WorldWideScience

Sample records for partial span trailing

  1. Existence of spanning and dominating trails and circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Let T be a trail of a graph G. T is a spanning trail (S-trail) if T contains all vertices of G. T is a dominating trail (D-trail) if every edge of G is incident with at least one vertex of T. A circuit is a nontrivial closed trail. Sufficient conditions involving lower bounds on the degree-sum of

  2. Electrode spanning with partial tripolar stimulation mode in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ching-Chih; Luo, Xin

    2014-12-01

    The perceptual effects of electrode spanning (i.e., the use of nonadjacent return electrodes) in partial tripolar (pTP) mode were tested on a main electrode EL8 in five cochlear implant (CI) users. Current focusing was controlled by σ (the ratio of current returned within the cochlea), and current steering was controlled by α (the ratio of current returned to the basal electrode). Experiment 1 tested whether asymmetric spanning with α = 0.5 can create additional channels around standard pTP stimuli. It was found that in general, apical spanning (i.e., returning current to EL6 rather than EL7) elicited a pitch between those of standard pTP stimuli on main electrodes EL8 and EL9, while basal spanning (i.e., returning current to EL10 rather than EL9) elicited a pitch between those of standard pTP stimuli on main electrodes EL7 and EL8. The pitch increase caused by apical spanning was more salient than the pitch decrease caused by basal spanning. To replace the standard pTP channel on the main electrode EL8 when EL7 or EL9 is defective, experiment 2 tested asymmetrically spanned pTP stimuli with various α, and experiment 3 tested symmetrically spanned pTP stimuli with various σ. The results showed that pitch increased with decreasing α in asymmetric spanning, or with increasing σ in symmetric spanning. Apical spanning with α around 0.69 and basal spanning with α around 0.38 may both elicit a similar pitch as the standard pTP stimulus. With the same σ, the symmetrically spanned pTP stimulus was higher in pitch than the standard pTP stimulus. A smaller σ was thus required for symmetric spanning to match the pitch of the standard pTP stimulus. In summary, electrode spanning is an effective field-shaping technique that is useful for adding spectral channels and handling defective electrodes with CIs.

  3. Management of long span partially edentulous maxilla with fixed removable denture prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahilan I Jeyavalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a long span partially edentulous maxilla with tooth supported prosthesis is challenging because of inherent anatomic limitations and unfavourable biomechanics present after the loss of teeth. A tooth supported fixed-removable prosthesis is a treatment option for restoration of such long span partially edentulous maxillary arches. This prosthesis meets the requirements for esthetics, phonetics, comfort, and hygiene, as well as favourable biomechanical stress distribution to the remaining natural tooth abutments. This article presents a procedure for fabrication of a fixed-removable prosthesis that has cement-retained custom cast bar metal substructure and a ball attachment retained removable superstructure prosthesis.

  4. Management of long span partially edentulous maxilla with fixed removable denture prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyavalan, Mahilan I; Narasimman, M; Venkatakrishnan, C J; Philip, Jacob M

    2012-07-01

    Restoration of a long span partially edentulous maxilla with tooth supported prosthesis is challenging because of inherent anatomic limitations and unfavourable biomechanics present after the loss of teeth. A tooth supported fixed-removable prosthesis is a treatment option for restoration of such long span partially edentulous maxillary arches. This prosthesis meets the requirements for esthetics, phonetics, comfort, and hygiene, as well as favourable biomechanical stress distribution to the remaining natural tooth abutments. This article presents a procedure for fabrication of a fixed-removable prosthesis that has cement-retained custom cast bar metal substructure and a ball attachment retained removable superstructure prosthesis.

  5. Symmetric Electrode Spanning Narrows the Excitation Patterns of Partial Tripolar Stimuli in Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Wu, Ching-Chih

    2016-12-01

    In cochlear implants (CIs), standard partial tripolar (pTP) mode reduces current spread by returning a fraction of the current to two adjacent flanking electrodes within the cochlea. Symmetric electrode spanning (i.e., separating both the apical and basal return electrodes from the main electrode by one electrode) has been shown to increase the pitch of pTP stimuli, when the ratio of intracochlear return current was fixed. To explain the pitch increase caused by symmetric spanning in pTP mode, this study measured the electrical potentials of both standard and symmetrically spanned pTP stimuli on a main electrode EL8 in five CI ears using electrical field imaging (EFI). In addition, the spatial profiles of evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) and the psychophysical forward masking (PFM) patterns were also measured for both stimuli. The EFI, ECAP, and PFM patterns of a given stimulus differed in shape details, reflecting the different levels of auditory processing and different ratios of intracochlear return current across the measurement methods. Compared to the standard pTP stimuli, the symmetrically spanned pTP stimuli significantly reduced the areas under the curves of the normalized EFI and PFM patterns, without shifting the pattern peaks and centroids (both around EL8). The more focused excitation patterns with symmetric spanning may have caused the previously reported pitch increase, due to an interaction between pitch and timbre perception. Being able to reduce the spread of excitation, pTP mode symmetric spanning is a promising stimulation strategy that may further increase spectral resolution and frequency selectivity with CIs.

  6. [Spanish normative studies in a young adult population (NEURONORMA young adults Project): norms for the verbal span, visuospatial span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test and Symbol Digit Modalities Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, F; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2012-01-01

    Verbal and visuospatial span, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test are frequently used in clinical practice to assess attention, executive functions and memory. In the present study, as part of the Spanish normative studies of NEURONORMA young adults Project, normative data adjusted by age and education are provided for digits, Corsi Block-Tapping Task, Letter-Number Sequencing, Trail Making Test, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. The sample consisted of 179 participants from 18 to 49 years old, who were cognitively normal. Tables to convert raw scores to scaled scores are provided. Age and education adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regressions. Education affected scores in most of the attention tests; age was found to be related to the visuospatial span and to speed of visuomotor tracking, and there was no relationship as regards sex. The data obtained will be useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Trails, Other - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This trails map layer represents off-road recreational trail features and important road connections that augment Utah’s recreational trail network. This map layer...

  8. Partial ablation of adult Drosophila insulin-producing neurons modulates glucose homeostasis and extends life span without insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselton, Aaron; Sharmin, Effat; Schrader, Janel; Sah, Megha; Poon, Peter; Fridell, Yih-Woei C

    2010-08-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), neurosecretory insulin-like peptide-producing cells (IPCs), analogous to mammalian pancreatic beta cells are involved in glucose homeostasis. Extending those findings, we have developed in the adult fly an oral glucose tolerance test and demonstrated that IPCs indeed are responsible for executing an acute glucose clearance response. To further develop D. melanogaster as a relevant system for studying age-associated metabolic disorders, we set out to determine the impact of adult-specific partial ablation of IPCs (IPC knockdown) on insulin-like peptide (ILP) action, metabolic outcomes and longevity. Interestingly, while IPC knockdown flies are hyperglycemic and glucose intolerant, these flies remain insulin sensitive as measured by peripheral glucose disposal upon insulin injection and serine phosphorylation of a key insulin-signaling molecule, Akt. Significant increases in stored glycogen and triglyceride levels as well as an elevated level of circulating lipid measured in adult IPC knockdown flies suggest profound modulation in energy metabolism. Additional physiological outcomes measured in those flies include increased resistance to starvation and impaired female fecundity. Finally, increased life span and decreased mortality rates measured in IPC knockdown flies demonstrate that it is possible to modulate ILP action in adult flies to achieve life span extension without insulin resistance. Taken together, we have established and validated an invertebrate genetic system to further investigate insulin action, metabolic homeostasis and regulation of aging regulated by adult IPCs.

  9. Transonic control effectiveness for full and partial span elevon configurations on a 0.0165 scale model space shuttle orbiter tested in the LaRC 8-foot transonic wind tunnel (LA48)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A transonic pressure tunnel test is reported on an early version of the space shuttle orbiter (designated 089B-139) 0.0165 scale model to systematically determine both longitudinal and lateral control effectiveness associated with various combinations of inboard, outboard, and full span wing trailing edge controls. The test was conducted over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.08 at angles of attack from -2 deg to 23 deg at 0 deg sideslip.

  10. Structural Behavior of a Long-Span Partially Earth-Anchored Cable-Stayed Bridge during Installation of a Key Segment by Thermal Prestressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyo Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated structural behavior of long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges with a main span length of 810 m that use a new key segment closing method based on a thermal prestressing technique. A detailed construction sequence analysis matched with the free cantilever method (FCM was performed using a three-dimensional finite element (FE model of a partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge. The new method offers an effective way of connecting key segments by avoiding large movements resulting from the removal of the longitudinal restraint owing to the asymmetry of axial forces in the girders near the pylons. The new method develops new member forces through the process of heating the cantilever system before installing the key segment and cooling the system continuously after installing key segments. The resulting forces developed by the thermal process enhance the structural behavior of partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges owing to decreased axial forces in the girders.

  11. Greenway Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current and proposed greenway system, including connectors and street side trails.A greenway is a linear parcel of land set aside to preserve open...

  12. Airbag Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails. These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.

  13. SU-F-T-422: Detection of Optimal Tangential Partial Arc Span for VMAT Planning in IntactLeft-Breast Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, U; Sarkar, B; Munshi, A; Kaur, H; Jassal, K; Rathinamuthu, S; Kumar, S; Ganesh, T; Mohanti, B [Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon, Haryana (India)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to investigate an appropriate arc span for intact partial Left breast irradiation by VMAT planning. Methods: Four cases of carcinoma left intact breast was chosen randomly for this study. Both medial tangential and left-lateral tangential arc (G20°, G25°, G30°, G35°, G40°) were used having the same length and bilaterally symmetric. For each patient base plan was generated for 30° arc and rest of other arc plans were generated by keeping all plan parameters same, only arc span were changed. All patient plans were generated on treatment planning system Monaco (V 5.00.02) for 50 Gy dose in 25 fractions. PTV contours were clipped 3 mm from skin (patient). All plans were normalized in such a way that 95 % of prescription dose would cover 96 % of PTV volume. Results: Mean MU for 20°, 25°, 30°, 35° and 40° were 509 ± 18.8, 529.1 ± 20.2, 544.4 ± 20.8, 579.1 ±51.8, 607.2 ± 40.2 similarly mean hot spot (volume covered by 105% of prescription dose) were 2.9 ± 1.2, 3.7 ± 3.0, 1.5 ± 1.7, 1.3±0.6, 0.4 ± 0.4, mean contralateral breast dose (cGy) were 180.4 ± 242.3, 71.5 ± 52.7, 76.2 ± 58.8, 85.9 ± 70.5, 90.7 ± 70.1, mean heart dose (cGy) were 285.8 ± 87.2, 221.2 ± 62.8, 274.5 ± 95.5, 234.8 ± 73.8, 263.2 ± 81.6, V20 for ipsilateral lung were 15.4 ± 5.3, 14.3 ± 3.6, 15.3 ± 2.9, 14.2 ± 3.9, 14.7 ± 3.2 and V5 for ipsilateral lung were 33.9 ± 8.2, 31.0 ± 3.5, 42.6 ±15.6, 36.4 ± 12.9, 37.0 ± 7.5. Conclusion: The study concluded that appropriate arc span used for tangential intact breast treatment was optimally 30° because larger arc span were giving lower isodose spill in ipsilateral lung and smaller arc were giving heterogeneous dose distribution in PTV.

  14. Alaska State Trails Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation Search DNR State of Alaska Home Menu Parks Home Alaska State Trails Boating Safety Design and Home / Alaska State Trails Alaska State Trails Program Trails in the Spotlight Glacier Lake and Saddle Trails in Kachemak State Park Glacier Lake A Popular route joins the Saddle and Glacier Lake Trails. The

  15. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors in...... approach with pattern matching is a way to shed light on the tacit local knowledge that organizational actors cannot articulate and that an exclusively inductive research is not likely to unveil....

  16. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  17. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  18. Jet-Boundary and Plan-Form Corrections for Partial-Span Models with Reflection Plane, End Plate, or No End Plate in a Closed Circular Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-06-01

    complete-span models. Such models are used to--best- advantage to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of wings, flaps, lateral-control devices, and...d~mensfons w? Indes> . . ... ,. ., I . .’ . .,. . , 84295 #aOO . ~- 4 g— --% ii E~ [039 E. miiw%“” NATto )w. AWIWRY mwl—nEmkMEwrK5 . faKw+- WIW m&J. I

  19. Use and users of the Appalachian Trail: a geographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Manning; William Valliere; Jim Bacon; Alan Graefe; Gerard Kyle; Rita Hennessy

    2001-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) is a public footpath that spans 2,160 miles of Appalachian Mountain ridgelines from Maine to Georgia. This paper describes the first comprehensive study of recreational use and users of the AT. The primary study method was a survey of visitors to the AT. The Trail was divided into 22 relatively homogeneous sections within four...

  20. DIRBE Comet Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails.The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported.The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 microns surface brightnesses of trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  1. THE ARC TRAIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The project, carried out by the 1985 Conservation. Team at Durban Girls1 High School, consisted of three main aims- Awareness, Recreation and conservation, which were incorporated into the naming of the ARC trail. The trail is situated in suburban Durban where it was felt that it was important to ...

  2. DRBE comet trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr −1 , respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  3. DRBE comet trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [CREST/UMBC, Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr{sup −1}, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  4. Taking Care of our Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    our Trails Obeying Environmental Laws Protecting Wildlife Environmental Sustainability Sustainability Protection » Trails Taking Care of our Trails Continued access and use of Los Alamos National Laboratory trails is contingent upon being good stewards of these federal lands. June 7, 2017 Hikers walk along the

  5. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  6. Minnesota Water Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile describes water trails in the State of Minnesota as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department of Natural Resources. The...

  7. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  8. Airbag Trails-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails (upper left). These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.

  9. Atmospheric testing of wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.S. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Migliore, P.G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Quandt, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    An experimental investigation was conducted using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable span trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. A primary goal was to directly compare study results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were utilized to define effective changes in the aerodynamic coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans and configurations. Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (<70%) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with characteristic vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

  10. Certification trails for data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

  11. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  12. Span of control matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Deb; Jeska, Susan; Karnas, Joan; Miller, Sue E; Pechacek, Judy; Rheault, Lolita

    2004-09-01

    Prompted by manager concerns about span of control, a large, integrated health system set out to determine if span of control really mattered. Was there something to it, or was it just an excuse for poor performance? A team of middle managers studied the problem and ultimately demonstrated a strong relationship between span of control and employee engagement. Consequently, it was decided to add 4 management positions to note the effect. One year later, positive changes were observed in employee engagement scores in all 4 areas. This study suggests careful review of manager spans of control to address the untoward effects of large spans of control on employee engagement.

  13. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  14. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Blowing Boundary-Layer Control on Leading- and Trailing-Edge Flaps of a Large-Scale, Low-Aspect-Ratio, 45 Swept-wing Airplane Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Ralph L.

    1959-01-01

    Blowing boundary-layer control was applied to the leading- and trailing-edge flaps of a 45 deg sweptback-wing complete model in a full-scale low-speed wind-tunnel study. The principal purpose of the study was to determine the effects of leading-edge flap deflection and boundary-layer control on maximum lift and longitudinal stability. Leading-edge flap deflection alone was sufficient to maintain static longitudinal stability without trailing-edge flaps. However, leading-edge flap blowing was required to maintain longitudinal stability by delaying leading-edge flow separation when trailing-edge flaps were deflected either with or without blowing. Partial-span leading-edge flaps deflected 60 deg with moderate blowing gave the major increase in maximum lift, although higher deflection and additional blowing gave some further increase. Inboard of 0.4 semispan leading-edge flap deflection could be reduced to 40 deg and/or blowing could be omitted with only small loss in maximum lift. Trailing-edge flap lift increments were increased by boundary-layer control for deflections greater than 45 deg. Maximum lift was not increased with deflected trailing-edge flaps with blowing.

  15. Thigmotaxis Mediates Trail Odour Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E; Sik Roh, Hyun; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Manning, Lee-Anne M; Harper, Aimee R; Suckling, David M

    2017-05-10

    Disruption of foraging using oversupply of ant trail pheromones is a novel pest management application under investigation. It presents an opportunity to investigate the interaction of sensory modalities by removal of one of the modes. Superficially similar to sex pheromone-based mating disruption in moths, ant trail pheromone disruption lacks an equivalent mechanistic understanding of how the ants respond to an oversupply of their trail pheromone. Since significant compromise of one sensory modality essential for trail following (chemotaxis) has been demonstrated, we hypothesised that other sensory modalities such as thigmotaxis could act to reduce the impact on olfactory disruption of foraging behaviour. To test this, we provided a physical stimulus of thread to aid trailing by Argentine ants otherwise under disruptive pheromone concentrations. Trail following success was higher using a physical cue. While trail integrity reduced under continuous over-supply of trail pheromone delivered directly on the thread, provision of a physical cue in the form of thread slightly improved trail following and mediated trail disruption from high concentrations upwind. Our results indicate that ants are able to use physical structures to reduce but not eliminate the effects of trail pheromone disruption.

  16. Tracking Online Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

    Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

  17. Life Span Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-01-01

    The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of...

  18. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  19. Effect of Wavy Trailing Edge on 100meter Flatback Wind Turbine Blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, SJ; Baeder, J D

    2016-01-01

    The flatback trailing edge design for modern 100meter wind turbine blade has been developed and proposed to make wind turbine blade to be slender and lighter. On the other hand, it will increase aerodynamic drag; consequently the increased drag diminishes turbine power generation. Thus, an aerodynamic drag reducing technique should be accompanied with the flatback trailing edge in order to prevent loss of turbine power generation. In this work, a drag mitigation design, span-wise wavy trailing edge blade, has been applied to a modern 100meter blade. The span-wise trailing edge acts as a vortex generator, and breaks up the strong span-wise coherent trailing edge vortex structure at the flatback airfoil trailing edge which is a major source of large drag. Three-dimensional unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed for real scale wind turbine blade geometries. Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) with the modified laminar-turbulent transition model has been applied to obtain accurate flow field predictions. Graphical Processor Unit (GPU)-accelerated computation has been conducted to reduce computational costs of the real scale wind turbine blade simulations. To verify the structural reliability of the wavy modification of the blade a simple Eigen buckling analysis has been performed in the current study. (paper)

  20. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  1. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    of ‘policy trail’, arguing that it can overcome ‘methodological nationalism’ and link structure and agency in research on the ‘European educational space’. The ‘trail’ metaphor, she suggests, captures the intentionality and the erratic character of policy. The trail connects sites and brings about change......, but – although policy may be intended to be linear, with specific outcomes – policy often has to bend, and sometimes meets insurmountable obstacles. This symposium outlines and develops the methodology, but also reports on research undertaken within a major FP7 project (LLLIght’in’Europe, 2012-15) which made use......In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global...

  2. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Long Trail and Appalachian Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  3. The Life Span Dwelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Peter Hebensperger-Hüther; Gabriele Franger-Huhle

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the findings from a survey of 10 different experimental housing projects in Bavaria. In 2005 students of architecture and students of social work at the University of Applied Science in Coburg approached the topic of “Life Span Dwelling” using interdisciplinary research methods. The scope of the research ranges from urban planning concepts to common spaces in the different neighborhoods, documenting user satisfaction with the individual unit and feasibility of rooms offered...

  4. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, T; Carolus, T; Erbslöh, S

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length

  5. Span efficiency in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2013-07-06

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects.

  6. Visual-Attentional Span and Lexical ­Decision in Skilled Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Dawson, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine the association between visual-attentional span and lexical decision in skilled adult readers. In the span tasks, an array of letters was presented briefly and recognition or production of a single cued letter (partial span) or production of all letters (whole span) was required. Independently of letter…

  7. Tarague Interpretive Trail Mitigation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, David

    2001-01-01

    ...), International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (lARfI) has prepared a mitigation plan for development of an interpretive trail at Tarague Beach, located on the north coast of the island of Guam (Fig. 1...

  8. On the Appetite Trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Ewa Karpińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article recounts actions oriented at experiencing and reliving culinary traditions, undertaken by the Local Action Group of the “Mroga” Society for the Local Community Development. The Society operates in five communes: Koluszki, Brzeziny, Dmosin, Jeżów and Rogów, located in the north-eastern part of the current Łódź voivodeship, east of the city of Łódź. In the past, this area, which bordered regions whose characteristic features indicated their distinct regional identities (the Łęczyca Land and the Łowicz Principality from the north, the Rawa Land from the east, the Opoczno and Piotrków Lands from the south, and Łódź from the west, was devoid of definite features typical to folk culture. Currently it is still an area which, due to the absence of a consistent and enduring cultural foundation to refer to, cannot be described in the categories of an ethnographic or geographic region. By following the tourist trail laid by the Society, known as the “Appetite Trail”, I reconstruct the vision of what the community resident in the five communes covered by the activity of the “Mroga” Local Action Group defines as the region’s culinary tradition, and I deconstruct the Group’s actions that reduce the tradition to the level of a tourist attraction.

  9. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning......: whether an innovation idea is created internally or externally and whether an innovation process relies on external knowledge resources. This yields four possible types of innovation, which represent the nuanced variation of outside-in innovations. Using historical data from Canada for 1945...

  10. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  11. Association between thyroid hormones and TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Bossi, Fleur; Toffoli, Barbara; Giudici, Fabiola; Bramante, Alessandra; Furlanis, Giulia; Stenner, Elisabetta; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio; Carretta, Renzo; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that a circulating protein called TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) might have a role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Interestingly, thyroid hormones seem to increase TRAIL tissue expression. This study aimed at evaluating whether overt thyroid disorders affected circulating TRAIL levels. TRAIL circulating levels were measured in euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid patients before and after thyroid function normalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between thyroid hormones and TRAIL. Then, the stimulatory effect of both triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) on TRAIL was evaluated in vitro on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Circulating levels of TRAIL significantly increased in hyperthyroid and decreased in hypothyroid patients as compared to controls. Once thyroid function was restored, TRAIL levels normalized. There was an independent association between TRAIL and both fT3 and fT4. Consistent with these findings, T3 and T4 stimulated TRAIL release in vitro. Here we show that thyroid hormones are associated with TRAIL expression in vivo and stimulate TRAIL expression in vitro. Given the overlap between the metabolic effects of thyroid hormones and TRAIL, this work sheds light on the possibility that TRAIL might be one of the molecules mediating thyroid hormones peripheral effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental testing of spanwise morphing trailing edge concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankonien, Alexander; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    Aircraft wings with smooth, hinge-less morphing ailerons exhibit increased chordwise aerodynamic efficiency over conventional hinged ailerons. Ideally, the wing would also use these morphing ailerons to smoothly vary its airfoil shape between spanwise stations to optimize the lift distribution and further increase aerodynamic efficiency. However, the mechanical complexity or added weight of achieving such a design has traditionally exceeded the potential aerodynamic gains. By expanding upon the previously developed cascading bimorph concept, this work uses embedded Macro-Fiber Composites and a flexure box mechanism, created using multi-material 3D printing, to achieve the Spanwise Morphing Trailing Edge (SMTE) concept. The morphing actuators are spaced spanwise along the wing with an elastomer spanning the gaps between them, which allows for optimization of the spanwise lift distribution while maintaining the continuity and efficiency of the morphing trailing edge. The concept is implemented in a representative section of a UAV wing with a 305 mm chord. A novel honeycomb skin is created from an elastomeric material using a 3D printer. The actuation capabilities of the concept are evaluated with and without spanning material on a test stand, free of aerodynamic loads. In addition, the actuation restrictions of the spanning elastomer, necessary in adapting the morphing concept from 2D to 3D, are characterized. Initial aerodynamic results from the 1'×1' wind-tunnel also show the effects of aerodynamic loading on the actuation range of the SMTE concept for uniform morphing.

  13. Recreational Trails in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This file represents the locations of trails in Iowa. The original trail file was created by the Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT), and included developed...

  14. 77 FR 45721 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... maintain a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading of... With a Consolidated Audit Trail 3. Large Trader Reporting System Rule B. Summary of Proposed Rule 613 C... Authority (``FINRA'') and some of the exchanges currently maintain their own separate audit trail systems...

  15. 75 FR 32555 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Part II Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Consolidated Audit Trail; Proposed Rule... 3235-AK51 Consolidated Audit Trail AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading of...

  16. Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Dyrud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.

  17. Trails and physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Heather A; Troped, Philip J; Klenosky, David B; Doehring, Angela M

    2011-11-01

    To provide a synthesis of research on trails and physical activity from the public health, leisure sciences, urban planning, and transportation literatures. A search of databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1980 and 2008. 52 studies were identified. The majority were cross-sectional (92%) and published after 1999 (77%). The evidence for the effects of trails on physical activity was mixed among 3 intervention and 5 correlational studies. Correlates of trail use were examined in 13 studies. Several demographic (eg, race, education, income) and environmental factors (eg, land-use mix and distance to trail) were related to trail use. Evidence from 31 descriptive studies identified several facilitators and barriers to trail use. Economic studies (n = 5) examining trails in terms of health or recreational outcomes found trails are cost-effective and produce significant economic benefits. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating important factors that should be considered in promoting trail use, yet the evidence for positive effects of trails on physical activity is limited. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of trails on physical activity. In addition, trail studies that include children and youth, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities are a research priority.

  18. Carving a New Assessment Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriston, Terry

    2007-01-01

    TRAILS (Tool for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills), is a free online test of student information-handling skills. It was formulated by the Institute for Library and Information Literacy Education and Kent State University Libraries. Based on the Ohio Academic Content Standards and the philosophy of Information Power, it assesses…

  19. A Mathematics and Science Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathy Horak; Fuentes, Sarah Quebec

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to engage primary-school students in a hands-on, real-world problem-solving context, a large urban district, a mathematics and science institute housed in a college of education, and a corporate sponsor in the southwest United States, joined forces to create a mathematics and science trail for fourth- and fifth-grade students. A…

  20. Tissue distribution of the death ligand TRAIL and its receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, DC; de Vries, EG; Vellenga, E; van den Heuvel, FA; Koornstra, JJ; Wesseling, J; Hollema, H; de Jong, S

    Recombinant human (rh) TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) harbors potential as an anticancer agent. RhTRAIL induces apoptosis via the TRAIL receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in tumors and is non-toxic to nonhuman primates. Because limited data are available about TRAIL receptor

  1. Absence of death receptor translocation into lipid rafts in acquired TRAIL-resistant NSCLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Yang, Chunxu; Zhang, Simin; Liu, Yu; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Junhong; Zhou, Fuxiang; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xie, Conghua

    2013-02-01

    Resistance to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a major limitation for its clinical use. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance have been mostly studied in the context of cell lines that are intrinsically resistant to TRAIL. However, little is known about the molecular alterations that contribute to the development of acquired resistance during treatment with TRAIL. In this study, we established H460R, an isogenic cell line with acquired TRAIL resistance, from the TRAIL‑sensitive human lung cancer cell line H460 to investigate the mechanisms of acquired resistance. The acquired TRAIL‑resistant H460R cells remained sensitive to cisplatin. The mRNA and protein expression levels of death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) were not altered in either of the TRAIL-treated cell lines. Nevertheless, tests in which the DR4 or DR5 gene was overexpressed or silenced suggest that death receptor expression is necessary but not sufficient for TRAIL‑induced apoptosis. Compared with parental TRAIL-sensitive H460 cells, H460R cells showed a decreased TRAIL-induced translocation of DR4/DR5 into lipid rafts. Further studies showed that nystatin partially prevented lipid raft aggregation and DR4 and DR5 clustering and reduced apoptosis in H460 cells again. Analysis of apoptotic molecules showed that more pro-caspase-8, FADD, caspase-3 and Bid, but less cFLIP in H460 cells than in H460R cells. Our findings suggest that the lack of death receptor redistribution negatively impacts DISC assembly in lipid rafts, which at least partially leads to the development of acquired resistance to TRAIL in H460R cells.

  2. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The first Scandinavian bridge with a span of more than 500 m was the Lillebælt Suspension Bridge opened to traffic in 1970.Art the end of the 20th century the longest span of any European bridge is found in the Storebælt East Bridge with a main span of 1624 m. Also the third longest span in Europe...... is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...

  3. Correlates of Trail Use for Recreation and Transportation on 5 Massachusetts Trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orstad, Stephanie L; McDonough, Meghan H; Klenosky, David B; Mattson, Marifran; Troped, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    Promoting use of community trails is a recommended strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity. Correlates of walking and cycling for recreation or transportation differ, though few studies have compared correlates of trail-based physical activity for recreation and transportation purposes. This study examined associations of demographic, social, and perceived built environmental factors with trail use for recreation and transportation and whether associations were moderated by age, gender, and prior trail use. Adults (N = 1195) using 1 of 5 trails in Massachusetts responded to an intercept survey. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to examine associations with trail use. Respondents' mean age was 44.9 years (standard deviation = 12.5), 55.3% were female, and 82.0% were white. Age (longer-term users only), trail use with others, travel time to the trail, and trail design were significantly associated with use for recreation (P trail safety (longer-term users only), travel time to the trail, trail design (younger users only), and trail beauty were associated with use for transportation (P trail use, whereas some variables were uniquely associated with use for 1 purpose. Tailored strategies are suggested to promote trail use for recreation and transportation.

  4. Age Differences in Memory Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michelene T. H.

    1977-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine processes underlying age differences in the level of recall in a memory-span task. Five-year-olds recalled fewer items than adults in memory-span tasks involving both familiar and unfamiliar faces, even though the use of rehearsal and recoding strategies was minimized for adults. (MS)

  5. Exploring the TRAILs less travelled: TRAIL in cancer biology and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Karstedt, Silvia; Montinaro, Antonella; Walczak, Henning

    2017-05-24

    The discovery that the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis of cancer cells without causing toxicity in mice has led to the in-depth study of pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) signalling and the development of biotherapeutic drug candidates that activate TRAIL-Rs. The outcome of clinical trials with these TRAIL-R agonists has, however, been disappointing so far. Recent evidence indicates that many cancers, in addition to being TRAIL resistant, use the endogenous TRAIL-TRAIL-R system to their own advantage. However, novel insight on two fronts - how resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL-based pro-apoptotic therapies might be overcome, and how the pro-tumorigenic effects of endogenous TRAIL might be countered - gives reasonable hope that the TRAIL system can be harnessed to treat cancer. In this Review we assess the status quo of our understanding of the biology of the TRAIL-TRAIL-R system - as well as the gaps therein - and discuss the opportunities and challenges in effectively targeting this pathway.

  6. Happy trails: the effect of a media campaign on urban trail use in southern Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheila; Bungum, Tim J; Meacham, Mindy; Coker, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many Americans do not meet recommendations for physical activity (PA). Communities are building trail networks to encourage PA, but the relationship between trails and PA is not well understood. We monitored usage of urban trails (N = 10) in Las Vegas, NV, before and after a promotional marketing campaign (October 2011 and April 2012). The media campaign featured print, online, and radio ads, as well as billboards and signage on gas pumps. Data were collected with infrared monitors that were placed on the trails for periods of 7 days. We compared preintervention and postintervention usage rates. Mean usage increased (P trails, significant declines at 2 trails, and no change at 1 trail. Promotional campaigns may be an effective way to increase trail usage and encourage PA.

  7. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  8. Thermodynamics and life span estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuddusi, Lütfullah

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey is estimated by applying the first and second laws of thermodynamics to the human body. The people living in different regions of Turkey have different food habits. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to calculate the entropy generation rate per unit mass of a human due to the food habits. The lifetime entropy generation per unit mass of a human was previously found statistically. The two entropy generations, lifetime entropy generation and entropy generation rate, enable one to determine the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey with different food habits. In order to estimate the life span, some statistics of Turkish Statistical Institute regarding the food habits of the people living in seven regions of Turkey are used. The life spans of people that live in Central Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia regions are the longest and shortest, respectively. Generally, the following inequality regarding the life span of people living in seven regions of Turkey is found: Eastern Anatolia < Southeast Anatolia < Black Sea < Mediterranean < Marmara < Aegean < Central Anatolia. - Highlights: • The first and second laws of thermodynamics are applied to the human body. • The entropy generation of a human due to his food habits is determined. • The life span of Turks is estimated by using the entropy generation method. • Food habits of a human have effect on his life span

  9. Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data was hand drawn on USGS Topographic quads by foresters of the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, & Recreation using orthophotos, survey data, and personal...

  10. Continent-Spanning Radio Telescope Blazes Trails At the Frontiers of Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The supersharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) is revealing unprecedented details of astronomical objects from stars in our own cosmic neighborhood to galaxies billions of light-years away. Astronomers from across North America and beyond are presenting the results of VLBA research at the American Astronomical Society's (AAS) meeting in Chicago. "The VLBA is one of the most powerful tools in the world for astronomy," said Paul Vanden Bout, Director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which operates the VLBA. "It can produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those produced by the Hubble Space Telescope, and that capability has yielded some spectacular scientific results." Examples of VLBA research presented at the AAS meeting include the most accurate measurement ever made of the distance to another galaxy; the detection of our Solar System's orbital motion around the center of our own Galaxy; a "movie" showing the expansion of debris from a star's explosion in a galaxy 11 million light-years away; and a "movie" of gas motions in the atmosphere of a star more than 1,000 light-years away -- the first time gas motions have ever been tracked in a star other than the Sun. With ten giant dish antennas spread from Hawaii in the Pacific to St. Croix in the Caribbean, all working together as a single telescope, the VLBA is "the world's biggest astronomical instrument," Vanden Bout said. The VLBA has been in full operation for more than five years. A pair of sessions at the AAS meeting is devoted to reports of research using the VLBA. In more than 40 scientific presentations, astronomers tell how they used the VLBA to gain valuable new information about nearly every area from the frontiers of astrophysics. Some of those reporting on their VLBA research are graduate students working on their Ph.D degrees. "We are particularly proud that this instrument, one of the world's premier facilities for astronomy, is being used by the next generation of astronomers," said Miller Goss, NRAO's Director for VLA/VLBA Operations. "In addition, we are telling astronomers who have not yet used the VLBA how we can help them use it for their own research." As a national facility provided by the NSF, the VLBA is available free of charge to scientists, based on peer review of their proposed observing projects. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...

  12. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn

    2011-01-01

    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  13. 49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...

  14. Back in Time on a Mathematics Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The recently revised "Northern Ireland Primary Curriculum" recommends that teachers make use of the environment to extend children's understanding of mathematics. One approach to using the environment in mathematics is to take children on a mathematics trail. A mathematics trail uses the resources and features within the environment as a…

  15. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...

  16. A distributed spanning tree algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge

    1988-01-01

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well as comm...

  17. The optimum spanning catenary cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A heavy cable spans two points in space. There exists an optimum cable length such that the maximum tension is minimized. If the two end points are at the same level, the optimum length is 1.258 times the distance between the ends. The optimum lengths for end points of different heights are also found.

  18. Trail impacts and trail impact management related to ecotourism visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency and magnitude of selected trail impacts and the relative effect of the amount of use, vegetation type, trail position and trail grade are investigated. Findings differed from previous studies in that amount of use was significantly related to both trail width increases and trail erosion. Management actions to minimize trail impacts are offered.

  19. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

    2013-08-01

    Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail

  20. The SPAN cookbook: A practical guide to accessing SPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Stephanie; Tencati, Ronald D.; Stern, David M.; Capps, Kimberly D.; Dorman, Gary; Peters, David J.

    1990-01-01

    This is a manual for remote users who wish to send electronic mail messages from the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) to scientific colleagues on other computer networks and vice versa. In several instances more than one gateway has been included for the same network. Users are provided with an introduction to each network listed with helpful details about accessing the system and mail syntax examples. Also included is information on file transfers, remote logins, and help telephone numbers.

  1. Automatic dirt trail analysis in dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Beibei; Joe Stanley, R; Stoecker, William V; Osterwise, Christopher T P; Stricklin, Sherea M; Hinton, Kristen A; Moss, Randy H; Oliviero, Margaret; Rabinovitz, Harold S

    2013-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US. Dermatoscopes are devices used by physicians to facilitate the early detection of these cancers based on the identification of skin lesion structures often specific to BCCs. One new lesion structure, referred to as dirt trails, has the appearance of dark gray, brown or black dots and clods of varying sizes distributed in elongated clusters with indistinct borders, often appearing as curvilinear trails. In this research, we explore a dirt trail detection and analysis algorithm for extracting, measuring, and characterizing dirt trails based on size, distribution, and color in dermoscopic skin lesion images. These dirt trails are then used to automatically discriminate BCC from benign skin lesions. For an experimental data set of 35 BCC images with dirt trails and 79 benign lesion images, a neural network-based classifier achieved a 0.902 are under a receiver operating characteristic curve using a leave-one-out approach. Results obtained from this study show that automatic detection of dirt trails in dermoscopic images of BCC is feasible. This is important because of the large number of these skin cancers seen every year and the challenge of discovering these earlier with instrumentation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. TRAIL death receptors and cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ying; Sheikh, M. Saeed

    2007-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) also known as Apo2L is an apoptotic molecule that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. It mediates its apoptotic effects via its cognate death receptors including DR4 and DR5. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies have also been developed that selectively activate TRAIL death receptors to mediate apoptosis. Multiple clinically relevant agents also upregulate the expression of TRAIL death receptors, and cooperate with TRAIL as well as DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies to exhibit tumor cell killing. TRAIL is currently in phase I clinical trials, whereas DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies have been tested in phase I and II studies. Thus, TRAIL has clearly distinguished itself from the other family members including TNF-alpha and FasL both of which could not make it to the clinic due to their toxic nature. It is therefore, evident that the future of TRAIL-based therapeutic approaches looks brighter

  3. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. Audit trails in an online accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is an online computer system that was developed by Rockwell International to track the accounting and processing of nuclear materials from the time it arrives at Rocky Flats Plant through its life cycle. A major contributor to the success of SAN is the use of audit trails. They have proven to be invaluable for the management and safeguarding of these sensitive materials at Rocky Flats. Producing effective audit trails requires the recording of all pertinent transactions and the capability to access and report the information in a timely fashion. This paper discusses the implementation and application of these audit trails on the Rocky Flats SAN system

  5. Surface TRAIL decoy receptor-4 expression is correlated with TRAIL resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D; Dirice, Ercument; Aydin, Cigdem; Erin, Nuray; Koksoy, Sadi; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2005-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Despite this promising feature, TRAIL resistance observed in cancer cells seriously challenged the use of TRAIL as a death ligand in gene therapy. The current dispute concerns whether or not TRAIL receptor expression pattern is the primary determinant of TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells. This study investigates TRAIL receptor expression pattern and its connection to TRAIL resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, a DcR2 siRNA approach and a complementary gene therapy modality involving IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA) were also tested to verify if these approaches could sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL). TRAIL sensitivity assays were conducted using Molecular Probe's Live/Dead Cellular Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit following the infection of breast cancer cells with Ad5hTRAIL. The molecular mechanism of TRAIL induced cell death under the setting of IKK inhibition was revealed by Annexin V binding. Novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis were performed to disclose TRAIL receptor composition in breast cancer cells. MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells displayed strong resistance to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL. Only the combinatorial use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA infection sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Moreover, novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR assays suggested that while the level of TRAIL Decoy Receptor-4 (TRAIL-R4) expression was the highest in MCF7 cells, it was the lowest TRAIL receptor expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, conventional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that TRAIL resistant MCF7 cells exhibited substantial levels of TRAIL-R4 expression but not TRAIL decoy receptor-3 (TRAIL-R3) on surface. On the contrary, TRAIL sensitive MDA-MB-231 cells displayed very low levels of surface TRAIL-R4

  6. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Attribute clustering has been previously employed to detect statistical dependence between subsets of variables. We propose a novel attribute clustering algorithm motivated by research of complex networks, called the Star Discovery algorithm. The algorithm partitions and indirectly discards...... inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  7. Assessing soil erosion on trails: A comparison of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Jewell; William E. Hammitt

    2000-01-01

    Reports of trail degradation have been increasing in different wildernesses. This impact has become a common concern among managers. Deteriorating tread conditions of trails are increasing, as is concern at protected areas worldwide. In order to make objective and timely trail resource decisions, managers need to have effective and efficient methods of assessing trail...

  8. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest System trails... PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided by... National Forest System trail: (a) Being on a trail. (b) Using any type of vehicle prohibited by the order...

  9. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  10. Minnesota State Park Trails and Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile covers the trails in the State of Minnesota Parks, Recreation Areas, and Waysides as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department...

  11. Resveratrol sensitizes melanomas to TRAIL through modulation of antiapoptotic gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Partridge, Michael A.; Johnson, Geoffrey E.; Huang, Sarah X.L.; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2008-01-01

    Although many human melanomas express the death receptors TRAIL-R2/DR5 or TRAIL-R1/DR4 on cell surface, they often exhibit resistance to exogenous TRAIL. One of the main contributors to TRAIL-resistance of melanoma cells is upregulation of transcription factors STAT3 and NF-κB that control the expression of antiapoptotic genes, including cFLIP and Bcl-xL. On the other hand, the JNK-cJun pathway is involved in the negative regulation of cFLIP (a caspase-8 inhibitor) expression. Our observations indicated that resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin, decreased STAT3 and NF-κB activation, while activating JNK-cJun that finally suppressed expression of cFLIP and Bcl-xL proteins and increased sensitivity to exogenous TRAIL in DR5-positive melanomas. Interestingly, resveratrol did not increase surface expression of DR5 in human melanomas, while γ-irradiation or sodium arsenite treatment substantially upregulated DR5 expression. Hence, an initial increase in DR5 surface expression (either by γ-irradiation or arsenite), and subsequent downregulation of antiapoptotic cFLIP and Bcl-xL (by resveratrol), appear to constitute an efficient approach to reactivate apoptotic death pathways in TRAIL-resistant human melanomas. In spite of partial suppression of mitochondrial function and the mitochondrial death pathway, melanoma cells still retain the potential to undergo the DR5-mediated, caspase-8-dependent death pathway that could be accelerated by either an increase in DR5 surface expression or suppression of cFLIP. Taken together, these results suggest that resveratrol, in combination with TRAIL, may have a significant efficacy in the treatment of human melanomas

  12. Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia creeper rail trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; Joshua Gill

    2007-01-01

    Many communities are interested in developing and maintaining recreational trails to benefit trail users and as tourist attractions to stimulate economic growth. In this paper, a study is described which estimates the net economic value to trail users and the local economic impacts of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail in south-western Virginia, USA. The monetary...

  13. TRAIL-receptor preferences in pancreatic cancer cells revisited: Both TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 have a licence to kill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Andrea; Yu, Rui; Zwacka, Ralf M.

    2015-01-01

    TRAIL is a potent and specific inducer of apoptosis in tumour cells and therefore is a possible new cancer treatment. It triggers apoptosis by binding to its cognate, death-inducing receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. In order to increase its activity, receptor-specific ligands and agonistic antibodies have been developed and some cancer types, including pancreatic cancer, have been reported to respond preferentially to TRAIL-R1 triggering. The aim of the present study was to examine an array of TRAIL-receptor specific variants on a number of pancreatic cancer cells and test the generality of the concept of TRAIL-R1 preference in these cells. TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 specific sTRAIL variants were designed and tested on a number of pancreatic cancer cells for their TRAIL-receptor preference. These sTRAIL variants were produced in HEK293 cells and were secreted into the medium. After having measured and normalised the different sTRAIL variant concentrations, they were applied to pancreatic and control cancer cells. Twenty-four hours later apoptosis was measured by DNA hypodiploidy assays. Furthermore, the specificities of the sTRAIL variants were validated in HCT116 cells that were silenced either for TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. Our results show that some pancreatic cancer cells use TRAIL-R1 to induce cell death, whereas other pancreatic carcinoma cells such as AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells trigger apoptosis via TRAIL-R2. This observation extended to cells that were naturally TRAIL-resistant and had to be sensitised by silencing of XIAP (Panc1 cells). The measurement of TRAIL-receptor expression by FACS revealed no correlation between receptor preferences and the relative levels of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 on the cellular surface. These results demonstrate that TRAIL-receptor preferences in pancreatic cancer cells are variable and that predictions according to cancer type are difficult and that determining factors to inform the optimal TRAIL-based treatments still have to be identified

  14. Linking and Cutting Spanning Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís M. S. Russo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of uniformly generating a spanning tree for an undirected connected graph. This process is useful for computing statistics, namely for phylogenetic trees. We describe a Markov chain for producing these trees. For cycle graphs, we prove that this approach significantly outperforms existing algorithms. For general graphs, experimental results show that the chain converges quickly. This yields an efficient algorithm due to the use of proper fast data structures. To obtain the mixing time of the chain we describe a coupling, which we analyze for cycle graphs and simulate for other graphs.

  15. Acceleration of a trailing positron bunch in a plasma wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doche, A.; Beekman, C.; Corde, S.

    2017-01-01

    High gradients of energy gain and high energy efficiency are necessary parameters for compact, cost-efficient and high-energy particle colliders. Plasma Wakefield Accelerators (PWFA) offer both, making them attractive candidates for next-generation colliders. Here in these devices, a charge-density plasma wave is excited by an ultra-relativistic bunch of charged particles (the drive bunch). The energy in the wave can be extracted by a second bunch (the trailing bunch), as this bunch propagates in the wake of the drive bunch. While a trailing electron bunch was accelerated in a plasma with more than a gigaelectronvolt of energy gain, accelerating a trailing positron bunch in a plasma is much more challenging as the plasma response can be asymmetric for positrons and electrons. We report the demonstration of the energy gain by a distinct trailing positron bunch in a plasma wakefield accelerator, spanning nonlinear to quasi-linear regimes, and unveil the beam loading process underlying the accelerator energy efficiency. A positron bunch is used to drive the plasma wake in the experiment, though the quasi-linear wake structure could as easily be formed by an electron bunch or a laser driver. Finally, the results thus mark the first acceleration of a distinct positron bunch in plasma-based particle accelerators.

  16. Expression of TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinomas: identification of TRAIL-γ as a prognostic marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, Andreas; Mahotka, Csaba; Mersch, Sabrina; Wolf, Nadine; Stoecklein, Nikolas H; Verde, Pablo E; Schulte am Esch, Jan; Heikaus, Sebastian; Gabbert, Helmut E; Knoefel, Wolfram T

    2013-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) belongs to the TNF-superfamily that induces apoptotic cell death in a wide range of neoplastic cells in vivo as well as in vitro. We identified two alternative TRAIL-splice variants, i.e. TRAIL-β and TRAIL-γ that are characterized by the loss of their proapoptotic properties. Herein, we investigated the expression and the prognostic values of the TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinomas. Real time PCR for amplification of the TRAIL-splice variants was performed in tumour tissue specimens and corresponding normal tissues of 41 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. Differences on mRNA-expression levels of the TRAIL-isoforms were compared to histo-pathological variables and correlated with survival data. All three TRAIL-splice variants could be detected in both non-malignant and malignant tissues, irrespective of their histological staging, grading or tumour types. However, TRAIL-β exhibited a higher expression in normal gastric tissue. The proapoptotic TRAIL-α expression was increased in gastric carcinomas when compared to TRAIL-β and TRAIL-γ. In addition, overexpression of TRAIL-γ was associated with a significant higher survival rate. This is the first study that investigated the expression of TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinoma tissue samples. Thus, we provide first data that indicate a prognostic value for TRAIL-γ overexpression in this tumour entity

  17. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  18. Numerical analysis of the impact of permeability on trailing-edge noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seong Ryong; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    The impact of porous surfaces on the near-wall turbulent structures and the generated trailing-edge noise is analyzed for several trailing-edge shapes of finite thickness using a high resolution large-eddy simulation (LES)/computational aeroacoustics (CAA) method. The porous surface of the trailing edge is defined by the porosity and the viscous permeability determined by the solution of a turbulent flat plate boundary layer at a Reynolds number 1280 based on the displacement thickness in the inflow cross section. The volume-averaged approach for the homogeneous porous medium shows that the porous impedance scales linearly with the porosity and exponentially with the mean structure size of a porous medium. The drag induced by the porous surface changes the friction velocity and the permeability Reynolds number ReK which determines the porous impedance Rs scaled by ReK-2/3. The trailing-edge noise is analyzed for three solid and three porous trailing edges. The effect of a finite span is investigated by the spanwise correlation model based on the measured coherence distribution. The acoustic prediction shows a good agreement with measurements of the broadband spectrum and the strong tone generated by a finite trailing-edge thickness. The pressure gradient inside the porous media is redistributed by the Darcy drag defined by the viscous permeability and the porosity. The mean pressure increases in the upstream direction inside the porous medium such that the flow acceleration involved in the acoustic generation is reduced inside the porous medium. The noise reduction by a porous medium reaches 11 dB for the trailing-edge shape which possesses a sharp corner for the solid surface. The porous surface applied to a semi-circular trailing edge achieves a 4 dB noise reduction. The directivity pattern for individual components of the acoustic spectrum shows that the massive noise reduction is determined at the tone. Enhanced wave diffraction by the thick flat plate changes

  19. Comparing impacts between formal and informal recreational trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Norman, Patrick

    2017-05-15

    Globally there are hundreds of thousands of kilometres of recreational trails traversing natural areas of high conservation value: but what are their impacts and do impacts differ among trails? We compared the effects of four common types of recreational trails [(1) narrow and (2) medium width informal bare earth trails and (3) gravel and (4) tarmac/concrete formal trails] on vegetation adjacent to trails in a high conservation value plant community that is popular for mountain biking and hiking in Australia. Plant species composition was recorded in quadrats along the edge of the four types of trails and in control sites away from trails. Vegetation cover, the cover of individual growth forms, and species richness along the edges of all four types of trails were similar to the controls, although the wider trails affected plant composition, with the tarmac and gravel trails favouring different species. With very few comparative studies, more research is required to allow managers and researchers to directly compare differences in the severity and types of impacts on vegetation among trails. In the meantime, limiting damage to vegetation on the edge of hardened trails during construction, use and maintenance is important, and hardening trails may not always be appropriate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. TRAIL causes deletions at the HPRT and TK1 loci of clonogenically competent cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, Mark A.; Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Hall, Nathan E. [La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Life Sciences Computation Centre, Victorian Life Sciences Computation Initiative, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: c.hawkins@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Treatment with TRAIL or EMS provokes mutations in clonogenically viable TK6 cells. • TRAIL is 2–5-fold less mutagenic than an equivalently lethal concentration of EMS. • EMS mainly causes transition mutations at the HPRT and TK1 loci of TK6 cells. • Most loss-of-function HPRT or TK1 mutations caused by TRAIL treatment are deletions. - Abstract: When chemotherapy and radiotherapy are effective, they function by inducing DNA damage in cancerous cells, which respond by undergoing apoptosis. Some adverse effects can result from collateral destruction of non-cancerous cells, via the same mechanism. Therapy-related cancers, a particularly serious adverse effect of anti-cancer treatments, develop due to oncogenic mutations created in non-cancerous cells by the DNA damaging therapies used to eliminate the original cancer. Physiologically achievable concentrations of direct apoptosis inducing anti-cancer drugs that target Bcl-2 and IAP proteins possess negligible mutagenic activity, however death receptor agonists like TRAIL/Apo2L can provoke mutations in surviving cells, probably via caspase-mediated activation of the nuclease CAD. In this study we compared the types of mutations sustained in the HPRT and TK1 loci of clonogenically competent cells following treatment with TRAIL or the alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). As expected, the loss-of-function mutations in the HPRT or TK1 loci triggered by exposure to EMS were almost all transitions. In contrast, only a minority of the mutations identified in TRAIL-treated clones lacking HPRT or TK1 activity were substitutions. Almost three quarters of the TRAIL-induced mutations were partial or complete deletions of the HPRT or TK1 genes, consistent with sub-lethal TRAIL treatment provoking double strand breaks, which may be mis-repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Mis-repair of double-strand breaks following exposure to chemotherapy drugs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of

  1. TRAIL causes deletions at the HPRT and TK1 loci of clonogenically competent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, Mark A.; Shekhar, Tanmay M.; Hall, Nathan E.; Hawkins, Christine J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Treatment with TRAIL or EMS provokes mutations in clonogenically viable TK6 cells. • TRAIL is 2–5-fold less mutagenic than an equivalently lethal concentration of EMS. • EMS mainly causes transition mutations at the HPRT and TK1 loci of TK6 cells. • Most loss-of-function HPRT or TK1 mutations caused by TRAIL treatment are deletions. - Abstract: When chemotherapy and radiotherapy are effective, they function by inducing DNA damage in cancerous cells, which respond by undergoing apoptosis. Some adverse effects can result from collateral destruction of non-cancerous cells, via the same mechanism. Therapy-related cancers, a particularly serious adverse effect of anti-cancer treatments, develop due to oncogenic mutations created in non-cancerous cells by the DNA damaging therapies used to eliminate the original cancer. Physiologically achievable concentrations of direct apoptosis inducing anti-cancer drugs that target Bcl-2 and IAP proteins possess negligible mutagenic activity, however death receptor agonists like TRAIL/Apo2L can provoke mutations in surviving cells, probably via caspase-mediated activation of the nuclease CAD. In this study we compared the types of mutations sustained in the HPRT and TK1 loci of clonogenically competent cells following treatment with TRAIL or the alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). As expected, the loss-of-function mutations in the HPRT or TK1 loci triggered by exposure to EMS were almost all transitions. In contrast, only a minority of the mutations identified in TRAIL-treated clones lacking HPRT or TK1 activity were substitutions. Almost three quarters of the TRAIL-induced mutations were partial or complete deletions of the HPRT or TK1 genes, consistent with sub-lethal TRAIL treatment provoking double strand breaks, which may be mis-repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Mis-repair of double-strand breaks following exposure to chemotherapy drugs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of

  2. Determinantal spanning forests on planar graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We generalize the uniform spanning tree to construct a family of determinantal measures on essential spanning forests on periodic planar graphs in which every component tree is bi-infinite. Like the uniform spanning tree, these measures arise naturally from the laplacian on the graph. More generally these results hold for the "massive" laplacian determinant which counts rooted spanning forests with weight $M$ per finite component. These measures typically have a form of conformal invariance, ...

  3. On the size of monotone span programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikov, V.S.; Nikova, S.I.; Preneel, B.; Blundo, C.; Cimato, S.

    2005-01-01

    Span programs provide a linear algebraic model of computation. Monotone span programs (MSP) correspond to linear secret sharing schemes. This paper studies the properties of monotone span programs related to their size. Using the results of van Dijk (connecting codes and MSPs) and a construction for

  4. Simulation of Moving Trailing Edge Flaps on a Wind Turbine Blade using a Navier-Stokes based Immersed Boundary Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Tim

    . Simulations demonstrated the feasibility and robustness of the approach. The hybrid immersed boundary approach proved to be able to handle 3D airfoil sections with span-wise flap gaps. The flow around and in the wake of a deflected flap at a Reynolds number of 1.63mio was investigated for steady inflow......As the rotor diameter of wind turbines increases, turbine blades with distributed aerodynamic control surfaces promise significant load reductions. Therefore, they are coming into focus in relation to research in academia and industry. Trailing edge flaps are of particular interest in terms...... conditions. A control for two span-wise independent flaps was implemented and first load reductions could be achieved. The hybrid method has demonstrated to be a versatile tool in the research of moving trailing edge flaps. The results shall serve as the basis for future investigations of the unsteady flow...

  5. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  6. Audit trails in an online accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is an online computer system that was developed by Rockwell International to track the accounting and processing of nuclear materials from the time it arrives at Rocky Flats Plant through its life cycle. A major contributor to the success of SAN is the use of audit trails. They have proven to be invaluable for the management and safeguarding of these sensitive materials at Rocky Flats. Producing effective audit trails requires the recording of all pertinent transactions and the capability to access and report the information in a timely fashion. This paper discusses the implementation and application of these audit trials on the Rocky Flats SAN system. 1 fig

  7. Is the color trails culture free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Puente, Antonio E; Pérez-Marfil, María Nieves; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Peralta-Ramirez, Isabel; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Increasingly clinical neuropsychology has been addressing the effects of culture on neuropsychological functioning. However, that focus has been on comparing performance on standardized tests across two or more groups, often Hispanic. In this study, Arabic children were tested in Morocco using a "culture-free test," Children's Color Trails. Children of different ages and living in rural and urban centers were tested. The results suggest that the Color Trails Test scores from Arab children differed from U.S. norms available. Furthermore, the location of testing and the age of the child were of significance. The role of culture-specific tests was considered.

  8. Inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and forced internalization of TRAIL receptor 1 by adenovirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, A E; Toth, K; Doronin, K; Kuppuswamy, M; Doronina, O A; Lichtenstein, D L; Hermiston, T W; Smith, C A; Wold, W S

    2001-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through two receptors, TRAIL-R1 (also known as death receptor 4) and TRAIL-R2 (also known as death receptor 5), that are members of the TNF receptor superfamily of death domain-containing receptors. We show that human adenovirus type 5 encodes three proteins, named RID (previously named E3-10.4K/14.5K), E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K, that independently inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis of infected human cells. This conclusion was derived from studies using wild-type adenovirus, adenovirus replication-competent mutants that lack one or more of the RID, E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K genes, and adenovirus E1-minus replication-defective vectors that express all E3 genes, RID plus E3-14.7K only, RID only, or E3-14.7K only. RID inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis when cells are sensitized to TRAIL either by adenovirus infection or treatment with cycloheximide. RID induces the internalization of TRAIL-R1 from the cell surface, as shown by flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence for TRAIL-R1. TRAIL-R1 was internalized in distinct vesicles which are very likely to be endosomes and lysosomes. TRAIL-R1 is degraded, as indicated by the disappearance of the TRAIL-R1 immunofluorescence signal. Degradation was inhibited by bafilomycin A1, a drug that prevents acidification of vesicles and the sorting of receptors from late endosomes to lysosomes, implying that degradation occurs in lysosomes. RID was also shown previously to internalize and degrade another death domain receptor, Fas, and to prevent apoptosis through Fas and the TNF receptor. RID was shown previously to force the internalization and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. E1B-19K was shown previously to block apoptosis through Fas, and both E1B-19K and E3-14.7K were found to prevent apoptosis through the TNF receptor. These findings suggest that the receptors for TRAIL, Fas ligand, and TNF play a role in limiting virus

  9. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  10. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  11. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  12. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  13. Cuticular lipids as trail pheromone in a social wasp.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Inge; Schmolz, Erik; Ruther, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the origin and composition of the chemical trail of the common yellow jacket Vespula vulgaris L. (Vespidae) and found that an artificial trail made from an extract of cuticular lipids from V. vulgaris foragers was biologically as active as a trail laid naturally by the foragers. Chemical analysis of natural trail extracts and the behaviourally active cuticular extracts by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the majority of cuticular hydrocarbons were als...

  14. 21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal audit trail. 1311.215 Section 1311.215... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.215 Internal audit trail. (a) The... with audit trail functions. (6) For application service providers, attempted or successful annotation...

  15. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that ...

  16. Certification trails and software design for testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Design techniques which may be applied to make program testing easier were investigated. Methods for modifying a program to generate additional data which we refer to as a certification trail are presented. This additional data is designed to allow the program output to be checked more quickly and effectively. Certification trails were described primarily from a theoretical perspective. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the certification trail method is reported. The method was applied to nine fundamental, well-known algorithms for the following problems: convex hull, sorting, huffman tree, shortest path, closest pair, line segment intersection, longest increasing subsequence, skyline, and voronoi diagram. Run-time performance data for each of these problems is given, and selected problems are described in more detail. Our results indicate that there are many cases in which certification trails allow for significantly faster overall program execution time than a 2-version programming approach, and also give further evidence of the breadth of applicability of this method.

  17. Influence of hiking trails on montane birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    William V. Deluca; David I. King

    2014-01-01

    Montane forests contribute significantly to regional biodiversity. Long-term monitoring data, often located along hiking trails, suggests that several indicator species of this ecosystem have declined in recent decades. Declining montane bird populations have been attributed to anthropogenic stressors such as climate change and atmospheric deposition. Several studies...

  18. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was inves- tigated using ... the literature, it was considered in the model that (i) ant colony consists of two kinds of ants, good- ... ponents without a central controller [8].

  19. Interpreter's Guide to Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Studies Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This booklet was prepared to help the user interpret the natural history of Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail in Escambia County, Florida, and serves as a guide to the animal and plant life. The publication is part of a series of illustrated guides designed for use by teachers and students of all levels in conjunction with field trips to the 1200-acre…

  20. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A mixed-modes approach for estimating hiking on trails through diverse forest landscapes: the case of the Appalachian Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; J.M. Bowker; H. Ken. Cordell

    2011-01-01

    Many hiking trails traverse the forests and public lands across North America. It has therefore become important for federal management to gain an understanding of total use on these trails. However, there has never been a formal attempt to estimate hiking on these long, backcountry trails. This paper presents an approach that utilizes two survey instruments (exit-site...

  2. Spanning forests and the vector bundle Laplacian

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The classical matrix-tree theorem relates the determinant of the combinatorial Laplacian on a graph to the number of spanning trees. We generalize this result to Laplacians on one- and two-dimensional vector bundles, giving a combinatorial interpretation of their determinants in terms of so-called cycle rooted spanning forests (CRSFs). We construct natural measures on CRSFs for which the edges form a determinantal process. ¶ This theory gives a natural generalization of the spanning tre...

  3. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  4. Possible novel therapy for malignant gliomas with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsup Jeong

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, average survival for the patients with malignant gliomas is only about 1 year. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has shown potent and cancer-selective killing activity and drawn considerable attention as a promising therapy for cancers, but concerns over delivery and toxicity have limited progress. We have developed a secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL and here evaluated the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy in brain tumors. An adenovirus (Ad-stTRAIL delivering stTRAIL was injected into intra-cranial human glioma tumors established in nude mice and tumor growth monitored using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy showed potent tumor suppressor activity with no toxic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. When compared with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a conventional therapy for malignant gliomas, Ad-stTRAIL suppressed tumor growth more potently. The combination of Ad-stTRAIL and BCNU significantly increased survival compared to the control mice or mice receiving Ad-stTRAIL alone. Our data indicate that Ad-stTRAIL, either alone or combined with BCNU, has promise as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.

  5. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase......The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...

  6. Management of Vortices Trailing Flapped Wings via Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management via separation control. Passive control was achieved by means of a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressure ports, was used to predict vortex characteristics by means of inviscid rollup relations. Furthermore, vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over both outboard and inboard edge vortices while producing negligible lift excursions. Dynamic separation and attachment control was found to be an effective means for dynamically perturbing the vortex from arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.

  7. Doxorubicin increases the effectiveness of Apo2L/TRAIL for tumor growth inhibition of prostate cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Ahmed; McKillop, John; Voelkel-Johnson, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a significant health problem among American men. Treatment strategies for androgen-independent cancer are currently not available. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) is a death receptor ligand that can induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines, including androgen-independent PC3 prostate carcinoma cells. In vitro, TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of prostate cancer cell lines can be enhanced by doxorubicin and correlates with the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP. This study evaluated the effects of doxorubicin on c-FLIP expression and tumor growth in combination with Apo2L/TRAIL in a xenograft model. In vitro cytotoxic effects of TRAIL were measured using a MTS-based viability assay. For in vivo studies, PC3 prostate carcinoma cells were grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice and tumor growth was measured following treatment with doxorubicin and/or Apo2L/TRAIL. c-FLIP expression was determined by western blot analysis. Apoptosis in xenografts was detected using TUNEL. Statistical analysis was performed using the student t-test. In vitro experiments show that PC3 cells are partially susceptible to Apo2L/TRAIL and that susceptibility is enhanced by doxorubicin. In mice, doxorubicin did not significantly affect the growth of PC3 xenografts but reduced c-FLIP expression in tumors. Expression of c-FLIP in mouse heart was decreased only at the high doxorubicin concentration (8 mg/kg). Combination of doxorubicin with Apo2L/TRAIL resulted in more apoptotic cell death and tumor growth inhibition than Apo2L/TRAIL alone. Combination of doxorubicin and Apo2L/TRAIL is more effective in growth inhibition of PC3 xenografts in vivo than either agent alone and could present a novel treatment strategy against hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The intracellular mechanism by which doxorubicin enhances the effect of Apo2L/TRAIL on PC3 xenografts may be by reducing expression of c-FLIP

  8. A Novel Role of IGF1 in Apo2L/TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis of Ewing Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans van Valen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 reputedly opposes chemotoxicity in Ewing sarcoma family of tumor (ESFT cells. However, the effect of IGF1 on apoptosis induced by apoptosis ligand 2 (Apo2L/tumor necrosis factor (TNF- related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL remains to be established. We find that opposite to the partial survival effect of short-term IGF1 treatment, long-term IGF1 treatment amplified Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive but not resistant ESFT cell lines. Remarkably, the specific IGF1 receptor (IGF1R antibody α-IR3 was functionally equivalent to IGF1. Short-term IGF1 incubation of cells stimulated survival kinase AKT and increased X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP protein which was associated with Apo2L/TRAIL resistance. In contrast, long-term IGF1 incubation resulted in repression of XIAP protein through ceramide (Cer formation derived from de novo synthesis which was associated with Apo2L/TRAIL sensitization. Addition of ceramide synthase (CerS inhibitor fumonisin B1 during long-term IGF1 treatment reduced XIAP repression and Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Noteworthy, the resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents was maintained in cells following chronic IGF1 treatment. Overall, the results suggest that chronic IGF1 treatment renders ESFT cells susceptible to Apo2L/TRAIL-induced apoptosis and may have important implications for the biology as well as the clinical management of refractory ESFT.

  9. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E. [Ontario (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  10. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  11. Prevalence of Injury in Ultra Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliaropoulos Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.

  12. TRAIL-coated lipid-nanoparticles overcome resistance to soluble recombinant TRAIL in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Miguel, Diego; Gallego-Lleyda, Ana; Erviti-Ardanaz, Sandra; Anel, Alberto; Martinez-Lostao, Luis; Ayuso, José María; Fernández, Luis José; Ochoa, Ignacio; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; Del Agua, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one the types of cancer with higher prevalence and mortality. Apo2-Ligand/TRAIL is a TNF family member able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells. It has been tested in clinical trials against different types of human cancer including NSCLC. However, results of clinical trials have shown a limited efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies. Recently we have demonstrated that artificial lipid nanoparticles coated with bioactive Apo2L/TRAIL (LUV-TRAIL) greatly improved TRAIL cytotoxic ability being capable of killing chemoresistant hematological cancer cells. In the present work we have extended the study to NSCLC. Methods/patients. LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was assessed on different NSCLC cell lines with different sensitivity to soluble TRAIL and on primary human tumor cells from three patients suffering from NSCLC cancer. We also tested LUV-TRAIL-cytotoxic ability in combination with several anti-tumor agents. Results. LUV-TRAIL exhibited a greater cytotoxic effect compared to soluble TRAIL both in A549 cells and primary human NSCLC cells. LUV-TRAIL-induced cell death was dependent on caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, combination of LUV-TRAIL with other anti-tumor agents such as flavopiridol, and SNS-032 clearly enhanced LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity against NSCLC cancer cells. Conclusion. The novel formulation of TRAIL based on displaying it on the surface of lipid nanoparticles greatly increases its anti-tumor activity and has clinical potential in cancer treatment. (paper)

  13. Decay times of transitionally dense specularly reflecting meteor trails and potential chemical impact on trail lifetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Hocking

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of transitionally dense meteor trails using radars which employ specularly reflecting interferometric techniques are used to show that measurable high-temperature chemistry exists at timescales of a few tenths of a second after the formation of these trails. This is a process which is distinct from the ambient-temperature chemistry that is already known to exist at timescales of tens of seconds and longer in long-lived trails. As a consequence, these transitionally dense trails have smaller lifetimes than might be expected if diffusion were the only mechanism for reducing the mean trail electron density. The process has been studied with four SKiYMET radars at latitudes varying from 10 to 75° N, over a period of more than 10 years, 24 h per day. In this paper we present the best parameters to use to represent this behaviour and demonstrate the characteristics of the temporal and latitudinal variability in these parameters. The seasonal, day–night and latitudinal variations correlate reasonably closely with the corresponding variations of ozone in the upper mesosphere. Possible reasons for these effects are discussed, but further investigations of any causative relation are still the subject of ongoing studies.

  14. Access Control Based on Trail Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBARELO, P. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionals are constantly seeking qualification and consequently increasing their knowledge in their area of expertise. Thus, it is interesting to develop a computer system that knows its users and their work history. Using this information, even in the case of professional role change, the system could allow the renewed authorization for activities, based on previously authorized use. This article proposes a model for user access control that is embedded in a context-aware environment. The model applies the concept of trails to manage access control, recording activities usage in contexts and applying this history as a criterion to grant new accesses. Despite the fact that previous related research works consider contexts, none of them uses the concept of trails. Hence, the main contribution of this work is the use of a new access control criterion, namely, the history of previous accesses (trails. A prototype was implemented and applied in an evaluation based on scenarios. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, allowing for access control systems to use an alternative way to support access rights.

  15. Reusable Reinforcement Learning via Shallow Trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Chen, Shi-Yong; Da, Qing; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2018-06-01

    Reinforcement learning has shown great success in helping learning agents accomplish tasks autonomously from environment interactions. Meanwhile in many real-world applications, an agent needs to accomplish not only a fixed task but also a range of tasks. For this goal, an agent can learn a metapolicy over a set of training tasks that are drawn from an underlying distribution. By maximizing the total reward summed over all the training tasks, the metapolicy can then be reused in accomplishing test tasks from the same distribution. However, in practice, we face two major obstacles to train and reuse metapolicies well. First, how to identify tasks that are unrelated or even opposite with each other, in order to avoid their mutual interference in the training. Second, how to characterize task features, according to which a metapolicy can be reused. In this paper, we propose the MetA-Policy LEarning (MAPLE) approach that overcomes the two difficulties by introducing the shallow trail. It probes a task by running a roughly trained policy. Using the rewards of the shallow trail, MAPLE automatically groups similar tasks. Moreover, when the task parameters are unknown, the rewards of the shallow trail also serve as task features. Empirical studies on several controlling tasks verify that MAPLE can train metapolicies well and receives high reward on test tasks.

  16. Detection of tundra trail damage near Barrow, Alaska using remote imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Eisner, W. R.; Kim, C. J.

    2017-09-01

    In the past several decades, the use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) has proliferated in many Arctic communities in North America. One example is the village of Barrow, Alaska. This coastal community has only local roads, so all access to the interior utilizes off-road machines. These 4-wheel vehicles are the primary means of tundra traverse and transport in summer by hunters and berry-pickers, and by village residents accessing summer camps. Traveling cross-country is difficult due to the large number of thermokarst lakes, wetlands, and streams, and tundra trails tend to follow dryer higher ground while avoiding areas of high microrelief such as high-centered ice-wedge polygons. Thus, modern ATV trails tend to follow the margins of drained or partially drained thermokarst lake basins where it is flat and relatively dry, and these trails are heavily used. The deeply-ribbed tires of the heavy and powerful ATVs cause damage by destroying the vegetation and disturbing the underlying organic soil. Exposure of the dark soil enhances summer thaw and leads to local thermokarst of the ice-rich upper permafrost. The damage increases over time as vehicles continue to follow the same track, and sections eventually become unusable; this is especially true where the trail crosses ice-wedge troughs. Deep subsidence in the ponded troughs results in ATV users veering to avoid the wettest area, which leads to a widening of the damaged area. Helicopter surveys, site visits, and collection of ground penetrating radar data were combined with time series analysis of high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery for the period 1955-2014. The analysis reveals that there are 507 km of off-road trails on the Barrow Peninsula. About 50% of the total trail length was developed before 1955 in association with resource extraction, and an additional 40% were formed between 1979 and 2005 by ATVs. Segments of the more modern trail are up to 100 m wide. Damage to the tundra is especially pronounced

  17. An investigation of unsteady 3-D effects on trailing edge flaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jost

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the impact of unsteady 3-D aerodynamic effects on a wind turbine blade with trailing edge flap by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Harmonic oscillations are simulated on the DTU 10 MW rotor with a morphing flap of 10 % chord extent ranging from 70 to 80 % blade radius. The deflection frequency is varied in the range between 1 and 6 p. To quantify 3-D effects, rotor simulations are compared to 2-D airfoil computations and the 2-D theory by Theodorsen. It was found that the deflection of the flap on the 3-D rotor causes a complex wake development and induction which influences the loads over large parts of the blade. In particular, the rotor near wake with its trailing and shed vortex structures revealed a great impact. Trailing vorticity, a 3-D phenomenon, is caused by the gradient of bound circulation along the blade span. Shed vorticity originates from the temporal bound circulation gradient and is thus also apparent in 2-D. Both lead to an amplitude reduction and shed vorticity additionally to a hysteresis of the lift response with regard to the deflection signal in the flap section. A greater amplitude reduction and a less pronounced hysteresis is observed on the 3-D rotor compared to the 2-D airfoil case. Blade sections neighboring the flap experience, however, an opposing impact and hence partly compensate for the negative effect of trailing vortices in the flap section with respect to integral loads. Comparisons to steady flap deflections at the 3-D rotor revealed the high influence of dynamic inflow effects.

  18. Blockade of Death Ligand TRAIL Inhibits Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Takaomi; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Gondai, Tatsuro; Yagita, Hideo; Yokoyama, Takahiko

    2013-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Many investigators have reported that cell death via apoptosis significantly contributed to the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and induces apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of TRAIL in renal IRI is unclear. Here, we investigated whether TRAIL contributes to renal IRI and whether TRAIL blockade could attenuate renal IRI. AKI was induced by unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 60 min in male FVB/N mice. We found that the expression of TRAIL and its receptors were highly upregulated in renal tubular cells in renal IRI. Neutralizing anti-TRAIL antibody or its control IgG was given 24 hr before ischemia and a half-dose booster injection was administered into the peritoneal cavity immediately after reperfusion. We found that TRAIL blockade inhibited tubular apoptosis and reduced the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, TRAIL blockade attenuated renal fibrosis and atrophy after IRI. In conclusion, our study suggests that TRAIL is a critical pathogenic factor in renal IRI, and that TRAIL could be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of renal IRI

  19. An analysis of state legislation on community trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy; Lankford, Tina; Chriqui, Jamie; Evenson, Kelly R; Kruger, Judy; Tompkins, Nancy; Voorhees, Carolyn; Zieff, Susan; Aytur, Semra; Brownson, Ross

    2010-03-01

    Trails provide opportunities for recreation, transportation and activity. The purpose of this article is to describe state legislation related to community trails, to analyze legislation content, and to evaluate legislation on inclusion of evidence-informed elements. State trail legislation from 2001 to 2008 was identified using online legislative databases. An analysis of evidence-informed elements included in the legislation was conducted. These elements included: funding, liability, accessibility, connectivity, and maintenance. Of the total 991 trail bills, 516 (52.0%) were appropriations bills, of which 167 (32.2%) were enacted. We analyzed 475 (48%) nonappropriation trail bills of which 139 (29.3%) were enacted. The percentage of enactment of appropriations bills decreased over time while enactment of nonappropriations trail bills increased. Over half of the nonappropriations trail bills included at least 1 evidence-informed element, most commonly funding. Few bills contained liability, connectivity, accessibility, or maintenance. There is opportunity for providing evidence-informed information to policy-makers to potentially influence bill content. The number of bills with a funding element demonstrates that fiscal support for trails is an important policy lever that state legislatures may use to support trails. Lastly, trails should be considered in over-all state-level physical activity legislation to provide opportunities for communities to be active.

  20. Travel to, and use of, twenty-one Michigan trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E; Reed, Julian A; Grost, Lisa; Harvey, Christina; Mantinan, Karah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined trail use among 857 trail users on 21 trails in Michigan from 2008 to 2011 using a valid and reliable intercept survey. Most of the 857 participants traveled to the trail from their home (92.6%), lived within 15 min of the trails (74.8%), and used active transport to travel to the trails 69.7%. The odds of active transport to the trails were greater among those who had not graduated high school (OR=3.49; 95% CI=1.02, 11.99) and high school graduates (OR=7.432; 95% CI=2.02, 27.30) compared to college graduates. Whites and adults also had greater odds of active transport than non-Whites (OR=3.160, 95% CI: 1.65, 6.05), and older adults (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.54). The majority of respondents (89.7%) reported using trails for recreational purposes. A significantly greater proportion of females (73.3%) compared to males (64.7%) reported using the trail with others. The findings from this study might enable health and parks and recreation professionals to better promote physical activity on trails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetic silencing of apoptosis-inducing gene expression can be efficiently overcome by combined SAHA and TRAIL treatment in uterine sarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold F Fröhlich

    Full Text Available The lack of knowledge about molecular pathology of uterine sarcomas with a representation of 3-7% of all malignant uterine tumors prevents the establishment of effective therapy protocols. Here, we explored advanced therapeutic options to the previously discovered antitumorigenic effects of the histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA by combined treatment with the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo-2L. In addition, we investigated the uterine sarcoma cell lines, MES-SA and ESS-1, regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms of SAHA and TRAIL-induced apoptosis and their resistance towards TRAIL. Compared to single SAHA or TRAIL treatment, the combination of SAHA with TRAIL led to complete cell death of both tumor cell lines after 24 to 48 hours. In contrast to single SAHA treatment, apoptosis occured faster and was more pronounced in ESS-1 cells than in MES-SA cells. Induction of SAHA- and TRAIL-induced apoptosis was accompanied by upregulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3, -6, and -7 activation, and PARP cleavage, but was also found to be partially caspase-independent. Apoptosis resistance was caused by reduced expression of caspase-8 and DR 4/TRAIL-R1 in ESS-1 and MES-SA cells, respectively, due to epigenetic silencing by DNA hypermethylation of gene promoter sequences. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine or gene transfer therefore restored gene expression and increased the sensitivity of both cell lines against TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our data provide evidence that deregulation of epigenetic silencing by histone acetylation and DNA hypermethylation might play a fundamental role in the origin of uterine sarcomas. Therefore, tumor growth might be efficiently overcome by a cytotoxic combinatorial treatment of HDAC inhibitors with TRAIL.

  2. Sexual conflict, life span, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Margo I; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-06-17

    The potential for sexual conflict to influence the evolution of life span and aging has been recognized for more than a decade, and recent work also suggests that variation in life span and aging can influence sexually antagonistic coevolution. However, empirical exploration of these ideas is only beginning. Here, we provide an overview of the ideas and evidence linking inter- and intralocus sexual conflicts with life span and aging. We aim to clarify the conceptual basis of this research program, examine the current state of knowledge, and suggest key questions for further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  4. Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2011-01-01

    The present work considers incompressible flow over a 2D airfoil with a deformable trailing edge. The aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with a trailing edge flap is numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics. A novel hybrid immersed boundary (IB) technique is applied...... to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...... results show that the hybrid approach is an efficient and accurate method for solving turbulent flows past airfoils with a trailing edge flap and flow control using trailing edge flap is an efficient way to regulate the aerodynamic loading on airfoils....

  5. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed....... Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal......-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both...

  6. Signal enhancement with variable span linear filters

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper R

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of ...

  7. A new concept in trail grooming. `The KRC groomer`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, R G [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A groomer developed for maintaining snow roads in Arctic regions was described. The KRC groomer was initially designed for use on snowmobile trails. The device resulted from research into the problem of mogul formation on trails and how to improve on present techniques to make trail surfaces more durable. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and in the field in an attempt to better understand this bump formation. The device and studies of its design were discussed. 9 figs., 7 refs.

  8. Ambient Air Conditions and Variation in Urban Trail Use

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Ann M.; Lindsey, Greg; Qiu, Chenchen

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effect of air quality and administrative policies on use of urban trails in Indianapolis, IN. Attention is focused on two policy variables: (1) issuance of air pollution advisories and (2) the adoption of Daylight Savings Time. Results suggest that while trail use varies with air quality, current public advisories regarding air pollution may be of limited effectiveness in reducing trail users’ exposures to hazardous pollutants. In contrast, the adoption of Daylight Sav...

  9. The role of trails in the creation of tourist space

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Trails and routes are increasingly ubiquitous features within the tourism landscape and although their role and usefulness as applied tourism products has been analysed, they remain under-theorised within the academic literature. This article addresses this gap by exploring the role of trails within the socio-cultural construction of space. In particular, the potential function of trails in creating themed, static spaces is analysed and the concept of museumisation is employed to further illu...

  10. 77 FR 25910 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...] National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION...) for rail banking and interim trail use under the National Trails System Act (Trails Act). New rules are adopted that require the parties jointly to notify the Board when an interim trail use/rail...

  11. Linking crowding, visual span, and reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yingchen; Legge, Gordon E

    2017-09-01

    The visual span is hypothesized to be a sensory bottleneck on reading speed with crowding thought to be the major sensory factor limiting the size of the visual span. This proposed linkage between crowding, visual span, and reading speed is challenged by the finding that training to read crowded letters reduced crowding but did not improve reading speed (Chung, 2007). Here, we examined two properties of letter-recognition training that may influence the transfer to improved reading: the spatial arrangement of training stimuli and the presence of flankers. Three groups of nine young adults were trained with different configurations of letter stimuli at 10° in the lower visual field: a flanked-local group (flanked letters localized at one position), a flanked-distributed group (flanked letters distributed across different horizontal locations), and an isolated-distributed group (isolated and distributed letters). We found that distributed training, but not the presence of flankers, appears to be necessary for the training benefit to transfer to increased reading speed. Localized training may have biased attention to one specific, small area in the visual field, thereby failing to improve reading. We conclude that the visual span represents a sensory bottleneck on reading, but there may also be an attentional bottleneck. Reducing the impact of crowding can enlarge the visual span and can potentially facilitate reading, but not when adverse attentional bias is present. Our results clarify the association between crowding, visual span, and reading.

  12. London SPAN version 4 parameter file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised trading system. Powernext SA collaborates with the clearing organization LCH.Clearnet SA to secure and facilitate the transactions. The French Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk (SPAN) is a system used by LCH.Clearnet to calculate the initial margins from and for its clearing members. SPAN is a computerized system which calculates the impact of several possible variations of rates and volatility on by-product portfolios. The initial margin call is equal to the maximum probable loss calculated by the system. This document contains details of the format of the London SPAN version 4 parameter file. This file contains all the parameters and risk arrays required to calculate SPAN margins. London SPAN Version 4 is an upgrade from Version 3, which is also known as LME SPAN. This document contains the full revised file specification, highlighting the changes from Version 3 to Version 4

  13. A Tale of Two Trails: Exploring Different Paths to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer G.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Davis, William J.; Bors, Philip; Rodríguez, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background This comparative case study investigates 2 successful community trail initiatives, using the Active Living By Design (ALBD) Community Action Model as an analytical framework. The model includes 5 strategies: preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects. Methods Key stakeholders at 2 sites participated in in-depth interviews (N = 14). Data were analyzed for content using Atlas Ti and grouped according to the 5 strategies. Results Preparation Securing trail resources was challenging, but shared responsibilities facilitated trail development. Promotions The initiatives demonstrated minimal physical activity encouragement strategies. Programs Community stakeholders did not coordinate programmatic opportunities for routine physical activity. Policy Trails’ inclusion in regional greenway master plans contributed to trail funding and development. Policies that were formally institutionalized and enforced led to more consistent trail construction and safer conditions for users. Physical Projects Consistent standards for way finding signage and design safety features enhanced trail usability and safety. Conclusions Communities with different levels of government support contributed unique lessons to inform best practices of trail initiatives. This study revealed a disparity between trail development and use-encouragement strategies, which may limit trails’ impact on physical activity. The ALBD Community Action Model provided a viable framework to structure cross-disciplinary community trail initiatives. PMID:21597125

  14. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  15. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  16. Doxorubicin potentiates TRAIL cytotoxicity and apoptosis and can overcome TRAIL-resistance in rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, R; Meijer, C; Van Zweeden, M; De Jong, S; Wesseling, J; Hoekstra, HJ; van der Graaf, WTA

    Doxorubicin (DOX) and ifosfamide (IFO) are the most active single agents in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is used for STS in the setting of isolated limb perfusions. Like TNF-alpha, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis. In contrast to

  17. Computer simulation of trails on a square lattice. I. Trails at infinite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H.A.; Meirovitch, H.

    1989-01-01

    A trail is a random walk on a lattice for which two bonds are not allowed to overlap. However, the chain may cross itself and one may associate with each such intersection an attractive energy epsilon-c. We study trails at infinite temperature T = ∞ (i.e., trails without attractions) on a square lattice using the scanning simulation method. Our results for the radius of gyration and the end-to-end distance strongly suggest (as do previous studies) that the shape exponent is ν = 0.75, similar to that for self-avoiding walks (SAW's). We obtain significantly more accurate estimates than have been obtained before for the entropy exponent γ = 1.350 +- 0.012 and for the effective growth parameter μ = 2.720 58 +- 0.000 20 (95% confidence limit). The persistence length is found to increase with increasing chain length N and the data fit slightly better an exponential function N/sup w/ where w = 0.047 +- 0.009 than a logarithmic one. Guttmann [J. Phys. A 18, 567 (1985)] has shown exactly that trails and SAW's on the hexagonal lattice at T = ∞ have the same exponents. Our results suggest that this is true also for the square lattice

  18. From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schadschneider

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.

  19. Relationship between tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and vascular endothelial growth factor in human multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkun, Lukasz; Lemancewicz, Dorota; Piszcz, Jaroslaw; Moniuszko, Marcin; Bolkun-Skornicka, Urszula; Szkiladz, Malgorzata; Jablonska, Ewa; Kloczko, Janusz; Dzieciol, Janusz

    2015-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine with a wide spectrum of biological activity, including angiogenesis. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), which belongs to the TNF family of proteins, plays a role in the regulation of vascular responses, but its effect on the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is unclear. We analysed TRAIL concentrations in parallel with pro-angiogenic cytokines in serum and their expression in trephine biopsy (TB) in 56 patients with newly diagnosed IgG MM and 24 healthy volunteers. The study showed statistically higher concentrations of TRAIL and TNF-α, as well as of VEGF and its receptor, in MM patients compared to healthy volunteers and patients in advanced stages of the disease. Furthermore, we observed a significant decrease in all studied pro-angiogenic cytokines and significant increase of TRAIL concentration after anti-angiogenic therapy, with meaningful differences between responders (at least partial remission) and patients with progression during the induction treatment. It was also established that TRAIL correlated statistically and negatively with pro-angiogenic cytokines such as VEGF with its receptor and expression of VEGF and syndecan-1 in TB. In summary, our data indicate that in MM patients, both clinical course and treatment responsiveness are associated with dynamic yet corresponding changes of levels of TRAIL parallel pro-angiogenic mediators such as VEGF with its receptor and expression of VEGF and syndecan-1 in TB. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform of our in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The flow solution is first obtained from the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), the acoustic part is then carried out based on the instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity field. To obtain the time history data of sound pressure, the flow quantities are integrated around the airfoil surface through the FWH approach. For all the simulations, the chord based Reynolds number is around 1.5x10 6 . In the test matrix, the effects from angle of attack, the TE flap angle, the length/width of the TES are investigated. Even though the airfoil under investigation is already optimized for low noise emission, most numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments show that the noise level is further decreased by adding the TES device. (paper)

  1. Development of a Wind Turbine Test Rig and Rotor for Trailing Edge Flap Investigation: Static Flap Angles Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Johnson, David A

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies used to improve performance and increase the life-span of wind turbines is active flow control. It involves the modification of the aerodynamic characteristics of a wind turbine blade by means of moveable aerodynamic control surfaces. Trailing edge flaps are relatively small moveable control surfaces placed at the trailing edge of a blade's airfoil that modify the lift of a blade or airfoil section. An instrumented wind turbine test rig and rotor were specifically developed to enable a wide-range of experiments to investigate the potential of trailing edge flaps as an active control technique. A modular blade based on the S833 airfoil was designed to allow accurate instrumentation and customizable settings. The blade is 1.7 meters long, had a constant 178mm chord and a 6° pitch. The modular aerodynamic parts were 3D printed using plastic PC-ABS material. The blade design point was within the range of wind velocities in the available large test facility. The wind facility is a large open jet wind tunnel with a maximum velocity of 11m/s in the test area. The capability of the developed system was demonstrated through an initial study of the effect of stationary trailing edge flaps on blade load and performance. The investigation focused on measuring the changes in flapwise bending moment and power production for different trailing edge flap spanwise locations and deflection angles. The relationship between the load reduction and deflection angle was linear as expected from theory and the highest reduction was caused by the flap furthest from the rotor center. Overall, the experimental setup proved to be effective in measuring small changes in flapwise bending moment within the wind turbine blade and will provide insight when (active) flap control is targeted

  2. Performance, Career Dynamics, and Span of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Waldman, Michael; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    that higher ability managers should supervise more subordinates, or equivalently, have a larger span of control. And although some of this theory’s predictions have been empirically investigated, there has been little systematic investigation of the theory’s predictions concerning span of control....... In this paper we first extend the theoretical literature on the scale-of-operations effect to allow firms’ beliefs concerning a manager’s ability to evolve over the manager’s career, where much of our focus is the determinants of span of control. We then empirically investigate testable predictions from......There is an extensive theoretical literature based on what is called the scale-of-operations effect, i.e., the idea that the return to managerial ability is higher the more resources the manager influences with his or her decisions. This idea leads to various testable predictions including...

  3. Evaluating the efficiency of shortcut span protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of various recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency with the underlying aim of reducing control plane load. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated can compared against tra...... traditional recovery methods. The optimization model is presented and our simulation results show that Shortcut Span Protection uses more capacity than the unbundled related methods, but this is compensated by easier control and management of the recovery actions.......This paper presents a comparison of various recovery methods in terms of capacity efficiency with the underlying aim of reducing control plane load. In particular, a method where recovery requests are bundled towards the destination (Shortcut Span Protection) is evaluated can compared against...

  4. Trail Crews: Developing a Service Component to Your Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Brad; Merrill, Kurt

    Through wilderness stewardship programs, service projects, or trail crews, college outdoor programs can help land management agencies with their maintenance needs and provide student participants with rewarding service learning opportunities. Trail crews are usually composed of volunteer outdoor enthusiasts who take part in a multitude of…

  5. Discussion on "The Trail" from the Perspective of Christianism Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Kafka is a writer of strong religious complex. In "The Trail," he illustrates his religious thoughts by probing into the alienation of modern human beings from the God and also shows his pursuit and befuddlement of beliefs. This paper analyzes the crimes and punishment in "The Trail" through three parts, the accusation of…

  6. Audit Trail Management System in Community Health Care Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nakaya, Jun; Tominaga, Teiji; Suganuma, Takuo; Shiratori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake we constructed a community health care information network system. Focusing on the authentication server and portal server capable of SAML&ID-WSF, we proposed an audit trail management system to look over audit events in a comprehensive manner. Through implementation and experimentation, we verified the effectiveness of our proposed audit trail management system.

  7. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the...

  8. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  9. Go West: Imagining the Oregon Trail. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    In this lesson plan, students in grades 3-5 compare imagined travel experiences of their own with the actual experiences of 19th-century pioneers on the Oregon Trail. After the 4 lessons students will have: (1) learned about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail; (2) compared and contrasted modern-day travel experiences with those of the 19th…

  10. Rail Trails and Property Values: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenian, Ella; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rail Trail and Property Values dataset includes information on a set of n = 104 homes which sold in Northampton, Massachusetts in 2007. The dataset provides house information (square footage, acreage, number of bedrooms, etc.), price estimates (from Zillow.com) at four time points, location, distance from a rail trail in the community, biking…

  11. Hydrodynamic trails produced by Daphnia: size and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarathna, Lalith N; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on quantifying hydrodynamic trails produced by freely swimming zooplankton. We combined volumetric tracking of swimming trajectories with planar observations of the flow field induced by Daphnia of different size and swimming in different patterns. Spatial extension of the planar flow field along the trajectories was used to interrogate the dimensions (length and volume) and energetics (dissipation rate of kinetic energy and total dissipated power) of the trails. Our findings demonstrate that neither swimming pattern nor size of the organisms affect the trail width or the dissipation rate. However, we found that the trail volume increases with increasing organism size and swimming velocity, more precisely the trail volume is proportional to the third power of Reynolds number. This increase furthermore results in significantly enhanced total dissipated power at higher Reynolds number. The biggest trail volume observed corresponds to about 500 times the body volume of the largest daphnids. Trail-averaged viscous dissipation rate of the swimming daphnids vary in the range of 1.8 x 10(-6) W/kg to 3.4 x 10(-6) W/kg and the observed magnitudes of total dissipated power between 1.3 x 10(-9) W and 1 x 10(-8) W, respectively. Among other zooplankton species, daphnids display the highest total dissipated power in their trails. These findings are discussed in the context of fluid mixing and transport by organisms swimming at intermediate Reynolds numbers.

  12. Van Kampen Colimits as Bicolimits in Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Tobias; Sobociński, Paweł

    The exactness properties of coproducts in extensive categories and pushouts along monos in adhesive categories have found various applications in theoretical computer science, e.g. in program semantics, data type theory and rewriting. We show that these properties can be understood as a single universal property in the associated bicategory of spans. To this end, we first provide a general notion of Van Kampen cocone that specialises to the above colimits. The main result states that Van Kampen cocones can be characterised as exactly those diagrams in ℂ that induce bicolimit diagrams in the bicategory of spans mathcal{S}pan_{mathbb{C}}, provided that ℂ has pullbacks and enough colimits.

  13. Spanning organizational boundaries to manage creative processes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne; Lettl, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    In order to continue to be innovative in the current fast-paced and competitive environment, organizations are increasingly dependent on creative inputs developed outside their boundaries. The paper addresses the boundary spanning activities that managers undertake to a) select and mobilize...... creative talent, b) create shared identity, and c) combine and integrate knowledge in innovation projects involving external actors. We study boundary spanning activities in two creative projects in the LEGO group. One involves identifying and integrating deep, specialized knowledge, the other focuses...... actors, and how knowledge is integrated across organizational boundaries. We discuss implications of our findings for managers and researchers in a business-to-business context...

  14. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P Flanagan

    Full Text Available Argentine ants (Linepithema humile live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  15. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  16. Down-regulation of HSP27 sensitizes TRAIL-resistant tumor cell to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Hongqin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has recently emerged as a cancer therapeutic agent because it preferentially induces apoptosis in human cancer over normal cells. Most tumor cells, including lung cancer cell line A549, unfortunately, are resistant to TRAIL tre...

  17. Working memory and inhibitory control across the life span: Intrusion errors in the Reading Span Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Christelle; Borella, Erika; Fagot, Delphine; Lecerf, Thierry; de Ribaupierre, Anik

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine to what extent inhibitory control and working memory capacity are related across the life span. Intrusion errors committed by children and younger and older adults were investigated in two versions of the Reading Span Test. In Experiment 1, a mixed Reading Span Test with items of various list lengths was administered. Older adults and children recalled fewer correct words and produced more intrusions than did young adults. Also, age-related differences were found in the type of intrusions committed. In Experiment 2, an adaptive Reading Span Test was administered, in which the list length of items was adapted to each individual's working memory capacity. Age groups differed neither on correct recall nor on the rate of intrusions, but they differed on the type of intrusions. Altogether, these findings indicate that the availability of attentional resources influences the efficiency of inhibition across the life span.

  18. Spanning the Home/Work Creative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Davis, Jerome; Hoisl, Karin

    the employee brings to work. Based on Woodman et al.’s (1993) “interactionist perspective” on organizational creativity, supplemented by literature on search and knowledge re/combination, we explore whether and how leisure time activities can span the creative space between the employee’s home and workplace...

  19. Faster Fully-Dynamic minimum spanning forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We give a new data structure for the fully-dynamic minimum spanning forest problem in simple graphs. Edge updates are supported in O(log4 n/log logn) expected amortized time per operation, improving the O(log4 n) amortized bound of Holm et al. (STOC’98, JACM’01).We also provide a deterministic data...

  20. Equivalence of the Color Trails Test and Trail Making Test in nonnative English-speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, A T; Townes, B D; Mahurin, R K

    2000-07-01

    The Color Trails Test (CTT) has been described as a culture-fair test of visual attention, graphomotor sequencing, and effortful executive processing abilities relative to the Trail Making Test (TMT). In this study, the equivalence of the TMT and the CTT among a group of 64 bilingual Turkish university students was examined. No difference in performance on the CTT-1 and TMT Part A was found, suggesting functionally equivalent performance across both tasks. In contrast, the statistically significant differences in performance on CTT-2 and TMT Part B, as well as the interference indices for both tests, were interpreted as providing evidence for task nonequivalence of the CTT-2 and TMT Part B. Results have implications for both psychometric test development and clinical cultural neuropsychology.

  1. TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.S.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm 2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs

  2. Personal reflections on a galvanizing trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, B L

    1998-01-01

    This article encompasses my perception of, and experience in, an exciting segment of the trace element era in nutrition research: the role of zinc in the nutrition of animals and humans. Zinc has been a major player on the stage of trace element research, and it has left a trail that galvanized the attention of many researchers, including myself. It is ubiquitous in biological systems, and it plays a multitude of physiologic and biochemical functions. A brief historical overview is followed by a discussion of the contributions the work done in my laboratory has made toward understanding the physiological and biochemical functions of zinc. The effort of 40 years has led to the belief that one of zinc's major roles, and perhaps its first limiting role, is to preserve plasma-membrane function as regards ion channels and signal transduction. Although substantial knowledge has been gained relating to the importance of zinc in nutrition, much remains to be discovered.

  3. Trailing vortices from low speed flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Rye; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The structure and strength of the vortex wake behind a airplane or animal flying with a fixed or flapping wing contains valuable information about the aerodynamic load history. However, the amount of vorticity measured in the trailing vortex is not always in agreement with the known lift generated, and the behavior of these vortices at relatively low Reynolds numbers is also not well-understood. We present the results from a series of wind tunnel PIV experiments conducted behind a low-aspect ratio rectangular wing at a chord-Reynolds numbers of 30,000. In addition to wake PIV measurements measured in the cross-stream (Trefftz) plane, we measure the lift and drag directly using a six-axis force-torque transducer. We discuss how vortex size, shape, strength and position vary in time and downstream location, as well as the challenges associated with the use of PIV wake measurements to accurate determine aerodynamic forces.

  4. On the Trail of Joan of Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Joyce Forristal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The year 2012 marked the 600th anniversary of the birthday of Joan of Arc (Fr., Jeanne d’Arc (1412–1431. Tributes to this national heroine can be found all over France. There are literally countless statues, streets and restaurants named after her and many sites dedicated to her life. However, despite widespread social and mechanical reproduction and cultural naming in relation to the Maid of Orléans, there is no official network or integrated signage in France to promote cultural heritage tourism to the numerous Joan of Arc sites and festivals, even though her life and death, by any measure, were seminal events in the country’s history. Unfortunately, the pilgrim who wants to follow or intersect with Joan of Arc’s trail through France, for cultural, historical or religious reasons, must do so without much help. Using Actor Network Theory and Site Sacralization Theory as framing devices, this paper explores human actors and tangible and intangible non-human factors that may have contributed to the lack of a unified tourism product despite the existence of an adequate Joan of Arc tourismscape. Insights gleaned from this research include Joan’s conflicted status as both/either saint and/or patriot, the existence of no cooperation or linkage between Joan of Arc sites, and cautious French tourism development policies. Several possible scenarios are suggested as suitable means to help implement or foster the creation of an on-the-ground or virtual Joan of Arc trail or tour.

  5. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh, Faris H R; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages -French, Spanish, and Arabic- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features.

  6. Cross-language modulation of visual attention span: An Arabic-French-Spanish comparison in adult skilled readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris Haroon Rasheed Awadh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages --French, Spanish and Arabic-- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were adult skilled readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented 5 consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T. All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that the VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between visual attention span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features.

  7. Delayed development of radiation sickness in animals following partial exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vershinina, S.F.; Markochev, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Causes of reduction of the life span of animals after partial exposure of the head, thorax, and abdomen are analyzed. Pulmonosclerosis and cardiosclerosis were mainly responsible for animal death following partial radiation exposure of the thorax; these conditions appreciably shortened the life span of the animals. After exposure of the head deaths were due to pneumonias which negligibly reduced the duration of life. Exposure of the abdomen led to the development of diabetes mellitus which shortened the life span by half. 18 refs., 1 tab

  8. Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps for Active Load Alleviation in a Smart Rotor Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergami, Leonardo

    to withstand. The investigation focuses on a specific actuator type: the Adaptive Trailing Edge Flap (ATEF), which introduces a continuous deformation of the aft part of the airfoil camber-line. An aerodynamic model that accounts for the steady and unsteady effects of the flap deflection on a 2D airfoil...... section is developed, and, considering both attached and separated flow conditions, is validated by comparison against Computational Fluid Dynamic solutions and a panel code method. The aerodynamic model is integrated in the BEM-based aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2, thus providing a tool able...... with flaps laid out on the outer 20 % of the blade span, from 77 % to 97% of the blade length. The configuration is first tested with a simplified cyclic control approach, which gives a preliminary indication of the load alleviation potential, and also reveals the possibility to enhance the rotor energy...

  9. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 10 6 . The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions

  10. Ambient air conditions and variation in urban trail use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ann M; Lindsey, Greg; Qiu, Chenchen

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the effect of air quality and administrative policies on use of urban trails in Indianapolis, IN. Attention is focused on two policy variables: (1) issuance of air pollution advisories and (2) the adoption of Daylight Savings Time. Results suggest that while trail use varies with air quality, current public advisories regarding air pollution may be of limited effectiveness in reducing trail users' exposures to hazardous pollutants. In contrast, the adoption of Daylight Savings Time was associated with a statistically significant increase in traffic levels.

  11. Minimal spanning trees, filaments and galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.; Sonoda, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A graph theoretical technique for assessing intrinsic patterns in point data sets is described. A unique construction, the minimal spanning tree, can be associated with any point data set given all the inter-point separations. This construction enables the skeletal pattern of galaxy clustering to be singled out in quantitative fashion and differs from other statistics applied to these data sets. This technique is described and applied to two- and three-dimensional distributions of galaxies and also to comparable random samples and numerical simulations. The observed CfA and Zwicky data exhibit characteristic distributions of edge-lengths in their minimal spanning trees which are distinct from those found in random samples. (author)

  12. Interorganizational Boundary Spanning in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    , and which skills and competencies they draw on in their efforts to deal with emerging cross-cultural issues in a way that paves ground for developing a shared understanding and common platform for the client and vendor representatives. A framework of boundary spanning leadership practices is adapted...... to virtuality and cultural diversity. This paper, which draws on a case study of collaborative work in a global software development project, focuses on key boundary spanners in an Indian vendor company, who are responsible for developing trustful and sustainable client relations and coordinating complex...... projects across multiple cultures, languages, organisational boundaries, time zones and geographical distances. It looks into how these vendor managers get prepared for their complex boundary spanning work, which cross-cultural challenges they experience in their collaboration with Western clients...

  13. 'Localised creativity: a life span perspective'

    OpenAIRE

    Worth, Piers J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is based around a biographic study of the lives of 40 individuals (24 men and 16 women) with a reputation for creative work in a localised context (such as an organisation). The study examines life span development patterns from birth to middle age (45 - 60 years of age) with data gained by biographic interview and thematic analysis. Participants selected for this study are creative in that they have a reputation for producing new, novel and useful or appropriate contributions in ...

  14. Ambilpolar Electric Field and Diffusive Cooling of Electrons in Meteor Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, V. P.; Kelley, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Kelley and Price [GRL, 44, 2987, 2017] recently indicated that ambipolar electric fields may play a role in dynamics of dense plasmas generated by meteors. In the present work we discuss time dynamics of relaxation of electron temperature in meteor trails under relatively common conditions when meteor trail diffusion is not affected by the geomagnetic field (i.e., at low altitudes where both electrons and ions are not magnetized, or at higher altitudes in the plane defined by the trail and magnetic field when meteor trail is not aligned with the geomagnetic field [Ceplecha et al., Space Sci. Rev., 84, 327, 1998, and references therein]). The rate of ambipolar diffusion is a function of temperature and pressure [e.g., Hocking et al., Ann. Geophys., 34, 1119, 2016; Silber et al., Mon. Not. RAS, 469, 1869, 2017] and there is a significant spectroscopic evidence of initial plasma temperatures in meteor trails on the order 4400 deg K [Jennikens et al., Astrobiology, 4, 81, 2004]. For a representative altitude of 105 km chosen for our studies the results are consistent with previous analysis conducted in [Baggeley and Webb, J. Atm. Terr. Phys., 39, 1399, 1977; Ceplecha et al., 1998] indicating that the electron temperature remains elevated for significant time durations measured in tens of milliseconds. Our results indicate that in terms of their magnitudes the ambipolar electric fields can exceed the critical breakdown field of air, consistent with ideas expressed by Kelley and Price [GRL, 44, 2987, 2017], however, under considered conditions these fields lead to acceleration of electron cooling, with electron temperatures falling below the ambient air temperature (below 224 deg K at 105 km altitude). These effects are referred to as diffusive cooling [e.g., Rozhansky and Tsendin, Transport phenomena in partially ionized plasma, Taylor & Francis, 2001, p. 449] and represent a process in which diffusing electrons move against the force acting on them from ambipolar

  15. Spanning trees and the Eurozone crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João

    2013-12-01

    The sovereign debt crisis in the euro area has not yet been solved and recent developments in Spain and Italy have further deteriorated the situation. In this paper we develop a new approach to analyze the ongoing Eurozone crisis. Firstly, we use Maximum Spanning Trees to analyze the topological properties of government bond rates’ dynamics. Secondly, we combine the information given by both Maximum and Minimum Spanning Trees to obtain a measure of market dissimilarity or disintegration. Thirdly, we extend this measure to include a convenient distance not limited to the interval [0, 2]. Our empirical results show that Maximum Spanning Tree gives an adequate description of the separation of the euro area into two distinct groups: those countries strongly affected by the crisis and those that have remained resilient during this period. The measures of market dissimilarity also reveal a persistent separation of these two groups and, according to our second measure, this separation strongly increased during the period July 2009-March 2012.

  16. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  17. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Koenig

    Full Text Available A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA. The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s.

  18. Modulation of TRAIL resistance in colon carcinoma cells : Different contributions of DR4 and DR5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geelen, Caroline M. M.; Pennarun, Bodvael; Le, Phuong T. K.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; de Jong, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Background: rhTRAIL is a therapeutic agent, derived from the TRAIL cytokine, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells by activating the membrane death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). Here, we investigated each receptor's contribution to rhTRAIL sensitivity and rhTRAIL resistance. We assessed whether

  19. IMPROVED TUMOR CELL KILLING BY TRAIL REQUIRES SELECTIVE AND HIGH AFFINITY RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szegezdi, Eva; van der Sloot, Almer M.; Alessandro, Natoni; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Cool, Robbert H.; Munoz, Ines G.; Montoya, Guillermo; Quax, Wim J.; Luis Serrano, Steven de Jong; Samali, Afshin; Wallach, D; Kovalenko, A; Feldman, M

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis can be activated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in a wide range of tumor cells, but not in non-transformed cells. TRAIL interaction with receptors DR4 or DR5 induces apoptosis, whereas DcR1, DcR2 and osteoprotegerin are decoy receptors for TRAIL. TRAIL

  20. 30 CFR 77.600 - Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; short-circuit protection... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.600 Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices. Short-circuit protection for trailing cables shall be provided by an automatic circuit...

  1. 30 CFR 75.601 - Short circuit protection of trailing cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection of trailing cables. 75... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.601 Short circuit protection of trailing cables. [Statutory Provisions] Short circuit protection for trailing cables...

  2. 76 FR 8992 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION... procedures regarding the use of railroad rights-of-way for railbanking and interim trail use under the National Trails System Act (Trails Act). DATES: Comments are due by April 12, 2011; replies are due by May...

  3. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas...

  4. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  5. Removable partial dentures: clinical concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, David M

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review of the traditional clinical concepts for the design and fabrication of removable partial dentures (RPDs). Although classic theories and rules for RPD designs have been presented and should be followed, excellent clinical care for partially edentulous patients may also be achieved with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and unique blended designs. These nontraditional RPD designs and fabrication methods provide for improved fit, function, and esthetics by using computer-aided design software, composite resin for contours and morphology of abutment teeth, metal support structures for long edentulous spans and collapsed occlusal vertical dimensions, and flexible, nylon thermoplastic material for metal-supported clasp assemblies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The antidiabetic drug ciglitazone induces high grade bladder cancer cells apoptosis through the up-regulation of TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Plissonnier

    Full Text Available Ciglitazone belongs to the thiazolidinediones class of antidiabetic drug family and is a high-affinity ligand for the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ. Apart from its antidiabetic activity, this molecule shows antineoplastic effectiveness in numerous cancer cell lines.Using RT4 (derived from a well differentiated grade I papillary tumor and T24 (derived from an undifferentiated grade III carcinoma bladder cancer cells, we investigated the potential of ciglitazone to induce apoptotic cell death and characterized the molecular mechanisms involved. In RT4 cells, the drug induced G2/M cell cycle arrest characterized by an overexpression of p53, p21(waf1/CIP1 and p27(Kip1 in concomitance with a decrease of cyclin B1. On the contrary, in T24 cells, it triggered apoptosis via extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis occurred at high concentrations through PPARγ activation-independent pathways. We show that in vivo treatment of nude mice by ciglitazone inhibits high grade bladder cancer xenograft development. We identified a novel mechanism by which ciglitazone kills cancer cells. Ciglitazone up-regulated soluble and membrane-bound TRAIL and let TRAIL-resistant T24 cells to respond to TRAIL through caspase activation, death receptor signalling pathway and Bid cleavage. We provided evidence that TRAIL-induced apoptosis is partially driven by ciglitazone-mediated down-regulation of c-FLIP and survivin protein levels through a proteasome-dependent degradation mechanism.Therefore, ciglitazone could be clinically relevant as chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for the treatment of TRAIL-refractory high grade urothelial cancers.

  7. Blazing the trail: Official Report : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The official report of the 1st Youth Olympic Games, “Blazing the trail: Official Report: Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games” consisted of one volume, published in French and English. The French version was published only in electronic form

  8. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brandolini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  9. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, P.; Faccini, F.; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-06-01

    The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  10. DNR Division of Parks and Trails District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data shows the DNR Division of Parks and Trails District Boundaries as of May 2010. The boundaries were created by the Division Leadership Team. Boundaries are...

  11. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  12. The Paracrine Induction of TRAIL by Genotoxic Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spalding, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand, TRAIL, is a recently cloned cytokine that has been shown to induce apoptosis in a synergistic fashion with chemotherapeutic agents on several cancer cell lines...

  13. Development of TRAIL Resistance by Radiation-Induced Hypermethylation of DR4 CpG Island in Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Cheol; Lee, Won Hyeok; Min, Young Joo; Cha, Hee Jeong; Han, Myung Woul; Chang, Hyo Won; Kim, Sun-A; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Seong Who; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There are limited therapeutic options for patients with recurrent head and neck cancer after radiation therapy failure. To assess the use of tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as a salvage chemotherapeutic agent for recurrent cancer after radiation failure, we investigated the effect of clinically relevant cumulative irradiation on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Methods and Materials: Using a previously established HN3 cell line from a laryngeal carcinoma patient, we generated a chronically irradiated HN3R isogenic cell line. Viability and apoptosis in HN3 and HN3R cells treated with TRAIL were analyzed with MTS and PI/annexin V-FITC assays. Western blotting and flow cytometry were used to determine the underlying mechanism of TRAIL resistance. DR4 expression was semiquantitatively scored in a tissue microarray with 107 laryngeal cancer specimens. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing for DR4 were performed for genomic DNA isolated from each cell line. Results: HN3R cells were more resistant than HN3 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis because of significantly reduced levels of the DR4 receptor. The DR4 staining score in 37 salvage surgical specimens after radiation failure was lower in 70 surgical specimens without radiation treatment (3.03 ± 2.75 vs 5.46 ± 3.30, respectively; P<.001). HN3R cells had a methylated DR4 CpG island that was partially demethylated by the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Conclusion: Epigenetic silencing of the TRAIL receptor by hypermethylation of a DR4 CpG island might be an underlying mechanism for TRAIL resistance in recurrent laryngeal carcinoma treated with radiation

  14. Trailing Edge Noise Model Validation and Application to Airfoil Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. First, an existing trailing edge noise model is validated by comparing with airfoil surface pressure fluctuations and far field sound pressure levels measured in three different experiments. The agreement is satisfactory in one case but poor in two other cases...... across the boundary layer near the trailing edge and to a lesser extent by a smaller boundary layer displacement thickness. ©2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers...

  15. Universality of collapsing two-dimensional self-avoiding trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, D P

    2009-01-01

    Results of a numerically exact transfer matrix calculation for the model of interacting self-avoiding trails are presented. The results lead to the conclusion that at the collapse transition, self-avoiding trails are in the same universality class as the O(n = 0) model of Bloete and Nienhuis (or vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk), which has thermal exponent ν = 12/23, contrary to previous conjectures. (fast track communication)

  16. Free span burial inspection pig. Phase B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    This report deals with design and construction of a pipeline pig for on-line internal inspection of offshore trenched gas pipelines for pipeline burial, free spans, exposures and loss of concrete weight coating. The measuring principle uses detection of the natural gamma radiation emitted by sea bed formations and the concrete coating of the pipe to map pipeline condition. The gamma ray flux penetrating to the internal side of the pipeline is an effect of the outside conditions. The measuring principle was confirmed in a occasionally present in the gas, blurred seriously sensor signals of the previous instrumentation. The continued project activities have been divided in two phases. Phase A comprised design and construction of a detector system, which could identify and quantify radioactive components from decay of radon-222. During Phase A a new gamma detector was tested in full scale exposed to radon-222. New data analysis procedures for the correction for the influence of radon-222 inside the pipeline, where developed and its utility successfully demonstrated. During Phase B the new detector was mounted in a pipeline pig constructed for inspection of 30-inch gas pipelines. Working conditions were demonstrated in three runs through the southern route of the DONG owned 30-inch gas pipelines crossing the Danish strait named the Great Belt. The FSB-technology found 88% of the free spans identified with the latest acoustic survey. The FSB-technology found in addition 22 free spans that were termed ''invisible'', because they were not identified by the most recent acoustic survey. It is believed that ''invisible free spans'' are either real free spans or locations, where the pipeline has no or very little support from deposits in the pipeline trench. The FSB-survey confirmed all exposed sections longer than 20 metres found by the acoustic survey in the first 21 kilometre of the pipeline. However, the FSB-survey underestimated

  17. Boundary Spanning in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Anne-Marie; Romani, Laurence

    imbalances of power, exacerbated in the case of an Indian vendor and a European client, need to be taken into account. The paper thus contributes with a more context sensitive understanding of inter-organizational boundary work. Taking the vendor perspective also leads to problematization of common...... of Indian IT vendor managers who are responsible for developing client relations and coordinating complex global development projects. The authors revise a framework of boundary spanning leadership practices to adapt it to an offshore outsourcing context. The empirical investigation highlights how...

  18. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....

  19. Signal Enhancement with Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    . Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal...... the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of these filters are analyzed in terms of their noise reduction capabilities and desired signal distortion, and the analyses are validated and further explored in simulations....

  20. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...

  1. Analysis of protection spanning-tree protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б.Я. Корнієнко

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Extraordinary sweeping  of  IT – development  causes vulnerabilities and, thereafter, attacks that use these vulnerabilities. That is why one must post factum or even in advance speed up invention of new information  security systems as well as develop the old ones. The matter of article concerns Spanning-Tree Protocol  – the vivid example of the case, when the cure of the vulnerability creates dozen of new "weak spots".

  2. Phonological similarity effect in complex span task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camos, Valérie; Mora, Gérôme; Barrouillet, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that two systems are involved in verbal working memory; one is specifically dedicated to the maintenance of phonological representations through verbal rehearsal while the other would maintain multimodal representations through attentional refreshing. This theoretical framework predicts that phonologically related phenomena such as the phonological similarity effect (PSE) should occur when the domain-specific system is involved in maintenance, but should disappear when concurrent articulation hinders its use. Impeding maintenance in the domain-general system by a concurrent attentional demand should impair recall performance without affecting PSE. In three experiments, we manipulated the concurrent articulation and the attentional demand induced by the processing component of complex span tasks in which participants had to maintain lists of either similar or dissimilar words. Confirming our predictions, PSE affected recall performance in complex span tasks. Although both the attentional demand and the articulatory requirement of the concurrent task impaired recall, only the induction of an articulatory suppression during maintenance made the PSE disappear. These results suggest a duality in the systems devoted to verbal maintenance in the short term, constraining models of working memory.

  3. The Problem of Predecessors on Spanning Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Poghosyan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the equiprobable distribution of spanning trees on the square lattice. All bonds of each tree can be oriented uniquely with respect to an arbitrary chosen site called the root. The problem of predecessors is to find the probability that a path along the oriented bonds passes sequentially fixed sites i and j. The conformal field theory for the Potts model predicts the fractal dimension of the path to be 5/4. Using this result, we show that the probability in the predecessors problem for two sites separated by large distance r decreases as P(r ∼ r −3/4. If sites i and j are nearest neighbors on the square lattice, the probability P(1 = 5/16 can be found from the analytical theory developed for the sandpile model. The known equivalence between the loop erased random walk (LERW and the directed path on the spanning tree states that P(1 is the probability for the LERW started at i to reach the neighboring site j. By analogy with the self-avoiding walk, P(1 can be called the return probability. Extensive Monte-Carlo simulations confirm the theoretical predictions.

  4. Executive function and attention span in euthymic patients with bipolar 1 disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normala, I; Abdul, Hamid A R; Azlin, B; Nik Ruzyanei, N J; Hazli, Z; Shah, S A

    2010-09-01

    This is a cross sectional comparison study to assess executive function and attention span in euthymic patients with bipolar 1 disorder. It compares the performance of these two cognitive domains in 40 patients with bipolar 1 disorder to that of 40 healthy normal subjects using Trail Making (TMT), Digit Span (Forward and Backward) and Verbal Fluency (VF) tests. The association between demographic, clinical characteristics and performance in all tests were examined. Patients with bipolar illness showed significant impairment with moderate to large effect sizes (VF = 0.67, TMT A = 0.52, TMT B = 0.81, Digit Forward = 0.97, Digit backward = 1.10) in all tasks of executive and attention functioning. These impairments are observed in the absence of active mood symptoms while duration and severity of illness are not found to have an effect on both cognitive domains. Medications received by patients with bipolar disorder have significant association with performance on executive tasks. The results of this study add on to the existing global evidence of cognitive impairment in bipolar illness despite its cross cultural differences. Its presence in the absence of mania, depression or mixed episode indicates that cognitive impairment is stable even after symptoms recovery.

  5. Sesquiterpenes with TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-08-01

    The ability of TRAIL to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal cells makes it an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapy. In search of bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance from natural resources, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionations of the extract of Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of five sesquiterpene compounds (1-5). 11α,13-dihydroxanthinin (2) and 11α,13-dihydroxanthuminol (3) were first isolated from natural resources and xanthinosin (1), desacetylxanthanol (4), and lasidiol p-methoxybenzoate (5) were known compounds. All compounds (1-5) showed potent TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 8, 20, 20, 16, and 16 μM, respectively, in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. Compounds 1 and 5 enhanced the levels of apoptosis inducing proteins DR4, DR5, p53, CHOP, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 and also decreased the levels of cell survival protein Bcl-2 in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 1 also enhanced the levels of DR4 and DR5 proteins in a time-dependent manner. Thus, compounds 1 and 5 were found to induce both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic cell death. Compound 1 also exhibit TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity in DLD1, DU145, HeLa, and MCF7 cells but did not decrease viability in non-cancer HEK293 cells up to 8 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Structural covariance networks across the life span, from 6 to 94 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPre, Elizabeth; Spreng, R Nathan

    2017-10-01

    Structural covariance examines covariation of gray matter morphology between brain regions and across individuals. Despite significant interest in the influence of age on structural covariance patterns, no study to date has provided a complete life span perspective-bridging childhood with early, middle, and late adulthood-on the development of structural covariance networks. Here, we investigate the life span trajectories of structural covariance in six canonical neurocognitive networks: default, dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, somatomotor, ventral attention, and visual. By combining data from five open-access data sources, we examine the structural covariance trajectories of these networks from 6 to 94 years of age in a sample of 1,580 participants. Using partial least squares, we show that structural covariance patterns across the life span exhibit two significant, age-dependent trends. The first trend is a stable pattern whose integrity declines over the life span. The second trend is an inverted-U that differentiates young adulthood from other age groups. Hub regions, including posterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula, appear particularly influential in the expression of this second age-dependent trend. Overall, our results suggest that structural covariance provides a reliable definition of neurocognitive networks across the life span and reveal both shared and network-specific trajectories.

  7. Increased Life Span due to Calorie Restriction in Respiratory-Deficient Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A model for replicative life span extension by calorie restriction (CR in yeast has been proposed whereby reduced glucose in the growth medium leads to activation of the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2. One mechanism proposed for this putative activation of Sir2 is that CR enhances the rate of respiration, in turn leading to altered levels of NAD or NADH, and ultimately resulting in enhanced Sir2 activity. An alternative mechanism has been proposed in which CR decreases levels of the Sir2 inhibitor nicotinamide through increased expression of the gene coding for nicotinamidase, PNC1. We have previously reported that life span extension by CR is not dependent on Sir2 in the long-lived BY4742 strain background. Here we have determined the requirement for respiration and the effect of nicotinamide levels on life span extension by CR. We find that CR confers robust life span extension in respiratory-deficient cells independent of strain background, and moreover, suppresses the premature mortality associated with loss of mitochondrial DNA in the short-lived PSY316 strain. Addition of nicotinamide to the medium dramatically shortens the life span of wild type cells, due to inhibition of Sir2. However, even in cells lacking both Sir2 and the replication fork block protein Fob1, nicotinamide partially prevents life span extension by CR. These findings (1 demonstrate that respiration is not required for the longevity benefits of CR in yeast, (2 show that nicotinamide inhibits life span extension by CR through a Sir2-independent mechanism, and (3 suggest that CR acts through a conserved, Sir2-independent mechanism in both PSY316 and BY4742.

  8. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Troy A W

    2014-01-01

    While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items. Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition) or three (TTT condition) consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers. Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their temporal attention

  9. Herbal supplement extends life span under some environmental conditions and boosts stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Villeponteau

    Full Text Available Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100 that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span.

  10. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy A W Visser

    Full Text Available While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items.Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition or three (TTT condition consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers.Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers in the TTT condition suggests a reduction in the extent of their

  11. Increased life span due to calorie restriction in respiratory-deficient yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Kaeberlein

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A model for replicative life span extension by calorie restriction (CR in yeast has been proposed whereby reduced glucose in the growth medium leads to activation of the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2. One mechanism proposed for this putative activation of Sir2 is that CR enhances the rate of respiration, in turn leading to altered levels of NAD+ or NADH, and ultimately resulting in enhanced Sir2 activity. An alternative mechanism has been proposed in which CR decreases levels of the Sir2 inhibitor nicotinamide through increased expression of the gene coding for nicotinamidase, PNC1. We have previously reported that life span extension by CR is not dependent on Sir2 in the long-lived BY4742 strain background. Here we have determined the requirement for respiration and the effect of nicotinamide levels on life span extension by CR. We find that CR confers robust life span extension in respiratory-deficient cells independent of strain background, and moreover, suppresses the premature mortality associated with loss of mitochondrial DNA in the short-lived PSY316 strain. Addition of nicotinamide to the medium dramatically shortens the life span of wild type cells, due to inhibition of Sir2. However, even in cells lacking both Sir2 and the replication fork block protein Fob1, nicotinamide partially prevents life span extension by CR. These findings (1 demonstrate that respiration is not required for the longevity benefits of CR in yeast, (2 show that nicotinamide inhibits life span extension by CR through a Sir2-independent mechanism, and (3 suggest that CR acts through a conserved, Sir2-independent mechanism in both PSY316 and BY4742.

  12. Life span study report, 11, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1988-12-01

    ABCC and its successor, RERF, have followed since 1959 and retrospectively to 1950 the mortality in a fixed cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the so-called Life Span Study sample. The present study, the 11th in a series that began in 1961, extends the surveillance period three more years and covers the period 1950-85. It is based on the recently revised dose system, called DS86, that has replaced previous estimates of individual exposures. The impact of the change from the old system of dosimetry, the T65DR, to the new on the dose-response relationships for cancer mortality was described in the first of this series of reports. Here, the focus is on cancer mortality among the 76,000 A-bomb survivors within the LSS sample for whom DS86 doses have been estimated, with the emphasis on biological issues associated with radiation carcinogenesis. (author)

  13. Image Segmentation Using Minimum Spanning Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, M. P.; Armiati, A.; Alvini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research aim to segmented the digital image. The process of segmentation is to separate the object from the background. So the main object can be processed for the other purposes. Along with the development of technology in digital image processing application, the segmentation process becomes increasingly necessary. The segmented image which is the result of the segmentation process should accurate due to the next process need the interpretation of the information on the image. This article discussed the application of minimum spanning tree on graph in segmentation process of digital image. This method is able to separate an object from the background and the image will change to be the binary images. In this case, the object that being the focus is set in white, while the background is black or otherwise.

  14. Phonological similarity in working memory span tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Michael; Macnamara, Brooke N; Conway, Andrew R A

    2016-08-01

    In a series of four experiments, we explored what conditions are sufficient to produce a phonological similarity facilitation effect in working memory span tasks. By using the same set of memoranda, but differing the secondary-task requirements across experiments, we showed that a phonological similarity facilitation effect is dependent upon the semantic relationship between the memoranda and the secondary-task stimuli, and is robust to changes in the representation, ordering, and pool size of the secondary-task stimuli. These findings are consistent with interference accounts of memory (Brown, Neath, & Chater, Psychological Review, 114, 539-576, 2007; Oberauer, Lewandowsky, Farrell, Jarrold, & Greaves, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 779-819, 2012), whereby rhyming stimuli provide a form of categorical similarity that allows distractors to be excluded from retrieval at recall.

  15. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.

  16. Leading and Trailing Anvil Clouds of West African Squall Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrone, Jasmine; Houze, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The anvil clouds of tropical squall-line systems over West Africa have been examined using cloud radar data and divided into those that appear ahead of the leading convective line and those on the trailing side of the system. The leading anvils are generally higher in altitude than the trailing anvil, likely because the hydrometeors in the leading anvil are directly connected to the convective updraft, while the trailing anvil generally extends out of the lower-topped stratiform precipitation region. When the anvils are subdivided into thick, medium, and thin portions, the thick leading anvil is seen to have systematically higher reflectivity than the thick trailing anvil, suggesting that the leading anvil contains numerous larger ice particles owing to its direct connection to the convective region. As the leading anvil ages and thins, it retains its top. The leading anvil appears to add hydrometeors at the highest altitudes, while the trailing anvil is able to moisten a deep layer of the atmosphere.

  17. Cohort Profile Update: The TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoek, Hans W; Ormel, Johan; Raven, Dennis; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma AM; Hartman, Catharina A

    2015-01-01

    TRAILS consists of a population cohort (N = 2230) and a clinical cohort (N = 543), both of which were followed from about age 11 years onwards. To date, the population cohort has been assessed five times over a period of 11 years, with retention rates ranging between 80% and 96%. The clinical cohort has been assessed four times over a period of 8 years, with retention rates ranging between 77% and 85%. Since the IJE published a cohort profile on the TRAILS in 2008, the participants have matured from adolescents into young adults. The focus shifted from parents and school to entry into the labour market and family formation, including offspring. Furthermore, psychiatric diagnostic interviews were administered, the database was linked to a Psychiatric Case Registry, and the availability of genome-wide SNP variations opened the door to genome-wide association studies regarding a wide range of (endo)phenotypes. With some delay, TRAILS data are available to researchers outside the TRAILS consortium without costs; access can be obtained by submitting a publication proposal (see www.trails.nl). PMID:25431468

  18. Cohort Profile Update: the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith Gm; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoek, Hans W; Ormel, Johan; Raven, Dennis; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma Am; Hartman, Catharina A

    2015-02-01

    TRAILS consists of a population cohort (N=2230) and a clinical cohort (N=543), both of which were followed from about age 11 years onwards. To date, the population cohort has been assessed five times over a period of 11 years, with retention rates ranging between 80% and 96%. The clinical cohort has been assessed four times over a period of 8 years, with retention rates ranging between 77% and 85%. Since the IJE published a cohort profile on the TRAILS in 2008, the participants have matured from adolescents into young adults. The focus shifted from parents and school to entry into the labour market and family formation, including offspring. Furthermore, psychiatric diagnostic interviews were administered, the database was linked to a Psychiatric Case Registry, and the availability of genome-wide SNP variations opened the door to genome-wide association studies regarding a wide range of (endo)phenotypes. With some delay, TRAILS data are available to researchers outside the TRAILS consortium without costs; access can be obtained by submitting a publication proposal (see www.trails.nl). © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. On the cardinality of smallest spanning sets of rings | Boudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let R = (R, +, ·) be a ring. Then Z ⊆ R is called spanning if the R-module generated by Z is equal to the ring R. A spanning set Z ⊆ R is called smallest if there is no spanning set of smaller cardinality than Z. It will be shown that the cardinality of a smallest spanning set of a ring R is not always decidable. In particular, a ring R ...

  20. Mitigating the Impact of Nurse Manager Large Spans of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Brenda Baird; Dearmon, Valorie; Graves, Rebecca

    Nurse managers are instrumental in achievement of organizational and unit performance goals. Greater spans of control for managers are associated with decreased satisfaction and performance. An interprofessional team measured one organization's nurse manager span of control, providing administrative assistant support and transformational leadership development to nurse managers with the largest spans of control. Nurse manager satisfaction and transformational leadership competency significantly improved following the implementation of large span of control mitigation strategies.

  1. Identification of TRAIL-inducing compounds highlights small molecule ONC201/TIC10 as a unique anti-cancer agent that activates the TRAIL pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E; Krigsfeld, Gabriel; Patel, Luv; Mayes, Patrick A; Dicker, David T; Wu, Gen Sheng; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the identification of ONC201/TIC10, a novel small molecule inducer of the human TRAIL gene that improves efficacy-limiting properties of recombinant TRAIL and is in clinical trials in advanced cancers based on its promising safety and antitumor efficacy in several preclinical models. We performed a high throughput luciferase reporter screen using the NCI Diversity Set II to identify TRAIL-inducing compounds. Small molecule-mediated induction of TRAIL reporter activity was relatively modest and the majority of the hit compounds induced low levels of TRAIL upregulation. Among the candidate TRAIL-inducing compounds, TIC9 and ONC201/TIC10 induced sustained TRAIL upregulation and apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. However, ONC201/TIC10 potentiated tumor cell death while sparing normal cells, unlike TIC9, and lacked genotoxicity in normal fibroblasts. Investigating the effects of TRAIL-inducing compounds on cell signaling pathways revealed that TIC9 and ONC201/TIC10, which are the most potent inducers of cell death, exclusively activate Foxo3a through inactivation of Akt/ERK to upregulate TRAIL and its pro-apoptotic death receptor DR5. These studies reveal the selective activity of ONC201/TIC10 that led to its selection as a lead compound for this novel class of antitumor agents and suggest that ONC201/TIC10 is a unique inducer of the TRAIL pathway through its concomitant regulation of the TRAIL ligand and its death receptor DR5.

  2. EU Regulation of E-Commercspan>e A Commentary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.; Murray, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    For the last twenty years the European Union has been extremely active in the field of e-commercspan>e. This important new book addresses the key pieces of EU legislation in the field of e-commercspan>e, including the E-Commercspan>e Directive, the Services Directive, the Consumer Directive, the General Data

  3. BITC Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Wicker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a greater than 95% mortality rate and short survival after diagnosis. Chemotherapeutic resistance hinders successful treatment. This resistance is often associated with mutations in codon 12 of the K-Ras gene (K-Ras 12, which is present in over 90% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Codon 12 mutations maintain Ras in a constitutively active state leading to continuous cellular proliferation. Our study determined if TRAIL resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with K-Ras 12 mutations could be overcome by first sensitizing the cells with Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC. BITC is a component of cruciferous vegetables and a cell cycle inhibitor. BxPC3, MiaPaCa2 and Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines were examined for TRAIL resistance. Our studies show BITC induced TRAIL sensitization by dual activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  4. Continuous Fraud Detection in Enterprise Systems through Audit Trail Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Best

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise systems, real time recording and real time reporting pose new and significant challenges to the accounting and auditing professions. This includes developing methods and tools for continuous assurance and fraud detection. In this paper we propose a methodology for continuous fraud detection that exploits security audit logs, changes in master records and accounting audit trails in enterprise systems. The steps in this process are: (1 threat monitoring-surveillance of security audit logs for ‘red flags’, (2 automated extraction and analysis of data from audit trails, and (3 using forensic investigation techniques to determine whether a fraud has actually occurred. We demonstrate how mySAP, an enterprise system, can be used for audit trail analysis in detecting financial frauds; afterwards we use a case study of a suspected fraud to illustrate how to implement the methodology.

  5. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2009-01-01

    , lead-lag, pitch, trailing-edge flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman-type dynamic stall model. In this work, a deformable trailing-edge flap has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave...... for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model is compared qualitatively to wind tunnel measurements of a Riso/ B1-18 blade section equipped with deformable trailing-edge flap devices in the form of piezoelectric devices. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  6. Advance features in the SPAN and SPAN/XRF gamma ray and X ray spectrum analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liyu

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the advanced techniques, integral peak background, experimental peak shape and complex peak shape, which have been used successfully in the software packages SPAN and SPAN/XRF to process gamma ray and X ray spectra from HPGe and Si(Li) detector. Main features of SPAN and SPAN/XRF are also described. The software runs on PC and has convenient graphical capabilities and a powerful user interface. (author)

  7. Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan

    2005-09-01

    More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse impacts on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse impacts caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental impacts to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as assessment objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as assessment indicators to assess ecological impacts in the case study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management.

  8. Coping strategies: gender differences and development throughout life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sancho, Patricia; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    Development during life-span implies to cope with stressful events, and this coping may be done with several strategies. It could be useful to know if these coping strategies differ as a consequence of personal characteristics. This work uses the Coping with Stress Questionnaire with this aim using a sample of 400 participants. Specifically, the effects of gender and age group (young people, middle age and elderly), as well as its interaction on coping strategies is studied. With regard to age, on one hand, it is hypothesised a decrement in the use of coping strategies centred in problem solving and social support seeking as age increases. On the other hand, the use of emotional coping is hypothesised to increase with age. With respect to gender, it is hypothesised a larger use of emotional coping and social support seeking within women, and a larger use of problem solving within men. A MANOVA found significant effects for the two main effects (gender and age) as well as several interactions. Separate ANOVAs allowed us to test for potential differences in each of the coping strategies measured in the CAE. These results partially supported the hypotheses. Results are discussed in relation to scientific literature on coping, age and gender.

  9. Andrographolide sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Jing Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a promising agent for anticancer therapy. The identification of small molecules that can establish the sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is crucial for the targeted treatment of PCa. PC3, DU145, JAC-1, TsuPr1, and LNCaP cells were treated with Andrographolide (Andro and TRAIL, and the apoptosis was measured using the Annexin V/PI double staining method. Real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of target molecules. RNA interference technique was used to down-regulate the expression of the target protein. We established a nude mouse xenograft model of PCa, which was used to measure the caspase-3 activity in the tumor cells using flow cytometry. In this research study, our results demonstrated that Andro preferentially increased the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at subtoxic concentrations, and the regulation mechanism was related to the up-regulation of DR4. In addition, it also increased the p53 expression and led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the cells. Further research revealed that the DR4 inhibition, p53 expression, and ROS generation can significantly reduce the apoptosis induced by the combination of TRAIL and Andro in PCa cells. In conclusion, Andro increases the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the generation of ROS and up-regulation of p53 and then promotes PCa cell apoptosis associated with the activation of DR4.

  10. Reading Ability and Memory Span: Long-Term Memory Contributions to Span for Good and Poor Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Sine J. P.; Donohoe, Rachael

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which differences in memory span for good and poor readers can be explained by differences in a long-term memory component to span as well as by differences in short-term memory processes. Discusses the nature of the interrelationships between memory span, reading and measures of phonological awareness. (SG)

  11. Trailing edge noise model applied to wind turbine airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this work is firstly to provide a quick introduction to the theory of noise generation that are relevant to wind turbine technology with focus on trailing edge noise. Secondly, the socalled TNO trailing edge noise model developed by Parchen [1] is described in more details. The model is tested and validated by comparing with other results from the literature. Finally, this model is used in the optimization process of two reference airfoils in order to reduce their noise signature: the RISOE-B1-18 and the S809 airfoils. (au)

  12. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Dan Christian

    2007-01-01

    on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa [4], which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. [7]. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments...

  13. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks......, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed...

  14. Life span study report 9, part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Toshiro; Kato, Hiroo; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Schull, W.J.

    1983-04-01

    The incidence of malignant tumors in the RERF Life Span Study (LSS) sample in Nagasaki as revealed by the Nagasaki Tumor Registry (Registry) has been investigated for the period 1959-78. No exposure status bias in data collection has been revealed. Neither method of diagnosis, reporting hospitals, nor the frequency of doubtful cases differ by exposure dose. Thus, the effect of a bias, if one exists, must be small and should not affect the interpretation of the results obtained in the present analysis. The risk of radiogenic cancer definitely increases with radiation dose for leukemia, cancer of the breast, lung, stomach, and thyroid, and suggestively so for cancer of the colon and urinary tract and multiple myeloma. However, there is no increase as yet for cancer of the esophagus, liver, gall bladder, uterus, ovary, and salivary gland, or for malignant lymphoma. For fatal cancers, these results strengthen those of the recent analysis of mortality based on death certificates on the same LSS cohort. In general, the relative risks based on incidence (that is, on Registry data) are either the same or slightly higher than those based on mortality for the same years; however, the absolute risk estimates (excess cancer per million person-year per rad) are far higher. (author)

  15. Cloning and Characterization of Genes that Inhibit TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shu, Hong-Bing

    2003-01-01

    ...). However, some cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis (3, 4, 6-13). The purpose of this proposed study is to clone and characterize such inhibitory genes of TRAIL-induced apoptosis...

  16. Modulators of Response to Tumor Necrosis-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Therapy in Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behbakht, Kian

    2008-01-01

    .... TRAIL therapies are particularly exciting because TRAIL reverses chemoresistance to standard chemotherapy as well as having a direct growth inhibitory effect on ovarian cancer cells, while sparing normal...

  17. 3-Bromopyruvate enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through CHOP-dependent upregulation of TRAIL-R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zhou; Lele, Song; Zhirui, Zhang; Qiong, Pan; Yuzhong, Chen; Lingling, Liu; Surong, Zhao; Yiming, Sun; Pei, Zhang; Chenchen, Jiang; Liu, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Past reports have shown that the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is related to their expression of TRAIL-death receptors on the cell surface. However, the level of TRAIL-death receptors expression on cancer cells is always low. Our previous research showed that nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells have a poor sensitivity to low doses of TRAIL. Here, we evaluated combined treatment with the energy inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) and TRAIL as a method to produce an increased apoptotic response in NPC cells. The results showed that 3BP and TRAIL together produced higher cytotoxicity and increased TRAIL-R2 expression in NPC cells compared with the effects of either 3BP or TRAIL alone. These findings led us to hypothesize that 3BP may sensitize NPC cells to TRAIL. 3BP is a metabolic blocker that inhibits hexokinase II activity, suppresses ATP production, and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Our results showed that 3BP also activated AMP-activated protein kinase, which we found to play an important role in the induction of ER stress by 3BP. Furthermore, the induction of TRAIL-R2 expression and the sensitization of the NPC cells to TRAIL by 3BP were reduced when we inhibited the expression of CHOP. Taken together, our results showed that a low dose of 3BP sensitized NPC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the upregulation of CHOP, which was mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and ER stress. The results showed that 3BP is a promising candidate agent for enhancing the therapeutic response to TRAIL in NPC.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Performance of Airfoils Fitted with Morphing Trailing Edges

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Qing; Kamliya Jawahar, Hasan; Azarpeyvand, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance and wake development of a NACA 0012 airfoil fitted with morphing trailing edges were studied using experimental and computational techniques. The NACA 0012 airfoil was tested with morphing trailing edges having various camber profiles with the same trailing edge tip deflection. The aerodynamic force measurements for the airfoil were carried out for a wide range of chord-based Reynolds number and angles of attack with trailing edge deflection angle of β= 5◦ and 10◦....

  19. Irradiation specifically sensitises solid tumour cell lines to TRAIL mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Patrizia; Schmid, Angelika; Jendrossek, Verena; Faltin, Heidrun; Daniel, Peter T; Budach, Wilfried; Belka, Claus

    2005-01-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) is an apoptosis inducing ligand with high specificity for malignant cell systems. Combined treatment modalities using TRAIL and cytotoxic drugs revealed highly additive effects in different tumour cell lines. Little is known about the efficacy and underlying mechanistic effects of a combined therapy using TRAIL and ionising radiation in solid tumour cell systems. Additionally, little is known about the effect of TRAIL combined with radiation on normal tissues. Tumour cell systems derived from breast- (MDA MB231), lung- (NCI H460) colorectal- (Colo 205, HCT-15) and head and neck cancer (FaDu, SCC-4) were treated with a combination of TRAIL and irradiation using two different time schedules. Normal tissue cultures from breast, prostate, renal and bronchial epithelia, small muscle cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes and fibroblasts were tested accordingly. Apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy and western blot determination of PARP processing. Upregulation of death receptors was quantified by flow cytometry. The combined treatment of TRAIL with irradiation strongly increased apoptosis induction in all treated tumour cell lines compared to treatment with TRAIL or irradiation alone. The synergistic effect was most prominent after sequential application of TRAIL after irradiation. Upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5 after irradiation was observed in four of six tumour cell lines but did not correlate to tumour cell sensitisation to TRAIL. TRAIL did not show toxicity in normal tissue cell systems. In addition, pre-irradiation did not sensitise all nine tested human normal tissue cell cultures to TRAIL. Based on the in vitro data, TRAIL represents a very promising candidate for combination with radiotherapy. Sequential application of ionising radiation followed by TRAIL is associated with an synergistic induction of cell death in a large panel of solid tumour cell lines. However, TRAIL receptor

  20. 30 CFR 77.804 - High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.804 High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements. (a) High-voltage trailing cables used in resistance grounded systems shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design...

  1. Comprehensive Trail Making Test Performance in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Barney, Sally J.; Mayfield, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Trail Making Test to brain damage has been well-established over many years, making it one of the most commonly used tests in clinical neuropsychological evaluations. The current study examined the validity of scores from a newer version of the Trail Making Test, the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), in children and…

  2. Home | Trails of Hope: Overland Diaries and Letters, 1846-1869 | Digital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collections | HBLL BYU Harold B. Lee Library Collections Trails of Hope: Overland Diaries and Mormons--Religious Life Religious Life Women Browse Search Browse all Maps Interactive Maps These maps illustrations. Search Browse all Photographs and Illustrations Search Browse all Trail Guides Trails of Hope

  3. Initiation of trailing edge failure in full-scale wind turbine blade test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich; Branner, Kim

    2016-01-01

    non-linear buckling effect of the trailing edge under combined loading, and how it affects the ultimate strength of a blade in a trailing-edge failure dominated load direction were investigated. The study details the interaction between trailing edge buckling on damage onset and sandwich panel failure...

  4. Students’ Use of Knowledge Resources in Environmental Interaction on an Outdoor Learning Trail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Esther; So, Hyo-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how students leveraged different types of knowledge resources on an outdoor learning trail. We positioned the learning trail as an integral part of the curriculum with a pre- and post-trail phase to scaffold and to support students’ meaning-making process. The study was conducted

  5. Promoting and developing a trail network across suburban, rural, and urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schasberger, Michele G; Hussa, Carol S; Polgar, Michael F; McMonagle, Julie A; Burke, Sharon J; Gegaris, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Valley Wellness Trails Partnership received an Active Living by Design grant late in 2003 for a project centered on a growing trail network linking urban, suburban, and rural communities in northeast Pennsylvania, a former coal region, in order to increase physical activity among residents. The partnership conducted research, collected information, created promotional documents, worked with partners on events and programs, and participated in trail planning. Local trail organizations continued planning and construction toward developing a trail network. Other partners spearheaded policy change in schools and worksites and worked toward downtown revitalization. The partnership assisted these efforts by providing a forum in which organizations could meet. The partnership became a central resource for information about local parks, trails, and outdoor recreational activities. The partnership increased awareness and use of recreational facilities. Trail partners constructed 22 miles of walking and biking trails. The partnership took advantage of an allied effort that created organizational capacity for wellness in schools and worksites. Messages promoting social and entertainment benefits of physical activity were more successful than those promoting health benefits. The existence of multiple small, independent trail organizations can help advance trail development through concurrent development efforts. Urban, suburban, and rural residents' conceptions of walkability may differ. Trails provide options for recreational and transportation-related physical activity across urban, suburban, and rural landscapes that are supported by all constituents. Trail builders can be strong allies in bringing active living to suburban and rural places.

  6. 30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage... Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.907 Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits shall include grounding...

  7. 36 CFR 261.12 - National Forest System roads and trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and trails. 261.12 Section 261.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.12 National Forest System roads and trails. The following... by a sign. (c) Damaging and leaving in a damaged condition any such road, trail, or segment thereof...

  8. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General criteria for designation of...

  9. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of roads, trails... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor vehicle use on National Forest System roads, on...

  10. National forest trail users: planning for recreation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Daigle; Alan E. Watson; Glenn E. Haas

    1994-01-01

    National forest trail users in four geographical regions of the United States are described based on participation in clusters of recreation activities. Visitors are classified into day hiking, undeveloped recreation, and two developed camping and hiking activity clusters for the Appalachian, Pacific, Rocky Mountain, and Southwestern regions. Distance and time traveled...

  11. Double blind clinical trail comparing the safety and efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Double blind clinical trail comparing the safety and efficacy of nimesulide (100g) and diclofenac in osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee joints. ... A significant proportion of the patients in the diclofenac group (50% vs 17.6%) had break through pain that warranted the use of at least two tablets of 500mg of paracetamol per week ...

  12. Photography of a lithium vapor trail during the daytime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Barium and lithium vapors were released from sounding rockets in the thermosphere and observed from aboard a jet aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 ft. The purpose of the releases was to demonstrate the feasibility of an all-weather technique for observing chemical releases and to evaluate methods of observing daytime releases. The selected flight plan of the aircraft allowed a series of observations of the trail from two different straight line paths. Data were recorded photographically. The reduction in sky brightness at the 40,000-ft altitude as compared to the ground allows the use of a filter with a 10-A bandwidth for trail photography in the daytime. These photographs verified the calculation of the usable angular field of the narrow-band filters. Photographs of a 45-min-old trail of lithium vapor were obtained up to 20 min after sunrise at the aircraft. It is concluded that now vapor trail observations may be made during the daytime without regard to weather and logistic restrictions.

  13. The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these…

  14. Mobilizing coastal resources along a digitally facilitated pilgrim trail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    The recently opened pilgrim trail, Camønoen represents an adapted collaborative business model and as such an appropriate case to study new coastal value creation processes. Our paper will follow the consolidation of Camønoen by analyzing its business model, the institutionalisation of brokers...

  15. Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geel, Tessa M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Meiss, Gregor [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Gun, Bernardina T. van der; Kroesen, Bart Jan; Leij, Lou F. de [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas [Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius LT-02241 (Lithuania); Kokkinidis, Michael [IMBB/FORTH and University of Crete/Department of Biology, GR-71409 Heraklion/Crete (Greece); Pingoud, Alfred [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ruiters, Marcel H. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Synvolux therapeutics, Groningen (Netherlands); McLaughlin, Pamela M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Rots, Marianne G., E-mail: m.g.rots@med.umcg.nl [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-09-10

    TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18{sup Registered-Sign }:DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas.

  16. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Water Trail Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Water Trail Plan describes the current conditions of and future plans for the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (NRRA), a 72-mile stretch of the Mississippi River running through the Twin Cities region of Minnesota. In 2012, the NRRA...

  17. Physiological Responses of Senior Adults Running a Fit Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegren, Herberta; And Others

    In this 1977 study the heart rates of 51 men and women ranging in age from 22-72 were continuously monitored while the subjects walked or ran a modified parcour fitness trail. The length of the course, its gradient, the distance between exercise stations, and the elevation of the course were measured. Mean percentage max HR (Karvonen) values were…

  18. A morphing trailing edge flap system for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barlas, Athanasios; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    system has been further developed in corporation with the industrial partners Hydratech Industries (DK) and Rehau (DE). A new trailing edge flap design with spanwise voids (channels) and with a chord of 15cm suitable for a 1m chord blade section was developed. It was then manufactured by extrusion...

  19. Estimating soil erosion on hiking trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Peeters, Mattias; Kuppen, Emiel; Blok, Kas; Dilly, Lina

    2017-04-01

    Natural parks and protected natural areas provide excellent recreational opportunities for outdoor activities through the richness of the natural environment and the abundance of walking trails. Hiking, mountain biking and running have rapidly gained popularity over recent years increasing concerns about the erosion and degradation of hiking trails caused by (over)use. This is also the case in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southeast Spain, which is a popular destination for tourists due to its diverse fauna and flora. The increasing number of tourists together with the negative impacts of climate change necessitates a better understanding of the key soil erosion processes impacting hiking trails. There are 4 scenic trail routes in the Natural Park amounting to 21 km plus an additional network of unofficial trails. Apart from the heavy touristic traffic on the trails there are large trail running events with up to 1000 participants becoming increasingly popular, however local park authorities have voiced concerns about the impacts of these activities on the trails. Despite the popularity of walking trails around the world, there is a paucity of research exploring soil erosion from these features. Therefore, the aims of this study are: 1) to ascertain the amount of erosion that occurs on trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park, and 2) determine the key factors that influence soil erosion. Some 100 km of trails were evaluated (both official and unmarked trails), with route segments ranging between 2 and 10 km. A trail classification system was developed to group trail segments based on their surface characteristics (bedrock, gravel, mixed sediment, soil or man-made) and specific erosion features (rills, ditch-shaped, tilted). For each class, the average erosion rate was calculated which ranged from 262 t/ha for soil-based trails to 2006 t/ha for heavily eroded, ditch-shaped trails. The spatial distribution of the different erosion rates and trail types were

  20. Predicting scour beneath subsea pipelines from existing small free span depths under steady currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Y. Lee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An equation was developed to predict current-induced scour beneath subsea pipelines in areas with small span depths, S. Current equations for scour prediction are only applicable to partially buried pipelines. The existence of small span depths (i.e. S/D < 0.3 are of concern because the capacity for scour is higher at smaller span depths. Furthermore, it is impractical to perform rectification works, such as installing grout bags, under a pipeline with a small S/D. Full-scale two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach and the Shear stress transport k–ω turbulence model. To predict the occurrence of scour, the computed maximum bed shear stress beneath the pipe was converted to the dimensionless Shields parameter, and compared with the critical Shields parameter based on the mean sediment grain size. The numerical setup was verified, and a good agreement was found between model-scale CFD data and experimental data. Field data were obtained to determine the mean grain size, far field current velocity and to measure the span depths along the surveyed pipe length. A trend line equation was fitted to the full-scale CFD data, whereby the maximum Shields parameter beneath the pipe can be calculated based on the undisturbed Shields parameter and S/D.

  1. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Irigenin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via enhancing pro-apoptotic molecules in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Gao, Cheng-Cheng; Pan, Zhen-Guo; Zhou, Chuan-Wen

    2018-02-12

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promising value for cancer therapy due to its capacity to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Nevertheless, TRAIL therapy is greatly hampered by its resistance. Irigenin (Iri), isoflavonoids, can be isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, and has been shown anti-cancer properties. In this study, we explored if Iri could enhance TRAIL-regulated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant gastric cancer cells. Iri significantly potentiated TRAIL-triggered cytotoxicity. Iri alone and TRAIL alone showed no effective role in apoptosis induction, whereas combined treatment with Iri and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in cancer cells, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cleaved Caspase-8/-9/-3 and PARP. Additionally, the sensitization to TRAIL was along with the enhancement of pro-apoptotic proteins, including FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD), death receptor 5 (DR5) and Bax. And suppressing FADD, DR5 and Bax by si RNA significantly reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the cell viability induced by the co-application of Iri and TRAIL. Moreover, the sensitization to TRAIL was accompanied by the decrease of Cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), Bcl-2 and Survivin. Additionally, Iri could sensitize TRAIL to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), ROS scavenger, attenuated Iri plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis and improved cell viability. Finally, combination of Iri and TRAIL inhibited tumor growth in the xenograft model. Collectively, our present study gave new insights into the effects of Iri on potentiating TRAIL-sensitivity, and suggested that Iri could be a potential candidate for sensitizer of TRAIL-resistant cancer cell treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. High susceptibility of metastatic cells derived from human prostate and colon cancer cells to TRAIL and sensitization of TRAIL-insensitive primary cells to TRAIL by 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Won

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor recurrence and metastasis develop as a result of tumors' acquisition of anti-apoptotic mechanisms and therefore, it is necessary to develop novel effective therapeutics against metastatic cancers. In this study, we showed the differential TRAIL responsiveness of human prostate adenocarcinoma PC3 and human colon carcinoma KM12 cells and their respective highly metastatic PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A sublines and investigated the mechanism underlying high susceptibility of human metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL. Results PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A cells with high level of c-Myc and DNA-PKcs were more susceptible to TRAIL than their poorly metastatic primary PC3 and KM12 cells, which was associated with down-regulation of c-FLIPL/S and Mcl-1 and up-regulation of the TRAIL receptor DR5 but not DR4 in both metastatic cells. Moreover, high susceptibility of these metastatic cells to TRAIL was resulted from TRAIL-induced potent activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in comparison with their primary cells, which led to cleavage and down-regulation of DNA-PKcs. Knockdown of c-Myc gene in TRAIL-treated PC3-MM2 cells prevented the increase of DR5 cell surface expression, caspase activation and DNA-PKcs cleavage and attenuated the apoptotic effects of TRAIL. Moreover, the suppression of DNA-PKcs level with siRNA in the cells induced the up-regulation of DR5 and active caspase-8, -9, and -3. We also found that 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (DMNB, a specific inhibitor of DNA-PK, potentiated TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in relatively TRAIL-insensitive PC3 and KM12 cells and therefore functioned as a TRAIL sensitizer. Conclusion This study showed the positive relationship between c-Myc expression in highly metastatic human prostate and colon cancer cells and susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and therefore indicated that TRAIL might be used as an effective therapeutic modality for advanced metastatic cancers overexpressing c-Myc and

  4. The European legal framework regarding e-commercspan>e

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, M.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The year 2000 is a memorable year in the history of e-commercspan>e. This is the year of the so-called 'dot.com shake-out'. The year 2000 is also the year the European Union issued its e-commercspan>e directive. The directive means to regulate but also facilitate e-commercspan>e in the internal market, by laying

  5. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  6. Structural covariance networks across the life span, from 6 to 94 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth DuPre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural covariance examines covariation of gray matter morphology between brain regions and across individuals. Despite significant interest in the influence of age on structural covariance patterns, no study to date has provided a complete life span perspective—bridging childhood with early, middle, and late adulthood—on the development of structural covariance networks. Here, we investigate the life span trajectories of structural covariance in six canonical neurocognitive networks: default, dorsal attention, frontoparietal control, somatomotor, ventral attention, and visual. By combining data from five open-access data sources, we examine the structural covariance trajectories of these networks from 6 to 94 years of age in a sample of 1,580 participants. Using partial least squares, we show that structural covariance patterns across the life span exhibit two significant, age-dependent trends. The first trend is a stable pattern whose integrity declines over the life span. The second trend is an inverted-U that differentiates young adulthood from other age groups. Hub regions, including posterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula, appear particularly influential in the expression of this second age-dependent trend. Overall, our results suggest that structural covariance provides a reliable definition of neurocognitive networks across the life span and reveal both shared and network-specific trajectories. The importance of life span perspectives is increasingly apparent in understanding normative interactions of large-scale neurocognitive networks. Although recent work has made significant strides in understanding the functional and structural connectivity of these networks, there has been comparatively little attention to life span trajectories of structural covariance networks. In this study we examine patterns of structural covariance across the life span for six neurocognitive networks. Our results suggest that networks exhibit

  7. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  8. The dynamics of foraging trails in the tropical arboreal ant Cephalotes goniodontus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M Gordon

    Full Text Available The foraging behavior of the arboreal turtle ant, Cephalotes goniodontus, was studied in the tropical dry forest of western Mexico. The ants collected mostly plant-derived food, including nectar and fluids collected from the edges of wounds on leaves, as well as caterpillar frass and lichen. Foraging trails are on small pieces of ephemeral vegetation, and persist in exactly the same place for 4-8 days, indicating that food sources may be used until they are depleted. The species is polydomous, occupying many nests which are abandoned cavities or ends of broken branches in dead wood. Foraging trails extend from trees with nests to trees with food sources. Observations of marked individuals show that each trail is travelled by a distinct group of foragers. This makes the entire foraging circuit more resilient if a path becomes impassable, since foraging in one trail can continue while a different group of ants forms a new trail. The colony's trails move around the forest from month to month; from one year to the next, only one colony out of five was found in the same location. There is continual searching in the vicinity of trails: ants recruited to bait within 3 bifurcations of a main foraging trail within 4 hours. When bait was offered on one trail, to which ants recruited, foraging activity increased on a different trail, with no bait, connected to the same nest. This suggests that the allocation of foragers to different trails is regulated by interactions at the nest.

  9. The Prognostic Value of TRAIL and its Death Receptors in Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduro, John H.; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Hoor, Klaske A. ten; Pras, Elisabeth; Arts, Henriette J.G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Hollema, Harry; Mom, Constantijne H.; Jong, Steven de; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Zee, Ate G.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Preclinical data indicate a synergistic effect on apoptosis between irradiation and recombinant human (rh) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), making the TRAIL death receptors (DR) interesting drug targets. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of DR4, DR5, and TRAIL in cervical cancer and to determine their predictive and prognostic value. Methods and Materials: Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumors of 645 cervical cancer patients treated with surgery and/or (chemo-)radiation between 1980 and 2004. DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression in the tumor was studied by immunohistochemistry and correlated to clinicopathological variables, response to radiotherapy, and disease-specific survival. Results: Cytoplasmatic DR4, DR5, and TRAIL immunostaining were observed in cervical tumors from 99%, 88%, and 81% of the patients, respectively. In patients treated primarily with radiotherapy, TRAIL-positive tumors less frequently obtained a pathological complete response than TRAIL-negative tumors (66.3% vs. 79.0 %; in multivariate analysis: odds ratio: 2.09, p ≤0.05). DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression were not prognostic for disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Immunostaining for DR4, DR5, and TRAIL is frequently observed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in cervical cancer patients. Absence of TRAIL expression was associated with a higher pathological complete response rate to radiotherapy. DR4, DR5, or TRAIL were not prognostic for disease-specific survival.

  10. Multiple effects of TRAIL in human carcinoma cells: Induction of apoptosis, senescence, proliferation, and cytokine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, Vera; Marrangoni, Adele M.; DeMarco, Richard; Gorelik, Elieser; Lokshin, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    TRAIL is a death ligand that induces apoptosis in malignant but not normal cells. Recently the ability of TRAIL to induce proliferation in apoptosis-resistant normal and malignant cells was reported. In this study, we analyzed TRAIL effects in apoptosis sensitive MCF7, OVCAR3 and H460 human tumor cell lines. TRAIL at low concentrations preferentially induced cell proliferation. At 100 ng/ml, apoptotic death was readily observed, however surviving cells acquired higher proliferative capacity. TRAIL-stimulated production of several cytokines, IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1 and bFGF, and activation of caspases 1 and 8 was essential for this effect. Antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and bFGF blocked TRAIL-induced cell proliferation and further stimulated apoptosis. For the first time, we report that high TRAIL concentrations induced cell senescence as determined by the altered morphology and expression of several senescence markers: SA-β-gal, p21 Waf1/Cip1 , p16 INK4a , and HMGA. Caspase 9 inhibition protected TRAIL-treated cells from senescence, whereas inhibition of caspases 1 and 8 increased the yield of SLP cells. In conclusion, in cultured human carcinoma cells, TRAIL therapy results in three functional outcomes, apoptosis, proliferation and senescence. TRAIL-induced proapoptotic and prosurvival responses correlate with the strength of signaling. TRAIL-induced cytokine production is responsible for its proliferative and prosurvival effects

  11. The dynamics of foraging trails in the tropical arboreal ant Cephalotes goniodontus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Deborah M

    2012-01-01

    The foraging behavior of the arboreal turtle ant, Cephalotes goniodontus, was studied in the tropical dry forest of western Mexico. The ants collected mostly plant-derived food, including nectar and fluids collected from the edges of wounds on leaves, as well as caterpillar frass and lichen. Foraging trails are on small pieces of ephemeral vegetation, and persist in exactly the same place for 4-8 days, indicating that food sources may be used until they are depleted. The species is polydomous, occupying many nests which are abandoned cavities or ends of broken branches in dead wood. Foraging trails extend from trees with nests to trees with food sources. Observations of marked individuals show that each trail is travelled by a distinct group of foragers. This makes the entire foraging circuit more resilient if a path becomes impassable, since foraging in one trail can continue while a different group of ants forms a new trail. The colony's trails move around the forest from month to month; from one year to the next, only one colony out of five was found in the same location. There is continual searching in the vicinity of trails: ants recruited to bait within 3 bifurcations of a main foraging trail within 4 hours. When bait was offered on one trail, to which ants recruited, foraging activity increased on a different trail, with no bait, connected to the same nest. This suggests that the allocation of foragers to different trails is regulated by interactions at the nest.

  12. Recreational trails reduce the density of ground-dwelling birds in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  13. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  14. The use of passwords to introduce theconcepts of spanning set and span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cárcamo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a proposal for teaching linear algebra based on heuristic of emergent models and mathematical modelling. This proposal begins with a problematic situation  related  to  the  creation  and  use  of  secure  passwords,  which  leads  first-year  students  of  engineering  toward  the  construction  of  the  concepts  of  spanning  set  and  span. The  proposal  is  designed  from  the  results  of  the  two  cycles  of  experimentation  teaching, design-based  research,  which  give  evidence  that  allows  students  to  progress  from  a  situation in a real context to the concepts of linear algebra. This proposal, previously adapted, could have similar results when applied to another group of students.

  15. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  16. Decamber Morphing Concepts by Using a Hybrid Trailing Edge Control Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Yaman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The idea of morphing is drawing extensive attention in aerospace technologies. Several different approaches like span, camber, twist, and sweep are finding applications. In this work, the concept of a trailing edge control surface which is capable of performing decamber morphing is explained. The upper and lower parts of the control surface undergo different chordwise elongations and the difference between these displacements gives rise to either camber or decamber morphing. The necessary force is achieved by the help of servo actuators. During the design, the structural analyses were done to determine the best viable options for the number of servo actuators, the location of the servo actuators, and the material properties used in the control surface. The control surface was designed of aluminum, composite and compliant materials hence was called a hybrid one. The structural analyses were conducted by using ANSYS® Workbench v14.0 package program. After finding the best viable design, which was made for in vacuo condition, the proposed design was also verified under the simulated aerodynamic loading. The aerodynamic loads were obtained from CFD analyses which were done with SU2 V3.2.3 open-source flow solver.

  17. Beneficial effect of TRAIL on HIV burden, without detectable immune consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett D Shepard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During uncontrolled HIV disease, both TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression are increased. Enhanced TRAIL sensitivity is due to TRAIL receptor up-regulation induced by gp120. As a result of successful antiretroviral therapy TRAIL is down-regulated, and there are fewer TRAIL-sensitive cells. In this setting, we hypothesized that all cells that contain virus, including those productively- and latently-infected, have necessarily been "primed" by gp120 and remain TRAIL-sensitive, whereas uninfected cells remain relatively TRAIL-resistant.We evaluated the immunologic and antiviral effects of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication. The peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with recombinant TRAIL or an equivalent amount of bovine serum albumin as a negative control. Treated cells were then analyzed by quantitative flow cytometry, ELISPOT for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell function, and limiting dilution microculture for viral burden. Alterations in the cytokine milieu of treated cells were assessed with a multiplex cytokine assay. Treatment with recombinant TRAIL in vitro reduced viral burden in lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load. TRAIL treatment did not alter the cytokine milieu of treated cells. Moreover, treatment with recombinant TRAIL had no adverse effect on either the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication.TRAIL treatment may be an important adjunct to antiretroviral therapy, even in patients with suppressed viral replication, perhaps by inducing apoptosis in cells with latent HIV reservoirs. The absence of adverse effect on the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients suggests that there is not a significant level of "bystander death" in uninfected cells.

  18. The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Nathaniel D.; Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding “fall-line” alignments, steep grades, and valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting them to more resistant routes.This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park's 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long

  19. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Gese

    Full Text Available Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep, radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13% for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m. Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced

  20. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

    2013-01-01

    Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote

  1. The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Nathaniel D; Marion, Jeffrey L

    2009-03-01

    Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding "fall-line" alignments, steep grades, and valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting them to more resistant routes. This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park's 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long-term monitoring of

  2. Validation of Walking Trails for the Urban Training™ of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Arbillaga-Etxarri

    Full Text Available Accessible interventions to train patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are needed. We designed urban trails of different intensities (low, moderate and high in different types of public spaces (boulevard, beach and park. We aimed to validate the trails' design by assessing the physiological response to unsupervised walking trails of: (1 different intensities in COPD patients, and (2 same intensity from different public spaces in healthy adults.On different days and under standardized conditions, 10 COPD patients walked the three intensity trails designed in a boulevard space, and 10 healthy subjects walked the three intensity trails in three different spaces. We measured physiological response and energy expenditure using a gas analyzer. We compared outcomes across trails intensity and/or spaces using mixed-effects linear regression.In COPD patients, physiological response and energy expenditure increased significantly according to the trails intensity: mean (SD peak V̇O2 15.9 (3.5, 17.4 (4.7, and 17.7 (4.4 mL/min/kg (p-trend = 0.02, and MET-min 60 (23, 64 (26, 72 (31 (p-trend<0.01 in low, moderate and high intensity trails, respectively. In healthy subjects there were no differences in physiological response to walking trails of the same intensity across different spaces.We validated the trails design for the training of COPD patients by showing that the physiological response to and energy expenditure on unsupervised walking these trails increased according to the predefined trails' intensity and did not change across trails of the same intensity in different public space. Walkable public spaces allow the design of trails that could be used for the training of COPD patients in the community.

  3. 78 FR 76176 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final Trail Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... paddling; and improved parking facilities. Alternative 2A emphasized the importance of enhancing the... 1, the no-action alternative, the trails, authorized uses, and facilities addressed in this Plan/EIS... system, adoption of the Sustainable Trail Guidelines, and the consideration of trail facilities. Trail...

  4. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  5. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  6. 23 CFR 650.809 - Movable span bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Movable span bridges. 650.809 Section 650.809 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Navigational Clearances for Bridges § 650.809 Movable span bridges. A fixed bridge...

  7. Developmental Dyslexia: The Visual Attention Span Deficit Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Tainturier, Marie Josephe; Valdois, Sylviane

    2007-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span is defined as the amount of distinct visual elements which can be processed in parallel in a multi-element array. Both recent empirical data and theoretical accounts suggest that a VA span deficit might contribute to developmental dyslexia, independently of a phonological disorder. In this study, this hypothesis was…

  8. Increasing Endurance by Building Fluency: Precision Teaching Attention Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Carl; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Precision teaching techniques can be used to chart students' attention span or endurance. Individual differences in attention span can then be better understood and dealt with effectively. The effects of performance duration on performance level, on error rates, and on learning rates are discussed. Implications for classroom practice are noted.…

  9. On the number of spanning trees in random regular graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenhill, Catherine; Kwan, Matthew; Wind, David Kofoed

    2014-01-01

    Let d >= 3 be a fixed integer. We give an asympotic formula for the expected number of spanning trees in a uniformly random d-regular graph with n vertices. (The asymptotics are as n -> infinity, restricted to even n if d is odd.) We also obtain the asymptotic distribution of the number of spanning...

  10. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the…

  11. Boundary Spanning in Higher Education: How Universities Can Enable Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolaski, Jennifer Pauline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to better understand the identity and work of academic and extension staff who have boundary spanning responsibilities. The results will help universities, especially public land-grant universities with an outreach mission, to create stronger policies and systems to support boundary spanning staff members…

  12. Examining the locus of age effects on complex span tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer; Hartman, Marilyn

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the locus of age effects on complex span tasks, the authors evaluated the contributions of working memory functions and processing speed. Age differences were found in measures of storage capacity, language processing speed, and lower level speed. Statistically controlling for each of these in hierarchical regressions substantially reduced, but did not eliminate, the complex span age effect. Accounting for lower level speed and storage, however, removed essentially the entire age effect, suggesting that both functions play important and independent roles. Additional evidence for the role of storage capacity was the absence of complex span age differences with span size calibrated to individual word span performance. Explanations for age differences based on inhibition and concurrent task performamce were not supported.

  13. Advanced Trailing Edge Blowing Concepts for Fan Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar RIZEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study documents trailing edge blowing research performed to reduce rotor / stator interaction noise in turbofan engines. The existing technique of filling every velocity deficit requires a large amount of air and is therefore impractical. The purpose of this research is to investigate new blowing configurations in order to achieve noise reduction with lesser amounts of air. Using the new configurations air is not injected into every fan blade, but is instead varied circumferentially. For example, blowing air may be applied to alternating fan blades. This type of blowing configuration both reduces the amount of air used and changes the spectral shape of the tonal interaction noise. The original tones at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics are reduced and new tones are introduced between them. This change in the tonal spectral shape increases the performance of acoustic liners used in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.

  14. The Global and Local Characters of Mars Perihelion Cloud Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M. J.; Smith, M. D.; Cantor, B. A.; Spiga, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the seasonal and spatial distribution of Mars perihelion cloud trails as mapped from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) MARCI (Mars Color Imager) imaging observations in 2 ultraviolet and 3 visible filters. The extended 2007-2013 period of MARCI daily global image maps reveals the widespread distribution of these high altitude clouds, which are somewhat paradoxically associated with specific surface regions. They appear as longitudinally extended (300-700 km) cloud trails with distinct leading plumes of substantial ice cloud optical depths (0.02-0.2) for such high altitudes of occurrence (40-50 km, from cloud surface shadow measurements). These plumes generate small ice particles (Reff~1 to reflect locally elevated mesospheric water ice formation that may impact the global expression of mesospheric water ice aerosols.

  15. A Dynamic Stall Model for Airfoils with Deformable Trailing Edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter Bjoern; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2007-01-01

    The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model will be compared to wind tunnel measurements from Velux described by Bak et al

  16. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  17. The Relationship between Trail Running Withdrawals and Race Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Philippe Roberta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: A growing amount of recent research in sport psychology has focused on trying to understand withdrawals from ultra-races. However, according to the Four E approach, the studies underestimated the embedded components of these experiences and particularly how they were linked to the specific environmental conditions in which the experiences occurred. Objective: This study aimed to characterize trail running withdrawals in relationship to race topography. Design: Qualitative design, involving self-confrontation interviews and use of a race map. Setting: Use of the race map for description of the race activity and self-confrontation interviews took place 1–3 days after the races. Participants: Ten runners who withdrew during an ultra-trail race. Data Collection and Analysis: Data on past activity traces and experiences were elicited from self-confrontation interviews. Data were coded and compared to identify common sequences and then each type of sequence was counted with regard to race topography. Results: Results showed that each sequence was related to runners’ particular possibilities for acting, feeling, and thinking, which were in turn embedded in the race topography. These sequences allowed the unfolding of the activity and increased its overall effectiveness in relation to the constraints of this specific sport. Conclusion: This study allowed us to highlight important information on how ultra-trail runners manage their races in relationship to the race environment and more specifically to its topography. The result will also help us to recommend potential adjustments to ultra-trail runners’ performance-oriented training and preparation.

  18. Study on Trailing Edge Ramp of Supercritical Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    China Abstract Trailing edge flow control method could improve the performance of supercritical airfoil with a small modification on the original...stall behaviour . As a result, the non-separation ramp could increase the thickness of airfoil, which benefits wing structure and aerodynamic...direction based on the original RAE2822 airfoil, which will thicken the airfoil. The interpolation is implemented as shown in Eqn. 1. This modification could

  19. Design methodology for wing trailing edge device mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Pires, Rui Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few decades the design of high lift devices has become a very important part of the total aircraft design process. Reviews of the design process are performed on a regular basis, with the intent to improve and optimize the design process. This thesis describes a new and innovative methodology for the design and evaluation of mechanisms for Trailing Edge High-Lift devices. The initial research reviewed existing High-Lift device design methodologies and current f...

  20. Road Expansion and Its Influence on Trail Sustainability in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiichi Ito

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bhutan was an inhabited wilderness until 1961, when road construction started after the closure of the Tibetan border. Since then, the road network has expanded from the Indian boarder, often tracing traditional trails. This has accelerated commerce as well as movement of people from India, benefitting both the Bhutanese and foreign tourists. At the same time, dependence on imported automobiles and fossil fuel has risen, and roadless areas have begun to shrink. This brought an inevitable loss of traditional environmental knowledge, such as the care of mules for packing, and reduction in physical and mental health among the Bhutanese. People who lost jobs as horsemen moved into towns to find jobs. Road extension is also a double-edged sword for visitors. It has resulted in shrinking trekking areas and loss of traditional culture, both of which have been sacrificed for easy access. Protected areas often function as fortifications against mechanical civilization. However, protected-area status or its zoning does not guarantee that an area will remain roadless where there is considerable resident population. An analysis in Jigme Dorji National Park showed the gradual retreat of trailheads and increasing dependence on automobiles among residents and trekkers. B. MacKaye, a regional planner in the Eastern United States, proposed using trails as a tool to control such mechanical civilization. His philosophy of regional planning suggests two measures; one is consolidated trailheads as dams, and the other is confinement of roads by levees, consisting of new trails and wilderness belts. According to case studies, the author proposed six options for coexistence of trails with roads.

  1. Using cognitive status to predict crash risk: blazing new trails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staplin, Loren; Gish, Kenneth W; Sifrit, Kathy J

    2014-02-01

    A computer-based version of an established neuropsychological paper-and-pencil assessment tool, the Trail-Making Test, was applied with approximately 700 drivers aged 70 years and older in offices of the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration. This was a volunteer sample that received a small compensation for study participation, with an assurance that their license status would not be affected by the results. Analyses revealed that the study sample was representative of Maryland older drivers with respect to age and indices of prior driving safety. The relationship between drivers' scores on the Trail-Making Test and prospective crash experience was analyzed using a new outcome measure that explicitly takes into account error responses as well as correct responses, the error-compensated completion time. For the only reliable predictor of crash risk, Trail-Making Test Part B, this measure demonstrated a modest gain in specificity and was a more significant predictor of future safety risk than the simple time-to-completion measure. Improved specificity and the potential for autonomous test administration are particular advantages of this measure for use with large populations, in settings such as health care or driver licensing. © 2013.

  2. Asymptotic theory of two-dimensional trailing-edge flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.

    1975-01-01

    Problems of laminar and turbulent viscous interaction near trailing edges of streamlined bodies are considered. Asymptotic expansions of the Navier-Stokes equations in the limit of large Reynolds numbers are used to describe the local solution near the trailing edge of cusped or nearly cusped airfoils at small angles of attack in compressible flow. A complicated inverse iterative procedure, involving finite-difference solutions of the triple-deck equations coupled with asymptotic solutions of the boundary values, is used to accurately solve the viscous interaction problem. Results are given for the correction to the boundary-layer solution for drag of a finite flat plate at zero angle of attack and for the viscous correction to the lift of an airfoil at incidence. A rational asymptotic theory is developed for treating turbulent interactions near trailing edges and is shown to lead to a multilayer structure of turbulent boundary layers. The flow over most of the boundary layer is described by a Lighthill model of inviscid rotational flow. The main features of the model are discussed and a sample solution for the skin friction is obtained and compared with the data of Schubauer and Klebanoff for a turbulent flow in a moderately large adverse pressure gradient.

  3. User Manual for SAHM package for VisTrails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, C.B.; Talbert, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The Software for Assisted Habitat I\\•1odeling (SAHM) has been created to both expedite habitat modeling and help maintain a record of the various input data, pre-and post-processing steps and modeling options incorporated in the construction of a species distribution model. The four main advantages to using the combined VisTrail: SAHM package for species distribution modeling are: 1. formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process 2. easier collaboration through a common modeling framework 3. a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output 4. extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. This user manual provides detailed information on each module within the SAHM package, their input, output, common connections, optional arguments, and default settings. This information can also be accessed for individual modules by right clicking on the documentation button for any module in VisTrail or by right clicking on any input or output for a module and selecting view documentation. This user manual is intended to accompany the user guide which provides detailed instructions on how to install the SAHM package within VisTrails and then presents information on the use of the package.

  4. Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.

  5. Analysis of the impact of recreational trail usage for prioritising management decisions: a regression tree approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek; White, Piran; Kasprzak, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    The dual role of many Protected Natural Areas in providing benefits for both conservation and recreation poses challenges for management. Although recreation-based damage to ecosystems can occur very quickly, restoration can take many years. The protection of conservation interests at the same as providing for recreation requires decisions to be made about how to prioritise and direct management actions. Trails are commonly used to divert visitors from the most important areas of a site, but high visitor pressure can lead to increases in trail width and a concomitant increase in soil erosion. Here we use detailed field data on condition of recreational trails in Gorce National Park, Poland, as the basis for a regression tree analysis to determine the factors influencing trail deterioration, and link specific trail impacts with environmental, use related and managerial factors. We distinguished 12 types of trails, characterised by four levels of degradation: (1) trails with an acceptable level of degradation; (2) threatened trails; (3) damaged trails; and (4) heavily damaged trails. Damaged trails were the most vulnerable of all trails and should be prioritised for appropriate conservation and restoration. We also proposed five types of monitoring of recreational trail conditions: (1) rapid inventory of negative impacts; (2) monitoring visitor numbers and variation in type of use; (3) change-oriented monitoring focusing on sections of trail which were subjected to changes in type or level of use or subjected to extreme weather events; (4) monitoring of dynamics of trail conditions; and (5) full assessment of trail conditions, to be carried out every 10-15 years. The application of the proposed framework can enhance the ability of Park managers to prioritise their trail management activities, enhancing trail conditions and visitor safety, while minimising adverse impacts on the conservation value of the ecosystem. A.M.T. was supported by the Polish Ministry of

  6. Malingering in Toxic Exposure. Classification Accuracy of Reliable Digit Span and WAIS-III Digit Span Scaled Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Kevin W.; Springer, Steven; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Black, F. William; Heinly, Matthew T.; Love, Jeffrey M.; Swift, Douglas A.; Ciota, Megan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity and false-positive error rate of reliable digit span (RDS) and the WAIS-III Digit Span (DS) scaled score in persons alleging toxic exposure and determined whether error rates differed from published rates in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and chronic pain (CP). Data were obtained from the files of 123 persons…

  7. L-fuzzy/span> fixed points theorems for L-fuzzy/span> mappings via βℱL-admissible pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Maliha; Azam, Akbar; Mehmood, Nayyar

    2014-01-01

    We define the concept of βℱL-admissible for a pair of L-fuzzy/span> mappings and establish the existence of common L-fuzzy/span> fixed point theorem. Our result generalizes some useful results in the literature. We provide an example to support our result.

  8. Detailed free span assessment for Mexilhao flow lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Antonio; Franco, Luciano; Eigbe, Uwa; BomfimSilva, Carlos [INTECSEA, Houston, TX (United States); Escudero, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The subsea gas production system of Mexilhao Field SPS-35, Santos Basin, offshore Brazil, is composed basically of two rigid 12.75 inches production flow lines approximately 21 km long installed in a fairly rough seabed. During the basic design, the free span assessment was performed considering the maximum allowable free span length determined by the response model proposed by DNV-RP-F105. This approach resulted in a large number of predicted free span requiring corrections, leading to a higher capital cost for the project. In this sense, a detailed free span VIV fatigue assessment was proposed, considering multi-spans and multi-mode effects and also the post lay survey data. The assessment followed the DNV-RP-F105 recommendations for multi-spans and multi-mode effects, using Finite Element Analysis to determine the natural frequencies, mode shapes and corresponding stresses associated with the mode shapes. The assessment was performed in three stages, the first during the detailed design as part of the bottom roughness analysis using the expected residual pipelay tension. The second stage was performed after pipelay, considering the post-lay survey data, where the actual requirements for span correction were determined. Actual pipelay tension was used and seabed soil stiffness adjusted in the model to match the as-laid pipeline profile obtained from the survey data. The first and second stage assessments are seamlessly automated to speed up the evaluation process and allow for quick response in the field, which was important to keep the construction vessel time minimized. The third stage was performed once the corrections of the spans were made and the purpose was to confirm that the new pipeline configuration along the supported spans had sufficient fatigue life for the temporary and operational phases. For the assessment of all three stages, the probability of occurrence and directionality of the near bottom current was considered to improve prediction of the

  9. Accurate Natural Trail Detection Using a Combination of a Deep Neural Network and Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shyam Prasad; Yang, Changju; Slot, Krzysztof; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2018-01-10

    This paper presents a vision sensor-based solution to the challenging problem of detecting and following trails in highly unstructured natural environments like forests, rural areas and mountains, using a combination of a deep neural network and dynamic programming. The deep neural network (DNN) concept has recently emerged as a very effective tool for processing vision sensor signals. A patch-based DNN is trained with supervised data to classify fixed-size image patches into "trail" and "non-trail" categories, and reshaped to a fully convolutional architecture to produce trail segmentation map for arbitrary-sized input images. As trail and non-trail patches do not exhibit clearly defined shapes or forms, the patch-based classifier is prone to misclassification, and produces sub-optimal trail segmentation maps. Dynamic programming is introduced to find an optimal trail on the sub-optimal DNN output map. Experimental results showing accurate trail detection for real-world trail datasets captured with a head mounted vision system are presented.

  10. The impact of glide phases on the trackability of hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieskotten, S; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Miersch, L; Hanke, W

    2010-11-01

    The mystacial vibrissae of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) constitute a highly sensitive hydrodynamic receptor system enabling the seals to detect and follow hydrodynamic trails. In the wild, hydrodynamic trails, as generated by swimming fish, consist of cyclic burst-and-glide phases, associated with various differences in the physical parameters of the trail. Here, we investigated the impact of glide phases on the trackability of differently aged hydrodynamic trails in a harbour seal. As fish are not easily trained to swim certain paths with predetermined burst-and-glide phases, the respective hydrodynamic trails were generated using a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Gliding phases in hydrodynamic trails had a negative impact on the trackability when trails were 15 s old. The seal lost the generated trails more often within the transition zones, when the submarine switched from a burst to a glide moving pattern. Hydrodynamic parameter analysis (particle image velocimetry) revealed that the smaller dimensions and faster decay of hydrodynamic trails generated by the gliding submarine are responsible for the impaired success of the seal tracking the gliding phase. Furthermore, the change of gross water flow generated by the submarine from a rearwards-directed stream in the burst phase to a water flow passively dragged behind the submarine during gliding might influence the ability of the seal to follow the trail as this might cause a weaker deflection of the vibrissae. The possible ecological implications of intermittent swimming behaviour in fish for piscivorous predators are discussed.

  11. Assessing and Predicting Erosion from Off Highway Vehicle Trails in Front-Range Rocky Mountain Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M. J.; Silins, U.; Anderson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Off highway vehicle (OHV) trails have the potential to deliver sediment to sensitive headwater streams and increased OHV use is a growing watershed management concern in many Rocky Mountain regions. Predictive tools for estimating erosion and sediment inputs are needed to support assessment and management of erosion from OHV trail networks. The objective of this study was to a) assess erodibility (K factor) and total erosion from OHV trail networks in Rocky Mountain watersheds in south-west Alberta, Canada, and to b) evaluate the applicability of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) for predicting OHV trail erosion to support erosion management strategies. Measured erosion rates and erodibility (K) from rainfall simulation plots on OHV trails during the summers of 2014 and 2015 were compared to USLE predicted erosion from these same trails. Measured erodibility (K) from 23 rainfall simulation plots was highly variable (0.001-0.273 Mg*ha*hr/ha*MJ*mm) as was total seasonal erosion from 52 large trail sections (0.0595-43.3 Mg/ha) across trail segments of variable slope, stoniness, and trail use intensity. In particular, intensity of trail use had a large effect on both erodibility and total erosion that is not presently captured by erodibility indices (K) derived from soil characteristics. Results of this study suggest that while application of USLE for predicting erosion from OHV trail networks may be useful for initial coarse erosion assessment, a better understanding of the effect of factors such as road/trail use intensity on erodibility is needed to support use of USLE or associated erosion prediction tools for road/trail erosion management.

  12. Validation of Walking Trails for the Urban Training™ of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbillaga-Etxarri, Ane; Torrent-Pallicer, Jaume; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Barberan-Garcia, Anael; Delgado, Anna; Balcells, Eva; Rodríguez, Diego A; Vilaró, Jordi; Vall-Casas, Pere; Irurtia, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Accessible interventions to train patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are needed. We designed urban trails of different intensities (low, moderate and high) in different types of public spaces (boulevard, beach and park). We aimed to validate the trails' design by assessing the physiological response to unsupervised walking trails of: (1) different intensities in COPD patients, and (2) same intensity from different public spaces in healthy adults. On different days and under standardized conditions, 10 COPD patients walked the three intensity trails designed in a boulevard space, and 10 healthy subjects walked the three intensity trails in three different spaces. We measured physiological response and energy expenditure using a gas analyzer. We compared outcomes across trails intensity and/or spaces using mixed-effects linear regression. In COPD patients, physiological response and energy expenditure increased significantly according to the trails intensity: mean (SD) peak V̇O2 15.9 (3.5), 17.4 (4.7), and 17.7 (4.4) mL/min/kg (p-trend = 0.02), and MET-min 60 (23), 64 (26), 72 (31) (p-trendtrails, respectively. In healthy subjects there were no differences in physiological response to walking trails of the same intensity across different spaces. We validated the trails design for the training of COPD patients by showing that the physiological response to and energy expenditure on unsupervised walking these trails increased according to the predefined trails' intensity and did not change across trails of the same intensity in different public space. Walkable public spaces allow the design of trails that could be used for the training of COPD patients in the community.

  13. Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells express TRAIL receptors and can be sensitized to TRAIL-Iiduced apoptosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinarsky, V.; Krivanek, J.; Rankel, Liina; Nahácka, Zuzana; Barta, T.; Jaros, J.; Anděra, Ladislav; Hampl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 22 (2013), s. 2964-2974 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1971 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : TRAIL * apoptosis * pluripotent stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.202, year: 2013

  14. Candidate Gene Study of TRAIL and TRAIL Receptors: Association with Response to Interferon Beta Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Órpez-Zafra, Teresa; Pinto-Medel, María Jesús; Oliver-Martos, Begoña; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesús; Arnáiz, Carlos; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Varadé, Jezabel; Álvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO) and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p = 8.88×10−4, pc = 0.048, OR = 0.30). This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A), a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS. PMID:23658636

  15. Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase attenuates the TRAIL-induced activation of caspase-8 and modulates the trafficking of TRAIL receptosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horová, Vladimíra; Hradilová, Naďa; Jelínková, Iva; Koc, Michal; Švadlenka, Jan; Bražina, Jan; Klíma, Martin; Slavík, J.; Vaculová, Alena; Anděra, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 14 (2013), s. 3436-3450 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1971; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/1730; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : acidification * apoptosis * caspase-8 * TRAIL * V- ATPase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  16. Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase attenuates the TRAIL-induced activation of caspase-8 and modulates the trafficking of TRAIL receptosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horová, Vladimíra; Hradilová, Naďa; Jelínková, Iva; Koc, Michal; Švadlenka, Jan; Bražina, Jan; Klíma, Martin; Slavík, J.; Vaculová, Alena; Anděra, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 14 (2013), s. 3436-3450 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1971; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/1730; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : acidification * apoptosis * caspase-8 * TRAIL * V-ATPase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  17. Candidate gene study of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors: association with response to interferon beta therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López-Gómez

    Full Text Available TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p = 8.88×10(-4, pc = 0.048, OR = 0.30. This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A, a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS.

  18. Power, Governance and Boundary Spanning Leadership in Public Sector Organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    the fact that analysis of boundary spanning leadership and power relations is an essential, significant, and critical tool in questioning different forms of management in public sector organizations. The aim of the workshop is to investigate, elucidate and discuss management across organizational units...... on the practice that evolves on the boundaries that span occupational groups, departments and organizations. The workshop takes it’s starting point in an interdisciplinary Scandinavian research project which deals with the question of how power processes can promote, or hinder, boundary spanning leadership...

  19. Use Deflected Trailing Edge to Improve the Aerodynamic Performance and Develop Low Solidity LPT Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li; Peigang, Yan; Xiangfeng, Wang; Wanjin, Han; Qingchao, Wang

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of low pressure turbine (LPT) blade cascades and developing low solidity LPT blade cascades through deflected trailing edge. A deflected trailing edge improved aerodynamic performance of both LPT blade cascades and low solidity LPT blade cascades. For standard solidity LPT cascades, deflecting the trailing edge can decrease the energy loss coefficient by 20.61 % for a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000 and freestream turbulence intensities (FSTI) of 1 %. For a low solidity LPT cascade, aerodynamic performance was also improved by deflecting the trailing edge. Solidity of the LPT cascade can be reduced by 12.5 % for blades with a deflected trailing edge without a drop in efficiency. Here, the flow control mechanism surrounding a deflected trailing edge was also revealed.

  20. The interplay between scent trails and group-mass recruitment systems in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planqué, Robert; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Franks, Nigel R

    2013-10-01

    Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage efficiently when small, thereby overcoming the hurdles to grow large? In this paper, we study the case of combined group and mass recruitment displayed by some ant species. Using mathematical models, we explore to what extent early group recruitment may aid deployment of scent trails, making such trails available at much smaller colony sizes. We show that a competition between group and mass recruitment may cause oscillatory behaviour mediated by scent trails. This results in a further reduction of colony size to establish trails successfully.

  1. Mapping the developmental constraints on working memory span performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Gunn, Deborah M; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related variance in complex span. Results showed that developmental improvements in complex span were driven by 2 age-related but separable factors: 1 associated with general speed of processing and 1 associated with storage ability. In addition, there was an age-related contribution shared between working memory, processing speed, and storage ability that was important for higher level cognition. These results pose a challenge for models of complex span performance that emphasize the importance of processing speed alone.

  2. USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur İŞÇİ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.

  3. Dynamics of investor spanning trees around dot-com bubble.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhuja Ranganathan

    Full Text Available We identify temporal investor networks for Nokia stock by constructing networks from correlations between investor-specific net-volumes and analyze changes in the networks around dot-com bubble. The analysis is conducted separately for households, financial, and non-financial institutions. Our results indicate that spanning tree measures for households reflected the boom and crisis: the maximum spanning tree measures had a clear upward tendency in the bull markets when the bubble was building up, and, even more importantly, the minimum spanning tree measures pre-reacted the burst of the bubble. At the same time, we find less clear reactions in the minimal and maximal spanning trees of non-financial and financial institutions around the bubble, which suggests that household investors can have a greater herding tendency around bubbles.

  4. Dynamics of investor spanning trees around dot-com bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Sindhuja; Kivelä, Mikko; Kanniainen, Juho

    2018-01-01

    We identify temporal investor networks for Nokia stock by constructing networks from correlations between investor-specific net-volumes and analyze changes in the networks around dot-com bubble. The analysis is conducted separately for households, financial, and non-financial institutions. Our results indicate that spanning tree measures for households reflected the boom and crisis: the maximum spanning tree measures had a clear upward tendency in the bull markets when the bubble was building up, and, even more importantly, the minimum spanning tree measures pre-reacted the burst of the bubble. At the same time, we find less clear reactions in the minimal and maximal spanning trees of non-financial and financial institutions around the bubble, which suggests that household investors can have a greater herding tendency around bubbles.

  5. Cryptolepine, isolated from Sida acuta, sensitizes human gastric adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Firoj; Toume, Kazufumi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ishibashi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay guided separation of Sida acuta whole plants led to the isolation of an alkaloid, cryptolepine (1), along with two kaempferol glycosides (2-3). Compound 1 showed strong activity in overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μm. Combined treatment of 1 and TRAIL sensitized AGS cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at the aforementioned concentrations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hwan Choe

    Full Text Available The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails.

  7. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behavior in governance networks

    OpenAIRE

    Meerkerk, Ingmar; Edelenbos, Jurian

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the impact of two facilitating conditions for boundary-spanning behaviour in urban governance networks. While research on boundary spanning is growing, there is little attention for antecedents. Combining governance network literature on project management and organizational literature on facilitative and servant leadership, we examine two potential conditions: a facilitative project management style and executive support. We conducted survey research among p...

  9. A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Canggih Puspo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally, the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities c...

  10. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  11. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    OpenAIRE

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2012-01-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of $k$ paths ($k$ is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, $k$ loop--erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped in a fashion a $k$--leg watermelon. For large distance $r$ between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as $r^{-\

  12. Accelerometer and GPS Analysis of Trail Use and Associations With Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kosuke; Wilson, Jeffrey S; Puett, Robin C; Klenosky, David B; Harper, William A; Troped, Philip J

    2018-03-26

    Concurrent use of accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data can be used to quantify physical activity (PA) occurring on trails. This study examined associations of trail use with PA and sedentary behavior (SB) and quantified on trail PA using a combination of accelerometer and GPS data. Adults (N = 142) wore accelerometer and GPS units for 1-4 days. Trail use was defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive minutes occurring on a trail, based on GPS data. We examined associations between trail use and PA and SB. On trail minutes of light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity PA, and SB were quantified in 2 ways, using accelerometer counts only and with a combination of GPS speed and accelerometer data. Trail use was positively associated with total PA, moderate-intensity PA, and light-intensity PA (P GPS and accelerometer data for quantifying on trail activity may be more accurate than accelerometer data alone and is useful for classifying intensity of activities such as bicycling.

  13. Assessing the influence of sustainable trail design and maintenance on soil loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff; Wimpey, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Natural-surfaced trail systems are an important infrastructure component providing a means for accessing remote protected natural area destinations. The condition and usability of trails is a critical concern of land managers charged with providing recreational access while preserving natural conditions, and to visitors seeking high quality recreational opportunities and experiences. While an adequate number of trail management publications provide prescriptive guidance for designing, constructing, and maintaining natural-surfaced trails, surprisingly little research has been directed at providing a scientific basis for this guidance. Results from a review of the literature and three scientific studies are presented to model and clarify the influence of factors that substantially influence trail soil loss and that can be manipulated by trail professionals to sustain high traffic while minimizing soil loss over time. Key factors include trail grade, slope alignment angle, tread drainage features, and the amount of rock in tread substrates. A new Trail Sustainability Rating is developed and offered as a tool for evaluating or improving the sustainability of existing or new trails.

  14. CD25 targeted therapy of chemotherapy resistant leukemic stem cells using DR5 specific TRAIL peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakasam Madhumathi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs are being targeted as a modern therapeutic approach to prevent disease relapse. LSCs isolated from methotrexate resistant side population (SP of leukemic cell lines HL60 and MOLT4 exhibited high levels of CD25 and TRAIL R2/DR5 which are potential targets. Recombinant immunotoxin conjugating IL2α with TRAIL peptide mimetic was constructed for DR5 receptor specific targeting of LSCs and were tested in total cell population and LSCs. IL2-TRAIL peptide induced apoptosis in drug resistant SP cells from cell lines and showed potent cytotoxicity in PBMCs derived from leukemic patients with an efficacy of 81.25% in AML and 100% in CML, ALL and CLL. IL2-TRAIL peptide showed cytotoxicity in relapsed patient samples and was more effective than TRAIL or IL2-TRAIL proteins. Additionally, DR5 specific IL2-TRAIL peptide was effective in targeting and killing LSCs purified from cell lines [IC50: 952 nM in HL60, 714 nM in MOLT4] and relapsed patient blood samples with higher efficacy (85% than IL2-TRAIL protein (46%. Hence, CD25 and DR5 specific targeting by IL2-TRAIL peptide may be an effective strategy for targeting drug resistant leukemic cells and LSCs.

  15. Assessing the influence of sustainable trail design and maintenance on soil loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L; Wimpey, Jeremy

    2017-03-15

    Natural-surfaced trail systems are an important infrastructure component providing a means for accessing remote protected natural area destinations. The condition and usability of trails is a critical concern of land managers charged with providing recreational access while preserving natural conditions, and to visitors seeking high quality recreational opportunities and experiences. While an adequate number of trail management publications provide prescriptive guidance for designing, constructing, and maintaining natural-surfaced trails, surprisingly little research has been directed at providing a scientific basis for this guidance. Results from a review of the literature and three scientific studies are presented to model and clarify the influence of factors that substantially influence trail soil loss and that can be manipulated by trail professionals to sustain high traffic while minimizing soil loss over time. Key factors include trail grade, slope alignment angle, tread drainage features, and the amount of rock in tread substrates. A new Trail Sustainability Rating is developed and offered as a tool for evaluating or improving the sustainability of existing or new trails. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Frequency-Weighted Model Predictive Control of Trailing Edge Flaps on a Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Couchman, Ian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    flapwise blade root moment and trailing edge flap deflection. Frequency-weighted MPC is chosen for its ability to handle constraints on the trailing edge flaps deflection, and to target at loads with given frequencies only. The controller is first tested in servo-aeroelastic simulations, before being......This paper presents the load reduction achieved with trailing edge flaps during a full-scale test on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. The trailing edge flap controller is a frequency-weighted linear model predictive control (MPC) where the quadratic cost consists of costs on the zero-phase filtered...

  17. Effects of the built environment on childhood obesity: the case of urban recreational trails and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Robert; Tchernis, Rusty; Wilson, Jeffrey; Liu, Gilbert; Zhou, Xilin

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of urban environment on childhood obesity by concentrating on the effects of walking trails and crime close to children's homes on their BMI and obesity status. We use a unique dataset, which combines information on recreational trails in Indianapolis with data on violent crimes and anthropomorphic and diagnostic data from children's clinic visits between 1996 and 2005. We find that having a trail near a home reduces children's weight. However, the effect depends on the amount of nearby violent crimes. Significant reductions occur only in low crime areas and trails could have opposite effects on weight in high crime areas. These effects are primarily among boys, older children, and children who live in higher income neighborhoods. Evaluated at the mean length of trails this effect for older children in no crime areas would be a reduction of 2 lb of the body weight. Falsification tests using planned trails instead of existing trails, show that trails are more likely to be located in areas with heavier children, suggesting that our results on effects of trails represent a lower bound. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus.

  19. Sodium arsenite accelerates TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in melanoma cells through upregulation of TRAIL-R1/R2 surface levels and downregulation of cFLIP expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2006-01-01

    AP-1/cJun, NF-κB and STAT3 transcription factors control expression of numerous genes, which regulate critical cell functions including proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Sodium arsenite is known to suppress both the IKK-NF-κB and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways and to activate the MAPK/JNK-cJun pathways, thereby committing some cancers to undergo apoptosis. Indeed, sodium arsenite is an effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with little nonspecific toxicity. Malignant melanoma is highly refractory to conventional radio- and chemotherapy. In the present study, we observed strong effects of sodium arsenite treatment on upregulation of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human and mouse melanomas. Arsenite treatment upregulated surface levels of death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, through increased translocation of these proteins from cytoplasm to the cell surface. Furthermore, activation of cJun and suppression of NF-κB by sodium arsenite resulted in upregulation of the endogenous TRAIL and downregulation of the cFLIP gene expression (which encodes one of the main anti-apoptotic proteins in melanomas) followed by cFLIP protein degradation and, finally, by acceleration of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Direct suppression of cFLIP expression by cFLIP RNAi also accelerated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in these melanomas, while COX-2 suppression substantially increased levels of both TRAIL-induced and arsenite-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of permanently active AKTmyr inhibited TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via downregulation of TRAIL-R1 levels. Finally, AKT overactivation increased melanoma survival in cell culture and dramatically accelerated growth of melanoma transplant in vivo, highlighting a role of AKT suppression for effective anticancer treatment

  20. Analysis of the quality of hospital information systems Audit Trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Boldt, Isabel; Lapão, Luís; Santos-Pereira, Cátia; Rodrigues, Pedro Pereira; Ferreira, Ana Margarida; Freitas, Alberto

    2013-08-06

    Audit Trails (AT) are fundamental to information security in order to guarantee access traceability but can also be used to improve Health information System's (HIS) quality namely to assess how they are used or misused. This paper aims at analysing the existence and quality of AT, describing scenarios in hospitals and making some recommendations to improve the quality of information. The responsibles of HIS for eight Portuguese hospitals were contacted in order to arrange an interview about the importance of AT and to collect audit trail data from their HIS. Five institutions agreed to participate in this study; four of them accepted to be interviewed, and four sent AT data. The interviews were performed in 2011 and audit trail data sent in 2011 and 2012. Each AT was evaluated and compared in relation to data quality standards, namely for completeness, comprehensibility, traceability among others. Only one of the AT had enough information for us to apply a consistency evaluation by modelling user behaviour. The interviewees in these hospitals only knew a few AT (average of 1 AT per hospital in an estimate of 21 existing HIS), although they all recognize some advantages of analysing AT. Four hospitals sent a total of 7 AT - 2 from Radiology Information System (RIS), 2 from Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), 3 from Patient Records. Three of the AT were understandable and three of the AT were complete. The AT from the patient records are better structured and more complete than the RIS/PACS. Existing AT do not have enough quality to guarantee traceability or be used in HIS improvement. Its quality reflects the importance given to them by the CIO of healthcare institutions. Existing standards (e.g. ASTM:E2147, ISO/TS 18308:2004, ISO/IEC 27001:2006) are still not broadly used in Portugal.

  1. Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

    2011-12-01

    In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

  2. Ants can learn to forage on one-way trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Leite Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The trails formed by many ant species between nest and food source are two-way roads on which outgoing and returning workers meet and touch each other all along. The way to get back home, after grasping a food load, is to take the same route on which they have arrived from the nest. In many species such trails are chemically marked by pheromones providing orientation cues for the ants to find their way. Other species rely on their vision and use landmarks as cues. We have developed a method to stop foraging ants from shuttling on two-way trails. The only way to forage is to take two separate roads, as they cannot go back on their steps after arriving at the food or at the nest. The condition qualifies as a problem because all their orientation cues -- chemical, visual or any other -- are disrupted, as all of them cannot but lead the ants back to the route on which they arrived. We have found that workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa can solve the problem. They could not only find the alternative way, but also used the unidirectional traffic system to forage effectively. We suggest that their ability is an evolutionary consequence of the need to deal with environmental irregularities that cannot be negotiated by means of excessively stereotyped behavior, and that it is but an example of a widespread phenomenon. We also suggest that our method can be adapted to other species, invertebrate and vertebrate, in the study of orientation, memory, perception, learning and communication.

  3. Water in the trail of the Chelyabinsk bolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysheva, O. G.

    2017-09-01

    At 03:20 UTC on February 15, 2013 a very bright bolide entered Earth's atmosphere. Fragments of the meteorite fell to the earth's surface. Examination of these fragments revealed that several of them were located directly on the surface of the celestial body [1], while the majority lay at a depth of less than 2.5 m from the surface [2, 3]. The stone meteorite's durability, >15 MPa, corresponded to Feng-Yun 2D discovered ice debris (water) in the bolide trail [6]. Here, we will demonstrate that the Chelyabinsk chondrite was delivered to the Earth by an ice-bearing celestial body.

  4. Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...... where the time history pressure data are recorded by the surface pressure microphones. After the flow-field is stabilized, the generated noise from the airfoil Trailing Edge (TE) is predicted using the acoustic analogy solver, where the results from LES are the input. It is found that there is a strong...

  5. Blazing the trail essays by leading women in science

    CERN Document Server

    Ideal, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Name a famous scientist. Got one? Now name a famous physicist. Ok, now name a famous female physicist. Ok, now name a famous living female physicist. Stumped? In Blazing the Trail: Essays by Leading Women in Science, 35 highly successful physicists, engineers, and chemists share their personal histories, their passion for discovery, and their secrets for success with the next generation. Essayists candidly recount their experiences – both positive and negative – with an uplifting tone, focusing on lessons learned along the way. The combination of personal stories and advice sends a powerful message to all young women considering scientific careers: I did it, so can you. Here’s how.

  6. ONC201 demonstrates anti-tumor effects in both triple negative and non-triple negative breast cancers through TRAIL-dependent and TRAIL-independent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ralff, Marie D.; Kline, Christina L.B.; Küçükkase, Ozan C; Wagner, Jessica; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Oster, Wolfgang; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death. TRAIL has been of interest as a cancer therapeutic, but only a subset of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) is sensitive to TRAIL. The small molecule ONC201 induces expression of TRAIL and its receptor DR5. ONC201 has entered clinical trials in advanced cancers. Here we show that ONC201 is efficacious against both TNBC and non-TNBC cells (n=13). A subset of TNBC and non-TNBC cells succumb to ONC201-induced cell death. In 2/8 TNBC cell...

  7. SAHA-induced TRAIL-sensitisation of Multiple Myeloma cells is enhanced in 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhoma, A; Chantry, A D; Haywood-Small, S L; Cross, N A

    2017-11-15

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is currently incurable despite many novel therapies. Tumour Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anti-tumour agent although effects as a single agent are limited. In this study, we investigated whether the Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor SAHA can enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and target TRAIL resistance in both suspension culture, and 3D cell culture as a model of disseminated MM lesions that form in bone. The effects of SAHA and/or TRAIL in 6 Multiple Myeloma cell lines were assessed in both suspension cultures and in an Alginate-based 3D cell culture model. The effect of SAHA and/or TRAIL was assessed on apoptosis by assessment of nuclear morphology using Hoechst 33342/Propidium Iodide staining. Viable cell number was assessed by CellTiter-Glo luminescence assay, Caspase-8 and -9 activities were measured by Caspase-Glo™ assay kit. TRAIL-resistant cells were generated by culture of RPMI 8226 and NCI-H929 by acute exposure to TRAIL followed by selection of TRAIL-resistant cells. TRAIL significantly induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in OPM-2, RPMI 8226, NCI-H929, U266, JJN-3 MM cell lines and ADC-1 plasma cell leukaemia cells. SAHA amplified TRAIL responses in all lines except OPM-2, and enhanced TRAIL responses were both via Caspase-8 and -9. SAHA treatment induced growth inhibition that further increased in the combination treatment with TRAIL in MM cells. The co-treatment of TRAIL and SAHA reduced viable cell numbers all cell lines. TRAIL responses were further potentiated by SAHA in 3D cell culture in NCI-H929, RPMI 8226 and U266 at lower TRAIL + SAHA doses than in suspension culture. However TRAIL responses in cells that had been selected for TRAIL resistance were not further enhanced by SAHA treatment. SAHA is a potent sensitizer of TRAIL responses in both TRAIL sensitive and resistant cell lines, in both suspension and 3D culture, however SAHA did not sensitise TRAIL-sensitive cell

  8. Differences in the impacts of formal and informal recreational trails on urban forest loss and tree structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Recreational trails are one of the most common types of infrastructure used for nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking worldwide. Depending on their design, location, construction, maintenance and use, these trails differ in their environmental impacts. There are few studies, however, comparing the impacts of different trail types including between formal management-created trails and informal visitor-created trails. Although both types of trails can be found in remote natural areas, dense networks of them often occur in forests close to cities where they experience intense visitor use. To assess the relative impacts of different recreational trails in urban forests, we compared the condition of the trail surface, loss of forest strata and changes in tree structure caused by seven types of trails (total network 46.1 km) traversing 17 remnants of an endangered urban forest in Australia. After mapping and classifying all trails, we assessed their impact on the forest condition at 125 sites (15 sites per trail type, plus 15 control sites within undisturbed forest). On the trail sites, the condition of the trail surface, distance from the trail edge to four forest strata (litter, understory, midstorey and tree cover) and structure of the tree-line were assessed. Informal trails generally had poorer surface conditions and were poorly-designed and located. Per site, formal and informal trails resulted in similar loss of forest strata, with wider trails resulting in greater loss of forest. Because there were more informal trails, however, they accounted for the greatest cumulative forest loss. Structural impacts varied, with the widest informal trails and all formal hardened trails resulting in similar reductions in canopy cover and tree density but an increase in saplings. These structural impacts are likely a function of the unregulated and intense use of large informal trails, and disturbance from the construction and maintenance of formal trails

  9. Life span extension and neuronal cell protection by Drosophila nicotinamidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Vitaly; Miller, Gregory S; Kaplun, Ludmila; Balan, Karina; Chong, Zhao-Zhong; Li, Faqi; Kaplun, Alexander; VanBerkum, Mark F A; Arking, Robert; Freeman, D Carl; Maiese, Kenneth; Tzivion, Guri

    2008-10-10

    The life span of model organisms can be modulated by environmental conditions that influence cellular metabolism, oxidation, or DNA integrity. The yeast nicotinamidase gene pnc1 was identified as a key transcriptional target and mediator of calorie restriction and stress-induced life span extension. PNC1 is thought to exert its effect on yeast life span by modulating cellular nicotinamide and NAD levels, resulting in increased activity of Sir2 family class III histone deacetylases. In Caenorhabditis elegans, knockdown of a pnc1 homolog was shown recently to shorten the worm life span, whereas its overexpression increased survival under conditions of oxidative stress. The function and regulation of nicotinamidases in higher organisms has not been determined. Here, we report the identification and biochemical characterization of the Drosophila nicotinamidase, D-NAAM, and demonstrate that its overexpression significantly increases median and maximal fly life span. The life span extension was reversed in Sir2 mutant flies, suggesting Sir2 dependence. Testing for physiological effectors of D-NAAM in Drosophila S2 cells, we identified oxidative stress as a primary regulator, both at the transcription level and protein activity. In contrast to the yeast model, stress factors such as high osmolarity and heat shock, calorie restriction, or inhibitors of TOR and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways do not appear to regulate D-NAAM in S2 cells. Interestingly, the expression of D-NAAM in human neuronal cells conferred protection from oxidative stress-induced cell death in a sirtuin-dependent manner. Together, our findings establish a life span extending the ability of nicotinamidase in flies and offer a role for nicotinamide-modulating genes in oxidative stress regulated pathways influencing longevity and neuronal cell survival.

  10. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  11. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  12. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  13. How Networks of Informal Trails Cause Landscape Level Damage to Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Marina Pickering, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    When visitors are not constrained to remain on formal trails, informal trail networks can develop and damage plant communities in protected areas. These networks can form in areas with low growing vegetation, where formal trails are limited, where there is limited regulation and where vegetation is slow to recover once disturbed. To demonstrate the extent of impacts from unregulated recreational use, we assessed damage to alpine vegetation by hikers and pack animals in the highest protected area in the southern Hemisphere: Aconcagua Park, in the Andes. Within the 237 ha area surveyed in the Horcones Valley, over 19 km of trails were found, nearly all of which (94%) were informal. This network of trails resulted in the direct loss of 11.5 ha of vegetation and extensive fragmentation of alpine meadows (21 fragments) and steppe vegetation (68 fragments). When levels of disturbance off these trails were quantified using rapid visual assessments, 81% of 102 randomly located plots showed evidence of disturbance, with the severity of disturbance greatest close to trails. As a result, vegetation in 90% of the Valley has been damaged by visitor use, nearly all of it from unregulated use. These results highlight the extent to which informal trails and trampling off-trail can cause landscape damage to areas of high conservation value, and hence the importance of better regulation of visitor use. The methodology used for off-trail impact assessment can be easily applied or adapted for other popular protected areas where trampling off-trail is also an issue.

  14. Validation of Walking Trails for the Urban TrainingTM of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbillaga-Etxarri, Ane; Torrent-Pallicer, Jaume; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Barberan-Garcia, Anael; Delgado, Anna; Balcells, Eva; Rodríguez, Diego A.; Vilaró, Jordi; Vall-Casas, Pere; Irurtia, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accessible interventions to train patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are needed. We designed urban trails of different intensities (low, moderate and high) in different types of public spaces (boulevard, beach and park). We aimed to validate the trails’ design by assessing the physiological response to unsupervised walking trails of: (1) different intensities in COPD patients, and (2) same intensity from different public spaces in healthy adults. Methods On different days and under standardized conditions, 10 COPD patients walked the three intensity trails designed in a boulevard space, and 10 healthy subjects walked the three intensity trails in three different spaces. We measured physiological response and energy expenditure using a gas analyzer. We compared outcomes across trails intensity and/or spaces using mixed-effects linear regression. Results In COPD patients, physiological response and energy expenditure increased significantly according to the trails intensity: mean (SD) peak V˙O2 15.9 (3.5), 17.4 (4.7), and 17.7 (4.4) mL/min/kg (p-trend = 0.02), and MET-min 60 (23), 64 (26), 72 (31) (p-trendtrails, respectively. In healthy subjects there were no differences in physiological response to walking trails of the same intensity across different spaces. Conclusions We validated the trails design for the training of COPD patients by showing that the physiological response to and energy expenditure on unsupervised walking these trails increased according to the predefined trails’ intensity and did not change across trails of the same intensity in different public space. Walkable public spaces allow the design of trails that could be used for the training of COPD patients in the community. PMID:26766184

  15. Teaching earth science in the field: GPS-based educational trails as a practically relevant, empirical verified approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    , typical vegetation) are provided just as well as the impressive special form of the impact tectonics. The learning success of the 441 probands is evaluated through an anonym, unheralded test in both grades, which prompt the cognitive competence three weeks after the treatment. The learning success of the GPS-based educational trail groups is compared to groups that completed the particular topics in a carousel activity in a "normal" class. Both treatments, the carousal activity and the GPS-educational-trail are similar, because the students work at one Geopoint / learning-station after another and the amount of time given in the same. It can be said, that the GPS-based educational trails evoke a better learning success than normal classes do, because the test results differ with partially (highly) significant differences and high effect sizes. As the feedback given by the included teachers suggests, the new concept of GPS-based educational trail is practically relevant and realizable in every-day life. So did teachers and trainees in several trainings. In the future, the concept could be enhanced through smartphones and tablets. Whether or not this could be a realistic option, will also be discussed.

  16. Trail communication regulated by two trail pheromone components in the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Ji, Bao-Zhong; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2014-01-01

    The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components that can be easily

  17. Radiation effects on life span in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.; Hartman, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Wild-type and radiation-sensitive (Rad) mutants of Caenorhabditis elegans were irradiated using a 137 Cs source (2.7 krads/min.) at several developmental stages and subsequently monitored for life span. Acute doses of radiation ranged from 1 krad to 300 krads. All stages required doses above 100 krads to reduce mean life span. Dauers and third stage larvae were more sensitive, and 8-day-old adults were the most resistant. Occasional statistically significant but nonrepeatable increases in survival were observed after intermediate levels of irradiation (10-30 krads). Unirradiated rad-4 and rad-7 had life spans similar to wild-type; all others had a significant reduction in survival. The mutants were about as sensitive as wild-type to the effects of ionizing radiation including occasional moderate life span extensions at intermediate doses. We conclude that the moderate life span extensions sometimes observed after irradiation are likely to be mediated by a means other than the induction of DNA repair enzymes

  18. Individual differences in personality change across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaba, Ted; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2018-06-01

    A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the life span is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean-level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self-reports at five assessment waves across 7 years. We divided our sample into 14 age groups (ages 16-84 at initial measurement) and estimated latent growth curve models to describe individual differences in personality change across the study period for each trait and age group. Across the adult life span, individual differences in personality change were small but significant until old age. For Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, individual differences in change were most pronounced in emerging adulthood and decreased throughout midlife and old age. For Emotional Stability, individual differences in change were relatively consistent across the life span. These results inform theories of life span development and provide future directions for research on the causes and conditions of personality change. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  20. Semiflexible crossing-avoiding trails on plane-filling fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Živić, I.; Elezović-Hadžić, S.; Milošević, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the statistics of semiflexible polymer chains modeled by crossing-avoiding trails (CAT) situated on the family of plane-filling (PF) fractals. The fractals are compact, that is, their fractal dimension d_f is equal to 2 for all members of the fractal family. By applying the exact and Monte Carlo real-space renormalization group method we have calculated the critical exponent ν, which governs the scaling behavior of the end-to-end distance of the polymer, as well as the entropic critical exponent γ, for a large set of fractals, and various values of polymer flexibility. Our results, obtained for CAT model on PF fractals, show that both critical exponents depend on the polymer flexibility, in such a way that less flexible polymer chains display enlarged values of ν, and diminished values of γ. We have compared the obtained results for CAT model with the known results for the self-avoiding walk and self-avoiding trail models and discussed the influence of excluded volume effect on the values of semiflexible polymer critical exponents, for a large set of studied compact fractals.

  1. Current Interview Trail Metrics in the Otolaryngology Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina; Chang, C W David; Puscas, Liana

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To identify how applicants to otolaryngology residency determine how to apply to, interview with, and rank programs on the interview trail and to determine the extent of the financial burden of the otolaryngology interview trail. Study Design Web-based survey distributed in March and April 2016. Setting Otolaryngology residency applicants throughout the United States. Subjects and Methods Applicants to otolaryngology residency during the 2016 match cycle and current otolaryngology residents were surveyed. Results Median number of applications, interview offers, interviews attended, and programs ranked was not different during the 2016 match and the previous 5 match years. The most important factor affecting the number of applications was the need to apply widely to ensure sufficient interview offers. The most common reason for declining an interview offer was scheduling conflict. Applicants during the 2016 match spent a median of $5400 applying and interviewing for otolaryngology residency. Conclusions Median number of applications, interview offers, interviews attended, and programs ranked has not changed. The most cited reason for applying to many programs was to increase the chances of matching, but this is not statistically likely to increase match success. We advocate for continued attempts to make the otolaryngology match process more transparent for both applicants and resident selection committees, but recognize that applicants are likely to continue to overapply for otolaryngology residency positions.

  2. The influence of trailed vorticity on flutter speed estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirrung, Georg R; Madsen, Helge Aa; Kim, Taeseong

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the implementation of a coupled near and far wake model for wind turbine rotor induction in the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and its application for flutter analysis of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine. The model consists of a far wake part based on Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory, which is coupled with Beddoes' near wake model for trailed vorticity. The first part of this work outlines the implementation in HAWC2, with a focus on the interaction of the induction from the blade based near wake model with the induction from the polar grid based BEM model in HAWC2. The influence of the near wake model on the aeroelastic stability of the blades of the NREL 5 MW turbine in overspeed conditions is investigated in the second part of the paper. The analysis is based on a runaway case in which the turbine is free to speed up without generator torque and vibrations start building up at a critical rotor speed. Blades with modified torsional and flapwise stiffness are also investigated. A flutter analysis is often part of the stability investigations for new blades but is normally carried out with engineering models that do not include the influence of unsteady trailed vorticity. Including this influence results in a slightly increased safety margin against classical flutter in all simulated cases

  3. On the impact of multi-axial stress states on trailing edge bondlines in wind turbine rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noever Castelos, Pablo; Balzani, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    For a reliable design of wind turbine systems all of their components have to be designed to withstand the loads appearing in the turbine's lifetime. When performed in an integral manner this is called systems engineering, and is exceptionally important for components that have an impact on the entire wind turbine system, such as the rotor blade. Bondlines are crucial subcomponents of rotor blades, but they are not much recognized in the wind energy research community. However, a bondline failure can lead to the loss of a rotor blade, and potentially of the entire turbine, and is extraordinarily relevant to be treated with strong emphasis when designing a wind turbine. Modern wind turbine rotor blades with lengths of 80 m and more offer a degree of flexibility that has never been seen in wind energy technology before. Large deflections result in high strains in the adhesive connections, especially at the trailing edge. The latest edition of the DNV GL guideline from end of 2015 demands a three-dimensional stress analysis of bondlines, whereas before an isolated shear stress proof was sufficient. In order to quantify the lack of safety from older certification guidelines this paper studies the influence of multi-axial stress states on the ultimate and fatigue load resistance of trailing edge adhesive bonds. For this purpose, detailed finite element simulations of the IWES IWT-7.5-164 reference wind turbine blades are performed. Different yield criteria are evaluated for the prediction of failure and lifetime. The results show that the multi-axial stress state is governed by span-wise normal stresses. Those are evidently not captured in isolated shear stress proofs, yielding non-conservative estimates of lifetime and ultimate load resistance. This finding highlights the importance to include a three-dimensional stress state in the failure analysis of adhesive bonds in modern wind turbine rotor blades, and the necessity to perform a three-dimensional characterization

  4. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  5. Focus of B-to-B e-commercspan>e initiatives and related benefits in manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elie, E.; Lefebvre, L.A.; Lefebvre, E.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research into business-to-business e-commercspan>e issues involving manufacturing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is still embryonic. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, this paper presents empirical data from an electronic survey conducted among 96 manufacturing SMEs to

  6. The Role of Covert Retrieval in Working Memory Span Tasks: Evidence from Delayed Recall Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, David P.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined delayed recall of items that had been processed during simple and complex span tasks. Three experiments were reported showing that despite more items being recalled initially from a simple span task (i.e., word span) than a complex span task (i.e., operation span), on a delayed recall test more items were recalled that…

  7. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  8. Noise Reduction with Optimal Variable Span Linear Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of noise reduction is addressed as a linear filtering problem in a novel way by using concepts from subspace-based enhancement methods, resulting in variable span linear filters. This is done by forming the filter coefficients as linear combinations of a number...... included in forming the filter. Using these concepts, a number of different filter designs are considered, like minimum distortion, Wiener, maximum SNR, and tradeoff filters. Interestingly, all these can be expressed as special cases of variable span filters. We also derive expressions for the speech...... demonstrate the advantages and properties of the variable span filter designs, and their potential performance gain compared to widely used speech enhancement methods....

  9. Skilled deaf readers have an enhanced perceptual span in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Nathalie N; Slattery, Timothy J; Mayberry, Rachel I; Rayner, Keith

    2012-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that, compared with hearing people, deaf people have enhanced visual attention to simple stimuli viewed in the parafovea and periphery. Although a large part of reading involves processing the fixated words in foveal vision, readers also utilize information in parafoveal vision to preprocess upcoming words and decide where to look next. In the study reported here, we investigated whether auditory deprivation affects low-level visual processing during reading by comparing the perceptual span of deaf signers who were skilled and less-skilled readers with the perceptual span of skilled hearing readers. Compared with hearing readers, the two groups of deaf readers had a larger perceptual span than would be expected given their reading ability. These results provide the first evidence that deaf readers' enhanced attentional allocation to the parafovea is used during complex cognitive tasks, such as reading.

  10. Understanding retirement: the promise of life-span developmental frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E

    2012-09-01

    The impending retirement of large population cohorts creates a pressing need for practical interventions to optimize outcomes at the individual and societal level. This necessitates comprehensive theoretical models that acknowledge the multi-layered nature of the retirement process and shed light on the dynamic mechanisms that drive longitudinal patterns of adjustment. The present commentary highlights ways in which contemporary life-span developmental frameworks can inform retirement research, drawing on the specific examples of Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model, Baltes and Baltes Selective Optimization with Compensation Framework, Schulz and Heckhausen's Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development, and Carstensen's Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. Ultimately, a life-span developmental perspective on retirement offers not only new interpretations of known phenomena but may also help to identify novel directions for future research as well as promising pathways for interventions.

  11. Life span of animals under acute and chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapol'skaya, N.A.; Fedorova, A.V.; Borisova, V.V.

    1978-01-01

    The study has been designed to see to what extent a single and long-term external and internal irradiations shorten the life span of animals. LDsub(50/30) for certain radionuclides whose absorbed doses show different spatiotemporal distributions are considered. It has been found that as far as the average life span is concerned, 137 Cs and 90 Sr have approximately the same effect whether they enter the body on a single occasion or repeatedly. With chronic total-body external gamma-irradiation, the decrease in life span is 5 times smaller than than with single-occasion irradiation. The main reason for the observed differences are found to be differences in the rates with which the absorbed doses are formed

  12. Minimum spanning trees and random resistor networks in d dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, N

    2005-09-01

    We consider minimum-cost spanning trees, both in lattice and Euclidean models, in d dimensions. For the cost of the optimum tree in a box of size L , we show that there is a correction of order L(theta) , where theta or =1 . The arguments all rely on the close relation of Kruskal's greedy algorithm for the minimum spanning tree, percolation, and (for some arguments) random resistor networks. The scaling of the entropy and free energy at small nonzero T , and hence of the number of near-optimal solutions, is also discussed. We suggest that the Steiner tree problem is in the same universality class as the minimum spanning tree in all dimensions, as is the traveling salesman problem in two dimensions. Hence all will have the same value of theta=-3/4 in two dimensions.

  13. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V. S.; Priezzhev, V. B.

    2013-05-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r-ν log r with ν = (k2 - 1) / 2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k (1 + 1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν˜ =k2 / 2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems.

  14. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsky, A.; Nechaev, S.; Poghosyan, V.S.; Priezzhev, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r −ν logr with ν=(k 2 −1)/2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k(1+1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν -tilde= k 2 /2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems

  15. Sex-specific trail pheromone mediates complex mate finding behavior in Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Melody Keena; Maya Nehme; Shifa Wang; Peter Meng; Aijun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) is a polyphagous member of the Cerambycidae, and is considered, worldwide, to be one of the most serious quarantine pests of deciduous trees. We isolated four chemicals from the trail of A. glabripennis virgin and mated females that were not present in trails of mature males. These compounds were...

  16. Comparative efficacy of multimodal digital methods in assessing trail/resource degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan O. Park

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor recreation can cause both positive and negative impacts on associated forest ecosystems. Forest recreation trails localize negative impacts to a controlled spatial extent while providing recreation access beyond developed areas and transportation networks. Current methods for assessing extent and severity of trail and proximal resource degradation require...

  17. Op het spoor van een 'multifunctionele' test: Over de geschiedenis van de Trail Making Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    De Trail Making Test is een van de meest gebruikte tests in de neuropsychologische praktijk. Hij ziet er gemakkelijk uit en al snel scoren patiënten slechter dan gezonden, het lijkt dus ook een gevoelig instrument. Net als andere populaire tests is de Trail Making al behoorlijk oud en heeft hij in

  18. 77 FR 37438 - Draft Trail Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for Cuyahoga Valley National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-MWR-CUVA-10100; 6065-4000-409] Draft Trail... Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS... blueprint to guide the expansion, elimination, restoration, management, and use of the trail system and its...

  19. Why Individuals Hike the Appalachian Trail: A Qualitative Approach to Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Marni; Hill, Eddie; Freidt, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Appalachian Trail (AT) is a 2,175 mile-long National Scenic Trail extending from Maine to Georgia. Since its inception in the early 1920s, individuals, families, schools, and other organizations, just to name a few, have used the AT. Approximately 3 to 4 million visitors hike a portion of the AT each year (ATC, 2006). Throughout its 80-year…

  20. Changes in soil bulk density resulting from construction and conventional cable skidding using preplanned skid trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Pam Edwards

    2007-01-01

    A harvesting system consisting of chainsaw felling and cable skidder extraction was studied to determine soil bulk density changes in a central Appalachian hardwood forest site. Soil bulk density was measured using a nuclear gauge preharvest and postharvest systematically across the harvest site, on transects across skid trails, and for a subset of skid trail transects...

  1. Path Tortuosity and the Permeability of Roads and Trails to Wolf Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Whittington

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effects of human development on fine-scale movement behavior, yet understanding animal movement through increasingly human-dominated landscapes is essential for the persistence of many wild populations, especially wary species. In mountainous areas, roads and trails may be particularly deserving of study because they are concentrated in the valley bottoms where they can impede animal movement both across and between valleys. In this study, we tracked wolf (Canis lupus movement in the snow for two winters in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada to examine how wolves navigate through or around human-use features. We quantified the effects of human development and topography on the tortuosity of wolf paths and then tested the permeability of roads, trails, and a railway line to wolf movement by comparing the frequency with which actual wolf paths and a null model of random paths crossed these features. Wolf path tortuosity increased near high-use trails, within areas of high-trail and road density, near predation sites, and in rugged terrain. Wolves crossed all roads, trails, and the railway line 9.7% less often than expected, but avoided crossing high-use roads more than low-use trails. Surprisingly, trails affected movement behavior of wolves equally, if not more, than roads. These results suggest that although roads and trails in this study were not absolute barriers to wolf movement, they altered wolf movements across their territories.

  2. 77 FR 1723 - Notice of Availability, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Availability of a ``Foundation for Planning, Administration, Management and Interpretation of Potomac Heritage... the availability of a ``Foundation for Planning, Administration, Management and Interpretation of... planned Trail segments for non-motorized travel. Communities have invested in the Trail concept for a...

  3. Model Predictive Control of Trailing Edge Flaps on a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Buhl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Trailing Edge Flaps on wind turbine blades have been studied in order to achieve fatigue load reduction on the turbine components. We show in this paper how Model Predictive Control can be used to do frequency weighted control of the trailing edge flaps in order to reduce fatigue damage on the bl...

  4. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae-Hee, E-mail: leedneo@gmail.com [Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Dong-Wook [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of VA (United States); Jung, Chang-Hwa [Division of Metabolism and Functionality Research, Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong J. [Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Park, Daeho, E-mail: daehopark@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  5. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... or splices that heat or spark under load shall not be used. ...

  6. Managing outdoor recreation conflict on the Squamish, British Columbia Trail Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Elia Ramón Hidalgo; Howard. Harshaw

    2012-01-01

    Recreationists with high expectations of satisfaction from outdoor recreation activities are increasingly using trails networks near urban areas. But differences in expectations, behaviors and values of trail users may create conflicts resulting in unsatisfactory experiences. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of management practices that may reduce...

  7. 76 FR 54730 - Rubicon Trail Easement, Eldorado National Forest, Pacific Ranger District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... waters of the state, and address human waste management on the Rubicon Trail. Proposed Action The... through these low spots thereby accelerating trail erosion and sedimentation. In July 2004, the El Dorado... fecal waste littered around the Spider Lake area. The amount of fecal waste was determined to pose a...

  8. 76 FR 35468 - Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail... the Advisory Committee on the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail will hold a meeting... Council is John Maounis, Superintendent, Chesapeake Bay Office, telephone: (410) 260-2471. DATES: The Star...

  9. Dichotomous scoring of Trails B in patients referred for a dementia evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B; Smernoff, Eric N; Waits, Bethany L; Harris, James B; Davis, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    The Trail Making Test is a popular neuropsychological test and its interpretation has traditionally used time-based scores. This study examined an alternative approach to scoring that is simply based on the examinees' ability to complete the test. If an examinee is able to complete Trails B successfully, they are coded as "completers"; if not, they are coded as "noncompleters." To assess this approach to scoring Trails B, the performance of 97 diagnostically heterogeneous individuals referred for a dementia evaluation was examined. In this sample, 55 individuals successfully completed Trails B and 42 individuals were unable to complete it. Point-biserial correlations indicated a moderate-to-strong association (r(pb)=.73) between the Trails B completion variable and the Total Scale score of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neurological Status (RBANS), which was larger than the correlation between the Trails B time-based score and the RBANS Total Scale score (r(pb)=.60). As a screen for dementia status, Trails B completion showed a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 100% in this sample. These results suggest that dichotomous scoring of Trails B might provide a brief and clinically useful measure of dementia status.

  10. Web-Based Museum Trails on PDAs for University-Level Design Students: Design and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; Walker, K.; Speight, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of web-based museum trails for university-level design students to access on handheld devices in the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London. The trails offered students a range of ways of exploring the museum environment and collections, some encouraging students to interpret objects and…

  11. 77 FR 32178 - Notification of Trails Act Agreement/Substitute Sponsorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Ex Parte No. 702] Notification of Trails Act Agreement/Substitute Sponsorship AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of OMB... Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way, STB Ex Parte No. 702 (STB served Apr. 30, 2012) (77 FR...

  12. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway

  13. The interplay between scent trails and group-mass recruitment systems in ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, R.; van den Berg, G.J.B.; Franks, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage

  14. ONC201 Demonstrates Antitumor Effects in Both Triple-Negative and Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers through TRAIL-Dependent and TRAIL-Independent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralff, Marie D; Kline, Christina L B; Küçükkase, Ozan C; Wagner, Jessica; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T; Prabhu, Varun V; Oster, Wolfgang; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been of interest as a cancer therapeutic, but only a subset of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) is sensitive to TRAIL. The small-molecule ONC201 induces expression of TRAIL and its receptor DR5. ONC201 has entered clinical trials in advanced cancers. Here, we show that ONC201 is efficacious against both TNBC and non-TNBC cells ( n = 13). A subset of TNBC and non-TNBC cells succumbs to ONC201-induced cell death. In 2 of 8 TNBC cell lines, ONC201 treatment induces caspase-8 cleavage and cell death that is blocked by TRAIL-neutralizing antibody RIK2. The proapoptotic effect of ONC201 translates to in vivo efficacy in the MDA-MB-468 xenograft model. In most TNBC lines tested (6/8), ONC201 has an antiproliferative effect but does not induce apoptosis. ONC201 decreases cyclin D1 expression and causes an accumulation of cells in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. pRb expression is associated with sensitivity to the antiproliferative effects of ONC201, and the compound synergizes with taxanes in less sensitive cells. All non-TNBC cells ( n = 5) are growth inhibited following ONC201 treatment, and unlike what has been observed with TRAIL, a subset ( n = 2) shows PARP cleavage. In these cells, cell death induced by ONC201 is TRAIL independent. Our data demonstrate that ONC201 has potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in a broad range of breast cancer subtypes, through TRAIL-dependent and TRAIL-independent mechanisms. These findings develop a preclinical rationale for developing ONC201 as a single agent and/or in combination with approved therapies in breast cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(7); 1290-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. ONC201 demonstrates anti-tumor effects in both triple negative and non-triple negative breast cancers through TRAIL-dependent and TRAIL-independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralff, Marie D.; Kline, Christina L.B.; Küçükkase, Ozan C; Wagner, Jessica; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Oster, Wolfgang; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death. TRAIL has been of interest as a cancer therapeutic, but only a subset of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) is sensitive to TRAIL. The small molecule ONC201 induces expression of TRAIL and its receptor DR5. ONC201 has entered clinical trials in advanced cancers. Here we show that ONC201 is efficacious against both TNBC and non-TNBC cells (n=13). A subset of TNBC and non-TNBC cells succumb to ONC201-induced cell death. In 2/8 TNBC cell lines, ONC201 treatment induces caspase-8 cleavage and cell death that is blocked by TRAIL-neutralizing antibody RIK2. The pro-apoptotic effect of ONC201 translates to in vivo efficacy in the MDA-MB-468 xenograft model. In most TNBC lines tested (6/8) ONC201 has an anti-proliferative effect but does not induce apoptosis. ONC201 decreases cyclin D1 expression and causes an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. pRb expression is associated with sensitivity to the anti-proliferative effects of ONC201, and the compound synergizes with taxanes in less sensitive cells. All non-TNBC cells (n=5) are growth inhibited following ONC201 treatment, and unlike what has been observed with TRAIL, a subset (n=2) show PARP cleavage. In these cells, cell death induced by ONC201 is TRAIL-independent. Our data demonstrate that ONC201 has potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in a broad range of breast cancer subtypes, through TRAIL-dependent and TRAIL-independent mechanisms. These findings develop a pre-clinical rationale for developing ONC201 as a single agent and/or in combination with approved therapies in breast cancer. PMID:28424227

  16. Sediment pathways in a tropical forest: effects of logging roads and skid trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Roy C.; Sasaki, Shozo; Otsuki, Mieko; Noguchi, Shoji; Rahim Nik, Abdul

    2004-03-01

    Significant erosion occurred from recently constructed forest logging roads and skid trails in a small headwater catchment in Peninsular Malaysia. Soil loss was estimated by measuring dimensions of all significant rills and gullies along the road, as well as by measuring height of preserved soil pedestals in sidecast and fill material and on skid trails. Estimates of surface erosion from logging roads and skid trails were 272 +/- 20 t ha-1 year-1 and 275 +/- 20 t ha-1 year-1 respectively. However, owing to lack of connectivity of skid trails to the stream, much of the sediment mobilized on skid trails was stored either on adjacent hillslopes or the trails themselves, rather than being transported to the stream system, as was the case for the road. Steeper skid trails (>20% gradient) had slightly higher erosion rates (320 +/- 24 t ha-1 year-1) than trails with gentler gradients (245-264 t ha-1 year-1). Some 60% of the soil loss on logging roads comes from erosion of the running surface. Disturbed cut and fill material along the road supplied the remaining 40% of the soil loss from roads. Roads and skid trails had no designed drainage systems; runoff discharged onto the hillslope at 25 major discharge nodes from the logging road (690 m total length) and at 34 nodes from skid trails (2300 m). Sediment pathways were either fully or moderately connected to headwater channels at 64% of the logging road nodes, but at only 26% of the nodes emanating from skid trails. A detailed sediment budget revealed that 78% of the soil loss from the road system (including log landings) was delivered to the stream in the first 16 months after logging began. Most (90%) of the deposition from skid trails occurred below just three discharge nodes. Runoff from and onto skid trails often exacerbated the sediment connectivity to channels. Clearly, sediment discharge from logging roads was more highly connected to the stream than discharge from skid trails. Once in the channel, much of this

  17. Friendship in childhood and adulthood: lessons across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, A M; de Vries, B; Lansford, J E

    2000-01-01

    Friendship occupies an important place in the growing body of literature in child development and gerontological research. As such, it may be useful for researchers from both fields to consider what can be learned from work carried out in each tradition. Therefore, we present a selected review of topics in friendship research across the life span. Through discussion of the value of friendship, the development of friendship, challenges to friendship, the gendered nature of friendship, and the connection between friends and family, points of commonality and contrast are identified. We conclude by presenting possible avenues for future investigation for researchers interested in friendship at any point in the life span.

  18. Span Restoration in Optical Networks with Limited Wavelength Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Buron, Jakob Due; Andriolli, N

    2007-01-01

    Next generation optical networks provide functionalities to dynamically provision and recover connections, while emerging technologies allow for the conversion between wavelengths. These devices are however expensive and hence it is likely that only few are deployed throughout the network...... converter-saving wavelength assignment in GMPLS networks. The converter saving property of the Suggested Vector is particularly desirable in span restoration, where the pre-failure path stubs have to be merged to the restoration path at the failure-adjacent nodes. In order to avoid wavelength conversion....... Furthermore, we describe different scenarios to extend the suggested vector wavelength assignment scheme to multi-domain networks with focus on span restoration....

  19. Exploring boundary-spanning practices among creativity managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – External inputs are critical for organisational creativity. In order to bridge different thought worlds and cross-organisational barriers, managers must initiate and motivate boundary spanning processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how boundary spanners manage creativity...... and observation. Findings – Three meta-practices used by managers to manage boundary-spanning creative projects are presented: defining the creative space, making space for creativity and acting in the creative space. These practices are detailed in seven case studies of creative projects. Research limitations...

  20. Spanning k-ended trees of 3-regular connected graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Ghasemian Zoeram

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A vertex of degree one is called an end-vertex and the set of end-vertices of G is denoted by End(G. For a positive integer k, a tree T be called k-ended tree if $|End(T| \\leq k$. In this paper, we obtain sufficient conditions for spanning k-trees of 3-regular connected graphs. We give a construction sequence of graphs satisfying the condition. At the end, we present a conjecture about spanning k-ended trees of 3-regular connected graphs.

  1. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  2. Model predictive control of trailing edge flaps on a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien Bruno

    of the wind turbine fatigue and extreme loads. This potential was confirmed with wind tunnel tests made on blade sections with trailing edge flaps and on a scaled two-bladed wind turbine in a wind tunnel. The work presented in this thesis includes a full-scale test run on a Vestas V27 wind turbine equipped...... fatigue loads by 23%, but also the main shaft and the tower fatigue loads by up to 32%. Extreme loads during normal production also benefit from the trailing edge flaps. At last, the same controller was run on the Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Risø Campus of the Technical University of Denmark......Trailing edge flaps on wind turbine blades have been investigated for several years. Aero-servoelastic simulations carried out with different simulation tools, trailing edge flaps configurations and controller designs proved that trailing edge flaps are a suitable solution for reducing some...

  3. Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

  4. Trail marking by caterpillars of the silverspot butterfly Dione juno huascuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso; Stanford-Camargo, Sergio G; Páez-Gerardo, Luis E; Ramírez-Reyes, Alberto J; Ibarra-Jiménez, René A; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2011-01-01

    A pheromone is implicated in the trail marking behavior of caterpillars of the nymphalid silverspot butterfly, Dione juno huascuma (Reakirt) (Lepidoptera: Heliconiinae) that feed gregariously on Passiflora (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) vines in Mexico. Although they mark pathways leading from one feeding site to another with silk, this study shows that the silk was neither adequate nor necessary to elicit trail following behavior. Caterpillars marked trails with a long-lived pheromone that was deposited when they brushed the ventral surfaces of the tips of their abdomens along branch pathways. The caterpillars distinguished between pathways deposited by different numbers of siblings and between trails of different ages. Caterpillars also preferentially followed the trails of conspecifics over those of another nymphalid, Nymphalis antiopa L., the mourning cloak butterfly.

  5. Expression and significance of TRAIL and NF-kB in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiumin; You Murong; Qi Falian; Hu Chengjin

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between expressions of TRAIL, NF-kB and cell proliferation in human osteosarcomas, the expressions of TRAIL and NF-kB in 16 cases of osteosarcoma, 5 cases of giant cell tumor of bone and 6 cases of chondrosarcoma were studied by flow cytometry. The expressions of TRAIL and NF-kB in osteosarcomas of different differentiation states were higher than those in other two kinds of tumors significantly in our study(P 0.05). The expressions of TRAIL and NF-kB in chondrosarcoma and giant cell tumor of bone were not different significantly(P>0.05). The higher expression of TRAIL in osteosarcoma with different differentiation states could not induce apoptosis because of the higher expression of NF-kB. NF-kB may restrain the apoptosis of tumor cells by regulating the NF-kB- induced apoptosis path way in osteosarcoma. (authors)

  6. Individual differences in working memory, secondary memory, and fluid intelligence: evidence from the levels-of-processing span task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nathan S

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in working memory (WM) are related to performance on secondary memory (SM), and fluid intelligence (gF) tests. However, the source of the relation remains unclear, in part because few studies have controlled for the nature of encoding; therefore, it is unclear whether individual variation is due to encoding, maintenance, or retrieval processes. In the current study, participants performed a WM task (the levels-of-processing span task; Rose, Myerson, Roediger III, & Hale, 2010) and a SM test that tested for both targets and the distracting processing words from the initial WM task. Deeper levels of processing at encoding did not benefit WM, but did benefit subsequent SM, although the amount of benefit was smaller for those with lower WM spans. This result suggests that, despite encoding cues that facilitate retrieval from SM, low spans may have engaged in shallower, maintenance-focused processing to maintain the words in WM. Low spans also recalled fewer targets, more distractors, and more extralist intrusions than high spans, although this was partially due to low spans' poorer recall of targets, which resulted in a greater number of opportunities to commit recall errors. Delayed recall of intrusions and commission of source errors (labeling targets as processing words and vice versa) were significant negative predictors of gF. These results suggest that the ability to use source information to recall relevant information and withhold recall of irrelevant information is a critical source of both individual variation in WM and the relation between WM, SM, and gF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. TRAIL Death Receptor-4 Expression Positively Correlates With the Tumor Grade in Breast Cancer Patients With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Korcum, Aylin F.; Pestereli, Elif; Erdogan, Gulgun; Karaveli, Seyda; Savas, Burhan; Griffith, Thomas S.; Sanlioglu, Salih V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells, and a number of clinical trials have recently been initiated to test the safety and antitumoral potential of TRAIL in cancer patients. Four different receptors have been identified to interact with TRAIL: two are death-inducing receptors (TRAIL-R1 [DR4] and TRAIL-R2 [DR5]), whereas the other two (TRAIL-R3 [DcR1] and TRAIL-R4 [DcR2]) do not induce death upon ligation and are believed to counteract TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity. Because high levels of DcR2 expression have recently been correlated with carcinogenesis in the prostate and lung, this study investigated the importance of TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression in breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, taking various prognostic markers into consideration. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 90 breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma using TRAIL and TRAIL receptor-specific antibodies. Age, menopausal status, tumor size, lymph node status, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular tumor extension, presence of an extensive intraductal component, multicentricity, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and CerbB2 expression levels were analyzed with respect to TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression patterns. Results: The highest TRAIL receptor expressed in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma was DR4. Although progesterone receptor-positive patients exhibited lower DR5 expression, CerbB2-positive tissues displayed higher levels of both DR5 and TRAIL expressions. Conclusions: DR4 expression positively correlates with the tumor grade in breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma

  8. Molecular requirements for the combined effects of TRAIL and ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Patrizia; Jendrossek, Verena; Durand, Elise; Gruber, Charlotte; Budach, Wilfried; Belka, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Previously it was shown that combination of death ligand TRAIL and irradiation strongly increases cell kill in several human tumour cell lines. Since Bcl-2 overexpression did not strongly interfere with the efficacy, components of the mitochondrial death pathway are not required for an effective combined treatment. In the present study the minimal molecular prerequisites for the efficacy of a combined treatment were determined. Materials and methods: Apoptosis induction in control, caspase-8 and FADD negative Jurkat cells, BJAB control and FADD-DN cells was analysed by FACS. Activation of caspase-8, -10 and -3 and cleavage of PARP was determined by immunoblotting. TRAIL receptors were activated using recombinant human TRAIL. Surface expression of TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 was analysed by FACS. Results: Jurkat T-cells express the agonistic DR5 receptor but not DR4. Presence of FADD was found to be essential for TRAIL induced apoptosis. Caspase-8 negative cells show very low rates of apoptosis after prolonged stimulation with TRAIL. No combined effects of TRAIL with irradiation could be found in FADD-DN over expressing and FADD deficient cells. However, the combination of TRAIL and irradiation clearly lead to a combined effect in caspase-8 negative Jurkat cells, albeit with reduced death rates. In these cells activation of the alternative initiator caspase-10 could be detected after combined treatment. Conclusion: Our data show that a combined therapy with TRAIL and irradiation will only be effective in cells expressing at least one agonistic TRAIL receptor, FADD and caspase-8 or caspase-10

  9. Natural ventilation of large multi-span greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de T.

    1990-01-01

    In this thesis the ventilation of large multi-span greenhouses caused by wind and temperature effects is studied. Quantification of the ventilation is important to improve the control of the greenhouse climate.

    Knowledge of the flow characteristics of the one-side-mounted windows of

  10. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  11. Life Span Approach to Growth and Human Development: A Broad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional approach to the study of development emphasizes extensive change in childhood. ... the paper draws the reader's attention to the fact that by adopting the life-span perspective, we gain insights into what our lives will be like as we grow into middle age or old age, who we are, how we came to be this way and ...

  12. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  13. Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

  14. Robustness Analysis of Big Span Glulam Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčié, V.; čizmar, D.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    (Eurocode 0 &1, Probabilistic model code etc.) Based on a project of big span glulam truss structure, build in Croatia few years ago, a probabilistic model is made with four failure elements. Reliability analysis of components is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed. It can...

  15. A formal analysis of a dynamic distributed spanning tree algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, A.J.; Wesselink, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. We analyze the spanning tree algorithm in the IEEE 1394.1 draft standard, which correctness has not previously been proved. This algorithm is a fully-dynamic distributed graph algorithm, which, in general, is hard to develop. The approach we use is to formally develop an algorithm that is

  16. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Karns, Tara E.; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2013-01-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases—the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people’s everyday lives. PMID:22023568

  17. Mapping the Developmental Constraints on Working Memory Span Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Gunn, Deborah M.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related…

  18. Fatigue life assessment of free spanning pipelines containing corrosion defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Rita de Kassia D.; Campello, Georga C.; Matt, Cyntia G. da Costa; Benjamin, Adilson C.; Franciss, Ricardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2009-12-19

    The free spanning pipelines assessment is a highlighted issue to be considered during the project and maintenance of the submarine pipelines. It is required to evaluate the fatigue life and the maximum stress due to VIV (Vortex Induced Vibration) as well as wave forces when applicable in case of shallow water. The code DNV-RP-F105 (2006) presents a methodology to calculate the fatigue life for free spanning pipelines. Such methodology however considers the pipe with no kind of defects. Nevertheless, sometimes corrosion defects are detected in periodic inspections and therefore their effects need to be taken into account in the fatigue life evaluation. The purpose of this paper thus is to present a procedure to assess the influence of the corrosion defects in the fatigue life of free spanning pipelines. Some FE analyses were performed to determine the stress concentrate factor (SCF) of the corrosion defects, which were used as input in the methodology presented in the code DNV-RP-F105 (2006). Curves of damage and so lifetime have been generated as function of the span length and water depth. As a practical application, this methodology was applied to a sub sea pipeline with several corrosion defects, localized in shallow water offshore Brazil. (author)

  19. DIRECT SELECTION ON LIFE-SPAN IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RE

    An important issue in the study of the evolution of aging in Drosophila melanogaster is whether decreased early fecundity is inextricably coupled with increased life span in selection experiments on age at reproduction. Here, this problem has been tackled using an experimental design in which

  20. Estimation of Stature from Arm Span in Medical Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Identification is an individual's birth right” United Nations. Declaration on ... stature from arm span (AS) for a region in Maharashtra, India. Subjects ... found correlation coefficient (R) of 0.89 in male and 0.90 in female using simple regression,.

  1. Spanning the Creative Space between Home and Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Lee N.; Hoisl, Karin; Davis, Jerome

    the employee brings to work. Based on Woodman et al.’s (1993) “interactionist perspective” on organizational creativity, supplemented by literature on search and knowledge/combination, we explore whether leisure time activities can span the creative space between the employee’s home and workplace – given...

  2. E-commercspan>e in the banking sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeken, J.H.M.; Munck, S.G.E. de; Hawkins, R.

    2001-01-01

    Het doel van de studie is het verschaffen van inzicht in de effecten van e-commercspan>e in de Nederlandse banksector. Elektronische transactie omgevingen als zodanig zijn niet nieuw voor banken, en financiële dienstverlening heeft altijd al te maken gehad met intermediëring door elektronische netwerken.

  3. Age differences in five personality domains across the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allemand, Mathias; Zimprich, Daniel; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn

    The present study addresses the issue of age differences in 5 personality domains across the-life span in a cross-sectional study. In contrast to most previous studies, the present study follows a methodologically more rigorous approach to warrant that age-related differences in personality

  4. Compression of women's reproductive spans in Andhra Pradesh, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, SS; Hutter, [No Value; Willekens, F

    CONTEXT. The total fertility rate in Andhra Pradesh, India, has recently decreased to near-replacement level; however, the reasons for the fertility decline are unknown. METHODS: Data from the second round of the National Family Health Survey were used to examine the reproductive span-the duration

  5. Individual differences in memory span: relationship between rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individual differences in memory span: relationship between rate of item identification and rate of reading. AM Sunmola, CC Ukachi, JI Osu. Abstract. No Abstract Available African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues Vol.4(1) 1999: 74-78. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  6. Memory and digit span experiment among psychology students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was an experiment that investigated short-term memory and digit span among the psychology students in a federal and state university in Lagos State, Nigeria. Memory is the process involved in retaining; retrieving and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas and skills after original information was ...

  7. Redesign of a Life Span Development Course Using Fink's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared a traditional lecture-based life span development course to the same course redesigned using Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning. The goals, activities, and feedback within the course corresponded to Fink's 6 taxa (knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring, learning how to learn). Undergraduates in…

  8. A set of BAC clones spanning the human genome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krzywinski, M.; Bosdet, I.; Smailus, D.; Chiu, R.; Mathewson, C.; Wye, N.; Barber, S.; Brown-John, M.; Chan, S.; Chand, S.; Cloutier, A.; Girn, N.; Lee, D.; Masson, A.; Mayo, M.; Olson, T.; Pandoh, P.; Prabhu, A.L.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Tsai, M.Y.; Albertson, D.; Lam, W.W.; Choy, C.O.; Osoegawa, K.; Zhao, S.; Jong, P.J. de; Schein, J.; Jones, S.; Marra, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Using the human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) fingerprint-based physical map, genome sequence assembly and BAC end sequences, we have generated a fingerprint-validated set of 32 855 BAC clones spanning the human genome. The clone set provides coverage for at least 98% of the human

  9. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, Jonell; Karns, Tara E; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2011-10-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases-the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people's everyday lives. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. 1-Skeletons of the Spanning Tree Problems with Additional Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bondarenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study polyhedral properties of two spanning tree problems with additional constraints. In the first problem, it is required to find a tree with a minimum sum of edge weights among all spanning trees with the number of leaves less than or equal to a given value. In the second problem, an additional constraint is the assumption that the degree of all nodes of the spanning tree does not exceed a given value. The recognition versions of both problems are NP-complete. We consider polytopes of these problems and their 1-skeletons. We prove that in both cases it is a NP-complete problem to determine whether the vertices of 1-skeleton are adjacent. Although it is possible to obtain a superpolynomial lower bounds on the clique numbers of these graphs. These values characterize the time complexity in a broad class of algorithms based on linear comparisons. The results indicate a fundamental difference between combinatorial and geometric properties of the considered problems from the classical minimum spanning tree problem.

  11. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  12. WildSpan: mining structured motifs from protein sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chien-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic extraction of motifs from biological sequences is an important research problem in study of molecular biology. For proteins, it is desired to discover sequence motifs containing a large number of wildcard symbols, as the residues associated with functional sites are usually largely separated in sequences. Discovering such patterns is time-consuming because abundant combinations exist when long gaps (a gap consists of one or more successive wildcards are considered. Mining algorithms often employ constraints to narrow down the search space in order to increase efficiency. However, improper constraint models might degrade the sensitivity and specificity of the motifs discovered by computational methods. We previously proposed a new constraint model to handle large wildcard regions for discovering functional motifs of proteins. The patterns that satisfy the proposed constraint model are called W-patterns. A W-pattern is a structured motif that groups motif symbols into pattern blocks interleaved with large irregular gaps. Considering large gaps reflects the fact that functional residues are not always from a single region of protein sequences, and restricting motif symbols into clusters corresponds to the observation that short motifs are frequently present within protein families. To efficiently discover W-patterns for large-scale sequence annotation and function prediction, this paper first formally introduces the problem to solve and proposes an algorithm named WildSpan (sequential pattern mining across large wildcard regions that incorporates several pruning strategies to largely reduce the mining cost. Results WildSpan is shown to efficiently find W-patterns containing conserved residues that are far separated in sequences. We conducted experiments with two mining strategies, protein-based and family-based mining, to evaluate the usefulness of W-patterns and performance of WildSpan. The protein-based mining mode

  13. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  14. Treatment planning: implant-supported partial overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Winston W L

    2005-04-01

    When multiple anterior teeth are missing, many options of replacement are available. Traditionally, the choice was between a fixed or removable prostheses. Today, with the predictability of dental implants, the options of tooth replacement range from removable partial dentures to implant-supported fixed prostheses. The choice of which restoration that will best provide occlusion and esthetics depends on multiple factors including the number and location of missing teeth, the residual ridge form in relation to the replacement teeth, the relationship of the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth, the condition of teeth adjacent to the edentulous span, the amount of bone available for implant placement, the patients "smile line" and display of teeth, lip support, and financial constraints. When there is minimal loss of the ridge contour, restorations that emerge from the ridge are the most functional and esthetic restorations, adhesive-type fixed partial dentures, conventional fixed partial dentures, and implant-supported restorations can be indicated with the choice of restoration dependent on a risk benefit and cost benefit analysis. When there is a loss of ridge contour due to residual ridge resorption or trauma, the decision becomes more complex as not only does the tooth structure need to be replaced, the ridge form also has to be replaced. (Figures 1 and 2). This can be assessed clinically as illustrated by Figures 1 and 2 where a dis crepancy in arch form and ridge form in relation to the adjacent teeth and/or opposing arch can be observed. Other considerations are lip support and display of the teeth when smiling. This article presents a case and rationale for implant-supported par tial overdentures. Many authors have written on the merits of com plete overdentures. The complete overdenture has proven to be an improvement over conventional complete prostheses with respect to chewing efficiency, patient comfort and satisfaction. In partial edentulism, the

  15. Experimental and simulated control of lift using trailing edge devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, A.; Blaylock, M.; van Dam, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Two active aerodynamic load control (AALC) devices coupled with a control algorithm are shown to decrease the change in lift force experienced by an airfoil during a change in freestream velocity. Microtabs are small (1% chord) surfaces deployed perpendicular to an airfoil, while microjets are pneumatic jets with flow perpendicular to the surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. Both devices are capable of producing a rapid change in an airfoil's lift coefficient. A control algorithm for microtabs has been tested in a wind tunnel using a modified S819 airfoil, and a microjet control algorithm has been simulated for a NACA 0012 airfoil using OVERFLOW. In both cases, the AALC devices have shown the ability to mitigate the changes in lift during a gust.

  16. Experimental and simulated control of lift using trailing edge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperman, A; Blaylock, M; Van Dam, C P

    2014-01-01

    Two active aerodynamic load control (AALC) devices coupled with a control algorithm are shown to decrease the change in lift force experienced by an airfoil during a change in freestream velocity. Microtabs are small (1% chord) surfaces deployed perpendicular to an airfoil, while microjets are pneumatic jets with flow perpendicular to the surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. Both devices are capable of producing a rapid change in an airfoil's lift coefficient. A control algorithm for microtabs has been tested in a wind tunnel using a modified S819 airfoil, and a microjet control algorithm has been simulated for a NACA 0012 airfoil using OVERFLOW. In both cases, the AALC devices have shown the ability to mitigate the changes in lift during a gust

  17. Numerical simulation of airfoil trailing edge serration noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    In the present work, numerical simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with and without serrated Trailing Edge. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy is implemented into the in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity...... field are obtained using Large Eddy Simulation. To obtain the time history data of sound pressure, the flow quantities are integrated around the airfoil surface through the FW-H approach. The extended length of the serration is about 16.7% of the airfoil chord and the geometric angle of the serration...... is 28 degrees. The chord based Reynolds number is around 1.5x106. Simulations are compared with existing wind tunnel experiments at various angles of attack. Even though the airfoil under investigation is already optimized for low noise emission, numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments show...

  18. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  19. Vindicating capital: heroes and villains in A Lion's Trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havard Ovesen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2011n61p073 This paper analyses François Verster’s A Lion’s Trail (2002, a documentary about the late musician Solomon Linda andhis hit song, Mbube. Linda died a pauper, despite the fact that his composition became one of the most commerciallysuccessful songs in the history of popular music. Considering the potentially substantial financial benefits due to SolomonLinda’s daughters as heirs to his intellectual property rights, the story of Mbube can easily be read as having a happy, ifsomewhat bittersweet, ending. This ending is remarkably similar to the grand narrative of the new and democraticSouth Africa; in the end, justice was served, although not everybody was around to enjoy it. Such readings, however,obscure certain aspects of the new South African realities. The power structures that enable the continuation of huge socioeconomicdisparities are still in place. We contend that the film’s characertisationof protagonists and antagonists in its narrative as well as the closure that is provided by the actions of Gallo allow viewers to overlook some key problems thatpersist in dominant assumptions about intellectual property, the ill-treatment of countless other black musicians during apartheid, as well as racialised class inequalities that persistnearly two decades after apartheid. The paper will commence with a brief description of Linda’s career in order to set the scene for our analysis of Verster’s documentary. This analysiswill be informed by insights into intellectual property; we will then relate these insights to a discussion of South Africa’sadoption of neo-liberal economic policies. In essence, we argue that, much like the country’s implementation of neoliberalstrategies like Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, the assumptions inherentin A Lion’s Trail about intellectual property vindicate capital and, by implication, the racialised classdivide in post-apartheid South Africa.

  20. Designing trails for subaquatic tourism in Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Piñeiro-Corbeira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the range of touristic activities that take place in the sea has greatly expanded in recent years, the marine realm continues to be one of the least known to the public. Scuba diving and snorkeling are popular activities in the marine environment. Among its benefits, snorkeling is simple, cheap, and accessible to a wide range of population. In this regard, it has considerable potential as a tool for environmental education as it allows a firsthand observation of the subaquatic seascape as well as a direct interaction with marine wildlife. These attributes, together with its low ecological impact, make snorkeling an activity particularly suitable for marine protected areas. Yet, its implementation in marine protected areas requires new tools for an appropriate use. Here, we show an innovative procedure for assessing the underwater seascape that should help in the designation of touristic subaquatic trails analogous to those commonly used in terrestrial landscapes. We elaborated a system of 18 “Perceptible Seascape Elements”, grouped into 9 Concepts, that leads to a “Potential Observation Index” summarizing the seabed landscape qualities that can be observed while snorkeling. Tests of this approach in a National Park (Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia led to the design and ranking of 6 underwater trails. On the other hand, we used standardized questionnaires to determine the attributes of park’s visitors, their expectative, their perception of the marine environment, and previous skills in snorkeling. Many visitors were mostly unaware of the qualities of the marine environment of the National Park but we found considerable interest in new alternatives to enjoy the marine environment such as snorkeling. Our procedure and results could help to add snorkeling to the set of environmental education strategies already used in the Park.

  1. The emphysematous lung is abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milot Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar apoptosis is increased in the emphysematous lung. However, mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that levels of TRAIL receptor 1 and 2, levels of p53, and Bax/Bcl-xL ratio were elevated in the lung of subjects with emphysema, despite smoking cessation. Thus, we postulate that due to chronic pulmonary oxidative stress, the emphysematous lung would be abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Methodology A549 cells were exposed to rTRAIL, cigarette smoke extract, and/or H2O2 prior to caspase-3 activity measurement and annexin V staining assessment. In addition, freshly resected lung samples were obtained from non-emphysematous and emphysematous subjects and exposed ex vivo to rTRAIL for up to 18 hours. Lung samples were harvested and levels of active caspase-3 and caspase-8 were measured from tissue lysates. Results Both cigarette smoke extract and H2O2 were able to sensitize A549 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, following exposure to rTRAIL, caspase-3 and -8 were activated in lung explants from emphysematous subjects while being decreased in lung explants from non-emphysematous subjects. Significance of the study Alveolar sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is strongly increased in the emphysematous lung due to the presence of oxidative stress. This might be a new mechanism leading to increased alveolar apoptosis and persistent alveolar destruction following smoking cessation.

  2. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  3. Cellular characterisation of Candida tropicalis presenting fluconazole-related trailing growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dornelas-Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed fluconazole susceptibility in 52 Candida tropicalis clinical strains using seven antifungal susceptibility methods, including broth microdilution (BMD [standard M27 A3 (with neutral and acid pH, ATB Fungus 3, Vitek 2 system and flow cytometric analysis] and agar-based methods (disk diffusion and E-test. Trailing growth, detection of cell-associated secreted aspartic proteases (Saps and morphological and ultrastructural traits of these clinical strains were also examined. The ranges of fluconazole 24 h-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were similar among all methods. The essential agreement among the methods used for MIC determinations was excellent and all methods categorised all strains as susceptible, except for one strain that showed a minor error. The presence of the trailing effect was assessed by six methods. Trailing positivity was observed for 86.5-100% of the strains. The exception was the BMD-Ac method where trailing growth was not observed. Morphological and ultrastructural alterations were detected in C. tropicalis trailing cells, including mitochondrial swelling and cell walls with irregular shapes. We tested the production of Saps in 13 C. tropicalis strains expressing trailing growth through flow cytometry. Our results showed that all of the C. tropicalis strains up-regulated surface Sap expression after 24 h or 48 h of exposure to fluconazole, which was not observed in untreated yeast strains. We concluded that C. tropicalis strains expressing trailing growth presented some particular features on both biological and ultrastructural levels.

  4. Spatially characterizing visitor use and its association with informal trails in Yosemite Valley meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2013-07-01

    Ecological impacts associated with nature-based recreation and tourism can compromise park and protected area goals if left unrestricted. Protected area agencies are increasingly incorporating indicator-based management frameworks into their management plans to address visitor impacts. Development of indicators requires empirical evaluation of indicator measures and examining their ecological and social relevance. This study addresses the development of the informal trail indicator in Yosemite National Park by spatially characterizing visitor use in open landscapes and integrating use patterns with informal trail condition data to examine their spatial association. Informal trail and visitor use data were collected concurrently during July and August of 2011 in three, high-use meadows of Yosemite Valley. Visitor use was clustered at statistically significant levels in all three study meadows. Spatial data integration found no statistically significant differences between use patterns and trail condition class. However, statistically significant differences were found between the distance visitors were observed from informal trails and visitor activity type with active activities occurring closer to trail corridors. Gender was also found to be significant with male visitors observed further from trail corridors. Results highlight the utility of integrated spatial analysis in supporting indicator-based monitoring and informing management of open landscapes. Additional variables for future analysis and methodological improvements are discussed.

  5. Comparison of trailside degradation across a gradient of trail use in the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Helen Ivy; Tluczek, Melanie; Broatch, Jennifer; Gruber, Dan; Jones, Steve; Langenfeld, Debbie; McNamara, Peggy; Weinstein, Leona

    2018-02-01

    As recreational visitation to the Sonoran Desert increases, the concern of scientists, managers and advocates who manage its natural resources deepens. Although many studies have been conducted on trampling of undisturbed vegetation and the effects of trails on adjacent plant and soil communities, little such research has been conducted in the arid southwest. We sampled nine 450-m trail segments with different visitation levels in Scottsdale's McDowell Sonoran Preserve over three years to understand the effects of visitation on soil erosion, trailside soil crusts and plant communities. Soil crust was reduced by 27-34% near medium and high use trails (an estimated peak rate of 13-70 visitors per hour) compared with control plots, but there was less than 1% reduction near low use trails (peak rate of two to four visitors per hour). We did not detect soil erosion in the center 80% of the trampled area of any of the trails. The number of perennial plant species dropped by less than one plant species on average, but perennial plant cover decreased by 7.5% in trailside plots compared with control plots 6 m off-trail. At the current levels of visitation, the primary management focus should be keeping people on the originally constructed trail tread surface to reduce impact to adjacent soil crusts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatially Characterizing Visitor Use and Its Association with Informal Trails in Yosemite Valley Meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2013-07-01

    Ecological impacts associated with nature-based recreation and tourism can compromise park and protected area goals if left unrestricted. Protected area agencies are increasingly incorporating indicator-based management frameworks into their management plans to address visitor impacts. Development of indicators requires empirical evaluation of indicator measures and examining their ecological and social relevance. This study addresses the development of the informal trail indicator in Yosemite National Park by spatially characterizing visitor use in open landscapes and integrating use patterns with informal trail condition data to examine their spatial association. Informal trail and visitor use data were collected concurrently during July and August of 2011 in three, high-use meadows of Yosemite Valley. Visitor use was clustered at statistically significant levels in all three study meadows. Spatial data integration found no statistically significant differences between use patterns and trail condition class. However, statistically significant differences were found between the distance visitors were observed from informal trails and visitor activity type with active activities occurring closer to trail corridors. Gender was also found to be significant with male visitors observed further from trail corridors. Results highlight the utility of integrated spatial analysis in supporting indicator-based monitoring and informing management of open landscapes. Additional variables for future analysis and methodological improvements are discussed.

  7. Advances in Viral Vector-Based TRAIL Gene Therapy for Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norian, Lyse A.; James, Britnie R.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous biologic approaches are being investigated as anti-cancer therapies in an attempt to induce tumor regression while circumventing the toxic side effects associated with standard chemo- or radiotherapies. Among these, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has shown particular promise in pre-clinical and early clinical trials, due to its preferential ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells and its minimal toxicity. One limitation of TRAIL use is the fact that many tumor types display an inherent resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. To circumvent this problem, researchers have explored a number of strategies to optimize TRAIL delivery and to improve its efficacy via co-administration with other anti-cancer agents. In this review, we will focus on TRAIL-based gene therapy approaches for the treatment of malignancies. We will discuss the main viral vectors that are being used for TRAIL gene therapy and the strategies that are currently being attempted to improve the efficacy of TRAIL as an anti-cancer therapeutic

  8. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  9. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  10. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  11. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  12. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  13. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  14. Structural and aerodynamic considerations of an active piezoelectric trailing-edge tab on a helicopter rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gabriel Jon

    This dissertation is concerned with an active tab for use on a rotorcraft for noise and vibration reduction. The tab is located at the trailing edge of the airfoil. The tab consists of a shim sandwiched by layers of the piezoelectric actuators, macro fiber composites, of varying length. This configuration is similar to a bimorph. The modus operandi is similar to that of a trailing edge flap. The actuators deform the tab, bending it to achieve a tip displacement. This provides a change in the lift, moment, and drag coefficients of the airfoil. By actuating the system at 3/rev to 5/rev, reductions in noise and vibration can be realized. The system was examined and designed around using the UH-60 Blackhawk as the model rotorcraft. The tab is envisioned to operate between 65% to 85% of the main rotor span. The tab's chordwise dimensions considered were 20% and 15% of the blade chord. In order to assess the potential of the tab to change the lift and moment coefficients of the airfoil-tab system, a steady computational fluid dynamics study was conducted. The results were generated via the University of Maryland's Transonic Unsteady Navier-Stokes code. Various tab deflection angles, Mach numbers, and angle-of-attack values were computed. These results were compared to a trailing edge flap of similar size. The comparison shows that the tab produces lift and moment increments similar to that of the trailing edge flap. The design of the tab---composed of both active piezoelectric actuators and passive materials---was conducted using finite element analysis. The objectives were to maximize the tip deflection due to the actuators, while minimizing the deformation due to inertial and aerodynamic forces and loads. The inertial loads (acceleration terms) come from both blade motion, such as flapping and pitch, as well as the rotation of the rotor (centrifugal force). All of these previously mentioned terms cause the tab to undergo undesirable deflections. The original concept

  15. Combination of systemic chemotherapy with local stem cell delivered S-TRAIL in resected brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjal, Navid; Zhu, Yanni; Shah, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in standard therapies, the survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients has not improved. Limitations to successful translation of new therapies include poor delivery of systemic therapies and use of simplified preclinical models which fail to reflect the clinical complexity of GBMs. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis specifically in tumor cells and we have tested its efficacy by on-site delivery via engineered stem cells (SC) in mouse models of GBM that mimic the clinical scenario of tumor aggressiveness and resection. However, about half of tumor lines are resistant to TRAIL and overcoming TRAIL-resistance in GBM by combining therapeutic agents that are currently in clinical trials with SC-TRAIL and understanding the molecular dynamics of these combination therapies are critical to the broad use of TRAIL as a therapeutic agent in clinics. In this study, we screened clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents for their ability to sensitize resistant GBM cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis. We show that low dose cisplatin increases surface receptor expression of death receptor 4/5 post G2 cycle arrest and sensitizes GBM cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis. In vivo, using an intracranial resection model of resistant primary human-derived GBM and real-time optical imaging, we show that a low dose of cisplatin in combination with synthetic extracellular matrix encapsulated SC-TRAIL significantly decreases tumor regrowth and increases survival in mice bearing GBM. This study has the potential to help expedite effective translation of local stem cell-based delivery of TRAIL into the clinical setting to target a broad spectrum of GBMs. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  16. Recreational trails as corridors for alien plants in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Floye H.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Alien plant species often use areas of heavy human activity for habitat and dispersal. Roads and utility corridors have been shown to harbor more alien species than the surrounding vegetation and are therefore believed to contribute to alien plant persistence and spread. Recreational trails represent another corridor that could harbor alien species and aid their spread. Effective management of invasive species requires understanding how alien plants are distributed at trailheads and trails and how their dispersal may be influenced by native vegetation. Our overall goal was to investigate the distribution of alien plants at trailheads and trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. At trailheads, we found that although the number of alien species was less than the number of native species, alien plant cover ( x̄=50%) did not differ from native plant cover, and we observed a large number of alien seedlings in the soil seed bank, suggesting that alien plants are a large component of trailhead communities and will continue to be so in the future. Along trails, we found higher alien species richness and cover on trail (as opposed to 4 m from the trail) in 3 out of 4 vegetation types, and we observed higher alien richness and cover in meadows than in other vegetation types. Plant communities at both trailheads and trails, as well as seed banks at trailheads, contain substantial diversity and abundance of alien plants. These results suggest that recreational trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado may function as corridors that facilitate the spread of alien species into wildlands. Our results suggest that control of alien plants should begin at trailheads where there are large numbers of aliens and that control efforts on trails should be prioritized by vegetation type.

  17. Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with morphing trailing edge for wind turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, T.; Ernst, B.; Seume, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The length of wind turbine rotor blades has been increased during the last decades. Higher stresses arise especially at the blade root because of the longer lever arm. One way to reduce unsteady blade-root stresses caused by turbulence, gusts, or wind shear is to actively control the lift in the blade tip region. One promising method involves airfoils with morphing trailing edges to control the lift and consequently the loads acting on the blade. In the present study, the steady and unsteady behavior of an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge is investigated. Two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a typical thin wind turbine airfoil with a morphing trailing edge. Steady-state simulations are used to design optimal geometry, size, and deflection angles of the morphing trailing edge. The resulting steady aerodynamic coefficients are then analyzed at different angles of attack in order to determine the effectiveness of the morphing trailing edge. In order to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the optimal morphing trailing edge, time- resolved RANS-simulations are performed using a deformable grid. In order to analyze the phase shift between the variable trailing edge deflection and the dynamic lift coefficient, the trailing edge is deflected at four different reduced frequencies for each different angle of attack. As expected, a phase shift between the deflection and the lift occurs. While deflecting the trailing edge at angles of attack near stall, additionally an overshoot above and beyond the steady lift coefficient is observed and evaluated.

  18. Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with morphing trailing edge for wind turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, T; Ernst, B; Seume, J R

    2014-01-01

    The length of wind turbine rotor blades has been increased during the last decades. Higher stresses arise especially at the blade root because of the longer lever arm. One way to reduce unsteady blade-root stresses caused by turbulence, gusts, or wind shear is to actively control the lift in the blade tip region. One promising method involves airfoils with morphing trailing edges to control the lift and consequently the loads acting on the blade. In the present study, the steady and unsteady behavior of an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge is investigated. Two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a typical thin wind turbine airfoil with a morphing trailing edge. Steady-state simulations are used to design optimal geometry, size, and deflection angles of the morphing trailing edge. The resulting steady aerodynamic coefficients are then analyzed at different angles of attack in order to determine the effectiveness of the morphing trailing edge. In order to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the optimal morphing trailing edge, time- resolved RANS-simulations are performed using a deformable grid. In order to analyze the phase shift between the variable trailing edge deflection and the dynamic lift coefficient, the trailing edge is deflected at four different reduced frequencies for each different angle of attack. As expected, a phase shift between the deflection and the lift occurs. While deflecting the trailing edge at angles of attack near stall, additionally an overshoot above and beyond the steady lift coefficient is observed and evaluated

  19. Dust dynamics in off-road vehicle trails: Measurements on 16 arid soil types, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Soil analyses and measurements with the Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) were conducted on 16 soil types in an area heavily affected by off-road vehicle (ORV) driving. Measurements were performed in ORV trails as well as on undisturbed terrain to investigate how ORV driving affects the vulnerability of a soil to emit PM10 (particlestrail affects those properties of the topsoil that determine its capability to emit PM10. Also, recommendations are given for adequate management of ORV-designed areas. The type of surface (sand, silt, gravel, drainage) is a key factor with respect to dust emission in an ORV trail. Trails in sand, defined in this study as the grain size fraction 63-2000microm, show higher deflation thresholds (the critical wind condition at which wind erosion starts) than the surrounding undisturbed soil. Trails in silt (2-63microm) and in drainages, on the other hand, have lower deflation thresholds than undisturbed soil. The increase in PM10 emission resulting from the creation of a new ORV trail is much higher for surfaces with silt than for surfaces with sand. Also, the creation of a new trail in silt decreases the supply limitation in the top layer: the capacity of the reservoir of emission-available PM10 increases. For sand the situation is reversed: the supply limitation increases, and the capacity of the PM10 reservoir decreases. Finally, ORV trails are characterized by a progressive coarsening of the top layer with time, but the speed of coarsening is much lower in trails in silt than in trails in sand or in drainages. The results of this study suggest that, to minimize emissions of PM10, new ORV fields should preferably be designed on sandy terrain rather than in silt areas or in drainages.

  20. Elastically Deformable Side-Edge Link for Trailing-Edge Flap Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); Moore, James B. (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Kahng, Seun K. (Inventor); Verden, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system is provided for reducing aeroacoustic noise generated by an aircraft having wings equipped with trailing-edge flaps. The system includes a plurality of elastically deformable structures. Each structure is coupled to and along one of the side edges of one of the trailing-edge flaps, and is coupled to a portion of one of the wings that is adjacent to the one of the side edges. The structures elastically deform when the trailing-edge flaps are deployed away from the wings.

  1. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps

  2. Model predictive control of trailing edge flaps on a wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaignet, D.B.

    2011-11-15

    Trailing edge flaps on wind turbine blades have been investigated for several years. Aero-servoelastic simulations carried out with different simulation tools, trailing edge flaps configurations and controller designs proved that trailing edge flaps are a suitable solution for reducing some of the wind turbine fatigue and extreme loads. This potential was confirmed with wind tunnel tests made on blade sections with trailing edge flaps and on a scaled two-bladed wind turbine in a wind tunnel. The work presented in this thesis includes a full-scale test run on a Vestas V27 wind turbine equipped with three trailing edge flaps on one blade, located on DTU's Risoe Campus in Roskilde, Denmark. This thesis is divided into three parts: the controller design, results from simulations, and results from the experiments. The trailing edge flaps controller designed for this project is based on a frequency-weighted model predictive control, tuned in order to target only the flapwise blade root loads at the frequencies contributing the most to blade root fatigue damage (the 1P, 2P and 3P frequencies), and to avoid unnecessary wear and tear of the actuators at high frequencies. A disturbance model consisting in periodic disturbances at the rotor speed harmonic frequencies and a quasi-steady input disturbance is aggregated to an analytical model of a spinning blade with trailing edge flaps. Simulations on a multi-megawatt wind turbine show the potential of the trailing edge flaps to reduce the flapwise blade root fatigue loads by 23%, but also the main shaft and the tower fatigue loads by up to 32%. Extreme loads during normal production also benefit from the trailing edge flaps. At last, the same controller was run on the Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Risoe Campus of the Technical University of Denmark, in Roskilde, Denmark. One blade of the turbine was equipped with three independent trailing edge flaps. In spite of the failure of several sensors and actuators, the

  3. Primary control of a Mach scale swashplateless rotor using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anand

    The focus of this research was to demonstrate a four blade rotor trim in forward flight using integrated trailing edge flaps instead of using a swashplate controls. A compact brushless DC motor was evaluated as an on-blade actuator, with the possibility of achieving large trailing edge flap amplitudes. A control strategy to actuate the trailing edge flap at desired frequency and amplitude was developed and large trailing edge flap amplitudes from the motor (instead of rotational motion) were obtained. Once the actuator was tested on the bench-top, a lightweight mechanism was designed to incorporate the motor in the blade and actuate the trailing edge flaps. A six feet diameter, four bladed composite rotor with motor-flap system integrated into the NACA 0012 airfoil section was fabricated. Systematic testing was carried out for a range of load conditions, first in the vacuum chamber followed by hover tests. Large trailing edge flap deflections were observed during the hover testing, and a peak to peak trailing edge flap amplitude of 18 degree was achieved at 2000 rotor RPM with hover tip Mach number of 0.628. A closed loop controller was designed to demonstrate trailing edge flap mean position and the peak to peak amplitude control. Further, a soft pitch link was designed and fabricated, to replace the stiff pitch link and thereby reduce the torsional stiffness of the blade to 2/rev. This soft pitch link allowed for blade root pitch motion in response to the trailing edge flap inputs. Blade pitch response due to both steady as well as sinusoidal flap deflections were demonstrated. Finally, tests were performed in Glenn L. Martin wind tunnel using a model rotor rig to assess the performance of motor-flap system in forward flight. A swashplateless trim using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps was achieved for a rotor operating at 1200 RPM and an advance ratio of 0.28. Also, preliminary exploration was carried out to test the scalability of the motor

  4. Silencing the epigenetic silencer KDM4A for TRAIL and DR5 simultaneous induction and antitumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjian; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Ling-Yu; Cai, Demin; Duan, Zhijian; Zhang, Yanhong; Chen, Peng; Zou, June X; Xu, Jianzhen; Chen, Xinbin; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chen, Hong-Wu

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to death receptors (DRs) have been in clinical trial but displayed limited anti-cancer efficacy. Lack of functional DR expression in tumors is a major limiting factor. We report here that chromatin regulator KDM4A/JMJD2A, not KDM4B, has a pivotal role in silencing tumor cell expression of both TRAIL and its receptor DR5. In TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant cancer cells of lung, breast and prostate, KDM4A small-molecule inhibitor compound-4 (C-4) or gene silencing strongly induces TRAIL and DR5 expression, and causes TRAIL-dependent apoptotic cell death. KDM4A inhibition also strongly sensitizes cells to TRAIL. C-4 alone potently inhibits tumor growth with marked induction of TRAIL and DR5 expression in the treated tumors and effectively sensitizes them to the newly developed TRAIL-inducer ONC201. Mechanistically, C-4 does not appear to act through the Akt-ERK-FOXO3a pathway. Instead, it switches histone modifying enzyme complexes at promoters of TRAIL and DR5 transcriptional activator CHOP gene by dissociating KDM4A and nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR)-HDAC complex and inducing the recruitment of histone acetylase CBP. Thus, our results reveal KDM4A as a key epigenetic silencer of TRAIL and DR5 in tumors and establish inhibitors of KDM4A as a novel strategy for effectively sensitizing tumors to TRAIL pathway-based therapeutics.

  5. Efforts of a Kansas foundation to increase physical activity and improve health by funding community trails, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Lightner, Joseph; Oestman, Katherine B; Hughey, S Morgan; Kaczynski, Andrew T

    2014-11-26

    Trails are associated with increased physical activity; however, little is known about the process of building trails by various types of organizations. From 2005 through 2012 the Sunflower Foundation: Health Care for Kansans (Sunflower) funded multiple organizations to construct 70 trails of varying lengths and surfaces in municipalities, schools, and communities across Kansas. The purpose of this study was to assess the process of developing and implementing community trail projects across Kansas with funding from a public foundation. In 2012, we stratified funded organizations by type and conducted proportional random sampling to select 20 key informants from those organizations to participate in structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded interview transcripts according to issues identified by participants. Issues associated with trail-building identified as important were collaboration among groups, unexpected construction costs, champions for the project, and level of difficulty of construction. Participants indicated that trails facilitated physical activity. Trails were integrated into communities through events such as walking events and other promotional efforts; these efforts were thought to increase trail use. The perceived outcomes of building the trails included providing the community with a physical activity resource, inspiring the community to start additional trail projects, and increasing the physical activity of local residents. Sunflower's funding was instrumental in developing trail projects to provide new physical activity resources across Kansas. Public health practitioners seeking to increase physical activity should seek funding from foundations that focus on health.

  6. Heat Transfer and Friction Studies in a Tilted and Rib-Roughened Trailing-Edge Cooling Cavity with and without the Trailing-Edge Cooling Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Taslim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and average heat transfer coefficients and friction factors were measured in a test section simulating the trailing-edge cooling cavity of a turbine airfoil. The test rig with a trapezoidal cross-sectional area was rib-roughened on two opposite sides of the trapezoid (airfoil pressure and suction sides with tapered ribs to conform to the cooling cavity shape and had a 22-degree tilt in the flow direction upstream of the ribs that affected the heat transfer coefficients on the two rib-roughened surfaces. The radial cooling flow traveled from the airfoil root to the tip while exiting through 22 cooling holes along the airfoil trailing-edge. Two rib geometries, with and without the presence of the trailing-edge cooling holes, were examined. The numerical model contained the entire trailing-edge channel, ribs, and trailing-edge cooling holes to simulate exactly the tested geometry. A pressure-correction based, multiblock, multigrid, unstructured/adaptive commercial software was used in this investigation. Realizable k-ε turbulence model in conjunction with enhanced wall treatment approach for the near wall regions was used for turbulence closure. The applied thermal boundary conditions to the CFD models matched the test boundary conditions. Comparisons are made between the experimental and numerical results.

  7. The Life Span of the BD-PND Bubble Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Loos, M.; Thierens, H.

    1999-01-01

    BD-PND bubble detectors from Bubble Technology Industries (BTI) were used to conduct a study of the life span of these detectors. The manufacturer guarantees an optimum detector performance for three months after receipt. Nevertheless, it is important to know the evolution of their characteristics with time, also after those three months. On a standard set-up with a 252 Cf source the bubble detectors were irradiated until they reached the end of their life span. During this period, the evolution in sensitivity was monitored. The temperature compensating system seems to be the limiting factor with time for the use of the BTI bubble detectors. The change in temperature dependence with age was determined. The same parameters were also checked with several batches of detectors that were used in practice. (author)

  8. Orion: a glimpse of hope in life span extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradian, K; Bondar, V; Bezrukov, V; Zhukovsky, O; Polyakov, V; Utko, N

    2010-01-01

    Orion is a multicomponent drug based on derivatives of taurocholic acid and several other compounds. Application of Orion into the feeding medium of Drosophila melanogaster resulted in increased life span and survival at stressful conditions. Two paradoxical features of the drug should be stressed: The "age-threshold" (life span extension was observed only when the drug was applied starting from the second half of life) and induction of "centenarian" flies (older 100 days). Orion enhanced survival at heat shock (38 degrees C) and acidic (pH = 1.6) or alkaline (pH = 11.8) feeding mediums, but not at oxidative stresses modeled by 100% oxygen or application of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)).

  9. Pressure distribution data from tests of 2.29 M (7.5 feet) span EET high-lift transport aircraft model in the Ames 12-foot pressure tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelgaard, S. O.; Morgan, H. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A high-lift transport aircraft model equipped with full-span leading-edge slat and part-span double-slotted trailing-edge flap was tested in the Ames 12-ft pressure tunnel to determine the low-speed performance characteristics of a representative high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing. These tests were performed in support of the Energy Efficient Transport (EET) program which is one element of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) project. Static longitudinal forces and moments and chordwise pressure distributions at three spanwise stations were measured for cruise, climb, two take-off flap, and two landing flap wing configurations. The tabulated and plotted pressure distribution data is presented without analysis or discussion.

  10. Life spans of planktonic foraminifers: New sight through sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.; Mazumder, A.

    ), indicated by black arrows are remarkably present for all three trap locations. (Modified after Curry et l.t 1992). 2002; Eguchi, Ujiie, Kawahata and Taira 2003), (ii) all the traps can not stop functioning simultaneously and that for the same time... estimates of the life spans of planktonic foraminifera based on extrapolation of lab culture observations. According to Be et al (1981), an inverse relationship exists between feeding frequency and survival time, and that planktonic foraminifers under...

  11. Multi-span Suspension Bridge with Floating Towers

    OpenAIRE

    Brunstad, Orjan

    2013-01-01

    The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) is currently conducting a feasible study of crossing 8 fjords on the west coast of Norway. The most challenging crossing is the 3700 m wide Sognefjord. Three main concepts are under development, and one of the concepts of this crossing is a three span suspension bridge on floating towers. The floating foundation suggested is a multi-column pontoon with mooring lines to seabed. The object of this thesis was to study this bridge concept with resp...

  12. Modelling ecosystem service flows under uncertainty with stochiastic SPAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary W.; Snapp, Robert R.; Villa, Ferdinando; Bagstad, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service models are increasingly in demand for decision making. However, the data required to run these models are often patchy, missing, outdated, or untrustworthy. Further, communication of data and model uncertainty to decision makers is often either absent or unintuitive. In this work, we introduce a systematic approach to addressing both the data gap and the difficulty in communicating uncertainty through a stochastic adaptation of the Service Path Attribution Networks (SPAN) framework. The SPAN formalism assesses ecosystem services through a set of up to 16 maps, which characterize the services in a study area in terms of flow pathways between ecosystems and human beneficiaries. Although the SPAN algorithms were originally defined deterministically, we present them here in a stochastic framework which combines probabilistic input data with a stochastic transport model in order to generate probabilistic spatial outputs. This enables a novel feature among ecosystem service models: the ability to spatially visualize uncertainty in the model results. The stochastic SPAN model can analyze areas where data limitations are prohibitive for deterministic models. Greater uncertainty in the model inputs (including missing data) should lead to greater uncertainty expressed in the model’s output distributions. By using Bayesian belief networks to fill data gaps and expert-provided trust assignments to augment untrustworthy or outdated information, we can account for uncertainty in input data, producing a model that is still able to run and provide information where strictly deterministic models could not. Taken together, these attributes enable more robust and intuitive modelling of ecosystem services under uncertainty.

  13. From elongated spanning trees to vicious random walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsky, A. [ITEP, B. Cheryomushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nechaev, S., E-mail: nechaev@lptms.u-psud.fr [LPTMS, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Poghosyan, V.S. [Institute for Informatics and Automation Problems NAS of Armenia, 375044 Yerevan (Armenia); Priezzhev, V.B. [Bogolubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-01

    Given a spanning forest on a large square lattice, we consider by combinatorial methods a correlation function of k paths (k is odd) along branches of trees or, equivalently, k loop-erased random walks. Starting and ending points of the paths are grouped such that they form a k-leg watermelon. For large distance r between groups of starting and ending points, the ratio of the number of watermelon configurations to the total number of spanning trees behaves as r{sup −ν}logr with ν=(k{sup 2}−1)/2. Considering the spanning forest stretched along the meridian of this watermelon, we show that the two-dimensional k-leg loop-erased watermelon exponent ν is converting into the scaling exponent for the reunion probability (at a given point) of k(1+1)-dimensional vicious walkers, ν{sup -tilde=}k{sup 2}/2. At the end, we express the conjectures about the possible relation to integrable systems.

  14. [The evolution of plant life span: facts and hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    There are two different views on the evolution of life forms in Cormophyta: from woody plants to herbaceous ones or in opposite direction - from herbs to trees. In accordance with these views it is supposed that life span in plants changed in the course of evolution from many years (perennials) to few years (annuals, biennials), or went in reverse - from few years to many years. The author discusses the problems of senescence and longevity in Cormophyta in the context of various hypotheses of ageing (programmed death theory, mutation accumulation, antagonistic pleiotropy, disposable soma, genes of ageing, genes of longevity). Special attention is given to bio-morphological aspects of longevity and cases of non-ageing plants ("negative senescence", "potential immortality"). It is proposed to distinguish seven models of simple ontogenesis in Cormophyta that can exemplify the diversity of mechanisms of ageing and longevity. The evolution of life span in plants is considered as an indirect result of natural selection of other characteristics of organisms or as a consequence of fixation of modifications (episelectional evolution). It seems that short life span could emerge several times during evolution of one group of plants, thus favoring its adaptive radiation.

  15. Increased iron supplied through Fet3p results in replicative life span extension of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under conditions requiring respiratory metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Gabriela; Turn, Christina S; Quintyne, Nicholas J; Kirchman, Paul A

    2011-10-01

    We have previously shown that copper supplementation extends the replicative life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae when grown under conditions forcing cells to respire. We now show that copper's effect on life span is through Fet3p, a copper containing enzyme responsible for high affinity transport of iron into yeast cells. Life span extensions can also be obtained by supplementing the growth medium with 1mM ferric chloride. Extension by high iron levels is still dependent on the presence of Fet3p. Life span extension by iron or copper requires growth on media containing glycerol as the sole carbon source, which forces yeast to respire. Yeast grown on glucose containing media supplemented with iron show no extension of life span. The iron associated with cells grown in media supplemented with copper or iron is 1.4-1.8 times that of cells grown without copper or iron supplementation. As with copper supplementation, iron supplementation partially rescues the life span of superoxide dismutase mutants. Cells grown with copper supplementation display decreased production of superoxide as measured by dihydroethidium staining. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Acidic deposition along the Appalachian Trail corridor and its effects on acid-sensitive terrestrial and aquatic resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Burns, Douglas A.; Bailey, Scott W.; Cosby, Bernard J.; Dovciak, Martin; Ewing, Holly A.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Minocha, Rakesh; Riemann, Rachel; Quant, Juliana; Rice, Karen C.; Siemion, Jason; Weathers, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT), a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), spans nearly 2,200 miles from Georgia to Maine, encompassing a diverse range of ecosystems. Acidic deposition (acid rain) threatens the AT’s natural resources. Acid rain is a result of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) compounds produced from fossil fuel combustion, motor vehicles, and agricultural practices. The AT is particularly vulnerable to S and N because it passes along ridgetops that receive higher levels of acid rain than lower valley terrain, and these ridges are often underlain by bedrock with minimal ability to buffer acidic inputs. Further, there are numerous S and N emission sources across the region. In the environment, acidic deposition can lower the pH of streams and soils which can ultimately affect fish, invertebrates, and vegetation that inhabit these areas. To address this concern, the MegaTransect Deposition Effects Study evaluated the condition and sensitivity of the AT corridor with respect to acidic deposition, and defined air pollution thresholds (critical and target loads) and recovery rates. Findings indicate that additional S emission

  17. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment with the frequency, type, and duration of physical activity among trail users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Reed, Julian A; Price, Anna E; Hooker, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Rail trails are elements of the built environment that support the Task Force on Community Preventive Services' recommendation to create, or enhance access to, places for physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment with the frequency, type, and duration of PA among users of an urban, paved rail trail segment. Interviewers conducted intercept surveys with 431 rail trail users and analyzed data by using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment on the frequency, type, and duration of PA performed on the trail. Adults who used the trail in the cool months, traveled to the trail by a motorized vehicle, used the trail with others, and had some graduate school education visited the trail less often. Younger adults, men, whites, and those with some graduate school education were more likely to engage in vigorous activities on the trail. Adults who traveled to the trail by a motorized vehicle spent more time engaged in PA on the trail. Our results suggest that the most frequent users of a rail trail for PA are those who use the trail alone and travel to the trail by bicycle or on foot. Trails are an aspect of the built environment that supports active lifestyles, and future studies should evaluate different types of trails among more diverse populations and locations.

  18. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  19. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  20. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.