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Sample records for partial pixel architecture

  1. Advanced pixel architectures for scientific image sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Coath, R; Godbeer, A; Wilson, M; Turchetta, R

    2009-01-01

    We present recent developments from two projects targeting advanced pixel architectures for scientific applications. Results are reported from FORTIS, a sensor demonstrating variants on a 4T pixel architecture. The variants include differences in pixel and diode size, the in-pixel source follower transistor size and the capacitance of the readout node to optimise for low noise and sensitivity to small amounts of charge. Results are also reported from TPAC, a complex pixel architecture with ~160 transistors per pixel. Both sensors were manufactured in the 0.18μm INMAPS process, which includes a special deep p-well layer and fabrication on a high resistivity epitaxial layer for improved charge collection efficiency.

  2. Readout Architecture for Hybrid Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)694170; Westerlund, Tomi; Wyllie, Ken

    The original contribution of this thesis to knowledge are novel digital readout architectures for hybrid pixel readout chips. The thesis presents asynchronous bus-based architecture, a data-node based column architecture and a network-based pixel matrix architecture for data transportation. It is shown that the data-node architecture achieves readout efficiency 99 % with half the output rate as a bus-based system. The network-based solution avoids ``broken'' columns due to some manufacturing errors, and it distributes internal data traffic more evenly across the pixel matrix than column-based architectures. An improvement of $>$ 10 % to the efficiency is achieved with uniform and non-uniform hit occupancies. Architectural design has been done using transaction level modeling ($TLM$) and sequential high-level design techniques for reducing the design and simulation time. It has been possible to simulate tens of column and full chip architectures using the high-level techniques. A decrease of $>$ 10 in run-time...

  3. Digital column readout architectures for hybrid pixel detector readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poikela, T; Plosila, J; Westerlund, T; Buytaert, J; Campbell, M; Gaspari, M De; Llopart, X; Wyllie, K; Gromov, V; Kluit, R; Beuzekom, M van; Zappon, F; Zivkovic, V; Brezina, C; Desch, K; Fu, Y; Kruth, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two digital column architectures suitable for sparse readout of data from a pixel matrix in trigger-less applications are presented. Each architecture reads out a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 μm. The first architecture has been implemented in the Timepix3 chip, and this is presented together with initial measurements. Simulation results and measured data are compared. The second architecture has been designed for Velopix, a readout chip planned for the LHCb VELO upgrade. Unlike Timepix3, this has to be tolerant to radiation-induced single-event effects. Results from post-layout simulations are shown with the circuit architectures

  4. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S.C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55 Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10–20 µm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption

  5. A Single-Transistor Active Pixel CMOS Image Sensor Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guo-An; He Jin; Zhang Dong-Wei; Su Yan-Mei; Wang Cheng; Chen Qin; Liang Hai-Lang; Ye Yun

    2012-01-01

    A single-transistor CMOS active pixel image sensor (1 T CMOS APS) architecture is proposed. By switching the photosensing pinned diode, resetting and selecting can be achieved by diode pull-up and capacitive coupling pull-down of the source follower. Thus, the reset and selected transistors can be removed. In addition, the reset and selected signal lines can be shared to reduce the metal signal line, leading to a very high fill factor. The pixel design and operation principles are discussed in detail. The functionality of the proposed 1T CMOS APS architecture has been experimentally verified using a fabricated chip in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS AMIS technology

  6. The column architecture -- A novel architecture for event driven 2D pixel imagers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe an electronic architecture for two-dimensional pixel arrays that permits very large increases in rate capability for event- or data-driven applications relative to conventional x-y architectures. The column architecture also permits more efficient use of silicon area in applications requiring local buffering, frameless data acquisition, and it avoids entirely the problem of ambiguities that may arise in conventional approaches. Two examples of active implementation are described: high energy physics and protein crystallography

  7. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  8. Digital Architecture of the New ATLAS Pixel Chip FE-I4

    CERN Document Server

    "Barbero, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    With the high hit rate foreseen for the innermost layers at an upgraded LHC, the current ATLAS Front-End pixel chip FE-I3 would start being inefficient. The main source of inefficiency comes from the copying mechanism of the pixel hits from the pixel array to the end of column buffers. A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed in a 130 nm technology for use both in the framework of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for the outer layers of Super-LHC. FE-I4 is 80×336 pixels wide and features a reduced pixel size of 50×250 μm2. In the current design, a new digital architecture is introduced in which hit memories are distributed across the entire chip and the pixels organized in regions. Additional features include neighbor hit checking which allows a timewalk-less hit recording.

  9. Application-specific architectures of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szelezniak, Michal [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]. E-mail: michal.szelezniak@ires.in2p3.fr; Besson, Auguste [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Claus, Gilles; Colledani, Claude; [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Degerli, Yavuz [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Deptuch, Grzegorz [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Deveaux, Michael [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Dorokhov, Andrei [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Dulinski, Wojciech [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Fourches, Nicolas [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Goffe, Mathieu [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Grandjean, Damien; Guilloux, Fabrice [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Heini, Sebastien [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)]|[GSI, Planckstrasse 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); Himmi, Abdelkader [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Hu, Christine [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France); Jaaskelainen, Kimmo; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne [CEA Saclay, DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Pellicioli, Michel; Shabetai, Alexandre; Valin, Isabelle; Winter, Marc [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, 23 rue du Loess, Strasbourg 67037 Cedex 02 (France)

    2006-11-30

    Several development directions intended to adapt and optimize monolithic active pixel sensors for specific applications are presented in this work. The first example, compatible with the STAR microvertex upgrade, is based on a simple two-transistor pixel circuitry. It is suited for a long integration time, room-temperature operation and minimum power dissipation. In another approach for this application, a specific readout method is proposed, allowing optimization of the integration time independently of the full frame-readout time. The circuit consists of an in-pixel front-end voltage amplifier, with a gain on the order of five, followed by two analog memory cells. The extended version of this scheme, based on the implementation of more memory cells per pixel, is the solution considered for the outer layers of a microvertex detector at the international linear collider. For the two innermost layers, a circuit allowing fast frame scans together with on-line, on-chip data sparsification is proposed. The first results of this prototype demonstrate that the fixed pattern dispersion is reduced below a noise level of 15 e{sup -}, allowing the use of a single comparator or a low-resolution ADC per pixel column. A common element for most of the mentioned readout schemes is a low-noise, low power consumption, layout efficient in-pixel amplifier. A review of possible solutions for this element together with some experimental results is presented.

  10. Radiant exchange in partially specular architectural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beamer, C. Walter; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2003-10-01

    The radiant exchange method, also known as radiosity, was originally developed for thermal radiative heat transfer applications. Later it was used to model architectural lighting systems, and more recently it has been extended to model acoustic systems. While there are subtle differences in these applications, the basic method is based on solving a system of energy balance equations, and it is best applied to spaces with mainly diffuse reflecting surfaces. The obvious drawback to this method is that it is based around the assumption that all surfaces in the system are diffuse reflectors. Because almost all architectural systems have at least some partially specular reflecting surfaces in the system it is important to extend the radiant exchange method to deal with this type of surface reflection. [Work supported by NSF.

  11. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Giubilato, P; Snoeys, W; Bisello, D; Marchioro, A; Battaglia, M; Demaria, L; Mansuy, S C; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Mattiazzo, S; Kloukinas, K; Potenza, A; Ikemoto, Y; Rivetti, A; Chalmet, P; Mugnier, H; Silvestrin, L

    2013-01-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV Fe-55 double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 mu m pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a complet...

  12. A high efficiency readout architecture for a large matrix of pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a fast readout architecture for silicon pixel matrix sensors that has been designed to sustain very high rates, above 1 MHz/mm 2 for matrices greater than 80k pixels. This logic can be implemented within MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors), a kind of high resolution sensor that integrates on the same bulk the sensor matrix and the CMOS logic for readout, but it can be exploited also with other technologies. The proposed architecture is based on three main concepts. First of all, the readout of the hits is performed by activating one column at a time; all the fired pixels on the active column are read, sparsified and reset in parallel in one clock cycle. This implies the use of global signals across the sensor matrix. The consequent reduction of metal interconnections improves the active area while maintaining a high granularity (down to a pixel pitch of 40 μm). Secondly, the activation for readout takes place only for those columns overlapping with a certain fired area, thus reducing the sweeping time of the whole matrix and reducing the pixel dead-time. Third, the sparsification (x-y address labeling of the hits) is performed with a lower granularity with respect to single pixels, by addressing vertical zones of 8 pixels each. The fine-grain Y resolution is achieved by appending the zone pattern to the zone address of a hit. We show then the benefits of this technique in presence of clusters. We describe this architecture from a schematic point of view, then presenting the efficiency results obtained by VHDL simulations.

  13. A high efficiency readout architecture for a large matrix of pixels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Villa, M.

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present a fast readout architecture for silicon pixel matrix sensors that has been designed to sustain very high rates, above 1 MHz/mm2 for matrices greater than 80k pixels. This logic can be implemented within MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors), a kind of high resolution sensor that integrates on the same bulk the sensor matrix and the CMOS logic for readout, but it can be exploited also with other technologies. The proposed architecture is based on three main concepts. First of all, the readout of the hits is performed by activating one column at a time; all the fired pixels on the active column are read, sparsified and reset in parallel in one clock cycle. This implies the use of global signals across the sensor matrix. The consequent reduction of metal interconnections improves the active area while maintaining a high granularity (down to a pixel pitch of 40 μm). Secondly, the activation for readout takes place only for those columns overlapping with a certain fired area, thus reducing the sweeping time of the whole matrix and reducing the pixel dead-time. Third, the sparsification (x-y address labeling of the hits) is performed with a lower granularity with respect to single pixels, by addressing vertical zones of 8 pixels each. The fine-grain Y resolution is achieved by appending the zone pattern to the zone address of a hit. We show then the benefits of this technique in presence of clusters. We describe this architecture from a schematic point of view, then presenting the efficiency results obtained by VHDL simulations.

  14. Single-pixel optical sensing architecture for compressive hyperspectral imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoover Fabián Rueda-Chacón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de sensado de imágenes espectrales (CSI capturan información tridimensional (3D de una escena usando mediciones codificadas en dos dimensiones (2D. Estas mediciones son procesadas posteriormente por un algoritmo de optimización para obtener una estimación de la información tridimensional. La calidad de las reconstrucciones obtenidas depende altamente de la resolución del detector, cuyo costo aumenta exponencialmente a mayor resolución exhiba. Así, reconstrucciones de alta resolución son requeridas, pero a bajo costo. Este artículo propone una arquitectura óptica de sensado compresivo que utiliza un único pixel como detector para la captura y reconstrucción de imágenes hiperespectrales. Esta arquitectura óptica depende del uso de múltiples capturas de imágenes procesadas por medio de dos aperturas codificadas que varían en cada toma, y un elemento de dispersión. Diferentes simulaciones con 2 bases de datos distintas muestran resultados promisorios que permiten reconstruir una imagen hiperespectral utilizando tan solo el 30% de los vóxeles de la imagen original.

  15. Fully Pipelined Parallel Architecture for Candidate Block and Pixel-Subsampling-Based Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeba Korah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low power and high speed architecture for motion estimation with Candidate Block and Pixel Subsampling (CBPS Algorithm. Coarse-to-fine search approach is employed to find the motion vector so that the local minima problem is totally eliminated. Pixel subsampling is performed in the selected candidate blocks which significantly reduces computational cost with low quality degradation. The architecture developed is a fully pipelined parallel design with 9 processing elements. Two different methods are deployed to reduce the power consumption, parallel and pipelined implementation and parallel accessing to memory. For processing 30 CIF frames per second our architecture requires a clock frequency of 4.5 MHz.

  16. Pixel Read-Out Architectures for the NA62 GigaTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacasa, G

    2008-01-01

    Beam particles in NA62 experiment are measured with a Si-pixel sensor having a size of 300 μm x 300 μm and a time resolution of 150 ps (rms). To meet the timing requirement an adequate strategy to compensate the discriminator time-walk must be implemented and an R&D effort investigating two different options is ongoing. In this presentation we describe the two different approaches. One is based on the use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The other one is based on the use of a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels. The global architectures of both the front-end ASIC will be discussed.

  17. Digital column readout architecture for the ATLAS pixel 025 mum front end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Mandelli, E; Blanquart, L; Comes, G; Denes, P; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fischer, P; Marchesini, R; Meddeler, G; Peric, I

    2002-01-01

    A fast low noise, limited power, radiation-hard front-end chip was developed for reading out the Atlas Pixel Silicon Detector. As in the past prototypes, every chip is used to digitize and read out charge and time information from hits on each one of its 2880 inputs. The basic column readout architecture idea was adopted and modified to allow a safe transition to quarter micron technology. Each pixel cell, organized in a 160 multiplied by 18 matrix, can be independently enabled and configured in order to optimize the analog signal response and to prevent defective pixels from saturating the readout. The digital readout organizes hit data coming from each column, with respect to time, and output them on a low-level serial interface. A considerable effort was made to design state machines free of undefined states, where single-point defects and charge deposited by heavy ions in the silicon could have led to unpredicted forbidden states. 7 Refs.

  18. Progress on the design of a data push architecture for an array of optimized time tagging pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.; Cords, D.; Mani, S.; Holbrook, B.; Atlas, E.

    1993-06-01

    A pixel array has been proposed which features a completely data driven architecture. A pixel cell has been designed that has been optimized for this readout. It retains the features of preceding designs which allow low noise operation, time stamping, analog signal processing, XY address recording, ghost elimination and sparse data transmission. The pixel design eliminates a number of problems inherent in previous designs, by the use of sampled data techniques, destructive readout, and current mode output drivers. This architecture and pixel design is directed at applications such as a forward spectrometer at the SSC, an e + e - B factory at SLAC, and fixed target experiments at FNAL

  19. Dead-time free pixel readout architecture for ATLAS front-end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Einsweiler, Kevin F; Kleinfelder, S A; Luo, L; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Pengg, F X

    1999-01-01

    A low power sparse scan readout architecture has been developed for the ATLAS pixel front-end IC. The architecture supports a dual discriminator and extracts the time over threshold (TOT) information along with a 2-D spatial address $9 of the hits associating them with a unique 7-bit beam crossing number. The IC implements level-1 trigger filtering along with event building (grouping together all hits in a beam crossing) in the end of column (EOC) buffer. The $9 events are transmitted over a 40 MHz serial data link with the protocol supporting buffer overflow handling by appending error flags to events. This mixed-mode full custom IC is implemented in 0.8 mu HP process to meet the $9 requirements for the pixel readout in the ATLAS inner detector. The circuits have been tested and the IC provides dead-time-less ambiguity free readout at 40 MHz data rate.

  20. Retrieval of Cloud Properties for Partially Cloud-Filled Pixels During CRYSTAL-FACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Heck, P. W.; Sun-Mack, S.; Uttal, T.; Comstock, J.

    2003-12-01

    Partially cloud-filled pixels can be a significant problem for remote sensing of cloud properties. Generally, the optical depth and effective particle sizes are often too small or too large, respectively, when derived from radiances that are assumed to be overcast but contain radiation from both clear and cloud areas within the satellite imager field of view. This study presents a method for reducing the impact of such partially cloud field pixels by estimating the cloud fraction within each pixel using higher resolution visible (VIS, 0.65mm) imager data. Although the nominal resolution for most channels on the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra are 4 and 1 km, respectively, both instruments also take VIS channel data at 1 km and 0.25 km, respectively. Thus, it may be possible to obtain an improved estimate of cloud fraction within the lower resolution pixels by using the information contained in the higher resolution VIS data. GOES and MODIS multi-spectral data, taken during the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE), are analyzed with the algorithm used for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) to derive cloud amount, temperature, height, phase, effective particle size, optical depth, and water path. Normally, the algorithm assumes that each pixel is either entirely clear or cloudy. In this study, a threshold method is applied to the higher resolution VIS data to estimate the partial cloud fraction within each low-resolution pixel. The cloud properties are then derived from the observed low-resolution radiances using the cloud cover estimate to properly extract the radiances due only to the cloudy part of the scene. This approach is applied to both GOES and MODIS data to estimate the improvement in the retrievals for each

  1. Readout architecture for the Pixel-Strip module of the CMS Outer Tracker Phase-2 upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Caratelli, Alessandro; Jan Kaplon; Kloukinas, Konstantinos; Simone Scarfi

    2017-01-01

    The Outer Tracker upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN introduces new challenges for the front-end readout electronics. In particular, the capability of identifying particles with high transverse momentum using modules with double sensor layers requires high speed real time interconnects between readout ASICs. The Pixel-Strip module combines a pixelated silicon layer with a silicon-strip layer. Consequently, it needs two different readout ASICs, namely the Short Strip ASIC (SSA) for the strip sensor and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixelated sensor. The architecture proposed in this paper allows for a total data flow between readout ASICs of $\\sim$100\\,Gbps and reduces the output data flow from 1.3\\,Tbps to 30\\,Gbps per module while limiting the total power density to below 100\\,mW/cm$^2$. In addition a system-level simulation framework of all the front-end readout ASICs is developed in order to verify the data processing algorithm and the hardware implementation allowing mult...

  2. Matrix light and pixel light: optical system architecture and requirements to the light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.

    2015-09-01

    Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.

  3. The NA62 Gigatracker: Detector properties and pixel read-out architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorini, M.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, E.; Martoiu, S.; Mazza, G.; Noy, M.; Petrucci, F.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Tiuraniemi, S.

    2010-01-01

    The beam spectrometer of the NA62 experiment, named Gigatracker, has to perform single track reconstruction with unprecedented time resolution (150 ps rms) in a harsh radiation environment. To meet these requirements, and in order to reduce material budget to a minimum, three hybrid silicon pixel detector stations will be installed in vacuum. An adequate strategy to compensate for the discriminator time-walk must be implemented and R and D investigating two different options is ongoing. Two read-out chip prototypes have been designed in order to compare their performance: one approach is based on the use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC, while the other one is based on the use of a time-over-threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels. This paper describes the Gigatracker system, presents the global architectures of both read-out ASICs and reviews the current status of the R and D project.

  4. Efficient Processing of a Rainfall Simulation Watershed on an FPGA-Based Architecture with Fast Access to Neighbourhood Pixels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong LeeSeng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a hardware architecture to implement the watershed algorithm using rainfall simulation. The speed of the architecture is increased by utilizing a multiple memory bank approach to allow parallel access to the neighbourhood pixel values. In a single read cycle, the architecture is able to obtain all five values of the centre and four neighbours for a 4-connectivity watershed transform. The storage requirement of the multiple bank implementation is the same as a single bank implementation by using a graph-based memory bank addressing scheme. The proposed rainfall watershed architecture consists of two parts. The first part performs the arrowing operation and the second part assigns each pixel to its associated catchment basin. The paper describes the architecture datapath and control logic in detail and concludes with an implementation on a Xilinx Spartan-3 FPGA.

  5. Architecture and characterization of the P4DI CMOS hybrid pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzistratis, D.; Theodoratos, G.; Kazas, I.; Loukas, D.; Zervakis, E.; Lambropoulos, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma ray imaging can be used for the extraction either of the activity map of a source or of the attenuation map of an object or both, as well as for the identification of the material composition of the emitting source or the object. All these imaging modalities can benefit from instruments giving the information of the energy of the converted photons and also the spatial and time coordinates of the conversion. The P4DI CMOS and hybrid provides the core technology for this task being a 2-D array based on Cd(Zn)Te material for the sensing layer. It consists of 1250 pixels with 400 μ m pitch. The energy resolution of the 241 Am photopeak is 3.5 keV, time resolution is less than 12 μ s and power consumption is less than 100 mW. Architecture and characterization are described.

  6. Monte Carlo based performance assessment of different animal PET architectures using pixellated CZT detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visvikis, D.; Lefevre, T.; Lamare, F.; Kontaxakis, G.; Santos, A.; Darambara, D.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of present position emission tomography (PET) animal systems are based on the coupling of high-density scintillators and light detectors. A disadvantage of these detector configurations is the compromise between image resolution, sensitivity and energy resolution. In addition, current combined imaging devices are based on simply placing back-to-back and in axial alignment different apparatus without any significant level of software or hardware integration. The use of semiconductor CdZnTe (CZT) detectors is a promising alternative to scintillators for gamma-ray imaging systems. At the same time CZT detectors have the potential properties necessary for the construction of a truly integrated imaging device (PET/SPECT/CT). The aims of this study was to assess the performance of different small animal PET scanner architectures based on CZT pixellated detectors and compare their performance with that of state of the art existing PET animal scanners. Different scanner architectures were modelled using GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission). Particular scanner design characteristics included an overall cylindrical scanner format of 8 and 24 cm in axial and transaxial field of view, respectively, and a temporal coincidence window of 8 ns. Different individual detector modules were investigated, considering pixel pitch down to 0.625 mm and detector thickness from 1 to 5 mm. Modified NEMA NU2-2001 protocols were used in order to simulate performance based on mouse, rat and monkey imaging conditions. These protocols allowed us to directly compare the performance of the proposed geometries with the latest generation of current small animal systems. Results attained demonstrate the potential for higher NECR with CZT based scanners in comparison to scintillator based animal systems

  7. A pixel read-out architecture implementing a two-stage token ring, zero suppression and compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvelmans, S; Boerrigter, M

    2011-01-01

    Increasing luminosity in high energy physics experiments leads to new challenges in the design of data acquisition systems for pixel detectors. With the upgrade of the LHCb experiment, the data processing will be changed; hit data from every collision will be transported off the pixel chip, without any trigger selection. A read-out architecture is proposed which is able to obtain low hit data loss on limited silicon area by using the logic beneath the pixels as a data buffer. Zero suppression and redundancy reduction ensure that the data rate off chip is minimized. A C++ model has been created for simulation of functionality and data loss, and for system development. A VHDL implementation has been derived from this model.

  8. A pixel read-out architecture implementing a two-stage token ring, zero suppression and compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvelmans, S; Boerrigter, M, E-mail: sander.heuvelmans@bruco.nl [Bruco integrated circuits BV, Oostermaat 2, 7623 CS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    Increasing luminosity in high energy physics experiments leads to new challenges in the design of data acquisition systems for pixel detectors. With the upgrade of the LHCb experiment, the data processing will be changed; hit data from every collision will be transported off the pixel chip, without any trigger selection. A read-out architecture is proposed which is able to obtain low hit data loss on limited silicon area by using the logic beneath the pixels as a data buffer. Zero suppression and redundancy reduction ensure that the data rate off chip is minimized. A C++ model has been created for simulation of functionality and data loss, and for system development. A VHDL implementation has been derived from this model.

  9. Depleted fully monolithic CMOS pixel detectors using a column based readout architecture for the ATLAS Inner Tracker upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Barbero, M.; Berdalovic, I.; Bespin, C.; Bhat, S.; Breugnon, P.; Caicedo, I.; Cardella, R.; Chen, Z.; Degerli, Y.; Egidos, N.; Godiot, S.; Guilloux, F.; Hemperek, T.; Hirono, T.; Krüger, H.; Kugathasan, T.; Hügging, F.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Moustakas, K.; Pangaud, P.; Schwemling, P.; Pernegger, H.; Pohl, D.-L.; Rozanov, A.; Rymaszewski, P.; Snoeys, W.; Wermes, N.

    2018-03-01

    Depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which exploit high voltage and/or high resistivity add-ons of modern CMOS technologies to achieve substantial depletion in the sensing volume, have proven to have high radiation tolerance towards the requirements of ATLAS in the high-luminosity LHC era. DMAPS integrating fast readout architectures are currently being developed as promising candidates for the outer pixel layers of the future ATLAS Inner Tracker, which will be installed during the phase II upgrade of ATLAS around year 2025. In this work, two DMAPS prototype designs, named LF-Monopix and TJ-Monopix, are presented. LF-Monopix was fabricated in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS technology, and TJ-Monopix has been designed in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS technology. Both chips employ the same readout architecture, i.e. the column drain architecture, whereas different sensor implementation concepts are pursued. The paper makes a joint description of the two prototypes, so that their technical differences and challenges can be addressed in direct comparison. First measurement results for LF-Monopix will also be shown, demonstrating for the first time a fully functional fast readout DMAPS prototype implemented in the LFoundry technology.

  10. Design and Verification of Digital Architecture of 65K Pixel Readout Chip for High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Poikela, Tuomas; Paakkulainen, J

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility to design and implement a front-end ASIC for the upgrade of the VELO detector of LHCb experiment at CERN using IBM’s 130nm standard CMOS process and a standard cell library is studied in this thesis. The proposed architecture is a design to cope with high data rates and continuous data taking. The architecture is designed to operate without any external trigger to record every hit signal the ASIC receives from a sensor chip, and then to transmit the information to the next level of electronics, for example to FPGAs. This thesis focuses on design, implementation and functional verification of the digital electronics of the active pixel area. The area requirements are dictated by the geometry of pixels (55$mu$m x 55$mu$m), power requirements (20W/module) by restricted cooling capabilities of the module consisting of 10 chips and output bandwidth requirements by data rate (< 10 Gbit/s) produced by a particle flux passing through the chip. The design work was carried out using transaction...

  11. Simulation of digital pixel readout chip architectures with the RD53 SystemVerilog-UVM verification environment using Monte Carlo physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, E.; Marconi, S.; Christiansen, J.; Placidi, P.; Hemperek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and verification framework developed by the RD53 collaboration is a powerful tool for global architecture optimization and design verification of next generation hybrid pixel readout chips. In this paper the framework is used for studying digital pixel chip architectures at behavioral level. This is carried out by simulating a dedicated, highly parameterized pixel chip description, which makes it possible to investigate different grouping strategies between pixels and different latency buffering and arbitration schemes. The pixel hit information used as simulation input can be either generated internally in the framework or imported from external Monte Carlo detector simulation data. The latter have been provided by both the CMS and ATLAS experiments, featuring HL-LHC operating conditions and the specifications related to the Phase 2 upgrade. Pixel regions and double columns were simulated using such Monte Carlo data as inputs: the performance of different latency buffering architectures was compared and the compliance of different link speeds with the expected column data rate was verified

  12. FDTD-based optical simulations methodology for CMOS image sensors pixels architecture and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirigoyen, Flavien; Crocherie, Axel; Vaillant, Jérôme M.; Cazaux, Yvon

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a new FDTD-based optical simulation model dedicated to describe the optical performances of CMOS image sensors taking into account diffraction effects. Following market trend and industrialization constraints, CMOS image sensors must be easily embedded into even smaller packages, which are now equipped with auto-focus and short-term coming zoom system. Due to miniaturization, the ray-tracing models used to evaluate pixels optical performances are not accurate anymore to describe the light propagation inside the sensor, because of diffraction effects. Thus we adopt a more fundamental description to take into account these diffraction effects: we chose to use Maxwell-Boltzmann based modeling to compute the propagation of light, and to use a software with an FDTD-based (Finite Difference Time Domain) engine to solve this propagation. We present in this article the complete methodology of this modeling: on one hand incoherent plane waves are propagated to approximate a product-use diffuse-like source, on the other hand we use periodic conditions to limit the size of the simulated model and both memory and computation time. After having presented the correlation of the model with measurements we will illustrate its use in the case of the optimization of a 1.75μm pixel.

  13. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... lighting design in practice, one quickly experiences and realises that there are untapped potentials in the attributes of LED technology. In this research, speculative studies have been made working with the attributes of LEDs in architectural contexts, with the ambition to ascertain new strategies...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...

  14. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  15. Two-dimensional systolic-array architecture for pixel-level vision tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijverberg, Julien A.; de With, Peter H. N.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents ongoing work on the design of a two-dimensional (2D) systolic array for image processing. This component is designed to operate on a multi-processor system-on-chip. In contrast with other 2D systolic-array architectures and many other hardware accelerators, we investigate the applicability of executing multiple tasks in a time-interleaved fashion on the Systolic Array (SA). This leads to a lower external memory bandwidth and better load balancing of the tasks on the different processing tiles. To enable the interleaving of tasks, we add a shadow-state register for fast task switching. To reduce the number of accesses to the external memory, we propose to share the communication assist between consecutive tasks. A preliminary, non-functional version of the SA has been synthesized for an XV4S25 FPGA device and yields a maximum clock frequency of 150 MHz requiring 1,447 slices and 5 memory blocks. Mapping tasks from video content-analysis applications from literature on the SA yields reductions in the execution time of 1-2 orders of magnitude compared to the software implementation. We conclude that the choice for an SA architecture is useful, but a scaled version of the SA featuring less logic with fewer processing and pipeline stages yielding a lower clock frequency, would be sufficient for a video analysis system-on-chip.

  16. Novel WLL Architecture Based on Color Pixel Multiple Access Implemented on a Terrestrial Video Network as the Overlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanyal, Rajarshi; Cianca, Ernestina; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Local Loop deployments are based on the traditional cellular technologies. However there are limitations in terms of intricacy, cost and time to deploy .In this paper, the authors introduce a Wireless Local Loop architecture employing the proposed CPMA technique on existing overlay video...

  17. CMS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00038772

    2011-01-01

    The present Compact Muon Solenoid silicon pixel tracking system has been designed for a peak luminosity of 1034cm-2s-1 and total dose corresponding to two years of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation. With the steady increase of the luminosity expected at the LHC, a new pixel detector with four barrel layers and three endcap disks is being designed. We will present the key points of the design: the new geometry, which minimizes the material budget and increases the tracking points, and the development of a fast digital readout architecture, which ensures readout efficiency even at high rate. The expected performances for tracking and vertexing of the new pixel detector are also addressed.

  18. Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Clear, Nic

    2014-01-01

    When discussing science fiction’s relationship with architecture, the usual practice is to look at the architecture “in” science fiction—in particular, the architecture in SF films (see Kuhn 75-143) since the spaces of literary SF present obvious difficulties as they have to be imagined. In this essay, that relationship will be reversed: I will instead discuss science fiction “in” architecture, mapping out a number of architectural movements and projects that can be viewed explicitly as scien...

  19. Sleep Architecture in Partially Acclimatized Lowlanders and Native Tibetans at 3800 Meter Altitude: What Are the Differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanyi; Liu, Shixiang; Li, Qiong; Wang, Lin

    2015-09-01

    It is not well known whether high altitude acclimatization could help lowlanders improve their sleep architecture as well as Native Tibetans. In order to address this, we investigated the structural differences in sleep between Native Tibetans and partially acclimatized lowlanders and examined the association between sleep architecture and subjective sleep quality. Partially acclimatized soldiers from lowlands and Native Tibetan soldiers stationed at Shangri-La (3800 m) were surveyed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The sleep architecture of those without anxiety (as determined by HAMA>14) and/or depression (HAMD>20) was analyzed using polysomnography and the results were compared between the two groups. One hundred sixty-five male soldiers, including 55 Native Tibetans, were included in the study. After partial acclimatization, lowlanders still exhibited differences in sleep architecture as compared to Native Tibetans, as indicated by a higher PSQI score (8.14±2.37 vs. 3.90±2.85, p<0.001), shorter non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (458.68±112.63 vs. 501±37.82 min, P=0.03), lower nocturnal arterial oxygen saturation (Spo2; mean 91.39±1.24 vs. 92.71±2.12%, p=0.03), and increased times of Spo2 reduction from 89% to 85% (median 48 vs.17, p=0.04) than Native Tibetans. Sleep onset latency (β=0.08, 95%CI: 0.01 to 0.15), non-REM latency (β=0.011, 95%CI 0.001 to 0.02), mean Spo2 (β=-0.79, 95%CI: -1.35 to -0.23) and time in stage 3+4 sleep (β=-0.014, 95%CI: -0.001 to -0.028) were slightly associated with the PSQI score. Partially acclimatized lowlanders experienced less time in non-REM sleep and had lower arterial oxygen saturation than Native Tibetans at an altitude of 3800 m. The main independent contributors to poor sleep quality are hypoxemia, difficulty in sleep induction, and time in deep sleep.

  20. Aggregate size and architecture determine biomass activity for one-stage partial nitritation and anammox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaeminck, S.; Terada, Akihiko; Smets, Barth F.

    2010-01-01

    to the inoculation and operation of the reactors. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) was applied on aggregate sections to quantify AerAOB and AnAOB, as well as to visualize the aggregate architecture. The activity balance of the aggregates was calculated as the nitrite accumulation rate ratio (NARR), i...... and nitrite sources (NARR, > 1.7). Large A and C aggregates were granules capable of autonomous nitrogen removal (NARR, 0.6 to 1.1) with internal AnAOB zones surrounded by an AerAOB rim. Around 50% of the autotrophic space in these granules consisted of AerAOB- and AnAOB-specific EPS. Large B aggregates were...... thin film-like nitrite sinks (NARR,

  1. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  2. THE PROBLEM OF ARCHITECTURE DESIGN IN A CONTEXT OF PARTIALLY KNOWN REQUIREMENTS OF COMPLEX WEB BASED APPLICATION "KSU FEEDBACK"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spivakovsky

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of flexible architecture design for critical parts of “KSU Feedback” application which do not have full requirements or clearly defined scope. Investigated recommended practices for solving such type of tasks and shown how they are applied in “KSU Feedback” architecture.

  3. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  4. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  5. PIXEL 2010 - A Resume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermes, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel 2010 conference focused on semiconductor pixel detectors for particle tracking/vertexing as well as for imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs. The big LHC hybrid pixel detectors have impressively started showing their capabilities. X-ray imaging detectors, also using the hybrid pixel technology, have greatly advanced the experimental possibilities for diffraction experiments. Monolithic or semi-monolithic devices like CMOS active pixels and DEPFET pixels have now reached a state such that complete vertex detectors for RHIC and superKEKB are being built with these technologies. Finally, new advances towards fully monolithic active pixel detectors, featuring full CMOS electronics merged with efficient signal charge collection, exploiting standard CMOS technologies, SOI and/or 3D integration, show the path for the future. This resume attempts to extract the main statements of the results and developments presented at this conference.

  6. Development of pixel detectors for SSC vertex tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Shapiro, S.L.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Skubic, P.

    1991-04-01

    A description of hybrid PIN diode arrays and a readout architecture for their use as a vertex detector in the SSC environment is presented. Test results obtained with arrays having 256 x 256 pixels, each 30 μm square, are also presented. The development of a custom readout for the SSC will be discussed, which supports a mechanism for time stamping hit pixels, storing their xy coordinates, and storing the analog information within the pixel. The peripheral logic located on the array, permits the selection of those pixels containing interesting data and their coordinates to be selectively read out. This same logic also resolves ambiguous pixel ghost locations and controls the pixel neighbor read out necessary to achieve high spatial resolution. The thermal design of the vertex tracker and the proposed signal processing architecture will also be discussed. 5 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER ARCHITECTURE FOR PHYSICAL HYBRID INDICATOR CHANNEL OF LTE-ADVANCED USING PARTIAL RECONFIGURATION IN ML605 VIRTEX-6 DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Syed Ameer Abbas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available LTE-A (Long Term Evolution-Advanced is the fourth generation technology to increase the speed of wireless data network. The LTE-A Physical layer provides both data and control information between an enhanced base station and mobile user equipment which is quite complex and consists of a mixture of technologies. Since there is requirement for more resources to accommodate all the channels in a single FPGA, Partial Reconfiguration (PR technique is introduced to configure the total hardware into sub modules that configure and operate in different instants of time. PR enables a part of FPGA to be reconfigured, while the rest continues to function without any interruptions and reduces the hardware resource power and fabric area. This work proposes the realization of transmitter and receiver architecture of Physical Hybrid Indicator Channel (PHICH channel for LTE-A using partial reconfiguration on xc6vlx240tff1156-1 FPGA. The receiver architecture for PHICH is to report the correct reception of uplink user data to the User Equipment (UE in the form of Acknowledgment (ACK, or Negative ACK (NACK in a 1 millisecond duration sub-frame of Long Term Evolution (LTE System. The modules for the different diversities are reconfigured based on the control signals from the transmitter.

  8. The FE-I4 pixel readout integrated circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M., E-mail: mgarcia-sciveres@bl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arutinov, D.; Barbero, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Beccherle, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Dube, S.; Elledge, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleury, J. [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Fougeron, D.; Gensolen, F. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Gnani, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gromov, V. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hemperek, T.; Karagounis, M. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Kluit, R. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kruth, A. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Mekkaoui, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Menouni, M. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille (France); Schipper, J.-D. [Nationaal Instituut voor Subatomaire Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-21

    A new pixel readout integrated circuit denominated FE-I4 is being designed to meet the requirements of ATLAS experiment upgrades. It will be the largest readout IC produced to date for particle physics applications, filling the maximum allowed reticle area. This will significantly reduce the cost of future hybrid pixel detectors. In addition, FE-I4 will have smaller pixels and higher rate capability than the present generation of LHC pixel detectors. Design features are described along with simulation and test results, including low power and high rate readout architecture, mixed signal design strategy, and yield hardening.

  9. A novel CMOS sensor with in-pixel auto-zeroed discrimination for charged particle tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degerli, Y; Guilloux, F; Orsini, F

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of developing fast and granular Monolithic Active Pixels Sensors (MAPS) as new charged particle tracking detectors for high energy physics experiments, a new rolling shutter binary pixel architecture concept (RSBPix) with in-pixel correlated double sampling, amplification and discrimination is presented. The discriminator features auto-zeroing in order to compensate process-related transistor mismatches. In order to validate the pixel, a first monolithic CMOS sensor prototype, including a pixel array of 96 × 64 pixels, has been designed and fabricated in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. Results of laboratory tests are presented

  10. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffeman, E. N.

    2007-12-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a 55Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated.

  11. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffeman, E.N. [Nikhef, Kruislaan 409, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: d77@nikhef.nl

    2007-12-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a {sup 55}Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated.

  12. Gossip: Gaseous pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffeman, E.N.

    2007-01-01

    Several years ago a revolutionary miniature TPC was developed using a pixel chip with a Micromegas foil spanned over it. To overcome the mechanical stability problems and improve the positioning accuracy while spanning a foil on top of a small readout chip a process has been developed in which a Micromegas-like grid is applied on a CMOS wafer in a post-processing step. This aluminum grid is supported on insulating pillars that are created by etching after the grid has been made. The energy resolution (measured on the absorption of the X-rays from a 55 Fe source) was remarkably good. Several geometries have since been tested and we now believe that a Gas On Slimmed Silicon Pixel chip' (Gossip) may be realized. The drift region of such a gaseous pixel detector would be reduced to a millimeter. Such a detector is potentially very radiation hard (SLHC vertexing) but aging and sparking must be eliminated

  13. The ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian

    2006-06-26

    The contruction of the ATLAS Pixel Detector which is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system is prgressing well. Because the pixel detector will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability for all parts, combined with a low material budget. The final detector layout, new results from production modules and the status of assembly are presented.

  14. Characterization of Pixel Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Felipe Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    It was commissioned at CERN ATLAS pixel group a fluorescence setup for characterization of pixel sensors. The idea is to measure the energies of different targets to calibrate your sensor. It was measured four matrices (80, 95, 98 and 106) of the Investigator1 sensor with different deep PW using copper, iron and titanium as target materials. The matrix 80 has a higher gain (0.065 ± 0.002) and matrix 106 has a better energy resolution (0.05 ± 0.04). The noise of the setup is around 3.6 mV .

  15. The DELPHI pixels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becks, K.H.; Brunet, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    To improve tracking in the very forward direction for running at LEP200, the angular acceptance of the DELPHI Vertex detector has been extended from 45 to 11 with respect to the beam axis. Pixel detector crowns cover the region between 25 and 13 . Due to very tight space and material thickness constraints it was necessary to develop new techniques (integrated busses in the detector substrate, high density layout on Kapton, etc.). About 1000 cm 2 of pixels are already installed and working in DELPHI. Techniques, tests and production of these detectors will be described, as well as the main problems encountered during this work. (orig.)

  16. Status of the digital pixel array detector for protein crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Datte, P; Beuville, E; Endres, N; Druillole, F; Luo, L; Millaud, J E; Xuong, N H

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional photon counting digital pixel array detector is being designed for static and time resolved protein crystallography. The room temperature detector will significantly enhance monochromatic and polychromatic protein crystallographic through-put data rates by more than three orders of magnitude. The detector has an almost infinite photon counting dynamic range and exhibits superior spatial resolution when compared to present crystallographic phosphor imaging plates or phosphor coupled CCD detectors. The detector is a high resistivity N-type Si with a pixel pitch of 150x150 mu m, and a thickness of 300 mu m, and is bump bonded to an application specific integrated circuit. The event driven readout of the detector is based on the column architecture and allows an independent pixel hit rate above 1 million photons/s/pixel. The device provides energy discrimination and sparse data readout which yields minimal dead-time. This type of architecture allows a continuous (frameless) data acquisition, a f...

  17. Pixel detector readout chip

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

  18. ATLAS Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The first upgrade for higher luminosity at LHC for the ATLAS pixel detector is the insertion of a forth layer, the IBL. The talk gives an overview about what the IBL is and how it will be set up, as well as to give a status of the research and develoment work.

  19. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Manzari, V

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

  20. Gas pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellazzini, R.; Baldini, L.; Brez, A.; Cavalca, F.; Latronico, L.; Massai, M.M.; Minuti, M.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.

    2007-01-01

    With the Gas Pixel Detector (GPD), the class of micro-pattern gas detectors has reached a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics. To obtain this goal, three generations of application-specific integrated circuit of increased complexity and improved functionality has been designed and fabricated in deep sub-micron CMOS technology. This implementation has allowed manufacturing a monolithic device, which realizes, at the same time, the pixelized charge-collecting electrode and the amplifying, shaping and charge measuring front-end electronics of a GPD. A big step forward in terms of size and performances has been obtained in the last version of the 0.18 μm CMOS analog chip, where over a large active area of 15x15 mm 2 a very high channel density (470 pixels/mm 2 ) has been reached. On the top metal layer of the chip, 105,600 hexagonal pixels at 50 μm pitch have been patterned. The chip has customable self-trigger capability and includes a signal pre-processing function for the automatic localization of the event coordinates. In this way, by limiting the output signal to only those pixels belonging to the region of interest, it is possible to reduce significantly the read-out time and data volume. In-depth tests performed on a GPD built up by coupling this device to a fine pitch (50 μm) gas electron multiplier are reported. Matching of the gas amplification and read-out pitch has let to obtain optimal results. A possible application of this detector for X-ray polarimetry of astronomical sources is discussed

  1. Development of radiation hardened pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Koziel, Michal

    2014-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are being developed since a few years to equip vertex detectors for future high-energy physics experiments with the crucial advantages of a low material budget and low production costs. The features simultaneously required are a short readout time, high granularity and high tolerance to radiation. This thesis mainly focuses on the radiation tolerance studies. To achieve the targeted readout time (tens of microseconds), the sensor pixel readout was organized in parallel columns restricting in addition the readout to pixels that had collected the signal charge. The pixels became then more complex, and consequently more sensitive to radiation. Different in-pixel architectures were studied and it was concluded that the tolerance to ionizing radiation was limited to 300 krad with the 0.35- m fabrication process currently used, while the targeted value was several Mrad. Improving this situation calls for implementation of the sensors in processes with a smaller feature size which naturally imp...

  2. ''Beauty of Wholeness and Beauty of Partiality.'' New Terms Defining the Concept of Beauty in Architecture in Terms of Sustainability and Computer Aided Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Ayman A.; Zaghloul, Weaam M.; Dewidar, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    The great shift in sustainability and computer aided design in the field of architecture caused a remarkable change in the architecture philosophy, new aspects of beauty and aesthetic values are being introduced, and traditional definitions for beauty cannot fully cover this aspects, which causes a gap between; new architecture works criticism and…

  3. Design and Performance of the CMS Pixel Detector Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, R P; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Hoermann, Ch.

    2006-01-01

    The readout chip for the CMS pixel detector has to deal with an enormous data rate. On-chip zero suppression is inevitable and hit data must be buffered locally during the latency of the first level trigger. Dead-time must be kept at a minimum. It is dominated by contributions coming from the readout. To keep it low an analog readout scheme has been adopted where pixel addresses are analog coded. We present the architecture of the final CMS pixel detector readout chip with special emphasis on the analog readout chain. Measurements of its performance are discussed.

  4. Evaluation of a single-pixel one-transistor active pixel sensor for fingerprint imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun; Wang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Since it first appeared in iPhone 5S in 2013, fingerprint identification (ID) has rapidly gained popularity among consumers. Current fingerprint-enabled smartphones unanimously consists of a discrete sensor to perform fingerprint ID. This architecture not only incurs higher material and manufacturing cost, but also provides only static identification and limited authentication. Hence as the demand for a thinner, lighter, and more secure handset grows, we propose a novel pixel architecture that is a photosensitive device embedded in a display pixel and detects the reflected light from the finger touch for high resolution, high fidelity and dynamic biometrics. To this purpose, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) dual-gate photo TFT working in both fingerprint-imaging mode and display-driving mode will be developed.

  5. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

  6. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    Kaestli, Hans-Christian

    2010-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7~TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  7. CMS pixel upgrade project

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00575876

    2011-01-01

    The LHC machine at CERN finished its first year of pp collisions at a center of mass energy of 7 TeV. While the commissioning to exploit its full potential is still ongoing, there are plans to upgrade its components to reach instantaneous luminosities beyond the initial design value after 2016. A corresponding upgrade of the innermost part of the CMS detector, the pixel detector, is needed. A full replacement of the pixel detector is planned in 2016. It will not only address limitations of the present system at higher data rates, but will aggressively lower the amount of material inside the fiducial tracking volume which will lead to better tracking and b-tagging performance. This article gives an overview of the project and illuminates the motivations and expected improvements in the detector performance.

  8. Performance Comparison of 112-Gb/s DMT, Nyquist PAM4, and Partial-Response PAM4 for Future 5G Ethernet-Based Fronthaul Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Muench, Daniel; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Elbers, Joerg-Peter

    2018-05-01

    For a future 5G Ethernet-based fronthaul architecture, 100G trunk lines of a transmission distance up to 10 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in combination with cheap grey optics to daisy chain cell site network interfaces are a promising cost- and power-efficient solution. For such a scenario, different intensity modulation and direct detect (IMDD) Formats at a data rate of 112 Gb/s, namely Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), discrete multi-tone Transmission (DMT) and partial-response (PR) PAM4 are experimentally investigated, using a low-cost electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), a 25G driver and current state-of-the-art high Speed 84 GS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test chips. Each modulation Format is optimized independently for the desired scenario and their digital signal processing (DSP) requirements are investigated. The performance of Nyquist PAM4 and PR PAM4 depend very much on the efficiency of pre- and post-equalization. We show the necessity for at least 11 FFE-taps for pre-emphasis and up to 41 FFE coefficients at the receiver side. In addition, PR PAM4 requires an MLSE with four states to decode the signal back to a PAM4 signal. On the contrary, bit- and power-loading (BL, PL) is crucial for DMT and an FFT length of at least 512 is necessary. With optimized parameters, all Modulation formats result in a very similar performances, demonstrating a transmission distance of up to 10 km over SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below a FEC threshold of 4.4E-3, allowing error free transmission.

  9. Device Simulation of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors: Radiation Damage Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourches, N.T.

    2009-01-01

    Vertexing for the future International Linear Collider represents a challenging goal because of the high spatial resolution required with low material budget and high ionizing radiation tolerance. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) represent a good potential solution for this purpose. Up to now many MAPS sensors have been developed. They are based on various architectures and manufactured in different processes. However, up so far, the sensor diode has not been the subject of extensive modelization and simulation. Published simulation studies of sensor-signal formation have been less numerous than measurements on real sensors. This is a cause for concern because such sensor is physically based on the partially depleted diode, in the vicinity of which the electric field collects the minority carriers generated by an incident MIP (minimum ionizing particle). Although the microscopic mechanisms are well known and modelled, the global physical mechanisms for signal formation are not very rigorously established. This is partly due to the presence of a predominant diffusion component in the charge transport. We present here simulations mainly based on the S-PISCES code, in which physical mechanisms affecting transport are taken into account. Diffusion, influence of residual carrier concentration due to the doping level in the sensitive volume, and more importantly charge trapping due to deep levels in the active (detecting) layer are studied together with geometric aspects. The effect of neutron irradiation is studied to assess the effects of deep traps. A comparison with available experimental data, obtained on processed MAPS before or after neutron irradiation will be introduced. Simulated reconstruction of the Minimum Ionizing Particle (MIP) point of impact in two dimensions is also investigated. For further steps, guidelines for process choices of next Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors are introduced. (authors)

  10. Sensor development for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bölla, G; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R; Rohe, T; Roy, A

    2002-01-01

    The CMS experiment which is currently under construction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) will contain a pixel detector which provides in its final configuration three space points per track close to the interaction point of the colliding beams. Because of the harsh radiation environment of the LHC, the technical realization of the pixel detector is extremely challenging. The readout chip as the most damageable part of the system is believed to survive a particle fluence of 6x10 sup 1 sup 4 n sub e sub q /cm sup 2 (All fluences are normalized to 1 MeV neutrons and therefore all components of the hybrid pixel detector have to perform well up to at least this fluence. As this requires a partially depleted operation of the silicon sensors after irradiation-induced type inversion of the substrate, an ''n in n'' concept has been chosen. In order to perform IV-tests on wafer level and to hold accidentally unconnected pixels close to ground potential, a resistive path between the pixe...

  11. The ALICE Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Perez, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well

  12. Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotulli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.

  13. Development of a customized SSC pixel detector readout for vertex tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkan, O.; Atlas, E.L.; Marking, W.L.; Worley, S.; Yacoub, G.Y.; Kramer, G.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Shapiro, S.L.; Nygren, D.; Spieler, H.; Wright, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the readout architecture and progress to date in the development of hybrid PIN diode arrays for use as vertex detectors in the SSC environment. The architecture supports a self-timed mechanism for time stamping hit pixels, storing their xy coordinates and later selectively reading out only those pixels containing interesting data along with their coordinates. The peripheral logic resolves ambiguous pixel ghost locations and controls pixel neighbor readout to achieve high spatial resolution. A test lot containing 64 x 32 pixel arrays has been processed and is currently being tested. Each pixel contains 23 transistors and six capacitors consuming an area of 50μm by 150μm and dissipating about 20μW of power

  14. The Level 0 Pixel Trigger system for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinella, G Aglieri; Kluge, A; Krivda, M

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector contains 1200 readout chips. Fast-OR signals indicate the presence of at least one hit in the 8192 pixel matrix of each chip. The 1200 bits are transmitted every 100 ns on 120 data readout optical links using the G-Link protocol. The Pixel Trigger System extracts and processes them to deliver an input signal to the Level 0 trigger processor targeting a latency of 800 ns. The system is compact, modular and based on FPGA devices. The architecture allows the user to define and implement various trigger algorithms. The system uses advanced 12-channel parallel optical fiber modules operating at 1310 nm as optical receivers and 12 deserializer chips closely packed in small area receiver boards. Alternative solutions with multi-channel G-Link deserializers implemented directly in programmable hardware devices were investigated. The design of the system and the progress of the ALICE Pixel Trigger project are described in this paper

  15. Pixel Interpolation Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mintěl, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Tato diplomová práce se zabývá akcelerací interpolačních metod s využitím GPU a architektury NVIDIA (R) CUDA TM. Grafický výstup je reprezentován demonstrační aplikací pro transformaci obrazu nebo videa s použitím vybrané interpolace. Časově kritické části kódu jsou přesunuty na GPU a vykonány paralelně. Pro práci s obrazem a videem jsou použity vysoce optimalizované algoritmy z knihovny OpenCV, od firmy Intel. This master's thesis deals with acceleration of pixel interpolation methods usi...

  16. The ALICE pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mercado Perez, J

    2002-01-01

    The present document is a brief summary of the performed activities during the 2001 Summer Student Programme at CERN under the Scientific Summer at Foreign Laboratories Program organized by the Particles and Fields Division of the Mexican Physical Society (Sociedad Mexicana de Fisica). In this case, the activities were related with the ALICE Pixel Group of the EP-AIT Division, under the supervision of Jeroen van Hunen, research fellow in this group. First, I give an introduction and overview to the ALICE experiment; followed by a description of wafer probing. A brief summary of the test beam that we had from July 13th to July 25th is given as well. (3 refs).

  17. THE KEPLER PIXEL RESPONSE FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, Stephen T.; Haas, Michael R.; Dotson, Jessie L.; Koch, David G.; Borucki, William J.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Jenkins, Jon M.; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Klaus, Todd; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Kepler seeks to detect sequences of transits of Earth-size exoplanets orbiting solar-like stars. Such transit signals are on the order of 100 ppm. The high photometric precision demanded by Kepler requires detailed knowledge of how the Kepler pixels respond to starlight during a nominal observation. This information is provided by the Kepler pixel response function (PRF), defined as the composite of Kepler's optical point-spread function, integrated spacecraft pointing jitter during a nominal cadence and other systematic effects. To provide sub-pixel resolution, the PRF is represented as a piecewise-continuous polynomial on a sub-pixel mesh. This continuous representation allows the prediction of a star's flux value on any pixel given the star's pixel position. The advantages and difficulties of this polynomial representation are discussed, including characterization of spatial variation in the PRF and the smoothing of discontinuities between sub-pixel polynomial patches. On-orbit super-resolution measurements of the PRF across the Kepler field of view are described. Two uses of the PRF are presented: the selection of pixels for each star that maximizes the photometric signal-to-noise ratio for that star, and PRF-fitted centroids which provide robust and accurate stellar positions on the CCD, primarily used for attitude and plate scale tracking. Good knowledge of the PRF has been a critical component for the successful collection of high-precision photometry by Kepler.

  18. The Pixelated Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Stamenković

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The text foregrounds the relationship between three main elements: gaze, image and violence. Framed by the theoretical propositions in the selected texts by Marie-José Mondzain and Jean-Luc Nancy, this relationship is considered in the context of the current socio-political realities in the Middle East (Syria but also in the broader, global sense. I take contemporary visual practice as my starting point and consider “The Pixelated Revolution” (the project by the Lebanese artist Rabih Mroué as exemplary in this context in order to engage with the following phenomenon - recording one’s own death in the revolutionary and wartime conditions, at a level that connects several key elements of the debate: the visual character of mobile (phone technology, image-producing operations, the concept of self-sacrifice, and the mobilization of communities towards radical transformations. The purpose of this text is to encourage future reflections about the role images perform nowadays (in particular those created under the conditions of lethal threat and violence and about the implications of an external observer in this process, when looking at such images in the exhibition context from a ‘lateral’ (i.e., supposedly safe and neutral perspective.

  19. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  20. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  1. ATLAS Pixel Detector Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Di Girolamo, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.9% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  2. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  3. MCC: the Module Controller Chip for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccherle, R.; Darbo, G.; Gagliardi, G.; Gemme, C.; Morettini, P.; Musico, P.; Osculati, B.; Oppizzi, P.; Pratolongo, F.; Ruscino, E.; Schiavi, C.; Vernocchi, F.; Blanquart, L.; Einsweiler, K.; Meddeler, G.; Richardson, J.; Comes, G.; Fischer, P.; Calvet, D.; Boyd, R.; Sicho, P.

    2002-01-01

    In this article we describe the architecture of the Module Controller Chip for the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The project started in 1997 with the definition of the system specifications. A first fully-working rad-soft prototype was designed in 1998, while a radiation hard version was submitted in 2000. The 1998 version was used to build pixel detector modules. Results from those modules and from the simulated performance in ATLAS are reported. In the article we also describe the hardware/software tools developed to test the MCC performance at the LHC event rate

  4. From Pixels to Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownston, Lee; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Mission was launched in 2009 as NASAs first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Its telescope consists of a 1.5-m primary mirror and a 0.95-m aperture. The 42 charge-coupled devices in its focal plane are read out every half hour, compressed, and then downlinked monthly. After four years, the second of four reaction wheels failed, ending the original mission. Back on earth, the Science Operations Center developed the Science Pipeline to analyze about 200,000 target stars in Keplers field of view, looking for evidence of periodic dimming suggesting that one or more planets had crossed the face of its host star. The Pipeline comprises several steps, from pixel-level calibration, through noise and artifact removal, to detection of transit-like signals and the construction of a suite of diagnostic tests to guard against false positives. The Kepler Science Pipeline consists of a pipeline infrastructure written in the Java programming language, which marshals data input to and output from MATLAB applications that are executed as external processes. The pipeline modules, which underwent continuous development and refinement even after data started arriving, employ several analytic techniques, many developed for the Kepler Project. Because of the large number of targets, the large amount of data per target and the complexity of the pipeline algorithms, the processing demands are daunting. Some pipeline modules require days to weeks to process all of their targets, even when run on NASA's 128-node Pleiades supercomputer. The software developers are still seeking ways to increase the throughput. To date, the Kepler project has discovered more than 4000 planetary candidates, of which more than 1000 have been independently confirmed or validated to be exoplanets. Funding for this mission is provided by NASAs Science Mission Directorate.

  5. CMS Barrel Pixel Detector Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, Roland Paul; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Robmann, P; Rohe, T; Streuli, S

    2007-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device of the CMS experiment at the LHC. It is built from two independent sub devices, the pixel barrel and the end disks. The barrel consists of three concentric layers around the beam pipe with mean radii of 4.4, 7.3 and 10.2 cm. There are two end disks on each side of the interaction point at 34.5 cm and 46.5 cm. This article gives an overview of the pixel barrel detector, its mechanical support structure, electronics components, services and its expected performance.

  6. Parallel encoders for pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikityuk, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of fast encoding and determining the multiplicity and coordinates of fired pixels is described. A specific example construction of parallel encodes and MCC for n=49 and t=2 is given. 16 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Calibration Analysis Software for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00372086; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The calibration of the ATLAS Pixel detector at LHC fulfils two main purposes: to tune the front-end configuration parameters for establishing the best operational settings and to measure the tuning performance through a subset of scans. An analysis framework has been set up in order to take actions on the detector given the outcome of a calibration scan (e.g. to create a mask for disabling noisy pixels). The software framework to control all aspects of the Pixel detector scans and analyses is called Calibration Console. The introduction of a new layer, equipped with new Front End-I4 Chips, required an update the Console architecture. It now handles scans and scans analyses applied together to chips with different characteristics. An overview of the newly developed Calibration Analysis Software will be presented, together with some preliminary result.

  8. Development of the ASICs for the NA62 pixel Gigatracker

    CERN Document Server

    Jarron, P

    2008-01-01

    We present the ASIC development for the readout electronics of the Gigatracker pixel detector of NA62. Specifications of this detector are challenging in terms of timing precision with a hit time stamp accuracy of 100 ps and a peak hit rate of 50 Mhits/cm2/s. A timing precision and hit rate are more than one order of magnitude faster than pixel LHC readout ASIC. The research for pixel cell design and the readout architectures are following two approaches, which are presented and discussed in this paper. Presently demonstrator prototypes are under development and SPICE simulation results of the frontend, the readout strategy and and the pixelcolumn are also presented and discussed.

  9. FE-I4 Chip Development for Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 has been developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 0.25 μm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80×336 pixels, each 50×250 μm2, consisting of analog and digital sections. The analog pixel section is designed for low power consumption and compatibility to several sensor candidates. It is based on a two-stage architecture with a pre-amp AC-coupled to a second stage of amplification. It features leakage current compensation circuitry, local 4-bit pre-amp feedback tuning and a discriminator locally adjusted through 5 configuration bits. The digital architecture is based on a 4-pixel unit called Pixel Digital Region (PDR) allowing for local storage of hits in 5-deep data buffers at pixel level for the duratio...

  10. Random On-Board Pixel Sampling (ROPS) X-Ray Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos; Iaroshenko, O. [Los Alamos; Li, S. [Los Alamos; Liu, T. [Fermilab; Parab, N. [Argonne (main); Chen, W. W. [Purdue U.; Chu, P. [Los Alamos; Kenyon, G. [Los Alamos; Lipton, R. [Fermilab; Sun, K.-X. [Nevada U., Las Vegas

    2017-09-25

    Recent advances in compressed sensing theory and algorithms offer new possibilities for high-speed X-ray camera design. In many CMOS cameras, each pixel has an independent on-board circuit that includes an amplifier, noise rejection, signal shaper, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and optional in-pixel storage. When X-ray images are sparse, i.e., when one of the following cases is true: (a.) The number of pixels with true X-ray hits is much smaller than the total number of pixels; (b.) The X-ray information is redundant; or (c.) Some prior knowledge about the X-ray images exists, sparse sampling may be allowed. Here we first illustrate the feasibility of random on-board pixel sampling (ROPS) using an existing set of X-ray images, followed by a discussion about signal to noise as a function of pixel size. Next, we describe a possible circuit architecture to achieve random pixel access and in-pixel storage. The combination of a multilayer architecture, sparse on-chip sampling, and computational image techniques, is expected to facilitate the development and applications of high-speed X-ray camera technology.

  11. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  12. Architecture on Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    that is not scientific or academic but is more like a latent body of data that we find embedded in existing works of architecture. This information, it is argued, is not limited by the historical context of the work. It can be thought of as a virtual capacity – a reservoir of spatial configurations that can...... correlation between the study of existing architectures and the training of competences to design for present-day realities.......This paper will discuss the challenges faced by architectural education today. It takes as its starting point the double commitment of any school of architecture: on the one hand the task of preserving the particular knowledge that belongs to the discipline of architecture, and on the other hand...

  13. Development of Pixel Front-End Electronics using Advanced Deep Submicron CMOS Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Havránek, Miroslav; Dingfelder, Jochen

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R&D; of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore’s laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key pa...

  14. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed

  15. Beam test results for the RAPS03 non-epitaxial CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagetti, Daniele; Marras, Alessandro; Meroli, Stefano; Passeri, Daniele; Placidi, Pisana; Servoli, Leonello; Tucceri, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Recently our group has been investigating the possibility of using a standard CMOS technology - featuring no epitaxial layer - to fabricate a sensor for charged particle detection. In this work we present the results obtained exposing sensors with 256x256 pixels (10x10μm pixel size, two different pixel layouts) to 180 GeV protons and positrons at the SuperProtoSynchrotron facility (CERN). We have investigated the different response of the two architectural options in terms of S/N, cluster width, intrinsic spatial resolution, efficiency. The results show a good Landau response, S/N about 22 with an average cluster size of 4.5 pixels, and an intrinsic spatial resolution of 1.5μm (order of 1/7th of the pixel size).

  16. The RD53 Collaboration's SystemVerilog-UVM Simulation Framework and its General Applicability to Design of Advanced Pixel Readout Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Marconi, S.; Placidi, P.; Christiansen, J.; Hemperek, T.

    2014-01-01

    The foreseen Phase 2 pixel upgrades at the LHC have very challenging requirements for the design of hybrid pixel readout chips. A versatile pixel simulation platform is as an essential development tool for the design, verification and optimization of both the system architecture and the pixel chip building blocks (Intellectual Properties, IPs). This work is focused on the implemented simulation and verification environment named VEPIX53, built using the SystemVerilog language and the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) class library in the framework of the RD53 Collaboration. The environment supports pixel chips at different levels of description: its reusable components feature the generation of different classes of parameterized input hits to the pixel matrix, monitoring of pixel chip inputs and outputs, conformity checks between predicted and actual outputs and collection of statistics on system performance. The environment has been tested performing a study of shared architectures of the trigger late...

  17. Fully depleted CMOS pixel sensor development and potential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudot, J.; Kachel, M. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-07-01

    CMOS pixel sensors are often opposed to hybrid pixel sensors due to their very different sensitive layer. In standard CMOS imaging processes, a thin (about 20 μm) low resistivity epitaxial layer acts as the sensitive volume and charge collection is mostly driven by thermal agitation. In contrast, the so-called hybrid pixel technology exploits a thick (typically 300 μm) silicon sensor with high resistivity allowing for the depletion of this volume, hence charges drift toward collecting electrodes. But this difference is fading away with the recent availability of some CMOS imaging processes based on a relatively thick (about 50 μm) high resistivity epitaxial layer which allows for full depletion. This evolution extents the range of applications for CMOS pixel sensors where their known assets, high sensitivity and granularity combined with embedded signal treatment, could potentially foster breakthrough in detection performances for specific scientific instruments. One such domain is the Xray detection for soft energies, typically below 10 keV, where the thin sensitive layer was previously severely impeding CMOS sensor usage. Another application becoming realistic for CMOS sensors, is the detection in environment with a high fluence of non-ionizing radiation, such as hadron colliders. However, when considering highly demanding applications, it is still to be proven that micro-circuits required to uniformly deplete the sensor at the pixel level, do not mitigate the sensitivity and efficiency required. Prototype sensors in two different technologies with resistivity higher than 1 kΩ, sensitive layer between 40 and 50 μm and featuring pixel pitch in the range 25 to 50 μm, have been designed and fabricated. Various biasing architectures were adopted to reach full depletion with only a few volts. Laboratory investigations with three types of sources (X-rays, β-rays and infrared light) demonstrated the validity of the approach with respect to depletion, keeping a

  18. The FPGA Pixel Array Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromalik, Marianne S.; Green, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2013-01-01

    A proposed design for a reconfigurable x-ray Pixel Array Detector (PAD) is described. It operates by integrating a high-end commercial field programmable gate array (FPGA) into a 3-layer device along with a high-resistivity diode detection layer and a custom, application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) layer. The ASIC layer contains an energy-discriminating photon-counting front end with photon hits streamed directly to the FPGA via a massively parallel, high-speed data connection. FPGA resources can be allocated to perform user defined tasks on the pixel data streams, including the implementation of a direct time autocorrelation function (ACF) with time resolution down to 100 ns. Using the FPGA at the front end to calculate the ACF reduces the required data transfer rate by several orders of magnitude when compared to a fast framing detector. The FPGA-ASIC high-speed interface, as well as the in-FPGA implementation of a real-time ACF for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy experiments has been designed and simulated. A 16×16 pixel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated and is being tested. -- Highlights: ► We describe the novelty and need for the FPGA Pixel Array Detector. ► We describe the specifications and design of the Diode, ASIC and FPGA layers. ► We highlight the Autocorrelation Function (ACF) for speckle as an example application. ► Simulated FPGA output calculates the ACF for different input bitstreams to 100 ns. ► Reduced data transfer rate by 640× and sped up real-time ACF by 100× other methods.

  19. Low complexity pixel-based halftone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Jiheon; Han, Seong Wook; Jarno, Mielikainen; Lee, Chulhee

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid advances of the internet and other multimedia technologies, the digital document market has been growing steadily. Since most digital images use halftone technologies, quality degradation occurs when one tries to scan and reprint them. Therefore, it is necessary to extract the halftone areas to produce high quality printing. In this paper, we propose a low complexity pixel-based halftone detection algorithm. For each pixel, we considered a surrounding block. If the block contained any flat background regions, text, thin lines, or continuous or non-homogeneous regions, the pixel was classified as a non-halftone pixel. After excluding those non-halftone pixels, the remaining pixels were considered to be halftone pixels. Finally, documents were classified as pictures or photo documents by calculating the halftone pixel ratio. The proposed algorithm proved to be memory-efficient and required low computation costs. The proposed algorithm was easily implemented using GPU.

  20. A Generic Architecture for Autonomous Uninhabited Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barbier, Magali; Gabard, Jean-Francois; Ayreault, Herve

    2007-01-01

    ...; few solutions propose architecture adaptive to several types of platform. Autonomous vehicles that move in partially known and dynamic environments have to deal with asynchronous disruptive events...

  1. Scalable Distributed Architectures for Information Retrieval

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Zhihong

    1999-01-01

    .... Our distributed architectures exploit parallelism in information retrieval on a cluster of parallel IR servers using symmetric multiprocessors, and use partial collection replication and selection...

  2. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M. (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  3. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Djama, Fares; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC collider sets new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction because of its higher energy, pileup and luminosity. The ATLAS tracking performance relies critically on the Pixel Detector. Therefore, in view of Run 2, the ATLAS collaboration has constructed the first 4-layer pixel detector in Particle Physics by installing a new pixel layer, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Operational experience and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector during Run 2 are presented.

  4. Optical data links for the ATLAS SCT and Pixel Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, I.M.; Weidberg, A.R.; Lee, S.C.; Chu, M.L.; Teng, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    ATLAS (The ATLAS Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC 94-33) is one of the large electronic particle detectors at LHC (The LHC Conceptual Design, Report- The Yellow Book, CERN/AC/95-05(LHC)) which will become operational in 2005. It is planned to use radiation tolerant optical links for the data transfer from the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) (ATLAS Inner Detector Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC 97-16 and CERN/LHCC 97-17). and Pixel Detector (ATLAS Pixel Detector Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC 98-13) systems to the acquisition electronics over a distance up to 140m. The overall architecture and the performance of these optical data links are described. One of the three candidate designs for an on-detector Opto-Package is presented

  5. Study of the CMS Phase 1 Pixel Pilot Blade Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector is the innermost component of the CMS tracking system. It was replaced in March 2017 with an upgraded one, called the Phase 1 upgrade detector. During Long Shutdown 1, a third disk was inserted into the present forward pixel detector with eight prototype blades constructed using a new digital read-out chip architecture and a prototype readout chain. Testing the performance of these pilot modules enabled us to gain experience with the Phase 1 upgrade modules. In this document, the data reconstruction with the pilot system is presented. The hit finding efficiency and residual of these new modules is also shown, and how these observables were used to adjust the timing of the pilot blades.

  6. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  7. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  8. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  9. CMS has a heart of pixels

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In the immediate vicinity of the collision point, CMS will be equipped with pixel detectors consisting of no fewer than 50 million pixels measuring 150 microns along each side. Each of the pixels, which receive the signal, is connected to its own electronic circuit by a tiny sphere (seen here in the electron microscope image) measuring 15 to 20 microns in diameter.

  10. Software architecture as a set of architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Anton; Bosch, Jan; Nord, R; Medvidovic, N; Krikhaar, R; Khrhaar, R; Stafford, J; Bosch, J

    2006-01-01

    Software architectures have high costs for change, are complex, and erode during evolution. We believe these problems are partially due to knowledge vaporization. Currently, almost all the knowledge and information about the design decisions the architecture is based on are implicitly embedded in

  11. Pixel-by-pixel mean transit time without deconvolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbeleir, Andre A; Piepsz, Amy; Ham, Hamphrey R

    2008-04-01

    Mean transit time (MTT) within a kidney is given by the integral of the renal activity on a well-corrected renogram between time zero and time t divided by the integral of the plasma activity between zero and t, providing that t is close to infinity. However, as the data acquisition of a renogram is finite, the MTT calculated using this approach might result in the underestimation of the true MTT. To evaluate the degree of this underestimation we conducted a simulation study. One thousand renograms were created by convoluting various plasma curves obtained from patients with different renal clearance levels with simulated retentions curves having different shapes and mean transit times. For a 20 min renogram, the calculated MTT started to underestimate the MTT when the MTT was higher than 6 min. The longer the MTT, the greater was the underestimation. Up to a MTT value of 6 min, the error on the MTT estimation is negligible. As normal cortical transit is less than 2 min, this approach is used for patients to calculate pixel-to-pixel cortical mean transit time and to create a MTT parametric image without deconvolution.

  12. An area efficient readout architecture for photon counting color imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Jan; O'Nils, Mattias; Oelmann, Bengt; Norlin, Boerje; Abdalla, Suliman

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of several energy levels, namely color imaging, in photon counting X-ray image sensors is a trade-off between circuit complexity and spatial resolution. In this paper, we propose a pixel architecture that has full resolution for the intensity and uses sub-sampling for the energy spectrum. The results show that this sub-sampling pixel architecture produces images with an image quality which is, on average, 2.4 dB (PSNR) higher than those for a single energy range architecture and with half the circuit complexity of that for a full sampling architecture

  13. Serial powering of pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Fischer, Peter; Huegging, Fabian; Peric, Ivan; Runolfsson, O.; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub-micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In particular, it is shown that the potential risk of powering in series can be addressed and eliminated

  14. Serial powering of pixel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Stockmanns, Tobias; Hügging, Fabian Georg; Peric, I; Runólfsson, O; Wermes, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors for the next generation of high-energy collider experiments like LHC use readout electronics in deep sub- micron technology. Chips in this technology need a low supply voltage of 2-2.5 V alongside high current consumption to achieve the desired performance. The high supply current leads to significant voltage drops in the long and low mass supply cables so that voltage fluctuations at the chips are induced, when the supply current changes. This problem scales with the number of modules when connected in parallel to the power supplies. An alternative powering scheme connects several modules in series resulting in a higher supply voltage but a lower current consumption of the chain and therefore a much lower voltage drop in the cables. In addition the amount of cables needed to supply the detector is vastly reduced. The concept and features of serial powering are presented and studies of the implementation of this technology as an alternative for the ATLAS pixel detector are shown. In par...

  15. Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node.

  16. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-01

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  17. Development of pixel front-end electronics using advanced deep submicron CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havranek, Miroslav

    2014-09-15

    The content of this thesis is oriented on the R and D of microelectronic integrated circuits for processing the signal from particle sensors and partially on the sensors themselves. This work is motivated by ongoing upgrades of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at CERN laboratory and by exploration of new technologies for the future experiments in particle physics. Evolution of technologies for the fabrication of microelectronic circuits follows Moore's laws. Transistors become smaller and electronic chips reach higher complexity. Apart from this, silicon foundries become more open to smaller customers and often provide non-standard process options. Two new directions in pixel technologies are explored in this thesis: design of pixel electronics using ultra deep submicron (65 nm) CMOS technology and Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS). An independent project concerning the measurement of pixel capacitance with a dedicated measurement chip is a part of this thesis. Pixel capacitance is one of the key parameters for design of the pixel front-end electronics and thus it is closely related to the content of the thesis. The theoretical background, aspects of chip design, performance of chip prototypes and prospect for design of large pixel chips are comprehensively described in five chapters of the thesis.

  18. GigaTracker, a Thin and Fast Silicon Pixels Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Velghe, Bob; Bonacini, Sandro; Ceccucci, Augusto; Kaplon, Jan; Kluge, Alexander; Mapelli, Alessandro; Morel, Michel; Noël, Jérôme; Noy, Matthew; Perktold, Lukas; Petagna, Paolo; Poltorak, Karolina; Riedler, Petra; Romagnoli, Giulia; Chiozzi, Stefano; Cotta Ramusino, Angelo; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Gianoli, Alberto; Petrucci, Ferruccio; Wahl, Heinrich; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Jarron, Pierre; Marchetto, Flavio; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Nuessle, Georg; Szilasi, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    GigaTracker, the NA62’s upstream spectrometer, plays a key role in the kinematically constrained background suppression for the study of the K + ! p + n ̄ n decay. It is made of three independent stations, each of which is a six by three cm 2 hybrid silicon pixels detector. To meet the NA62 physics goals, GigaTracker has to address challenging requirements. The hit time resolution must be better than 200 ps while keeping the total thickness of the sensor to less than 0.5 mm silicon equivalent. The 200 μm thick sensor is divided into 18000 300 μm 300 μm pixels bump-bounded to ten independent read-out chips. The chips use an end-of-column architecture and rely on time-over- threshold discriminators. A station can handle a crossing rate of 750 MHz. Microchannel cooling technology will be used to cool the assembly. It allows us to keep the sensor close to 0 C with 130 μm of silicon in the beam area. The sensor and read-out chip performance were validated using a 45 pixel demonstrator with a laser test setu...

  19. FED firmware interface testing with pixel phase 1 emulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpatrick, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A hardware emulation of the CMS pixel detector phase 1 upgrade front-end electronics has been developed to test and validate the architecture of the back-end electronics (FED) firmware. The emulation is implemented on a Virtex 6 FPGA on the CERN GLIB uTCA platform, utilizing an 8-way SFP FPGA Mezzanine Card to drive compatible optical transmitters to the back-end electronics at 400 bps. The firmware emulates the complex functions of the phase 1 pixel readout chips (PSI46digv2 and PROC600) and token bit manager ASICs and allows for possible abnormalities that can occur in the output data stream. The emulation implements both fixed data patterns that are used as test vectors and realistic simulated data to drive the readout of the FED at the expected data and trigger rates. Testing software was developed to control the emulator and verify correct transmission of data and exception handling in the FED. An installation has been integrated into the pixel DAQ test system at CMS to be used for fast validation of F...

  20. FED firmware interface testing with pixel phase 1 emulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpatrick, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    A hardware emulation of the CMS pixel detector phase 1 upgrade front-end electronics has been developed to test and validate the architecture of the back-end electronics (FED) firmware. The emulation is implemented on a Virtex 6 FPGA on the CERN GLIB uTCA platform, utilizing an 8-way SFP FPGA Mezzanine Card to drive compatible optical transmitters to the back-end electronics at 400 bps. The firmware emulates the complex functions of the phase 1 pixel readout chips (PSI46digv2 and PROC600) and token bit manager ASICs and allows for possible abnormalities that can occur in the output data stream. The emulation implements both fixed data patterns that are used as test vectors and realistic simulated data to drive the readout of the FED at the expected data and trigger rates. Testing software was developed to control the emulator and verify correct transmission of data and exception handling in the FED. An installation has been integrated into the pixel DAQ test system at CMS to be used for fast validation of F...

  1. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Damayanthi, Rathnayaka M. T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-04-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μm×45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES.

  2. Development of pixellated Ir-TESs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Yuichi; Dayanthi, Rathnayaka M.T.; Mori, Fumiakira; Fujita, Kaoru; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Fukuda, Daiji; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing Ir-based pixellated superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). In the area of material or astronomical applications, the sensor with few eV energy resolution and over 1000 pixels imaging property is desired. In order to achieve this goal, we have been analyzing signals from pixellated TESs. In the case of a 20 pixel array of Ir-TESs, with 45 μmx45 μm pixel sizes, the incident X-ray signals have been classified into 16 groups. We have applied numerical signal analysis. On the one hand, the energy resolution of our pixellated TES is strongly degraded. However, using pulse shape analysis, we can dramatically improve the resolution. Thus, we consider that the pulse signal analysis will lead this device to be used as a practical photon incident position identifying TES

  3. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  4. STAR PIXEL detector mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieman, H H; Anderssen, E; Greiner, L; Matis, H S; Ritter, H G; Sun, X; Szelezniak, M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: hhwieman@lbl.gov

    2009-05-15

    A high resolution pixel detector is being designed for the STAR [1] experiment at RHIC. This device will use MAPS as the detector element and will have a pointing accuracy of {approx}25 microns. We will be reporting on the mechanical design required to support this resolution. The radiation length of the first layer ({approx}0.3% X{sub 0}) and its distance from the interaction point (2.5 cm) determines the resolution. The design makes use of air cooling and thin carbon composite structures to limit the radiation length. The mechanics are being developed to achieve spatial calibrations and stability to 20 microns and to permit rapid detector replacement in event of radiation damage or other potential failures from operation near the beam.

  5. The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector System (SPD)

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, Federico; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Ceresa, S; Dima, R; Elias, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, Marian; Librizzi, F; Manzari, Vito; Morel, M; Moretto, Sandra; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato De Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjo, H; Viesti, G; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    The ALICE silicon pixel detector (SPD) comprises the two innermost layers of the ALICE inner tracker system. The SPD includes 120 detector modules (half-staves) each consisting of 10 ALICE pixel chips bump bonded to two silicon sensors and one multi-chip read-out module. Each pixel chip contains 8192 active cells, so that the total number of pixel cells in the SPD is ≈ 107. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The constraints on material budget and detector module dimensions are very demanding.

  6. Pixelated coatings and advanced IR coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradal, Fabien; Portier, Benjamin; Oussalah, Meihdi; Leplan, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Reosc developed pixelated infrared coatings on detector. Reosc manufactured thick pixelated multilayer stacks on IR-focal plane arrays for bi-spectral imaging systems, demonstrating high filter performance, low crosstalk, and no deterioration of the device sensitivities. More recently, a 5-pixel filter matrix was designed and fabricated. Recent developments in pixelated coatings, shows that high performance infrared filters can be coated directly on detector for multispectral imaging. Next generation space instrument can benefit from this technology to reduce their weight and consumptions.

  7. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lantzsch, Kerstin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Run 2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction with higher energies, denser jets and higher rates. Therefore the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). In addition the Pixel detector was refurbished with new service quarter panels to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run 1 and a new optical readout system to readout the data at higher speed while reducing the occupancy when running with increased luminosity. The commissioning, operation and performance of the 4-layer Pixel Detector will be presented.

  8. Robotic architectures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mtshali, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the development of mobile robotic systems, a robotic architecture plays a crucial role in interconnecting all the sub-systems and controlling the system. The design of robotic architectures for mobile autonomous robots is a challenging...

  9. Development of a super B-factory monolithic active pixel detector-the Continuous Acquisition Pixel (CAP) prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varner, G.; Barbero, M.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T.; Fang, F.; Hazumi, M.; Igarashi, A.; Iwaida, S.; Kennedy, J.; Kent, N.; Olsen, S.; Palka, H.; Rosen, M.; Ruckman, L.; Stanic, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uchida, K.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last few years great progress has been made in the technological development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) such that upgrades to existing vertex detectors using this technology are now actively being considered. Future vertex detection at an upgraded KEK-B factory, already the highest luminosity collider in the world, will require a detector technology capable of withstanding the increased track densities and larger radiation exposures. Near the beam pipe the current silicon strip detectors have projected occupancies in excess of 100%. Deep sub-micron MAPS look very promising to address this problem. In the context of an upgrade to the Belle vertex detector, the major obstacles to realizing such a device have been concerns about radiation hardness and readout speed. Two prototypes implemented in the TSMC 0.35 μm process have been developed to address these issues. Denoted the Continuous Acquisition Pixel, or CAP, the two variants of this architecture are distinguished in that CAP2 includes an 8-deep sampling pipeline within each 22.5 μm 2 pixel. Preliminary test results and remaining R and D issues are presented

  10. Architecture & Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  11. Si and gaas pixel detectors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of digital radiographic equipment in the morphological imaging field is becoming the more and more diffuse, the research of new and more performing devices from public institutions and industrial companies is in constant progress. Most of these devices are based on solid-state detectors as X-ray sensors. Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed in the high energy physics environment, have been then proposed as digital detector for medical imaging applications. In this paper a digital single photon counting device, based on silicon and GaAs pixel detector, is presented. The detector is a thin slab of semiconductor crystal where an array of 64 by 64 square pixels, 170- m side, has been built on one side. The data read-out is performed by a VLSI integrated circuit named Photon Counting Chip (PCC), developed within the MEDIPIX collaboration. Each chip cell geometrically matches the sensor pixel. It contains a charge preamplifier, a threshold comparator and a 15 bits pseudo-random counter and it is coupled to the detector by means of bump bonding. Most important advantages of such system, with respect to a traditional X-rays film/screen device, are the wider linear dynamic range (3x104) and the higher performance in terms of MTF and DQE. Besides the single photon counting architecture allows to detect image contrasts lower than 3%. Electronics read-out performance as well as imaging capabilities of the digital device will be presented. Images of mammographic phantoms acquired with a standard Mammographic tube will be compared with radiographs obtained with traditional film/screen systems

  12. A Prototype of a New Generation Readout ASIC in 65 nm CMOS for Pixel Detectors at HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pacher, L.; Paternò, A; Panati, S; Demaria, L; Rivetti, A; Da Rocha Rolo, M; Dellacasa, G; Mazza, G; Rotondo, F; Wheadon, R; Loddo, F; Licciulli, F; Ciciriello, F; Marzocca, C; Gaioni, L; Traversi, G; Re, V; De Canio, F; Ratti, L; Marconi, S; Placidi, P; Magazzù, G; Stabile, A; Mattiazzo, S

    2018-01-01

    The prototype is composed of a matrix of 64×64 pixels with 50 μm × 50 μm cells featuring a compact design, low-noise and low-power performance. The pixel array integrates two diffe- rent analogue front-end architectures working in parallel, one with asynchronous and one with synchronous hit discriminators. Common characteristics are a compact layout able to fit int...

  13. Hot pixel generation in active pixel sensors: dosimetric and micro-dosimetric response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif; Novak, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The dosimetric response of an active pixel sensor is analyzed. heavy ions are seen to damage the pixel in much the same way as gamma radiation. The probability of a hot pixel is seen to exhibit behavior that is not typical with other microdose effects.

  14. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS experiment for the operation at the High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider requires a new and more performant inner tracker, the ITk. The innermost part of this tracker will be built using silicon pixel detectors. This paper describes the ITk pixel project, which, after few years of design and test e ort, is now defined in detail.

  15. Building CMS Pixel Barrel Detectur Modules

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Horisberger, R.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Streuli, S.; Weber, R.; Kastli, H.Chr.; Erdmann, W.

    2007-01-01

    For the barrel part of the CMS pixel tracker about 800 silicon pixel detector modules are required. The modules are bump bonded, assembled and tested at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This article describes the experience acquired during the assembly of the first ~200 modules.

  16. Technological aspects of gaseous pixel detectors fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Salm, Cora; Smits, Sander M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Melai, J.; Chefdeville, M.A.; van der Graaf, H.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated gaseous pixel detectors consisting of a metal punctured foil suspended in the order of 50μm over a pixel readout chip by means by SU-8 insulating pillars have been fabricated. SU-8 is used as sacrificial layer but metallization over uncrosslinked SU-8 presents adhesion and stress

  17. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The bump-bonded silicon pixel detector, developed at CERN by the EP-MIC group, is shown here in its ceramic carrier. Both represent the ISPA-tube anode. The chip features between 1024 (called OMEGA-1) and 8196 (ALICE-1) active pixels.

  18. Frequency-multiplexed bias and readout of a 16-pixel superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerner, S.; Kuzmin, A.; Wuensch, S.; Charaev, I.; Boes, F.; Zwick, T.; Siegel, M.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate a 16-pixel array of microwave-current driven superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with an integrated and scalable frequency-division multiplexing architecture, which reduces the required number of bias and readout lines to a single microwave feed line. The electrical behavior of the photon-sensitive nanowires, embedded in a resonant circuit, as well as the optical performance and timing jitter of the single detectors is discussed. Besides the single pixel measurements, we also demonstrate the operation of a 16-pixel array with a temporal, spatial, and photon-number resolution.

  19. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost element of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  20. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  1. Operational experience of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Marcisovsky, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  2. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Djama, Fares; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Run-2 of the LHC is providing new challenges to track and vertex reconstruction imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered. The ATLAS tracking performance relies critically on the Pixel Detector, therefore, in view of Run-2 of LHC, the ATLAS experiment has constructed the first 4-layer Pixel detector in HEP, installing a new Pixel layer, also called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). Pixel detector was refurbished with a new service quarter panel to recover about 3% of defective modules lost during run-1 and an additional optical link per module was added to overcome in some layers the readout bandwidth limitation when LHC will exceed the nominal peak luminosity by almost a factor of 3. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its operational experience and Pixel Detector performance in LHC.

  3. High accuracy injection circuit for the calibration of a large pixel sensor matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quartieri, E.; Comotti, D.; Manghisoni, M.

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors, for particle tracking and vertexing in high energy physics experiments as well as for X-ray imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs, require a large area sensor matrix. This work will discuss the design and the characterization of a high-linearity, low dispersion injection circuit to be used for pixel-level calibration of detector readout electronics in a large pixel sensor matrix. The circuit provides a useful tool for the characterization of the readout electronics of the pixel cell unit for both monolithic active pixel sensors and hybrid pixel detectors. In the latter case, the circuit allows for precise analogue test of the readout channel already at the chip level, when no sensor is connected. Moreover, it provides a simple means for calibration of readout electronics once the detector has been connected to the chip. Two injection techniques can be provided by the circuit: one for a charge sensitive amplification and the other for a transresistance readout channel. The aim of the paper is to describe the architecture and the design guidelines of the calibration circuit, which has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology. Moreover, experimental results of the proposed injection circuit will be presented in terms of linearity and dispersion

  4. The RD53 collaboration's SystemVerilog-UVM simulation framework and its general applicability to design of advanced pixel readout chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi, S; Christiansen, J; Conti, E; Placidi, P; Hemperek, T

    2014-01-01

    The foreseen Phase 2 pixel upgrades at the LHC have very challenging requirements for the design of hybrid pixel readout chips. A versatile pixel simulation platform is as an essential development tool for the design, verification and optimization of both the system architecture and the pixel chip building blocks (Intellectual Properties, IPs). This work is focused on the implemented simulation and verification environment named VEPIX53, built using the SystemVerilog language and the Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) class library in the framework of the RD53 Collaboration. The environment supports pixel chips at different levels of description: its reusable components feature the generation of different classes of parameterized input hits to the pixel matrix, monitoring of pixel chip inputs and outputs, conformity checks between predicted and actual outputs and collection of statistics on system performance. The environment has been tested performing a study of shared architectures of the trigger latency buffering section of pixel chips. A fully shared architecture and a distributed one have been described at behavioral level and simulated; the resulting memory occupancy statistics and hit loss rates have subsequently been compared

  5. Development of a High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Synchrotrons and XFELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Joel Todd

    Advances in synchrotron radiation light source technology have opened new lines of inquiry in material science, biology, and everything in between. However, x-ray detector capabilities must advance in concert with light source technology to fully realize experimental possibilities. X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) place particularly large demands on the capabilities of detectors, and developments towards diffraction-limited storage ring sources also necessitate detectors capable of measuring very high flux [1-3]. The detector described herein builds on the Mixed Mode Pixel Array Detector (MM-PAD) framework, developed previously by our group to perform high dynamic range imaging, and the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) developed for the European XFEL by a collaboration between Deustsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), the Paul-Scherrer-Institute (PSI), the University of Hamburg, and the University of Bonn, led by Heinz Graafsma [4, 5]. The feasibility of combining adaptive gain with charge removal techniques to increase dynamic range in XFEL experiments is assessed by simulating XFEL scatter with a pulsed infrared laser. The strategy is incorporated into pixel prototypes which are evaluated with direct current injection to simulate very high incident x-ray flux. A fully functional 16x16 pixel hybrid integrating x-ray detector featuring several different pixel architectures based on the prototypes was developed. This dissertation describes its operation and characterization. To extend dynamic range, charge is removed from the integration node of the front-end amplifier without interrupting integration. The number of times this process occurs is recorded by a digital counter in the pixel. The parameter limiting full well is thereby shifted from the size of an integration capacitor to the depth of a digital counter. The result is similar to that achieved by counting pixel array detectors, but the integrators presented here are designed to tolerate a

  6. Optimization of detector pixel size for stent visualization in x-ray fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yuhao; Wilson, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Pixel size is of great interest in the flat-panel detector design because of its potential impact on image quality. In the particular case of angiographic x-ray fluoroscopy, small pixels are required in order to adequately visualize interventional devices such as guidewires and stents which have wire diameters as small as 200 and 50 μm, respectively. We used quantitative experimental and modeling techniques to investigate the optimal pixel size for imaging stents. Image quality was evaluated by the ability of subjects to perform two tasks: detect the presence of a stent and discriminate a partially deployed stent from a fully deployed one in synthetic images. With measurements at 50, 100, 200, and 300 μm, the 100 μm pixel size gave the maximum contrast sensitivity for the detection experiment with the idealized direct detector. For an idealized indirect detector with a scintillating layer, an optimal pixel size was obtained at 200 μm pixel size. A channelized human observer model predicted a peak at 150 and 170 μm, for the idealized direct and indirect detectors, respectively. With regard to the stent deployment task for both detector types, smaller pixel sizes are favored and there is a steep drop in performance with larger pixels. In general, with the increasing exposures, the model and measurements give the enhanced contrast sensitivities and a smaller optimal pixel size. The effects of electronic noise and fill factor were investigated using the model. We believe that the experimental results and human observer model predications can help guide the flat-panel detector design. In addition, the human observer model should work on the similar images and be applicable to the future model and actual flat-panel implementations

  7. Applying Statistical Mechanics to pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pindo, Massimiliano

    2002-01-01

    Pixel detectors, being made of a large number of active cells of the same kind, can be considered as significant sets to which Statistical Mechanics variables and methods can be applied. By properly redefining well known statistical parameters in order to let them match the ones that actually characterize pixel detectors, an analysis of the way they work can be performed in a totally new perspective. A deeper understanding of pixel detectors is attained, helping in the evaluation and comparison of their intrinsic characteristics and performance

  8. LISe pixel detector for neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Elan; Hamm, Daniel [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wiggins, Brenden [Technology Development, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Milburn, Rob [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Burger, Arnold [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Life and Physical Sciences, Fisk University, Nashville, TN (United States); Bilheux, Hassina [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Santodonato, Louis [Instrument and Source Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chvala, Ondrej [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Technology Development, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Lukosi, Eric, E-mail: elukosi@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Semiconducting lithium indium diselenide, {sup 6}LiInSe{sub 2} or LISe, has promising characteristics for neutron detection applications. The 95% isotopic enrichment of {sup 6}Li results in a highly efficient thermal neutron-sensitive material. In this study, we report on a proof-of-principle investigation of a semiconducting LISe pixel detector to demonstrate its potential as an efficient neutron imager. The LISe pixel detector had a 4×4 of pixels with a 550 µm pitch on a 5×5×0.56 mm{sup 3} LISe substrate. An experimentally verified spatial resolution of 300 µm was observed utilizing a super-sampling technique.

  9. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2005-01-01

    A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

  10. High-speed imaging at high x-ray energy: CdTe sensors coupled to charge-integrating pixel array detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Julian; Tate, Mark W.; Shanks, Katherine S.; Philipp, Hugh T.; Weiss, Joel T.; Purohit, Prafull [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Chamberlain, Darol [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gruner, Sol M., E-mail: smg26@cornell.edu [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Pixel Array Detectors (PADs) consist of an x-ray sensor layer bonded pixel-by-pixel to an underlying readout chip. This approach allows both the sensor and the custom pixel electronics to be tailored independently to best match the x-ray imaging requirements. Here we describe the hybridization of CdTe sensors to two different charge-integrating readout chips, the Keck PAD and the Mixed-Mode PAD (MM-PAD), both developed previously in our laboratory. The charge-integrating architecture of each of these PADs extends the instantaneous counting rate by many orders of magnitude beyond that obtainable with photon counting architectures. The Keck PAD chip consists of rapid, 8-frame, in-pixel storage elements with framing periods <150 ns. The second detector, the MM-PAD, has an extended dynamic range by utilizing an in-pixel overflow counter coupled with charge removal circuitry activated at each overflow. This allows the recording of signals from the single-photon level to tens of millions of x-rays/pixel/frame while framing at 1 kHz. Both detector chips consist of a 128×128 pixel array with (150 µm){sup 2} pixels.

  11. Prevalence of Pure Versus Mixed Snow Cover Pixels across Spatial Resolutions in Alpine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Selkowitz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of snow-covered area (SCA can be binary (indicating the presence/absence of snow cover at each pixel or fractional (indicating the fraction of each pixel covered by snow. Fractional SCA mapping provides more information than binary SCA, but is more difficult to implement and may not be feasible with all types of remote sensing data. The utility of fractional SCA mapping relative to binary SCA mapping varies with the intended application as well as by spatial resolution, temporal resolution and period of interest, and climate. We quantified the frequency of occurrence of partially snow-covered (mixed pixels at spatial resolutions between 1 m and 500 m over five dates at two study areas in the western U.S., using 0.5 m binary SCA maps derived from high spatial resolution imagery aggregated to fractional SCA at coarser spatial resolutions. In addition, we used in situ monitoring to estimate the frequency of partially snow-covered conditions for the period September 2013–August 2014 at 10 60-m grid cell footprints at two study areas with continental snow climates. Results from the image analysis indicate that at 40 m, slightly above the nominal spatial resolution of Landsat, mixed pixels accounted for 25%–93% of total pixels, while at 500 m, the nominal spatial resolution of MODIS bands used for snow cover mapping, mixed pixels accounted for 67%–100% of total pixels. Mixed pixels occurred more commonly at the continental snow climate site than at the maritime snow climate site. The in situ data indicate that some snow cover was present between 186 and 303 days, and partial snow cover conditions occurred on 10%–98% of days with snow cover. Four sites remained partially snow-free throughout most of the winter and spring, while six sites were entirely snow covered throughout most or all of the winter and spring. Within 60 m grid cells, the late spring/summer transition from snow-covered to snow-free conditions lasted 17–56 days

  12. Plasmonic nanospherical dimers for color pixels

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2018-01-01

    Display technologies are evolving more toward higher resolution and miniaturization. Plasmonic color pixels can offer solutions to realize such technologies due to their sharp resonances and selective scattering and absorption at particular

  13. Developments of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreazza, Attilio

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS silicon pixel detector is the innermost tracking device of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hardon Collider, consisting of more than 1700 modules for a total sensitive area of about 1.7m2 and over 80 million pixel cells. The concept is a hybrid of front-end chips bump bonded to the pixel sensor. The elementary pixel cell has 50μmx400μm size, providing pulse height information via the time over threshold technique. Prototype devices with oxygenated silicon sensor and rad-hard electronics built in the IBM 0.25μm process have been tested and maintain good resolution, efficiency and timing performances even after receiving the design radiation damage of 1015neq/cm2

  14. Architectural Contestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merle, J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the reductive reading of Georges Bataille's work done within the field of architectural criticism and theory which tends to set aside the fundamental ‘broken’ totality of Bataille's oeuvre and also to narrowly interpret it as a mere critique of architectural form,

  15. Architecture Sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Stal, Michael; Hilliard, Rich

    2013-01-01

    Software architecture is the foundation of software system development, encompassing a system's architects' and stakeholders' strategic decisions. A special issue of IEEE Software is intended to raise awareness of architecture sustainability issues and increase interest and work in the area. The

  16. Memory architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A memory architecture is presented. The memory architecture comprises a first memory and a second memory. The first memory has at least a bank with a first width addressable by a single address. The second memory has a plurality of banks of a second width, said banks being addressable by components

  17. A pixel design for X-ray imaging with CdTe sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambropoulos, C.P.; Zervakis, E.G. [Technological Educational Institute of Halkis, Psahna - Evia (Greece); Loukas, D. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Agia Paraskevi - Attiki (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    A readout architecture appropriate for X-ray Imaging using charge integration has been designed. Each pixel consists of a capacitive transimpedance amplifier, a sample and hold circuit a comparator and an 8 bit DRAM. Pixel level A/D conversion and local storage of the digitized signal is performed. The target sensors are 100{mu}m x 100 {mu}m CdTe pixel detectors and integration time of 1ms or less can be achieved. Special measures have been taken to minimize the gain fixed pattern noise and the reset noise, while purely digital correlation double sampling can be performed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. A pixel design for X-ray imaging with CdTe sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambropoulos, C.P.; Zervakis, E.G.; Loukas, D.

    2008-01-01

    A readout architecture appropriate for X-ray Imaging using charge integration has been designed. Each pixel consists of a capacitive transimpedance amplifier, a sample and hold circuit a comparator and an 8 bit DRAM. Pixel level A/D conversion and local storage of the digitized signal is performed. The target sensors are 100μm x 100 μm CdTe pixel detectors and integration time of 1ms or less can be achieved. Special measures have been taken to minimize the gain fixed pattern noise and the reset noise, while purely digital correlation double sampling can be performed. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Characterization of Ir/Au pixel TES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Zen, N.; Damayanthi, R.M.T.; Mori, F.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Fukuda, D.; Ohkubo, M.

    2006-01-01

    Signal shapes and noise characteristics of an asymmetrical ten-pixel Ir/Au-TES have been studied. The asymmetric design may be effective to realize an imaging spectrometer. Distinct two exponential decays observed for X-ray events are consistent with a two-step R-T curve. A theoretical thermal model for noise in multi-pixel devices reasonably explains the experimental data

  20. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  1. Architectural Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2010-01-01

    a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...

  2. Towards a new generation of pixel detector readout chips

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, M; Ballabriga, R.; Frojdh, E.; Heijne, E.; Llopart, X.; Poikela, T.; Tlustos, L.; Valerio, P.; Wong, W.

    2016-01-01

    The Medipix3 Collaboration has broken new ground in spectroscopic X-ray imaging and in single particle detection and tracking. This paper will review briefly the performance and limitations of the present generation of pixel detector readout chips developed by the Collaboration. Through Silicon Via technology has the potential to provide a significant improvement in the tile- ability and more flexibility in the choice of readout architecture. This has been explored in the context of 3 projects with CEA-LETI using Medipix3 and Timepix3 wafers. The next generation of chips will aim to provide improved spectroscopic imaging performance at rates compatible with human CT. It will also aim to provide full spectroscopic images with unprecedented energy and spatial resolution. Some of the opportunities and challenges posed by moving to a more dense CMOS process will be discussed.

  3. Overview of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Cerati, Giuseppe B

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) will start taking data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2009. It will investigate the proton-proton collisions at $14~TeV$. A robust tracking combined with a precise vertex reconstruction is crucial to address the physics challenge of proton collisions at this energy. To this extent an all-silicon tracking system with very fine granularity has been built and now is in the final commissioning phase. It represents the largest silicon tracking detector ever built. The system is composed by an outer part, made of micro-strip detectors, and an inner one, made of pixel detectors. The pixel detector consists of three pixel barrel layers and two forward disks at each side of the interaction region. Each pixel sensor, both for the barrel and forward detectors, has $100 \\times 150$ $\\mu m^2$ cells for a total of 66 million pixels covering a total area of about $1~m^2$. The pixel detector will play a crucial role in the pattern recognition and the track reconstruction both...

  4. Steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Alan Anwar; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2014-05-01

    This paper focuses on steganography based on pixel intensity value decomposition. A number of existing schemes such as binary, Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, Lucas, and Catalan-Fibonacci (CF) are evaluated in terms of payload capacity and stego quality. A new technique based on a specific representation is proposed to decompose pixel intensity values into 16 (virtual) bit-planes suitable for embedding purposes. The proposed decomposition has a desirable property whereby the sum of all bit-planes does not exceed the maximum pixel intensity value, i.e. 255. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique offers an effective compromise between payload capacity and stego quality of existing embedding techniques based on pixel intensity value decomposition. Its capacity is equal to that of binary and Lucas, while it offers a higher capacity than Fibonacci, Prime, Natural, and CF when the secret bits are embedded in 1st Least Significant Bit (LSB). When the secret bits are embedded in higher bit-planes, i.e., 2nd LSB to 8th Most Significant Bit (MSB), the proposed scheme has more capacity than Natural numbers based embedding. However, from the 6th bit-plane onwards, the proposed scheme offers better stego quality. In general, the proposed decomposition scheme has less effect in terms of quality on pixel value when compared to most existing pixel intensity value decomposition techniques when embedding messages in higher bit-planes.

  5. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  6. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; Seller, P; Prydderch, M L; O'Shea, V; Bates, R L; Smith, K M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 mu m square, 300 mu m deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 mu m.

  7. Focal plane array with modular pixel array components for scalability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Randolph R; Campbell, David V; Shinde, Subhash L; Rienstra, Jeffrey L; Serkland, Darwin K; Holmes, Michael L

    2014-12-09

    A modular, scalable focal plane array is provided as an array of integrated circuit dice, wherein each die includes a given amount of modular pixel array circuitry. The array of dice effectively multiplies the amount of modular pixel array circuitry to produce a larger pixel array without increasing die size. Desired pixel pitch across the enlarged pixel array is preserved by forming die stacks with each pixel array circuitry die stacked on a separate die that contains the corresponding signal processing circuitry. Techniques for die stack interconnections and die stack placement are implemented to ensure that the desired pixel pitch is preserved across the enlarged pixel array.

  8. Graphene metamaterial spatial light modulator for infrared single pixel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kebin; Suen, Jonathan Y; Padilla, Willie J

    2017-10-16

    High-resolution and hyperspectral imaging has long been a goal for multi-dimensional data fusion sensing applications - of interest for autonomous vehicles and environmental monitoring. In the long wave infrared regime this quest has been impeded by size, weight, power, and cost issues, especially as focal-plane array detector sizes increase. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrated a new approach based on a metamaterial graphene spatial light modulator (GSLM) for infrared single pixel imaging. A frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) imaging technique is designed and implemented, and relies entirely on the electronic reconfigurability of the GSLM. We compare our approach to the more common raster-scan method and directly show FDM image frame rates can be 64 times faster with no degradation of image quality. Our device and related imaging architecture are not restricted to the infrared regime, and may be scaled to other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. The study presented here opens a new approach for fast and efficient single pixel imaging utilizing graphene metamaterials with novel acquisition strategies.

  9. Research and Development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Detection of the Elementary Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.

    2007-09-01

    In order to develop high spatial resolution and readout speed vertex detectors for the future International Linear Collider (ILC), fast CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are studied on this work. Two prototypes of MAPS, MIMOSA 8 and MIMOSA 16, based on the same micro-electronic architecture were developed in CMOS processes with different thickness of epitaxial layer. The size of pixel matrix is 32 x 128: 8 columns of the pixel array are readout directly with analog outputs and the other 24 columns are connected to the column level auto-zero discriminators. The Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) structures are successfully implemented inside pixel and discriminator. The photo diode type pixels with different diode sizes are used in these prototypes. With a 55 Fe X-ray radioactive source, the important parameters, such as Temporal Noise, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor (CVF) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE), are studied as function of readout speed and diode size. For MIMOSA 8, the effect of fast neutrons irradiation is also. Two beam tests campaigns were made: at DESY with a 5 GeV electrons beam and at CERN with a 180 GeV pions beam. Detection Efficiency and Spatial Resolution are studied in function of the discriminator threshold. For these two parameters, the influences of diode size and SNR of the central pixel of a cluster are also discussed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the digital outputs, a very compact (25 μm x 1 mm) and low consumption (300 μW) column level ADC is designed in AMS 0.35 μm OPTO process. Based on successive approximation architecture, the auto-offset cancellation structure is integrated. A new column level auto-zero discriminator using static latch is also designed. (author)

  10. MODIS Collection 6 Clear Sky Restoral (CSR): Filtering Cloud Mast 'Not Clear' Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kerry G.; Platnick, Steven Edward; Wind, Galina; Riedi, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Correctly identifying cloudy pixels appropriate for the MOD06 cloud optical and microphysical property retrievals is accomplished in large part using results from the MOD35 1km cloud mask tests (note there are also two 250m subpixel cloud mask tests that can convert the 1km cloudy designations to clear sky). However, because MOD35 is by design clear sky conservative (i.e., it identifies "not clear" pixels), certain situations exist in which pixels identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" are nevertheless likely to be poor retrieval candidates. For instance, near the edge of clouds or within broken cloud fields, a given 1km MODIS field of view (FOV) may in fact only be partially cloudy. This can be problematic for the MOD06 retrievals because in these cases the assumptions of a completely overcast homogenous cloudy FOV and 1-dimensional plane-parallel radiative transfer no longer hold, and subsequent retrievals will be of low confidence. Furthermore, some pixels may be identified by MOD35 as "cloudy" for reasons other than the presence of clouds, such as scenes with thick smoke or lofted dust, and should therefore not be retrieved as clouds. With such situations in mind, a Clear Sky Restoral (CSR) algorithm was introduced in C5 that attempts to identify pixels expected to be poor retrieval candidates. Table 1 provides SDS locations for CSR and partly cloudy (PCL) pixels.

  11. Development and simulation results of a sparsification and readout circuit for wide pixel matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Morsani, F.; Villa, M.

    2011-01-01

    In future collider experiments, the increasing luminosity and centre of mass energy are rising challenging problems in the design of new inner tracking systems. In this context we develop high-efficiency readout architectures for large binary pixel matrices that are meant to cope with the high-stressing conditions foreseen in the innermost layers of a tracker [The SuperB Conceptual Design Report, INFN/AE-07/02, SLAC-R-856, LAL 07-15, Available online at: (http://www.pi.infn.it/SuperB)]. We model and design digital readout circuits to be integrated on VLSI ASICs. These architectures can be realized with different technology processes and sensors: they can be implemented on the same silicon sensor substrate of a CMOS MAPS devices (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), on the CMOS tier of a hybrid pixel sensor or in a 3D chip where the digital layer is stacked on the sensor and the analog layers [V. Re et al., Nuc. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, (doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.05.039)]. In the presented work, we consider a data-push architecture designed for a sensor matrix of an area of about 1.3 cm 2 with a pitch of 50 microns. The readout circuit tries to take great advantage of the high density of in-pixel digital logic allowed by vertical integration. We aim at sustaining a rate density of 100 Mtrack . s -1 . cm -2 with a temporal resolution below 1 μs. We show how this architecture can cope with these stressing conditions presenting the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Development and simulation results of a sparsification and readout circuit for wide pixel matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F. [University and INFN of Bologna (Italy); Morsani, F. [University and INFN of Pisa (Italy); Villa, M. [University and INFN of Bologna (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    In future collider experiments, the increasing luminosity and centre of mass energy are rising challenging problems in the design of new inner tracking systems. In this context we develop high-efficiency readout architectures for large binary pixel matrices that are meant to cope with the high-stressing conditions foreseen in the innermost layers of a tracker [The SuperB Conceptual Design Report, INFN/AE-07/02, SLAC-R-856, LAL 07-15, Available online at: (http://www.pi.infn.it/SuperB)]. We model and design digital readout circuits to be integrated on VLSI ASICs. These architectures can be realized with different technology processes and sensors: they can be implemented on the same silicon sensor substrate of a CMOS MAPS devices (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor), on the CMOS tier of a hybrid pixel sensor or in a 3D chip where the digital layer is stacked on the sensor and the analog layers [V. Re et al., Nuc. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, (doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.05.039)]. In the presented work, we consider a data-push architecture designed for a sensor matrix of an area of about 1.3 cm{sup 2} with a pitch of 50 microns. The readout circuit tries to take great advantage of the high density of in-pixel digital logic allowed by vertical integration. We aim at sustaining a rate density of 100 Mtrack . s{sup -1} . cm{sup -2} with a temporal resolution below 1 {mu}s. We show how this architecture can cope with these stressing conditions presenting the results of Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Spatial clustering of pixels of a multispectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-08-19

    A method and system for clustering the pixels of a multispectral image is provided. A clustering system computes a maximum spectral similarity score for each pixel that indicates the similarity between that pixel and the most similar neighboring. To determine the maximum similarity score for a pixel, the clustering system generates a similarity score between that pixel and each of its neighboring pixels and then selects the similarity score that represents the highest similarity as the maximum similarity score. The clustering system may apply a filtering criterion based on the maximum similarity score so that pixels with similarity scores below a minimum threshold are not clustered. The clustering system changes the current pixel values of the pixels in a cluster based on an averaging of the original pixel values of the pixels in the cluster.

  14. Architectural technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The booklet offers an overall introduction to the Institute of Architectural Technology and its projects and activities, and an invitation to the reader to contact the institute or the individual researcher for further information. The research, which takes place at the Institute of Architectural...... Technology at the Roayl Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, reflects a spread between strategic, goal-oriented pilot projects, commissioned by a ministry, a fund or a private company, and on the other hand projects which originate from strong personal interests and enthusiasm of individual...

  15. Systemic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poletto, Marco; Pasquero, Claudia

    -up or tactical design, behavioural space and the boundary of the natural and the artificial realms within the city and architecture. A new kind of "real-time world-city" is illustrated in the form of an operational design manual for the assemblage of proto-architectures, the incubation of proto-gardens...... and the coding of proto-interfaces. These prototypes of machinic architecture materialize as synthetic hybrids embedded with biological life (proto-gardens), computational power, behavioural responsiveness (cyber-gardens), spatial articulation (coMachines and fibrous structures), remote sensing (FUNclouds...

  16. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  17. Monolithic pixel development in TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS for the outer pixel layers in the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdalovic, I.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Cardella, R.; Egidos Plaja, N.; Hemperek, T.; Hiti, B.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Kugathasan, T.; Mandic, I.; Maneuski, D.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Moustakas, K.; Musa, L.; Pernegger, H.; Riedler, P.; Riegel, C.; Schaefer, D.; Schioppa, E. J.; Sharma, A.; Snoeys, W.; Solans Sanchez, C.; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.

    2018-01-01

    The upgrade of the ATLAS tracking detector (ITk) for the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires the development of novel radiation hard silicon sensor technologies. Latest developments in CMOS sensor processing offer the possibility of combining high-resistivity substrates with on-chip high-voltage biasing to achieve a large depleted active sensor volume. We have characterised depleted monolithic active pixel sensors (DMAPS), which were produced in a novel modified imaging process implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process in the framework of the monolithic sensor development for the ALICE experiment. Sensors fabricated in this modified process feature full depletion of the sensitive layer, a sensor capacitance of only a few fF and radiation tolerance up to 1015 neq/cm2. This paper summarises the measurements of charge collection properties in beam tests and in the laboratory using radioactive sources and edge TCT. The results of these measurements show significantly improved radiation hardness obtained for sensors manufactured using the modified process. This has opened the way to the design of two large scale demonstrators for the ATLAS ITk. To achieve a design compatible with the requirements of the outer pixel layers of the tracker, a charge sensitive front-end taking 500 nA from a 1.8 V supply is combined with a fast digital readout architecture. The low-power front-end with a 25 ns time resolution exploits the low sensor capacitance to reduce noise and analogue power, while the implemented readout architectures minimise power by reducing the digital activity.

  18. A robust sub-pixel edge detection method of infrared image based on tremor-based retinal receptive field model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Yang, Hu; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Because of complex thermal objects in an infrared image, the prevalent image edge detection operators are often suitable for a certain scene and extract too wide edges sometimes. From a biological point of view, the image edge detection operators work reliably when assuming a convolution-based receptive field architecture. A DoG (Difference-of- Gaussians) model filter based on ON-center retinal ganglion cell receptive field architecture with artificial eye tremors introduced is proposed for the image contour detection. Aiming at the blurred edges of an infrared image, the subsequent orthogonal polynomial interpolation and sub-pixel level edge detection in rough edge pixel neighborhood is adopted to locate the foregoing rough edges in sub-pixel level. Numerical simulations show that this method can locate the target edge accurately and robustly.

  19. A liquid-crystal-on-silicon color sequential display using frame buffer pixel circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangrok

    Next generation liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) high definition (HD) televisions and image projection displays will need to be low-cost and high quality to compete with existing systems based on digital micromirror devices (DMDs), plasma displays, and direct view liquid crystal displays. In this thesis, a novel frame buffer pixel architecture that buffers data for the next image frame while displaying the current frame, offers such a competitive solution is presented. The primary goal of the thesis is to demonstrate the LCOS microdisplay architecture for high quality image projection displays and at potentially low cost. The thesis covers four main research areas: new frame buffer pixel circuits to improve the LCOS performance, backplane architecture design and testing, liquid crystal modes for the LCOS microdisplay, and system integration and demonstration. The design requirements for the LCOS backplane with a 64 x 32 pixel array are addressed and measured electrical characteristics matches to computer simulation results. Various liquid crystal (LC) modes applicable for LCOS microdisplays and their physical properties are discussed. One- and two-dimensional director simulations are performed for the selected LC modes. Test liquid crystal cells with the selected LC modes are made and their electro-optic effects are characterized. The 64 x 32 LCOS microdisplays fabricated with the best LC mode are optically tested with interface circuitry. The characteristics of the LCOS microdisplays are summarized with the successful demonstration.

  20. Design and Characterization of 64K Pixels Chips Working in Single Photon Processing Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Llopart Cudie, Xavier; Campbell, M

    2007-01-01

    Progress in CMOS technology and in fine pitch bump bonding has made possible the development of high granularity single photon counting detectors for X-ray imaging. This thesis studies the design and characterization of three pulse processing chips with 65536 square pixels of 55 µm x 55 µm designed in a commercial 0.25 µm 6-metal CMOS technology. The 3 chips share the same architecture and dimensions and are named Medipix2, Mpix2MXR20 and Timepix. The Medipix2 chip is a pixel detector readout chip consisting of 256 x 256 identical elements, each working in single photon counting mode for positive or negative input charge signals. The preamplifier feedback provides compensation for detector leakage current on a pixel by pixel basis. Two identical pulse height discriminators are used to define an energy window. Every event falling inside the energy window is counted with a 13 bit pseudo-random counter. The counter logic, based in a shift register, also behaves as the input/output register for the pixel. Each...

  1. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    environments and a knowledge gap therefore exists in present hospital designs. Consequently, the purpose of this thesis has been to investigate if any research-based knowledge exist supporting the hypothesis that the interior architectural qualities of eating environments influence patient food intake, health...... and well-being, as well as outline a set of basic design principles ‘predicting’ the future interior architectural qualities of patient eating environments. Methodologically the thesis is based on an explorative study employing an abductive approach and hermeneutic-interpretative strategy utilizing tactics...... and food intake, as well as a series of references exist linking the interior architectural qualities of healthcare environments with the health and wellbeing of patients. On the basis of these findings, the thesis presents the concept of Architectural Theatricality as well as a set of design principles...

  2. Conceptual design of 3D integrated pixel sensors for the innermost layer of the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y; Hu-Guo, C; Dorokhov, A; Zhao, W; Hu, Y; Torheim, O

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a design of CMOS Pixel Sensor (CPS) using the vertical integration technology (3DIT), expected to alleviate the most essential limitations of 2D-CPS. Our objective is to develop an intelligent architecture in order to meet the requirements of the innermost layer of the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detectors, which are particularly demanding in spatial resolution of less than 3 μm and associated frame readout time of 10 μs. The sensor, with a pixel pitch of 23 μm, will be composed of 3-tiers Integrated Circuits (IC) with different functionalities: detection with in pixel analogue processing, pixel-level 3-bit Analogue to Digital Conversion (ADC) and fast parallel sparse readout.

  3. PIXEL PATTERN BASED STEGANOGRAPHY ON IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rejani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the drawback of most of the existing steganography methods is that it alters the bits used for storing color information. Some of the examples include LSB or MSB based steganography. There are also various existing methods like Dynamic RGB Intensity Based Steganography Scheme, Secure RGB Image Steganography from Pixel Indicator to Triple Algorithm etc that can be used to find out the steganography method used and break it. Another drawback of the existing methods is that it adds noise to the image which makes the image look dull or grainy making it suspicious for a person about existence of a hidden message within the image. To overcome these shortcomings we have come up with a pixel pattern based steganography which involved hiding the message within in image by using the existing RGB values whenever possible at pixel level or with minimum changes. Along with the image a key will also be used to decrypt the message stored at pixel levels. For further protection, both the message stored as well as the key file will be in encrypted format which can have same or different keys or decryption. Hence we call it as a RGB pixel pattern based steganography.

  4. SVM Pixel Classification on Colour Image Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barui, Subhrajit; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of image segmentation is to simplify the representation of an image with the help of cluster pixels into something meaningful to analyze. Segmentation is typically used to locate boundaries and curves in an image, precisely to label every pixel in an image to give each pixel an independent identity. SVM pixel classification on colour image segmentation is the topic highlighted in this paper. It holds useful application in the field of concept based image retrieval, machine vision, medical imaging and object detection. The process is accomplished step by step. At first we need to recognize the type of colour and the texture used as an input to the SVM classifier. These inputs are extracted via local spatial similarity measure model and Steerable filter also known as Gabon Filter. It is then trained by using FCM (Fuzzy C-Means). Both the pixel level information of the image and the ability of the SVM Classifier undergoes some sophisticated algorithm to form the final image. The method has a well developed segmented image and efficiency with respect to increased quality and faster processing of the segmented image compared with the other segmentation methods proposed earlier. One of the latest application result is the Light L16 camera.

  5. Pixels, Blocks of Pixels, and Polygons: Choosing a Spatial Unit for Thematic Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pixels, polygons, and blocks of pixels are all potentially viable spatial assessment units for conducting an accuracy assessment. We develop a statistical population-based framework to examine how the spatial unit chosen affects the outcome of an accuracy assessment. The populati...

  6. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  7. The pin pixel detector--neutron imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a neutron gas pixel detector intended for application in neutron diffraction studies is reported. Using standard electrical connector pins as point anodes, the detector is based on a commercial 100 pin connector block. A prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mmx25.4 mm has been fabricated, giving a pixel size of 2.54 mm which matches well to the spatial resolution typically required in a neutron diffractometer. A 2-Dimensional resistive divide readout system has been adapted to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics. The timing properties of the device match well to the requirements of the ISIS-pulsed neutron source.

  8. Performance of active edge pixel sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomben, M.; Ducourthial, A.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Bosisio, L.; Calderini, G.; D'Eramo, L.; Giacomini, G.; Marchiori, G.; Zorzi, N.; Rummler, A.; Weingarten, J.

    2017-05-01

    To cope with the High Luminosity LHC harsh conditions, the ATLAS inner tracker has to be upgraded to meet requirements in terms of radiation hardness, pile up and geometrical acceptance. The active edge technology allows to reduce the insensitive area at the border of the sensor thanks to an ion etched trench which avoids the crystal damage produced by the standard mechanical dicing process. Thin planar n-on-p pixel sensors with active edge have been designed and produced by LPNHE and FBK foundry. Two detector module prototypes, consisting of pixel sensors connected to FE-I4B readout chips, have been tested with beams at CERN and DESY. In this paper the performance of these modules are reported. In particular the lateral extension of the detection volume, beyond the pixel region, is investigated and the results show high hit efficiency also at the detector edge, even in presence of guard rings.

  9. Active Pixel Sensors: Are CCD's Dinosaurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    Charge-coupled devices (CCD's) are presently the technology of choice for most imaging applications. In the 23 years since their invention in 1970, they have evolved to a sophisticated level of performance. However, as with all technologies, we can be certain that they will be supplanted someday. In this paper, the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology is explored as a possible successor to the CCD. An active pixel is defined as a detector array technology that has at least one active transistor within the pixel unit cell. The APS eliminates the need for nearly perfect charge transfer -- the Achilles' heel of CCDs. This perfect charge transfer makes CCD's radiation 'soft,' difficult to use under low light conditions, difficult to manufacture in large array sizes, difficult to integrate with on-chip electronics, difficult to use at low temperatures, difficult to use at high frame rates, and difficult to manufacture in non-silicon materials that extend wavelength response.

  10. Dense Iterative Contextual Pixel Classification using Kriging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Loog, Marco; Brandt, Sami

    2009-01-01

    have been proposed to this end, e.g., iterative contextual pixel classification, iterated conditional modes, and other approaches related to Markov random fields. A problem of these methods, however, is their computational complexity, especially when dealing with high-resolution images in which......In medical applications, segmentation has become an ever more important task. One of the competitive schemes to perform such segmentation is by means of pixel classification. Simple pixel-based classification schemes can be improved by incorporating contextual label information. Various methods...... relatively long range interactions may play a role. We propose a new method based on Kriging that makes it possible to include such long range interactions, while keeping the computations manageable when dealing with large medical images....

  11. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... proportions, to organize the process on site choosing either one room wall components or several rooms wall components – either horizontally or vertically. Combined with the seamless joint the playing with these possibilities the new industrialized architecture can deliver variations in choice of solutions...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  12. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... expression in the specific housing area. It is the aim of this article to expand the different design strategies which architects can use – to give the individual project attitudes and designs with architectural quality. Through the customized component production it is possible to choose different...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  13. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  14. A smart-pixel holographic competitive learning network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Timothy Michael

    Neural networks are adaptive classifiers which modify their decision boundaries based on feedback from externally- or internally-generated error signals. Optics is an attractive technology for neural network implementation because it offers the possibility of parallel, nearly instantaneous computation of the weighted neuron inputs by the propagation of light through the optical system. Using current optical device technology, system performance levels of 3 × 1011 connection updates per second can be achieved. This thesis presents an architecture for an optical competitive learning network which offers advantages over previous optical implementations, including smart-pixel-based optical neurons, phase- conjugate self-alignment of a single neuron plane, and high-density, parallel-access weight storage, interconnection, and learning in a volume hologram. The competitive learning algorithm with modifications for optical implementation is described, and algorithm simulations are performed for an example problem. The optical competitive learning architecture is then introduced. The optical system is simulated using the ``beamprop'' algorithm at the level of light propagating through the system components, and results showing competitive learning operation in agreement with the algorithm simulations are presented. The optical competitive learning requires a non-linear, non-local ``winner-take-all'' (WTA) neuron function. Custom-designed smart-pixel WTA neuron arrays were fabricated using CMOS VLSI/liquid crystal technology. Results of laboratory tests of the WTA arrays' switching characteristics, time response, and uniformity are then presented. The system uses a phase-conjugate mirror to write the self-aligning interconnection weight holograms, and energy gain is required from the reflection to minimize erasure of the existing weights. An experimental system for characterizing the PCM response is described. Useful gains of 20 were obtained with a polarization

  15. Novel micropixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) with super high pixel density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, N.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Dovlatov, A.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Guskov, A.; Khovanskiy, N.; Krumshtein, Z.; Leitner, R.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Nagaytsev, A.; Olchevski, A.; Rezinko, T.; Sadovskiy, A.; Sadygov, Z.; Savin, I.; Tchalyshev, V.; Tyapkin, I.; Yarygin, G.; Zerrouk, F.

    2011-01-01

    In many detectors based on scintillators the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are used as photodetectors. At present photodiodes are finding wide application. Solid state photodetectors allow operation in strong magnetic fields that are often present in applications, e.g. some calorimeters operating near magnets, combined PET and MRT, etc. The photon detection efficiency (PDE) of photodiodes may reach values a few times higher than that of PMTs. Also, they are rigid, compact and have relatively low operating voltage. In the last few years Micropixel Avalanche PhotoDiodes (MAPD) have been developed and started to be used. The MAPD combines a lot of advantages of semiconductor photodetectors and has a high gain, which is close to that of the PMT. Yet, they have some disadvantages, and one of them is a limited dynamic range that corresponds to a total number of pixels. The novel deep microwell MAPD with high pixel density produced by the Zecotek Company partially avoids this disadvantage. In this paper characteristics of these photodetectors are presented in comparison with the PMT characteristics. The results refer to measurements of the gain, PDE, cross-talks, photon counting and applications: beam test results of two different 'Shashlyk' EM calorimeters for COMPASS (CERN) and NICA-MPD (JINR) with the MAPD readout and a possibility of using the MAPD in PET.

  16. Pixel-based OPC optimization based on conjugate gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xu; Arce, Gonzalo R

    2011-01-31

    Optical proximity correction (OPC) methods are resolution enhancement techniques (RET) used extensively in the semiconductor industry to improve the resolution and pattern fidelity of optical lithography. In pixel-based OPC (PBOPC), the mask is divided into small pixels, each of which is modified during the optimization process. Two critical issues in PBOPC are the required computational complexity of the optimization process, and the manufacturability of the optimized mask. Most current OPC optimization methods apply the steepest descent (SD) algorithm to improve image fidelity augmented by regularization penalties to reduce the complexity of the mask. Although simple to implement, the SD algorithm converges slowly. The existing regularization penalties, however, fall short in meeting the mask rule check (MRC) requirements often used in semiconductor manufacturing. This paper focuses on developing OPC optimization algorithms based on the conjugate gradient (CG) method which exhibits much faster convergence than the SD algorithm. The imaging formation process is represented by the Fourier series expansion model which approximates the partially coherent system as a sum of coherent systems. In order to obtain more desirable manufacturability properties of the mask pattern, a MRC penalty is proposed to enlarge the linear size of the sub-resolution assistant features (SRAFs), as well as the distances between the SRAFs and the main body of the mask. Finally, a projection method is developed to further reduce the complexity of the optimized mask pattern.

  17. Novel micropixel avalanche photodiodes (MAPD) with superhigh pixel density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anfimov, N.; Chirikov-Zorin, I.; Dovlatov, A.

    2010-01-01

    In many detectors based on scintillators the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are used as photodetectors. At present photodiodes are finding wide application. Solid state photodetectors allow operation in strong magnetic fields that are often present in applications, e.g., some calorimeters operating near magnets, combined PET and MRT, etc. The photon detection efficiency (PDE) of photodiodes may reach values a few times higher than that of PMTs. Also, they are rigid, compact and have relatively low operating voltage. In the last few years Micropixel Avalanche PhotoDiodes (MAPDs) have been developed and started to be used. The MAPD combines a lot of advantages of semiconductor photodetectors and has a high gain, which is close to that of the PMT. Yet, they have some disadvantages, and one of them is a limited dynamic range that corresponds to a total number of pixels. The novel deep microwell MAPD with high pixel density produced by Zecotek Company partially avoids this disadvantage. In this paper characteristics of these photodetectors are presented in comparison with the PMT characteristics. The results refer to measurements of the gain, PDE, cross-talks, photon counting and applications: beam test results of two different 'Shashlyk' EM calorimeters for COMPASS (CERN) and NICA-MPD (JINR) with the MAPD readout and a possibility of using the MAPD in PET

  18. PICNIC Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranummi, Niilo

    2005-01-01

    The PICNIC architecture aims at supporting inter-enterprise integration and the facilitation of collaboration between healthcare organisations. The concept of a Regional Health Economy (RHE) is introduced to illustrate the varying nature of inter-enterprise collaboration between healthcare organisations collaborating in providing health services to citizens and patients in a regional setting. The PICNIC architecture comprises a number of PICNIC IT Services, the interfaces between them and presents a way to assemble these into a functioning Regional Health Care Network meeting the needs and concerns of its stakeholders. The PICNIC architecture is presented through a number of views relevant to different stakeholder groups. The stakeholders of the first view are national and regional health authorities and policy makers. The view describes how the architecture enables the implementation of national and regional health policies, strategies and organisational structures. The stakeholders of the second view, the service viewpoint, are the care providers, health professionals, patients and citizens. The view describes how the architecture supports and enables regional care delivery and process management including continuity of care (shared care) and citizen-centred health services. The stakeholders of the third view, the engineering view, are those that design, build and implement the RHCN. The view comprises four sub views: software engineering, IT services engineering, security and data. The proposed architecture is founded into the main stream of how distributed computing environments are evolving. The architecture is realised using the web services approach. A number of well established technology platforms and generic standards exist that can be used to implement the software components. The software components that are specified in PICNIC are implemented in Open Source.

  19. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...... to this systematic thinking of the building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture. Creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind the architectural expression....

  20. Commissioning of the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golling, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is a high precision silicon tracking device located closest to the LHC interaction point. It belongs to the first generation of its kind in a hadron collider experiment. It will provide crucial pattern recognition information and will largely determine the ability of ATLAS to precisely track particle trajectories and find secondary vertices. It was the last detector to be installed in ATLAS in June 2007, has been fully connected and tested in-situ during spring and summer 2008, and is ready for the imminent LHC turn-on. The highlights of the past and future commissioning activities of the ATLAS pixel system are presented

  1. Wafer-scale pixelated detector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Zimmerman, Tom

    2017-10-17

    A large area, gapless, detection system comprises at least one sensor; an interposer operably connected to the at least one sensor; and at least one application specific integrated circuit operably connected to the sensor via the interposer wherein the detection system provides high dynamic range while maintaining small pixel area and low power dissipation. Thereby the invention provides methods and systems for a wafer-scale gapless and seamless detector systems with small pixels, which have both high dynamic range and low power dissipation.

  2. Technology development for SOI monolithic pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczewski, J.; Domanski, K.; Grabiec, P.; Grodner, M.; Jaroszewicz, B.; Kociubinski, A.; Kucharski, K.; Tomaszewski, D.; Caccia, M.; Kucewicz, W.; Niemiec, H.

    2006-01-01

    A monolithic detector of ionizing radiation has been manufactured using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers with a high-resistivity substrate. In our paper the integration of a standard 3 μm CMOS technology, originally designed for bulk devices, with fabrication of pixels in the bottom wafer of a SOI substrate is described. Both technological sequences have been merged minimizing thermal budget and providing suitable properties of all the technological layers. The achieved performance proves that fully depleted monolithic active pixel matrix might be a viable option for a wide spectrum of future applications

  3. Operational Experience with the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00205212

    2015-05-15

    In the first LHC running period the CMS-pixel detector had to face various operational challenges and had to adapt to the rapidly changing beam conditions. In order to maximize the physics potential and the quality of the data, online and offline calibrations were performed on a regular basis. The detector performed excellently with an average hit efficiency above 99\\% for all layers and disks. In this contribution the operational challenges of the silicon pixel detector in the first LHC run and the current long shutdown are summarized and the expectations for 2015 are discussed.

  4. Operational experience with the CMS pixel detector in LHC Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Karancsi, Janos

    2016-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector was repaired successfully, calibrated and commissioned for the second run of Large Hadron Collider during the first long shutdown between 2013 and 2015. The replaced pixel modules were calibrated separately and show the expected behavior of an un-irradiated detector. In 2015, the system performed very well with an even improved spatial resolution compared to 2012. During this time, the operational team faced various challenges including the loss of a sector in one half shell which was only partially recovered. In 2016, the detector is expected to withstand instantaneous luminosities beyond the design limits and will need a combined effort of both online and offline teams in order to provide the high quality data that is required to reach the physics goals of CMS. We present the operational experience gained during the second run of the LHC and show the latest performance results of the CMS pixel detector.

  5. Development of radiation hard CMOS active pixel sensors for HL-LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernegger, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    New pixel detectors, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full CMOS processes, hold promise as next-generation active pixel sensors for inner and intermediate layers of the upgraded ATLAS tracker. The use of commercial CMOS processes allow cost-effective detector construction and simpler hybridisation techniques. The paper gives an overview of the results obtained on AMS-produced CMOS sensors coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chips. The SOI (silicon-on-insulator) produced sensors by XFAB hold great promise as radiation hard SOI-CMOS sensors due to their combination of partially depleted SOI transistors reducing back-gate effects. The test results include pre-/post-irradiation comparison, measurements of charge collection regions as well as test beam results.

  6. How spectroscopic x-ray imaging benefits from inter-pixel communication

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, Thomas; Hamann, Elias; Cecilia, Angelica; Ballabriga, Rafael; Campbell, Michael; Ruat, Marie; Tlustos, Lukas; Fauler, Alex; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic x-ray imaging based on pixellated semiconductor detectors can be sensitive to charge sharing and K-fluorescence, depending on the sensor material used, its thickness and the pixel pitch employed. As a consequence, spectroscopic resolution is partially lost. In this paper, we study a new detector ASIC, the Medipix3RX, that offers a novel feature called charge summing, which is established by making adjacent pixels communicate with each other. Consequently, single photon interactions resulting in multiple hits are almost completely avoided. We investigate this charge summing mode with respect to those of its imaging properties that are of interest in medical physics and benchmark them against the case without charge summing. In particular, we review its influence on spectroscopic resolution and find that the low energy bias normally present when recording energy spectra is dramatically reduced. Furthermore, we show that charge summing provides a modulation transfer function which is almost indepen...

  7. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  8. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  9. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  10. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  11. Implementing a real-time chain of segmentation of images on a multi-FPGA architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Mohamed; Zahirazami, Shahram

    1998-03-01

    In this paper we present the study and the implementation of an optimized chain of segmentation operators. We implemented this chain in real time, consisting of a Deriche contour detection, double threshold, closing of contours and finally region labeling, on a multi-FPGA architecture. This architecture has four processing FPGAs and four memory modules. Deriche operator, closing of contours and labeling occupy each one an FPGA. Double threshold and detection of the extremities filled partially the forth FPGA. The slowest component of the chain is Deriche operator which can go up to 11.4 Mhz, assuring the process of an image every 40 ms. Deriche operator tries to extract the contours by assuming that a contour is a step super positioned by a white gaussian noise. Our implementation consists of a smoothing part of four second order filters and a Sobel as a derivation part. The second order filters are causal and non-causal horizontal and vertical operators. The gradient image passes through a double threshold filter to select the real contours and the crests and the background pixels. Closing of contours eliminates the false crests and finally the labeling gives a unique label to each closed region. The latency of the chain is in the order of three images. This implementation shows the efficiency of the chain and also it demonstrates the capabilities of our architecture as a prototyping system.

  12. From hybrid to CMOS pixels ... a possibility for LHC's pixel future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermes, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors have been invented for the LHC to make tracking and vertexing possible at all in LHC's radiation intense environment. The LHC pixel detectors have meanwhile very successfully fulfilled their promises and R and D for the planned HL-LHC upgrade is in full swing, targeting even higher ionising doses and non-ionising fluences. In terms of rate and radiation tolerance hybrid pixels are unrivaled. But they have disadvantages as well, most notably material thickness, production complexity, and cost. Meanwhile also active pixel sensors (DEPFET, MAPS) have become real pixel detectors but they would by far not stand the rates and radiation faced from HL-LHC. New MAPS developments, so-called DMAPS (depleted MAPS) which are full CMOS-pixel structures with charge collection in a depleted region have come in the R and D focus for pixels at high rate/radiation levels. This goal can perhaps be realised exploiting HV technologies, high ohmic substrates and/or SOI based technologies. The paper covers the main ideas and some encouraging results from prototyping R and D, not hiding the difficulties

  13. Relational Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    in a scholarly institution (element #3), as well as the certified PhD scholar (element #4) and the architectural profession, notably its labour market (element #5). This first layer outlines the contemporary context which allows architectural research to take place in a dynamic relationship to doctoral education...... a human and institutional development going on since around 1990 when the present PhD institution was first implemented in Denmark. To be sure, the model is centred around the PhD dissertation (element #1). But it involves four more components: the PhD candidate (element #2), his or her supervisor...... and interrelated fields in which history, place, and sound come to emphasize architecture’s relational qualities rather than the apparent three-dimensional solidity of constructed space. A third layer of relational architecture is at stake in the professional experiences after the defence of the authors...

  14. Architectural Anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    Architecture and anthropology have always had a common focus on dwelling, housing, urban life and spatial organisation. Current developments in both disciplines make it even more relevant to explore their boundaries and overlaps. Architects are inspired by anthropological insights and methods......, while recent material and spatial turns in anthropology have also brought an increasing interest in design, architecture and the built environment. Understanding the relationship between the social and the physical is at the heart of both disciplines, and they can obviously benefit from further...... collaboration: How can qualitative anthropological approaches contribute to contemporary architecture? And just as importantly: What can anthropologists learn from architects’ understanding of spatial and material surroundings? Recent theoretical developments in anthropology stress the role of materials...

  15. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  16. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Macchiolo, Anna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The new ATLAS ITk pixel system will be installed during the LHC Phase-II shutdown, to better take advantage of the increased luminosity of the HL-LHC. The detector will consist of 5 layers of stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions, covering up to |η| < 4. While the outer 3 layers of the Pixel Detector are designed to operate for the full HL-LHC data taking period, the innermost 2 layers of the detector will be replaced around half of the lifetime. The ITk pixel detector will be instrumented with new sensors and readout electronics to provide improved tracking performance and radiation hardness compared to the current detector. Sensors will be read out by new ASICs based on the chip developed by the RD53 Collaboration. The pixel off-detector readout electronics will be implemented in the framework of the general ATLAS trigger and DAQ system with a readout speed of up to 5 Gb/s per data link for the innermost layers. Results of extensive tests...

  17. Plasmonic nanospherical dimers for color pixels

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2018-04-20

    Display technologies are evolving more toward higher resolution and miniaturization. Plasmonic color pixels can offer solutions to realize such technologies due to their sharp resonances and selective scattering and absorption at particular wavelengths. Metal nanosphere dimers are capable of supporting plasmon resonances that can be tuned to span the entire visible spectrum. In this article, we demonstrate numerically bright color pixels that are highly polarized and broadly tuned using periodic arrays of metal nanosphere dimers on a glass substrate. We show that it is possible to obtain RGB pixels in the reflection mode. The longitudinal plasmon resonance of nanosphere dimers along the axis of the dimer is the main contributor to the color of the pixel, while far-field diffractive coupling further enhances and tunes the plasmon resonance. The computational method used is the finite-difference time-domain method. The advantages of this approach include simplicity of the design, bright coloration, and highly polarized function. In addition, we show that it is possible to obtain different colors by varying the angle of incidence, the periodicity, the size of the dimer, the gap, and the substrate thickness.

  18. ATLAS Pixel Group - Photo Gallery from Irradiation

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Photos 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 - Photos taken before irradiation of Pixel Test Analog Chip and Pmbars (April 2000) Photos 8,9,10,11 - Irradiation of VDC chips (May 2000) Photos 12, 13 - Irradiation of Passive Components (June 2000) Photos 14,15, 16 - Irradiation of Marebo Chip (November 1999)

  19. What's A Pixel Particle Sensor Chip?

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS particle physics experiment aided with collaboration ON Semiconductor was recently honored by the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), with an Industrial Award recognizing the company's contribution in supplying complex "Pixel Particle Sensor" chips for use in CERN's ATLAS particle physics experiment.

  20. Access To The PMM's Pixel Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monet, D.; Levine, S.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station is in the process of enabling access to the Precision Measuring Machine (PMM) program's pixel database. The initial release will include the pixels from the PMM's scans of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey I (POSS-I) -O and -E surveys, the Whiteoak Extension, the European Southern Observatory-R survey, the Science and Engineering Council-J, -EJ, and -ER surveys, and the Anglo- Australian Observatory-R survey. (The SERC-ER and AAO-R surveys are currently incomplete.) As time allows, access to the POSS-II -J, -F, and -N surveys, the Palomar Infrared Milky Way Atlas, the Yale/San Juan Southern Proper Motion survey, and plates rejected by various surveys will be added. (POSS-II -J and -F are complete, but -N was never finished.) Eventually, some 10 Tbytes of pixel data will be available. Due to funding and technology limitations, the initial interface will have only limited functionality, and access time will be slow since the archive is stored on Digital Linear Tape (DLT). Usage of the pixel data will be restricted to non-commercial, scientific applications, and agreements on copyright issues have yet to be finalized. The poster presentation will give the URL.

  1. JPL CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will present the JPL-developed complementary metal- oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology. The CMOS APS has achieved performance comparable to charge coupled devices, yet features ultra low power operation, random access readout, on-chip timing and control, and on-chip analog to digital conversion. Previously published open literature will be reviewed.

  2. Planar pixel sensors in commercial CMOS technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the high luminosity LHC, an all-silicon tracker is foreseen to cope with the increased rate and radiation levels. Pixel and strip detectors will have to cover an area of up to 200m2. To produce modules in high number at reduced costs, new sensor and bonding technologies have to be investigated. Commercial CMOS technologies on high resistive substrates can provide significant advantages in this direction. They offer cost effective, large volume sensor production. In addition to this, production is done on 8'' wafers allowing wafer-to-wafer bonding to the electronics, an interconnection technology substantially cheaper than the bump bonding process used for hybrid pixel detectors at the LHC. Both active and passive n-in-p pixel sensor prototypes have been submitted in a 150 nm CMOS technology on a 2kΩ cm substrate. The passive sensor design will be used to characterize sensor properties and to investigate wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies. This first prototype is made of a matrix of 36 x 16 pixels of size compatible with the FE-I4 readout chip (i.e. 50 μm x 250 μm). Results from lab characterization of this first submission are shown together with TCAD simulations. Work towards a full size FE-I4 sensor for wafer-to-wafer bonding is discussed.

  3. CMS has a heart of pixels

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    At the core of CMS, particles will come into contact with tiny detector components, known as pixels, which are almost invisible to the naked eye. With these elementary cells measuring a mere 150 microns (or about 1/10 of a millimetre) along each side, a real technological leap has been made.

  4. Reframing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    I would like to thank Prof. Stephen Read (2011) and Prof. Andrew Benjamin (2011) for both giving inspiring and elaborate comments on my article “Dwelling in-between walls: the architectural surround”. As I will try to demonstrate below, their two different responses not only supplement my article...... focuses on how the absence of an initial distinction might threaten the endeavour of my paper. In my reply to Read and Benjamin, I will discuss their suggestions and arguments, while at the same time hopefully clarifying the postphenomenological approach to architecture....

  5. Architecture Of High Speed Image Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Toshio; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Ohki, Tohru

    1988-01-01

    One of architectures for a high speed image processing system which corresponds to a new algorithm for a shape understanding is proposed. And the hardware system which is based on the archtecture was developed. Consideration points of the architecture are mainly that using processors should match with the processing sequence of the target image and that the developed system should be used practically in an industry. As the result, it was possible to perform each processing at a speed of 80 nano-seconds a pixel.

  6. Noise analysis of a novel hybrid active-passive pixel sensor for medical X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safavian, N.; Izadi, M.H.; Sultana, A.; Wu, D.; Karim, K.S.; Nathan, A.; Rowlands, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Passive pixel sensor (PPS) is one of the most widely used architectures in large area amorphous silicon (a-Si) flat panel imagers. It consists of a detector and a thin film transistor (TFT) acting as a readout switch. While the PPS is advantageous in terms of providing a simple and small architecture suitable for high-resolution imaging, it directly exposes the signal to the noise of data line and external readout electronics, causing significant increase in the minimum readable sensor input signal. In this work we present the operation and noise performance of a hybrid 3-TFT current programmed, current output active pixel sensor (APS) suitable for real-time X-ray imaging. The pixel circuit extends the application of a-Si TFT from conventional switching element to on-pixel amplifier for enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and higher imager dynamic range. The capability of operation in both passive and active modes as well as being able to compensate for inherent instabilities of the TFTs makes the architecture a good candidate for X-ray imaging modalities with a wide range of incoming X-ray intensities. Measurement and theoretical calculations reveal a value for input refferd noise below the 1000 electron noise limit for real-time fluoroscopy. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Textile Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen

    2010-01-01

    Textiles can be used as building skins, adding new aesthetic and functional qualities to architecture. Just like we as humans can put on a coat, buildings can also get dressed. Depending on our mood, or on the weather, we can change coat, and so can the building. But the idea of using textiles...

  8. Objective guidelines for removing an external fixator after tibial lengthening using pixel value ratio: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Fan, Qing; Venkatesh, K P; Park, Man S; Song, Hae Ryong

    2009-12-01

    During limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail, decisions regarding external fixator removal and weightbearing depend on the amount of callus seen at the lengthening area on radiographs. However, this method is subjective and objective evaluation of the amount of callus likely would minimize nail or interlocking screw breakage and refracture after fixator removal. We asked how many cortices with full corticalization of the newly formed bone at the lengthening area are needed to allow fixator removal and full weightbearing and how to radiographically determine the stage of corticalization. We retrospectively reviewed 17 patients (34 lengthenings) who underwent bilateral tibial lengthenings over an intramedullary nail. The average gain in length was 7.2 +/- 3.4 cm. We determined the pixel value ratio (ratio of pixel value of regenerate versus the mean pixel value of adjacent bone) of the lengthened area on radiographs. There were no nail or screw breakage and refracture. Partial weightbearing with crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in two cortices and full weightbearing without crutches was permitted when the pixel value ratio was 1 in three cortices. The pixel value ratio on radiographs can be an objective parameter for callus measurement and may provide guidelines for the timing of external fixator removal. We cannot determine from our limited data the minimum pixel value in how many cortices would suggest safe removal, but we can say our criteria were not associated with subsequent refracture.

  9. First large DEPFET pixel modules for the Belle II Pixel Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Felix; Avella, Paola; Kiesling, Christian; Koffmane, Christian; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Valentan, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Andricek, Ladislav; Richter, Rainer [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    DEPFET pixel detectors offer excellent signal to noise ratio, resolution and low power consumption with a low material budget. They will be used at Belle II and are a candidate for an ILC vertex detector. The pixels are integrated in a monolithic piece of silicon which also acts as PCB providing the signal and control routings for the ASICs on top. The first prototype DEPFET sensor modules for Belle II have been produced. The modules have 192000 pixels and are equipped with SMD components and three different kinds of ASICs to control and readout the pixels. The entire readout chain has to be studied; the metal layer interconnectivity and routings need to be verified. The modules are fully characterized, and the operation voltages and control sequences of the ASICs are investigated. An overview of the DEPFET concept and first characterization results is presented.

  10. A Proposed Extension to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Level 2 Algorithm for Mixed Forest and Moderate Vegetation Pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panciera, Rocco; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Kalma, Jetse; Kim, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS)mission, launched in November 2009, provides global maps of soil moisture and ocean salinity by measuring the L-band (1.4 GHz) emission of the Earth's surface with a spatial resolution of 40-50 km.Uncertainty in the retrieval of soilmoisture over large heterogeneous areas such as SMOS pixels is expected, due to the non-linearity of the relationship between soil moisture and the microwave emission. The current baseline soilmoisture retrieval algorithm adopted by SMOS and implemented in the SMOS Level 2 (SMOS L2) processor partially accounts for the sub-pixel heterogeneity of the land surface, by modelling the individual contributions of different pixel fractions to the overall pixel emission. This retrieval approach is tested in this study using airborne L-band data over an area the size of a SMOS pixel characterised by a mix Eucalypt forest and moderate vegetation types (grassland and crops),with the objective of assessing its ability to correct for the soil moisture retrieval error induced by the land surface heterogeneity. A preliminary analysis using a traditional uniform pixel retrieval approach shows that the sub-pixel heterogeneity of land cover type causes significant errors in soil moisture retrieval (7.7%v/v RMSE, 2%v/v bias) in pixels characterised by a significant amount of forest (40-60%). Although the retrieval approach adopted by SMOS partially reduces this error, it is affected by errors beyond the SMOS target accuracy, presenting in particular a strong dry bias when a fraction of the pixel is occupied by forest (4.1%v/v RMSE,-3.1%v/v bias). An extension to the SMOS approach is proposed that accounts for the heterogeneity of vegetation optical depth within the SMOS pixel. The proposed approach is shown to significantly reduce the error in retrieved soil moisture (2.8%v/v RMSE, -0.3%v/v bias) in pixels characterised by a critical amount of forest (40-60%), at the limited cost of only a crude estimate of the

  11. Monolithic active pixel sensor development for the upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Giubilato, P.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Keil, M.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Mager, M.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Martinengo, P.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Pantano, D.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Siddhanta, S.; Snoeys, W.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yang, P.; Yi, J.

    2013-12-01

    ALICE plans an upgrade of its Inner Tracking System for 2018. The development of a monolithic active pixel sensor for this upgrade is described. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel due to the offering of a deep pwell and also to use different starting materials. The ALPIDE development is an alternative to approaches based on a rolling shutter architecture, and aims to reduce power consumption and integration time by an order of magnitude below the ALICE specifications, which would be quite beneficial in terms of material budget and background. The approach is based on an in-pixel binary front-end combined with a hit-driven architecture. Several prototypes have already been designed, submitted for fabrication and some of them tested with X-ray sources and particles in a beam. Analog power consumption has been limited by optimizing the Q/C of the sensor using Explorer chips. Promising but preliminary first results have also been obtained with a prototype ALPIDE. Radiation tolerance up to the ALICE requirements has also been verified.

  12. Monolithic active pixel sensor development for the upgrade of the ALICE inner tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglieri, G; Cavicchioli, C; Hillemanns, H; Junique, A; Keil, M; Kugathasan, T; Mager, M; Tobon, C A Marin; Martinengo, P; Chalmet, P L; Mugnier, H; Chanlek, N; Collu, A; Marras, D; Giubilato, P; Mattiazzo, S; Kim, D; Kim, J; Lattuca, A; Mazza, G

    2013-01-01

    ALICE plans an upgrade of its Inner Tracking System for 2018. The development of a monolithic active pixel sensor for this upgrade is described. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging sensor process has been chosen as it is possible to use full CMOS in the pixel due to the offering of a deep pwell and also to use different starting materials. The ALPIDE development is an alternative to approaches based on a rolling shutter architecture, and aims to reduce power consumption and integration time by an order of magnitude below the ALICE specifications, which would be quite beneficial in terms of material budget and background. The approach is based on an in-pixel binary front-end combined with a hit-driven architecture. Several prototypes have already been designed, submitted for fabrication and some of them tested with X-ray sources and particles in a beam. Analog power consumption has been limited by optimizing the Q/C of the sensor using Explorer chips. Promising but preliminary first results have also been obtained with a prototype ALPIDE. Radiation tolerance up to the ALICE requirements has also been verified

  13. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  14. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1993-01-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application. (orig.)

  15. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Millaud, J.; Nygren, D.

    1992-10-01

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application

  16. LePIX: First results from a novel monolithic pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, N.; Giubilato, P.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, C.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.; Wyss, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a monolithic pixel sensor developed in the framework of the LePIX project aimed at tracking/triggering tasks where high granularity, low power consumption, material budget, radiation hardness and production costs are a concern. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This maintains the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, but offers charge collection by drift from a depleted region and therefore an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional undepleted MAPS. Measurement results obtained with the first prototypes from laser, radioactive source and beam test experiments are described. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the capability of the device to separate the peaks in the spectrum of a 55 Fe source. We will also highlight the interaction between pixel cell design and architecture which points toward a very precise direction in the development of such depleted monolithic pixel devices for high energy physics

  17. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY WITH THE PIXEL DETECTOR TIMEPIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Olšanský

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the processing of radiographic data acquired using the position-sensitive hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix. Measurements were made on thin samples at the medical ion-synchrotron HIT [1] in Heidelberg (Germany with a 221 MeV proton beam. The charge is energy by the particles crossing the sample is registered for generation of image contrast. Experimental data from the detector were processed for derivation of the energy loss of each proton using calibration matrices. The interaction point of the protons on the detector were determined with subpixel resolution by model fitting of the individual signals in the pixelated matrix. Three methods were used for calculation of these coordinates: Hough transformation, 2D Gaussian fitting and estimate the 2D mean. Parameters of calculation accuracy and calculation time are compared for each method. The final image was created by method with best parameters.

  18. ATLAS Pixel IBL: Stave Quality Assurance

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    For Run 2 of the LHC a fourth innermost Pixel Detector layer on a smaller radius beam pipe has been installed in the ATLAS Detector to add redundancy against radiation damage of the current Pixel Detector and to ensure a high quality tracking and b-tagging performance of the Inner Detector over the coming years until the High Luminosity Upgrade. State of the art components have been produced and assembled onto support structures known as staves over the last two years. In total, 20 staves have been built and qualified in a designated Quality Assurance setup at CERN of which 14 have been integrated onto the beam pipe. Results from the testing are presented.

  19. Upgrade of ATLAS ITk Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huegging, Fabian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenges to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with an entirely-silicon inner tracker (ITk) which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation levels are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors and low mass global and local support structures. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the ITk ATLAS Pixel detector developments as well as different layout options will be reviewed.

  20. Chandra ACIS Sub-pixel Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, C. S.; Mossman, A. E.; Allen, G. E.; Fabbiano, G.; Glotfelty, K. J.; Karovska, M.; Kashyap, V. L.; McDowell, J. C.

    2011-05-01

    We investigate how to achieve the best possible ACIS spatial resolution by binning in ACIS sub-pixel and applying an event repositioning algorithm after removing pixel-randomization from the pipeline data. We quantitatively assess the improvement in spatial resolution by (1) measuring point source sizes and (2) detecting faint point sources. The size of a bright (but no pile-up), on-axis point source can be reduced by about 20-30%. With the improve resolution, we detect 20% more faint sources when embedded on the extended, diffuse emission in a crowded field. We further discuss the false source rate of about 10% among the newly detected sources, using a few ultra-deep observations. We also find that the new algorithm does not introduce a grid structure by an aliasing effect for dithered observations and does not worsen the positional accuracy

  1. MUF architecture /art London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen Kajita, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art......Om MUF architecture samt interview med Liza Fior og Katherine Clarke, partnere i muf architecture/art...

  2. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Erdmann, W.; Kaestli, H.-C.; Khalatyan, S.; Meier, B.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at the LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has been thoroughly tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6x10 14 n eq /cm 2 and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a 90 Sr source was measured to characterise the charge collection efficiency of the sensor. Radiation induced changes in the readout chip were also measured. The results show that the present pixel modules can be expected to be still operational after a fluence of 2.8x10 15 n eq /cm 2 . Samples irradiated up to 5x10 15 n eq /cm 2 still see the beta particles. However, further tests are needed to confirm whether a stable operation with high particle detection efficiency is possible after such a high fluence.

  3. The Belle II DEPFET pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Hans-Günther, E-mail: moser@mpp.mpg.de

    2016-09-21

    The Belle II experiment at KEK (Tsukuba, Japan) will explore heavy flavour physics (B, charm and tau) at the starting of 2018 with unprecedented precision. Charged particles are tracked by a two-layer DEPFET pixel device (PXD), a four-layer silicon strip detector (SVD) and the central drift chamber (CDC). The PXD will consist of two layers at radii of 14 mm and 22 mm with 8 and 12 ladders, respectively. The pixel sizes will vary, between 50 μm×(55–60) μm in the first layer and between 50 μm×(70–85) μm in the second layer, to optimize the charge sharing efficiency. These innermost layers have to cope with high background occupancy, high radiation and must have minimal material to reduce multiple scattering. These challenges are met using the DEPFET technology. Each pixel is a FET integrated on a fully depleted silicon bulk. The signal charge collected in the ‘internal gate’ modulates the FET current resulting in a first stage amplification and therefore very low noise. This allows very thin sensors (75 μm) reducing the overall material budget of the detector (0.21% X{sub 0}). Four fold multiplexing of the column parallel readout allows read out a full frame of the pixel matrix in only 20 μs while keeping the power consumption low enough for air cooling. Only the active electronics outside the detector acceptance has to be cooled actively with a two phase CO{sub 2} system. Furthermore the DEPFET technology offers the unique feature of an electronic shutter which allows the detector to operate efficiently in the continuous injection mode of superKEKB.

  4. Production chain of CMS pixel modules

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The pictures show the production chain of pixel modules for the CMS detector. Fig.1: overview of the assembly procedure. Fig.2: bump bonding with ReadOut Chip (ROC) connected to the sensor. Fig.3: glueing a raw module onto the baseplate strips. Fig.4: glueing of the High Density Interconnect (HDI) onto a raw module. Fig.5: pull test after heat reflow. Fig.6: wafer sensor processing, Indium evaporation.

  5. Architectural fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    I have created a large collection of plaster models: a collection of Obstructions, errors and opportunities that may develop into architecture. The models are fragments of different complex shapes as well as more simple circular models with different profiling and diameters. In this contect I have....... I try to invent the ways of drawing the models - that decode and unfold them into architectural fragments- into future buildings or constructions in the landscape. [1] Luigi Moretti: Italian architect, 1907 - 1973 [2] Man Ray: American artist, 1890 - 1976. in 2015, I saw the wonderful exhibition...... "Man Ray - Human Equations" at the Glyptotek in Copenhagen, organized by the Philips Collection in Washington D.C. and the Israel Museum in Jerusalem (in 2013). See also: "Man Ray - Human Equations" catalogue published by Hatje Cantz Verlag, Germany, 2014....

  6. Kosmos = architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Kurent

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available The old Greek word "kosmos" means not only "cosmos", but also "the beautiful order", "the way of building", "building", "scenography", "mankind", and, in the time of the New Testament, also "pagans". The word "arhitekton", meaning first the "master of theatrical scenography", acquired the meaning of "builder", when the words "kosmos" and ~kosmetes" became pejorative. The fear that architecture was not considered one of the arts before Renaissance, since none of the Muses supervised the art of building, results from the misunderstanding of the word "kosmos". Urania was the Goddes of the activity implied in the verb "kosmein", meaning "to put in the beautiful order" - everything, from the universe to the man-made space, i. e. the architecture.

  7. Metabolistic Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials' funct......' functional and poetic potentials, linking the disciplines through fragments that aim to inspire a further look into the artists' and architects' practices, while simultaneously framing these textile visions in a wider context.......Textile Spaces presents different approaches to using textile as a spatial definer and artistic medium. The publication collages images and text, art and architecture, science, philosophy and literature, process and product, past, present and future. It forms an insight into soft materials...

  8. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  9. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology and Reliability Characterization Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Pain, Bedabrata; Kayaii, Sammy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technology, design features and reliability characterization methodology of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. Both overall chip reliability and pixel reliability are projected for the imagers.

  10. The ATLAS Pixel Detector operation and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Andreazza, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately $80 imes 10^6$~electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region. The complete Pixel Detector has been taking part in cosmic-ray data-taking since 2008. Since November 2009 it has been operated with LHC colliding beams at $sqrt{s}=900$~GeV, 2.36~TeV and 7 TeV. The detector operated with an active fraction of 97.2% at a threshold of 3500~$e$, showing a noise occupancy rate better than $10^{-9}$~hit/pixel/BC and a track association efficiency of 99%. The Lorentz angle for electrons in silicon is measured to be $ heta_mathrm{L}=12.11^circ pm 0.09^circ$ and its temperature dependence has been verified. The pulse height information from the time-over-threshold technique allows to improve the point resolution using charge sharing and to perform parti...

  11. ATLAS ITk and new pixel sensors technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, A

    2016-01-01

    During the 2023–2024 shutdown, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be upgraded to reach an instantaneous luminosity up to 7×10$^{34}$ cm$^{−2}$s$^{−1}$. This upgrade of the accelerator is called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The ATLAS detector will be changed to meet the challenges of HL-LHC: an average of 200 pile-up events in every bunch crossing, and an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb $^{−1}$ over ten years. The HL-LHC luminosity conditions are too extreme for the current silicon (pixel and strip) detectors and straw tube transition radiation tracker (TRT) of the current ATLAS tracking system. Therefore the ATLAS inner tracker is being completely rebuilt for data-taking and the new system is called Inner Tracker (ITk). During this upgrade the TRT will be removed in favor of an all-new all-silicon tracker composed only by strip and pixel detectors. An overview of new layouts in study will be reported and the new pixel sensor technologies in development will be explained.

  12. Baryon Acoustic Oscillations reconstruction with pixels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obuljen, Andrej [SISSA—International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco [Center for Computational Astrophysics, 160 5th Ave, New York, NY, 10010 (United States); Castorina, Emanuele [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: aobuljen@sissa.it, E-mail: fvillaescusa@simonsfoundation.org, E-mail: ecastorina@berkeley.edu, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-09-01

    Gravitational non-linear evolution induces a shift in the position of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) peak together with a damping and broadening of its shape that bias and degrades the accuracy with which the position of the peak can be determined. BAO reconstruction is a technique developed to undo part of the effect of non-linearities. We present and analyse a reconstruction method that consists of displacing pixels instead of galaxies and whose implementation is easier than the standard reconstruction method. We show that this method is equivalent to the standard reconstruction technique in the limit where the number of pixels becomes very large. This method is particularly useful in surveys where individual galaxies are not resolved, as in 21cm intensity mapping observations. We validate this method by reconstructing mock pixelated maps, that we build from the distribution of matter and halos in real- and redshift-space, from a large set of numerical simulations. We find that this method is able to decrease the uncertainty in the BAO peak position by 30-50% over the typical angular resolution scales of 21 cm intensity mapping experiments.

  13. Radiation hardness of CMS pixel barrel modules

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T; Erdmann, W; Kästli, H C; Khalatyan, S; Meier, B; Radicci, V; Sibille, J

    2010-01-01

    Pixel detectors are used in the innermost part of the multi purpose experiments at LHC and are therefore exposed to the highest fluences of ionising radiation, which in this part of the detectors consists mainly of charged pions. The radiation hardness of all detector components has thoroughly been tested up to the fluences expected at the LHC. In case of an LHC upgrade, the fluence will be much higher and it is not yet clear how long the present pixel modules will stay operative in such a harsh environment. The aim of this study was to establish such a limit as a benchmark for other possible detector concepts considered for the upgrade. As the sensors and the readout chip are the parts most sensitive to radiation damage, samples consisting of a small pixel sensor bump-bonded to a CMS-readout chip (PSI46V2.1) have been irradiated with positive 200 MeV pions at PSI up to 6E14 Neq and with 21 GeV protons at CERN up to 5E15 Neq. After irradiation the response of the system to beta particles from a Sr-90 source w...

  14. Characterization of the CMS Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Weihua

    2002-01-01

    In 2005 the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will start the pp collisions at a high luminosity and at a center of mass energy of 14 TeV. The primary goal of the experimental programme is the search of the Higgs boson(s) and the supersymmetric particles. The programme is also proposed to detect a range of diverse signatures in order to provide guidance for future physics. The pixel detector system makes up the innermost part of the CMS experiment, which is one of the two general purpose detectors at the LHC. The main tasks of the system are vertex detection and flavor tagging. The high luminosity and the high particle multiplicity as well as the small bunch spacing at the LHC impose great challenges on the pixel detectors: radiation hardness of sensors and electronics, fast signal processing and a high granularity are the essential requirements. This thesis concentrates on the study of the suitability of two test stands, which are implemented to characterize the CMS pixel detectors: one is con-cerned with test puls...

  15. Pixel electronics for the ATLAS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC will use 3 barrel layers and 2x5 disks of silicon pixel detectors as the innermost elements of the semiconductor tracker. The basic building blocks are pixel modules with an active area of 16.4 mmx60.8 mm which include an n + on n-type silicon sensor and 16 VLSI front-end (FE) chips. Every FE chip contains a low power, high speed charge sensitive preamplifier, a fast discriminator, and a readout system which operates at the 40 MHz rate of LHC. The addresses of hit pixels (as well as a low resolution pulse height information) are stored on the FE chips until arrival of a level 1 trigger signal. Hits are then transferred to a module controller chip (MCC) which collects the data of all 16 FE chips, builds complete events and sends the data through two optical links to the data acquisition system. The MCC receives clock and data through an additional optical link and provides timing and configuration information for the FE chips. Two additional chips are used to amplify and decode the pin diode signal and to drive the VCSEL laser diodes of the optical links

  16. Characterisation of the NA62 GigaTracker End of Column Demonstrator Hybrid Pixel Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fiorini, M.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Martin, E.; Morel, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.

    2011-11-01

    The architecture and characterisation of the NA62 GigaTracker End of Column Demonstrator Hybrid Pixel Detector (HPD) are presented. This detector must perform time stamping to 200 ps (RMS) or better, provide 300 μm pitch position information and operate with a dead time of 1% or less for 800 MHz-1 GHz beam rate. The demonstrator HPD Assembly comprises a readout chip with a test column of 45 pixels, alongside other test structures, bump bonded to a p-in-n detector 200 μm in thickness. Validation of the performance of the HPD and the time-over-threshold timewalk compensation mechanism with both beam particles and a high precision laser system was performed and is presented. Confirmation of better than the required time stamping precision has been demonstrated and subsequent work on the design of the full-scale ASIC, dubbed TDCPix, is underway. An overview of the TDCPix architecure is given.

  17. 4T CMOS Active Pixel Sensors under Ionizing Radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, J.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the ionizing radiation effects on 4T pixels and the elementary in-pixel test devices with regard to the electrical performance and the optical performance. In addition to an analysis of the macroscopic pixel parameter degradation, the radiation-induced degradation mechanisms

  18. CMOS Pixel Sensors for High Precision Beam Telescopes and Vertex Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masi, R. de; Baudot, J.; Fontaine, J.-Ch.

    2009-01-01

    CMOS sensors of the MIMOSA (standing for Minimum Ionising particle MOS Active pixel sensor) series are developed at IPHC since a decade and have ended up with full scale devices used in beam telescopes and in demonstrators of future vertex detectors. The sensors deliver analogue, unfiltered, signals and are therefore limited to read-out frequencies of ∼ 1 kframe/s. Since a few years, a fast architecture is being developed in collaboration with IRFU, which aims to speed up the read-out by 1-2 orders of magnitude. The first full scale sensor based on this architecture was fabricated recently and is being tested. Made of 660,000 pixels (18 μm pitch) covering an active area of ∼ 2 cm 2 , it delivers zero-suppressed binary signals, which allow running at ∼ 10 kframes/s. It will equip the beam telescope of the E.U. project EUDET and serve as a forerunner of the sensor equipping the 2 layers of the PIXEL detector of the STAR experiment at RHIC. The contribution to the conference will overview the main features and test results of this pioneering sensor. It will next describe its evolution towards read-out frequencies approaching 100 kframes/s, as required for the vertex detectors of the CBM experiment at FAIR and at the ILC. Finally, the issue of radiation tolerance will be addressed, in the context of a newly available CMOS process using a depleted substrate. A prototype sensor was fabricated in a such CMOS process. The talk will summarise beam test results showing, for the first time, that fluences of 10 14 n eq /cm 2 may be tolerable for CMOS sensors. Overall, the talk provides an overview of the status and plans of CMOS pixel sensors at the frontier of their achievements and outreach. (author)

  19. How architecture students gain and apply knowledge of sustainable architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Holder, Anna

    2016-01-01

    understandings of how architects synthesise different types of knowledge while designing, raising questions about the ‘match’ between educational experiences and subsequent behaviours in practice. Taking an example from Denmark, we outline the approach of Aarhus School of Architecture, where sustainability...... teaching is partially integrated within the design studio courses. We compare the institution’s philosophy for sustainability with pedagogical approaches as practiced within the school. An empirical study was made of 2nd year architecture student experiences of a one-month introduction course to ‘Reuse...... to be supported in gaining different types of knowledge (ie. propositional, experiential, applied) through different modes of learning. There are gaps to be bridged in education in order for the sustainability agenda to be fully integrated in architectural practice....

  20. Design and realization of a fast low noise electronics for a hybrid pixel X-ray detector dedicated to small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantepie, B.

    2008-12-01

    Since the invention of computerized tomography (CT), charge integration detector were widely employed for X-ray biomedical imaging applications. Nevertheless, other options exist. A new technology of direct detection using semiconductors has been developed for high energy physics instrumentation. This new technology, called hybrid pixel detector, works in photon counting mode and allows for selecting the minimum energy of the counted photons. The ImXgam research team at CPPM develops the PIXSCAN demonstrator, a CT-scanner using the hybrid pixel detector XPAD. The aim of this project is to evaluate the improvement in image quality and in dose delivered during X-ray examinations of a small animal. After a first prototype of a hybrid pixel detector XPAD1 proving the feasibility of the project, a complete imager XPAD2 was designed and integrated in the PIXSCAN demonstrator. Since then, with the evolution of microelectronic industry, important improvements are conceivable. To reducing the size of pixels and to improving the energy resolution of detectors, a third design XPAD3 was conceived and will be soon integrated in a second generation of PIXSCAN demonstrator. In this project, my thesis work consisted in taking part to the design of the detector readout electronics, to the characterization of the chips and of the hybrid pixel detectors, and also to the definition of a auto-zeroing architecture for pixels. The first and second chapters present X-ray medical imaging and particle detection with semi-conductors and its modelling. The third chapter deals with the specifications of electronic circuits for imaging applications first for analog pixels then for digital pixels and describes the general architecture of the integrated circuits. The validation tests are presented in the fourth chapter while the last chapter gives an account of expected changes in pixel electronics

  1. How many pixels does it take to make a good 4"×6" print? Pixel count wars revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1980's the future of conventional silver-halide photographic systems was of great concern due to the potential introduction of electronic imaging systems then typified by the Sony Mavica analog electronic camera. The focus was on the quality of film-based systems as expressed in the number of equivalent number pixels and bits-per-pixel, and how many pixels would be required to create an equivalent quality image from a digital camera. It was found that 35-mm frames, for ISO 100 color negative film, contained equivalent pixels of 12 microns for a total of 18 million pixels per frame (6 million pixels per layer) with about 6 bits of information per pixel; the introduction of new emulsion technology, tabular AgX grains, increased the value to 8 bit per pixel. Higher ISO speed films had larger equivalent pixels, fewer pixels per frame, but retained the 8 bits per pixel. Further work found that a high quality 3.5" x 5.25" print could be obtained from a three layer system containing 1300 x 1950 pixels per layer or about 7.6 million pixels in all. In short, it became clear that when a digital camera contained about 6 million pixels (in a single layer using a color filter array and appropriate image processing) that digital systems would challenge and replace conventional film-based system for the consumer market. By 2005 this became the reality. Since 2005 there has been a "pixel war" raging amongst digital camera makers. The question arises about just how many pixels are required and are all pixels equal? This paper will provide a practical look at how many pixels are needed for a good print based on the form factor of the sensor (sensor size) and the effective optical modulation transfer function (optical spread function) of the camera lens. Is it better to have 16 million, 5.7-micron pixels or 6 million 7.8-micron pixels? How does intrinsic (no electronic boost) ISO speed and exposure latitude vary with pixel size? A systematic review of these issues will

  2. Active pixel sensor pixel having a photodetector whose output is coupled to an output transistor gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Nakamura, Junichi (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node. There is also a readout circuit, part of which can be disposed at the bottom of each column of cells and be common to all the cells in the column. A Simple Floating Gate (SFG) pixel structure could also be employed in the imager to provide a non-destructive readout and smaller pixel sizes.

  3. Connecting Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgeher, Georg; Weinreich, Rainer

    Software architectures are still typically defined and described independently from implementation. To avoid architectural erosion and drift, architectural representation needs to be continuously updated and synchronized with system implementation. Existing approaches for architecture representation like informal architecture documentation, UML diagrams, and Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide only limited support for connecting architecture descriptions and implementations. Architecture management tools like Lattix, SonarJ, and Sotoarc and UML-tools tackle this problem by extracting architecture information directly from code. This approach works for low-level architectural abstractions like classes and interfaces in object-oriented systems but fails to support architectural abstractions not found in programming languages. In this paper we present an approach for linking and continuously synchronizing a formalized architecture representation to an implementation. The approach is a synthesis of functionality provided by code-centric architecture management and UML tools and higher-level architecture analysis approaches like ADLs.

  4. Optical Cloud Pixel Recovery via Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrina Tahsin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is a widely used index to monitor vegetation and land use change. NDVI can be retrieved from publicly available data repositories of optical sensors such as Landsat, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS and several commercial satellites. Studies that are heavily dependent on optical sensors are subject to data loss due to cloud coverage. Specifically, cloud contamination is a hindrance to long-term environmental assessment when using information from satellite imagery retrieved from visible and infrared spectral ranges. Landsat has an ongoing high-resolution NDVI record starting from 1984. Unfortunately, this long time series NDVI data suffers from the cloud contamination issue. Though both simple and complex computational methods for data interpolation have been applied to recover cloudy data, all the techniques have limitations. In this paper, a novel Optical Cloud Pixel Recovery (OCPR method is proposed to repair cloudy pixels from the time-space-spectrum continuum using a Random Forest (RF trained and tested with multi-parameter hydrologic data. The RF-based OCPR model is compared with a linear regression model to demonstrate the capability of OCPR. A case study in Apalachicola Bay is presented to evaluate the performance of OCPR to repair cloudy NDVI reflectance. The RF-based OCPR method achieves a root mean squared error of 0.016 between predicted and observed NDVI reflectance values. The linear regression model achieves a root mean squared error of 0.126. Our findings suggest that the RF-based OCPR method is effective to repair cloudy pixels and provides continuous and quantitatively reliable imagery for long-term environmental analysis.

  5. Fast readout logic interfacing a 256-pixel matrix of a dual-layer 3D device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M; Morsani, F

    2010-01-01

    A prototype of a 3D ASIC built up of a fast readout architecture, with sparsification capabilities, which interfaces with a matrix of a 256-pixel sensor, was recently submitted. The chosen technology is CMOS Chartered 130 nm as it is compatible with the Tezzaron facility to interconnect face-to-face two silicon wafers allowing for a vertical integration structure by means of through-silicon-vias. Particularly, the readout logic uses one layer that will be stacked on a sensor layer at the end of the fabrication process.

  6. Fast readout logic interfacing a 256-pixel matrix of a dual-layer 3D device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabrielli, A; Giorgi, F; Villa, M [INFN-Bologna and Physics Department, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, 40127, Bologna (Italy); Morsani, F, E-mail: alessandro.gabrielli@bo.infn.i [INFN-Pisa and University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo, 3, 56127, Pisa (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    A prototype of a 3D ASIC built up of a fast readout architecture, with sparsification capabilities, which interfaces with a matrix of a 256-pixel sensor, was recently submitted. The chosen technology is CMOS Chartered 130 nm as it is compatible with the Tezzaron facility to interconnect face-to-face two silicon wafers allowing for a vertical integration structure by means of through-silicon-vias. Particularly, the readout logic uses one layer that will be stacked on a sensor layer at the end of the fabrication process.

  7. Pixel 2010: A résumé

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel 2010 conference focused on semiconductor pixel detectors for particle tracking/vertexing as well as for imaging, in particular for synchrotron light sources and XFELs. The big LHC hybrid pixel detectors have impressively started showing their capabilities. X-ray imaging detectors, also using the hybrid pixel technology, have greatly advanced the experimental possibilities for diffraction experiments. Monolithic or semi-monolithic devices like CMOS active pixels and DEPFET pixels have now reached a state such that complete vertex detectors for RHIC and superKEKB are being built with these technologies. Finally, new advances towards fully monolithic active pixel detectors, featuring full CMOS electronics merged with efficient signal charge collection, exploiting standard CMOS technologies, SOI and/or 3D integration, show the path for the future. This résumé attempts to extract the main statements of the results and developments presented at this conference.

  8. Active pixel sensor array with electronic shuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An active pixel cell includes electronic shuttering capability. The cell can be shuttered to prevent additional charge accumulation. One mode transfers the current charge to a storage node that is blocked against accumulation of optical radiation. The charge is sampled from a floating node. Since the charge is stored, the node can be sampled at the beginning and the end of every cycle. Another aspect allows charge to spill out of the well whenever the charge amount gets higher than some amount, thereby providing anti blooming.

  9. Elixir - how to handle 2 trillion pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier, Eugene A.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles

    2002-12-01

    The Elixir system at CFHT provides automatic data quality assurance and calibration for the wide-field mosaic imager camera CFH12K. Elixir consists of a variety of tools, including: a real-time analysis suite which runs at the telescope to provide quick feedback to the observers; a detailed analysis of the calibration data; and an automated pipeline for processing data to be distributed to observers. To date, 2.4 × 1012 night-time sky pixels from CFH12K have been processed by the Elixir system.

  10. ISPA (imaging silicon pixel array) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ISPA tube is a position-sensitive photon detector. It belongs to the family of hybrid photon detectors (HPD), recently developed by CERN and INFN with leading photodetector firms. HPDs confront in a vacuum envelope a photocathode and a silicon detector. This can be a single diode or a pixelized detector. The electrons generated by the photocathode are efficiently detected by the silicon anode by applying a high-voltage difference between them. ISPA tube can be used in high-energy applications as well as bio-medical and imaging applications.

  11. The Design and Implementation in $0.13\\mu m$ CMOS of an Algorithm Permitting Spectroscopic Imaging with High Spatial Resolution for Hybrid Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ballabriga, Rafael; Vilasís-Cardona, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Advances in pixel detector technology are opening up new possibilities in many fields of science. Modern High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments use pixel detectors in tracking systems where excellent spatial resolution, precise timing and high signal-to-noise ratio are required for accurate and clean track reconstruction. Many groups are working worldwide to adapt the hybrid pixel technology to other fields such as medical X-ray radiography, protein structure analysis or neutron imaging. The Medipix3 chip is a 256x256 channel hybrid pixel detector readout chip working in Single Photon Counting Mode. It has been developed with a new front-end architecture aimed at eliminating the spectral distortion produced by charge diffusion in highly segmented semiconductor detectors. In the new architecture neighbouring pixels communicate with one another. Charges can be summed event-by-event and the incoming quantum can be assigned as a single hit to the pixel with the biggest charge deposit. In the case where incoming X-...

  12. A new method to improve multiplication factor in micro-pixel avalanche photodiodes with high pixel density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadygov, Z. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Ahmadov, F. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Khorev, S. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Sadigov, A., E-mail: saazik@yandex.ru [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, S. [National Nuclear Research Center, Baku (Azerbaijan); Madatov, R.; Mehdiyeva, R. [Institute of Radiation Problems, Baku (Azerbaijan); Zerrouk, F. [Zecotek Photonics Inc., Vancouver (Canada)

    2016-07-11

    Presented is a new model describing development of the avalanche process in time, taking into account the dynamics of electric field within the depleted region of the diode and the effect of parasitic capacitance shunting individual quenching micro-resistors on device parameters. Simulations show that the effective capacitance of a single pixel, which defines the multiplication factor, is the sum of the pixel capacitance and a parasitic capacitance shunting its quenching micro-resistor. Conclusions obtained as a result of modeling open possibilities of improving the pixel gain in micropixel avalanche photodiodes with high pixel density (or low pixel capacitance).

  13. Hybrid POMDP-BDI Agent Architecture with Online Stochastic Planning and Desires with Changing Intensity Levels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rens, GB

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an agent architecture which combines Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) and the belief-desire-intention (BDI) framework have several complementary strengths. The authors propose an agent architecture, which...

  14. A hybrid POMDP-BDI agent architecture with online stochastic planning and plan caching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an agent architecture for controlling an autonomous agent in stochastic, noisy environments. The architecture combines the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) model with the belief-desire-intention (BDI...

  15. Fast semivariogram computation using FPGA architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadapati, Yamuna; Shirvaikar, Mukul; Dong, Xuanliang

    2015-02-01

    The semivariogram is a statistical measure of the spatial distribution of data and is based on Markov Random Fields (MRFs). Semivariogram analysis is a computationally intensive algorithm that has typically seen applications in the geosciences and remote sensing areas. Recently, applications in the area of medical imaging have been investigated, resulting in the need for efficient real time implementation of the algorithm. The semivariogram is a plot of semivariances for different lag distances between pixels. A semi-variance, γ(h), is defined as the half of the expected squared differences of pixel values between any two data locations with a lag distance of h. Due to the need to examine each pair of pixels in the image or sub-image being processed, the base algorithm complexity for an image window with n pixels is O(n2). Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are an attractive solution for such demanding applications due to their parallel processing capability. FPGAs also tend to operate at relatively modest clock rates measured in a few hundreds of megahertz, but they can perform tens of thousands of calculations per clock cycle while operating in the low range of power. This paper presents a technique for the fast computation of the semivariogram using two custom FPGA architectures. The design consists of several modules dedicated to the constituent computational tasks. A modular architecture approach is chosen to allow for replication of processing units. This allows for high throughput due to concurrent processing of pixel pairs. The current implementation is focused on isotropic semivariogram computations only. Anisotropic semivariogram implementation is anticipated to be an extension of the current architecture, ostensibly based on refinements to the current modules. The algorithm is benchmarked using VHDL on a Xilinx XUPV5-LX110T development Kit, which utilizes the Virtex5 FPGA. Medical image data from MRI scans are utilized for the experiments

  16. The Phase II ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Terzo, Stefano; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the "ITk" (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of ITk will consist of a pixel detector with five layers in the barrel region and and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions. It will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m$^2$ , depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Several layout options are being investigated at the moment, including some with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region and others with very long innermost barrel layers. Forward coverage could be as high as $|\\eta| < 4$. Supporting structures will be ...

  17. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Flick, Tobias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The pixel detector will comprise the five innermost layers, and will be instrumented with new sensor and readout electronics technologies to improve the tracking performance and cope with the HL-LHC environment, which will be severe in terms of occupancy and radiation. The total surface area of silicon in the new pixel system could measure up to 14 m2, depending on the final layout choice, which is expected to take place in early 2017. Four layout options are being investigated at the moment, two with forward coverage to |eta| < 3.2 and two to |eta| < 4. For each coverage option, a layout with long barrel staves and a layout with novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap region are considered. All potential layouts include modules mounted on ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions...

  18. ATLAS rewards two pixel detector suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, presented the ATLAS supplier award to Herbert Reichl, IZM director, and to Simonetta Di Gioia, from the SELEX company.Two of ATLAS’ suppliers were awarded prizes at a ceremony on Wednesday 13 June attended by representatives of the experiment’s management and of CERN. The prizes went to the Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM) in Berlin and the company SELEX Sistemi Integrati in Rome for the manufacture of modules for the ATLAS pixel detector. SELEX supplied 1500 of the modules for the tracker, while IZM produced a further 1300. The modules, each made up of 46080 channels, form the active part of the ATLAS pixel detector. IZM and SELEX received the awards for the excellent quality of their work: the average number of faulty channels per module was less than 2.10-3. They also stayed within budget and on schedule. The difficulty they faced was designing modules based on electronic components and sensor...

  19. Further applications for mosaic pixel FPA technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddiard, Kevin C.

    2011-06-01

    In previous papers to this SPIE forum the development of novel technology for next generation PIR security sensors has been described. This technology combines the mosaic pixel FPA concept with low cost optics and purpose-designed readout electronics to provide a higher performance and affordable alternative to current PIR sensor technology, including an imaging capability. Progressive development has resulted in increased performance and transition from conventional microbolometer fabrication to manufacture on 8 or 12 inch CMOS/MEMS fabrication lines. A number of spin-off applications have been identified. In this paper two specific applications are highlighted: high performance imaging IRFPA design and forest fire detection. The former involves optional design for small pixel high performance imaging. The latter involves cheap expendable sensors which can detect approaching fire fronts and send alarms with positional data via mobile phone or satellite link. We also introduce to this SPIE forum the application of microbolometer IR sensor technology to IoT, the Internet of Things.

  20. Hybrid active pixel sensors in infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finger, Gert; Dorn, Reinhold J.; Meyer, Manfred; Mehrgan, Leander; Stegmeier, Joerg; Moorwood, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Infrared astronomy is currently benefiting from three main technologies providing high-performance hybrid active pixel sensors. In the near infrared from 1 to 5 μm two technologies, both aiming for buttable 2Kx2K mosaics, are competing, namely InSb and HgCdTe grown by LPE or MBE on Al 2 O 3 , Si or CdZnTe substrates. Blocked impurity band Si:As arrays cover the mid infrared spectral range from 8 to 28 μm. Adaptive optics combined with multiple integral field units feeding high-resolution spectrographs drive the requirements for the array format of infrared sensors used at ground-based infrared observatories. The pixel performance is now approaching fundamental limits. In view of this development, a detection limit for the photon flux of the ideal detector will be derived, depending only on the temperature and the impedance of the detector. It will be shown that this limit is approximated by state of the art infrared arrays for long on-chip integrations. Different detector materials are compared and strategies to populate large focal planes are discussed. The need for the development of small-format low noise sensors for adaptive optics and interferometry will be pointed out

  1. Alignment of the upgraded CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Schroder, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    The all-silicon tracking system of the CMS experiment provides excellent resolution for charged tracks and an efficient tagging of heavy-flavour jets. After a new pixel detector has been installed during the LHC technical stop at the beginning of 2017, the positions, orientations, and surface curvatures of the sensors needed to be determined with a precision at the order of a few micrometres to ensure the required physics performance. This is far beyond the mechanical mounting precision but can be achieved using a track-based alignment procedure that minimises the track-hit residuals of reconstructed tracks. The results are carefully validated with data-driven methods. In this article, results of the CMS tracker alignment in 2017 from the early detector-commissioning phase and the later operation are presented, that were derived using several million reconstructed tracks in pp-collision and cosmic-ray data. Special emphasis is put on the alignment of the new pixel detector.

  2. Pixel-Tilecal-MDT Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Di Girolamo

    A test with many expectations When an additional week of running (from September 11th to 18th) was allocated for the test-beam, it was decided to give priority to a combined run with the participation of the Pixel, Tilecal and MDT sub-detectors. The integration of these three sub-detectors was possible as they all use the baseline (DAQ-1/EF based) DAQ for test beams (as reported in a previous e-news). The tests and the addition of a common trigger and busy were organized in a short timescale by experts from the three sub-detectors and DAQ/EF. The expectations were many; both looking for problems and finding solutions. The setup The setup, shown in the figure, consisted of the Pixel telescope normally used during the sub-detector tests, two Tilecal barrel modules, two Tilecal extended barrel modules, and six MDT barrel chambers. This fully occupied a length of some 30 meters in the H8 line of the SPS North Area. Each sub-detector used their own specialized front-end electronics. The data collected by modu...

  3. Semiconductor pixel detectors for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novelli, M.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bisogni, M.G.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Venturelli, L.; Zucca, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present some results obtained with silicon and gallium arsenide pixel detectors to be applied in the field of digital mammography. Even though GaAs is suitable for medical imaging applications thanks to its atomic number, which allows a very good detection efficiency, it often contains an high concentrations of traps which decrease the charge collection efficiency (CCE). So we have analysed both electrical and spectroscopic performance of different SI GaAs diodes as a function of concentrations of dopants in the substrate, in order to find a material by which we can obtain a CCE allowing the detection of all the photons that interact in the detector. Nevertheless to be able to detect low contrast details, efficiency and CCE are not the only parameters to be optimized; also the stability of the detection system is fundamental. In the past we have worked with Si pixel detectors; even if its atomic number does not allow a good detection efficiency at standard thickness, it has a very high stability. So keeping in mind the need to increase the Silicon detection efficiency we performed simulations to study the behaviour of the electrical potential in order to find a geometry to avoid the risk of electrical breakdown

  4. Semiconductor pixel detectors for digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, M. E-mail: marzia.novelli@pi.infn.it; Amendolia, S.R.; Bisogni, M.G.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.F.; Delogu, P.; Fantacci, M.E.; Quattrocchi, M.; Rosso, V.; Stefanini, A.; Venturelli, L.; Zucca, S

    2003-08-21

    We present some results obtained with silicon and gallium arsenide pixel detectors to be applied in the field of digital mammography. Even though GaAs is suitable for medical imaging applications thanks to its atomic number, which allows a very good detection efficiency, it often contains an high concentrations of traps which decrease the charge collection efficiency (CCE). So we have analysed both electrical and spectroscopic performance of different SI GaAs diodes as a function of concentrations of dopants in the substrate, in order to find a material by which we can obtain a CCE allowing the detection of all the photons that interact in the detector. Nevertheless to be able to detect low contrast details, efficiency and CCE are not the only parameters to be optimized; also the stability of the detection system is fundamental. In the past we have worked with Si pixel detectors; even if its atomic number does not allow a good detection efficiency at standard thickness, it has a very high stability. So keeping in mind the need to increase the Silicon detection efficiency we performed simulations to study the behaviour of the electrical potential in order to find a geometry to avoid the risk of electrical breakdown.

  5. Survey of the ATLAS Pixel Detector Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreazza, A.; Kostyukhim, V.; Madaras, R.

    2008-01-01

    This document provides a description of the survey performed on different components of the ATLAS Pixel Detector at different stages of its assembly. During the production of the ATLAS pixel detector great care was put in the geometrical survey of the location of the sensitive area of modules. This had a double purpose: (1) to provide a check of the quality of the assembly procedure and assure tolerances in the geometrical assembly were met; and (2) to provide an initial point for the alignment (the so called 'as-built detector'), better than the ideal geometry. Since direct access to the sensitive area becomes more and more difficult with the progress of the assembly, the survey needed to be performed at different stages: after module loading on the local supports (sectors and staves) and after assembly of the local supports in disks or halfshells. Different techniques were used, including both optical 2D and 3D surveys and mechanical survey. This document summarizes the survey procedures, the analysis done on the collected data and how survey data are stored in case they will need to be accessed in the future

  6. The Pixels system: last but not late!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kevin Einsweiler

    The Pixel Detector for ATLAS is one of the smallest, but most challenging components of the experiment. It lives in the dangerous territory directly outside the beampipe, where the radiation environment is particularly fierce, and it must be roughly one million times more radiation-hard than its human designers. Starting at a radius of just 5cm from the interaction point where the proton beams collide, it occupies a volume of slightly more than one meter in length and a half meter in diameter. In this compact region, there are eighty million channels of electronics (most of the electronics channels in ATLAS!), each capable of measuring the charge deposited by a track in a silicon pixel measuring only 50 microns by 400 microns in size (a volume of 0.005 cubic millimeters). A total cooling capacity of 15 KWatts is available to keep it operating comfortably at -5C. This detector is built around, and provides the support for, the central beampipe of ATLAS. It is supported on carbon fiber rails inside of the Pix...

  7. Architectural Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2018-01-01

    In a time of computer aided design, computer graphics and parametric design tools, the art of architectural drawing is in a state of neglect. But design and drawing are inseparably linked in ways which often go unnoticed. Essentially, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to conceive of a design...... is that computers can represent graphic ideas both faster and better than most medium-skilled draftsmen, drawing in design is not only about representing final designs. In fact, several steps involving the capacity to draw lie before the representation of a final design. Not only is drawing skills an important...... prerequisite for learning about the nature of existing objects and spaces, and thus to build a vocabulary of design. It is also a prerequisite for both reflecting and communicating about design ideas. In this paper, a taxonomy of notation, reflection, communication and presentation drawing is presented...

  8. Architectural Theatricality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen; Fisker, Anna Marie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    In the attempt to improve patient treatment and recovery, researchers focus on applying concepts of hospitality to hospitals. Often these concepts are dominated by hotel-metaphors focusing on host–guest relationships or concierge services. Motivated by a project trying to improve patient treatment...... is known for his writings on theatricality, understood as a holistic design approach emphasizing the contextual, cultural, ritual and social meanings rooted in architecture. Relative hereto, the International Food Design Society recently argued, in a similar holistic manner, that the methodology used...... to provide an aesthetic eating experience includes knowledge on both food and design. Based on a hermeneutic reading of Semper’s theory, our thesis is that this holistic design approach is important when debating concepts of hospitality in hospitals. We use this approach to argue for how ‘food design...

  9. Lab architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  10. A compressed sensing X-ray camera with a multilayer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhehui; Iaroshenko, O.; Li, S.; Liu, T.; Parab, N.; Chen, W. W.; Chu, P.; Kenyon, G. T.; Lipton, R.; Sun, K.-X.

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in compressed sensing theory and algorithms offer new possibilities for high-speed X-ray camera design. In many CMOS cameras, each pixel has an independent on-board circuit that includes an amplifier, noise rejection, signal shaper, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and optional in-pixel storage. When X-ray images are sparse, i.e., when one of the following cases is true: (a.) The number of pixels with true X-ray hits is much smaller than the total number of pixels; (b.) The X-ray information is redundant; or (c.) Some prior knowledge about the X-ray images exists, sparse sampling may be allowed. Here we first illustrate the feasibility of random on-board pixel sampling (ROPS) using an existing set of X-ray images, followed by a discussion about signal to noise as a function of pixel size. Next, we describe a possible circuit architecture to achieve random pixel access and in-pixel storage. The combination of a multilayer architecture, sparse on-chip sampling, and computational image techniques, is expected to facilitate the development and applications of high-speed X-ray camera technology.

  11. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  12. Charge Gain, Voltage Gain, and Node Capacitance of the SAPHIRA Detector Pixel by Pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana, Izabella M.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Baker, Ian M.; Jacobson, Shane M.; Goebel, Sean B.

    2018-01-01

    The University of Hawai`i Institute for Astronomy has partnered with Leonardo (formerly Selex) in the development of HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (L-APD) SAPHIRA detectors. The SAPHIRA (Selex Avalanche Photodiode High-speed Infra-Red Array) is ideally suited for photon-starved astronomical observations, particularly near infrared (NIR) adaptive optics (AO) wave-front sensing. I have measured the stability, and linearity with current, of a 1.7-um (10% spectral bandpass) infrared light emitting diode (IR LED) used to illuminate the SAPHIRA and have then utilized this source to determine the charge gain (in e-/ADU), voltage gain (in uV/ADU), and node capacitance (in fF) for each pixel of the 320x256@24um SAPHIRA. These have previously only been averages over some sub-array. Determined from the ratio of the temporal averaged signal level to variance under constant 1.7-um LED illumination, I present the charge gain pixel-by-pixel in a 64x64 sub-array at the center of the active area of the SAPHIRA (analyzed separately as four 32x32 sub-arrays) to be about 1.6 e-/ADU (σ=0.5 e-/ADU). Additionally, the standard technique of varying the pixel reset voltage (PRV) in 10 mV increments and recording output frames for the same 64x64 subarray found the voltage gain per pixel to be about 11.7 uV/ADU (σ=0.2 uV/ADU). Finally, node capacitance was found to be approximately 23 fF (σ=6 fF) utilizing the aforementioned charge and voltage gain measurements. I further discuss the linearity measurements of the 1.7-um LED used in the charge gain characterization procedure.

  13. Field-portable pixel super-resolution colour microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Greenbaum

    Full Text Available Based on partially-coherent digital in-line holography, we report a field-portable microscope that can render lensfree colour images over a wide field-of-view of e.g., >20 mm(2. This computational holographic microscope weighs less than 145 grams with dimensions smaller than 17×6×5 cm, making it especially suitable for field settings and point-of-care use. In this lensfree imaging design, we merged a colorization algorithm with a source shifting based multi-height pixel super-resolution technique to mitigate 'rainbow' like colour artefacts that are typical in holographic imaging. This image processing scheme is based on transforming the colour components of an RGB image into YUV colour space, which separates colour information from brightness component of an image. The resolution of our super-resolution colour microscope was characterized using a USAF test chart to confirm sub-micron spatial resolution, even for reconstructions that employ multi-height phase recovery to handle dense and connected objects. To further demonstrate the performance of this colour microscope Papanicolaou (Pap smears were also successfully imaged. This field-portable and wide-field computational colour microscope could be useful for tele-medicine applications in resource poor settings.

  14. First experiences with the ATLAS pixel detector control system at the combined test beam 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imhaeuser, Martin; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Henss, Tobias; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Detector control systems (DCS) include the readout, control and supervision of hardware devices as well as the monitoring of external systems like cooling system and the processing of control data. The implementation of such a system in the final experiment also has to provide the communication with the trigger and data acquisition system (TDAQ). In addition, conditions data which describe the status of the pixel detector modules and their environment must be logged and stored in a common LHC wide database system. At the combined test beam all ATLAS subdetectors were operated together for the first time over a longer period. To ensure the functionality of the pixel detector, a control system was set up. We describe the architecture chosen for the pixel DCS, the interfaces to hardware devices, the interfaces to the users and the performance of our system. The embedding of the DCS in the common infrastructure of the combined test beam and also its communication with surrounding systems will be discussed in some detail

  15. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE : WHAT ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS THINK

    OpenAIRE

    SATWIKO, PRASASTO

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable architecture has become a hot issue lately as the impacts of climate change become more intense. Architecture educations have responded by integrating knowledge of sustainable design in their curriculum. However, in the real life, new buildings keep coming with designs that completely ignore sustainable principles. This paper discusses the results of two national competitions on sustainable architecture targeted for architecture students (conducted in 2012 and 2013). The results a...

  16. Compact, open-architecture computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Lim, A.; Kangarloo, H.; Eldredge, S.; Loloyan, M.; Chuang, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) was introduced in 1982, and its basic system design has not changed. Current CR systems have certain limitations: spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratios are lower than those of screen-film systems, they are complicated and expensive to build, and they have a closed architecture. The authors of this paper designed and implemented a simpler, lower-cost, compact, open-architecture CR system to overcome some of these limitations. The open-architecture system is a manual-load-single-plate reader that can fit on a desk top. Phosphor images are stored in a local disk and can be sent to any other computer through standard interfaces. Any manufacturer's plate can be read with a scanning time of 90 second for a 35 x 43-cm plate. The standard pixel size is 174 μm and can be adjusted for higher spatial resolution. The data resolution is 12 bits/pixel over an x-ray exposure range of 0.01-100 mR

  17. Sensor Development for the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, T; Chiochia, V; Cremaldi, L M; Cucciarelli, S; Dorkhov, A; Konecki, M; Prokofiev, K; Regenfus, C; Sanders, D A; Son, S; Speer, T; Swartz, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on a current R&D activity for the sensor part of the CMS pixel detector. Devices featuring several design and technology options have been irradiated up to a proton fluence of 1E15 (1MeV Neutron)/cm**2 at the CERN PS. Afterwards they have been bump bonded to unirradiated readout chips. The chip allows a non zero suppressed full analogue readout and therefore a good characterization of the sensors in terms of noise and charge collection properties. The samples have been tested using high energy pions in the H2 beam line of the CERN SPS in June and September 2003. The results of this test beam are presented and the differences between the sensor options are discussed.

  18. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.; David, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using 60 Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity

  19. Steganography on quantum pixel images using Shannon entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel, Carlos Ortega; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a steganographical algorithm based on least significant bit (LSB) from the most significant bit information (MSBI) and the equivalence of a bit pixel image to a quantum pixel image, which permits to make the information communicate secretly onto quantum pixel images for its secure transmission through insecure channels. This algorithm offers higher security since it exploits the Shannon entropy for an image.

  20. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  1. Dichromatic Gray Pixel for Camera-agnostic Color Constancy

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yanlin; Chen, Ke; Nikkanen, Jarno; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian; Matas, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    We propose a novel statistical color constancy method, especially suitable for the Camera-agnostic Color Constancy, i.e. the scenario where nothing is known a priori about the capturing devices. The method, called Dichromatic Gray Pixel, or DGP, relies on a novel gray pixel detection algorithm derived using the Dichromatic Reflection Model. DGP is suitable for camera-agnostic color constancy since varying devices are set to make achromatic pixels look gray under standard neutral illumination....

  2. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  3. Software architecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  4. Lightweight enterprise architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkorn, Fenix

    2004-01-01

    STATE OF ARCHITECTUREArchitectural ChaosRelation of Technology and Architecture The Many Faces of Architecture The Scope of Enterprise Architecture The Need for Enterprise ArchitectureThe History of Architecture The Current Environment Standardization Barriers The Need for Lightweight Architecture in the EnterpriseThe Cost of TechnologyThe Benefits of Enterprise Architecture The Domains of Architecture The Gap between Business and ITWhere Does LEA Fit? LEA's FrameworkFrameworks, Methodologies, and Approaches The Framework of LEATypes of Methodologies Types of ApproachesActual System Environmen

  5. Software architecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  6. Development of Fast and High Precision CMOS Pixel Sensors for an ILC Vertex Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hu-Guo, Christine

    2010-01-01

    The development of CMOS pixel sensors with column parallel read-out and integrated zero-suppression has resulted in a full size, nearly 1 Megapixel, prototype with ~100 \\mu s read-out time. Its performances are quite close to the ILD vertex detector specifications, showing that the sensor architecture can presumably be evolved to meet these specifications exactly. Starting from the existing architecture and achieved performances, the paper will expose the details of how the sensor will be evolved in the coming 2-3 years in perspective of the ILD Detector Baseline Document, to be delivered in 2012. Two different devices are foreseen for this objective, one being optimized for the inner layers and their fast read-out requirement, while the other exploits the dimmed background in the outer layers to reduce the power consumption. The sensor evolution relies on a high resistivity epitaxial layer, on the use of an advanced CMOS process and on the combination of column-level ADCs with a pixel array. The paper will p...

  7. Semiconductor Pixel detectors and their applications in life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, J

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in semiconductor technology allow construction of highly efficient and low noise pixel detectors of ionizing radiation. Steadily improving quality of front end electronics enables fast digital signal processing in each pixel which offers recording of more complete information about each detected quantum (energy, time, number of particles). All these features improve an extend applicability of pixel technology in different fields. Some applications of this technology especially for imaging in life sciences will be shown (energy and phase sensitive X-ray radiography and tomography, radiography with heavy charged particles, neutron radiography, etc). On the other hand a number of obstacles can limit the detector performance if not handled. The pixel detector is in fact an array of individual detectors (pixels), each of them has its own efficiency, energy calibration and also noise. The common effort is to make all these parameters uniform for all pixels. However an ideal uniformity can be never reached. Moreover, it is often seen that the signal in one pixel can affect the neighbouring pixels due to various reasons (e.g. charge sharing). All such effects have to be taken into account during data processing to avoid false data interpretation. A brief view into the future of pixel detectors and their applications including also spectroscopy, tracking and dosimetry is given too. Special attention is paid to the problem of detector segmentation in context of the charge sharing effect.

  8. Qualification Procedures of the CMS Pixel Barrel Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Starodumov, A; Horisberger, R.; Kastli, H.Chr.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Meier, B.; Rohe, T.; Trueb, P.

    2006-01-01

    The CMS pixel barrel system will consist of three layers built of about 800 modules. One module contains 66560 readout channels and the full pixel barrel system about 48 million channels. It is mandatory to test each channel for functionality, noise level, trimming mechanism, and bump bonding quality. Different methods to determine the bump bonding yield with electrical measurements have been developed. Measurements of several operational parameters are also included in the qualification procedure. Among them are pixel noise, gains and pedestals. Test and qualification procedures of the pixel barrel modules are described and some results are presented.

  9. A hybrid 3D LIDAR imager based on pixel-by-pixel scanning and DS-OCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Yongwan

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new hybrid 3D light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, which measures a scene with 1280 x 600 pixels at a refresh rate of 60fps. The emitted pulses of each pixel are modulated by direct sequence optical code division multiple access (DS-OCDMA) techniques. The modulated pulses include a unique device identification number, the pixel position in the line, and a checksum. The LIDAR emits the modulated pulses periodically without waiting to receive returning light at the detector. When all the pixels are completely through the process, the travel time, amplitude, width, and speed are used by the pixel-by-pixel scanning LIDAR imager to generate point cloud data as the measured results. We programmed the entire hybrid 3D LIDAR operation in a simulator to observe the functionality accomplished by our proposed model.

  10. Study of plasma charging-induced white pixel defect increase in CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokashiki, Ken; Bai, KeunHee; Baek, KyeHyun; Kim, Yongjin; Min, Gyungjin; Kang, Changjin; Cho, Hanku; Moon, Jootae

    2007-01-01

    Plasma process-induced 'white pixel defect' (WPD) of CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) is studied for Si3N4 spacer etch back process by using a magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) system. WPD preferably takes place at the wafer edge region when the magnetized plasma is applied to Si3N4 etch. Plasma charging analysis reveals that the plasma charge-up characteristic is well matching the edge-intensive WPD generation, rather than the UV radiation. Plasma charging on APS transfer gate might lead to a gate leakage, which could play a role in generation of signal noise or WPD. In this article the WPD generation mechanism will be discussed from plasma charging point of view

  11. Calculating Viewing Angles Pixel by Pixel in Optical Remote Sensing Satellite Imagery Using the Rational Function Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Xu; Guo Zhang; Qingjun Zhang; Deren Li

    2018-01-01

    In studies involving the extraction of surface physical parameters using optical remote sensing satellite imagery, sun-sensor geometry must be known, especially for sensor viewing angles. However, while pixel-by-pixel acquisitions of sensor viewing angles are of critical importance to many studies, currently available algorithms for calculating sensor-viewing angles focus only on the center-point pixel or are complicated and are not well known. Thus, this study aims to provide a simple and ge...

  12. An efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Lian, Xiaocong; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Xiaoxiang

    2015-12-01

    The next-generation video coding standard of High-Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) is especially efficient for coding high-resolution video such as 8K-ultra-high-definition (UHD) video. Fractional motion estimation in HEVC presents a significant challenge in clock latency and area cost as it consumes more than 40 % of the total encoding time and thus results in high computational complexity. With aims at supporting 8K-UHD video applications, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture for HEVC is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new interpolation filter algorithm based on the 8-pixel interpolation unit is proposed in this paper. It can save 19.7 % processing time on average with acceptable coding quality degradation. Based on the proposed algorithm, an efficient interpolation filter VLSI architecture, composed of a reused data path of interpolation, an efficient memory organization, and a reconfigurable pipeline interpolation filter engine, is presented to reduce the implement hardware area and achieve high throughput. The final VLSI implementation only requires 37.2k gates in a standard 90-nm CMOS technology at an operating frequency of 240 MHz. The proposed architecture can be reused for either half-pixel interpolation or quarter-pixel interpolation, which can reduce the area cost for about 131,040 bits RAM. The processing latency of our proposed VLSI architecture can support the real-time processing of 4:2:0 format 7680 × 4320@78fps video sequences.

  13. The ALPIDE pixel sensor chip for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca, E-mail: gianluca.aglieri.rinella@cern.ch

    2017-02-11

    The ALPIDE chip is a CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor being developed for the Upgrade of the ITS of the ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The ALPIDE chip is implemented with a 180 nm CMOS Imaging Process and fabricated on substrates with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer. It measures 15 mm×30 mm and contains a matrix of 512×1024 pixels with in-pixel amplification, shaping, discrimination and multi-event buffering. The readout of the sensitive matrix is hit driven. There is no signaling activity over the matrix if there are no hits to read out and power consumption is proportional to the occupancy. The sensor meets the experimental requirements of detection efficiency above 99%, fake-hit probability below 10{sup −5} and a spatial resolution of 5 μm. The capability to read out Pb–Pb interactions at 100 kHz is provided. The power density of the ALPIDE chip is projected to be less than 35 mW/cm{sup 2} for the application in the Inner Barrel Layers and below 20 mW/cm{sup 2} for the Outer Barrel Layers, where the occupancy is lower. This contribution describes the architecture and the main features of the final ALPIDE chip, planned for submission at the beginning of 2016. Early results from the experimental qualification of full scale prototype predecessors are also reported. - Highlights: • The ALPIDE chip, an innovative CMOS pixel particle detector is described. • It achieves excellent detection performance figures and very low power consumption. • The characterization of prototypes confirms the achievement of the specifications.

  14. High dynamic range imaging sensors and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Illumination is a crucial element in many applications, matching the luminance of the scene with the operational range of a camera. When luminance cannot be adequately controlled, a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system may be necessary. These systems are being increasingly used in automotive on-board systems, road traffic monitoring, and other industrial, security, and military applications. This book provides readers with an intermediate discussion of HDR image sensors and techniques for industrial and non-industrial applications. It describes various sensor and pixel architectures capable

  15. Architectural design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Antonius Gradus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    A software architecture can be considered as the collection of key decisions concerning the design of the software of a system. Knowledge about this design, i.e. architectural knowledge, is key for understanding a software architecture and thus the software itself. Architectural knowledge is mostly

  16. Information Integration Architecture Development

    OpenAIRE

    Faulkner, Stéphane; Kolp, Manuel; Nguyen, Duy Thai; Coyette, Adrien; Do, Thanh Tung; 16th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) architectures are gaining popularity for building open, distributed, and evolving software required by systems such as information integration applications. Unfortunately, despite considerable work in software architecture during the last decade, few research efforts have aimed at truly defining patterns and languages for designing such multiagent architectures. We propose a modern approach based on organizational structures and architectural description lan...

  17. Fragments of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jacob Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”......Topic 3: “Case studies dealing with the artistic and architectural work of architects worldwide, and the ties between specific artistic and architectural projects, methodologies and products”...

  18. Centi-pixel accurate real-time inverse distortion correction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, Johan P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Inverse distortion is used to create an undistorted image from a distorted image. For each pixel in the undistorted image it is required to determine which pixel in the distorted image should be used. However the process of characterizing a lens...

  19. Precision tracking with a single gaseous pixel detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsigaridas, S.; van Bakel, N.; Bilevych, Y.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P.; de Jong, P.; Kluit, R.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of micro-pattern gaseous detectors has grown over the past few years after successful usage in a large number of applications in physics experiments and medicine. We develop gaseous pixel detectors using micromegas-based amplification structures on top of CMOS pixel readout chips.

  20. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Simple Floating Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Nakamura, Junichi; Kemeny, Sabrina E.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental complementary metal-oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) active-pixel image sensor integrated circuit features simple floating-gate structure, with metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) as active circuit element in each pixel. Provides flexibility of readout modes, no kTC noise, and relatively simple structure suitable for high-density arrays. Features desirable for "smart sensor" applications.

  1. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced in 2025 during the LHC Phase-II shutdown by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The innermost part of ITk will be a pixel detector containing about 12.5m2 of sensitive silicon. The silicon modules are arranged on 5 layers of stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions covering out to |η| < 4; a mid-eta region (~1 < |η| < ~2) will be occupied by novel inclined support structures which keep the angle of incidence of high-momentum tracks more closely normal to the sensitive silicon. All supports will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally-conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide flowing in thin-walled titanium pipes. An extensive prototyping programme, including thermal, mechanical and electrical studies, is being carried out on all the types of support structures. The HL-LHC is expected to deliver up t...

  2. The Phase-2 ATLAS ITk Pixel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Benoit, Mathieu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The entire tracking system of the ATLAS experiment will be replaced during the LHC Phase II shutdown (foreseen to take place around 2025) by an all-silicon detector called the “ITk” (Inner Tracker). The innermost portion of the ITk will consist of a pixel detector with stave-like support structures in the most central region and ring-shaped supports in the endcap regions; there may also be novel inclined support structures in the barrel-endcap overlap regions. The new detector could have as much as 14 m2 of sensitive silicon. Support structures will be based on low mass, highly stable and highly thermally conductive carbon-based materials cooled by evaporative carbon dioxide. The ITk will be instrumented with new sensors and readout electronics to provide improved tracking performance compared to the current detector. All the module components must be performant enough and robust enough to cope with the expected high particle multiplicity and severe radiation background of the High-Luminosity LHC. Readout...

  3. The ALICE silicon pixel detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapusta, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is again reaching its startup phase at the European Organization for Particle Physics (CERN). The LHC started its operation on the 10 th of September, 2008 with huge success managing to sent the the first beam successfully around the entire ring in less than an hour after the first injection in one direction, and later that day in the opposite direction. Unfortunately, on the 19 th of September, an accident occurred during the 5.5 TeV magnet commissioning in Sector 34, which will significantly delay the operation of the LHC. The ALICE experiment will exploit the collisions of accelerated ions produced at the LHC to study strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and high temperatures. e ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) represents the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Traing System (ITS) located at radii of 3.9 cm and 7.6 cm from the Interaction Point (IP). One of the main tasks of the SPD is to provide precise traing information. is information is fundamental for the study of weak decays of heavy flavor particles, since the corresponding signature is a secondary vertex separated from the primary vertex only by a few hundred micrometers. e tra density could be as high as 80 tracks per cm 2 in the innermost SPD layer as a consequence of a heavy ion collision. The SPD will provide a spatial resolution of around ≅12 μm in the rφ direction and ≅70 μm in the z direction. The expected occupancy of the SPD ranges from 0.4% to 1.5% which makes it an excellent charged particle multiplicity detector in the pseudorapidity region |η| < 2. Furthermore, by combining all possible hits in the SPD, one can get a rough estimate of the position of the primary interaction. One of the challenges is the tight material budget constraint (<1% radiation length per layer) in order to limit the scattering of the traversing particles. e silicon sensor and its readout chip have a total thickness of only 350 μm and the signal lines from the

  4. Status of the CMS Phase I pixel detector upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spannagel, S., E-mail: simon.spannagel@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  5. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  6. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschbuehl, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.7% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  7. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  8. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lapoire, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as B-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.2% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification.

  9. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: approximately 97% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  10. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ince, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 96.8% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  11. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this paper, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5\\% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, ...

  12. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump- bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, a...

  13. Operational experience with the ATLAS Pixel detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deluca, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including monitoring, calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: 97,5% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specification, an...

  14. Status of the CMS Phase I Pixel Detector Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon

    2016-09-21

    A new pixel detector for the CMS experiment is being built, owing to the instantaneous luminosities anticipated for the Phase~I Upgrade of the LHC. The new CMS pixel detector provides four-hit tracking while featuring a significantly reduced material budget as well as new cooling and powering schemes. A new front-end readout chip mitigates buffering and bandwidth limitations, and comprises a low-threshold comparator. These improvements allow the new pixel detector to sustain and improve the efficiency of the current pixel tracker at the increased requirements imposed by high luminosities and pile-up. This contribution gives an overview of the design of the upgraded pixel detector and the status of the upgrade project, and presents test beam performance measurements of the production read-out chip.

  15. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus vital for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-in-n silicon substrates. In this talk, results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC and its status after three years of operation will be presented, including calibration procedures, timing optimization and detector performance. The detector performance is excellent: ~96 % of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency e...

  16. Realistic full wave modeling of focal plane array pixels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campione, Salvatore [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Warne, Larry K. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Jorgenson, Roy E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electromagnetic Theory Dept.; Davids, Paul [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Photonic Microsystems Dept.; Peters, David W. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Applied Photonic Microsystems Dept.

    2017-11-01

    Here, we investigate full-wave simulations of realistic implementations of multifunctional nanoantenna enabled detectors (NEDs). We focus on a 2x2 pixelated array structure that supports two wavelengths of operation. We design each resonating structure independently using full-wave simulations with periodic boundary conditions mimicking the whole infinite array. We then construct a supercell made of a 2x2 pixelated array with periodic boundary conditions mimicking the full NED; in this case, however, each pixel comprises 10-20 antennas per side. In this way, the cross-talk between contiguous pixels is accounted for in our simulations. We observe that, even though there are finite extent effects, the pixels work as designed, each responding at the respective wavelength of operation. This allows us to stress that realistic simulations of multifunctional NEDs need to be performed to verify the design functionality by taking into account finite extent and cross-talk effects.

  17. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  18. The NA60 experiment readout architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Floris, M; Usai, G L; David, A; Rosinsky, P; Ohnishi, H

    2004-01-01

    The NA60 experiment was designed to identify signatures of a new state of matter, the Quark Gluon Plasma, in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Super Proton Synchroton. The apparatus is composed of four main detectors: a muon spectrometer (MS), a zero degree calorimeter (ZDC), a silicon vertex telescope (VT), and a silicon microstrip beam tracker (BT). The readout of the whole experiment is based on a PCI architecture. The basic unit is a general purpose PCI card, interfaced to the different subdetectors via custom mezzanine cards. This allowed us to successfully implement several completely different readout protocols (from the VME like protocol of the MS to the custom protocol of the pixel telescope). The system was fully tested with proton and ion beams, and several million events were collected in 2002 and 2003. This paper presents the readout architecture of NA60, with particular emphasis on the PCI layer common to all the subdetectors. (16 refs).

  19. 3D-FBK Pixel sensors: recent beam tests results with irradiated devices

    CERN Document Server

    Micelli, A; Sandaker, H; Stugu, B; Barbero, M; Hugging, F; Karagounis, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kruger, H; Tsung, J W; Wermes, N; Capua, M; Fazio, S; Mastroberardino, A; Susinno, G; Gallrapp, C; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; La Rosa, A; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S; Jakobs, K; Kohler, M; Parzefall, U; Darbo, G; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Butter, C; Bates, R; Oshea, V; Parker, S; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Grinstein, S; Korokolov, I; Pradilla, C; Einsweiler, K; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Borri, M; Da Via, C; Freestone, J; Kolya, S; Lai, C H; Nellist, C; Pater, J; Thompson, R; Watts, S J; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, S; Bolle, E; Gjersdal, H; Sjobaek, K N; Stapnes, S; Rohne, O; Su, D; Young, C; Hansson, P; Grenier, P; Hasi, J; Kenney, C; Kocian, M; Jackson, P; Silverstein, D; Davetak, H; DeWilde, B; Tsybychev, D; Dalla Betta, G F; Gabos, P; Povoli, M; Cobal, M; Giordani, M P; Selmi, L; Cristofoli, A; Esseni, D; Palestri, P; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Boscardin, M; Bagolini, A; Piemonte, C; Ronchin, S; Zorzi, N; Hansen, T E; Hansen, T; Kok, A; Lietaer, N; Kalliopuska, J; Oja, A

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel detector is the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment tracking device at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and plays a key role in the reconstruction of the primary and secondary vertices of short-lived particles. To cope with the high level of radiation produced during the collider operation, it is planned to add to the present three layers of silicon pixel sensors which constitute the Pixel Detector, an additional layer (Insertable B-Layer, or IBL) of sensors. 3D silicon sensors are one of the technologies which are under study for the IBL. 3D silicon technology is an innovative combination of very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) where electrodes are fabricated inside the silicon bulk instead of being implanted on the wafer surfaces. 3D sensors, with electrodes fully or partially penetrating the silicon substrate, are currently fabricated at different processing facilities in Europe and USA. This paper reports on the 2010 June beam test results for irradi...

  20. A rollable, organic electrophoretic QVGA display with field-shielded pixel architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Huitema, H.E.A.; Mil, M. van; Veenendaal, E. van; Lieshout, P.J.G. van; Touwslager, F.; Patry, S.F.; Sohn, S.; Whitesides, T.; McCreary, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    A 100-um thin QVGA display was made by combining a 25-um thin organic transistor active-matrix backplane with an electrophoretic display film. High contrast and low crosstalk was achieved by the addition of a field shield to the backplane. The display can be bent repeatedly to a radius of 2 mm

  1. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-01

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  2. Design of a current based readout chip and development of a DEPFET pixel prototype system for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimpl, M.

    2005-12-15

    The future TeV-scale linear collider ILC (International Linear Collider) offers a large variety of precision measurements complementary to the discovery potential of the LHC (Large Hadron Collider). To fully exploit its physics potential, a vertex detector with unprecedented performance is needed. One proposed technology for the ILC vertex detector is the DEPFET active pixel sensor. The DEPFET sensor offers particle detection with in-pixel amplification by incorporating a field effect transistor into a fully depleted high-ohmic silicon substrate. The device provides an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and a good spatial resolution at the same time. To establish a very fast readout of a DEPFET pixel matrix with row rates of 20 MHz and more, the 128 channel CURO II ASIC has been designed and fabricated. The architecture of the chip is completely based on current mode techniques (SI) perfectly adapted to the current signal of the sensor. For the ILC vertex detector a prototype system with a 64 x 128 DEPFET pixel matrix read out by the CURO II chip has been developed. The design issues and the standalone performance of the readout chip as well as first results with the prototype system will be presented. (orig.)

  3. Submission of the First Full Scale Prototype Chip for Upgraded ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC, FE-I4A

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Dube, S; Elledge, D; Fleury, J; Fougeron, D; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gensolen, F; Gnani, D; Gromov, V; Jensen, F; Hemperek, T; Karagounis, M; Kluit, R; Kruth, A; Mekkaoui, A; Menouni, M; Schipper, JD; Wermes, N; Zivkovic, V

    2010-01-01

    A new ATLAS pixel chip FE-I4 is being developed for use in upgraded LHC luminosity environments, including the near-term Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade. FE-I4 is designed in a 130nm CMOS technology, presenting advantages in terms of radiation tolerance and digital logic density compared to the 250nm CMOS technology used for the current ATLAS pixel IC, FE-I3. The FE-I4 architecture is based on an array of 80x336 pixels, each 50x250um^2, consisting of analog and digital sections. In the summer 2010, a first full scale prototype FE-I4A was submitted for an engineering run. This IC features the full scale pixel array as well as the complex periphery of the future full-size FE-I4. The FE-I4A contains also various extra test features which should prove very useful for the chip characterization, but deviate from the needs for standard operation of the final FE-I4 for IBL. In this paper, focus will be brought to the various features implemented in the FE-I4A submission, while also underlining the main differences b...

  4. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  5. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P.L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C.A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.

    2015-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented

  6. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, P., E-mail: yangping0710@126.com [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps (France); Chanlek, N. [Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Collu, A. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Gao, C. [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kofarago, M. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk and Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lattuca, A. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); Marin Tobon, C.A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marras, D. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Mager, M.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mazza, G. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); and others

    2015-06-11

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  7. Design and realization of a fast low noise electronics for a hybrid pixel X-ray detector dedicated to small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantepie, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of computerized tomography (CT), charge integration detector were widely employed for X-ray biomedical imaging applications. Nevertheless, other options exist. A new technology of direct detection using semiconductors has been developed for high energy physics instrumentation. This new technology, called hybrid pixel detector, works in photon counting mode and allows for selecting the minimum energy of the counted photons. The imXgam research team at CPPM develops the PIXSCAN demonstrator, a CT-scanner using the hybrid pixel detector XPAD. The aim of this project is to evaluate the improvement on image quality and on dose delivered during X-ray examinations of a small animal. After a first prototype of hybrid pixel detector XPAD1 proving the feasibility of the project, a complete imager XPAD2 was designed and integrated in the PIXSCAN demonstrator. Since then, with the evolution of microelectronic industry, important improvements are conceivable. To reducing the size of pixels and to improving the energy resolution of detectors, a third design XPAD3 was conceived and will be soon integrated in a second generation of PIXSCAN demonstrator. In this project, my thesis's work consisted in taking part to the design of the detector readout electronics, to the characterization of the chips and of the hybrid pixel detectors, and also to the definition of an auto-zeroing architecture for pixels. (author) [fr

  8. Development of a 750x750 pixels CMOS imager sensor for tracking applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larnaudie, Franck; Guardiola, Nicolas; Saint-Pé, Olivier; Vignon, Bruno; Tulet, Michel; Davancens, Robert; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Martin-Gonthier, Philippe; Estribeau, Magali

    2017-11-01

    Solid-state optical sensors are now commonly used in space applications (navigation cameras, astronomy imagers, tracking sensors...). Although the charge-coupled devices are still widely used, the CMOS image sensor (CIS), which performances are continuously improving, is a strong challenger for Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) systems. This paper describes a 750x750 pixels CMOS image sensor that has been specially designed and developed for star tracker and tracking sensor applications. Such detector, that is featuring smart architecture enabling very simple and powerful operations, is built using the AMIS 0.5μm CMOS technology. It contains 750x750 rectangular pixels with 20μm pitch. The geometry of the pixel sensitive zone is optimized for applications based on centroiding measurements. The main feature of this device is the on-chip control and timing function that makes the device operation easier by drastically reducing the number of clocks to be applied. This powerful function allows the user to operate the sensor with high flexibility: measurement of dark level from masked lines, direct access to the windows of interest… A temperature probe is also integrated within the CMOS chip allowing a very precise measurement through the video stream. A complete electro-optical characterization of the sensor has been performed. The major parameters have been evaluated: dark current and its uniformity, read-out noise, conversion gain, Fixed Pattern Noise, Photo Response Non Uniformity, quantum efficiency, Modulation Transfer Function, intra-pixel scanning. The characterization tests are detailed in the paper. Co60 and protons irradiation tests have been also carried out on the image sensor and the results are presented. The specific features of the 750x750 image sensor such as low power CMOS design (3.3V, power consumption<100mW), natural windowing (that allows efficient and robust tracking algorithms), simple proximity electronics (because of the on

  9. International Workshop on Semiconductor Pixel Detectors for Particles and Imaging (PIXEL2016)

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Leonardo; PIXEL2016

    2016-01-01

    The workshop will cover various topics related to pixel detector technology. Development and applications will be discussed for charged particle tracking in High Energy Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, and for X-ray imaging in Astronomy, Biology, Medicine and Material Science. The conference program will also include reports on front and back end electronics, radiation effects, low mass mechanics, environmental control and construction techniques. Emerging technologies, such as monolithic and HV&HR CMOS, will also be treated. Will be published in: http://pos.sissa.it/

  10. ANALYSIS OF MULTIPATH PIXELS IN SAR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As the received radar signal is the sum of signal contributions overlaid in one single pixel regardless of the travel path, the multipath effect should be seriously tackled as the multiple bounce returns are added to direct scatter echoes which leads to ghost scatters. Most of the existing solution towards the multipath is to recover the signal propagation path. To facilitate the signal propagation simulation process, plenty of aspects such as sensor parameters, the geometry of the objects (shape, location, orientation, mutual position between adjacent buildings and the physical parameters of the surface (roughness, correlation length, permittivitywhich determine the strength of radar signal backscattered to the SAR sensor should be given in previous. However, it's not practical to obtain the highly detailed object model in unfamiliar area by field survey as it's a laborious work and time-consuming. In this paper, SAR imaging simulation based on RaySAR is conducted at first aiming at basic understanding of multipath effects and for further comparison. Besides of the pre-imaging simulation, the product of the after-imaging, which refers to radar images is also taken into consideration. Both Cosmo-SkyMed ascending and descending SAR images of Lupu Bridge in Shanghai are used for the experiment. As a result, the reflectivity map and signal distribution map of different bounce level are simulated and validated by 3D real model. The statistic indexes such as the phase stability, mean amplitude, amplitude dispersion, coherence and mean-sigma ratio in case of layover are analyzed with combination of the RaySAR output.

  11. Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color image sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan O Isikman

    Full Text Available We report Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color sensor-arrays such as CMOS imagers that exhibit Bayer color filter patterns. Without physically removing these color filters coated on the sensor chip, we synthesize pixel super-resolved lensfree holograms, which are then reconstructed to achieve ~350 nm lateral resolution, corresponding to a numerical aperture of ~0.8, across a field-of-view of ~20.5 mm(2. This constitutes a digital image with ~0.7 Billion effective pixels in both amplitude and phase channels (i.e., ~1.4 Giga-pixels total. Furthermore, by changing the illumination angle (e.g., ± 50° and scanning a partially-coherent light source across two orthogonal axes, super-resolved images of the same specimen from different viewing angles are created, which are then digitally combined to synthesize tomographic images of the object. Using this dual-axis lensfree tomographic imager running on a color sensor-chip, we achieve a 3D spatial resolution of ~0.35 µm × 0.35 µm × ~2 µm, in x, y and z, respectively, creating an effective voxel size of ~0.03 µm(3 across a sample volume of ~5 mm(3, which is equivalent to >150 Billion voxels. We demonstrate the proof-of-concept of this lensfree optical tomographic microscopy platform on a color CMOS image sensor by creating tomograms of micro-particles as well as a wild-type C. elegans nematode.

  12. Studies Concerning the ATLAS IBL Calibration Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Kretz, Moritz; Kugel, Andreas

    With the commissioning of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) in 2013 at the ATLAS experiment 12~million additional pixels will be added to the current Pixel Detector. While the idea of employing pairs of VME based Read-Out Driver (ROD) and Back of Crate (BOC) cards in the read-out chain remains unchanged, modifications regarding the IBL calibration procedure were introduced to overcome current hardware limitations. The analysis of calibration histograms will no longer be performed on the RODs, but on an external computing farm that is connected to the RODs via Ethernet. This thesis contributes to the new IBL calibration procedure and presents a concept for a scalable software and hardware architecture. An embedded system targeted to the ROD FPGAs is realized for sending data from the RODs to the fit farm servers and benchmarks are carried out with a Linux based networking stack, as well as a standalone software stack. Furthermore, the histogram fitting algorithm currently being employed on the Pixel Detector RODs i...

  13. Irradiation and beam tests qualification for ATLAS IBL Pixel Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinskiy, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The upgrade for the ATLAS detector will have different steps towards HL-LHC. The first upgrade for the Pixel Detector will consist in the construction of a new pixel layer which will be installed during the first shutdown of the LHC machine (foreseen for 2013–2014). The new detector, called Insertable B-Layer (IBL), will be inserted between the existing Pixel Detector and a new (smaller radius) beam-pipe at a radius of 33 mm. The IBL will require the development of several new technologies to cope with the increase in the radiation damage and the pixel occupancy and also to improve the physics performance, which will be achieved by reduction of the pixel size and of the material budget. Two different promising silicon sensor technologies (Planar n-in-n and 3D) are currently under investigation for the Pixel Detector. An overview of the sensor technologies' qualification with particular emphasis on irradiation and beam tests is presented. -- Highlights: ► The ATLAS inner tracker will be extended with a so called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). ► The IBL modules are required to withstand irradiation up to 5×10 15 n eq /cm 2 . ► Two types of silicon pixel detector technologies (Planar and 3D) were tested in beam. ► The irradiated sensor efficiency exceeds 97% both with and without magnetic field. ► The leakage current, power dissipation, module active area ratio requirements are met.

  14. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-15

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2}, which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10{sup 15} particles per cm{sup 2}.

  15. 32 x 16 CMOS smart pixel array for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Guilfoyle, Peter S.; Stone, Richard V.; Hessenbruch, John M.; Choquette, Kent D.; Kiamilev, Fouad E.

    2000-05-01

    Free space optical interconnects can increase throughput capacities and eliminate much of the energy consumption required for `all electronic' systems. High speed optical interconnects can be achieved by integrating optoelectronic devices with conventional electronics. Smart pixel arrays have been developed which use optical interconnects. An individual smart pixel cell is composed of a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), a photodetector, an optical receiver, a laser driver, and digital logic circuitry. Oxide-confined VCSELs are being developed to operate at 850 nm with a threshold current of approximately 1 mA. Multiple quantum well photodetectors are being fabricated from AlGaAs for use with the 850 nm VCSELs. The VCSELs and photodetectors are being integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry using flip-chip bonding. CMOS circuitry is being integrated with a 32 X 16 smart pixel array. The 512 smart pixels are serially linked. Thus, an entire data stream may be clocked through the chip and output electrically by the last pixel. Electrical testing is being performed on the CMOS smart pixel array. Using an on-chip pseudo random number generator, a digital data sequence was cycled through the chip verifying operation of the digital circuitry. Although, the prototype chip was fabricated in 1.2 micrometers technology, simulations have demonstrated that the array can operate at 1 Gb/s per pixel using 0.5 micrometers technology.

  16. Diamond and silicon pixel detectors in high radiation environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsung, Jieh-Wen

    2012-10-01

    Diamond pixel detector is a promising candidate for tracking of collider experiments because of the good radiation tolerance of diamond. The diamond pixel detector must withstand the radiation damage from 10 16 particles per cm 2 , which is the expected total fluence in High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. The performance of diamond and silicon pixel detectors are evaluated in this research in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Single-crystal diamond pixel detectors with the most recent readout chip ATLAS FE-I4 are produced and characterized. Based on the results of the measurement, the SNR of diamond pixel detector is evaluated as a function of radiation fluence, and compared to that of planar-silicon ones. The deterioration of signal due to radiation damage is formulated using the mean free path of charge carriers in the sensor. The noise from the pixel readout circuit is simulated and calculated with leakage current and input capacitance to the amplifier as important parameters. The measured SNR shows good agreement with the calculated and simulated results, proving that the performance of diamond pixel detectors can exceed the silicon ones if the particle fluence is more than 10 15 particles per cm 2 .

  17. E-Beam Effects on CMOS Active Pixel Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Ook; Jo, Gyu Seong; Kim, Hyeon Daek; Kim, Hyunk Taek; Kim, Jong Yeol; Kim, Chan Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Three different CMOS active pixel structures manufactured in a deep submicron process have been evaluated with electron beam. The devices were exposed to 1 MeV electron beam up to 5kGy. Dark current increased after E-beam irradiation differently at each pixel structure. Dark current change is dependent on CMOS pixel structures. CMOS image sensors are now good candidates in demanding applications such as medical image sensor, particle detection and space remote sensing. In these situations, CISs are exposed to high doses of radiation. In fact radiation is known to generate trapped charge in CMOS oxides. It can lead to threshold voltage shifts and current leakages in MOSFETs and dark current increase in photodiodes. We studied ionizing effects in three types of CMOS APSs fabricated by 0.25 CMOS process. The devices were irradiated by a Co 60 source up to 50kGy. All irradiation took place at room temperature. The dark current in the three different pixels exhibits increase with electron beam exposure. From the above figure, the change of dark current is dependent on the pixel structure. Double junction structure has shown relatively small increase of dark current after electron beam irradiation. The dark current in the three different pixels exhibits increase with electron beam exposure. The contribution of the total ionizing dose to the dark current increase is small here, since the devices were left unbiased during the electron beam irradiation. Radiation hardness in dependent on the pixel structures. Pixel2 is relatively vulnerable to radiation exposure. Pixel3 has radiation hardened structure

  18. LHC-rate beam test of CMS pixel barrel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, W.; Hoermann, Ch.; Kotlinski, D.; Horisberger, R.; Kaestli, H. Chr.; Gabathuler, K.; Bertl, W.; Meier, B.; Langenegger, U.; Trueeb, P.; Rohe, T.

    2007-01-01

    Modules for the CMS pixel barrel detector have been operated in a high rate pion beam at PSI in order to verify under LHC-like conditions the final module design for the production. The test beam provided charged particle rates up to 10 8 cm -2 s -1 over the full module area. Bunch structure and randomized high trigger rates simulated realistic operation. A four layer telescope made of single pixel readout chip assemblies provided tracking needed for the determination of the modules hit reconstruction efficiency. The performance of the modules has been shown to be adequate for the CMS pixel barrel

  19. Construction and Tests of Modules for the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068490

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system and will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the pixel detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability, all combined with a low material budget. The pre-production phase of such pixel modules has nearly finished, yielding fully functional modules. Results are presented of tests with these modules.

  20. Vertically integrated pixel readout chip for high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Khalid, Farah; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of the vertex detector pixel readout chips based on multi-tier vertically integrated electronics for the International Linear Collider. Some testing results of the VIP2a prototype are presented. The chip is the second iteration of the silicon implementation of the prototype, data-pushed concept of the readout developed at Fermilab. The device was fabricated in the 3D MIT-LL 0.15 (micro)m fully depleted SOI process. The prototype is a three-tier design, featuring 30 x 30 (micro)m 2 pixels, laid out in an array of 48 x 48 pixels.

  1. Pixel Detectors for Particle Physics and Imaging Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wermes, N

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor pixel detectors offer features for the detection of radiation which are interesting for particle physics detectors as well as for imaging e.g. in biomedical applications (radiography, autoradiography, protein crystallography) or in Xray astronomy. At the present time hybrid pixel detectors are technologically mastered to a large extent and large scale particle detectors are being built. Although the physical requirements are often quite different, imaging applications are emerging and interesting prototype results are available. Monolithic detectors, however, offer interesting features for both fields in future applications. The state of development of hybrid and monolithic pixel detectors, excluding CCDs, and their different suitability for particle detection and imaging, is reviewed.

  2. Pixelated camouflage patterns from the perspective of hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Jobánek, Adam; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav

    2016-10-01

    Pixelated camouflage patterns fulfill the role of both principles the matching and the disrupting that are exploited for blending the target into the background. It means that pixelated pattern should respect natural background in spectral and spatial characteristics embodied in micro and macro patterns. The HS imaging plays the similar, however the reverse role in the field of reconnaissance systems. The HS camera fundamentally records and extracts both the spectral and spatial information belonging to the recorded scenery. Therefore, the article deals with problems of hyperspectral (HS) imaging and subsequent processing of HS images of pixelated camouflage patterns which are among others characterized by their specific spatial frequency heterogeneity.

  3. arXiv Characterization and Verification Environment for the RD53A Pixel Readout Chip in 65 nm CMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, M.; Hemperek, T.; Janssen, J.; Pohl, D.L.; Daas, M.

    2018-02-02

    The RD53 collaboration is currently designing a large scale prototype pixel readout chip in 65 nm CMOS technology for the phase 2 upgrades at the HL-LHC. The RD53A chip will be available by the end of the year 2017 and will be extensively tested to confirm if the circuit and the architecture make a solid foundation for the final pixel readout chips for the experiments at the HL-LHC. A test and data acquisition system for the RD53A chip is currently under development to perform single-chip and multi-chip module measurements. In addition, the verification of the RD53A design is performed in a dedicated simulation environment. The concept and the implementation of the test and data acquisition system and the simulation environment, which are based on a modular data acquisition and system testing framework, are presented in this work.

  4. Design, simulation, fabrication, and preliminary tests of 3D CMS pixel detectors for the super-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koybasi, Ozhan; /Purdue U.; Bortoletto, Daniela; /Purdue U.; Hansen, Thor-Erik; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kok, Angela; /SINTEF, Oslo; Hansen, Trond Andreas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Lietaer, Nicolas; /SINTEF, Oslo; Jensen, Geir Uri; /SINTEF, Oslo; Summanwar, Anand; /SINTEF, Oslo; Bolla, Gino; /Purdue U.; Kwan, Simon Wing Lok; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The Super-LHC upgrade puts strong demands on the radiation hardness of the innermost tracking detectors of the CMS, which cannot be fulfilled with any conventional planar detector design. The so-called 3D detector architectures, which feature columnar electrodes passing through the substrate thickness, are under investigation as a potential solution for the closest operation points to the beams, where the radiation fluence is estimated to reach 10{sup 16} n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. Two different 3D detector designs with CMS pixel readout electronics are being developed and evaluated for their advantages and drawbacks. The fabrication of full-3D active edge CMS pixel devices with p-type substrate has been successfully completed at SINTEF. In this paper, we study the expected post-irradiation behaviors of these devices with simulations and, after a brief description of their fabrication, we report the first leakage current measurement results as performed on wafer.

  5. Modeling Architectural Patterns’ Behavior Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waqas Kamal, Ahmad; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architectural patterns have an impact on both the structure and the behavior of a system at the architecture design level. However, it is challenging to model patterns’ behavior in a systematic way because modeling languages do not provide the appropriate abstractions and because each pattern

  6. Prevalence of pure versus mixed snow cover pixels across spatial resolutions in alpine environments: implications for binary and fractional remote sensing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, David J.; Forster, Richard; Caldwell, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of snow-covered area (SCA) can be binary (indicating the presence/absence of snow cover at each pixel) or fractional (indicating the fraction of each pixel covered by snow). Fractional SCA mapping provides more information than binary SCA, but is more difficult to implement and may not be feasible with all types of remote sensing data. The utility of fractional SCA mapping relative to binary SCA mapping varies with the intended application as well as by spatial resolution, temporal resolution and period of interest, and climate. We quantified the frequency of occurrence of partially snow-covered (mixed) pixels at spatial resolutions between 1 m and 500 m over five dates at two study areas in the western U.S., using 0.5 m binary SCA maps derived from high spatial resolution imagery aggregated to fractional SCA at coarser spatial resolutions. In addition, we used in situ monitoring to estimate the frequency of partially snow-covered conditions for the period September 2013–August 2014 at 10 60-m grid cell footprints at two study areas with continental snow climates. Results from the image analysis indicate that at 40 m, slightly above the nominal spatial resolution of Landsat, mixed pixels accounted for 25%–93% of total pixels, while at 500 m, the nominal spatial resolution of MODIS bands used for snow cover mapping, mixed pixels accounted for 67%–100% of total pixels. Mixed pixels occurred more commonly at the continental snow climate site than at the maritime snow climate site. The in situ data indicate that some snow cover was present between 186 and 303 days, and partial snow cover conditions occurred on 10%–98% of days with snow cover. Four sites remained partially snow-free throughout most of the winter and spring, while six sites were entirely snow covered throughout most or all of the winter and spring. Within 60 m grid cells, the late spring/summer transition from snow-covered to snow-free conditions lasted 17–56 days and averaged 37

  7. Religious architecture: anthropological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaaik, O.

    2013-01-01

    Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives develops an anthropological perspective on modern religious architecture, including mosques, churches and synagogues. Borrowing from a range of theoretical perspectives on space-making and material religion, this volume looks at how religious

  8. Avionics Architecture for Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project is to develop a reference architecture that is based on standards and that can be scaled and...

  9. RATS: Reactive Architectures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christensen, Marc

    2004-01-01

    This project had two goals: To build an emulation prototype board for a tiled architecture and to demonstrate the utility of a global inter-chip free-space photonic interconnection fabric for polymorphous computer architectures (PCA...

  10. Rhein-Ruhr architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider......katalog til udstillingen 'Rhein - Ruhr architecture' Meldahls smedie, 15. marts - 28. april 2002. 99 sider...

  11. Architecture and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Javaheri, Saharnaz

    2016-01-01

    Film does not exist without architecture. In every movie that has ever been made throughout history, the cinematic image of architecture is embedded within the picture. Throughout my studies and research, I began to see that there is no director who can consciously or unconsciously deny the use of architectural elements in his or her movies. Architecture offers a strong profile to distinguish characters and story. In the early days, films were shot in streets surrounde...

  12. Initial Measurements on Pixel Detector Modules for the ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Gallrapp, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Delicate conditions in terms of peak and integrated luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will raise the ATLAS Pixel Detector to its performance limits. Silicon planar, silicon 3D and diamond pixel sensors are three possible sensor technologies which could be implemented in the upcoming Pixel Detector upgrades of the ATLAS experiment. Measurements of the IV-behavior and measurements with radioactive Americium-241 and Strontium-90 are used to characterize the sensor properties and to understand the interaction between the ATLAS FE-I4 front-end chip and the sensor. Comparisons of results from before and after irradiation for silicon planar and 3D pixel sensors, which give a first impression on the charge collection properties of the different sensor technologies, are presented.

  13. Planar sensors for the upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, T.; Bean, A.; Radicci, V.; Sibille, J.

    2011-01-01

    A replacement of the present CMS pixel detector with a better performing light weight four-layer system is foreseen in 2016. In the lifetime of this new system the LHC will reach and exceed its nominal luminosity of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 . Therefore the radiation hardness of all parts of the pixel system has to be reviewed. For the construction of the much larger four-layer pixel system, the replacement of the present double sided sensors by much cheaper single sided ones is considered. However, the construction of pixel modules with such sensors is challenging due to the small geometrical distance of the sensor high voltage and the ground of the readout electronics. This small distance limits the sensor bias to about 500 V in the tested samples.

  14. Small Pixel Hybrid CMOS X-ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samuel; Bray, Evan; Burrows, David N.; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Kern, Matthew; McQuaide, Maria; Wages, Mitchell

    2018-01-01

    Concepts for future space-based X-ray observatories call for a large effective area and high angular resolution instrument to enable precision X-ray astronomy at high redshift and low luminosity. Hybrid CMOS detectors are well suited for such high throughput instruments, and the Penn State X-ray detector lab, in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors, has recently developed new small pixel hybrid CMOS X-ray detectors. These prototype 128x128 pixel devices have 12.5 micron pixel pitch, 200 micron fully depleted depth, and include crosstalk eliminating CTIA amplifiers and in-pixel correlated double sampling (CDS) capability. We report on characteristics of these new detectors, including the best read noise ever measured for an X-ray hybrid CMOS detector, 5.67 e- (RMS).

  15. Bio-Inspired Asynchronous Pixel Event Tricolor Vision Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenero-Bardallo, Juan Antonio; Bryn, D H; Hafliger, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    This article investigates the potential of the first ever prototype of a vision sensor that combines tricolor stacked photo diodes with the bio-inspired asynchronous pixel event communication protocol known as Address Event Representation (AER). The stacked photo diodes are implemented in a 22 × 22 pixel array in a standard STM 90 nm CMOS process. Dynamic range is larger than 60 dB and pixels fill factor is 28%. The pixels employ either simple pulse frequency modulation (PFM) or a Time-to-First-Spike (TFS) mode. A heuristic linear combination of the chip's inherent pseudo colors serves to approximate RGB color representation. Furthermore, the sensor outputs can be processed to represent the radiation in the near infrared (NIR) band without employing external filters, and to color-encode direction of motion due to an asymmetry in the update rates of the different diode layers.

  16. A passive CMOS pixel sensor for the high luminosity LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daas, Michael; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Janssen, Jens; Krueger, Hans; Pohl, David-Leon; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Macchiolo, Anna [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The high luminosity upgrade for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN requires a new inner tracking detector for the ATLAS experiment. About 200 m{sup 2} of silicon detectors are needed demanding new, low cost hybridization- and sensor technologies. One promising approach is to use commercial CMOS technologies to produce the passive sensor for a hybrid pixel detector design. In this talk a fully functional prototype of a 300 μm thick, backside biased CMOS pixel sensor in 150 nm LFoundry technology is presented. The sensor is bump bonded to the ATLAS FE-I4 with AC and DC coupled pixels. Results like leakage current, noise performance, and charge collection efficiency are presented and compared to the actual ATLAS pixel sensor design.

  17. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  18. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, M.; Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; Doucet, M.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Kania, D.; Gan, K.K.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented

  19. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, Markus; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W

    2003-01-01

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented.

  20. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, M. E-mail: markus.keil@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; Doucet, M.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Kania, D.; Gan, K.K.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2003-03-21

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented.

  1. New results on diamond pixel sensors using ATLAS frontend electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, M.; Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; Doucet, M.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Kania, D.; Gan, K. K.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2003-03-01

    Diamond is a promising sensor material for future collider experiments due to its radiation hardness. Diamond pixel sensors have been bump bonded to an ATLAS pixel readout chip using PbSn solder bumps. Single chip devices have been characterised by lab measurements and in a high-energy pion beam at CERN. Results on charge collection, spatial resolution, efficiency and the charge carrier lifetime are presented.

  2. Integration and installation of the CMS pixel barrel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kastli, Hans-Christian

    2008-01-01

    A 66 million pixel detector has been installed in 2008 into the CMS experiment at CERN. The development and construction time took more than 10 years. In this paper the assembly of the barrel detector is described. A simple but effective method to accomplish a survey of the module positions during assembly is discussed. Furthermore the insertion and commissioning of the CMS pixel barrel detector which took place in July 2008 is illustrated.

  3. Content Progressive Coding of Limited Bits/pixel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren

    1999-01-01

    A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF.......A new lossless context based method for content progressive coding of limited bits/pixel images is proposed. Progressive coding is achieved by separating the image into contelnt layers. Digital maps are compressed up to 3 times better than GIF....

  4. Projection computation based on pixel in simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xu; Chen Zhiqiang; Xiong Hua; Zhang Li

    2005-01-01

    SART is an important arithmetic of image reconstruction, in which the projection computation takes over half of the reconstruction time. An efficient way to compute projection coefficient matrix together with memory optimization is presented in this paper. Different from normal method, projection lines are located based on every pixel, and the following projection coefficient computation can make use of the results. Correlation of projection lines and pixels can be used to optimize the computation. (authors)

  5. Leakage current measurements on pixelated CdZnTe detectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, B.; Blondel, C.; Daly, F.; Gevin, O.; Limousin, O.; Lugiez, F.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of the R&D of a new generation hard X-ray cameras for space applications we focus on the use of pixelated CdTe or CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. They are covered with 64 (0.9×0.9 mm2) or 256 (0.5×0.5 mm2) pixels, surrounded by a guard ring and operate in the energy ranging from several

  6. Pixels Intensity Evolution to Describe the Plastic Films Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Briñez-De León

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an approach for mechanical behavior description in the plastic film deformation using techniques for the images analysis, which are based on the intensities evolution of fixed pixels applied to an images sequence acquired through polarizing optical assembly implemented around the platform of the plastic film deformation. The pixels intensities evolution graphs, and mechanical behavior graphic of the deformation has dynamic behaviors zones which could be associated together.

  7. Information quantity in a pixel of digital image

    OpenAIRE

    Kharinov, M.

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of integer-valued estimating of information quantity in a pixel of digital image. The definition of an integer estimation of information quantity based on constructing of the certain binary hierarchy of pixel clusters is proposed. The methods for constructing hierarchies of clusters and generating of hierarchical sequences of image approximations that minimally differ from the image by a standard deviation are developed. Experimental results on integer-valu...

  8. Small pitch pixel sensors for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069790

    2016-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  9. Pixel-based meshfree modelling of skeletal muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Basava, Ramya Rao; Zhang, Yantao; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Sinha, Usha; Hodgson, John; Sinha, Shantanu

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the meshfree Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM) for 3D image-based modeling of skeletal muscles. This approach allows for construction of simulation model based on pixel data obtained from medical images. The material properties and muscle fiber direction obtained from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) are input at each pixel point. The reproducing kernel (RK) approximation allows a representation of material heterogeneity with smooth transition. A ...

  10. A silicon pixel detector prototype for the CLIC vertex detector

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00714258

    2017-01-01

    A silicon pixel detector prototype for CLIC, currently under study for the innermost detector surrounding the collision point. The detector is made of a High-Voltage CMOS sensor (top) and a CLICpix2 readout chip (bottom) that are glued to each other. Both parts have a size of 3.3 x 4.0 $mm^2$ and consist of an array of 128 x 128 pixels of 25 x 25 $\\micro m^2$ size.

  11. High rate particle tracking and ultra-fast timing with a thin hybrid silicon pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Carassiti, V.; Ceccucci, A.; Cortina Gil, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Garbolino, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Kluge, A.; Marchetto, F.; Mapelli, A.; Martin, E.; Mazza, G.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Nuessle, G.; Perktold, L.; Petagna, P.; Petrucci, F.; Poltorak, K.; Riedler, P.; Rivetti, A.; Statera, M.; Velghe, B.

    2013-08-01

    The Gigatracker (GTK) is a hybrid silicon pixel detector designed for the NA62 experiment at CERN. The beam spectrometer, made of three GTK stations, has to sustain high and non-uniform particle rate (∼ 1 GHz in total) and measure momentum and angles of each beam track with a combined time resolution of 150 ps. In order to reduce multiple scattering and hadronic interactions of beam particles, the material budget of a single GTK station has been fixed to 0.5% X0. The expected fluence for 100 days of running is 2 ×1014 1 MeV neq /cm2, comparable to the one foreseen in the inner trackers of LHC detectors during 10 years of operation. To comply with these requirements, an efficient and very low-mass (< 0.15 %X0) cooling system is being constructed, using a novel microchannel cooling silicon plate. Two complementary read-out architectures have been produced as small-scale prototypes: one is based on a Time-over-Threshold circuit followed by a TDC shared by a group of pixels, while the other makes use of a constant-fraction discriminator followed by an on-pixel TDC. The read-out ASICs are produced in 130 nm IBM CMOS technology and will be thinned down to 100 μm or less. An overview of the Gigatracker detector system will be presented. Experimental results from laboratory and beam tests of prototype bump-bonded assemblies will be described as well. These results show a time resolution of about 170 ps for single hits from minimum ionizing particles, using 200 μm thick silicon sensors.

  12. Argus: A W-band 16-pixel focal plane array for the Green Bank Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Kiruthika; Church, Sarah; Cleary, Kieran; Frayer, David; Gawande, Rohit; Goldsmith, Paul; Gundersen, Joshua; Harris, Andrew; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Readhead, Tony; Reeves, Rodrigo; Samoska, Lorene; Sieth, Matt; Voll, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    We are building Argus, a 16-pixel square-packed focal plane array that will cover the 75-115.3 GHz frequency range on the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The primary research area for Argus is the study of star formation within our Galaxy and nearby galaxies. Argus will map key molecules that trace star formation, including carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN). An additional key science area is astrochemistry, which will be addressed by observing complex molecules in the interstellar medium, and the study of formation of solar systems, which will be addressed by identifying dense pre-stellar cores and by observing comets in our solar system. Argus has a highly scalable architecture and will be a technology path finder for larger arrays. The array is modular in construction, which will allow easy replacement of malfunctioning and poorly performing components.

  13. Deployment of the CMS Tracker AMC as Backend for the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079000

    2016-01-01

    The silicon pixel detector of the CMS experiment at CERN will be replaced with an upgraded version at the beginning of 2017 with the new detector featuring an additional barrel- and end-cap layer resulting in an increased number of fully digital read-out links running at 400Mb/s. New versions of the PSI46 Read-Out Chip and Token Bit Manager have been developed to operate at higher rates and reduce data loss. Front-End Controller and Front-End Driver boards, based on the {\\textmu}TCA compatible CMS Tracker AMC, a variant of the FC7 card, are being developed using different mezzanines to host the optical links for the digital read-out and control system. An overview of the system architecture is presented, with details on the implementation, and first results obtained from test systems.

  14. Compressive Video Recovery Using Block Match Multi-Frame Motion Estimation Based on Single Pixel Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Bi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS theory has opened up new paths for the development of signal processing applications. Based on this theory, a novel single pixel camera architecture has been introduced to overcome the current limitations and challenges of traditional focal plane arrays. However, video quality based on this method is limited by existing acquisition and recovery methods, and the method also suffers from being time-consuming. In this paper, a multi-frame motion estimation algorithm is proposed in CS video to enhance the video quality. The proposed algorithm uses multiple frames to implement motion estimation. Experimental results show that using multi-frame motion estimation can improve the quality of recovered videos. To further reduce the motion estimation time, a block match algorithm is used to process motion estimation. Experiments demonstrate that using the block match algorithm can reduce motion estimation time by 30%.

  15. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  16. Theory and applications of structured light single pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokoe, Robert J.; Stockton, Patrick A.; Pezeshki, Ali; Bartels, Randy A.

    2018-02-01

    Many single-pixel imaging techniques have been developed in recent years. Though the methods of image acquisition vary considerably, the methods share unifying features that make general analysis possible. Furthermore, the methods developed thus far are based on intuitive processes that enable simple and physically-motivated reconstruction algorithms, however, this approach may not leverage the full potential of single-pixel imaging. We present a general theoretical framework of single-pixel imaging based on frame theory, which enables general, mathematically rigorous analysis. We apply our theoretical framework to existing single-pixel imaging techniques, as well as provide a foundation for developing more-advanced methods of image acquisition and reconstruction. The proposed frame theoretic framework for single-pixel imaging results in improved noise robustness, decrease in acquisition time, and can take advantage of special properties of the specimen under study. By building on this framework, new methods of imaging with a single element detector can be developed to realize the full potential associated with single-pixel imaging.

  17. High-voltage pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perić, I., E-mail: ivan.peric@ziti.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, Mannheim (Germany); Kreidl, C.; Fischer, P. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, Mannheim (Germany); Bompard, F.; Breugnon, P.; Clemens, J.-C.; Fougeron, D.; Liu, J.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Barbero, M. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Feigl, S.; Capeans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Muenstermann, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; La Rosa, A.; Miucci, A. [University of Geneve (Switzerland); and others

    2014-11-21

    The high-voltage (HV-) CMOS pixel sensors offer several good properties: a fast charge collection by drift, the possibility to implement relatively complex CMOS in-pixel electronics and the compatibility with commercial processes. The sensor element is a deep n-well diode in a p-type substrate. The n-well contains CMOS pixel electronics. The main charge collection mechanism is drift in a shallow, high field region, which leads to a fast charge collection and a high radiation tolerance. We are currently evaluating the use of the high-voltage detectors implemented in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology for the high-luminosity ATLAS upgrade. Our approach is replacing the existing pixel and strip sensors with the CMOS sensors while keeping the presently used readout ASICs. By intelligence we mean the ability of the sensor to recognize a particle hit and generate the address information. In this way we could benefit from the advantages of the HV sensor technology such as lower cost, lower mass, lower operating voltage, smaller pitch, smaller clusters at high incidence angles. Additionally we expect to achieve a radiation hardness necessary for ATLAS upgrade. In order to test the concept, we have designed two HV-CMOS prototypes that can be readout in two ways: using pixel and strip readout chips. In the case of the pixel readout, the connection between HV-CMOS sensor and the readout ASIC can be established capacitively.

  18. Challenges of small-pixel infrared detectors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, A; Martyniuk, P; Kopytko, M

    2016-04-01

    In the last two decades, several new concepts for improving the performance of infrared detectors have been proposed. These new concepts particularly address the drive towards the so-called high operating temperature focal plane arrays (FPAs), aiming to increase detector operating temperatures, and as a consequence reduce the cost of infrared systems. In imaging systems with the above megapixel formats, pixel dimension plays a crucial role in determining critical system attributes such as system size, weight and power consumption (SWaP). The advent of smaller pixels has also resulted in the superior spatial and temperature resolution of these systems. Optimum pixel dimensions are limited by diffraction effects from the aperture, and are in turn wavelength-dependent. In this paper, the key challenges in realizing optimum pixel dimensions in FPA design including dark current, pixel hybridization, pixel delineation, and unit cell readout capacity are outlined to achieve a sufficiently adequate modulation transfer function for the ultra-small pitches involved. Both photon and thermal detectors have been considered. Concerning infrared photon detectors, the trade-offs between two types of competing technology-HgCdTe material systems and III-V materials (mainly barrier detectors)-have been investigated.

  19. Development of CMOS pixel sensors for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, L.

    2014-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the current detector, planned for installation during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2018-19, in order to enhance its low-momentum vertexing and tracking capability, and exploit the planned increase of the LHC luminosity with Pb beams. One of the cornerstones of the ALICE upgrade strategy is to replace the current Inner Tracking System in its entirety with a new, high resolution, low-material ITS detector. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) implemented using the 0.18 μm CMOS technology of TowerJazz. In this contribution, the main key features of the ITS upgrade will be illustrated with emphasis on the functionality of the pixel chip. The ongoing developments on the readout architectures, which have been implemented in several fabricated prototypes, will be discussed. The operational features of these prototypes as well as the results of the characterisation tests before and after irradiation will also be presented

  20. Development of CMOS pixel sensors for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, L.

    2014-12-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the current detector, planned for installation during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2018-19, in order to enhance its low-momentum vertexing and tracking capability, and exploit the planned increase of the LHC luminosity with Pb beams. One of the cornerstones of the ALICE upgrade strategy is to replace the current Inner Tracking System in its entirety with a new, high resolution, low-material ITS detector. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers equipped with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) implemented using the 0.18 μm CMOS technology of TowerJazz. In this contribution, the main key features of the ITS upgrade will be illustrated with emphasis on the functionality of the pixel chip. The ongoing developments on the readout architectures, which have been implemented in several fabricated prototypes, will be discussed. The operational features of these prototypes as well as the results of the characterisation tests before and after irradiation will also be presented.

  1. Development of an ultra-fast X-ray camera using hybrid pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawiec, A.

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the project whose work described in this thesis is part, was to design a high-speed X-ray camera using hybrid pixels applied to biomedical imaging and for material science. As a matter of fact the hybrid pixel technology meets the requirements of these two research fields, particularly by providing energy selection and low dose imaging capabilities. In this thesis, high frame rate X-ray imaging based on the XPAD3-S photons counting chip is presented. Within a collaboration between CPPM, ESRF and SOLEIL, three XPAD3 cameras were built. Two of them are being operated at the beamline of the ESRF and SOLEIL synchrotron facilities and the third one is embedded in the PIXSCAN II irradiation setup of CPPM. The XPAD3 camera is a large surface X-ray detector composed of eight detection modules of seven XPAD3-S chips each with a high-speed data acquisition system. The readout architecture of the camera is based on the PCI Express interface and on programmable FPGA chips. The camera achieves a readout speed of 240 images/s, with maximum number of images limited by the RAM memory of the acquisition PC. The performance of the device was characterized by carrying out several high speed imaging experiments using the PIXSCAN II irradiation setup described in the last chapter of this thesis. (author)

  2. An investigation of signal performance enhancements achieved through innovative pixel design across several generations of indirect detection, active matrix, flat-panel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Zhao Qihua; El-Mohri, Youcef; Du Hong; Wang Yi; Street, Robert A.; Ho, Jackson; Weisfield, Richard; Yao, William

    2009-01-01

    Active matrix flat-panel imager (AMFPI) technology is being employed for an increasing variety of imaging applications. An important element in the adoption of this technology has been significant ongoing improvements in optical signal collection achieved through innovations in indirect detection array pixel design. Such improvements have a particularly beneficial effect on performance in applications involving low exposures and/or high spatial frequencies, where detective quantum efficiency is strongly reduced due to the relatively high level of additive electronic noise compared to signal levels of AMFPI devices. In this article, an examination of various signal properties, as determined through measurements and calculations related to novel array designs, is reported in the context of the evolution of AMFPI pixel design. For these studies, dark, optical, and radiation signal measurements were performed on prototype imagers incorporating a variety of increasingly sophisticated array designs, with pixel pitches ranging from 75 to 127 μm. For each design, detailed measurements of fundamental pixel-level properties conducted under radiographic and fluoroscopic operating conditions are reported and the results are compared. A series of 127 μm pitch arrays employing discrete photodiodes culminated in a novel design providing an optical fill factor of ∼80% (thereby assuring improved x-ray sensitivity), and demonstrating low dark current, very low charge trapping and charge release, and a large range of linear signal response. In two of the designs having 75 and 90 μm pitches, a novel continuous photodiode structure was found to provide fill factors that approach the theoretical maximum of 100%. Both sets of novel designs achieved large fill factors by employing architectures in which some, or all of the photodiode structure was elevated above the plane of the pixel addressing transistor. Generally, enhancement of the fill factor in either discrete or continuous

  3. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry: Partial Image Error (PIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandarajah, K; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the errors due to partial imaging of seeding particles which occur at the edges of interrogation regions in Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). Hitherto, in the scientific literature the effect of these partial images has been assumed to be negligible. The results show that the error is significant even at a commonly used interrogation region size of 32 x 32 pixels. If correlation of interrogation region sizes of 16 x 16 pixels and smaller is attempted, the error which occurs can preclude meaningful results being obtained. In order to reduce the error normalisation of the correlation peak values is necessary. The paper introduces Normalisation by Signal Strength (NSS) as the preferred means of normalisation for optimum accuracy. In addition, it is shown that NSS increases the dynamic range of DPIV

  4. Active pixel sensor having intra-pixel charge transfer with analog-to-digital converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Mendis, Sunetra K. (Inventor); Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Zhou, Zhimin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An imaging device formed as a monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor integrated circuit in an industry standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor process, the integrated circuit including a focal plane array of pixel cells, each one of the cells including a photogate overlying the substrate for accumulating photo-generated charge in an underlying portion of the substrate, a readout circuit including at least an output field effect transistor formed in the substrate, and a charge coupled device section formed on the substrate adjacent the photogate having a sensing node connected to the output transistor and at least one charge coupled device stage for transferring charge from the underlying portion of the substrate to the sensing node and an analog-to-digital converter formed in the substrate connected to the output of the readout circuit.

  5. Vital architecture, slow momentum policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2010-01-01

    A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project.......A reflection on the relation between Danish landscape architecture policy and the statements made through current landscape architectural project....

  6. Dual-gate photo thin-film transistor: a “smart” pixel for high- resolution and low-dose X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Since its emergence a decade ago, amorphous silicon flat panel X-ray detector has established itself as a ubiquitous platform for an array of digital radiography modalities. The fundamental building block of a flat panel detector is called a pixel. In all current pixel architectures, sensing, storage, and readout are unanimously kept separate, inevitably compromising resolution by increasing pixel size. To address this issue, we hereby propose a “smart” pixel architecture where the aforementioned three components are combined in a single dual-gate photo thin-film transistor (TFT). In other words, the dual-gate photo TFT itself functions as a sensor, a storage capacitor, and a switch concurrently. Additionally, by harnessing the amplification effect of such a thin-film transistor, we for the first time created a single-transistor active pixel sensor. The proof-of-concept device had a W/L ratio of 250μm/20μm and was fabricated using a simple five-mask photolithography process, where a 130nm transparent ITO was used as the top photo gate, and a 200nm amorphous silicon as the absorbing channel layer. The preliminary results demonstrated that the photocurrent had been increased by four orders of magnitude due to light-induced threshold voltage shift in the sub-threshold region. The device sensitivity could be simply tuned by photo gate bias to specifically target low-level light detection. The dependence of threshold voltage on light illumination indicated that a dynamic range of at least 80dB could be achieved. The "smart" pixel technology holds tremendous promise for developing high-resolution and low-dose X-ray imaging and may potentially lower the cancer risk imposed by radiation, especially among paediatric patients.

  7. Dual-gate photo thin-film transistor: a “smart” pixel for high- resolution and low-dose X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Since its emergence a decade ago, amorphous silicon flat panel X-ray detector has established itself as a ubiquitous platform for an array of digital radiography modalities. The fundamental building block of a flat panel detector is called a pixel. In all current pixel architectures, sensing, storage, and readout are unanimously kept separate, inevitably compromising resolution by increasing pixel size. To address this issue, we hereby propose a “smart” pixel architecture where the aforementioned three components are combined in a single dual-gate photo thin-film transistor (TFT). In other words, the dual-gate photo TFT itself functions as a sensor, a storage capacitor, and a switch concurrently. Additionally, by harnessing the amplification effect of such a thin-film transistor, we for the first time created a single-transistor active pixel sensor. The proof-of-concept device had a W/L ratio of 250μm/20μm and was fabricated using a simple five-mask photolithography process, where a 130nm transparent ITO was used as the top photo gate, and a 200nm amorphous silicon as the absorbing channel layer. The preliminary results demonstrated that the photocurrent had been increased by four orders of magnitude due to light-induced threshold voltage shift in the sub-threshold region. The device sensitivity could be simply tuned by photo gate bias to specifically target low-level light detection. The dependence of threshold voltage on light illumination indicated that a dynamic range of at least 80dB could be achieved. The 'smart' pixel technology holds tremendous promise for developing high-resolution and low-dose X-ray imaging and may potentially lower the cancer risk imposed by radiation, especially among paediatric patients. (paper)

  8. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  9. Lagrange constraint neural networks for massive pixel parallel image demixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold H.; Hsu, Charles C.

    2002-03-01

    We have shown that the remote sensing optical imaging to achieve detailed sub-pixel decomposition is a unique application of blind source separation (BSS) that is truly linear of far away weak signal, instantaneous speed of light without delay, and along the line of sight without multiple paths. In early papers, we have presented a direct application of statistical mechanical de-mixing method called Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN). While the BSAO algorithm (using a posteriori MaxEnt ANN and neighborhood pixel average) is not acceptable for remote sensing, a mirror symmetric LCNN approach is all right assuming a priori MaxEnt for unknown sources to be averaged over the source statistics (not neighborhood pixel data) in a pixel-by-pixel independent fashion. LCNN reduces the computation complexity, save a great number of memory devices, and cut the cost of implementation. The Landsat system is designed to measure the radiation to deduce surface conditions and materials. For any given material, the amount of emitted and reflected radiation varies by the wavelength. In practice, a single pixel of a Landsat image has seven channels receiving 0.1 to 12 microns of radiation from the ground within a 20x20 meter footprint containing a variety of radiation materials. A-priori LCNN algorithm provides the spatial-temporal variation of mixture that is hardly de-mixable by other a-posteriori BSS or ICA methods. We have already compared the Landsat remote sensing using both methods in WCCI 2002 Hawaii. Unfortunately the absolute benchmark is not possible because of lacking of the ground truth. We will arbitrarily mix two incoherent sampled images as the ground truth. However, the constant total probability of co-located sources within the pixel footprint is necessary for the remote sensing constraint (since on a clear day the total reflecting energy is constant in neighborhood receiving pixel sensors), we have to normalized two image pixel-by-pixel as well. Then, the

  10. Exporting Humanist Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The article is a chapter in the catalogue for the Danish exhibition at the 2016 Architecture Biennale in Venice. The catalogue is conceived at an independent book exploring the theme Art of Many - The Right to Space. The chapter is an essay in this anthology tracing and discussing the different...... values and ethical stands involved in the export of Danish Architecture. Abstract: Danish architecture has, in a sense, been driven by an unwritten contract between the architects and the democratic state and its institutions. This contract may be viewed as an ethos – an architectural tradition...... with inherent aesthetic and moral values. Today, however, Danish architecture is also an export commodity. That raises questions, which should be debated as openly as possible. What does it mean for architecture and architects to practice in cultures and under political systems that do not use architecture...

  11. Software architecture evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barais, Olivier; Le Meur, Anne-Francoise; Duchien, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Software architectures must frequently evolve to cope with changing requirements, and this evolution often implies integrating new concerns. Unfortunately, when the new concerns are crosscutting, existing architecture description languages provide little or no support for this kind of evolution....... The software architect must modify multiple elements of the architecture manually, which risks introducing inconsistencies. This chapter provides an overview, comparison and detailed treatment of the various state-of-the-art approaches to describing and evolving software architectures. Furthermore, we discuss...... one particular framework named Tran SAT, which addresses the above problems of software architecture evolution. Tran SAT provides a new element in the software architecture descriptions language, called an architectural aspect, for describing new concerns and their integration into an existing...

  12. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10{sup 16} particles per cm{sup 2} per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm{sup 2} and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm{sup 2}). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  13. Development and characterization of diamond and 3D-silicon pixel detectors with ATLAS-pixel readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, Markus

    2008-12-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors are used for particle tracking in the innermost layers of current high energy experiments like ATLAS. After the proposed luminosity upgrade of the LHC, they will have to survive very high radiation fluences of up to 10 16 particles per cm 2 per life time. New sensor concepts and materials are required, which promise to be more radiation tolerant than the currently used planar silicon sensors. Most prominent candidates are so-called 3D-silicon and single crystal or poly-crystalline diamond sensors. Using the ATLAS pixel electronics different detector prototypes with a pixel geometry of 400 x 50 μm 2 have been built. In particular three devices have been studied in detail: a 3D-silicon and a single crystal diamond detector with an active area of about 1 cm 2 and a poly-crystalline diamond detector of the same size as a current ATLAS pixel detector module (2 x 6 cm 2 ). To characterize the devices regarding their particle detection efficiency and spatial resolution, the charge collection inside a pixel cell as well as the charge sharing between adjacent pixels was studied using a high energy particle beam. (orig.)

  14. Qualification measurements of the voltage supply system as well as conceptionation of a state machine for the detector control of the ATLAS pixel detector; Qualifizierungsmessungen des Spannungsversorgungssystems sowie Konzeptionierung einer Zustandsmaschine fuer die Detektorkontrolle des ATLAS-Pixeldetektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultes, Joachim

    2007-02-15

    The supply system and the control system of the ATLAS pixel detector represent important building blocks of the pixel detector. Corresponding studies of the supply system, which were performed within a comprehensive test system, the so-called system test, with nearly all final components and the effects on the pixel detector are object of this thesis. A further point of this thesis is the coordination and further development of the detector-control-system software under regardment of the different partial systems. A main topic represents thereby the conceptionation of the required state machine as interface for the users and the connection to the data acquisition system.

  15. MT-ADRES: Multithreading on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Kehuai; Kanstein, Andreas; Madsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high-ILP archi......The coarse-grained reconfigurable architecture ADRES (Architecture for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems) and its compiler offer high instruction-level parallelism (ILP) to applications by means of a sparsely interconnected array of functional units and register files. As high......-ILP architectures achieve only low parallelism when executing partially sequential code segments, which is also known as Amdahl’s law, this paper proposes to extend ADRES to MT-ADRES (Multi-Threaded ADRES) to also exploit thread-level parallelism. On MT-ADRES architectures, the array can be partitioned in multiple...

  16. Optimization of CMOS active pixels for high resolution digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soo

    2007-02-01

    CMOS image sensors have poorer performance compared to conventional charge coupled devices (CCDs). Since CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) in general have higher temporal noise, higher dark current, smaller full well charge capacitance, and lower spectral response, they cannot provide the same wide dynamic range and superior signal-to-noise ratio as CCDs. In view of electronic noise, the main source for the CMOS APS is the pixel, along with other signal processing blocks such as row and column decoder, analog signal processor (ASP), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and timing and control logic circuitry. Therefore, it is important and necessary to characterize noise of the active pixels in CMOS APSs. We developed our theoretical noise model to account for the temporal noise in active pixels, and then found out the optimum design parameters such as fill actor, each size of the three transistors (source follower, row selection transistor, bias transistor) comprising active pixels, bias current, and load capacitance that can have the maximum signal-to-noise ratio. To develop the theoretical noise model in active pixels, we considered the integration noise of the photodiode and the readout noise of the transistors related to readout. During integration, the shot noise due to the dark current and photocurrent, during readout, the thermal and flicker noise were considered. The developed model can take the input variables such as photocurrent, capacitance of the photodiode, integration time, transconductance of the transistors, channel resistance of the transistors, gate-to-source capacitance of the follower, and load capacitance etc. To validate our noise model, two types of test structures have been realized. Firstly, four types of photodiodes (n_d_i_f_f_u_s_i_o_n/p_s_u_b_s_t_r_a_t_e, n_w_e_l_l/p_s_u_b_s_t_r_a_t_e, n_d_i_f_f_u_s_i_o_n/p_e_p_i_t_a_x_i_a_l/p_s_u_b_s_t_r_a_t_e, n_w_e_l_l/p_e_p_i_t_a_x_i_a_l/p_s_u_b_s_t_r_a_t_e) used in CMOS active pixels were fabricated

  17. The design and implementation of a VR-architecture for smooth motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.A.; Liere, van R.; Fröhlich, B.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce an architecture for smooth motion in virtual environments. The system performs forward depth image warping to produce images at video refresh rates. In addition to color and depth, our 3D warping approach records per-pixel motion information during rendering of the three-dimensional

  18. The design and implementation of a VR-architecture for smooth motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. Smit (Ferdi); R. van Liere (Robert); B. Fröhlich (Bernd); S.N. Spencer

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce an architecture for smooth motion in virtual environments. The system performs forward depth image warping to produce images at video refresh rates. In addition to color and depth, our 3D warping approach records per-pixel motion information during rendering of the

  19. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  20. PIXEL ANALYSIS OF PHOTOSPHERIC SPECTRAL DATA. I. PLASMA DYNAMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasca, Anthony P.; Chen, James [Plasma Physics Division, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Pevtsov, Alexei A., E-mail: anthony.rasca.ctr@nrl.navy.mil [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Recent observations of the photosphere using high spatial and temporal resolution show small dynamic features at or below the current resolving limits. A new pixel dynamics method has been developed to analyze spectral profiles and quantify changes in line displacement, width, asymmetry, and peakedness of photospheric absorption lines. The algorithm evaluates variations of line profile properties in each pixel and determines the statistics of such fluctuations averaged over all pixels in a given region. The method has been used to derive statistical characteristics of pixel fluctuations in observed quiet-Sun regions, an active region with no eruption, and an active region with an ongoing eruption. Using Stokes I images from the Vector Spectromagnetograph (VSM) of the Synoptic Optical Long-term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) telescope on 2012 March 13, variations in line width and peakedness of Fe i 6301.5 Å are shown to have a distinct spatial and temporal relationship with an M7.9 X-ray flare in NOAA 11429. This relationship is observed as stationary and contiguous patches of pixels adjacent to a sunspot exhibiting intense flattening in the line profile and line-center displacement as the X-ray flare approaches peak intensity, which is not present in area scans of the non-eruptive active region. The analysis of pixel dynamics allows one to extract quantitative information on differences in plasma dynamics on sub-pixel scales in these photospheric regions. The analysis can be extended to include the Stokes parameters and study signatures of vector components of magnetic fields and coupled plasma properties.

  1. PHOTOMETRIC STEREO SHAPE-AND-ALBEDO-FROM-SHADING FOR PIXEL-LEVEL RESOLUTION LUNAR SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape and Albedo from Shading (SAfS techniques recover pixel-wise surface details based on the relationship between terrain slopes, illumination and imaging geometry, and the energy response (i.e., image intensity captured by the sensing system. Multiple images with different illumination geometries (i.e., photometric stereo can provide better SAfS surface reconstruction due to the increase in observations. Photometric stereo SAfS is suitable for detailed surface reconstruction of the Moon and other extra-terrestrial bodies due to the availability of photometric stereo and the less complex surface reflecting properties (i.e., albedo of the target bodies as compared to the Earth. Considering only one photometric stereo pair (i.e., two images, pixel-variant albedo is still a major obstacle to satisfactory reconstruction and it needs to be regulated by the SAfS algorithm. The illumination directional difference between the two images also becomes an important factor affecting the reconstruction quality. This paper presents a photometric stereo SAfS algorithm for pixel-level resolution lunar surface reconstruction. The algorithm includes a hierarchical optimization architecture for handling pixel-variant albedo and improving performance. With the use of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera - Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC photometric stereo images, the reconstructed topography (i.e., the DEM is compared with the DEM produced independently by photogrammetric methods. This paper also addresses the effect of illumination directional difference in between one photometric stereo pair on the reconstruction quality of the proposed algorithm by both mathematical and experimental analysis. In this case, LROC NAC images under multiple illumination directions are utilized by the proposed algorithm for experimental comparison. The mathematical derivation suggests an illumination azimuthal difference of 90 degrees between two images is recommended to achieve

  2. Determining the Pixel-to-Pixel Uncertainty in Satellite-Derived SST Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary measure of the quality of sea surface temperature (SST fields obtained from satellite-borne infrared sensors has been the bias and variance of matchups with co-located in-situ values. Because such matchups tend to be widely separated, these bias and variance estimates are not necessarily a good measure of small scale (several pixels gradients in these fields because one of the primary contributors to the uncertainty in satellite retrievals is atmospheric contamination, which tends to have large spatial scales compared with the pixel separation of infrared sensors. Hence, there is not a good measure to use in selecting SST fields appropriate for the study of submesoscale processes and, in particular, of processes associated with near-surface fronts, both of which have recently seen a rapid increase in interest. In this study, two methods are examined to address this problem, one based on spectra of the SST data and the other on their variograms. To evaluate the methods, instrument noise was estimated in Level-2 Visible-Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR SST fields of the Sargasso Sea. The two methods provided very nearly identical results for AVHRR: along-scan values of approximately 0.18 K for both day and night and along-track values of 0.21 K for day and night. By contrast, the instrument noise estimated for VIIRS varied by method, scan geometry and day-night. Specifically, daytime, along-scan (along-track, spectral estimates were found to be approximately 0.05 K (0.08 K and the corresponding nighttime values of 0.02 K (0.03 K. Daytime estimates based on the variogram were found to be 0.08 K (0.10 K with the corresponding nighttime values of 0.04 K (0.06 K. Taken together, AVHRR instrument noise is significantly larger than VIIRS instrument noise, along-track noise is larger than along-scan noise and daytime levels are higher than nighttime levels. Given the similarity of

  3. Leakage current measurements on pixelated CdZnTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, B.P.F.; Blondel, C.; Daly, F.; Gevin, O.; Limousin, O.; Lugiez, F.

    2006-01-01

    In the field of the R and D of a new generation hard X-ray cameras for space applications we focus on the use of pixelated CdTe or CdZnTe semiconductor detectors. They are covered with 64 (0.9x0.9 mm 2 ) or 256 (0.5x0.5 mm 2 ) pixels, surrounded by a guard ring and operate in the energy ranging from several keV to 1 MeV, at temperatures between -20 and +20 o C. A critical parameter in the characterisation of these detectors is the leakage current per pixel under polarisation (∼50-500 V/mm). In operation mode each pixel will be read-out by an integrated spectroscopy channel of the multi-channel IDeF-X ASIC currently developed in our lab. The design and functionality of the ASIC depends directly on the direction and value of the current. A dedicated and highly insulating electronics circuit is designed to automatically measure the current in each individual pixel, which is in the order of tens of pico-amperes. Leakage current maps of different CdZnTe detectors of 2 and 6 mm thick and at various temperatures are presented and discussed. Defect density diagnostics have been performed by calculation of the activation energy of the material

  4. Operational Experience with the ATLAS Pixel Detector at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, providing high-resolution measurements of charged particle tracks in the high radiation environment close to the collision region. This capability is vital for the identification and measurement of proper decay times of long-lived particles such as b-hadrons, and thus crucial for the ATLAS physics program. The detector provides hermetic coverage with three cylindrical layers and three layers of forward and backward pixel detectors. It consists of approximately 80 million pixels that are individually read out via front-end chips bump-bonded to 1744 n-on-n silicon substrates. In this paper results from the successful operation of the Pixel Detector at the LHC will be presented, including calibration procedures, detector performance and measurements of radiation damage. The detector performance is excellent: more than 95% of the pixels are operational, noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the des...

  5. A low mass pixel detector upgrade for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Kästli, H C

    2010-01-01

    The CMS pixel detector has been designed for a peak luminosity of 10^34cm-2s-1 and a total dose corresponding to 2 years of LHC operation at a radius of 4 cm from the interaction region. Parts of the pixel detector will have to be replaced until 2015. The detector performance will be degraded for two reasons: radiation damage of the innermost layers and the planned increase of the LHC peak luminosity by a factor of 2-3. Based on the experience in planning, constructing and commissioning of the present pixel detector, we intend to upgrade the whole pixel detector in 2015. The main focus is on lowering the material budget and adding more tracking points. We will present the design of a new low mass pixel system consisting of 4 barrel layers and 3 end cap disks on each side. The design comprises of thin detector modules and a lightweight mechanical support structure using CO2 cooling. In addition, large efforts have been made to move material from the services out of the tracking region.

  6. Fully integrated CMOS pixel detector for high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanstraelen, G.; Debusschere, I.; Claeys, C.; Declerck, G.

    1989-01-01

    A novel type of position and energy sensitive, monolithic pixel array with integrated readout electronics is proposed. Special features of the design are a reduction of the number of output channels and of the amount of output data, and the use of transistors on the high resistivity silicon. The number of output channels for the detector array is reduced by handling in parallel a number of pixels, chosen as a function of the time resolution required for the system, and by the use of an address decoder. A further reduction of data is achieved by reading out only those pixels which have been activated. The pixel detector circuit will be realized in a 3 μm p-well CMOS process, which is optimized for the full integration of readout electronics and detector diodes on high resistivity Si. A retrograde well is formed by means of a high energy implantation, followed by the appropriate temperature steps. The optimization of the well shape takes into account the high substrate bias applied during the detector operation. The design is largely based on the use of MOS transistors on the high resistivity silicon itself. These have proven to perform as well as transistors on standard doped substrate. The basic building elements as well as the design strategy of the integrated pixel detector are presented in detail. (orig.)

  7. Enterprise architecture management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise...... architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  8. Can You Hear Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Taking an off set in the understanding of architectural quality being based on multisensory architecture, the paper aims to discuss the current acoustic discourse in inclusive design and its implications to the integration of inclusive design in architectural discourse and practice as well...... as the understanding of user needs. The paper further points to the need to elaborate and nuance the discourse much more, in order to assure inclusion to the many users living with a hearing impairment or, for other reasons, with a high degree of auditory sensitivity. Using the authors’ own research on inclusive...... design and architectural quality for people with a hearing disability and a newly conducted qualitative evaluation research in Denmark as well as architectural theories on multisensory aspects of architectural experiences, the paper uses examples of existing Nordic building cases to discuss the role...

  9. Enterprise architecture management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Fatemeh; Gøtze, John; Møller, Charles

    2017-01-01

    architecture management based on three classes of enterprise architecture scope. Organizations may adopt enterprise architecture management to help form, plan, and implement IT strategies; help plan and implement business strategies; or to further complement the business strategy-formation process......Despite the growing interest in enterprise architecture management, researchers and practitioners lack a shared understanding of its applications in organizations. Building on findings from a literature review and eight case studies, we develop a taxonomy that categorizes applications of enterprise....... The findings challenge the traditional IT-centric view of enterprise architecture management application and suggest enterprise architecture management as an approach that could support the consistent design and evolution of an organization as a whole....

  10. An Architecture of Reconciliation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Carlton Robert

    2001-01-01

    The reconciliation of architectural idea and built form is accomplished by the materialization of the idea through the use of specific materials with their inherent qualities and restrictions. The learning begins when one sees these restrictions not as a hinderance to the idea, but that which can reveal the very essence of Architecture. The virtue of this architecture of reconciliation lies in its ability to help Man understand his surroundings and place in the world at large. This is acc...

  11. Flexible weapons architecture design

    OpenAIRE

    Pyant, William C.

    2015-01-01

    Present day air-delivered weapons are of a closed architecture, with little to no ability to tailor the weapon for the individual engagement. The closed architectures require weaponeers to make the target fit the weapon instead of fitting the individual weapons to a target. The concept of a flexible weapons aims to modularize weapons design using an open architecture shell into which different modules are inserted to achieve the desired target fractional damage while reducing cost and civilia...

  12. Architecture for the senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Accommodating sensory disabilities in architectural design requires specific design considerations. These are different from the ones included by the existing design concept 'accessibility', which primarily accommodates physical disabilites. Hence a new design concept 'sensory accessbility......' is presented as a parallel and complementary concept to the existing one. Sensory accessiblity accommodates sensory disabilities and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to to the sensory experiences and architectural quality of a given space. The article is based on research...

  13. Architecture humanitarian emergencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez-Guillamon, Maria; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Contreras, Jorge Lobos

    2013-01-01

    Introduced by scientific articles conserning architecture and human rights in light of cultures, emergencies, social equality and sustainability, democracy, economy, artistic development and science into architecture. Concluding in definition of needs for new roles, processes and education of arc......, Architettura di Alghero in Italy, Architecture and Design of Kocaeli University in Turkey, University of Aguascalientes in Mexico, Architectura y Urbanismo of University of Chile and Escuela de Architectura of Universidad Austral in Chile....

  14. Architecture in Everyday Life

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Agarez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    For most architects, architecture is not only art, craft, passion and engagement; it is their ‘bread-and-butter’, too, and has been so since long. Architecture, consciously or unconsciously, is also the ‘bread-and-butter’ of communities across the world: successfully or unsuccessfully it is part of the daily lives of ordinary women and men. Yet practitioners, theoreticians and historians of architecture often disregard the more quotidian side of the discipline, a neglect that is inversely pro...

  15. The ATLAS Analysis Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the ATLAS analysis architecture including the relevant aspects of the computing model and the major architectural aspects of the Athena framework. Emphasis will be given to the interplay between the analysis use cases and the technical aspects of the architecture including the design of the event data model, transient-persistent separation, data reduction strategies, analysis tools, and ROOT interoperability

  16. Architecture for Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Vukolic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    In this document we present the preliminary architecture of the SUPERCLOUD data management and storage. We start by defining the design requirements of the architecture, motivated by use cases and then review the state-of-the-art. We survey security and dependability technologies and discuss designs for the overall unifying architecture for data management that serves as an umbrella for different security and dependability data management features. Specifically the document lays out the archi...

  17. 2D/3D Quantification of bone morphometric parameter changes using X-ray microtomograpphy with different pixel sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, F.; Assis, J.T. de; Lopes, R.T.; Lima, I.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, bone quantification led to a deeper knowledge of the 3D microarchitecture. In this study the bone architecture of rats was investigated based on 2D/3D morphometric analysis using microcomputed tomography, aiming at determining the effect of the image acquisition pixel on the quality of some 2D/3D morphometric parameters, such as porosity and trabecular density. Six pairs of bone samples were used and the scans were carried out using high microcomputed tomography system, operating at three different pixel sizes of 33.3 μm, 15.0 μm and 9.5 μm. The results showed 2D parameters values lower than those obtained in the 3D analysis, mainly for trabecular density, separation and thickness. - Highlights: ► Bone quantification led to a deeper knowledge of the 3D microarchitecture. ► μCT was used in order to investigate condyles bone in 03 different pixel sizes. ► The results showed 2D parameters values lower than those obtained in the 3D analysis. ► The parameters trabecular density, separation and thickness were the most affected

  18. Study and Development of a novel Silicon Pixel Detector for the Upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    van Hoorn, Jacobus Willem; Riedler, Petra

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the heavy-ion experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As an important part of its upgrade plans, the ALICE experiment schedules the installation of a new Inner Tracking System (ITS) during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in 2019/20. The new ITS will consist of seven concentric layers, covering about 10m2 with Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS). This choice of technology has been guided by the tight requirements on the material budget of 0.3 % x/X0 per layer for the three innermost layers and backed by the significant progress in the field of MAPS in recent years. The pixel chips are manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS process on wafers with a high-resistivity epitaxial layer on top of the substrate. During the R&D phase several chip architectures have been investigated, which take full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, that allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix while retaining full charge colle...

  19. Vertex measurement at a hadron collider. The ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Knetter, J.

    2008-03-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost layer of the ATLAS tracking system and will contribute significantly to the ATLAS track and vertex reconstruction. The detector consists of identical sensor-chip-hybrid modules, arranged in three barrels in the centre and three disks on either side for the forward region. The position of the Pixel Detector near the interaction point requires excellent radiation hardness, fast read-out, mechanical and thermal robustness, good long-term stability, all combined with a low material budget. The new design concepts used to meet the challenging requirements are discussed with their realisation in the Pixel Detector, followed by a description of a refined and extensive set of measurements to assess the detector performance during and after its construction. (orig.)

  20. Performance of the INTPIX6 SOI pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y.; Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Idzik, M.; Kapusta, P.; Kucewicz, W.; Miyoshi, T.; Turala, M.

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of the monolithic pixel detector INPTIX6, designed at KEK and fabricated in Lapis 0.2 μ m Fully-Depleted, Low-Leakage Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) CMOS technology, was performed. The INTPIX6 comprises a large area of 1408 × 896 integrating type squared pixels of 12 micron pitch. In this work the performance and measurement results of the prototypes produced on lower resistivity Czochralski type (CZ-n) and high resistivity floating zone (FZ-n) sensor wafers are presented. Using 241Am radioactive source the noise of INTPIX6 was measured, showing the ENC (Equivalent Noise Charge) of about 70 e-. The resolution calculated from the FWHM of the Iron-55 X-ray peak was about 100 e-. The radiation hardness of the SOI pixel detector was also investigated. The CZ-n type INTPIX6 received a dose of 60 krad and its performance has been continuously monitored during the irradiation.

  1. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bartz, E; Atramentov, O; Yang, Z; Hall-Wilton, R; Schnetzer, S; Patel, R; Bugg, W; Hebda, P; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Marlow, D; Steininger, H; Ryjov, V; Hits, D; Spanier, S; Pernicka, M; Johns, W; Doroshenko, J; Hollingsworth, M; Harrop, B; Farrow, C; Stone, R

    2011-01-01

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLTs mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. PIXEL: Japanese InSAR community for crustal deformation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, M.; Shimada, M.; Ozawa, T.; Fukushima, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Miyagi, Y.; Kitagawa, S.

    2007-12-01

    In anticipation of the launch of ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite) by JAXA (Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency), and in order to expand and bolster the InSAR community for crustal deformation research in Japan, a couple of scientists established a consortium, PIXEL, in November 2005 in a completely bottom-up fashion. PIXEL stands for Palsar Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land. Formally, it is a research contract between JAXA and Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), University of Tokyo. As ERI is a shared institute of the Japanese universities and research institutes, every scientist at all Japanese universities and institutes can participate in this consortium. The activity of PIXEL includes information exchange by mailing list, tutorial workshop for InSAR software, research workshop, and PALSAR data sharing. After the launch of ALOS, we have already witnessed several earthquakes and volcanic activities using PALSAR interferometry. We will briefly show and digest some of those observation results.

  3. Initial Measurements On Pixel Detector Modules For The ATLAS Upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Gallrapp, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    Sophisticated conditions in terms of peak and integrated luminosity in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will raise the ATLAS Pixel detector to its performance limits. Silicon planar, silicon 3D and diamond pixel sensors are three possible sensor technologies which could be implemented in the upcoming pixel detector upgrades of the ATLAS experiment. Measurements of the IV-behavior and measurements with radioactive Americium-241 and Strontium-90 are used to characterize the sensor properties and to understand the interaction between the ATLAS FE-I4 front-end chip and the sensor. Comparisons of results from before and after irradiation, which give a first impression on the charge collection properties of the different sensor technologies are presented.

  4. Angular resolution of the gaseous micro-pixel detector Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilevych, Y.; Blanco Carballo, V.; van Dijk, M.; Fransen, M.; van der Graaf, H.; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.; Koppert, W.; Nauta, S.; Rogers, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Veenhof, R.

    2011-06-01

    Gossip is a gaseous micro-pixel detector with a very thin drift gap intended for a high rate environment like at the pixel layers of ATLAS at the sLHC. The detector outputs not only the crossing point of a traversing MIP, but also the angle of the track, thus greatly simplifying track reconstruction. In this paper we describe a testbeam experiment to examine the angular resolution of the reconstructed track segments in Gossip. We used here the low diffusion gas mixture DME/CO 2 50/50. An angular resolution of 20 mrad for perpendicular tracks could be obtained from a 1.5 mm thin drift volume. However, for the prototype detector used at the testbeam experiment, the resolution of slanting tracks was worsened by poor time resolution of the pixel chip used.

  5. Angular resolution of the gaseous micro-pixel detector Gossip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilevych, Y.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Dijk, M. van; Fransen, M.; Graaf, H. van der; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.; Koppert, W.; Nauta, S. [Nikhef, P.O. Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rogers, M. [Radboud University, P.O. Box 9102, 6500HC Nijmegen (Netherlands); Romaniouk, A.; Veenhof, R. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneve 23 (Switzerland)

    2011-06-15

    Gossip is a gaseous micro-pixel detector with a very thin drift gap intended for a high rate environment like at the pixel layers of ATLAS at the sLHC. The detector outputs not only the crossing point of a traversing MIP, but also the angle of the track, thus greatly simplifying track reconstruction. In this paper we describe a testbeam experiment to examine the angular resolution of the reconstructed track segments in Gossip. We used here the low diffusion gas mixture DME/CO{sub 2} 50/50. An angular resolution of 20 mrad for perpendicular tracks could be obtained from a 1.5 mm thin drift volume. However, for the prototype detector used at the testbeam experiment, the resolution of slanting tracks was worsened by poor time resolution of the pixel chip used.

  6. Angular resolution of the gaseous micro-pixel detector Gossip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilevych, Y.; Blanco Carballo, V.; Dijk, M. van; Fransen, M.; Graaf, H. van der; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.; Koppert, W.; Nauta, S.; Rogers, M.; Romaniouk, A.; Veenhof, R.

    2011-01-01

    Gossip is a gaseous micro-pixel detector with a very thin drift gap intended for a high rate environment like at the pixel layers of ATLAS at the sLHC. The detector outputs not only the crossing point of a traversing MIP, but also the angle of the track, thus greatly simplifying track reconstruction. In this paper we describe a testbeam experiment to examine the angular resolution of the reconstructed track segments in Gossip. We used here the low diffusion gas mixture DME/CO 2 50/50. An angular resolution of 20 mrad for perpendicular tracks could be obtained from a 1.5 mm thin drift volume. However, for the prototype detector used at the testbeam experiment, the resolution of slanting tracks was worsened by poor time resolution of the pixel chip used.

  7. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 μm was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch

  8. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Fried, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Palmieri, V G; Pan, L S; Peitz, A; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Steuerer, J; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M; Charles, E; Ciocio, A; Dao, K; Einsweiler, Kevin F; Fasching, D; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Richardson, J; Sinervo, P K; Zizka, G

    1999-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98565544f the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 mu m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch. (13 refs).

  9. The first bump-bonded pixel detectors on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pan, L.S.; Peitz, A.; Pernicka, M.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Steuerer, J.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W. E-mail: william@physics.utoronto.ca; Turchetta, R.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Gilchriese, M.; Joshi, A.; Kleinfelder, S.; Milgrome, O.; Palaio, N.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Zizka, G

    1999-11-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionising radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow it to be used in high radiation environments. These characteristics make diamond sensors particularly appealing for use in the next generation of pixel detectors. Over the last year, the RD42 collaboration has worked with several groups that have developed pixel readout electronics in order to optimise diamond sensors for bump-bonding. This effort resulted in an operational diamond pixel sensor that was tested in a pion beam. We demonstrate that greater than 98% of the channels were successfully bump-bonded and functioning. The device shows good overall hit efficiency as well as clear spatial hit correlation to tracks measured in a silicon reference telescope. A position resolution of 14.8 {mu}m was observed, consistent with expectations given the detector pitch.

  10. Online calibrations and performance of the ATLAS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Keil, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of 1744 silicon sensors equipped with approximately 80 M electronic channels, providing typically three measurement points with high resolution for particles emerging from the beam-interaction region, thus allowing measuring particle tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. The readout system of the Pixel Detector is based on a bi-directional optical data transmission system between the detector and the data acquisition system with an individual link for each of the 1744 modules. Signal conversion components are located on both ends, approximately 80 m apart. The talk will give an overview of the calibration and performance of both the detector and its optical readout. The most basic parameter to be tuned and calibrated for the detector electronics is the readout threshold of the individual pixel channels. These need to be carefully tuned to optimise position resolution a...

  11. Modeling Radiation Damage to Pixel Sensors in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Silicon Pixel detectors are at the core of the current and planned upgrade of the ATLAS detector. As the detector in closest proximity to the interaction point, these detectors will be subjected to a significant amount of radiation over their lifetime: prior to the HL-LHC, the innermost layers will receive a fluence in excess of $10^{15}$ 1 MeV $n_\\mathrm{eq}/\\mathrm{cm}^2$ and the HL-LHC detector upgrades must cope with an order of magnitude higher fluence integrated over their lifetimes. This talk presents a digitization model that includes radiation damage effects to the ATLAS Pixel sensors for the first time. After a thorough description of the setup, predictions for basic Pixel cluster properties are presented alongside first validation studies with Run 2 collision data.

  12. New pixelized Micromegas detector for the COMPASS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyret, D; Anfreville, M; Bedfer, Y; Burtin, E; D'Hose, N; Giganon, A; Kunne, F; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Paul, B; Platchkov, S; Vandenbroucke, M; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I

    2009-01-01

    New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm 2 , 10 times larger than for the present detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Studies were done with the present detectors moved in the beam, and two first pixelized prototypes are being tested with muon and hadron beams in real conditions at COMPASS. We present here this new project and report on two series of tests, with old detectors moved into the beam and with pixelized prototypes operated in real data taking condition with both muon and hadron beams.

  13. Pixel front-end development in 65 nm CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havránek, M; Hemperek, T; Kishishita, T; Krüger, H; Wermes, N

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) imposes severe constraints on the detector tracking systems in terms of radiation hardness and capability to cope with higher hit rates. One possible way of keeping track with increasing luminosity is the usage of more advanced technologies. Ultra deep sub-micron CMOS technologies allow a design of complex and high speed electronics with high integration density. In addition, these technologies are inherently radiation hard. We present a prototype of analog pixel front-end integrated circuit designed in 65 nm CMOS technology with applications oriented towards the ATLAS Pixel Detector upgrade. The aspects of ultra deep sub-micron design and performance of the analog pixel front-end circuits will be discussed

  14. Integration of the CMS Phase 1 Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Kornmayer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    During the extended year-end technical stop 2016/17 the CMS Pixel Detector has been replaced. The new Phase 1 Pixel Detector is designed for a luminosity that could exceed $\\text{L} = 2x10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1}$. With one additional layer in the barrel and the forward region of the new detector, combined with the higher hit rates as the LHC luminosity increases, these conditions called for an upgrade of the data acquisition system, which was realised based on the $\\mu$TCA standard. This contribution focuses on the experiences with integration of the new detector readout and control system and reports on the operational performance of the CMS Pixel detector.

  15. Studies of mono-crystalline CVD diamond pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugg, W. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Hollingsworth, M., E-mail: mhollin3@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Spanier, S.; Yang, Z. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Bartz, E.; Doroshenko, J.; Hits, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Atramentov, O.; Patel, R.; Barker, A. [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); Hall-Wilton, R.; Ryjov, V.; Farrow, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Pernicka, M.; Steininger, H. [HEPHY, Vienna (Austria); Johns, W. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville (United States); Halyo, V.; Harrop, B. [Princeton University, Princeton (United States); and others

    2011-09-11

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) is a dedicated luminosity monitor, presently under construction, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It measures the particle flux in several three layered pixel diamond detectors that are aligned precisely with respect to each other and the beam direction. At a lower rate it also performs particle track position measurements. The PLT's mono-crystalline CVD diamonds are bump-bonded to the same readout chip used in the silicon pixel system in CMS. Mono-crystalline diamond detectors have many attributes that make them desirable for use in charged particle tracking in radiation hostile environments such as the LHC. In order to further characterize the applicability of diamond technology to charged particle tracking we performed several tests with particle beams that included a measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution with a high resolution beam telescope.

  16. Depleted CMOS pixels for LHC proton–proton experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wermes, N.

    2016-01-01

    While so far monolithic pixel detectors have remained in the realm of comparatively low rate and radiation applications outside LHC, new developments exploiting high resistivity substrates with three or four well CMOS process options allow reasonably large depletion depths and full CMOS circuitry in a monolithic structure. This opens up the possibility to target CMOS pixel detectors also for high radiation pp-experiments at the LHC upgrade, either in a hybrid-type fashion or even fully monolithic. Several pixel matrices have been prototyped with high ohmic substrates, high voltage options, and full CMOS electronics. They were characterized in the lab and in test beams. An overview of the necessary development steps and different approaches as well as prototype results are presented in this paper.

  17. Detector Modules for the CMS Pixel Phase 1 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, De Hua; Berger, Pirmin; Meinhard, Maren Tabea; Starodumov, Andrey; Tavolaro, Vittorio Raoul

    2017-01-01

    The CMS Pixel phase 1 upgrade detector consists of 1184 modules with new design. An important part of the production is the module qualification and calibration, ensuring their proper functionality within the detector. This paper summarizes the qualification and calibration results of modules used in the innermost two detector layers with focus on methods using module-internal calibration signals. Extended characterizations on pixel level such as electronic noise and bump bond connectivity, optimization of operational parameters, sensor quality and thermal stress resistance were performed using a customized setup with controlled environment. It could be shown that the selected modules have on average $0.55 \\mathrm{ {}^{0\\!}\\!/\\!_{00} }\\, \\pm \\, 0.01 \\mathrm{ {}^{0\\!}\\!/\\!_{00} }\\,$ defective pixels and that all performance parameters stay within their specifications.

  18. Architecture and Stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2009-01-01

    as "experiencescape" - a space between tourism, culture, learning and economy. Strategies related to these challenges involve new architectural concepts and art as ‘engines' for a change. New expressive architecture and old industrial buildings are often combined into hybrid narratives, linking the past...... with the future. But this is not enough. The agenda is to develop architectural spaces, where social interaction and learning are enhanced by art and fun. How can we develop new architectural designs in our inner cities and waterfronts where eventscapes, learning labs and temporal use are merged with everyday...

  19. Grid Architecture 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taft, Jeffrey D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  20. Towards a Media Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebsen, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This text explores the concept of media architecture as a phenomenon of visual culture that describes the use of screen-technology in new spatial configurations in practices of architecture and art. I shall argue that this phenomenon is not necessarily a revolutionary new approach, but rather...... a result of conceptual changes in both modes visual representation and in expressions of architecture. These are changes the may be described as an evolution of ideas and consequent experiments that can be traced back to changes in the history of art and the various styles and ideologies of architecture....

  1. Decentralized Software Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    .... While the term "decentralization" is familiar from political and economic contexts, it has been applied extensively, if indiscriminately, to describe recent trends in software architecture towards...

  2. Adaptive pixel-to-pixel projection intensity adjustment for measuring a shiny surface using orthogonal color fringe pattern projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Gao, Nan; Wang, Xiangjun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on fringe pattern projection techniques has been commonly used in various fields. One of the remaining challenges in fringe pattern projection is that camera sensor saturation may occur if there is a large range of reflectivity variation across the surface that causes measurement errors. To overcome this problem, a novel fringe pattern projection method is proposed to avoid image saturation and maintain high-intensity modulation for measuring shiny surfaces by adaptively adjusting the pixel-to-pixel projection intensity according to the surface reflectivity. First, three sets of orthogonal color fringe patterns and a sequence of uniform gray-level patterns with different gray levels are projected onto a measured surface by a projector. The patterns are deformed with respect to the object surface and captured by a camera from a different viewpoint. Subsequently, the optimal projection intensity at each pixel is determined by fusing different gray levels and transforming the camera pixel coordinate system into the projector pixel coordinate system. Finally, the adapted fringe patterns are created and used for 3D shape measurement. Experimental results on a flat checkerboard and shiny objects demonstrate that the proposed method can measure shiny surfaces with high accuracy.

  3. Thermal Characterization and Optimization of the Pixel Module Support Structure for the Phase-1 Upgrade of the CMS Pixel Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2094386; Feld, Lutz Werner

    2015-01-01

    The CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) pixel detector is used in CMS for the vertex reconstruction of events in high-energy proton-proton collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is planned for the future years that the LHC will deliver significantly higher instantaneous and integrated luminosities. Therefore, also the demands and requirements for the participating detectors rise. Thus the current CMS pixel detector will be replaced by the CMS Phase-1 Upgrade Pixel Detector in the extended year-end technical stop in winter 2016/2017. As a vertex detector, the pixel detector is the innermost detector component and it is located at a short distance to the proton-proton interaction point. Therefore it has to cope with high particle hit rates and high irradiation. The heat produced due to power consumption has to be removed while using a low-mass detector design. The low-mass design of the Phase-1 Upgrade Pixel Detector will be implemented by utilizing a new two-phase CO2 cooling concept and an ultra l...

  4. Pixel readout ASIC for an APD based 2D X-ray hybrid pixel detector with sub-nanosecond resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thil, Ch., E-mail: christophe.thil@ziti.uni-heidelberg.d [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, B6, 26, 68161 Mannheim (Germany); Baron, A.Q.R. [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Fajardo, P. [ESRF, Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Fischer, P. [Heidelberg University, Institute of Computer Engineering, B6, 26, 68161 Mannheim (Germany); Graafsma, H. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Rueffer, R. [ESRF, Polygone Scientifique Louis Neel, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2011-02-01

    The fast response and the short recovery time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in linear mode make those devices ideal for direct X-ray detection in applications requiring high time resolution or counting rate. In order to provide position sensitivity, the XNAP project aims at creating a hybrid pixel detector with nanosecond time resolution based on a monolithic APD sensor array with 32 x32 pixels covering about 1 cm{sup 2} active area. The readout is implemented in a pixelated front-end ASIC suited for the readout of such arrays, matched to pixels of 280{mu}mx280{mu}m size. Every single channel features a fast transimpedance amplifier, a discriminator with locally adjustable threshold and two counters with high dynamic range and counting speed able to accumulate X-ray hits with no readout dead time. Additionally, the detector can be operated in list mode by time-stamping every single event with sub-nanosecond resolution. In a first phase of the project, a 4x4 pixel test module is built to validate the conceptual design of the detector. The XNAP project is briefly presented and the performance of the readout ASIC is discussed.

  5. Pixel readout ASIC for an APD based 2D X-ray hybrid pixel detector with sub-nanosecond resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thil, Ch.; Baron, A.Q.R.; Fajardo, P.; Fischer, P.; Graafsma, H.; Rueffer, R.

    2011-01-01

    The fast response and the short recovery time of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in linear mode make those devices ideal for direct X-ray detection in applications requiring high time resolution or counting rate. In order to provide position sensitivity, the XNAP project aims at creating a hybrid pixel detector with nanosecond time resolution based on a monolithic APD sensor array with 32 x32 pixels covering about 1 cm 2 active area. The readout is implemented in a pixelated front-end ASIC suited for the readout of such arrays, matched to pixels of 280μmx280μm size. Every single channel features a fast transimpedance amplifier, a discriminator with locally adjustable threshold and two counters with high dynamic range and counting speed able to accumulate X-ray hits with no readout dead time. Additionally, the detector can be operated in list mode by time-stamping every single event with sub-nanosecond resolution. In a first phase of the project, a 4x4 pixel test module is built to validate the conceptual design of the detector. The XNAP project is briefly presented and the performance of the readout ASIC is discussed.

  6. Partially Adaptive STAP Algorithm Approaches to functional MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lejian; Thompson, Elizabeth A.; Schmithorst, Vincent; Holland, Scott K.; Talavage, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the architectures of three partially adaptive STAP algorithms are introduced, one of which is explored in detail, that reduce dimensionality and improve tractability over fully adaptive STAP when used in construction of brain activation maps in fMRI. Computer simulations incorporating actual MRI noise and human data analysis indicate that element space partially adaptive STAP can attain close to the performance of fully adaptive STAP while significantly decreasing processing tim...

  7. Gas Pixel Detectors for low energy X-ray polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spandre, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    Gas Pixel Detectors are position-sensitive proportional counters in which a complete integration between the gas amplification structure and the read-out electronics has been reached. Various generation of Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) have been designed in deep submicron CMOS technology to realize a monolithic device which is at the same time the charge collecting electrode and the analog amplifying and charge measuring front-end electronics. The experimental response of a detector with 22060 pixels at 80 μm pitch to polarized and un-polarized X-ray radiation is shown and the application of this device for Astronomical X-ray Polarimetry discussed

  8. The pin pixel detector--X-ray imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, J E; Derbyshire, G E; Duxbury, D M; Marsh, A S; Simmons, J E; Stephenson, R

    2002-01-01

    The development and testing of a soft X-ray gas pixel detector, which uses connector pins for the anodes is reported. Based on a commercial 100 pin connector block, a prototype detector of aperture 25.4 mm centre dot 25.4 mm can be economically fabricated. The individual pin anodes all show the expected characteristics of small gas detectors capable of counting rates reaching 1 MHz per pin. A 2-dimensional resistive divide readout system has been developed to permit the imaging properties of the detector to be explored in advance of true pixel readout electronics.

  9. SLHC upgrade plans for the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicho, Petr

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is an 80 million channels silicon tracking system designed to detect charged tracks and secondary vertices with very high precision. An upgrade of the ATLAS pixel detector is presently being considered, enabling to cope with higher luminosity at Super Large Hadron Collider (SLHC). The increased luminosity leads to extremely high radiation doses in the innermost region of the ATLAS tracker. Options considered for a new detector are discussed, as well as some important R and D activities, such as investigations towards novel detector geometries and novel processes.

  10. Characterisation of individual pixel efficiency in the PILATUS II sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, A., E-mail: aschub@physics.unimelb.edu.a [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 (Australia); CRCBID Cooperative Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Centre for PET, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); O' Keefe, G.J. [Centre for PET, Austin Hospital, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 (Australia); Sobott, B.A. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 (Australia); CRCBID Cooperative Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia); Kirby, N.M. [Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Rassool, R.P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 (Australia); CRCBID Cooperative Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Bundoora, Victoria 3083 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Synchrotron applications such as protein crystallography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) demand precise knowledge of detector pixel efficiency for data corrections. Current techniques used to determine detector efficiency are only applicable for the specific set-up for which the calibration is performed. Here the effect of comparator thresholding on pixel efficiency for PILATUS is presented for standard amplifier and shaper gain settings, allowing users to make necessary corrections to their intensity data for various threshold settings without requiring repeated empirical calibrations. A three-dimensional TCAD simulation of the sensor is also presented and is used to confirm the experimental result.

  11. CMS Forward Pixel Upgrade Electronics and System Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Hannsjorg Artur

    2016-01-01

    This note discusses results of electronics and system testing of the CMS forward pixel (FPIX) detector upgrade for Phase 1. The FPIX detector is comprised of four stand-alone half cylinders, each of which contains frontend readout electronic boards, power regulators, cables and fibers in addition to the pixel modules. All of the components undergo rigorous testing and quality assurance before assembly into the half cylinders. Afterwards, we perform full system tests on the completely assembled half cylinders, including calibrations at final operating temperatures, characterization of the realistic readout chain, and system grounding and noise studies. The results from all these tests are discussed.

  12. Test Beam Results of Geometry Optimized Hybrid Pixel Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Becks, K H; Grah, C; Mättig, P; Rohe, T

    2006-01-01

    The Multi-Chip-Module-Deposited (MCM-D) technique has been used to build hybrid pixel detector assemblies. This paper summarises the results of an analysis of data obtained in a test beam campaign at CERN. Here, single chip hybrids made of ATLAS pixel prototype read-out electronics and special sensor tiles were used. They were prepared by the Fraunhofer Institut fuer Zuverlaessigkeit und Mikrointegration, IZM, Berlin, Germany. The sensors feature an optimized sensor geometry called equal sized bricked. This design enhances the spatial resolution for double hits in the long direction of the sensor cells.

  13. Operational Experience and Performance with the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Christopher Blake; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on its 4-layer Pixel Detector, that has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the Large Hadron Collider, with record breaking instantaneous luminosities of $1.3\\times10^{34}\\text{cm}^{{-2}}\\text{s}^{{-1}}$ recently surpassed. The key status and performance metrics of the ATLAS Pixel Detector are summarized, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described, with special emphasis to radiation damage experience.

  14. Operational Experience and Performance with the ATLAS Pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Christopher Blake; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The tracking performance of the ATLAS detector relies critically on its 4-layer Pixel Detector, that has undergone significant hardware and software upgrades to meet the challenges imposed by the higher collision energy, pileup and luminosity that are being delivered by the Large Hadron Collider, with record breaking instantaneous luminosities of 1.3 x 10^34 cm-2 s-1 recently surpassed. The key status and performance metrics of the ATLAS Pixel Detector are summarised, and the operational experience and requirements to ensure optimum data quality and data taking efficiency are described, with special emphasis to radiation damage experience.

  15. Radiation damage monitoring in the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Sally

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of radiation damage monitoring using measurement of leakage current in the ATLAS silicon pixel sensors. The dependence of the leakage current upon the integrated luminosity is presented. The measurement of the radiation damage corresponding to an integrated luminosity 5.6 fb −1 is presented along with a comparison to a model. -- Highlights: ► Radiation damage monitoring via silicon leakage current is implemented in the ATLAS (LHC) pixel detector. ► Leakage currents measured are consistent with the Hamburg/Dortmund model. ► This information can be used to validate the ATLAS simulation model.

  16. Light Field Rendering for Head Mounted Displays using Pixel Reprojection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Juhler; Klein, Jákup; Kraus, Martin

    2017-01-01

    of the information of the different images is redundant, we use pixel reprojection from the corner cameras to compute the remaining images in the light field. We compare the reprojected images with directly rendered images in a user test. In most cases, the users were unable to distinguish the images. In extreme...... cases, the reprojection approach is not capable of creating the light field. We conclude that pixel reprojection is a feasible method for rendering light fields as far as quality of perspective and diffuse shading is concerned, but render time needs to be reduced to make the method practical....

  17. Geometry simulation and physics with the CMS forward pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parashar, N [Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, Indiana (United States)], E-mail: Neeti@fnal.gov

    2008-06-15

    The Forward Pixel Detector of CMS is an integral part of the Tracking system, which will play a key role in addressing the full physics potential of the collected data. It has a very complex geometry that encompasses multilayer structure of its detector modules. This presentation describes the development of geometry simulation for the Forward Pixel Detector. A new geometry package has been developed, which uses the detector description database (DDD) interface for the XML (eXtensive Markup Language) to GEANT simulation. This is necessary for digitization and GEANT4 reconstruction software for tracking. The expected physics performance is also discussed.

  18. Geometry simulation and physics with the CMS forward pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parashar, N

    2008-01-01

    The Forward Pixel Detector of CMS is an integral part of the Tracking system, which will play a key role in addressing the full physics potential of the collected data. It has a very complex geometry that encompasses multilayer structure of its detector modules. This presentation describes the development of geometry simulation for the Forward Pixel Detector. A new geometry package has been developed, which uses the detector description database (DDD) interface for the XML (eXtensive Markup Language) to GEANT simulation. This is necessary for digitization and GEANT4 reconstruction software for tracking. The expected physics performance is also discussed

  19. Dynamic Efficiency Measurements for Irradiated ATLAS Pixel Single Chip Modules

    CERN Document Server

    Pfaff, Mike; Grosse-Knetter, Jorn

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector is the innermost subdetector of the ATLAS experiment. Due to this, the pixel detector has to be particularly radiation hard. In this diploma thesis effects on the sensor and the electronics which are caused by irradiation are examined. It is shown how the behaviour changes between an unirradiated sample and a irradiated sample, which was treated with the same radiation dose that is expected at the end of the lifetime of ATLAS. For this study a laser system, which is used for dynamic efficiency measurements was constructed. Furthermore, the behaviour of the noise during the detection of a particle was evaluated studied.

  20. The hardware of the ATLAS Pixel Detector Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henss, T; Andreani, A; Boek, J; Boyd, G; Citterio, M; Einsweiler, K; Kersten, S; Kind, P; Lantzsch, K; Latorre, S; Maettig, P; Meroni, C; Sabatini, F; Schultes, J

    2007-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) experiment, which is currently under construction at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider), will be a silicon pixel detector comprised of 1744 individual detector modules. To operate these modules, the readout electronics, and other detector components, a complex power supply and control system is necessary. The specific powering and control requirements, as well as the custom made components of our power supply and control systems, are described. These include remotely programmable regulator stations, the power supply system for the optical transceivers, several monitoring units, and the Interlock System. In total, this comprises the Pixel Detector Control System (DCS)

  1. Pixel-based meshfree modelling of skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiun-Shyan; Basava, Ramya Rao; Zhang, Yantao; Csapo, Robert; Malis, Vadim; Sinha, Usha; Hodgson, John; Sinha, Shantanu

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the meshfree Reproducing Kernel Particle Method (RKPM) for 3D image-based modeling of skeletal muscles. This approach allows for construction of simulation model based on pixel data obtained from medical images. The material properties and muscle fiber direction obtained from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) are input at each pixel point. The reproducing kernel (RK) approximation allows a representation of material heterogeneity with smooth transition. A multiphase multichannel level set based segmentation framework is adopted for individual muscle segmentation using Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) and DTI. The application of the proposed methods for modeling the human lower leg is demonstrated.

  2. Semiconductor micropattern pixel detectors a review of the beginnings

    CERN Document Server

    Heijne, Erik H M

    2001-01-01

    The innovation in monolithic and hybrid semiconductor 'micropattern' or 'reactive' pixel detectors for tracking in particle physics was actually to fit logic and pulse processing electronics with µW power on a pixel area of less than 0.04 mm2, retaining the characteristics of a traditional nuclear amplifier chain. The ns timing precision in conjunction with local memory and logic operations allowed event selection at > 10 MHz rates with unambiguous track reconstruction even at particle multiplicities > 10 cm-2. The noise in a channel was ~100 e- r.m.s. and enabled binary operation with random noise 'hits' at a level 30 Mrad, respectively.

  3. Preliminary Results of 3D-DDTC Pixel Detectors for the ATLAS Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, Alessandro; /CERN; Boscardin, M.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Darbo, G.; Gemme, C.; /INFN, Genoa; Pernegger, H.; /CERN; Piemonte, C.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Povoli, M.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Ronchin, S.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Zoboli, A.; /Trento U. /INFN, Trento; Zorzi, N.; /Fond. Bruno Kessler, Povo; Bolle, E.; /Oslo U.; Borri, M.; /INFN, Turin /Turin U.; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Dong, S.; /SLAC; Fazio, S.; /Calabria U.; Grenier, P.; /SLAC; Grinstein, S.; /Barcelona, IFAE; Gjersdal, H.; /Oslo U.; Hansson, P.; /SLAC; Huegging, F.; /Bonn U. /SLAC /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /Oslo U. /Bergen U. /Oslo U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Bonn U. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Bonn U. /SLAC

    2012-04-04

    3D Silicon sensors fabricated at FBK-irst with the Double-side Double Type Column (DDTC) approach and columnar electrodes only partially etched through p-type substrates were tested in laboratory and in a 1.35 Tesla magnetic field with a 180 GeV pion beam at CERN SPS. The substrate thickness of the sensors is about 200 {mu}m, and different column depths are available, with overlaps between junction columns (etched from the front side) and ohmic columns (etched from the back side) in the range from 110 {mu}m to 150 {mu}m. The devices under test were bump bonded to the ATLAS Pixel readout chip (FEI3) at SELEX SI (Rome, Italy). We report leakage current and noise measurements, results of functional tests with Am{sup 241} {gamma}-ray sources, charge collection tests with Sr90 {beta}-source and an overview of preliminary results from the CERN beam test.

  4. Quality control on planar n-in-n pixel sensors — Recent progress of ATLAS planar pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingenberg, R.

    2013-01-01

    To extend the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the peak luminosity by a factor 5–10. To cope with the increased occupancy and radiation damage, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker with the high luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) R and D Project was established. Main areas of research are the performance of planar pixel sensors at highest fluences, the exploration of possibilities for cost reduction to enable the instrumentation of large areas, the achievement of slim or active edges to provide low geometric inefficiencies without the need for shingling of modules and the investigation of the operation of highly irradiated sensors at low thresholds to increase the efficiency. The Insertable b-layer (IBL) is the first upgrade project within the ATLAS experiment and will employ a new detector layer consisting of silicon pixel sensors, which were improved and prototyped in the framework of the planar pixel sensor R and D project. A special focus of this paper is the status of the development and testing of planar n-in-n pixel sensors including the quality control of the on-going series production and postprocessing of sensor wafers. A high yield of produced planar sensor wafers and FE-I4 double chip sensors after first steps of post-processing including under bump metallization and dicing is observed. -- Highlights: ► Prototypes of irradiated planar n-in-n sensors have been successfully tested under laboratory conditions. ► A quality assurance programme on the series production of planar sensors for the IBL has started. ► A high yield of double chip sensors during the series production is observed which are compatible to the specifications to this detector component.

  5. Architecture and Intelligentsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article observes intellectual and cultural level of architecture and its important functions in social process. Historical analysis shows constant decline of intellectual level of profession, as a reaction on radical changes in its social functions and mass scale, leading to degrading of individual critical reflection and growing dependence of architecture to political and economical bureaucracy.

  6. Architecture and Intelligentsia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Rappaport

    2015-01-01

    The article observes intellectual and cultural level of architecture and its important functions in social process. Historical analysis shows constant decline of intellectual level of profession, as a reaction on radical changes in its social functions and mass scale, leading to degrading of individual critical reflection and growing dependence of architecture to political and economical bureaucracy.

  7. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    NOTES Patrick La Fratta is now affiliated with Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho. 14. ABSTRACT We present an introduction to the patented ...Operating System Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA). The software framework to support the hardware-level security features is currently patent ...Army is assignee. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture. United States Patent 9122610. 2015 Sep. 2. Jungwirth P, inventor; US Army is assignee

  8. Architecture, Drawing, Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Morten

    This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture of ...

  9. Software Architecture Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  10. FTS2000 network architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  11. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    . The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two...

  12. Architecture and energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Lauring, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies.......Traditional low-energy architecture has not necessarily led to reduced energy consumption. A paradigm shift is proposed promoting pluralistic energy-saving strategies....

  13. Re[valuating]-architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira Roders, A.R.; Post, J.M.; Erkelens, P.A.; Haugen, T.I.

    2006-01-01

    The architectural hierarchy of aims altered in the last decades. Quality and comfort have dethroned functionality! We are already familiar with the taxonomy – quality certification in the construction world; but in architectural designs, it is not common to evaluate scientifically, if the design has

  14. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisation focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means.In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as pragmatic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  15. Digitally-Driven Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Bier

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The shift from mechanical to digital forces architects to reposition themselves: Architects generate digital information, which can be used not only in designing and fabricating building components but also in embedding behaviours into buildings. This implies that, similar to the way that industrial design and fabrication with its concepts of standardisation and serial production influenced modernist architecture, digital design and fabrication influences contemporary architecture. While standardisa­tion focused on processes of rationalisation of form, mass-customisation as a new paradigm that replaces mass-production, addresses non-standard, complex, and flexible designs. Furthermore, knowledge about the designed object can be encoded in digital data pertaining not just to the geometry of a design but also to its physical or other behaviours within an environment. Digitally-driven architecture implies, therefore, not only digitally-designed and fabricated architecture, it also implies architecture – built form – that can be controlled, actuated, and animated by digital means. In this context, this sixth Footprint issue examines the influence of digital means as prag­matic and conceptual instruments for actuating architecture. The focus is not so much on computer-based systems for the development of architectural designs, but on architecture incorporating digital control, sens­ing, actuating, or other mechanisms that enable buildings to inter­act with their users and surroundings in real time in the real world through physical or sensory change and variation.

  16. Architecture in Everyday Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarez, R.; Mota, N.

    2015-01-01

    For most architects, architecture is not only art, craft, passion and engagement; it is their ‘bread-and-butter’, too, and has been so since long. Architecture, consciously or unconsciously, is also the ‘bread-and-butter’ of communities across the world: successfully or unsuccessfully it is part of

  17. Enterprise architecture intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veneberg, R.K.M.; Iacob, Maria Eugenia; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Bodenstaff, L.; Reichert, M.U.; Rinderle-Ma, S.; Grossmann, G.

    2014-01-01

    Combining enterprise architecture and operational data is complex (especially when considering the actual ‘matching’ of data with enterprise architecture objects), and little has been written on how to do this. Therefore, in this paper we aim to fill this gap and propose a method to combine

  18. Information Architecture: Looking Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Considers the future of the field of information architecture. Highlights include a comparison with the growth of the field of professional management; the design of information systems since the Web; more demanding users; the need for an interdisciplinary approach; and how to define information architecture. (LRW)

  19. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  20. Architecture or Sculpture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumeister, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Jørn Utzon´s museum design for Asger Jorn´s collection in Silkeborg contextualized in the postwar context of an organic architecture.......Jørn Utzon´s museum design for Asger Jorn´s collection in Silkeborg contextualized in the postwar context of an organic architecture....