, we study extensively the structure of P2P networks running Kademlia, one of a few widely used P2P protocols in practice. Our simulation testbed incorporates the actual code of a real Kademlia client software to achieve great realism, and distributed event-driven simulation techniques to achieve high scalability. Using this testbed, we analyze the scaling, reachability, clustering, and centrality properties of P2P-based botnets from a graph-theoretical perspective. We further demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that monitoring bot activities in a P2P network is difficult

  19. Equations for effective nuclear fields taking account of 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    Equations taking into account 1p1h and 2p2h configurations were obta+ned by means of effective fields in the nucleus. The consideration is restricted by the even-even Fermi system only with particle-hole interaction and by the first order with respect to an external field, which corresponds to the case of an even-even nucleus without pairing in a weak external field. The principal results of the investigation are as follows: a set of equations for effective fields V 2 and V 4 is obtained by the Green function method; the solutxon of the set makes it possible to consider 1p1h and 2p2h configurations consecutively and dispense with the Hartree-Fock self-consistence. The equations for V 2 and V 4 can be used to obtain quantum equations taking into account 2p2h configurations and their effect on 1p1h states. Allowance for integration regions far removed from the Fermi surface results in the appearance of the V 4 0 seed portion in the V 4 effective field. Taking into account 2p2h configurations at V 4 0 not equal to 0 changes the form of the seed multipole operator of a nucleus; a new term appears in the expression for transition probability. As a rule, the V 4 0 value was neglected in investigations dealing with the 2p2h configuration

  20. A Non-canonical Voltage-Sensing Mechanism Controls Gating in K2P K(+) Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Marcus; Nematian-Ardestani, Ehsan; Sun, Han; Musinszki, Marianne; Cordeiro, Sönke; Bucci, Giovanna; de Groot, Bert L; Tucker, Stephen J; Rapedius, Markus; Baukrowitz, Thomas

    2016-02-25

    Two-pore domain (K2P) K(+) channels are major regulators of excitability that endow cells with an outwardly rectifying background "leak" conductance. In some K2P channels, strong voltage-dependent activation has been observed, but the mechanism remains unresolved because they lack a canonical voltage-sensing domain. Here, we show voltage-dependent gating is common to most K2P channels and that this voltage sensitivity originates from the movement of three to four ions into the high electric field of an inactive selectivity filter. Overall, this ion-flux gating mechanism generates a one-way "check valve" within the filter because outward movement of K(+) induces filter opening, whereas inward movement promotes inactivation. Furthermore, many physiological stimuli switch off this flux gating mode to convert K2P channels into a leak conductance. These findings provide insight into the functional plasticity of a K(+)-selective filter and also refine our understanding of K2P channels and the mechanisms by which ion channels can sense voltage. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of Ni_2P nanoparticle and its hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qi; Han, Yang; Huang, Xiang; Dai, Jinhui; Tian, Jintao; Zhu, Zhibin; Yue, Li

    2017-01-01

    Nanosized nickel phosphide (Ni_2P) has been synthesized via hydrothermal reaction with environmental-friendly red phosphorus and nickel chloride. The reaction mechanism has been studied by measurement techniques of IC, XRD ,TEM, EDS, and XPS. The results showed that the particle sizes of as-prepared Ni_2P are in nanoscale ranging from 10 to 30 nm. In hydrothermal reaction, red phosphorus reacts with water to its oxyacids, especially its hypophosphorous acid (or hypophosphite) which can reduce nickel chloride to nickel, and then metallic nickel will penetrate into the rest of red phosphorus to generate nano-Ni_2P. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Ni_2P for the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene has been tested. It has been shown that the HDS reaction process over Ni_2P catalyst agrees well with the pseudo-first order kinetic equation, and the HDS conversion can reach up to 43.83% in 5 h with a stable increasing catalytic activity during the whole examination process.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of Ni{sub 2}P nanoparticle and its hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qi; Han, Yang; Huang, Xiang, E-mail: materials@ouc.edu.cn; Dai, Jinhui; Tian, Jintao; Zhu, Zhibin; Yue, Li [Ocean University of China, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2017-04-15

    Nanosized nickel phosphide (Ni{sub 2}P) has been synthesized via hydrothermal reaction with environmental-friendly red phosphorus and nickel chloride. The reaction mechanism has been studied by measurement techniques of IC, XRD ,TEM, EDS, and XPS. The results showed that the particle sizes of as-prepared Ni{sub 2}P are in nanoscale ranging from 10 to 30 nm. In hydrothermal reaction, red phosphorus reacts with water to its oxyacids, especially its hypophosphorous acid (or hypophosphite) which can reduce nickel chloride to nickel, and then metallic nickel will penetrate into the rest of red phosphorus to generate nano-Ni{sub 2}P. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of as-synthesized Ni{sub 2}P for the hydrodesulfurization of dibenzothiophene has been tested. It has been shown that the HDS reaction process over Ni{sub 2}P catalyst agrees well with the pseudo-first order kinetic equation, and the HDS conversion can reach up to 43.83% in 5 h with a stable increasing catalytic activity during the whole examination process.

  3. P2P Network Lending, Loss Given Default and Credit Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P network lending is a new mode of internet finance that still holds credit risk as its main risk. According to the internal rating method of the New Basel Accord, in addition to the probability of default, loss given default is also one of the important indicators of evaluation credit risks. Proceeding from the perspective of loss given default (LGD, this paper conducts an empirical study on the probability distribution of LGDs of P2P as well as its influencing factors with the transaction data of Lending Club. The results show that: (1 the LGDs of P2P loans presents an obvious unimodal distribution, the peak value is relatively high and tends to concentrate with the decrease of the borrower’s credit rating, indicating that the distribution of LGDs of P2P lending is similar to that of unsecured bonds; (2 The total asset of the borrower has no significant impact on LGD, the credit rating and the debt-to-income ratio exert a significant negative impact, while the term and amount of the loan produce a relatively strong positive impact. Therefore, when evaluating the borrower’s repayment ability, it is required to pay more attention to its assets structure rather than the size of its total assets. When carrying out risk control for the P2P platform, it is necessary to give priority to the control of default rate.

  4. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  5. Excitation of the (2p2)1D and (2s2p)1P autoionizing states of helium by 200 eV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godunov, A.L.; McGuire, J.H.; Schipakov, V.S.; Crowe, A.

    2002-01-01

    We report full second Born calculations with inclusion of post-collision interactions for excitation of the (2p 2 ) 1 D and (2s2p) 1 P autoionizing states of helium by 200 eV electron impact. The calculations are compared to (e, 2e) measurements of McDonald and Crowe (McDonald D G and Crowe A 1993 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26 2887-97) and Lower and Weigold (Lower J and Weigold E 1990 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 23 2819-45). It is shown that post-collision interactions or Coulomb interactions in the final state between the scattered particle, the ejected electron and the recoil ion have a strong influence on both the direct ionization and resonance profiles around the binary lobe. The second-order terms in the amplitude of double electron excitation also play an observable role under these kinematic conditions. Reasonable agreement is found between the full-scale calculations and the experimental data. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  6. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  7. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  8. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  9. A New Caching Technique to Support Conjunctive Queries in P2P DHT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobatake, Koji; Tagashira, Shigeaki; Fujita, Satoshi

    P2P DHT (Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash Table) is one of typical techniques for realizing an efficient management of shared resources distributed over a network and a keyword search over such networks in a fully distributed manner. In this paper, we propose a new method for supporting conjunctive queries in P2P DHT. The basic idea of the proposed technique is to share a global information on past trials by conducting a local caching of search results for conjunctive queries and by registering the fact to the global DHT. Such a result caching is expected to significantly reduce the amount of transmitted data compared with conventional schemes. The effect of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated by simulation. The result of experiments indicates that by using the proposed method, the amount of returned data is reduced by 60% compared with conventional P2P DHT which does not support conjunctive queries.

  10. 11th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barolli, Leonard; Amato, Flora

    2017-01-01

    P2P, Grid, Cloud and Internet computing technologies have been very fast established as breakthrough paradigms for solving complex problems by enabling aggregation and sharing of an increasing variety of distributed computational resources at large scale. The aim of this volume is to provide latest research findings, innovative research results, methods and development techniques from both theoretical and practical perspectives related to P2P, Grid, Cloud and Internet computing as well as to reveal synergies among such large scale computing paradigms. This proceedings volume presents the results of the 11th International Conference on P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud And Internet Computing (3PGCIC-2016), held November 5-7, 2016, at Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Korea.

  11. Upper bound on the non-colorability threshold of the 2+p-COL problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, R.

    2004-10-01

    The 2p-COL problem introduced by Walsh, smoothly interpolates between P and NP by mixing together the polynornial 2-coloring problem and the NP complete 3-coloring problem. A natural upper bound on the non colorability of the 2+p-COL problem in min {r-bar 2 /(1 - p)r-bar 3 }, where r-bar 2 and r-bar 3 are the upper bounds on 2-COL and 3-COL thresholds respectively. In this paper we improve this upper-bound for each 0.73 ≤ p 1. This means that for p ≥ 0.73 the 2+p-COL problem does not behave like the 2-COL problem. We use the method developed by Kaporis et al., which combines the concept of legal rigid colorings introduced by Achlioptas and Molloy with the occupancy problem for random allocations of balls into bins. (author)

  12. P2P Lending Risk Contagion Analysis Based on a Complex Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes two major channels of P2P lending risk contagion in China—direct risk contagion between platforms and indirect risk contagion with other financial organizations as the contagion medium. Based on this analysis, the current study constructs a complex network model of P2P lending risk contagion in China and performs dynamics analogue simulations in order to analyze general characteristics of direct risk contagion among China’s online P2P lending platforms. The assumed conditions are that other financial organizations act as the contagion medium, with variations in the risk contagion characteristics set under the condition of significant information asymmetry in Internet lending. It is indicated that, compared to direct risk contagion among platforms, both financial organizations acting as the contagion medium and information asymmetry magnify the effect of risk contagion. It is also found that the superposition of media effects and information asymmetry is more likely to magnify the risk contagion effect.

  13. Electronic structure and X-ray spectroscopic properties of YbNi_2P_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherba, I.D.; Bekenov, L.V.; Antonov, V.N.; Noga, H.; Uskokovic, D.; Zhak, O.; Kovalska, M.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We present new experimental and theoretical data for YbNi_2P_2. • The presence of divalent and trivalent Yb ion found in YbNi_2P_2. • The calculation show good agreement with the experimental measurements. - Abstract: X-ray absorption spectrum at the Yb L_3 edge and X-ray emission spectra of Ni and P at the K and L_2_,_3 edges have been studied experimentally and theoretically in the mixed valent compound YbNi_2P_2 with ThCr_2Si_2 type crystal structure. The electronic structure of YbNi_2P_2 is investigated using the fully relativistic Dirac linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) band-structure method. The effect of the spin–orbit (SO) interaction and Coulomb repulsion U on the electronic structure of YbNi_2P_2 is examined in the frame of the LSDA + SO + U method. The core-hole effect in the final states as well as the effect of the electric quadrupole E_2 transitions have been investigated. A good agreement between the theory and the experiment was found. Both the trivalent and the divalent Yb ions in YbNi_2P_2 are reflected in the experimentally measured Yb L_3 X-ray absorption spectrum simultaneously. We found that the best agreement between the experimental spectrum and sum of the theoretically calculated Yb"2"+ and Yb"3"+ spectra is achieved with 73% ytterbium ions in 2+ state and 27% ions in 3+ state.

  14. Testing a Cloud Provider Network for Hybrid P2P and Cloud Streaming Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Cerviño Arriba, Javier; Rodríguez, Pedro; Trajkovska, Irena; Mozo Velasco, Alberto; Salvachúa Rodríguez, Joaquín

    2011-01-01

    The number of online real-time streaming services deployed over network topologies like P2P or centralized ones has remarkably increased in the recent years. This has revealed the lack of networks that are well prepared to respond to this kind of traffic. A hybrid distribution network can be an efficient solution for real-time streaming services. This paper contains the experimental results of streaming distribution in a hybrid architecture that consist of mixed connections among P2P and Clou...

  15. Atom-solid binding energy shifts for K 2p and Rb 3d sublevels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holappa, M.; Aksela, S.; Patanen, M.; Urpelainen, S.; Aksela, H.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Binding energy shifts between atom and solid. K 2p and Rb 3d sublevels were studied. → Simultaneous measurements give accurate results. → Results can be used as a reference for cluster studies. - Abstract: Binding energy shifts between free and solid state atoms for K 2p and Rb 3d photolines have been determined by measuring the vapor and solid state spectra simultaneously in similar experimental conditions applying synchrotron radiation excited photoelectron spectroscopy. This method has the important benefit that the work function is not needed to correct for different reference energy levels, therefore much more accurate values for binding energy shifts are obtained.

  16. Low-temperature sol-gel synthesis of NaZr2P3O12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, D.K.; Adair, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The NZP family of new low-expansion materials has attracted wide interest for its potential in advanced technological applications. NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 , which is the parent composition of this family, has been synthesized by the solution sol-gel method using special precursor solutions, which led to its formation (although poorly crystalline) at temperatures as low as 120 degrees C. The lowest temperature of formation of a single phase of NaZr 2 P 3 O 12 with a high degree of crystallinity was found to be 600 degrees C

  17. Barringerite Fe2P from Pyrometamorphic Rocks of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britvin, S. N.; Murashko, M. N.; Vapnik, E.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Krivovichev, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The article provides a detailed mineralogical and crystallochemical description (including refinement of the crystal structure) of the first finding of the phosphide class mineral barringerite, Fe2P, from terrestrial pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Formation in Israel. The mineral occurs in the association of the so-called paralavas—initially silicate—carbonate sedimentary rocks that remelted during pyrometamorphic processes at a temperature above 1000°C and at a low pressure. Questions on the genesis and crystal chemistry of barringerite are discussed in connection with another polymorphic iron phosphide, allabogdanite (Fe,Ni)2P.

  18. The 2P1/2 → 2P3/2 laser transition in atomic iodine and the problem of search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutaev, Yu F; Mankevich, S K; Nosach, O Yu; Orlov, E P

    2007-01-01

    It is proposed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) at a wavelength of 1.315 μm of the laser 2 P 1/2 → 2 P 3/2 transition in the atomic iodine, which can be used for this purpose as the natural frequency reference. The search at this wavelength is promising because active quantum filters (AQFs) with the quantum sensitivity limit have been developed for this wavelength, which are capable of receiving laser signals, consisting of only a few photons, against the background of emission from a star under study. In addition, high-power iodine lasers emitting diffraction-limited radiation at 1.315 μm have been created, which highly developed ETI also can have. If a ETI sends in our direction a diffraction-limited 10-ns, 1-kJ laser pulse with the beam diameter of 10 m, a receiver with an AQF mounted on a ten-meter extra-atmospheric optical telescope can detect this signal at a distance of up to 300 light years, irrespective of the ETI position on the celestial sphere. The realisation of the projects for manufacturing optical telescopes of diameter 30 m will increase the research range up to 2700 light years. A weak absorption of the 1.315-μm radiation in the Earth atmosphere (the signal is attenuated by less than 20%) allows the search for ETI signals by using ground telescopes equipped with adaptive optical systems. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  19. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  20. Infinite partial summations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, D.W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of those aspects of the effective interaction problem that can be grouped under the heading of infinite partial summations of the perturbation series. After a brief mention of the classic examples of infinite summations, the author turns to the effective interaction problem for two extra core particles. Their direct interaction is summed to produce the G matrix, while their indirect interaction through the core is summed in a variety of ways under the heading of core polarization. (orig./WL) [de

  1. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  2. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  3. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  4. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  5. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  6. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  7. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties Of EuIn2P2

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2011-10-25

    The electronic structures and, optical and magneto‐optical properties of a newly found Zintl compound EuIn2P2 have been investigated within the density‐functional theory using the highly precise full‐potential linear‐augmented‐plane‐wave method. Results of detailed investigation of the electronic structure and related properties are reported.

  8. Characterization of a recurrent t(1;2)(p36;p24) in human uterine leiomyoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, A. van; Sweers, M.A.; Huys, E.; Kersten, M.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Debiec-Rychter, M.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are the most common neoplasms in women of reproductive age. Approximately 40% of these neoplasms show recurring structural cytogenetic anomalies, including del(7)(q22), t(12;14)(q15;q24), t(1;2)(p36;p24), and anomalies affecting 6p21 or 10q22. Using positional cloning strategies,

  9. Integrating XQuery and P2P in MonetDB/XQuery*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhang (Ying); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M. Arenas (Marcelo); J. Hidders

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMonetDB/XQuery* is a fully functional publicly available XML DBMS that has been extended with distributed and P2P data management functionality. Our (minimal) XQuery language extension XRPC adds the concept of RPC to XQuery, and exploits the set-at-a-time database processing model to

  10. The "P2P" Educational Model Providing Innovative Learning by Linking Technology, Business and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Paul Gordon

    2017-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect and potential of a new educational learning model called Peer to Peer (P2P). The study was focused on Laurea, Hyvinkaa's Finland campus and its response to bridging the gap between traditional educational methods and working reality, where modern technology plays an important role. The study describes and evaluates…

  11. Load Balancing Scheme on the Basis of Huffman Coding for P2P Information Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasawa, Hisashi; Takasu, Atsuhiro; Adachi, Jun

    Although a distributed index on a distributed hash table (DHT) enables efficient document query processing in Peer-to-Peer information retrieval (P2P IR), the index costs a lot to construct and it tends to be an unfair management because of the unbalanced term frequency distribution. We devised a new distributed index, named Huffman-DHT, for P2P IR. The new index uses an algorithm similar to Huffman coding with a modification to the DHT structure based on the term distribution. In a Huffman-DHT, a frequent term is assigned to a short ID and allocated a large space in the node ID space in DHT. Throuth ID management, the Huffman-DHT balances the index registration accesses among peers and reduces load concentrations. Huffman-DHT is the first approach to adapt concepts of coding theory and term frequency distribution to load balancing. We evaluated this approach in experiments using a document collection and assessed its load balancing capabilities in P2P IR. The experimental results indicated that it is most effective when the P2P system consists of about 30, 000 nodes and contains many documents. Moreover, we proved that we can construct a Huffman-DHT easily by estimating the probability distribution of the term occurrence from a small number of sample documents.

  12. P2P systems in a regulated environment : challenges and opportunities for the operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    P2P networks, systems, and applications have been the subject of intensive studies in recent years. They have created new business opportunities, providing a low-cost mechanism for communication and for online content distribution. They have also sparked a spate of legal disputes with adverse

  13. Comparing manually-developed and data-driven rules for P2P learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loots, L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Phoneme-to-phoneme (P2P) learning provides a mechanism for predicting the pronunciation of a word based on its pronunciation in a different accent, dialect or language. The authors evaluate the effectiveness of manually-developed as well...

  14. analysis of the probability of channel satisfactory state in p2p live

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    churn and bits flow was modelled as fluid flow. The applicability of the theory of probability was deduced from Kelly (1991). Section II of the paper provides the model of. P2P live streaming systems taking into account peer behaviour and expression was obtained for the computation of the probability of channel- satisfactory ...

  15. Search for ({lambda}{sup 2})/p{sup 2} corrections to the QCD running coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgio, G.; Di Renzo, F.; Parrinello, C.; Pittori, C

    1999-03-01

    We investigate the occurrence of power terms ({lambda}{sup 2})/p>{sup 2} in the running QCD coupling by analysing non-perturbative measurements of {alpha}{sub s}(p) at quite low momenta obtained from the lattice three-gluon vertex. Our study provides some evidence for such a contribution. The phenomenological implications of such a presence are reviewed.

  16. G-ROME : semantic-driven capacity sharing among P2P networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchakos, G.; Antonopoulos, N.; Salter, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for sharing network capacity on demand among different underloaded and overloaded P2P ROME-enabled networks. The paper aims to target networks of nodes with highly dynamic workload fluctuations that may experience a burst of traffic and/or

  17. Enabling Co-located Learning over Mobile Ad Hoc P2P with LightPeers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Guldbjerg; Kristensen, Mads Darø; Hansen, Frank Allan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents LightPeers – a new mobile P2P framework specifically tailored for use in a nomadic learning environment. A set of key requirements for the framework is identified based on nomadic learning, and these requirements are used as outset for designing and implementing the architectu...

  18. Electronic Structure and Optical Properties Of EuIn2P2

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Rhee, J. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The electronic structures and, optical and magneto‐optical properties of a newly found Zintl compound EuIn2P2 have been investigated within the density‐functional theory using the highly precise full‐potential linear‐augmented‐plane‐wave method

  19. Characterization of PGL(2, p) by its order and one conjugacy class ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    validity of a conjecture of J. G. Thompson is generalized to the group PGL(2, p) by a new way. Keywords. Finite group; conjugacy class size; Thompson's ..... class size, J. Inequalities Appl. (2012) 310. [13] Conway J H, Curtis R T, Norton S P, Parker R A and Wilson R A, Atlas of Finite Groups. (1985) (Oxford: Clarendon ...

  20. Giant Cu 2p Resonances in CuO Valence-Band Photoemission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeng, L.H.; Chen, C.T.; Ghijsen, J.; Rudolf, P.; Sette, F.

    1991-01-01

    We report the observation of a giant resonance in the Cu 2p resonant-photoemission spectra of CuO. The study allows the unambiguous identification of the local Cu 3d8 configuration in the valence-band photoemission spectrum, providing conclusive evidence for the charge-transfer nature of the

  1. Scaling laws for file dissemination in P2P networks with random contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunez-Queija, R.; Prabhu, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we obtain the scaling law for the mean broadcast time of a file in a P2P network with an initial population of N nodes. In the model, at Poisson rate λ a node initiates a contact with another node chosen uniformly at random. This contact is said to be successful if the contacted node

  2. Scaling laws for file dissemination in P2P networks with random contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Núñez-Queija, R.; Prabhu, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we obtain the scaling law for the mean broadcast time of a file in a P2P network with an initial population of N nodes. In the model, at Poisson rate lambda a node initiates a contact with another node chosen uniformly at random. This contact is said to be successful if the contacted

  3. Analysis of the probability of channel satisfactory state in P2P live ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a model based on user behaviour of P2P live streaming systems was developed in order to analyse one of the key QoS parameter of such systems, i.e. the probability of channel-satisfactory state, the impact of upload bandwidths and channels' popularity on the probability of channel-satisfactory state was also ...

  4. Refinement of the critical 2p25.3 deletion region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rocker, Nina; Vergult, Sarah; Koolen, David

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 2p25.3 are associated with intellectual disability and/or central obesity. Although MYT1L is believed to be a critical gene responsible for intellectual disability, so far no unequivocal data have confirmed this hypothesis. METHODS: In this study...

  5. 76 FR 65558 - Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ...-800-325-0778, or visit our Internet site, Social Security Online, at http://www.socialsecurity.gov... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA 2007-0092] Rescission of Social Security Ruling 97-2p AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of rescission of Social Security Ruling...

  6. Calculations of H+ + Cs→H(2s or 2p) + Cs+ reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valance, A.; Spiess, G.

    1975-01-01

    The H(2s) and H(2p) atom production cross-sections are calculated and compared with experimental results in the incident proton energy range 250-2400eV. The calculation method used involves a perturbation of the stationary molecular states, these adiabatic potentials being obtained from a pseudo-potential describing the core of cesium [fr

  7. Hal2p functions in Bdf1p-involved salt stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    Full Text Available The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bdf1p associates with the basal transcription complexes TFIID and acts as a transcriptional regulator. Lack of Bdf1p is salt sensitive and displays abnormal mitochondrial function. The nucleotidase Hal2p detoxifies the toxic compound 3' -phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (pAp, which blocks the biosynthesis of methionine. Hal2p is also a target of high concentration of Na(+. Here, we reported that HAL2 overexpression recovered the salt stress sensitivity of bdf1Δ. Further evidence demonstrated that HAL2 expression was regulated indirectly by Bdf1p. The salt stress response mechanisms mediated by Bdf1p and Hal2p were different. Unlike hal2Δ, high Na(+ or Li(+ stress did not cause pAp accumulation in bdf1Δ and methionine supplementation did not recover its salt sensitivity. HAL2 overexpression in bdf1Δ reduced ROS level and improved mitochondrial function, but not respiration. Further analyses suggested that autophagy was apparently defective in bdf1Δ, and autophagy stimulated by Hal2p may play an important role in recovering mitochondrial functions and Na(+ sensitivity of bdf1Δ. Our findings shed new light towards our understanding about the molecular mechanism of Bdf1p-involved salt stress response in budding yeast.

  8. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  9. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  10. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  11. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  12. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  13. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  14. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  15. Fundamental partial compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  16. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  17. Photoionization from the 6p 2P3/2 state of neutral cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, S. U.; Nadeem, Ali

    2010-01-01

    We report the photoionization studies of cesium from the 6p 2 P 3/2 excited state to measure the photoionization cross section at and above the first ionization threshold, oscillator strength of the highly excited transitions, and extension in the Rydberg series. The photoionization cross section at the first ionization threshold is measured as 25 (4) Mb and at excess energies 0.02, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.09 eV as 21, 19, 17, and 16 Mb, respectively. Oscillator strength of the 6p 2 P 3/2 → nd 2 D 5/2 (23 ≤ n ≤ 60) Rydberg transitions has been extracted utilizing the threshold value of photoionization cross section and the recorded nd 2 D 5/2 photoionization spectra.

  18. The cross section of 3He(3He,2p)4He measured at solar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, M.; Arpesella, C.; Bellotti, E.; Broggini, C.; Corvisiero, P.; D'Alessandro, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Fubini, A.; Gervino, G.; Greife, U.; Gustavino, C.; Lambert, J.; Prati, P.; Rodney, W.S.; Rolfs, C.; Trautvetter, H.P.; Zavatarelli, S.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the status of the 3 He( 3 He,2p) 4 He experiment at the underground accelerator facility LUNA (Gran Sasso). The lowest projectile energies for the measured cross section correspond already to energies below the center of the solar Gamow peak (E 0 =22 keV). The data provide no evidence for the existence of a hypothetical resonance in the energy range investigated. Although no extrapolation is needed anymore (except for energies at the low-energy tail of the Gamow peak), the data must be corrected for the effects of electron screening, clearly observed the first time for the 3 He( 3 He,2p) 4 He reaction. The effects are however larger than expected and not understood, leading presently to the largest uncertainty on the quoted S(0) value for bare nuclides (= 5.40 MeVb)

  19. Using of P2P Networks for Acceleration of RTE Tasks Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Iftene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the computational Grids have become an important research area in large-scale scientific and engineering research. Our approach is based on Peer-to-peer (P2P networks, which are recognized as one of most used architectures in order to achieve scalability in key components of Grid systems. The main scope in using of a computational Grid was to improve the computational speed of systems that solve complex problems from Natural Language processing field. We will see how can be implemented a computational Grid using the P2P model, and how can be used SMB protocol for file transfer. After that we will see how we can use this computational Grid, in order to improve the computational speed of a system used in RTE competition [1], a new complex challenge from Natural Language processing field.

  20. Analysis of a microscopic model of taking into account 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.; Tkachev, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    The Green's-function method has been used to obtain a general equation for the effective field in a nucleus, taking into account both 1p1h and 2p2h configurations. This equation has been used as the starting point for derivation of a previously developed microscopic model of taking 1p1h+phonon configurations into account in magic nuclei. The equation for the density matrix is analyzed in this model. It is shown that the number of quasiparticles is conserved. An equation is obtained for the effective field in the coordinate representation, which provides a formulation of the problem in the 1p1h+2p2h+continuum approximation. The equation is derived and quantitatively analyzed in the space of one-phonon states

  1. End-to-End Key Exchange through Disjoint Paths in P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Ahmat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their inherent features, P2P networks have proven to be effective in the exchange of data between autonomous peers. Unfortunately, these networks are subject to various security threats that cannot be addressed readily since traditional security infrastructures, which are centralized, cannot be applied to them. Furthermore, communication reliability across the Internet is threatened by various attacks, including usurpation of identity, eavesdropping or traffic modification. Thus, in order to overcome these security issues and allow peers to securely exchange data, we propose a new key management scheme over P2P networks. Our approach introduces a new method that enables a secret key exchange through disjoint paths in the absence of a trusted central coordination point which would be required in traditional centralized security systems.

  2. Structure of β-TlMo2P3O13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costentin, G.; Borel, M.M.; Grandin, A.; Leclaire, A.; Raveau, B.

    1991-01-01

    Thallium molybdenum triphosphate, TlMo 2 P 3 O 13 , M r =679.16, monoclinic, P2 1 /c, a=9.7536 (3), b=19.0640 (16), c=6.3945 (7) A, β=107.099 (7) 0 , V=1136 (2) A 3 , Z=4, D m not measured, D x =4.08 Mg m -3 , λ(MoKα)=0.71073 A, μ=16.90 mm -1 , F(000)=314, T=293 K, 951 reflections, R=0.047, ωR=0.047. The lattice is built up from MoO 6 , PO 4 and P 2 O 7 groups delimiting tunnels where the Tl + ions are located. The title compound is isotyopic with β-KMo 2 P 3 O 13 . (orig.)

  3. Erv2p: characterization of the redox behavior of a yeast sulfhydryl oxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wenzhong; Winther, Jakob R; Thorpe, Colin

    2007-01-01

    centers that facilitate the transfer of reducing equivalents from the dithiol substrates of these oxidases to the isoalloxazine ring where the reaction with molecular oxygen occurs. The present study examines yeast Erv2p and compares the redox behavior of this ER luminal protein with the augmenter...... and with unfolded proteins. Rapid reaction studies confirm that reduction of the flavin center of Erv2p is rate-limiting during turnover with molecular oxygen. This comparison of the redox properties between members of the ERV/ALR family of sulfhydryl oxidases provides insights into their likely roles in oxidative......The FAD prosthetic group of the ERV/ALR family of sulfhydryl oxidases is housed at the mouth of a 4-helix bundle and communicates with a pair of juxtaposed cysteine residues that form the proximal redox active disulfide. Most of these enzymes have one or more additional distal disulfide redox...

  4. IP2P K-means: an efficient method for data clustering on sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Mirhadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many wireless sensor network applications require data gathering as the most important parts of their operations. There are increasing demands for innovative methods to improve energy efficiency and to prolong the network lifetime. Clustering is considered as an efficient topology control methods in wireless sensor networks, which can increase network scalability and lifetime. This paper presents a method, IP2P K-means – Improved P2P K-means, which uses efficient leveling in clustering approach, reduces false labeling and restricts the necessary communication among various sensors, which obviously saves more energy. The proposed method is examined in Network Simulator Ver.2 (NS2 and the preliminary results show that the algorithm works effectively and relatively more precisely.

  5. Synthesis and molecular structures of 1-hydroxyethyl-2-(p-substituted) phenoxymethyl benzimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.W.; Zhao, L.; Wang, Z.; Gu, H.; Chen, W.; Zhao, C.

    2016-01-01

    Five novel 1-hydroxyethyl-2-(p-substituted) phenoxymethyl benzimidazoles were synthesized by a three-step route. Under microwave irradiation, the p-substituted phenols were firstly O-carboxymethylated to prepare the corresponding p-substituted phenoxymethyl acids, which then reacted with o-phenylendiamine to get the key intermediates 2-(p-substituted) phenoxymethyl benzimidazole. Finally, the solid-liquid phase transfer catalysis method, where tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) was used as the catalyst, was applied to synthesize the target compounds c/sub 1/-c/sub 5/ by the N-hydroxyethylation reaction with 2-chloroethyl alcohol. The structures of the obtained compounds were well characterized and confirmed by elemental analysis, MS, IR, /sup 1/H NMR, /sup 13/C NMR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. (author)

  6. n-p Short-Range Correlations from (p,2p+n) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Gushue, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Leksanov, A.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Zhalov, D.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the 12C(p,2p+n) reaction at beam momenta of 5.9, 8.0, and 9.0 GeV/c. For quasielastic (p,2p) events pf, the momentum of the knocked-out proton before the reaction, was compared (event by event) with pn, the coincident neutron momentum. For |pn|>kF=0.220 GeV/c (the Fermi momentum) a strong back-to-back directional correlation between pf and pn was observed, indicative of short-range n-p correlations. From pn and pf we constructed the distributions of c.m. and relative motion in the longitudinal direction for correlated pairs. We also determined that 49±13% of events with |pf|>kF had directionally correlated neutrons with |pn|>kF.

  7. National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics - IN2P3. 2001-2003 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, Michel; Armand, Dominique

    2005-12-01

    The CNRS National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3) acts as national leader and coordinator in the fields of nuclear, particle and astro-particle physics, technological advances and their related applications, especially in the health and energy sectors. This research aims to explore particle and nuclear physics, fundamental interactions, and the links between the infinitely small and the infinitely large. Scientific fields include: Particle physics and hadronic physics, Nuclear physics, Astro-particles and cosmology, Neutrinos, Instrumentation, Computing and data, Research and development of accelerators, Back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy, Medical applications. This document is IN2P3's activity report for the 2001-2003 period. It presents the strategic priorities of the Institute, the highlights and projects of the period

  8. Exploring the Feasibility of Reputation Models for Improving P2P Routing under Churn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sànchez-Artigas, Marc; García-López, Pedro; Herrera, Blas

    Reputation mechanisms help peer-to-peer (P2P) networks to detect and avoid unreliable or uncooperative peers. Recently, it has been discussed that routing protocols can be improved by conditioning routing decisions to the past behavior of forwarding peers. However, churn — the continuous process of node arrival and departure — may severely hinder the applicability of rating mechanisms. In particular, short lifetimes mean that reputations are often generated from a small number of transactions.

  9. JXTA: A Technology Facilitating Mobile P2P Health Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Rajasekaran; Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula Sriman Naraya

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Mobile JXTA (Juxtapose) gaining momentum and has attracted the interest of doctors and patients through P2P service that transmits messages. Audio and video can also be transmitted through JXTA. The use of mobile streaming mechanism with the support of mobile hospital management and healthcare system would enable better interaction between doctors, nurses, and the hospital. Experimental results demonstrate good performance in comparison with conventional systems. This study evaluat...

  10. Atomic resolution crystal structure of Sapp2p, a secreted aspartic protease from Candida parapsilosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jiří; Pecina, Adam; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Marečková, L.; Pichová, Iva; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Lepšík, Martin; Brynda, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 12 (2015), s. 2494-2504 ISSN 1399-0047 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23022S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : aspartic protease * Candida parapsilosis * Sapp2p * crystal structure * ultrahigh resolution * interaction energy * quantum mechanics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2014

  11. Emergence of Financial Intermediaries in Electronic Markets: The Case of Online P2P Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Sven C. Berger; Fabian Gleisner

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the role of intermediaries in electronic markets using detailed data of more than 14,000 originated loans on an electronic P2P (peer-to-peer) lending platform. In such an electronic credit market, lenders bid to supply a private loan. Screening of potential borrowers and the monitoring of loan repayment can be delegated to designated group leaders. We find that these market participants act as financial intermediaries and significantly improve borrowers' credit conditions by reduci...

  12. MDM2, p53 and pRb Expression Prior to Definitive Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Mee Sun; Nam, Taek Keun; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Cho, Sang Hee; Song, Ju Young; Ahn, Sung Ja; Chung, Ik Joo; Chung, Woong Ki; Nah, Byung Sik

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the pretreatment expression patterns of MDM2, p53, and pRb proteins to determine if the expression patterns could predict the outcome of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and aid in the decisions for the selection of treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients that were treated with definitive hemoradiotherapy for stage I∼ IVa esohageal squamous cell carcinoma were selected for this study. Radiotherapy was administered with daily 1.8∼2 Gy fractions up to a median dose of 54 Gy for primary tumors, and with four cycles of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil chemotherapy that was administered every 4 weeks, the first two cycles of which were administered concurrently with radiotherapy. Expression of MDM2, p53, and pRb was investigated by immunohistochemical analysis using pretreatment biopsy specimens. Results: MDM2, p53, and pRb were detected with high immunoreactivity in 19.6%, 27.5%, and 66.7% of the patients, respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between expression of these factors and clinical outcome. By the use of multivariate analysis with nine covariates-age, tumor location, tumor length, stage, pathological response, clinical response, MDM2 expression, p53 expression, and pRb expression, only pathological response and stage were significant factors for cause-specific survival. Conclusion: Expression of MDM2, p53, and pRb was not found to be clinically significant for predicting outcomes after CCRT in this study. Further studies with a larger patient population and longer follow-up periods are needed to re-evaluate the expression pattern and to identify new predictors for CCRT response

  13. Personalized Trust Management for Open and Flat P2P Communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Min; LI Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    A personalized trust management scheme is proposed to help peers build up trust between each other in open and flat P2P communities. This scheme totally abandons the attempt to achieve a global view. It evaluates trust from a subjective point of view and gives personalized decision support to each peer. Simulation experiments prove its three advantages: free of central control, stronger immunity to misleading recommendations, and limited traffic overload.

  14. Packaging of single DNA molecules by the yeast mitochondrial protein Abf2p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Laurence R; Friddle, Raymond; Noy, Aleksandr; Baldwin, Enoch; Martin, Shelley S; Corzett, Michele; Balhorn, Rod; Baskin, Ronald J

    2003-10-01

    Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA are packaged by proteins in a very different manner. Although protein-DNA complexes called "nucleoids" have been identified as the genetic units of mitochondrial inheritance in yeast and man, little is known about their physical structure. The yeast mitochondrial protein Abf2p was shown to be sufficient to compact linear dsDNA, without the benefit of supercoiling, using optical and atomic force microscopy single molecule techniques. The packaging of DNA by Abf2p was observed to be very weak as evidenced by a fast Abf2p off-rate (k(off) = 0.014 +/- 0.001 s(-1)) and the extremely small forces (<0.6 pN) stabilizing the condensed protein-DNA complex. Atomic force microscopy images of individual complexes showed the 190-nm structures are loosely packaged relative to nuclear chromatin. This organization may leave mtDNA accessible for transcription and replication, while making it more vulnerable to damage.

  15. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangxiang; Liu, Li; Leung, Stephen; Du, Jiangze; Wang, Xun; Li, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model) is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  16. A decision support model for investment on P2P lending platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxiang Zeng

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P lending, as a novel economic lending model, has triggered new challenges on making effective investment decisions. In a P2P lending platform, one lender can invest N loans and a loan may be accepted by M investors, thus forming a bipartite graph. Basing on the bipartite graph model, we built an iteration computation model to evaluate the unknown loans. To validate the proposed model, we perform extensive experiments on real-world data from the largest American P2P lending marketplace-Prosper. By comparing our experimental results with those obtained by Bayes and Logistic Regression, we show that our computation model can help borrowers select good loans and help lenders make good investment decisions. Experimental results also show that the Logistic classification model is a good complement to our iterative computation model, which motivates us to integrate the two classification models. The experimental results of the hybrid classification model demonstrate that the logistic classification model and our iteration computation model are complementary to each other. We conclude that the hybrid model (i.e., the integration of iterative computation model and Logistic classification model is more efficient and stable than the individual model alone.

  17. Autoionization study of the Argon 2p satellites excited near the argon 2s threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Glans, P.; Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The dynamics of near-threshold photoionization is a complex phenomenon in which the many-electron character of the wavefunctions plays an important role. According to generalized time-independent resonant scattering theory, the transition matrix element from an initial state to a final state is the summation of the amplitudes of direct photoionization and an indirect term in which intermediate states are involved and the resonant behavior is embedded. Studies of the interference effects of intermediate states have been explored in the cases where the direct term is negligible. In the present work, electron time-of-flight spectra of the Ar 2p satellites were measured at two angles (magic and 0{degrees}) in the dipole plane with the exciting photon energy tuned in the vicinity of the Ar 2s threshold. For excitation far below or above the 2s threshold, the 2p satellites spectrum is dominated by 3p to np shakeup contributions upon the ionization of a 2p electron.

  18. KEAMANAN STEVIA HASIL BUDIDAYA B2P2TO2T DALAM ASPEK TERATOGENITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Widowati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Teratogenic test has been performed on sweet stevia as product of B2P2TO2T cultivation at  rats (Rattus novergicus pregnant female  Wistar. Stevia sweet was administered orally at a dose of 360, 120 and 40 mg/kg bw, volume 1 ml/100g bw per day during organogenesis period, on the day of pregnancy to the 6th until 15th. During the test, test animals were observed two times daily with the distance of six hours against the toxicity symptoms such as changes in skin, hair, eyes and mucous membranes, bleeding. Animals that experienced abortion, premature birth or death during the trial period were sacrificed and observed immediately with microscopic technic. At 20th day of pregnancy all of the pregnant rat dissected, and put out the fetuses  from the mother's and observated the health conditions in general and  the whole of mothers reproductive systems of fetuses, the outer fetal malformation and soft tissue system of fetal. The conclusion were  sweet stevia  of B2P2TO2T  no worse effect on the mother rats, fetal body weight and morphology of mother rats and the fetus, does not affect the process of development of fetal soft tissue, and does not affect the development of fetal skeleton. Generally the B2P2TO2T stevia sweet substances safe for used, does not cause teratogenic effects.

  19. Autoionization study of the Argon 2p satellites excited near the argon 2s threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Glans, P.; Hemmers, O.

    1997-01-01

    The dynamics of near-threshold photoionization is a complex phenomenon in which the many-electron character of the wavefunctions plays an important role. According to generalized time-independent resonant scattering theory, the transition matrix element from an initial state to a final state is the summation of the amplitudes of direct photoionization and an indirect term in which intermediate states are involved and the resonant behavior is embedded. Studies of the interference effects of intermediate states have been explored in the cases where the direct term is negligible. In the present work, electron time-of-flight spectra of the Ar 2p satellites were measured at two angles (magic and 0 degrees) in the dipole plane with the exciting photon energy tuned in the vicinity of the Ar 2s threshold. For excitation far below or above the 2s threshold, the 2p satellites spectrum is dominated by 3p to np shakeup contributions upon the ionization of a 2p electron

  20. Small atomic displacements in the molybdenophosphates AMo2P3O12 (A = K, Rb, Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclaire, A.; Raveau, B.

    1988-01-01

    KMo 2 P 3 O 12 , M r = 515.90, orthorhombic, Pbnm, a = 17.6398(14), b = 9.1761(4), c = 12.3000(8) A, V = 1990.9(4) A 3 , Z=8, D x = 3.44 Mg m -3 , λ(Mo Kα) = 0.71069 A, μ = 3.42 mm -1 , F(000) = 1952. T = 294 K, R = 0.028 for 2123 reflections. RbMo 2 P 3 O 12 , M r = 562.26, orthorhombic, Pbcm, a = 8.8314(8), b = 9.2368(7), c = 12.3051(9) A, V = 1003.8(4) A 3 , Z=4, D x = 3.72 Mg m -3 , λ(Mo Kα) = 0.71069 A, μ = 8.08 mm -1 , F(000) = 1048, T = 294 K, R = 0.044 for 2073 reflections. The Mo 2 P 3 O 12 frameworks of the K, Rb and Tl compounds are almost the same. The main difference is in the position of the alkaline-earth ions in the tunnels, which induces, in the potassium compound, a superstructure along a. The alkaline-earth ions are slightly displaced as their size decreases in order that the A-O distances may agree with the sum of the ionic radii. (orig.)

  1. Reevaluation of the O(+)(2P) reaction rate coefficients derived from Atmosphere Explorer C observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.; Richards, P. G.; Solomon, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    O(+)(2P) is an important species for studies of the ionosphere and thermosphere: its emission at 7320 A can be used as a diagnostic of the thermospheric atomic oxygen density. Unfortunately, there are no laboratory measurements of the O and N2 reaction rates which are needed to determine the major sinks of (O+)(2p). We have recalculated the O and N2 reaction rates for O(+) (2P) using recent improvements in the solar EUV flux, cross sections, and photoelectron fluxes. For the standard solar EUV flux, the new N2 reaction rate of 3.4 +/- 1.5 x 10 exp -10 cu cm/s is close to the value obtained by Rusch et al. (1977), but the new O reaction rate of 4.0 +/- 1.9 x 10 exp -10 cu cm/sec is about 8 times larger. These new reaction rates are derived using neutral densities, electron density, and solar EUV fluxes measured by Atmosphere Explorer C in 1974 during solar minimum. The new theoretical emission rates are in good agreement with the data for the two orbits studied by Rusch et al.

  2. Unusual Concentration Induced Antithermal Quenching of the Bi(2+) Emission from Sr2P2O7:Bi(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyi; Peng, Mingying; Viana, Bruno; Wang, Jing; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Zhang, Qinyuan; Qiu, Jianrong

    2015-06-15

    The resistance of a luminescent material to thermal quenching is essential for the application in high power LEDs. Usually, thermal luminescence quenching becomes more and more serious as the activator concentration increases. Conversely, we found here that a red phosphor Sr2P2O7:Bi(2+) is one of the exceptions to this as we studied the luminescence properties at low (10-300 K) and high (300-500 K) temperatures. As Bi(2+) ions are incorporated into Sr2P2O7, they exhibit the emissions at ∼660 and ∼698 nm at room temperature and are encoded, hereafter, as Bi(1) and Bi(2) due to the substitutions for two different crystallographic sites Sr(1) and Sr(2), respectively, in the compound. However, they will not substitute for these sites equally. At lower dopant concentration, they will occupy preferentially Sr(2) sites partially due to size match. As the concentration increases, more Bi(2+) ions start to occupy the Sr(1) sites. This can be verified by the distinct changes of emission intensity ratio of Bi(2) to Bi(1). As environment temperature increases, the thermal quenching happens, but it can be suppressed by the Bi(2+) concentration increase. This becomes even more pronounced in Bi(2+) heavily doped sample as we decompose the broad emission band into separated Bi(1) and Bi(2) Gaussian peaks. For the sample, the Bi(1) emission at ∼660 nm even shows antithermal-quenching particularly at higher temperatures. This phenomenon is accompanied by the blue shift of the overall emission band and almost no changes of lifetimes. A mechanism is proposed due to volume expansion of the unit cell, the increase of Bi(1) content, and temperature dependent energy transfer between Bi(2) and Bi(1). This work helps us better understand the complex luminescent behavior of Bi(2+) doped materials, and it will be helpful to design in the future the heavily doped phosphor for WLEDs with even better resistance to thermal quenching.

  3. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, David; Dorko, Allison; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding...

  4. Reevaluation of the O+(2P) reaction rate coefficients derived from atmosphere explorer C observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D.G.; Richards, P.G.; Solomon, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    O + ( 2 P) is an important species for studies of the ionosphere and thermosphere: its emission at 7320 angstrom can be used as a diagnostic of the thermospheric atomic oxygen density. Unfortunately, there are no laboratory measurements of the O and N 2 reaction rates which are needed to determine the major sinks of O + ( 2 P). The reaction rates that are generally used were determined from aeronomic data by Rusch et al. but there is evidence that several important inputs that they used should be changed. The authors have recalculated the O and N 2 reaction rates for O + ( 2 P) using recent improvements in the solar EUV flux, cross sections, and photoelectron fluxes. For the standard solar EUV flux, the new N 2 reaction rate of 3.4 ± 1.5 x 10 -10 cm 3 s -1 is close to the value obtained by Rusch et al., but the new O reaction rate of 4.0 ± 1.9 x 10 -10 cm 3 s -1 is about 8 times larger. These new reaction rates are derived using neutral densities, electron density, and solar EUV fluxes measured by Atmosphere Explorer C in 1974 during solar minimum. The new theoretical emission rates are in good agreement with the data for the two orbits studied by Rusch et al. and they are in reasonable agreement with data from five additional orbits that are used in this study. The authors have also examined the effect of uncertainties in the solar EUV flux on the derived reaction rates and found that 15% uncertainties in the solar flux could cause additional uncertainties of up to a factor of 1.5 in the O quenching rate. 19 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Alterations of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-activated K2P channels in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gorm; Wandall-Frostholm, Christine; Sadda, Veeranjaneyulu

    2013-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-activated two-pore domain potassium channels (K2P ) have been proposed to be expressed in the pulmonary vasculature. However, their physiological or pathophysiological roles are poorly defined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PUFA-activated K2P are involved...... in pulmonary vasorelaxation and that alterations of channel expression are pathophysiologically linked to pulmonary hypertension. Expression of PUFA-activated K2P in the murine lung was investigated by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), by patch...... clamp (PC) and myography. K2P -gene expression was examined in chronic hypoxic mice. qRT-PCR showed that the K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 were the predominantly expressed K2P in the murine lung. IHC revealed protein expression of K2P 2.1 and K2P 6.1 in the endothelium of pulmonary arteries and of K2P 6...

  6. PLASMA DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL OF 2p4f IN N{sup +}—ACCURATE WAVELENGTHS AND OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaozhi [School of Physics Science and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Jiguang; Wang, Jianguo [Data Center for High Energy Density Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Jönsson, Per, E-mail: Li_Jiguang@iapcm.ac.cn [Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö University, SE-20506 Malmö (Sweden)

    2015-03-10

    Radiative emission lines from nitrogen and its ions are often observed in nebula spectra, where the N{sup 2+} abundance can be inferred from lines of the 2p4f configuration. In addition, intensity ratios between lines of the 2p3p-2p3s and 2p4f-2p3d transition arrays can serve as temperature diagnostics. To aid abundance determinations and plasma diagnostics, wavelengths and oscillator strengths were calculated with high precision for electric dipole (E1) transitions from levels in the 2p4f configuration of N{sup +}. Electron correlation and relativistic effects, including the Breit interaction, were systematically taken into account within the framework of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. Except for the 2p4f-2p4d transitions with quite large wavelengths and the two-electron-one-photon 2p4f-2s2p {sup 3} transitions, the uncertainties of the present calculations were controlled to within 3% and 5% for wavelengths and oscillator strengths, respectively. We also compared our results with other theoretical and experimental values when available. Discrepancies were found between our calculations and previous calculations due to the neglect of relativistic effects in the latter.

  7. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  8. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    in partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  9. The 4p3(2P) ns, nd configurations of Se I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzoni, M.

    1989-01-01

    The photoabsorption spectrum of Se I has been photographed in the 1100-900 A wavelength region, using a flash-pyrolisys system: About twenty lines were observed, most of them for the first time. With the support of Hartree-Fock calculations they have been identified and assigned to the 4p 4 →4p 3 ns 3 P(n=7-14) and 4p 4 →4p 3 nd 3 D (n=5-17) series, both converging on the limit 4p 3 ( 2 P 3/2 ). (orig.)

  10. Manejo de Identidades en Sistemas P2P Basado en DHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Villanueva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta las redes P2P, donde se analizara la manera en la cual los nodos se relacionan entre sí y de que forma en la cual se distribuyen al entrar a la red.  Cada nodo al crear una red o unirse a una ya existente posee un identificador el cual da origen a la manera en la que se distribuyen los siguientes nodos que se unirán a la red, la falla radica en que uno de los nodos ya enlazados a la red existente pueden ser maliciosos y originar puntos de ataque a la red afectando la confidencialidad de la información distribuida entre los demás nodos de la red o modificar el enrutamiento de la información suministrada a través de la capa de aplicación, ya que estos nodos solo con el hecho de estar en la red son responsables de la comunicación que se realiza entre ciertos nodos localizados en el anillo. Se indicaran detalladamente los procesos de conexión, comunicación y estabilización de los nodos por medio de la simulación de las redes P2P en ovelay weaver, mostrando consigo las características y resultados de la simulación.   Abstract This paper contains information relating to what concerns the networks P2P, there was analyzed the way in which the nodes relate between yes and of which it forms the organization in which they are distributed on having entered to the network. Every node on having created a network or to join the already existing one possesses an identifier which gives origin to the way in which there are distributed the following nodes that will join the network, The fault takes root in that one of the nodes already connected to the existing network they can be malicious and in originating points of assault to the network affecting the confidentiality of the information distributed between other nodes of the network or to modify the routing of the information supplied across the cap of application, since these nodes only with the fact of being in the network are responsible for the communication that is

  11. PD2P: PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, T; Panitkin, S; De, K

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. PanDA is the ATLAS workload management system for processing all Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation and data reprocessing jobs in addition to user and group analysis jobs. The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. We will describe the design of the new system, its performance during the past year of data taking, dramatic improvements it has brought about in the efficient use of storage and processing resources, and plans for the future.

  12. PD2P : PanDA Dynamic Data Placement for ATLAS

    OpenAIRE

    Maeno, T; De, K; Panitkin, S

    2012-01-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. PanDA is the ATLAS workload management system for processing all Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation and data reprocessing jobs in addition to user and group analysis jobs. The PanDA Dynamic Data Placement (PD2P) system has been developed to cope with difficulties of data placement for ATLAS. We will describe the design of the new system, its performance during the past year of d...

  13. Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn2P2S6 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Vlokh, R; Grabar, A

    2009-01-01

    We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn 2 P 2 S 6 crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.

  14. Acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, O; Martynyuk-Lototska, I; Grabar, A; Vlokh, R

    2009-07-01

    We present the results concerned with acoustic and elastic properties of Sn(2)P(2)S(6) crystals. The complete matrices of elastic stiffness and compliance coefficients are determined in both the crystallographic coordinate system and the system associated with eigenvectors of the elastic stiffness tensor. The acoustic slowness surfaces are constructed and the propagation and polarization directions of the slowest acoustic waves promising for acousto-optic interactions are determined on this basis. The acoustic obliquity angle and the deviation of polarization of the acoustic waves from purely transverse or longitudinal states are quantitatively analysed.

  15. The Measurement and Modeling of a P2P Streaming Video Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yanming; Wu, Xingyao; El-Khatib, Yehia; Edwards, Christopher

    Most of the work on grid technology in video area has been generally restricted to aspects of resource scheduling and replica management. The traffic of such service has a lot of characteristics in common with that of the traditional video service. However the architecture and user behavior in Grid networks are quite different from those of traditional Internet. Considering the potential of grid networks and video sharing services, measuring and analyzing P2P IPTV traffic are important and fundamental works in the field grid networks.

  16. (p,2p) study of high-momentum components at 2.1 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treuhaft, R.N.

    1982-07-01

    A (p,2p) experiment designed to isolate interactions with small numbers of fast nuclear constituents is described. Special attention is paid to the experimental manifestation and description of a correlated pair of nucleons in the nucleus. Phase space calculations are presented for the proton-pair three-body final state and for final states with larger number of particles. The Two Armed Spectrometer System (TASS) is described in detail. The data suggest the possibility of isolating an interaction with one or two nucleons in the nucleus which may have momenta far in excess of those described in a Fermi gas model

  17. Emergence of Financial Intermediaries in Electronic Markets: The Case of Online P2P Lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven C. Berger

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the role of intermediaries in electronic markets using detailed data of more than 14,000 originated loans on an electronic P2P (peer-to-peer lending platform. In such an electronic credit market, lenders bid to supply a private loan. Screening of potential borrowers and the monitoring of loan repayment can be delegated to designated group leaders. We find that these market participants act as financial intermediaries and significantly improve borrowers' credit conditions by reducing information asymmetries, predominantly for borrowers with less attractive risk characteristics. Our findings may be surprising given the replacement of a bank by an electronic marketplace.

  18. WebVR——Web Virtual Reality Engine Based on P2P network

    OpenAIRE

    zhihan LV; Tengfei Yin; Yong Han; Yong Chen; Ge Chen

    2011-01-01

    WebVR, a multi-user online virtual reality engine, is introduced. The main contributions are mapping the geographical space and virtual space to the P2P overlay network space, and dividing the three spaces by quad-tree method. The geocoding is identified with Hash value, which is used to index the user list, terrain data, and the model object data. Sharing of data through improved Kademlia network model is designed and implemented. In this model, XOR algorithm is used to calculate the distanc...

  19. A P2P Service Discovery Strategy Based on Content Catalogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lican Huang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for distributed service discovery based on VIRGO P2P technologies. The services are classified as multi-layer, hierarchical catalogue domains according to their contents. The service providers, which have their own service registries such as UDDIs, register the services they provide and establish a virtual tree in a VIRGO network according to the domain of their service. The service location done by the proposed strategy is effective and guaranteed. This paper also discusses the primary implementation of service discovery based on Tomcat/Axis and jUDDI.

  20. RuO2 pH Sensor with Super-Glue-Inspired Reference Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Wade; Wajrak, Magdalena; Alameh, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    A pH-sensitive RuO2 electrode coated in a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive typically exhibits very low pH sensitivity, and could be paired with a RuO2 working electrode as a differential type pH sensor. However, such sensors display poor performance in real sample matrices. A pH sensor employing a RuO2 pH-sensitive working electrode and a SiO2-PVB junction-modified RuO2 reference electrode is developed as an alternative high-performance solution. This sensor exhibits a performance similar to...

  1. Nuclear transparency in 90 deg.c.m. quasielastic A(p,2p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Kosonovsky, I.; Malki, A.; Mardor, I.; Mardor, Y.; Navon, I.; Piasetzky, E.; Asryan, G.; Barton, D.S.; Buktoyarova, N.; Bunce, G.; Carroll, A.S.; Gushue, S.; Makdisi, Y.I.; Roser, T.; Tanaka, M.; Averiche, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Shimanskiy, S.

    2004-01-01

    We summarize the results of two experimental programs at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron of BNL to measure the nuclear transparency of nuclei measured in the A(p,2p) quasielastic scattering process near 90 deg. in the pp center of mass. The incident momenta varied from 5.9 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 2 2 . Taking into account the motion of the target proton in the nucleus, the effective incident momenta extended from 5.0 to 15.8 GeV/c. First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which had more complete kinematic definition of quasielastic events. E850 covered a larger range of incident momenta, and thus provided more information regarding the nature of the energy dependence of the nuclear transparency. In E850 the angular dependence of the nuclear transparency near 90 deg. and the nuclear transparency deuterons were studied. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the carbon data. E834 also determines the nuclear transparencies for lithium, aluminum, copper, and lead nuclei as well as for carbon. A determination of the (π + ,π + p) transparencies is also reported. We find for both E850 and E834 that the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency, unlike that for A(e,e ' p) nuclear transparency, is incompatible with a constant value versus energy as predicted by Glauber calculations. The A(p,2p) nuclear transparency for carbon and aluminum increases by a factor of two between 5.9 and 9.5 GeV/c incident proton momentum. At its peak the A(p,2p) nuclear transparency is ∼80% of the constant A(e,e ' p) nuclear transparency. Then the nuclear transparency falls back to a value at least as small as that at 5.9 GeV/c, and is compatible with the Glauber level again. This oscillating behavior is generally interpreted as an interplay between two components of the pN scattering amplitude; one short ranged and perturbative, and the other long ranged and strongly absorbed

  2. Towards Accurate Node-Based Detection of P2P Botnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyong Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botnets are a serious security threat to the current Internet infrastructure. In this paper, we propose a novel direction for P2P botnet detection called node-based detection. This approach focuses on the network characteristics of individual nodes. Based on our model, we examine node’s flows and extract the useful features over a given time period. We have tested our approach on real-life data sets and achieved detection rates of 99-100% and low false positives rates of 0–2%. Comparison with other similar approaches on the same data sets shows that our approach outperforms the existing approaches.

  3. (p,2p) study of high-momentum components at 2. 1 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treuhaft, R.N.

    1982-07-01

    A (p,2p) experiment designed to isolate interactions with small numbers of fast nuclear constituents is described. Special attention is paid to the experimental manifestation and description of a correlated pair of nucleons in the nucleus. Phase space calculations are presented for the proton-pair three-body final state and for final states with larger number of particles. The Two Armed Spectrometer System (TASS) is described in detail. The data suggest the possibility of isolating an interaction with one or two nucleons in the nucleus which may have momenta far in excess of those described in a Fermi gas model.

  4. Effective nucleon-nucleon t matrix in the (p,2p) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Y.; Kanayama, N.; Wakasugi, T.

    1989-01-01

    The cross sections and the analyzing powers for the /sup 40/Ca(p-arrow-right,2p) reactions at E/sub p/ = 76.1, 101.3, and 200 MeV are calculated in the distorted-wave impulse approximation using the Love-Franey effective nucleon-nucleon interaction. It is shown that the calculated individual contributions of the central, spin-orbit, and tensor parts in the Love-Franey interaction to the cross sections and the analyzing powers strongly depend on the incident proton energies. The spectroscopic factors extracted are consistent with the other reaction studies

  5. Anatomic partial nephrectomy: technique evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Raed A; Metcalfe, Charles; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-03-01

    Partial nephrectomy provides equivalent long-term oncologic and superior functional outcomes as radical nephrectomy for T1a renal masses. Herein, we review the various vascular clamping techniques employed during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy, describe the evolution of our partial nephrectomy technique and provide an update on contemporary thinking about the impact of ischemia on renal function. Recently, partial nephrectomy surgical technique has shifted away from main artery clamping and towards minimizing/eliminating global renal ischemia during partial nephrectomy. Supported by high-fidelity three-dimensional imaging, novel anatomic-based partial nephrectomy techniques have recently been developed, wherein partial nephrectomy can now be performed with segmental, minimal or zero global ischemia to the renal remnant. Sequential innovations have included early unclamping, segmental clamping, super-selective clamping and now culminating in anatomic zero-ischemia surgery. By eliminating 'under-the-gun' time pressure of ischemia for the surgeon, these techniques allow an unhurried, tightly contoured tumour excision with point-specific sutured haemostasis. Recent data indicate that zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy may provide better functional outcomes by minimizing/eliminating global ischemia and preserving greater vascularized kidney volume. Contemporary partial nephrectomy includes a spectrum of surgical techniques ranging from conventional-clamped to novel zero-ischemia approaches. Technique selection should be tailored to each individual case on the basis of tumour characteristics, surgical feasibility, surgeon experience, patient demographics and baseline renal function.

  6. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We study an alternative model of infinitary term rewriting. Instead of a metric on terms, a partial order on partial terms is employed to formalise convergence of reductions. We consider both a weak and a strong notion of convergence and show that the metric model of convergence coincides with th...... to the metric setting -- orthogonal systems are both infinitarily confluent and infinitarily normalising in the partial order setting. The unique infinitary normal forms that the partial order model admits are Böhm trees....

  7. Minimizing Redundant Messages and Improving Search Efficiency under Highly Dynamic Mobile P2P Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Arunachalam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resource Searching is one of the key functional tasks in large complex networks. With the P2P architecture, millions of peers connect together instantly building a communication pattern. Searching in mobile networks faces additional limitations and challenges. Flooding technique can cope up with the churn and searches aggressively by visiting almost all the nodes. But it exponentially increases the network traffic and thus does not scale well. Further the duplicated query messages consume extra battery power and network bandwidth. The blind flooding also suffers from long delay problem in P2P networks. In this paper, we propose optimal density based flooding resource discovery schemes. Our first model takes into account local graph topology information to supplement the resource discovery process while in our extended version we also consider the neighboring node topology information along with the local node information to further effectively use the mobile and network resources. Our proposed method reduces collision at the same time minimizes effect of redundant messages and failures. Overall the methods reduce network overhead, battery power consumption, query delay, routing load, MAC load and bandwidth usage while also achieving good success rate in comparison to the other techniques. We also perform a comprehensive analysis of the resource discovery schemes to verify the impact of varying node speed and different network conditions.

  8. Performance Evaluation of an Object Management Policy Approach for P2P Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Vieira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of network-based multimedia applications poses many challenges for content providers to supply efficient and scalable services. Peer-to-peer (P2P systems have been shown to be a promising approach to provide large-scale video services over the Internet since, by nature, these systems show high scalability and robustness. In this paper, we propose and analyze an object management policy approach for video web cache in a P2P context, taking advantage of object's metadata, for example, video popularity, and object's encoding techniques, for example, scalable video coding (SVC. We carry out trace-driven simulations so as to evaluate the performance of our approach and compare it against traditional object management policy approaches. In addition, we study as well the impact of churn on our approach and on other object management policies that implement different caching strategies. A YouTube video collection which records over 1.6 million video's log was used in our experimental studies. The experiment results have showed that our proposed approach can improve the performance of the cache substantially. Moreover, we have found that neither the simply enlargement of peers' storage capacity nor a zero replicating strategy is effective actions to improve performance of an object management policy.

  9. Cooperation enhanced by indirect reciprocity in spatial prisoner's dilemma games for social P2P systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin-Lin; Li, Ming-Chu; Wang, Zhen

    2016-11-01

    With the growing interest in social Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications, relationships of individuals are further exploited to improve the performances of reputation systems. It is an on-going challenge to investigate how spatial reciprocity aids indirect reciprocity in sustaining cooperation in practical P2P environments. This paper describes the construction of an extended prisoner's dilemma game on square lattice networks with three strategies, i.e., defection, unconditional cooperation, and reciprocal cooperation. Reciprocators discriminate partners according to their reputations based on image scoring, where mistakes in judgment of reputations may occur. The independent structures of interaction and learning neighborhood are discussed, with respect to the situation in which learning environments differ from interaction networks. The simulation results have indicated that the incentive mechanism enhances cooperation better in structured peers than among a well-mixed population. Given the realistic condition of inaccurate reputation scores, defection is still successfully held down when the players interact and learn within the unified neighborhoods. Extensive simulations have further confirmed the positive impact of spatial structure on cooperation with different sizes of lattice neighborhoods. And similar conclusions can also be drawn on regular random networks and scale-free networks. Moreover, for the separated structures of the neighborhoods, the interaction network has a critical effect on the evolution dynamics of cooperation and learning environments only have weaker impacts on the process. Our findings further provide some insights concerning the evolution of collective behaviors in social systems.

  10. [1,4-Bis(diphenylphosphanylbutane-κ2P,P′]dibromidopalladium(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Ha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PdBr2(C28H28P2], the PdII ion has a distorted cis-Br2P2 square-planar coordination geometry defined by two P atoms from the chelating 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphanylbutane ligand and two Br− anions. The four phenyl rings are inclined to the least-squares plane of the PdBr2P2 unit [maximum deviation = 0.1294 (7 Å], making dihedral angles of 66.3 (2, 87.2 (2, 68.8 (2 and 86.8 (2°. The butylene chain is in a gauche conformation, with a C—C—C—C torsion angle of 57.0 (8°. Intermolecular C—H...Br hydrogen bonds link the complex molecules into supramolecular layers in the ab plane. Weak π–π interactions, both intra- and intermolecular [shortest inter-centroid distance = 4.598 (5 Å], are also noted in the three-dimensional architecture.

  11. A multi-state reliability evaluation model for P2P networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hehong; Sun Xiaohan

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of new service types and the convergence tendency of the communication networks have endowed the networks more and more P2P (peer to peer) properties. These networks can be more robust and tolerant for a series of non-perfect operational states due to the non-deterministic server-client distributions. Thus a reliability model taking into account of the multi-state and non-deterministic server-client distribution properties is needed for appropriate evaluation of the networks. In this paper, two new performance measures are defined to quantify the overall and local states of the networks. A new time-evolving state-transition Monte Carlo (TEST-MC) simulation model is presented for the reliability analysis of P2P networks in multiple states. The results show that the model is not only valid for estimating the traditional binary-state network reliability parameters, but also adequate for acquiring the parameters in a series of non-perfect operational states, with good efficiencies, especially for highly reliable networks. Furthermore, the model is versatile for the reliability and maintainability analyses in that both the links and the nodes can be failure-prone with arbitrary life distributions, and various maintainability schemes can be applied.

  12. TASK-2: a K2P K+ channel with complex regulation and diverse physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pablo Cid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available TASK-2 (K2P5.1 is a two-pore domain K+ channel belonging to the TALK subgroup of the K2P family of proteins. TASK-2 has been shown to be activated by extra- and intracellular alkalinisation. Extra- and intracellular pH-sensors reside at arginine 224 and lysine 245 and might affect separate selectivity filter and inner gates respectively. TASK-2 is modulated by changes in cell volume and a regulation by direct G-protein interaction has also been proposed. Activation by extracellular alkalinisation has been associated with a role of TASK-2 in kidney proximal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption, whilst intracellular pH-sensitivity might be the mechanism for its participation in central chemosensitive neurons. In addition to these functions TASK-2 has been proposed to play a part in apoptotic volume decrease in kidney cells and in volume regulation of glial cells and T-lymphocytes. TASK-2 is present in chondrocytes of hyaline cartilage, where it is proposed to play a central role in stabilizing the membrane potential. Additional sites of expression are dorsal root ganglion neurons, endocrine and exocrine pancreas and intestinal smooth muscle cells. TASK-2 has been associated with the regulation of proliferation of breast cancer cells and could become target for breast cancer therapeutics. Further work in native tissues and cells together with genetic modification will no doubt reveal the details of TASK-2 functions that we are only starting to suspect.

  13. Mini-magnetospheric plasma propulsion (M2P2): High speed propulsion sailing the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, Robert; Slough, John; Ziemba, Tim; Goodson, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Mini-Magnetospheric Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) seeks the creation of a magnetic wall or bubble (i.e. a magnetosphere) that will intercept the supersonic solar wind which is moving at 300-800 km/s. In so doing, a force of about 1 N will be exerted on the spacecraft by the spacecraft while only requiring a few mN of force to sustain the mini-magnetosphere. Equivalently, the incident solar wind power is about 1 MW while about 1 kW electrical power is required to sustain the system, with about 0.25-0.5 kg being expended per day. This nominal configuration utilizing only solar electric cells for power, the M2P2 will produce a magnetic barrier approximately 15-20 km in radius, which would accelerate a 70-140 kg payload to speeds of about 50-80 km/s. At this speed, missions to the heliopause and beyond can be achieved in under 10 yrs. Design characteristics for a prototype are also described

  14. A Measurement Study of the Structured Overlay Network in P2P File-Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The architecture of P2P file-sharing applications has been developing to meet the needs of large scale demands. The structured overlay network, also known as DHT, has been used in these applications to improve the scalability, and robustness of the system, and to make it free from single-point failure. We believe that the measurement study of the overlay network used in the real file-sharing P2P systems can provide guidance for the designing of such systems, and improve the performance of the system. In this paper, we perform the measurement in two different aspects. First, a modified client is designed to provide view to the overlay network from a single-user vision. Second, the instances of crawler programs deployed in many nodes managed to crawl the user information of the overlay network as much as possible. We also find a vulnerability in the overlay network, combined with the character of the DNS service, a more serious DDoS attack can be launched.

  15. Cdr2p contributes to fluconazole resistance in Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The development of resistance to azole antifungals used in the treatment of fungal infections can be a serious medical problem. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in clinical isolates of Candida dubliniensis , showing evidence of the trailing growth phenomenon. The changes in membrane sterol composition were studied in the presence of subinhibitory fluconazole concentrations. Despite lanosterol and eburicol accumulating as the most prevalent sterols after fluconazole treatment, these ergosterol precursors still support growth of Candida isolates. The overexpression of ABC transporters was demonstrated by immunoblotting employing specific antibodies against Cdr1p and Cdr2p. The presence of a full-length 170 kDa protein Cdr1p was detected in two isolates, while a truncated form of Cdr1p with the molecular mass of 85 kDa was observed in isolate 966\\/3(2). Notably, Cdr2p was detected in this isolate, and the expression of this transporter was modulated by subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis can display the trailing growth phenomenon, and such isolates express similar molecular mechanisms like that of fluconazole-resistant isolates and can therefore be associated with recurrent infections.

  16. NMR studies of the helical antiferromagnetic compound EuCo2P2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, N.; Ding, Q.-P.; Kubota, F.; Uehara, H.; Yogi, M.; Furukawa, Y.; Sangeetha, N. S.; Johnston, D. C.; Nakamura, A.; Hedo, M.; Nakama, T.; Ōnuki, Y.

    2018-05-01

    In EuCo2P2, 4f electron spins of Eu2+ ions order antiferromagnetically below a Néel temperature TN = 66.5 K . The magnetic structure below TN was reported to be helical with the helix axis along the c-axis from the neutron diffraction study. We report the results of 153Eu, 59Co and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on EuCo2P2 using a single crystal and a powdered sample. In the antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, we succeeded in observing 153Eu, 59Co and 31P NMR spectra in zero magnetic field. The sharp 153Eu zero field NMR (ZF NMR) lines indicate homogeneous Eu ordered moment. The 59Co and 31P ZF NMR spectra showed an asymmetric spectral shape, indicating a distribution of the internal magnetic induction at each nuclear position. The AFM propagation vector k characterizing the helical AFM state can be determined from the internal magnetic induction at Co site. We have determined the model-independent value of the AFM propagation vector k distributed from (0, 0, 0.86)2π/c to (0, 0, 0.73)2π/c, where c is the lattice parameter.

  17. A P2P Botnet detection scheme based on decision tree and adaptive multilayer neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alauthaman, Mohammad; Aslam, Nauman; Zhang, Li; Alasem, Rafe; Hossain, M A

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, Botnets have been adopted as a popular method to carry and spread many malicious codes on the Internet. These malicious codes pave the way to execute many fraudulent activities including spam mail, distributed denial-of-service attacks and click fraud. While many Botnets are set up using centralized communication architecture, the peer-to-peer (P2P) Botnets can adopt a decentralized architecture using an overlay network for exchanging command and control data making their detection even more difficult. This work presents a method of P2P Bot detection based on an adaptive multilayer feed-forward neural network in cooperation with decision trees. A classification and regression tree is applied as a feature selection technique to select relevant features. With these features, a multilayer feed-forward neural network training model is created using a resilient back-propagation learning algorithm. A comparison of feature set selection based on the decision tree, principal component analysis and the ReliefF algorithm indicated that the neural network model with features selection based on decision tree has a better identification accuracy along with lower rates of false positives. The usefulness of the proposed approach is demonstrated by conducting experiments on real network traffic datasets. In these experiments, an average detection rate of 99.08 % with false positive rate of 0.75 % was observed.

  18. Quenching of I(2P1/2) by O3 and O(3P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azyazov, Valeriy N; Antonov, Ivan O; Heaven, Michael C

    2007-04-26

    Oxygen-iodine lasers that utilize electrical or microwave discharges to produce singlet oxygen are currently being developed. The discharge generators differ from conventional chemical singlet oxygen generators in that they produce significant amounts of atomic oxygen. Post-discharge chemistry includes channels that lead to the formation of ozone. Consequently, removal of I(2P1/2) by O atoms and O3 may impact the efficiency of discharge driven iodine lasers. In the present study, we have measured the rate constants for quenching of I(2P1/2) by O(3P) atoms and O3 using pulsed laser photolysis techniques. The rate constant for quenching by O3, (1.8 +/- 0.4) x 10(-12) cm3 s-1, was found to be a factor of 5 smaller than the literature value. The rate constant for quenching by O(3P) was (1.2 +/- 0.2) x 10(-11) cm3 s-1.

  19. Crystal structure of molybdenyl tetrapolyphosphate (MoO)2P4O13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minacheva, L.Kh.; Antsishkina, A.S.; Lavrov, A.V.; Sakharova, V.G.; Nikolaev, V.P.; Poraj-Koshits, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of crystals of molybdenyl tetrapolyphosphate [MoO] 2 P 4 O 13 has been determined. The substance is crystallized in the monoclinic syngony with the following parameters of the elementary cell: a=8.288 (2); b=10.690 (3); c=19.529 (5) A; γ=106.7 (3) deg. The structural units are molybdenyl groups MoO(3 + ) and polyphosphate anions P 4 O 13 (6 - ) that are composed of four PO 4 tetrahedrons whose apexes are connected in series. Three atoms of phasphate anion form the ''internal'' P-O-P bridges, while the remaining oxygen atoms, the ''external'' P-O-Mo bridges. The optimum temperature of crystals synthesis is 450 - 460 deg C. A mixture of phase of MoO 2 P 4 O 13 and Mo(PO 3 ) 3 is obtained as temperature is raised up to 600 deg C. Consequently, the stepwise dissociation of molybdenyl ions with the splitting off of oxygen and gradual reduction in the degree of molybdenum oxidation (MoO 2 ) 2+ → (MoO) 3+ → Mo 3+ occurs in the solution

  20. Incentive Mechanism for P2P Content Sharing over Heterogenous Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kenichiro; Hashimoto, Ryo; Yoshino, Makoto; Shinkuma, Ryoichi; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In peer-to-peer (P2P) content sharing, users can share their content by contributing their own resources to one another. However, since there is no incentive for contributing contents or resources to others, users may attempt to obtain content without any contribution. To motivate users to contribute their resources to the service, incentive-rewarding mechanisms have been proposed. On the other hand, emerging wireless technologies, such as IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks, beyond third generation (B3G) cellular networks and mobile WiMAX, provide high-speed Internet access for wireless users. Using these high-speed wireless access, wireless users can use P2P services and share their content with other wireless users and with fixed users. However, this diversification of access networks makes it difficult to appropriately assign rewards to each user according to their contributions. This is because the cost necessary for contribution is different in different access networks. In this paper, we propose a novel incentive-rewarding mechanism called EMOTIVER that can assign rewards to users appropriately. The proposed mechanism uses an external evaluator and interactive learning agents. We also investigate a way of appropriately controlling rewards based on the system service's quality and managing policy.

  1. Determinants of default in p2p lending: the Mexican case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Canfield

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available P2P lending is a new method of informal finance that uses the internet to directly connect borrowers with on-line communities. With a unique dataset provided by Prestadero, the largest on-line lending platform with national presence in Mexico, this research explores the effect of credit scores and other variables related to loan and borrower´s traits, in determining default behavior in P2P lending. Moreover, using a logistic regression model, it tested whether investors might benefit from screening loan applicants by gender after controlling for loan quality. The results showed that information provided by the platform is relevant for analyzing credit risk, yet not conclusive. In congruence with the literature, on a scale going from the safest to the riskiest, loan quality is positively associated with default behavior. Other determinants for increasing the odds of default are the payment-to-income ratio and refinancing on the same platform. On the contrary loan purpose and being a female applicant reduce such odds. No categorical evidence for differential default behavior was found for gender´s case-discrimination, under equal credit conditions. However it was found that controlling for loan quality, women have longer loan survival times than men. This is one of the first studies about debt crowdfunding in Latin America and Mexico. Implications for lenders, researchers and policy-makers are also discussed.

  2. A P2P Framework for Developing Bioinformatics Applications in Dynamic Cloud Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Richard Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is advanced from in-house computing infrastructure to cloud computing for tackling the vast quantity of biological data. This advance enables large number of collaborative researches to share their works around the world. In view of that, retrieving biological data over the internet becomes more and more difficult because of the explosive growth and frequent changes. Various efforts have been made to address the problems of data discovery and delivery in the cloud framework, but most of them suffer the hindrance by a MapReduce master server to track all available data. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach, called PRKad, which exploits a Peer-to-Peer (P2P model to achieve efficient data discovery and delivery. PRKad is a Kademlia-based implementation with Round-Trip-Time (RTT as the associated key, and it locates data according to Distributed Hash Table (DHT and XOR metric. The simulation results exhibit that our PRKad has the low link latency to retrieve data. As an interdisciplinary application of P2P computing for bioinformatics, PRKad also provides good scalability for servicing a greater number of users in dynamic cloud environments.

  3. IN2P3 in 2012: A year for harvesting and looking ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Jacques Martino, Director of the French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3)

    2012-01-01

    The coming year is expected to be a rich and exciting one, and researchers in the 24 laboratories and platform facilities of the French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3) are at the heart of this dynamic new science.   SPIRAL 2 magnets under test. Copyright: CEA/Ph.Stroppa. Regardless of the surprises Nature may hold in store for us, one thing is sure:  the coming months will be decisive for our research. CERN’s research impinges on all the Institute’s main areas of research. At the LHC, researchers from ten IN2P3 laboratories (and from its computing centre) are involved in the four major experiments:  ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE. In 2012, no fewer than 248 researchers will be continuing their eager pursuit of the Higgs boson, and keeping a lookout for new physics. Neutrinos could also reveal some of their mysteries, thanks to ongoing research at the Opera experiment in Gran Sasso, Italy, and other experiments including Double Chooz...

  4. IN2P3 in 2012: A year for harvesting and looking ahead

    CERN Multimedia

    Jacques Martino, Director of the French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3)

    2011-01-01

    The coming year is expected to be a rich and exciting one, and researchers in the 24 laboratories and platform facilities of the French National Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics (IN2P3) are at the heart of this dynamic new science.   SPIRAL 2 magnets under test. Copyright: CEA/Ph.Stroppa. Regardless of the surprises Nature may hold in store for us, one thing is sure:  the coming months will be decisive for our research. CERN’s research impinges on all the Institute’s main areas of research. At the LHC, researchers from ten IN2P3 laboratories (and from its computing centre) are involved in the four major experiments:  ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE. In 2012, no fewer than 248 researchers will be continuing their eager pursuit of the Higgs boson, and keeping a lookout for new physics. Neutrinos could also reveal some of their mysteries, thanks to ongoing research at the Opera experiment in Gran Sasso, Italy, and other experiments including Double Chooz...

  5. Two-proton radioactivity with 2p halo in light mass nuclei A=18–34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Saxena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-proton radioactivity with 2p halo is reported theoretically in light mass nuclei A=18–34. We predict 19Mg, 22Si, 26S, 30Ar and 34Ca as promising candidates of ground state 2p-radioactivity with S2p0. Observation of extended tail of spatial charge density distribution, larger charge radius and study of proton single particle states, Fermi energy and the wave functions indicate 2p halo like structure which supports direct 2p emission. The Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in experimentally identified 2p unbound 22Si show a quasi-bound state that ensures enough life time for such experimental probes. Our predictions are in good accord with experimental and other theoretical data available so far. Keywords: Relativistic mean-field theory, Nilson Strutinsky approach, Two-proton radioactivity, One- and two-proton separation energy, Halo nuclei, Proton drip-lines

  6. ATLAAS-P2P: a two layer network solution for easing the resource discovery process in unstructured networks

    OpenAIRE

    Baraglia, Ranieri; Dazzi, Patrizio; Mordacchini, Matteo; Ricci, Laura

    2013-01-01

    ATLAAS-P2P is a two-layered P2P architecture for developing systems providing resource aggregation and approximated discovery in P2P networks. Such systems allow users to search the desired resources by specifying their requirements in a flexible and easy way. From the point of view of resource providers, this system makes available an effective solution supporting providers in being reached by resource requests.

  7. Enhancing the water oxidation activity of Ni2P nanocatalysts by iron-doping and electrochemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guang; He, Dongying; Yao, Rui; Zhao, Yong; Li, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A sol-gel method for synthesis of Fe-doping Ni 2 P nanocatalysts was present. •Fe-doping Ni 2 P sample exhibited high OER activity after electrochemical activation. •In situ formed Fe-NiOOH layer on activated Fe-Ni 2 P provided more active OER sites. -- Abstract: In this work, we reported a facile and safe route for synthesis of Ni 2 P nanocatalysts by sol-gel method and demonstrated that the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) activity of Ni 2 P nanocatalysts can be dramatically enhanced by iron-doping and electrochemical activation. Compared with the fresh Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts, a stable Fe-NiOOH layer was formed on the surface of Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanoparticles by electrochemical activation, thus promoting the charge transfer ability and surface electrochemically active sites generation for the electrochemical activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts, ultimately accounting for the improvement of water oxidation activity, which was evidenced by cyclic voltammograms (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) as well as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) measurements. For water oxidation reaction in 1 M KOH solution, the electrochemical activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts can attain 10 mA/cm 2 at an overpotential of 292 mV with Tafel slope of 50 mV/dec, which was also much better than that of individual Ni 2 P, Fe 2 P nanocatalysts as well as commercial RuO 2 electrocatalyst. Moreover, long-term stability performance by chronoamperometric and chronopotentiometric tests for the activated Fe-doped Ni 2 P nanocatalysts exhibited no obvious decline within 56 h. It was demonstrated that modulating the OER catalytic activity for metal phosphide by iron-doping and electrochemical activation may provide new opportunities and avenues to engineer high performance electrocatalysts for water splitting.

  8. Myoclonic epilepsy of late onset in trisomy 21 Epilepsia mioclônica de início tardio na trissomia 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lm. Li

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a patient with trisomy 21 (T21 with late onset epilepsy. The electro-clinical features were of myoclonic jerks on awakening and generalised tonic clonic seizures, with generalised spike and wave on EEG, and a progressive dementia. As familial Alzheimer's dementia and progressive myoclonic epilepsy (Unverricht-Lundborg type are both linked to the chromosome 21, this case may represent a distinct progressive myoclonic epilepsy related to T21.Pacientes com trissomia do cromossoma 21 (T21, com o passar dos anos, são propensos a desenvolver crises epilépticas parciais concomitantes ao aparecimento de degeneração cerebral do tipo Alzheimer. Pacientes com T21 e demência parecem ter risco maior de apresentarem crises epilépticas que outros pacientes com degeneração cerebral do tipo Alzheimer. O caso relatado é de um paciente com T21 com epilepsia de início tardio. A história clínica consiste de crises mioclônicas ao despertar, ocasionais crises generalizadas tônico-clônicas, demência e ponta onda generalisada no EEG. Demência do tipo Alzheimer familial é ligada ao cromossoma 21, bem como epilepsia mioclônica progressiva (tipo Unverricht-Lundborg. Isto sugere que este caso possa representar um tipo distinto de epilepsia mioclônica progressiva, ligado ao cromossoma 21.

  9. Co-existence of t(6;13)(p21;q14.1) and trisomy 12 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fábio Morato; de Figueiredo Pontes, Lorena Lobo; Bassi, Sarah Cristina; Dalmazzo, Leandro Felipe Figueiredo; Falcão, Roberto Passetto

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a 57-year-old man diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and presence of a rare t(6;13)(p21;q14.1) in association with an extra copy of chromosome 12. Classical cytogenetic analysis using the immunostimulatory combination of DSP30 and IL-2 showed the karyotype 47,XY,t(6;13)(p21;q14.1), +12 in 75% of the metaphase cells. Spectral karyotype analysis (SKY) confirmed the abnormality previously seen by G-banding. Additionally, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization using an LSI CEP 12 probe performed on peripheral blood cells without any stimulant agent showed trisomy of chromosome 12 in 67% of analyzed cells (134/200). To the best of our knowledge, the association of t(6;13)(p21;q14.1) and +12 in CLL has never been described. The prognostic significance of these new findings in CLL remains to be elucidated. However, the patient has been followed up since 2009 without any therapeutic intervention and has so far remained stable.

  10. Trisomy 10p and translocation of 10q to 4p associated with selective dysgenesis of IgA-producing cells in lymphoid tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiga, Tatsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Nobusuke; Ono, Hisako; Hiai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A combined chromosomal abberation trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10 associated with translocation of 10q to chromosome 4p was found in a 14-month-old boy, who died after repeated bouts of pneumonia. The translocation involved the target region 4p16.3 of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and/or Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome. The karyotype was 46,XY,der(4)t(4;10)(p16;q11.2),i(10)(p10),ish der(4)t(4;10)(p16.3;q11.2) (D4S96+,D4Z1+),i(10) (pter ++). In addition to growth retardation and external as well as internal dysmorphism, the patient had abnormalities of the immune system, such as thymic involution, generalized lymph node enlargement, unusual distribution of T cells in lymphoid follicles, and selective IgA deficiency. The IgA-producing cells were rarely found in lymph nodes but normally in intestinal mucosa. In contrast, in the lymph nodes, the paracortical T-lymphocytes were hyperplastic, but they rarely entered the primary follicles. It is assumed that the chromosomal abnormality may lead to the dysfunction of T lymphocytes and, further, to the dysgenesis of IgA-producing cells in lymph nodes but not in intestinal mucosa. This suggests that the thymus may differentially control the subsets of IgA-producing cells in lymph nodes and intestinal mucosa.

  11. 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex NEOs and the Maribo and Sutter’s Mill meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Michelsen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Aims. 2P/Encke is a short period comet that was discovered in 1786 and has been extensively observed and studied for more than 200 years. The Taurid meteoroid stream has long been linked with 2P/Encke owing to a good match of their orbital elements, even though the comet’s activity is not strong......, 2012, respectively. Their pre-atmospheric orbits place them in the middle of the Taurid meteoroid stream, which raises the intriguing possibility that comet 2P/Encke could be the parent body of CM chondrites. Methods. To investigate whether a relationship between comet 2P/Encke, the Taurid complex...

  12. Multilevel Bloom Filters for P2P Flows Identification Based on Cluster Analysis in Wireless Mesh Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-an Bi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless mesh networks and distributed computing, lots of new P2P services have been deployed and enrich the Internet contents and applications. The rapid growth of P2P flows brings great pressure to the regular network operation. So the effective flow identification and management of P2P applications become increasingly urgent. In this paper, we build a multilevel bloom filters data structure to identify the P2P flows through researches on the locality characteristics of P2P flows. Different level structure stores different numbers of P2P flow rules. According to the characteristics values of the P2P flows, we adjust the parameters of the data structure of bloom filters. The searching steps of the scheme traverse from the first level to the last level. Compared with the traditional algorithms, our method solves the drawbacks of previous schemes. The simulation results demonstrate that our algorithm effectively enhances the performance of P2P flows identification. Then we deploy our flow identification algorithm in the traffic monitoring sensors which belong to the network traffic monitoring system at the export link in the campus network. In the real environment, the experiment results demonstrate that our algorithm has a fast speed and high accuracy to identify the P2P flows; therefore, it is suitable for actual deployment.

  13. On Degenerate Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of recent developments, including recent results, ideas, techniques, and approaches, in the study of degenerate partial differential equations are surveyed and analyzed. Several examples of nonlinear degenerate, even mixed, partial differential equations, are presented, which arise naturally in some longstanding, fundamental problems in fluid mechanics and differential geometry. The solution to these fundamental problems greatly requires a deep understanding of nonlinear degenerate parti...

  14. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Witter, D.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of

  15. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  16. Partial twisting for scalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    The possibility of imposing partially twisted boundary conditions is investigated for the scalar sector of lattice QCD. According to the commonly shared belief, the presence of quark-antiquark annihilation diagrams in the intermediate state generally hinders the use of the partial twisting. Using effective field theory techniques in a finite volume, and studying the scalar sector of QCD with total isospin I=1, we however demonstrate that partial twisting can still be performed, despite the fact that annihilation diagrams are present. The reason for this are delicate cancellations, which emerge due to the graded symmetry in partially quenched QCD with valence, sea and ghost quarks. The modified Lüscher equation in case of partial twisting is given

  17. Research of trust model base on P2P and grid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhuoming; Wu Huan; Xu Rongsheng

    2009-01-01

    Orienting to the characteristic of P2P and Grid system in architecture and service, a trust management model (PG-TM) based on cluster partition is presented. In this model, the protocol is described that trustworthiness is computed before service interaction, and recommendation values will be fed back after interaction. About the trustworthiness, some arithmetic is compared and geometric mean is brought up for the non-linear trust principle. In addition, it is also considered that the trustworthiness is adjusted by the produce contribution rate,network stability and history accumulation. Finally, the factors of maintaining management server and cluster are discussed. PG-TM model can ensure the security and availability in computation and storage of high energy physics experiments. (authors)

  18. Level structure of 60Ni from the 58Ni(α,2p#betta#) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.U.; Morand, C.; Azgui, F.

    1982-03-01

    The 60 Ni nucleus has been studied via the 58 Ni (α, 2p#betta#) reaction at Esub(α)=32 MeV using in-beam #betta# spectroscopy techniques. High-spin states up to 10 MeV excitation have been established. Among the 5 branches depopulating the Yrast Jsup(π)=7 - state, has been found an E3 transition down to the 4 + state. Comparison with direct reaction results leads to assign very probably the [#betta#fsub(5/2),#betta#gsub(9/2)] 7 - configuration to the Jsup(π)=7 - Yrast state at 5349 keV. Other high-spin states might be accounted for by the breaking of the 56 Ni core

  19. Characterizing the Global Impact of P2P Overlays on the AS-Level Underlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasti, Amir Hassan; Rejaie, Reza; Willinger, Walter

    This paper examines the problem of characterizing and assessing the global impact of the load imposed by a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) overlay on the AS-level underlay. In particular, we capture Gnutella snapshots for four consecutive years, obtain the corresponding AS-level topology snapshots of the Internet and infer the AS-paths associated with each overlay connection. Assuming a simple model of overlay traffic, we analyze the observed load imposed by these Gnutella snapshots on the AS-level underlay using metrics that characterize the load seen on individual AS-paths and by the transit ASes, illustrate the churn among the top transit ASes during this 4-year period, and describe the propagation of traffic within the AS-level hierarchy.

  20. A Hybrid P2P Overlay Network for Non-strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Asaka, Takuya; Takahashi, Tatsuro

    In P2P content distribution systems, there are many cases in which the content can be classified into hierarchically organized categories. In this paper, we propose a hybrid overlay network design suitable for such content called Pastry/NSHCC (Pastry for Non-Strictly Hierarchically Categorized Content). The semantic information of classification hierarchies of the content can be utilized regardless of whether they are in a strict tree structure or not. By doing so, the search scope can be restrained to any granularity, and the number of query messages also decreases while maintaining keyword searching availability. Through simulation, we showed that the proposed method provides better performance and lower overhead than unstructured overlays exploiting the same semantic information.

  1. 1H(d,2p)n reaction at 2 GeV deuteron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erohuml, J.; Fodor, Z.; Koncz, P.; Seres, Z.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Punjabi, V.; Boudard, A.; Bonin, B.; Garcon, M.; Lombard, R.; Mayer, B.; Terrien, Y.; Tomasi, E.; Boivin, M.; Yonnet, J.; Bhang, H.C.; Youn, M.; Belostotsky, S.L.; Grebenuk, O.G.; Nikulin, V.N.; Kudin, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    The 1 H(d,2p)n deuteron breakup reaction was measured at 2 GeV deuteron energy in a kinematically complete experiment. Fivefold differential cross sections are given in a wide range of kinematical variables and analyzed in terms of impulse approximation and NN rescattering. The deuteron momentum density was determined and deviations were found depending on the value of the four-momentum transfer |t| in the scattering process. At low |t| the momentum densities are in good agreement with the impulse approximation whereas large discrepancies were found above q∼200 MeV/c when the four-momentum transfer was large. Various possible origins of the anomalous behavior at high q values are discussed

  2. Effect of pressure on thermopower and resistivity of EuCo2P2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakama, T; Yoshida, T; Ohno, A; Nakamura, D; Takaesu, Y; Hedo, M; Yagasaki, K; Uchima, K; Fujiwara, T; Shigeoka, T

    2010-01-01

    The measurements of electrical resistivity ρ and thermopower S of the single-crystalline EuCo 2 P 2 have been performed at temperatures from 2 K to 300 K under hydrostatic pressures up to 3 GPa. The temperature dependence of ρ and S show drastic changes at the critical pressure P c , indicating a large modification of electronic structure around the Fermi level due to a pressure-induced structural and magnetic phase transition. The magnetic phase transition temperature increases linearly with increasing pressure, and shows a sudden increase at the critical pressure P c , which correspond to the change of magnetic state from the localized Eu(4f) sub-lattice magnetism into the itinerant Co(3d) sub-lattice magnetism.

  3. Evidence of interatomic Coulombic decay in ArKr after Ar 2p Auger decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Y; Saito, N; Suzuki, I H; Fukuzawa, H; Liu, X-J; Sakai, K; Pruemper, G; Ueda, K; Iwayama, H; Nagaya, K; Yao, M; Kreidi, K; Schoeffler, M; Jahnke, T; Schoessler, S; Doerner, R; Weber, T; Harries, J; Tamenori, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have identified interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) processes in the ArKr dimer following Ar 2p Auger decay, using momentum-resolved electron-ion-ion coincidence spectroscopy and simultaneously determining the kinetic energy of the ICD electron and the KER between Ar 2+ and Kr + . We find that the spin-conserved ICD processes in which Ar 2+ (3p -3 3d) 1 P and 3 P decay to Ar 2+ (3p -2 ) 1 D and 3 P, respectively, ionizing the Kr atom, are significantly stronger than the spin-flip ICD processes in which Ar 2+ (3p -3 3d) 1 P and 3 P decay to Ar 2+ (3p -2 ) 3 P and 1 D, respectively

  4. Analysis of the microscopic model taking into account of the 2p2h configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, S.P.; Tkachev, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    A general equation for the effective field inside the nucleus, which takes into account both 1p1h and 2p2h configurations, is derived by the Green function method. This equation is used as a starting point to derive the previously developed microscopic model for account of the > configurations in magic nuclei. The equations for the density matrix are analyzed in this model. It is shown that the quasiparticle number conservation law is valid. The equation for the effective field is written in the coordinate representation. As a result, the problem acquires the formulation in the > approximation. The equation in the space of one-phonon states is derived and quantitatively analyzed

  5. Group Clustering Mechanism for P2P Large Scale Data Sharing Collaboration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGQianni; LUXinda; CHENLi

    2005-01-01

    Research shows that P2P scientific collaboration network will exhibit small-world topology, as do a large number of social networks for which the same pattern has been documented. In this paper we propose a topology building protocol to benefit from the small world feature. We find that the idea of Freenet resembles the dynamic pattern of social interactions in scientific data sharing and the small world characteristic of Freenet is propitious to improve the file locating performance in scientificdata sharing. But the LRU (Least recently used) datas-tore cache replacement scheme of Freenet is not suitableto be used in scientific data sharing network. Based onthe group locality of scientific collaboration, we proposean enhanced group clustering cache replacement scheme.Simulation shows that this scheme improves the request hitratio dramatically while keeping the small average hops per successful request comparable to LRU.

  6. Quantum mechanics of electronic-rotational energy transfer in F(2P) + H2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, R.E.; Walker, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical study is made of electronic-rotational energy transfer in F( 2 P) + H 2 three-dimensional collisions, with electronic matrix elements from DIM theory. The quantum close-coupled equations are integrated via the R-matrix propagation method. Inelastic quenching probabilities are emphasized, with and without simulated open reaction channels. Interweaving patterns in the transition probability for even and odd nuclear parity vs. J (total angular momentum quantum number) are analyzed in terms of avoided crossing structure in the electrotational energy correlation diagrams. Localized regions where electronic quenching is dominant are identified in the correlation diagrams, and are confirmed in separate calculations which neglect interchannel mixing in local regions of the atom-molecule separation. Open reaction channels are found to have little influence on the quenching probabilities in these low energy calculations

  7. SNMS: an intelligent transportation system network architecture based on WSN and P2P network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; LIU Yuan-an; TANG Bi-hua

    2007-01-01

    With the development of city road networks, the question of how to obtain information about the roads is becoming more and more important. In this article, sensor network with mobile station (SNMS), a novel two-tiered intelligent transportation system (ITS) network architecture based on wireless sensor network (WSN) and peer-to-peer (P2P) network, is proposed to provide significant traffic information about the road and thereby, assist travelers to take optimum decisions when they are driving. A detailed explanation with regard to the strategy of each level as well as the design of two main components in the network, sensor unit (SU) and mobile station (MS), is presented. Finally, a representative scenario is described to display the operation of the system.

  8. Energy Dependence of Nuclear Transparency in C (p,2p) Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksanov, A.; Alster, J.; Asryan, G.; Averichev, Y.; Barton, D.; Baturin, V.; Bukhtoyarova, N.; Carroll, A.; Heppelmann, S.; Kawabata, T.; Makdisi, Y.; Malki, A.; Minina, E.; Navon, I.; Nicholson, H.; Ogawa, A.; Panebratsev, Yu.; Piasetzky, E.; Schetkovsky, A.; Shimanskiy, S.; Tang, A.; Watson, J. W.; Yoshida, H.; Zhalov, D.

    2001-11-01

    The transparency of carbon for (p,2p) quasielastic events was measured at beam momenta ranging from 5.9 to 14.5 GeV/c at 90° c.m. The four-momentum transfer squared (Q2) ranged from 4.7 to 12.7 (GeV/c)2. We present the observed beam momentum dependence of the ratio of the carbon to hydrogen cross sections. We also apply a model for the nuclear momentum distribution of carbon to obtain the nuclear transparency. We find a sharp rise in transparency as the beam momentum is increased to 9 GeV/c and a reduction to approximately the Glauber level at higher energies.

  9. Characterizing Economic and Social Properties of Trust and Reputation Systems in P2P Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Feng Wang; Yoshiaki Hori; Kouichi Sakurai

    2008-01-01

    Considering the fact that P2P (Peer-to-Peer) systems are self-organized and autonomous, social-control mechanism (like trust and reputation) is essential to evaluate the trustworthiness of participating peers and to combat the selfish, dishonest and malicious peer behaviors. So, naturally, we advocate that P2P systems that gradually act as an important information infrastructure should be multi-disciplinary research topic, and reflect certain features of our society. So, from economic and social perspective, this paper designs the incentive-compatible reputation feedback scheme based on well-known economic model, and characterizes the social features of trust network in terms of efficiency and cost. Specifically, our framework has two distinctive purposes: first, from high-level perspective, we argue trust system is a special kind of social network, and an accurate characterization of the structural properties of the network can be of fundamental importance to understand the dynamics of the system. Thus, inspired by the concept of weighted small-world, this paper proposes new measurements to characterize the social properties of trust system, that is, highg lobal and local efficiency, and low cost; then, from relative low-level perspective, we argue that reputation feedback is a special kind of information, and it is not free. So, based on economic model, VCG (Vickrey-Clarke-Grove)-like reputation remuneration mechanism is proposed to stimulate rational peers not only to provide reputation feedback, but truthfully offer feedback. Furthermore, considering that trust and reputation is subjective, we classify the trust into functional trust and referral trust, and extend the referral trust to include two factors: similarity and truthfulness, which can efficiently reduce the trust inference error. The preliminary simulation results show the benefits of our proposal and the emergence of certain social properties in trust network.

  10. Optical property investigations of polystyrene capped Ca2P2O7:Dy3+ persistent phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Abhilasha; Kumar, Ashwini; Dhoble, S.J; Peshwe, D.R

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of polymer capped pyrophosphate phosphors by citrate gel method. • Radiative lifetime is calculated from parameters of Judd-Ofelt theory and ICP-AES. • Reaction mechanism is discussed leading to high photoluminescence efficiency. • PL emission spectrum reveals broad band emission suitable for solid state lighting. - Abstract: By virtue of enhanced photosensivity, good optical response and better thermal stability, organic–inorganic hybrid materials are contemplated as one of the alternatives for designing advanced optoelectronic devices and innovative photonic applications. A novel inorganic organic hybrid Ca 2 P 2 O 7 :Dy 3+ phosphor has been fabricated by Pechini method. The optical property of synthesized phosphor is successfully altered by the in corporation of polystyrene sulfonic acid as capping agent in the colloidal solution. The phase purity and the average particle size of the prepared phosphor were calculated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) employing Debye Scherrer method. The morphological and chemical investigations were carried out through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The radiative transitions are explained on the basis of Judd-Ofelt theory and on the basis of derived parameters, the radiative lifetime of persistent hybrid Ca 2 P 2 O 7 :Dy 3+ phosphor is calculated as 5.33 ms. This paper explores the mechanism leading to high photoluminescence efficiency using organic capping additives. The photoluminescence (PL) graphs reveal broad band emission at 482 nm (blue) and 573 nm (yellow) corresponding to 4 F 9/2 - 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 - 6 H 13/2 transitions of Dy 3+ , respectively. The Commission International De I-Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity co-ordinates were calculated from emission spectra and the values (x, y) were approaching to standard value of white emission. The synthesized pyrophosphate phosphors can thereby account in multiple potential applications

  11. Folksonomical P2P File Sharing Networks Using Vectorized KANSEI Information as Search Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Kei; Yoshida, Kaori; Oie, Yuji

    We present the concept of folksonomical peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing networks that allow participants (peers) to freely assign structured search tags to files. These networks are similar to folksonomies in the present Web from the point of view that users assign search tags to information distributed over a network. As a concrete example, we consider an unstructured P2P network using vectorized Kansei (human sensitivity) information as structured search tags for file search. Vectorized Kansei information as search tags indicates what participants feel about their files and is assigned by the participant to each of their files. A search query also has the same form of search tags and indicates what participants want to feel about files that they will eventually obtain. A method that enables file search using vectorized Kansei information is the Kansei query-forwarding method, which probabilistically propagates a search query to peers that are likely to hold more files having search tags that are similar to the query. The similarity between the search query and the search tags is measured in terms of their dot product. The simulation experiments examine if the Kansei query-forwarding method can provide equal search performance for all peers in a network in which only the Kansei information and the tendency with respect to file collection are different among all of the peers. The simulation results show that the Kansei query forwarding method and a random-walk-based query forwarding method, for comparison, work effectively in different situations and are complementary. Furthermore, the Kansei query forwarding method is shown, through simulations, to be superior to or equal to the random-walk based one in terms of search speed.

  12. Murine K2P5.1 Deficiency Has No Impact on Autoimmune Neuroinflammation due to Compensatory K2P3.1- and KV1.3-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bittner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lymphocytes express potassium channels that regulate physiological cell functions, such as activation, proliferation and migration. Expression levels of K2P5.1 (TASK2; KCNK5 channels belonging to the family of two-pore domain potassium channels have previously been correlated to the activity of autoreactive T lymphocytes in patients with multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. In humans, K2P5.1 channels are upregulated upon T cell stimulation and influence T cell effector functions. However, a further clinical translation of targeting K2P5.1 is currently hampered by a lack of highly selective inhibitors, making it necessary to evaluate the impact of KCNK5 in established preclinical animal disease models. We here demonstrate that K2P5.1 knockout (K2P5.1−/− mice display no significant alterations concerning T cell cytokine production, proliferation rates, surface marker molecules or signaling pathways. In an experimental model of autoimmune neuroinflammation, K2P5.1−/− mice show a comparable disease course to wild-type animals and no major changes in the peripheral immune system or CNS compartment. A compensatory upregulation of the potassium channels K2P3.1 and KV1.3 seems to counterbalance the deletion of K2P5.1. As an alternative model mimicking autoimmune neuroinflammation, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the common marmoset has been proposed, especially for testing the efficacy of new potential drugs. Initial experiments show that K2P5.1 is functionally expressed on marmoset T lymphocytes, opening up the possibility for assessing future K2P5.1-targeting drugs.

  13. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  14. Exceptionally High Efficient Co-Co2P@N, P-Codoped Carbon Hybrid Catalyst for Visible Light-Driven CO2-to-CO Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wen Gan

    2018-05-02

    Artificial photosynthesis has attracted wide attention, particularly the development of efficient solar light-driven methods to reduce CO2 to form energy-rich carbon-based products. Because CO2 reduction is an uphill process with a large energy barrier, suitable catalysts are necessary to achieve this transformation. In addition, CO2 adsorption on a catalyst and proton transfer to CO2 are two important factors for the conversion reaction,and catalysts with high surface area and more active sites are required to improve the efficiency of CO2 reduction. Here, we report a visible light-driven system for CO2-to-CO conversion that consists of a heterogeneous hybrid catalyst of Co and Co2P nanoparticles embedded in carbon nanolayers codoped with N and P (Co-Co2P@NPC) and a homogeneous Ru(II)-based complex photosensitizer. The average generation rate of CO of the system was up to 35,000 μmol h-1 g-1 with selectivity of 79.1% in 3 h. Linear CO production at an exceptionally high rate of 63,000 μmol h-1 g-1 was observed in the first hour of reaction. Inspired by this highly active catalyst, we also synthesized Co@NC and Co2P@NPC materials and explored their structure, morphology, and catalytic properties for CO2 photoreduction. The results showed that the nanoparticle size, partially adsorbed H2O molecules on the catalyst surface, and the hybrid nature of the systems influenced their photocatalytic CO2 reduction performance. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Widely available active sites on Ni2P for electrochemical hydrogen evolution - insights from first principles calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Hangaard; Stern, Lucas-Alexandre; Feng, Ligang

    2015-01-01

    We present insights into the mechanism and the active site for hydrogen evolution on nickel phosphide (Ni2P). Ni2P was recently discovered to be a very active non-precious hydrogen evolution catalyst. Current literature attributes the activity of Ni2P to a particular site on the (0001) facet....... In the present study, using Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, we show that several widely available low index crystal facets on Ni2P have better properties for a high catalytic activity. DFT calculations were used to identify moderately bonding nickel bridge sites and nickel hollow sites for hydrogen...... adsorption and to calculate barriers for the Tafel pathway. The investigated surfaces in this study were the (10 (1) over bar0), ((1) over bar(1) over bar 20), (11 (2) over bar0), (11 (2) over bar1) and (0001) facets of the hexagonal Ni2P crystal. In addition to the DFT results, we present experiments on Ni2...

  16. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  17. Partially massless fields during inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Daniel; Goon, Garrett; Lee, Hayden; Pimentel, Guilherme L.

    2018-04-01

    The representation theory of de Sitter space allows for a category of partially massless particles which have no flat space analog, but could have existed during inflation. We study the couplings of these exotic particles to inflationary perturbations and determine the resulting signatures in cosmological correlators. When inflationary perturbations interact through the exchange of these fields, their correlation functions inherit scalings that cannot be mimicked by extra massive fields. We discuss in detail the squeezed limit of the tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum, and show that certain partially massless fields can violate the tensor consistency relation of single-field inflation. We also consider the collapsed limit of the scalar trispectrum, and find that the exchange of partially massless fields enhances its magnitude, while giving no contribution to the scalar bispectrum. These characteristic signatures provide clean detection channels for partially massless fields during inflation.

  18. Introduction to partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Greenspan, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

  19. [Acrylic resin removable partial dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; Witter, D J; Creugers, N H J

    2011-01-01

    An acrylic resin removable partial denture is distinguished from other types of removable partial dentures by an all-acrylic resin base which is, in principle, solely supported by the edentulous regions of the tooth arch and in the maxilla also by the hard palate. When compared to the other types of removable partial dentures, the acrylic resin removable partial denture has 3 favourable aspects: the economic aspect, its aesthetic quality and the ease with which it can be extended and adjusted. Disadvantages are an increased risk of caries developing, gingivitis, periodontal disease, denture stomatitis, alveolar bone reduction, tooth migration, triggering of the gag reflex and damage to the acrylic resin base. Present-day indications are ofa temporary or palliative nature or are motivated by economic factors. Special varieties of the acrylic resin removable partial denture are the spoon denture, the flexible denture fabricated of non-rigid acrylic resin, and the two-piece sectional denture. Furthermore, acrylic resin removable partial dentures can be supplied with clasps or reinforced by fibers or metal wires.

  20. Reactions of R(2)P-P(SiMe(3))Li with [(R'(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)]. A general and efficient entry to phosphanylphosphinidene complexes of platinum. Syntheses and structures of [(eta(2)-P=(i)Pr(2))Pt(p-Tol(3)P)(2)], [(eta(2)-P=(t)Bu(2))Pt(p-Tol(3)P)(2)], [{eta(2)-P=(N(i)Pr(2))(2)}Pt(p-Tol(3)P)(2)] and [{(Et(2)PhP)(2)Pt}(2)P(2)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domańska-Babul, Wioleta; Chojnacki, Jaroslaw; Matern, Eberhard; Pikies, Jerzy

    2009-01-07

    The reactions of lithium derivatives of diphosphanes R(2)P-P(SiMe(3))Li (R = (t)Bu, (i)Pr, Et(2)N and (i)Pr(2)N) with [(R'(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)] (R'(3)P = Et(3)P, Et(2)PhP, EtPh(2)P and p-Tol(3)P) proceed in a facile manner to afford side-on bonded phosphanylphosphinidene complexes of platinum [(eta(2)-P=R(2))Pt(PR'(3))(2)]. The related reactions of Ph(2)P-P(SiMe(3))Li with [(R'(3)P)(2)PtCl(2)] did not yield [(eta(2)-P=PPh(2))Pt(PR'(3))(2)] and resulted mainly in the formation of [{(R'(3)P)(2)Pt}(2)P(2)], Ph(2)P-PLi-PPh(2), (Me(3)Si)(2)PLi and (Me(3)Si)(3)P. Crystallographic data are reported for the compounds [(eta(2)-P=R(2))Pt(p-Tol(3)P)(2)] (R = (t)Bu, (i)Pr, ((i)Pr(2)N)(2)P) and for [{(Et(2)PhP)(2)Pt}(2)P(2)].

  1. Coalition-based multimedia peer matching strategies for P2P networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunggon; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of matching users for multimedia transmission in peer-to-peer (P2P) networks and identify strategies for fair resource division among the matched multimedia peers. We propose a framework for coalition formation, which enables users to form a group of matched peers where they can interact cooperatively and negotiate resources based on their satisfaction with the coalition, determined by explicitly considering the peer's multimedia attributes. In addition, our proposed approach goes a step further by introducing the concept of marginal contribution, which is the value improvement of the coalition induced by an incoming peer. We show that the best way for a peer to select a coalition is to choose the coalition that provides the largest division of marginal contribution given a deployed value-division scheme. Moreover, we model the utility function by explicitly considering each peer's attributes as well as the cost for uploading content. To quantify the benefit that users derive from a coalition, we define the value of a coalition based on the total utility that all peers can achieve jointly in the coalition. Based on this definition of the coalition value, we use an axiomatic bargaining solution in order to fairly negotiate the value division of the upload bandwidth given each peer's attributes.

  2. Las simulaciones, una alternativa para el estudio de los protocolos P2P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando de Jesús Ruiz Calderón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura y funcionalidad de las redes P2P hacen que sean atractivas para ser utilizadas en ambientes distribuidos locales y aplicaciones de amplia distribución, el análisis de sus protocolos de ruteo bajo diferentes ataques como son los de negación de existencia y de servicio, así como su análisis estadístico, hacen que las simulaciones cobren gran importancia, y sean una alternativa adecuada para su estudio, pues existen varios protocolos de esta categoría como Pastry o Chord, los cuales son de gran importancia dada su amplia utilización en diferentes aplicaciones para el envío y recuperación satisfactoria de información tanto en la nube como en aplicaciones distribuidas, razón por la cual su análisis es importante, este trabajo se centra en Pastry dado que es utilizado en la versión Azure de Microsoft Windows.

  3. Thermal-history dependent magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, X. F., E-mail: x.f.miao@tudelft.nl; Dijk, N. H. van; Brück, E. [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Caron, L. [Fundamental Aspects of Materials and Energy, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Straße 40, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Gercsi, Z. [Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); CRANN and School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Daoud-Aladine, A. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-27

    The thermal-history dependence of the magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) compounds has been investigated using high-resolution neutron diffraction. As-prepared samples display a large difference in paramagnetic-ferromagnetic (PM-FM) transition temperature compared to cycled samples. The initial metastable state transforms into a lower-energy stable state when the as-prepared sample crosses the PM-FM transition for the first time. This additional transformation is irreversible around the transition temperature and increases the energy barrier which needs to be overcome through the PM-FM transition. Consequently, the transition temperature on first cooling is found to be lower than on subsequent cycles characterizing the so-called “virgin effect.” High-temperature annealing can restore the cycled sample to the high-temperature metastable state, which leads to the recovery of the virgin effect. A model is proposed to interpret the formation and recovery of the virgin effect.

  4. Study of the Reaction 2-(p-Nitrophenylethyl Bromide + OH− in Dimeric Micellar Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Moyá

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The dehydrobromination reaction 2-(p-nitrophenylethyl bromide + OH− was investigated in several alkanediyl-a-w-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide, 12-s-12,2Br− (with s = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12 micellar solutions, in the presence of NaOH 5 × 10−3 M. The kinetic data were quantitatively rationalized within the whole surfactant concentration range by using an equation based on the pseudophase ion-exchange model and taking the variations in the micellar ionization degree caused by the morphological transitions into account. The agreement between the theoretical and the experimental data was good in all the dimeric micellar media studied, except for the 12-2-12,2Br− micellar solutions. In this case, the strong tendency to micellar growth shown by the 12-2-12,2Br− micelles could be responsible for the lack of accordance. Results showed that the dimeric micelles accelerate the reaction more than two orders of magnitude as compared to water.

  5. Structural basis of dual Ca2+/pH regulation of the endolysosomal TRPML1 channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minghui; Zhang, Wei K.; Benvin, Nicole M.; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Su, Deyuan; Li, Huan; Wang, Shu; Michailidis, Ioannis E.; Tong, Liang; Li, Xueming; Yang, Jian

    2017-01-23

    The activities of organellar ion channels are often regulated by Ca2+ and H+, which are present in high concentrations in many organelles. Here we report a structural element critical for dual Ca2+/pH regulation of TRPML1, a Ca2+-release channel crucial for endolysosomal function. TRPML1 mutations cause mucolipidosis type IV (MLIV), a severe lysosomal storage disorder characterized by neurodegeneration, mental retardation and blindness. We obtained crystal structures of the 213-residue luminal domain of human TRPML1 containing three missense MLIV-causing mutations. This domain forms a tetramer with a highly electronegative central pore formed by a novel luminal pore loop. Cysteine cross-linking and cryo-EM analyses confirmed that this architecture occurs in the full-length channel. Structure–function studies demonstrated that Ca2+ and H+ interact with the luminal pore and exert physiologically important regulation. The MLIV-causing mutations disrupt the luminal-domain structure and cause TRPML1 mislocalization. Our study reveals the structural underpinnings of TRPML1's regulation, assembly and pathogenesis.

  6. Beam position reconstruction for the g2p experiment in Hall A at Jefferson lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Pengjia; Allada, Kalyan; Allison, Trent; Badman, Toby; Camsonne, Alexandre; Chen, Jian-ping; Cummings, Melissa; Gu, Chao; Huang, Min; Liu, Jie; Musson, John; Slifer, Karl; Sulkosky, Vincent; Ye, Yunxiu; Zhang, Jixie; Zielinski, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Beam-line equipment was upgraded for experiment E08-027 (g2p) in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Two beam position monitors (BPMs) were necessary to measure the beam position and angle at the target. A new BPM receiver was designed and built to handle the low beam currents (50–100 nA) used for this experiment. Two new super-harps were installed for calibrating the BPMs. In addition to the existing fast raster system, a slow raster system was installed. Before and during the experiment, these new devices were tested and debugged, and their performance was also evaluated. In order to achieve the required accuracy (1–2 mm in position and 1–2 mrad in angle at the target location), the data of the BPMs and harps were carefully analyzed, as well as reconstructing the beam position and angle event by event at the target location. The calculated beam position will be used in the data analysis to accurately determine the kinematics for each event.

  7. Observations of Comet 2P/Encke During the Fall 2013 Apparition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Woodney, L.; Fernandez, Yanga R.; Mueller, Beatrice E.; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Chi, Brian; Farr, Cynthia; Redinger, Haley; Schlueter, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    We will present preliminary results from our observational campaign of Comet 2P/Encke during its 2013 perihelion passage. At optical wavelengths Encke is an extremely dust poor comet that has in past perihelion passages emitted a gas jet in the form a sunward fan. We expect to characterize both the morphology and lightcurve of the comet. The low optical dust means that even near perihelion the nuclear signature can be obtained in lightcurve data taken with narrowband continuum filters which cut out the gas emission. The campaign will consist of both narrowband and broadband imaging as well as infrared spectroscopy. Imaging will be obtained from 8 nights on the KPNO 2.1m between Sept. 7 and 14 UT. Additionally, the Murillo Family Observatory, a 0.5m telescope on the CSUSB campus which is equipped with both broadband filters and a narrowband Hale-Bopp set of filters will be used to observe the comet every clear night the moon allows between late August and early October to obtain extensive lightcurve data. These data will overlap both the Kitt Peak observations and the infrared spectroscopy which will be obtained with the SpeX instrument at the IRTF on four nights between September 26 UT and October 2 UT.

  8. RuO2 pH Sensor with Super-Glue-Inspired Reference Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Lonsdale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A pH-sensitive RuO2 electrode coated in a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive typically exhibits very low pH sensitivity, and could be paired with a RuO2 working electrode as a differential type pH sensor. However, such sensors display poor performance in real sample matrices. A pH sensor employing a RuO2 pH-sensitive working electrode and a SiO2-PVB junction-modified RuO2 reference electrode is developed as an alternative high-performance solution. This sensor exhibits a performance similar to that of a commercial glass pH sensor in some common sample matrices, particularly, an excellent pH sensitivity of 55.7 mV/pH, a hysteresis as low as 2.7 mV, and a drift below 2.2 mV/h. The developed sensor structure opens the way towards the development of a simple, cost effective, and robust pH sensor for pH analysis in various sample matrices.

  9. RuO2 pH Sensor with Super-Glue-Inspired Reference Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajrak, Magdalena; Alameh, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    A pH-sensitive RuO2 electrode coated in a commercial cyanoacrylate adhesive typically exhibits very low pH sensitivity, and could be paired with a RuO2 working electrode as a differential type pH sensor. However, such sensors display poor performance in real sample matrices. A pH sensor employing a RuO2 pH-sensitive working electrode and a SiO2-PVB junction-modified RuO2 reference electrode is developed as an alternative high-performance solution. This sensor exhibits a performance similar to that of a commercial glass pH sensor in some common sample matrices, particularly, an excellent pH sensitivity of 55.7 mV/pH, a hysteresis as low as 2.7 mV, and a drift below 2.2 mV/h. The developed sensor structure opens the way towards the development of a simple, cost effective, and robust pH sensor for pH analysis in various sample matrices. PMID:28878182

  10. Multidrug resistance transporters Snq2p and Pdr5p mediate caffeine efflux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Yoshiyuki; Shimizu, Yoshihiro; Otake, Kazuya; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Okada, Ryutaro; Miyazaki, Toshitaka; Watanabe, Kunihiko

    2015-01-01

    SNQ2 was identified as a caffeine-resistance gene by screening a genomic library of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a multicopy vector YEp24. SNQ2 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter and is highly homologous to PDR5. Multicopy of PDR5 also conferred resistance to caffeine, while its resistance was smaller than that of SNQ2. Residual caffeine contents were analyzed after transiently exposing cells to caffeine. The ratios of caffeine contents were 21.3 ± 8.8% (YEp24-SNQ2) and 81.9 ± 8.7% (YEp24-PDR5) relative to control (YEp24, 100%). In addition, multicopies of SNQ2 or PDR5 conferred resistance to rhodamine 6G (R6G), which was widely used as a substrate for transport assay. R6G was exported by both transporters, and their efflux activities were inhibited by caffeine with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 5.3 ± 1.9 (YEp24-SNQ2) and 17.2 ± 9.6 mM (YEp24-PDR5). These results demonstrate that Snq2p is a more functional transporter of caffeine than Pdr5p in yeast cells.

  11. Beam position reconstruction for the g2p experiment in Hall A at Jefferson lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Pengjia, E-mail: pzhu@jlab.org [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Allada, Kalyan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA 02139 (United States); Allison, Trent [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Badman, Toby [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Camsonne, Alexandre; Chen, Jian-ping [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Cummings, Melissa [College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Gu, Chao [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Huang, Min [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Liu, Jie [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Musson, John [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Slifer, Karl [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Sulkosky, Vincent [University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA 02139 (United States); Ye, Yunxiu [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Jixie [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Zielinski, Ryan [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Beam-line equipment was upgraded for experiment E08-027 (g2p) in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Two beam position monitors (BPMs) were necessary to measure the beam position and angle at the target. A new BPM receiver was designed and built to handle the low beam currents (50–100 nA) used for this experiment. Two new super-harps were installed for calibrating the BPMs. In addition to the existing fast raster system, a slow raster system was installed. Before and during the experiment, these new devices were tested and debugged, and their performance was also evaluated. In order to achieve the required accuracy (1–2 mm in position and 1–2 mrad in angle at the target location), the data of the BPMs and harps were carefully analyzed, as well as reconstructing the beam position and angle event by event at the target location. The calculated beam position will be used in the data analysis to accurately determine the kinematics for each event.

  12. Measurement of color transparency by C(p,2p) reactions at large momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.

    1997-12-01

    The subject of color transparency, the enhancement of the ability of hadrons to penetrate nuclear matter by kinematic selection, is both interesting and controversial. The description of the collision of hadrons with nucleons inside nuclei, and the connection with initial and final state interactions involve fundamental questions of quantum mechanics, and nuclear and particle physics. Interest in color transparency was greatly increased by AGS Experiment 834 which observed dramatic changes with incident momentum for a variety of nuclei. A new experiment, E850, has studied the (p,2p) quasi-elastic reaction near 90 degree cm for momenta between 5.9 and 9 GeV/c. The quasi-elastic reaction was compared to the elastic reaction on free protons to determine the transparency. With limited statistics, but with better kinematic definition in a new detector, the authors have confirmed the rise in Carbon transparency ratio seen in Expt 834. The Tr(D/H) for deuterium is consistent with no energy dependence. Unlike the free dσ/dt for hydrogen, the dσ/dt from protons in a nucleus is consistent with the exact s -10 scaling. This suggests two components to the pp scattering amplitude; one small and perturbative, the other spatially large and varying, but filtered away by the nuclear matter in the Carbon nucleus. The plan is to complete the repairs of the superconducting solenoid early this fall, reassemble the detector, and collect data starting next spring

  13. Photosensitization of TiO2 P25 with CdS Nanoparticles for Photocatalytic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trenczek-Zając A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A TiO2/CdS coupled system was prepared by mixing the TiO2 P25 with CdS synthesized by means of the precipitation method. It was found that the specific surface area (SSA of both components is extremely different and equals 49.5 for TiO2 and 145.4 m2·g−1 for CdS. The comparison of particle size distribution and images obtained by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed agglomeration of nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns suggest that CdS crystallizes in a mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases. Optical reflectance spectra revealed a gradual shift of the fundamental absorption edge towards longer wavelengths with increasing CdS molar fraction, which indicates an extension of the absorption spectrum of TiO2. The photocatalytic activity in UV and UV-vis was tested with the use of methyl orange (MO. The Langmuir–Hinshelwood model described well the photodegradation process of MO. The results showed that the photocatalytic behaviour of the TiO2/CdS mixture is significantly better than that of pure nanopowders.

  14. A P2P Query Algorithm for Opportunistic Networks Utilizing betweenness Centrality Forwarding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwei Niu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of high-end mobile devices that feature wireless interfaces, many promising applications are enabled in opportunistic networks. In contrary to traditional networks, opportunistic networks utilize the mobility of nodes to relay messages in a store-carry-forward paradigm. Thus, the relay process in opportunistic networks faces several practical challenges in terms of delay and delivery rate. In this paper, we propose a novel P2P Query algorithm, namely Betweenness Centrality Forwarding (PQBCF, for opportunistic networking. PQBCF adopts a forwarding metric called Betweenness Centrality (BC, which is borrowed from social network, to quantify the active degree of nodes in the networks. In PQBCF, nodes with a higher BC are preferable to serve as relays, leading to higher query success rate and lower query delay. A comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms reveals that PQBCF can provide better performance on both the query success Ratio and query delay, and approaches the performance of Epidemic Routing (ER with much less resource consumption.

  15. Proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Tyhimurium Grown in Low Mg2+/pH Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Ansong, Charles; Smallwood, Heather S.; Rommereim, Leah M.; McDermott, Jason E.; Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Gustin, Jean K.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-09-04

    To determine the impact of a low Mg2+/pH defined growth medium (MgM) on the proteome of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, we cultured S. Typhimurium cells in the medium under two different conditions termed MgM Shock and MgM Dilution and then comparatively analyzed the bacterial cells harvested from these conditions by a global proteomic approach. Proteomic results showed that MgM Shock and MgM Dilution differentially affected the S. Typhimurium proteome. MgM Shock induced a group of proteins whose induction usually occurred at low O2 level, while MgM Dilution induced those related to the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 (SPI2) and those involved in thiamine or biotin biosynthesis. The metabolic state of the S. Typhimurium cells grown under MgM Shock condition also differed significantly from that under MgM Dilution condition. Western blot analysis not only confirmed the proteomic results, but also showed that the abundances of SPI2-T3SS proteins SsaQ and SseE and biotin biosynthesis proteins BioB and BioD increased after S. Typhimurium infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Deletion of the gene encoding BioB reduced the bacterial ability to replicate inside the macrophages, suggesting a biotin-limited environment encountered by S. Typhimurium within RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  16. Applying the breaks on gene expression - mRNA deadenylation by Pop2p

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kasper Røjkjær; Jonstrup, Anette Thyssen; Van, Lan Bich

    When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems to be the ......When driving a car, control of the brakes is just as important as control of the accelerator pedal. Likewise, in gene expression, regulation of mRNA degradation is as important as regulation of its synthesis (Mühlemann, 2005). The rate-determining step of mRNA decay in eukaryotes seems...... to be the shortening of the poly(A) tail (deadenylation), as this step is slower than the subsequent decapping and degradation of the mRNA body. The Mega-Dalton Ccr4-Not complex contains two exonucleases, Ccr4p and Pop2p, responsible for this process. It is not known at present why two conserved nucleases are needed...

  17. Enhancing Scalability in On-Demand Video Streaming Services for P2P Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arockia Xavier Annie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many video applications like video telephony, video conferencing, Video-on-Demand (VoD, and so forth have produced heterogeneous consumers in the Internet. In such a scenario, media servers play vital role when a large number of concurrent requests are sent by heterogeneous users. Moreover, the server and distributed client systems participating in the Internet communication have to provide suitable resources to heterogeneous users to meet their requirements satisfactorily. The challenges in providing suitable resources are to analyze the user service pattern, bandwidth and buffer availability, nature of applications used, and Quality of Service (QoS requirements for the heterogeneous users. Therefore, it is necessary to provide suitable techniques to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a framework for peer-to-peer- (P2P- based VoD service in order to provide effective video streaming. It consists of four functional modules, namely, Quality Preserving Multivariate Video Model (QPMVM for efficient server management, tracker for efficient peer management, heuristic-based content distribution, and light weight incentivized sharing mechanism. The first two of these modules are confined to a single entity of the framework while the other two are distributed across entities. Experimental results show that the proposed framework avoids overloading the server, increases the number of clients served, and does not compromise on QoS, irrespective of the fact that the expected framework is slightly reduced.

  18. Review of Brookhaven nuclear transparency measurements in (p, 2p) reactions at large Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, Alan S.

    2003-01-01

    In this contribution we summarize the results of two experiments to measure the transparency of nuclei in the (p, 2p) quasi-elastic scattering process near 90 deg in the pp center-of-mass. The incident momenta went from 6 to 14.4 GeV/c, corresponding to 4.8 2 2 . First, we describe the measurements with the newer experiment, E850, which has more complete kinematic definition of quasi-elastic events. E850 covers a larger range of incident momenta, and thus provides more information regarding the nature of the unexpected fall in the transparency above 9 GeV/c. Second, we review the techniques used in an earlier experiment, E834, and show that the two experiments are consistent for the carbon data. We use the transparencies measured in the five nuclei from Li to Pb to set limits on the rate of expansion for protons involved in quasi-elastic scattering at large momentum transfer. (author)

  19. Structured P2P overlay of mobile brokers for realizing publish/subscribe communication in VANET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Tulika; Garg, Deepak; Gore, Manoj Madhava

    2014-01-01

    Publish/subscribe communication paradigm provides asynchrony and decoupling, making it an elegant alternative for designing applications in distributed and dynamic environment such as vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this paradigm, the broker is the most important component that decouples other two components, namely, publisher and subscriber. Previous research efforts have either utilized the deployment of distributed brokers on stationary road side info-stations or have assigned the role of broker to any moving vehicle on ad hoc basis. In one approach, lots of preinstalled infrastructures are needed whereas, in another, the quality of service is not guaranteed due to unpredictable moving and stopping patterns of vehicles. In this paper, we present the architecture of distributed mobile brokers which are dynamically reconfigurable in the form of structured P2P overlay and act as rendezvous points for matching publications and subscriptions. We have taken city buses in urban settings to act as mobile brokers whereas other vehicles are considered to be in role of publishers and subscribers. These mobile brokers also assist in locating a vehicle for successful and timely transfer of notifications. We have performed an extensive simulation study to compare our approach with previously proposed approaches. Simulation results establish the applicability of our approach.

  20. Structured P2P Overlay of Mobile Brokers for Realizing Publish/Subscribe Communication in VANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Publish/subscribe communication paradigm provides asynchrony and decoupling, making it an elegant alternative for designing applications in distributed and dynamic environment such as vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. In this paradigm, the broker is the most important component that decouples other two components, namely, publisher and subscriber. Previous research efforts have either utilized the deployment of distributed brokers on stationary road side info-stations or have assigned the role of broker to any moving vehicle on ad hoc basis. In one approach, lots of preinstalled infrastructures are needed whereas, in another, the quality of service is not guaranteed due to unpredictable moving and stopping patterns of vehicles. In this paper, we present the architecture of distributed mobile brokers which are dynamically reconfigurable in the form of structured P2P overlay and act as rendezvous points for matching publications and subscriptions. We have taken city buses in urban settings to act as mobile brokers whereas other vehicles are considered to be in role of publishers and subscribers. These mobile brokers also assist in locating a vehicle for successful and timely transfer of notifications. We have performed an extensive simulation study to compare our approach with previously proposed approaches. Simulation results establish the applicability of our approach.

  1. Beam position reconstruction for the g2p experiment in Hall A at Jefferson lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengjia; Allada, Kalyan; Allison, Trent; Badman, Toby; Camsonne, Alexandre; Chen, Jian-ping; Cummings, Melissa; Gu, Chao; Huang, Min; Liu, Jie; Musson, John; Slifer, Karl; Sulkosky, Vincent; Ye, Yunxiu; Zhang, Jixie; Zielinski, Ryan

    2016-02-01

    Beam-line equipment was upgraded for experiment E08-027 (g2p) in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. Two beam position monitors (BPMs) were necessary to measure the beam position and angle at the target. A new BPM receiver was designed and built to handle the low beam currents (50-100 nA) used for this experiment. Two new super-harps were installed for calibrating the BPMs. In addition to the existing fast raster system, a slow raster system was installed. Before and during the experiment, these new devices were tested and debugged, and their performance was also evaluated. In order to achieve the required accuracy (1-2 mm in position and 1-2 mrad in angle at the target location), the data of the BPMs and harps were carefully analyzed, as well as reconstructing the beam position and angle event by event at the target location. The calculated beam position will be used in the data analysis to accurately determine the kinematics for each event.

  2. Inner-Shell Excitations of 2p Electrons of Argon Investigated by Fast Electron Impact with High Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Lin-Mao; Wang You-Yan; Li Dong-Dong; Yuan Zhen-Sheng; Zhu Lin-Fan

    2011-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectra of inner-shell excitations of 2p electrons of argon are measured at an incident electron energy of 2500 eV and scattering angles of 0° and 4°. The dipole-forbidden transitions of 2p −1 3/2 4p and 2p −1 3/2 5p are observed in the measured spectra and assigned based on the calculations of the Cowan code. The positions and line widths for the excitations of 2p −1 3/2 nl and 2p −1 1/2 nl (n ≤ 5) of argon are determined. The present results show that the line widths of the electric quadrupole transitions of 2p −1 3/2 4p[5/2 + 3/2] 2 and the electric monopole one of 2p −1 3/2 4p[1/2] 0 are less than those of the dipole-allowed transitions. (atomic and molecular physics)

  3. Normative weight-adjusted models for the median levels of first trimester serum biomarkers for trisomy 21 screening in a specific ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ounjai Kor-Anantakul

    Full Text Available To establish normative weight-adjusted models for the median levels of first trimester serum biomarkers for trisomy 21 screening in southern Thai women, and to compare these reference levels with Caucasian-specific and northern Thai models.A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1,150 normal singleton pregnancy women to determine serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A and free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG concentrations in women from southern Thailand. The predicted median values were compared with published equations for Caucasians and northern Thai women.The best-fitting regression equations for the expected median serum levels of PAPP-A (mIU/L and free β- hCG (ng/mL according to maternal weight (Wt in kg and gestational age (GA in days were: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Both equations were selected with a statistically significant contribution (p< 0.05. Compared with the Caucasian model, the median values of PAPP-A were higher and the median values of free β-hCG were lower in the southern Thai women. And compared with the northern Thai models, the median values of both biomarkers were lower in southern Thai women.The study has successfully developed maternal-weight- and gestational-age-adjusted median normative models to convert the PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels into their Multiple of Median equivalents in southern Thai women. These models confirmed ethnic differences.

  4. 14q deletions are associated with trisomy 12, NOTCH1 mutations and unmutated IGHV genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and small lymphocytic lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Adrien; Chapiro, Elise; Belhouachi, Nabila; Cung, Hong-Anh; Keren, Boris; Damm, Frederik; Algrin, Caroline; Lefebvre, Christine; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Luquet, Isabelle; Gachard, Nathalie; Mugneret, Francine; Terre, Christine; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnes; Michaux, Lucienne; Rafdord-Weiss, Isabelle; Talmant, Pascaline; Veronese, Lauren; Nadal, Nathalie; Struski, Stephanie; Barin, Carole; Helias, Catherine; Lafage, Marina; Lippert, Eric; Auger, Nathalie; Eclache, Virginie; Roos-Weil, Damien; Leblond, Veronique; Settegrana, Catherine; Maloum, Karim; Davi, Frederic; Merle-Beral, Helene; Lesty, Claude; Nguyen-Khac, Florence

    2014-08-01

    Deletions of the long arm of chromosome 14 [del(14q)] are rare but recurrently observed in mature B-cell neoplasms, particularly in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To further characterize this aberration, we studied 81 cases with del(14q): 54 of CLL and 27 of small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), the largest reported series to date. Using karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the most frequent additional abnormality was trisomy 12 (tri12), observed in 28/79 (35%) cases, followed by del13q14 (12/79, 15%), delTP53 (11/80, 14%) delATM (5/79, 6%), and del6q21 (3/76, 4%). IGHV genes were unmutated in 41/53 (77%) patients, with a high frequency of IGHV1-69 (21/52, 40%). NOTCH1 gene was mutated in 14/45 (31%) patients. There was no significant difference in cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities between CLL and SLL. Investigations using FISH and SNP-array demonstrated the heterogeneous size of the 14q deletions. However, a group with the same del(14)(q24.1q32.33) was identified in 48% of cases. In this group, tri12 (P = 0.004) and NOTCH1 mutations (P = 0.02) were significantly more frequent than in the other patients. In CLL patients with del(14q), median treatment-free survival (TFS) was 27 months. In conclusion, del(14q) is associated with tri12 and with pejorative prognostic factors: unmutated IGHV genes (with over-representation of the IGHV1-69 repertoire), NOTCH1 mutations, and a short TFS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of silver and rhodium mono- and polynuclear complexes with multidentate phosphines (Ph2P)2CHR (R = H, Me, PPh2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Ploeg, A.F.M.J. van der

    1981-01-01

    Trinuclear [{(Ph{2}P){3}CH}Ag{3}(O{2}CR'){3}], dinuclear [{(Ph{2}P){2}CHR}Ag{2}(O{2}CR'){2}], [{(Ph{2}P){2}CHR}{2}Ag{2}](BF{4}){2} and (Rh{2}(Cl)(CO){2}{(Ph{2}P){2}CHMe}{2}][RhCl{2}(CO){2}], and mononuclear (Rh{(Ph{2}P){2}CHR}{2}](BF{4}), (Rh{(Ph{2}P){2}CHR}{2}HCl](BF{4}), d

  6. An Amphiphysin-Like Domain in Fus2p Is Required for Rvs161p Interaction and Cortical Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Stein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell–cell fusion fulfils essential roles in fertilization, development and tissue repair. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fusion between two haploid cells of opposite mating type generates the diploid zygote. Fus2p is a pheromone-induced protein that regulates cell wall removal during mating. Fus2p shuttles from the nucleus to localize at the shmoo tip, bound to Rvs161p, an amphiphysin. However, Rvs161p independently binds a second amphiphysin, Rvs167p, playing an essential role in endocytosis. To understand the basis of the Fus2p–Rvs161p interaction, we analyzed Fus2p structural domains. A previously described N-terminal domain (NTD is necessary and sufficient to regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking of Fus2p. The Dbl homology domain (DBH binds GTP-bound Cdc42p; binding is required for cell fusion, but not localization. We identified an approximately 200 amino acid region of Fus2p that is both necessary and sufficient for Rvs161p binding. The Rvs161p binding domain (RBD contains three predicted alpha-helices; structural modeling suggests that the RBD adopts an amphiphysin-like structure. The RBD contains a 13-amino-acid region, conserved with Rvs161p and other amphiphysins, which is essential for binding. Mutations in the RBD, predicted to affect membrane binding, abolish cell fusion without affecting Rvs161p binding. We propose that Fus2p/Rvs161p form a novel heterodimeric amphiphysin required for cell fusion. Rvs161p binding is required but not sufficient for Fus2p localization. Mutations in the C-terminal domain (CTD of Fus2p block localization, but not Rvs161p binding, causing a significant defect in cell fusion. We conclude that the Fus2p CTD mediates an additional, Rvs161p-independent interaction at the shmoo tip.

  7. Ti 2p and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in titanium-bearing oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, Victor V.; Kesler, Valery G.; Pervukhina, Natalia V.; Zhang, Zhaoming

    2006-01-01

    A set of available experimental data on the binding energies of Ti 2p 3/2 and O 1s core levels in titanium-bearing oxides has been presented by using the binding energy difference (O 1s-Ti 2p 3/2 ) as a robust parameter to characterize these compounds. An empirical relationship between the (O 1s-Ti 2p 3/2 ) values measured with XPS and the mean chemical bond length L(Ti-O) in these crystals has been discussed for Ti 4+ -compounds

  8. Ti 2p and O 1s core levels and chemical bonding in titanium-bearing oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atuchin, Victor V. [Laboratory of Optical Materials and Structures, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: atuchin@thermo.isp.nsc.ru; Kesler, Valery G. [Technical Centre, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Pervukhina, Natalia V. [Laboratory of Crystal Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, SB RAS, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Zhang, Zhaoming [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2006-06-15

    A set of available experimental data on the binding energies of Ti 2p{sub 3/2} and O 1s core levels in titanium-bearing oxides has been presented by using the binding energy difference (O 1s-Ti 2p{sub 3/2}) as a robust parameter to characterize these compounds. An empirical relationship between the (O 1s-Ti 2p{sub 3/2}) values measured with XPS and the mean chemical bond length L(Ti-O) in these crystals has been discussed for Ti{sup 4+}-compounds.

  9. Measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in helium-like and lithium-like nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacarias, A.S.; Livingston, A.E.; Lu, Y.N.; Ward, R.F.; Berry, H.G.; Dunford, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The wavelength of the fine structure transition 1s2s 3 S 1 - 1s2p 3 P 2 in Ni XXVII has been measured using fast-ion spectroscopy. The transition energy is sensitive to relativistic and Lamb shift corrections in this high-Z two-electron system. Comparison is made with measurements in other high-Z ions and with recent theoretical calculations. A preliminary measurement of the 1s 2 2s 2 S/sub 1/2/ - 1s 2 2p 2 P/sub 1/2/ find structure transition in Ni XXVI is also reported. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Casein kinase II is required for the spindle assembly checkpoint by regulating Mad2p in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Midori; Yamamoto, Ayumu; Murakami-Tonami, Yuko; Nakanishi, Makoto; Yoshida, Takashi; Aiba, Hirofumi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a surveillance mechanism that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis. Here we show that fission yeast casein kinase II (CK2) is required for this checkpoint function. In the CK2 mutants mitosis occurs in the presence of a spindle defect, and the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2p fails to localize to unattached kinetochores. The CK2 mutants are sensitive to the microtubule depolymerising drug thiabendazole, which is counteracted by ectopic expression of mad2 + . The level of Mad2p is low in the CK2 mutants. These results suggest that CK2 has a role in the spindle checkpoint by regulating Mad2p.

  11. Observation of high magnetocrystalline anisotropy on Co doping in rare earth free Fe2P magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Jyoti; Singh, Om Pal; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Kashyap, Manish K.

    2018-04-01

    ab-initio investigation of magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE) for Fe2P and CoFeP using density functional theory based full-potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) is reported. CoFeP alloy exhibits large magnetic moment 13.28 µB and enhanced anisotropy energy reaching as high as 1326 µeV/f.u. This energy is nearly doubled as compared to its parent Fe2P alloy, making this system a promising candidate for a rare earth free permanent magnet. Substituitng Co at Fe-3f site in Fe2P helps in stabilizing the new structure and further improves the magnetic properties.

  12. Total and partial recombination cross sections for F6+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitnik, D.M.; Pindzola, M.S.; Badnell, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    Total and partial recombination cross sections for F 6+ are calculated using close-coupling and distorted-wave theory. For total cross sections, close-coupling and distorted-wave results, which include interference between the radiative and dielectronic pathways, are found to be in good agreement with distorted-wave results based on a sum of independent processes. Total cross sections near zero energy are dominated by contributions from low-energy dielectronic recombination resonances. For partial cross sections, the close-coupling and distorted-wave theories predict strong interference for recombination into the final recombined ground state 1s 2 2s 21 S 0 of F 5+ , but only weak interference for recombination into the levels of the 1s 2 2s2p configuration. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Assessing the date of the global oil peak: The need to use 2P reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, R.W.; Mannan, S.A.; Wheeler, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Combining geological knowledge with proved plus probable ('2P') oil discovery data indicates that over 60 countries are now past their resource-limited peak of conventional oil production. The data show that the global peak of conventional oil production is close. Many analysts who rely only on proved ('1P') oil reserves data draw a very different conclusion. But proved oil reserves contain no information about the true size of discoveries, being variously under-reported, over-reported and not reported. Reliance on 1P data has led to a number of misconceptions, including the notion that past oil forecasts were incorrect, that oil reserves grow very significantly due to technology gain, and that the global supply of oil is ensured provided sufficient investment is forthcoming to 'turn resources into reserves'. These misconceptions have been widely held, including within academia, governments, some oil companies, and organisations such as the IEA. In addition to conventional oil, the world contains large quantities of non-conventional oil. Most current detailed models show that past the conventional oil peak the non-conventional oils are unlikely to come on-stream fast enough to offset conventional's decline. To determine the extent of future oil supply constraints calculations are required to determine fundamental rate limits for the production of non-conventional oils, as well as oil from gas, coal and biomass, and of oil substitution. Such assessments will need to examine technological readiness and lead-times, as well as rate constraints on investment, pollution, and net-energy return

  14. Relay discovery and selection for large-scale P2P streaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwei Zhang

    Full Text Available In peer-to-peer networks, application relays have been commonly used to provide various networking services. The service performance often improves significantly if a relay is selected appropriately based on its network location. In this paper, we studied the location-aware relay discovery and selection problem for large-scale P2P streaming networks. In these large-scale and dynamic overlays, it incurs significant communication and computation cost to discover a sufficiently large relay candidate set and further to select one relay with good performance. The network location can be measured directly or indirectly with the tradeoffs between timeliness, overhead and accuracy. Based on a measurement study and the associated error analysis, we demonstrate that indirect measurements, such as King and Internet Coordinate Systems (ICS, can only achieve a coarse estimation of peers' network location and those methods based on pure indirect measurements cannot lead to a good relay selection. We also demonstrate that there exists significant error amplification of the commonly used "best-out-of-K" selection methodology using three RTT data sets publicly available. We propose a two-phase approach to achieve efficient relay discovery and accurate relay selection. Indirect measurements are used to narrow down a small number of high-quality relay candidates and the final relay selection is refined based on direct probing. This two-phase approach enjoys an efficient implementation using the Distributed-Hash-Table (DHT. When the DHT is constructed, the node keys carry the location information and they are generated scalably using indirect measurements, such as the ICS coordinates. The relay discovery is achieved efficiently utilizing the DHT-based search. We evaluated various aspects of this DHT-based approach, including the DHT indexing procedure, key generation under peer churn and message costs.

  15. Collisions of halogen (2P) and rare gas (1S) atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.H.

    1978-12-01

    Differential cross sections I (THETA) at several collision energies measured in crossed molecular beam experiments are reported for several combinations of halogen atoms ( 2 P) scattered off rare gas-rare gas atoms ( 1 S 0 ), namely, F + Ne, F + Ar, F + Kr, F + Xe, C1 + Xe. The scattering is described by an elastic model appropriate to Hund's case c coupling. With the use of this model, the X 1/2, I 3/2, and II 1/2 interaction potential energy curves are derived by fitting calculated differential cross sections, based on analytic representations of the potentials, to the data. The F - Xe X 1/2 potential shows a significant bonding qualitatively different than for the other F-rare gases. The I 3/2 and II 1/2 potentials closely resemble the van der Waals interactions of the one electron richer ground state rare gas-rare gas systems. Coupled-channel scattering calculations are carried out for F + Ar, F + Xe, and C1 + Xe using the realistic potential curves derived earlier. The results justify the use of the elastic model, and give additional information on intramultiplet and intermultiplet transitions. The transitions are found to be governed by the crossing of the two Ω = 1/2 potentials in the complex plane. The measured I (theta) and I (THETA) derived from the coupled-channel computations show small oscillations or perturbations (Stueckelberg oscillations) though quantitative agreement is not obtained.The nature of the anomalous F - Xe X 1/2 potential is discussed as is the approximation of a constant spin orbit coupling over the experimentally accessible range of internuclear distances for these open shell molecules. 55 references

  16. Relative brightness of the O+(2 D-2 P) doublets in low-energy aurorae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiter, D. K.; Lanchester, B. S.; Gustavsson, B.; Jallo, N. I. B.; Jokiaho, O.; Dahlgren, H.; Ivchenko, N.

    2014-01-01

    The ratio of the emission line doublets from O + at 732.0 nm (I 732 ) and 733.0 nm (I 733 ) has been measured in auroral conditions of low-energy electron precipitation from Svalbard (78.°20 north, 15.°83 east). Accurate determination of R = I 732 /I 733 provides a powerful method for separating the density of the O + 2 P 1 /2,3 /2 o levels in modeling of the emissions from the doublets. A total of 383 spectra were included from the winter of 2003-2004. The value obtained is R = I 732 /I 733 = 1.38 ± 0.02, which is higher than theoretical values for thermal equilibrium in fully ionized plasma, but is lower than reported measurements by other authors in similar auroral conditions. The continuity equations for the densities of the two levels are solved for different conditions, in order to estimate the possible variations of R. The results suggest that the production of ions in the two levels from O ( 3 P 1 ) and O ( 3 P 2 ) does not follow the statistical weights, unlike astrophysical calculations for plasmas in nebulae. The physics of auroral impact ionization may account for this difference, and therefore for the raised value of R. In addition, the auroral solution of the densities of the ions, and thus of the value of R, is sensitive to the temperature of the neutral atmosphere. Although the present work is a statistical study, it shows that it is necessary to determine whether there are significant variations in the ratio resulting from non-equilibrium conditions, from auroral energy deposition, large electric fields, and changes in temperature and composition.

  17. Parachute technique for partial penectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Penile carcinoma is a rare but mutilating malignancy. In this context, partial penectomy is the most commonly applied approach for best oncological results. We herein propose a simple modification of the classic technique of partial penectomy, for better cosmetic and functional results. TECHNIQUE: If partial penectomy is indicated, the present technique can bring additional benefits. Different from classical technique, the urethra is spatulated only ventrally. An inverted "V" skin flap with 0.5 cm of extension is sectioned ventrally. The suture is performed with vicryl 4-0 in a "parachute" fashion, beginning from the ventral portion of the urethra and the "V" flap, followed by the "V" flap angles and than by the dorsal portion of the penis. After completion of the suture, a Foley catheter and light dressing are placed for 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Several complex reconstructive techniques have been previously proposed, but normally require specific surgical abilities, adequate patient selection and staged procedures. We believe that these reconstructive techniques are very useful in some specific subsets of patients. However, the technique herein proposed is a simple alternative that can be applied to all men after a partial penectomy, and takes the same amount of time as that in the classic technique. In conclusion, the "parachute" technique for penile reconstruction after partial amputation not only improves the appearance of the penis, but also maintains an adequate function.

  18. Towards the Engineering of Dependable P2P-Based Network Control — The Case of Timely Routing Control Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutschku, Kurt; Nakao, Akihiro

    This paper introduces a methodology for engineering best-effort P2P algorithms into dependable P2P-based network control mechanism. The proposed method is built upon an iterative approach consisting of improving the original P2P algorithm by appropriate mechanisms and of thorough performance assessment with respect to dependability measures. The potential of the methodology is outlined by the example of timely routing control for vertical handover in B3G wireless networks. In detail, the well-known Pastry and CAN algorithms are enhanced to include locality. By showing how to combine algorithmic enhancements with performance indicators, this case study paves the way for future engineering of dependable network control mechanisms through P2P algorithms.

  19. NLO NRQCD disfavors the interpretation of X(3872) as {chi}{sub c1}(2P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butenschoen, Mathias [Wien Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Physik; He, Zhi-Guo; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-03-15

    We study {chi}{sub c1}(2P) inclusive hadroproduction at next-to-leading order (NLO) within the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD), including both the color-singlet {sup 3}P{sub 1}{sup [1]} and color-octet {sup 3}S{sub 1}{sup [8]} c anti c Fock states. Assuming the recently discovered X(3872) hadron to be the 2P (1{sup ++}) charmonium state, we perform a fit to the cross sections measured by the CDF, CMS, and LHCb Collaborations. We either obtain an unacceptably high value of {chi}{sup 2} or a value of vertical stroke R{sub 2P}{sup '}(0) vertical stroke incompatible with well-established potential models. We thus conclude that NLO NRQCD is incompatible with the hypothesis X(3872){identical_to}{chi}{sub c1}(2P).

  20. Observation of the hadronic transitions χb1,2(2P)→ωΥ(1S)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Park, C.S.; Park, W.; Thayer, J.B.; Thorndike, E.H.; Coan, T.E.; Gao, Y.S.; Liu, F.; Stroynowski, R.; Artuso, M.; Boulahouache, C.; Blusk, S.; Dambasuren, E.; Dorjkhaidav, O.; Mountain, R.; Muramatsu, H.; Nandakumar, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Wang, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The CLEO Collaboration has made the first observations of hadronic transitions among bottomonium (bb-bar) states other than the dipion transitions among Υ(nS) states. In our study of Υ(3S) decays, we find a significant signal for Υ(3S)→γωΥ(1S) that is consistent with radiative decays Υ(3S)→γχ b1,2 (2P), followed by χ b1,2 (2P)→ωΥ(1S). The branching ratios we obtain are B[χ b1 (2P)→ωΥ(1S)]=(1.63 -0.31-0.15 +0.35+0.16 )% and B[χ b2 (2P)→ωΥ(1S)]=(1.10 -0.28-0.10 +0.32+0.11 )%, in which the first error is statistical and the second is systematic.

  1. Dual pO2/pCO2 fibre optic sensing film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, John J; Hickey, Michelle; Phillips, Justin P; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A

    2017-05-15

    A fibre optic multi-sensor has been developed for biomedical sensing applications using a tip coating solution sensitive to both oxygen and carbon dioxide. An oxygen sensitive phosphorescence quenching complex based on platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) was combined with a carbon dioxide sensitive phosphorescence compound based on 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS). When excited by blue light (470 nm), the resultant coating had two fluorescent peaks at 515 nm (green) and 645 nm (red) which responded to partial pressure of CO 2 and O 2 respectively. The sensor was tested in vitro and shown to be able to measure CO 2 and O 2 simultaneously and in real time, with calibration constants of 0.0384 kPa -1 and 0.309 kPa -1 respectively. The O 2 sensitive peak received some overlap from the 515 nm peak (0.38% of peak intensity) as well as some cross-sensitivity (maximum, 5.1 kPa pCO 2 gave a measurement equivalent to 0.43 kPa of O 2 , a ratio of 0.08 : 1). However, these effects can be subtracted from measurements and no significant cross-sensitivity or overlap was seen in CO 2 measurements from O 2 . This novel compound presents great potential for use in medical sensors and we expect it to be important to a wide range of future applications.

  2. Sampling system for pulsed signals. Study of the radioactive lifetimes of excited 3{sup 2}P1/2 and 3{sup 2}P3/2 states of Na, excited by a tunable dye laser; Sistema de muestreo para senales pulsadas. Estudio de vidas medias de niveles 3{sup 2} P1/2 y 3{sup 2}P3/2 excitados por un laser de colorantes pulsado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P; Campos, J

    1979-07-01

    A system for sampling and averaging repetitive signals in the order of nanoseconds is discussed. The system uses as storage memory a multichannel analyzer operating in multi scaling mode. This instrument is employed for the measurement of atomic level lifetimes using a dye laser to excite the atoms and is applied to the study of lifetimes of the 3{sup 2}P1/2 and 3{sup 2}P3/2 states of sodium. (Author) 32 refs.

  3. A lifetime measurement of the 1s2p 3P1 level in helium-like Mg and Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, I.A.; Silver, J.D.; Traebert, E.; Oxford Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetimes of the 1s2p 3 P 1 levels of helium-like magnesium and aluminium have been measured by the beam-foil decay curve technique. The 1s 2 -1s2p transitions were observed with a curved-crystal x-ray spectrometer. Decay curves taken under systematically varied conditions have been evaluated using several techniques including a cascade model. The results are in agreement with most of the theoretical predictions. (author)

  4. Comparative analysis of environmental impact of S2P (Sunshine to Petrol) system for transportation fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiyong; Miller, James E.; Maravelias, Christos T.; Stechel, Ellen B.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • We study solar fuels derived from CO 2 and water using the S2P framework. • S2P fuels have lower environmental impact than conventional fuels. • We evaluate the economic, environmental, and social benefits of the S2P framework. - Abstract: A previous study on Sunshine to Petrol (S2P), a technology framework to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels from CO 2 and water using a concentrated solar energy source, focused on process development as well as economic evaluation. The study herein presents results from a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of S2P-derived and petroleum-derived gasoline. Results reveal that S2P gasoline shows lower impact scores than the conventional gasoline for all evaluated impact categories. Based on the LCA results, we then analyze the environmental benefits including greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and external cost savings. We find that if S2P gasoline could be successfully introduced to satisfy the gasoline demand of a sample city, Victorville in east California, 3.6 Mt CO 2-eq of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (77% of the total regional emissions) would be mitigated based on the current fleet of vehicles. The lighter impact also corresponds to 4.2 M$ annual cost savings from avoided environment damage. More generally, for each million vehicles running on S2P gasoline there would be nearly $30 M in savings and 335 M gallons of gasoline displaced, which in turn results in nearly 25.8 Mt of CO 2-eq avoided

  5. [In situ diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy study of CO adsorption on Ni2P/mesoporous molecule sieve catalysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian-qian; Ji, Sheng-fu; Wu, Ping-yi; Hu, Lin-hua; Huang, Xiao-fan; Zhu, Ji-qin; Li, Cheng-yue

    2009-05-01

    Abstract The supported nickel phosphate precursors were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation using nickel nitrate as nickel source, diammonium hydrogen phosphate as phosphorus source, and MCM-41, MCM-48, SBA-15 and SBA-16 as supports, respectively. Then, the supported Ni2 P catalysts were prepared by temperature-programmed reduction in flowing Hz from their nickel phosphate precursors. The in situ diffuse reflectance FTIR spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis with the probe molecule CO was carried out to characterize the surface properties. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the spectral features of the samples. The upsilon(CO) absorbances observed for adsorbed CO on mesoporous molecule sieve was attributed to weak physical adsorption. There are four different kinds of upsilon(CO) absorbances observed for adsorbed CO on Ni2 P/MCM-41 catalyst with the following assignments: (1) the formation of Ni(CO)4 at 2055 cm(-1). (2) CO terminally bonded to cus Ni(delta+) (02P/MCM-48, Ni2P/ SBA-15 and Ni2P/SBA-16 catalysts. The absorbance observed at 2051-2055 cm(-1) for CO adsorption on Ni2P/MCM-48, Ni2P/SBA-15 and Ni2P/SBA-16 catalysts is due to the formation of Ni(CO)4 species. The other upsilon absorbances observed at 2093-2096 cm(-1) was attributed to CO terminally bonded to cus Ni(delta+) (0

  6. Partial Transposition on Bipartite System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi-Jun, Ren; Yong-Jian, Han; Yu-Chun, Wu; Guang-Can, Guo

    2008-01-01

    Many properties of partial transposition are unclear as yet. Here we carefully consider the number of the negative eigenvalues of ρ T (ρ's partial transposition) when ρ is a two-partite state. There is strong evidence to show that the number of negative eigenvalues of ρ T is N(N − 1)/2 at most when ρ is a state in Hilbert space C N C N . For the special case, the 2 × 2 system, we use this result to give a partial proof of the conjecture |ρ T | T ≥ 0. We find that this conjecture is strongly connected with the entanglement of the state corresponding to the negative eigenvalue of ρ T or the negative entropy of ρ

  7. Partial volume effect in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munehiro; Yoshiya, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiji

    1989-01-01

    According to the direction and the thickness of the imaging slice in tomography, the border between the tissues becomes unclear (partial volume effect). In the present MRI experiment, we examined border area between fat and water components using phantom in order to investigate the partial volume effect in MRI. In spin echo sequences, the intensity of the border area showed a linear relationship with composition of fat and water. Whereas, in inversion recovery and field echo sequences, we found the parameters to produce an extremely low intensity area at the border region between fat and water. This low intensity area was explained by cancellation of NMR signals from fat and water due to the difference in the direction of magnetic vectors. Clinically, partial volume effect can cause of mis-evaluation of walls, small nodules, tumor capsules and the tumor invasion in the use of inversion recovery and field echo sequences. (author)

  8. Partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2017-01-01

    We consider a model of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking with a partially composite Goldstone Higgs boson. The model is based on a strongly interacting fermionic sector coupled to a fundamental scalar sector via Yukawa interactions. The SU(4)×SU(4) global symmetry of these two sectors...... is broken to a single SU(4) via Yukawa interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced by condensation due to the strong interactions in the new fermionic sector which further breaks the global symmetry SU(4)→Sp(4). The Higgs boson arises as a partially composite state which is an exact...... Goldstone boson in the limit where SM interactions are turned off. Terms breaking the SU(4) global symmetry explicitly generate a mass for the Goldstone Higgs boson. The model realizes in different limits both (partially) composite Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models, thereby providing a convenient...

  9. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Gre2p, an NADP+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breicha, Klaus; Müller, Marion; Hummel, Werner; Niefind, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase Gre2p from S. cerevisiae catalyses the stereospecific reduction of a variety of different keto compounds and can therefore be applied as a valuable biocatalyst. The crystallization of the complex of Gre2p with NADP + and its preliminary X-ray analysis are described. Gre2p [Genes de respuesta a estres (stress-response gene)] from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a monomeric enzyme of 342 amino acids with a molecular weight of 38.1 kDa. The enzyme catalyses both the stereospecific reduction of keto compounds and the oxidation of various hydroxy compounds and alcohols by the simultaneous consumption of the cofactor NADPH and formation of NADP + . Crystals of a Gre2p complex with NADP + were grown using PEG 8000 as a precipitant. They belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 . The current diffraction resolution is 3.2 Å. In spite of the monomeric nature of Gre2p in solution, packing and self-rotation calculations revealed the existence of two Gre2p protomers per asymmetric unit related by a twofold noncrystallographic axis

  11. In Candida albicans hyphae, Sec2p is physically associated with SEC2 mRNA on secretory vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Lima, David; Hautbergue, Guillaume M; Wilson, Stuart A; Sudbery, Peter E

    2014-11-01

    Candida albicans hyphae grow in a highly polarized fashion from their tips. This polarized growth requires the continuous delivery of secretory vesicles to the tip region. Vesicle delivery depends on Sec2p, the Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) for the Rab GTPase Sec4p. GTP bound Sec4p is required for the transit of secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi to sites of polarized growth. We previously showed that phosphorylation of Sec2p at residue S584 was necessary for Sec2p to support hyphal, but not yeast growth. Here we show that on secretory vesicles SEC2 mRNA is physically associated with Sec2p. Moreover, we show that the phosphorylation of S584 allows SEC2 mRNA to dissociate from Sec2p and we speculate that this is necessary for Sec2p function and/or translation. During hyphal extension, the growing tip may be separated from the nucleus by up to 15 μm. Transport of SEC2 mRNA on secretory vesicles to the tip localizes SEC2 translation to tip allowing a sufficient accumulation of this key protein at the site of polarized growth. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Activity of platinum/carbon and palladium/carbon catalysts promoted by Ni2 P in direct ethanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Feng, Ligang; Chang, Jinfa; Wickman, Björn; Grönbeck, Henrik; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol is an alternative fuel for direct alcohol fuel cells, in which the electrode materials are commonly based on Pt or Pd. Owing to the excellent promotion effect of Ni2 P that was found in methanol oxidation, we extended the catalyst system of Pt or Pd modified by Ni2 P in direct ethanol fuel cells. The Ni2 P-promoted catalysts were compared to commercial catalysts as well as to reference catalysts promoted with only Ni or only P. Among the studied catalysts, Pt/C and Pd/C modified by Ni2 P (30 wt %) showed both the highest activity and stability. Upon integration into the anode of a homemade direct ethanol fuel cell, the Pt-Ni2 P/C-30 % catalyst showed a maximum power density of 21 mW cm(-2) , which is approximately two times higher than that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. The Pd-Ni2 P/C-30 % catalyst exhibited a maximum power density of 90 mW cm(-2) . This is approximately 1.5 times higher than that of a commercial Pd/C catalyst. The discharge stability on both two catalysts was also greatly improved over a 12 h discharge operation. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A mechanism for the coordination of proliferation and differentiation by spatial regulation of Fus2p in budding yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junwon; Rose, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells induce the genes required for mating prior to the completion of mitosis. To ensure proper cell cycle progression prior to mating differentiation, a key cytoplasmic regulator of cell fusion, Fus2p, is sequestered in the nucleus by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk). In response to pheromone signaling, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fus3p phosphorylates Ser 84 in Fus2p to drive nuclear export. We found that Fus3p becomes active and phosphorylates S84 as early as S phase, raising the question of how Cdk prevents inappropriate activation of Fus2p. Countering Fus3p, Cdk and a p21-activated kinase, Cla4p, maintain Fus2p's nuclear localization by phosphorylating Ser 67, which drives nuclear import and inhibits nuclear export. When Cdk and Cla4p activities drop after cell division, Fus3p promotes Fus2p export both via S84 phosphorylation and by down-regulating S67 phosphorylation. Thus, potential premature activation of Fus2p in mitosis is prevented by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation that overrides the mating pheromone-induced phosphorylation that drives nuclear export. PMID:22588722

  14. Basic linear partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Treves, Francois

    1975-01-01

    Focusing on the archetypes of linear partial differential equations, this text for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students features most of the basic classical results. The methods, however, are decidedly nontraditional: in practically every instance, they tend toward a high level of abstraction. This approach recalls classical material to contemporary analysts in a language they can understand, as well as exploiting the field's wealth of examples as an introduction to modern theories.The four-part treatment covers the basic examples of linear partial differential equations and their

  15. Elements of partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, Ian Naismith

    1957-01-01

    Geared toward students of applied rather than pure mathematics, this volume introduces elements of partial differential equations. Its focus is primarily upon finding solutions to particular equations rather than general theory.Topics include ordinary differential equations in more than two variables, partial differential equations of the first and second orders, Laplace's equation, the wave equation, and the diffusion equation. A helpful Appendix offers information on systems of surfaces, and solutions to the odd-numbered problems appear at the end of the book. Readers pursuing independent st

  16. Electron excitation cross sections of the 2p53s levels of neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The electron excitation cross sections of the four 2p 5 3s levels of neon are measured by means of a new technique using laser induced fluorescenc. The values of both the apparent and direct excitatiuon cross sections are given as a function of incident electron energy (0-100eV for 1s 3 and 1s 5 metastable levels and 0-300 eV for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 resonance levels). The metastable levels are triplet states and their cross sections are sharply peaked. At the peak, 30 eV, the measured values of the cross sections are 0.59 x 10 -18 cm 2 for the 1s 3 level and 3.2 x 10 -18 cm 2 for the 1s 5 level. The 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels are mixtures of singlet and triplet states, and the cross sections are broad and peak at 60 eV. The apparent cross sections at 60 eV are 13.5 x 10 -18 cm 2 for the 1s 2 level and 2.9 x 10 -18 cm 2 for the 1s 4 level. Measurement of the atomic number density of each of the 1s levels is performed using the pulsed laser induced fluorescence. The measured values of the number density and the excitation cross section are used to obtain the lifetime of each level. The measured value of the reciprocal of the 1s 3 and 1s 5 lifetime is 1 x 10 5 s -1 . The 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels are radiation trapped, and the reciprocals of their lifetimes are 4 x 10 5 s -1 and 3 x 10 5 s -1 respectively. The electron excitation cross sections of the magnetic sublevels of each 1s level are obtained by measuring the polarization of the laser induced fluorescence as a function of laser polarization. The excitation cross sections of each of the magnetic sublevels within a particular 1s level are equal within experimental uncertainty

  17. The amino-terminus of the hepatitis C virus (HCV p7 viroporin and its cleavage from glycoprotein E2-p7 precursor determine specific infectivity and secretion levels of HCV particle types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solène Denolly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Viroporins are small transmembrane proteins with ion channel activities modulating properties of intracellular membranes that have diverse proviral functions. Hepatitis C virus (HCV encodes a viroporin, p7, acting during assembly, envelopment and secretion of viral particles (VP. HCV p7 is released from the viral polyprotein through cleavage at E2-p7 and p7-NS2 junctions by signal peptidase, but also exists as an E2p7 precursor, of poorly defined properties. Here, we found that ectopic p7 expression in HCVcc-infected cells reduced secretion of particle-associated E2 glycoproteins. Using biochemical assays, we show that p7 dose-dependently slows down the ER-to-Golgi traffic, leading to intracellular retention of E2, which suggested that timely E2p7 cleavage and p7 liberation are critical events to control E2 levels. By studying HCV mutants with accelerated E2p7 processing, we demonstrate that E2p7 cleavage controls E2 intracellular expression and secretion levels of nucleocapsid-free subviral particles and infectious virions. In addition, our imaging data reveal that, following p7 liberation, the amino-terminus of p7 is exposed towards the cytosol and coordinates the encounter between NS5A and NS2-based assembly sites loaded with E1E2 glycoproteins, which subsequently leads to nucleocapsid envelopment. We identify punctual mutants at p7 membrane interface that, by abrogating NS2/NS5A interaction, are defective for transmission of infectivity owing to decreased secretion of core and RNA and to increased secretion of non/partially-enveloped particles. Altogether, our results indicate that the retarded E2p7 precursor cleavage is essential to regulate the intracellular and secreted levels of E2 through p7-mediated modulation of the cell secretory pathway and to unmask critical novel assembly functions located at p7 amino-terminus.

  18. miR expression in MYC-negative DLBCL/BL with partial trisomy 11 is similar to classical Burkitt lymphoma and different from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Michalina; Rymkiewicz, Grzegorz; Chechlinska, Magdalena; Blachnio, Katarzyna; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Grygalewicz, Beata; Goryca, Krzysztof; Cieslikowska, Maria; Bystydzienski, Zbigniew; Swoboda, Pawel; Walewski, Jan; Siwicki, Jan Konrad

    2015-07-01

    Fast and reliable differential diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) vs. diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is of major importance for therapeutic decisions and patient outcome. Aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) that do not belong to the abovementioned entities were categorized by the current WHO lymphoma classification as "B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL" (DLBCL/BL). We have recently described a DLBCL/BL subgroup with recurrent chromosome 11q aberrations, resembling BL (B-NHLs[11q]). Here, we analyzed 102 prospectively collected fine needle aspirates from patients with aggressive B-NHLs in order to investigate the potential of microRNA (miR)-155, its precursor BIC, as well as miR-21 and miR-26a to differentiate BL from DLBCL, and from DLBCL/BL that include B-NHLs[11q]. Both BL and DLBCL/BL cases, including B-NHLs[11q], demonstrated significantly lower expression levels of miR-155/BIC, miR-21, and miR-26a compared to primary DLBCL. In conclusion, the miRs expression in B-NHLs[11q] provides a new suggestion, in addition to pathomorphological and clinical similarities between classical, i.e., MYC translocation-positive BL, and B-NHLs[11q], to recognize the B-NHLs[11q] subgroup of DLBCL/BL category as a MYC translocation-negative variant of BL in most cases, and points to the potential utility of miR-155/BIC/miR-21/miR-26a for the differential diagnosis of a heterogeneous category of DLBCL/BL.

  19. Crossed molecular beam-tunable laser determination of velocity dependence of intramultiplet mixing: K(4p2P1/2)+He →K(4p2P3/2)+He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.W.; Goddard, T.P.; Parravano, C.; Warner, J.

    1976-01-01

    The velocity dependence of intramultiplet mixing, K(4p 2 P 1 / 2 ) +He→K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 )+He, has been measured over the relative velocity range v=1.3--3.4 km/sec. The cross section appears to fit a linear function Q (v) =A (v-v 0 ), where a=6.3 x 10 -4 A 2 and v 0 = 7.9 x 10 4 cm/sec. The value of A is obtained by normalization to the literature thermal average cross section. The intramultiplet mixing theory of Nikitin is modified to yield Q (v) for the process. The modified theory correctly exhibits detailed balancing, and it is normalized to provide a very good fit to the observed Q (v). The magnitude of the normalization factor, however, is larger than that predicted from recent pseudopotential calculations of the excited state potentials. The temperature dependence of intramultiplet mixing is predicted. The use of laser polarization to determine the m/subj/ dependence of the process K(4p 2 P 3 / 2 +He→K(4p 2 P 1 / 2 )+He and other collision processes of excited 2 P 3 / 2 states is examined

  20. A de-novo interstitial microduplication involving 2p16.1-p15 and mirroring 2p16.1-p15 microdeletion syndrome: Clinical and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Yeshaya, Josepha; Kahana, Sarit; Maya, Idit; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina

    2015-11-01

    Microdeletions of various sizes in the 2p16.1-p15 chromosomal region have been grouped together under the 2p16.1-p15 microdeletion syndrome. Children with this syndrome generally share certain features including microcephaly, developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, urogenital and skeletal abnormalities. We present a child with a de-novo interstitial 1665 kb duplication of 2p16.1-p15. Clinical features of this child are distinct from those of children with the 2p16.1-p15 microdeletion syndrome, specifically the head circumference which is within the normal range and mild intellectual disability with absence of autistic behaviors. Microduplications many times bear milder clinical phenotypes in comparison with corresponding microdeletion syndromes. Indeed, as compared to the microdeletion syndrome patients, the 2p16.1-p15 microduplication seems to have a milder cognitive effect and no effect on other body systems. Limited information available in genetic databases about cases with overlapping duplications indicates that they all have abnormal developmental phenotypes. The involvement of genes in this location including BCL11A, USP34 and PEX13, affecting fundamental developmental processes both within and outside the nervous system may explain the clinical features of the individual described in this report. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.