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Sample records for partial oxygen pressure

  1. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The aim of our present work is to develop a simple steady state model for intraretinal oxygen partial pressure distribution and to investigate the effect of various model parameters on the partial pressure distribution under adapted conditions of light and darkness.. Method: A simple eight-layered mathematical model ...

  2. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  3. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  4. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A.

    1997-01-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10 -6 -1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1997-10-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10{sup -6}-1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs.

  6. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The system of non-linear differential equations was solved numerically using Runge-kutta. Nystroms method. ... artery occlusion. Keywords: Mathematical modeling, Intraretinal oxygen pressure, Retinal capillaries, Oxygen ..... Mass transfer,.

  7. Oxygen-Partial-Pressure Sensor for Aircraft Oxygen Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark; Pettit, Donald

    2003-01-01

    A device that generates an alarm when the partial pressure of oxygen decreases to less than a preset level has been developed to help prevent hypoxia in a pilot or other crewmember of a military or other high-performance aircraft. Loss of oxygen partial pressure can be caused by poor fit of the mask or failure of a hose or other component of an oxygen distribution system. The deleterious physical and mental effects of hypoxia cause the loss of a military aircraft and crew every few years. The device is installed in the crewmember s oxygen mask and is powered via communication wiring already present in all such oxygen masks. The device (see figure) includes an electrochemical sensor, the output potential of which is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen. The output of the sensor is amplified and fed to the input of a comparator circuit. A reference potential that corresponds to the amplified sensor output at the alarm oxygen-partial-pressure level is fed to the second input of the comparator. When the sensed partial pressure of oxygen falls below the minimum acceptable level, the output of the comparator goes from the low state (a few millivolts) to the high state (near the supply potential, which is typically 6.8 V for microphone power). The switching of the comparator output to the high state triggers a tactile alarm in the form of a vibration in the mask, generated by a small 1.3-Vdc pager motor spinning an eccentric mass at a rate between 8,000 and 10,000 rpm. The sensation of the mask vibrating against the crewmember s nose is very effective at alerting the crewmember, who may already be groggy from hypoxia and is immersed in an environment that is saturated with visual cues and sounds. Indeed, the sensation is one of rudeness, but such rudeness could be what is needed to stimulate the crewmember to take corrective action in a life-threatening situation.

  8. Thin film devices used as oxygen partial pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canady, K. S.; Wortman, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of zinc oxide films to be used in an oxygen partial pressure sensor is measured as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and other atmospheric constituents. Time response following partial pressure changes is studied as a function of temperature and environmental changes.

  9. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    oxygen availability) is required for retinal oxidative metabolism. .... retina was described using Hill's equation and Fick's law. ... ganglion cell / nerve fiber layer and the superficial ..... parameter values producing the best. Figure 2: Partial ...

  10. Report on ISS Oxygen Production, Resupply, and Partial Pressure Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaezler, Ryan; Ghariani, Ahmed; Leonard, Daniel; Lehman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The majority of oxygen used on International Space Station (ISS) is for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Oxygen is supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to oxygen production capability on both the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) and Russian Segment (RS). To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen partial pressure is controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable oxygen partial pressure along with the increased ISS cabin volume is utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes amount of oxygen supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing oxygen partial pressure along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  11. Calibration Of Partial-Pressure-Of-Oxygen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, David W.; Heronimus, Kevin

    1995-01-01

    Report and analysis of, and discussion of improvements in, procedure for calibrating partial-pressure-of-oxygen sensors to satisfy Spacelab calibration requirements released. Sensors exhibit fast drift, which results in short calibration period not suitable for Spacelab. By assessing complete process of determining total drift range available, calibration procedure modified to eliminate errors and still satisfy requirements without compromising integrity of system.

  12. 21 CFR 868.1200 - Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2... Indwelling blood oxygen partial pressure (PO2) analyzer. (a) Identification. An indwelling blood oxygen... electrode) and that is used to measure, in vivo, the partial pressure of oxygen in blood to aid in...

  13. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on production of animal virus (VSV)

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyun S.; Chang, Kern H.; Kim, Jung H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure on viral replication was investigated with Vero/VSV system. At 10% oxygen partial pressure in spinner culture, VSV titer was significantly increased 130 fold compared to that obtained at 21%. A similar result was obtained for viral production in 1liter bioreactor. This implies that oxygen partial pressure during viral production has to be low. In low oxygen partial pressure, malondialdehyde concentration was decreased about 5 fold. Thus, low oxygen partia...

  14. [Correlation between the inspired fraction of oxygen, maternal partial oxygen pressure, and fetal partial oxygen pressure during cesarean section of normal pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Carlos Henrique Viana de; Cruvinel, Marcos Guilherme Cunha; Carneiro, Fabiano Soares; Silva, Yerkes Pereira; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Bessa, Roberto Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    Despite changes in pulmonary function, maternal oxygenation is maintained during obstetric regional blocks. But in those situations, the administration of supplementary oxygen to parturients is a common practice. Good fetal oxygenation is the main justification; however, this has not been proven. The objective of this randomized, prospective study was to test the hypothesis of whether maternal hyperoxia is correlated with an increase in fetal gasometric parameters in elective cesarean sections. Arterial blood gases of 20 parturients undergoing spinal block with different inspired fractions of oxygen were evaluated and correlated with fetal arterial blood gases. An increase in maternal inspired fraction of oxygen did not show any correlation with an increase of fetal partial oxygen pressure. Induction of maternal hyperoxia by the administration of supplementary oxygen did not increase fetal partial oxygen pressure. Fetal gasometric parameters did not change even when maternal parameters changed, induced by hyperoxia, during cesarean section under spinal block.

  15. In vivo integrated photoacoustic and confocal microscopy of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V

    2011-04-01

    We developed dual-modality microscope integrating photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) to noninvasively image hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO₂) and oxygen partial pressure (pO₂) in vivo in single blood vessels with high spatial resolution. While PAM measures sO₂ by imaging hemoglobin optical absorption at two wavelengths, FCM quantifies pO₂ using phosphorescence quenching. The variations of sO₂ and pO₂ values in multiple orders of vessel branches under hyperoxic (100% oxygen) and normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions correlate well with the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, the total concentration of hemoglobin is imaged by PAM at an isosbestic wavelength.

  16. Factors associated with blood oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure regulation during respiratory extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support: data from a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Marcelo; Mendes, Pedro Vitale; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Barbosa, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos; Hirota, Adriana Sayuri; Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with blood oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure. The factors associated with oxygen - and carbon dioxide regulation were investigated in an apneic pig model under veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. A predefined sequence of blood and sweep flows was tested. Oxygenation was mainly associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood flow (beta coefficient = 0.036mmHg/mL/min), cardiac output (beta coefficient = -11.970mmHg/L/min) and pulmonary shunting (beta coefficient = -0.232mmHg/%). Furthermore, the initial oxygen partial pressure and carbon dioxide partial pressure measurements were also associated with oxygenation, with beta coefficients of 0.160 and 0.442mmHg/mmHg, respectively. Carbon dioxide partial pressure was associated with cardiac output (beta coefficient = 3.578mmHg/L/min), sweep gas flow (beta coefficient = -2.635mmHg/L/min), temperature (beta coefficient = 4.514mmHg/ºC), initial pH (beta coefficient = -66.065mmHg/0.01 unit) and hemoglobin (beta coefficient = 6.635mmHg/g/dL). In conclusion, elevations in blood and sweep gas flows in an apneic veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation model resulted in an increase in oxygen partial pressure and a reduction in carbon dioxide partial pressure 2, respectively. Furthermore, without the possibility of causal inference, oxygen partial pressure was negatively associated with pulmonary shunting and cardiac output, and carbon dioxide partial pressure was positively associated with cardiac output, core temperature and initial hemoglobin.

  17. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Julie-Ann; Rudenski, Aram; Gibson, John; Howard, Luke; O'Driscoll, Ronan

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content), saturation (S O2 ) and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur-ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the S O2 in blood from patients with normal pH and S O2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (S pO2 ) is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (S aO2 ) as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable S pO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  18. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Collins

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  19. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Transcutaneous Oxygen Partial Pressure During Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lan; Ye, Yong; Li, Chunfeng; Gao, Guangkai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is to increase the oxygen (O₂) supply to the body significantly. Because of the toxic side effects and complications of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂), the environmental pressure and treatment time must be restricted. The research team hypothesized that other therapies administered during HBOT could safely improve the value of the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO₂) during HBOT and improve its therapeutic effect. The study intended to investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA) while receiving HBOT had a greater effect for healthy individuals than HBOT or EA alone or EA combined with normobaric pure oxygen (pure O₂). The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study was performed in the Department of Hyperbaric Medicine at the No. 401 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Qingdao, China. A total of 81 volunteers were recruited. After thorough physical examination and laboratory testing, 21 volunteers were excluded from the study. Participants included 60 healthy volunteers. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups of 15 participants each: (1) an HBOT group, (2) an EA group, (3) an EA During HBOT group, and (4) an EA Combined With Pure O₂group. Because at the current technology level a blood gas analyzer cannot test PaO₂during HBOT, transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (PtcO₂) of the participants was tested instead. Before, during, and after EA, variations in PtcO₂were monitored in each group. For the EA During HBOT group, (1) the increase in PtcO₂during EA was significantly greater than that observed for the other 3 groups (P > .05). The EA During HBOT method provided improvements in the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of HBOT, and the study's results partially demonstrated the accuracy of the research team's hypothesis that EA therapy applied during HBOT could safely improve the value of PtcO₂(PaO₂) during HBOT and produce a greater therapeutic effect.

  20. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on defect concentrations and on oxygen diffusion in UO2+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizzi, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    The hyper-stoichiometric uranium dioxide (UO 2+x ) is stable over a wide range of temperature and compositions. Such variations of composition and the eventual presence of doping elements or impurities lead to a variation of anionic and electronic defect concentrations. Moreover, many properties of this material are affected by its composition modifications, in particular their atomic transport properties. Firstly we developed a point defect model to evaluate the dependence of the electronic and oxygen defect concentrations upon temperature, equilibrium oxygen partial pressure and impurity content. The physical constants of the model, in particular the equilibrium constants of the defect formation reactions were determined from deviation from stoichiometry and electrical conductivity measurements of literature. This work enabled us to interpret our measures of conductivity, oxygen chemical and self- diffusion coefficients. From a quantitative standpoint, the analysis of our experimental results allows to evaluate the oxygen interstitial diffusion coefficient but also its formation energy. Moreover, an estimate of oxygen di-interstitial formation energy is also provided. Presence of oxygen clusters leads oxygen self- and chemical diffusion to decrease. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy characterization shows the presence of the same defect in the entire deviation from stoichiometry studied, confirming the approach used to develop the model. (author) [fr

  1. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  2. In vivo near real time imaging of oxygen partial pressures in the glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    of the transparent glass catfish (Kryptopterus bichirris), it is possible to measure near realtime oxygen partial pressure in vivo. We used a commercially-available digital single-lens reflex camera mounted with an optical long pass filter (II = 490 nm) and excited the phosphorescent dye in the microspheres inside...... the fish with externally-mounted blue light emitting diodes (lip = 470 nm) to image the oxygen partial pressure. This method makes it possible to investigate oxygen partial pressures in the vascular system and different tissues of fish without having to insert any probes into the animal. After injection...

  3. Method and apparatus for monitoring oxygen partial pressure in air masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mark E. (Inventor); Pettit, Donald R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for monitoring an oxygen partial pressure in an air mask and providing a tactile warning to the user. The oxygen partial pressure in the air mask is detected using an electrochemical sensor, the output signal from which is provided to a comparator. The comparator compares the output signal with a preset reference value or range of values representing acceptable oxygen partial pressures. If the output signal is different than the reference value or outside the range of values, the air mask is vibrated by a vibrating motor to alert the user to a potentially hypoxic condition.

  4. Oxygen supply in aquatic ectotherms: partial pressure and solubility together explain biodiversity and size patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Wilco C E P; Bilton, David T; Calosi, Piero; Spicer, John I

    2011-08-01

    Aquatic ectotherms face the continuous challenge of capturing sufficient oxygen from their environment as the diffusion rate of oxygen in water is 3 x 10(5) times lower than in air. Despite the recognized importance of oxygen in shaping aquatic communities, consensus on what drives environmental oxygen availability is lacking. Physiologists emphasize oxygen partial pressure, while ecologists emphasize oxygen solubility, traditionally expressing oxygen in terms of concentrations. To resolve the question of whether partial pressure or solubility limits oxygen supply in nature, we return to first principles and derive an index of oxygen supply from Fick's classic first law of diffusion. This oxygen supply index (OSI) incorporates both partial pressure and solubility. Our OSI successfully explains published patterns in body size and species across environmental clines linked to differences in oxygen partial pressure (altitude, organic pollution) or oxygen solubility (temperature and salinity). Moreover, the OSI was more accurately and consistently related to these ecological patterns than other measures of oxygen (oxygen saturation, dissolved oxygen concentration, biochemical oxygen demand concentrations) and similarly outperformed temperature and altitude, which covaried with these environmental clines. Intriguingly, by incorporating gas diffusion rates, it becomes clear that actually more oxygen is available to an organism in warmer habitats where lower oxygen concentrations would suggest the reverse. Under our model, the observed reductions in aerobic performance in warmer habitats do not arise from lower oxygen concentrations, but instead through organismal oxygen demand exceeding supply. This reappraisal of how organismal thermal physiology and oxygen demands together shape aerobic performance in aquatic ectotherms and the new insight of how these components change with temperature have broad implications for predicting the responses of aquatic communities to

  5. Plateau Waves of Intracranial Pressure and Partial Pressure of Cerebral Oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates 55 intracranial pressure (ICP) plateau waves recorded in 20 patients after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) with a focus on a moving correlation coefficient between mean arterial pressure (ABP) and ICP, called PRx, which serves as a marker of cerebrovascular reactivity, and a moving correlation coefficient between ABP and cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (pbtO2), called ORx, which serves as a marker for cerebral oxygen reactivity. ICP and ICPamplitude increased significantly during the plateau waves, whereas CPP and pbtO2 decreased significantly. ABP, ABP amplitude, and heart rate remained unchanged. In 73 % of plateau waves PRx increased during the wave. ORx showed an increase during and a decrease after the plateau waves, which was not statistically significant. Our data show profound cerebral vasoparalysis on top of the wave and, to a lesser extent, impairment of cerebral oxygen reactivity. The different behavior of the indices may be due to the different latencies of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen level control mechanisms. While cerebrovascular reactivity is a rapidly reacting mechanism, cerebral oxygen reactivity is slower.

  6. Analyzing the dependence of oxygen incorporation current density on overpotential and oxygen partial pressure in mixed conducting oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zixuan; Chen, Di; Chueh, William C

    2017-08-30

    The oxygen incorporation reaction, which involves the transformation of an oxygen gas molecule to two lattice oxygen ions in a mixed ionic and electronic conducting solid, is a ubiquitous and fundamental reaction in solid-state electrochemistry. To understand the reaction pathway and to identify the rate-determining step, near-equilibrium measurements have been employed to quantify the exchange coefficients as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. However, because the exchange coefficient contains contributions from both forward and reverse reaction rate constants and depends on both oxygen partial pressure and oxygen fugacity in the solid, unique and definitive mechanistic assessment has been challenging. In this work, we derive a current density equation as a function of both oxygen partial pressure and overpotential, and consider both near and far from equilibrium limits. Rather than considering specific reaction pathways, we generalize the multi-step oxygen incorporation reaction into the rate-determining step, preceding and following quasi-equilibrium steps, and consider the number of oxygen ions and electrons involved in each. By evaluating the dependence of current density on oxygen partial pressure and overpotential separately, one obtains the reaction orders for oxygen gas molecules and for solid-state species in the electrode. We simulated the oxygen incorporation current density-overpotential curves for praseodymium-doped ceria for various candidate rate-determining steps. This work highlights a promising method for studying the exchange kinetics far away from equilibrium.

  7. [Effects of gap junction blocking on the oxygen partial pressure in acupoints of the bladder meridian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Yu, Wei-Chang; Jiang, Hong-Zhi; Chen, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Ming-Min; Kong, E-Sheng; Huang, Guang-Ying

    2010-12-01

    To explore the relation between gap junction and meridian phenomenon. The oxygen partial pressure in acupoints [see text for formula] and in their corresponding non-acupoints of the Bladder Meridian was observed with the needle-type tissue oxygen tension sensor in the gap junction blocking goats by 1-Heptanol injection and the Connexin 43 (Cx43) gene knockout mice. (1) The oxygen partial pressure in acupoints of Bladder Meridian on goats was higher than that in non-acupoints after 1-Heptanol injection with significant differences between them (both P oxygen partial pressure in acupoints of Bladder Meridian on goats increased significantly after injecting 1-Heptanol as compare with that either injecting normal saline or injecting nothing with significant differences between them (all P oxygen partial pressure in acupoints of the Bladder Meridian was significantly higher than that in the non-acupoint controls in Cx43 wild type (WT) mice (all P oxygen partial pressure between acupoints and non-acupoint controls showed no significant differences (all P > 0.05). (4) In acupoints, the oxygen partial pressure in Cx43 WT mice was significantly higher than that in Cx43 HT mice (all P 0.05). Gap junction maybe the essential factor in signal transduction of acupuncture.

  8. Four-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2006-01-01

    ...) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. We have conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) of approximately 1.4 atmospheres (atm...

  9. Three-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2007-01-01

    ...) or less but does not address the possible accumulation of effects over multiple days. When we conducted experimental four-hour dives with oxygen partial pressure (Po2) of approximately 1.4 atmospheres (atm...

  10. Viscoelastic properties of doped-ceria under reduced oxygen partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic properties of gadolinium-doped ceria (CGO) powder compacts are characterized during sintering and cooling under reduced oxygen partial pressure and compared with conventional sintering in air. Highly defective doped ceria in reducing conditions shows peculiar viscoelastic...

  11. Non-invasive multiwavelength photoplethysmography under low partial pressure of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yung Chieh; Tai, Cheng-Chi

    2016-08-01

    A reduction in partial pressure of oxygen in the environment may be caused by a gain in altitude, which reduces the atmospheric pressure; it may also be caused by the carbon dioxide generated from breathing in an enclosed space. Does inhaling oxygen of lower partial pressure affect the oxygen-carrying function of haemoglobin in vivo? This study uses non-invasive multiwavelength photoplethysmography to measure the effects that inhaling this type of oxygen can have on the plethysmography of the appendages of the body (fingertips). The results indicate that under low partial pressure of oxygen, be it the result of a gain in carbon dioxide concentration or altitude, the change in visible light absorption is the biggest for short wavelengths (approximately 620 or 640 nm) near deoxyhaemoglobin, which has higher absorption coefficient. Moreover, increasing carbon dioxide concentration from 5000 to 10,000 ppm doubly reduces the absorption rate of these short wavelengths.

  12. Effects of oxygen partial pressure on Li-air battery performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk Jae; Lee, Heung Chan; Ko, Jeongsik; Jung, In Sun; Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Hyunpyo; Kim, Mokwon; Lee, Dong Joon; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Tae Young; Im, Dongmin

    2017-10-01

    For application in electric vehicles (EVs), the Li-air battery system needs an air intake system to supply dry oxygen at controlled concentration and feeding rate as the cathode active material. To facilitate the design of such air intake systems, we have investigated the effects of oxygen partial pressure (≤1 atm) on the performance of the Li-air cell, which has not been systematically examined. The amounts of consumed O2 and evolved CO2 from the Li-air cell are measured with a custom in situ differential electrochemical gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DEGC-MS). The amounts of consumed O2 suggest that the oxygen partial pressure does not affect the reaction mechanism during discharge, and the two-electron reaction occurs under all test conditions. On the other hand, the charging behavior varies by the oxygen partial pressure. The highest O2 evolution ratio is attained under 70% O2, along with the lowest CO2 evolution. The cell cycle life also peaks at 70% O2 condition. Overall, an oxygen partial pressure of about 0.5-0.7 atm maximizes the Li-air cell capacity and stability at 1 atm condition. The findings here indicate that the appropriate oxygen partial pressure can be a key factor when developing practical Li-air battery systems.

  13. Changes in Cerebral Partial Oxygen Pressure and Cerebrovascular Reactivity During Intracranial Pressure Plateau Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Erhard W; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John; Czosnyka, Marek

    2015-08-01

    Plateau waves in intracranial pressure (ICP) are frequently recorded in neuro intensive care and are not yet fully understood. To further investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed partial pressure of cerebral oxygen (pbtO2) and a moving correlation coefficient between ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (ABP), called PRx, along with the cerebral oxygen reactivity index (ORx), which is a moving correlation coefficient between cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and pbtO2 in an observational study. We analyzed 55 plateau waves in 20 patients after severe traumatic brain injury. We calculated ABP, ABP pulse amplitude (ampABP), ICP, CPP, pbtO2, heart rate (HR), ICP pulse amplitude (ampICP), PRx, and ORx, before, during, and after each plateau wave. The analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc test was used to compare the differences in the variables before, during, and after the plateau wave. We considered all plateau waves, even in the same patient, independent because they are separated by long intervals. We found increases for ICP and ampICP according to our operational definitions for plateau waves. PRx increased significantly (p = 0.00026), CPP (p pressure remains stable in ICP plateau waves, while cerebral autoregulatory indices show distinct changes, which indicate cerebrovascular reactivity impairment at the top of the wave. PbtO2 decreases during the waves and may show a slight overshoot after normalization. We assume that this might be due to different latencies of the cerebral blood flow and oxygen level control mechanisms. Other factors may include baseline conditions, such as pre-plateau wave cerebrovascular reactivity or pbtO2 levels, which differ between studies.

  14. Classifying Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Severity: Correcting the Arterial Oxygen Partial Pressure to Fractional Inspired Oxygen at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Hernández-Cárdenas, Carmen Margarita; Lugo-Goytia, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    In the well-known Berlin definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), there is a recommended adjustment for arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FIO2) at altitude, but without a reference as to how it was derived.

  15. Association between administered oxygen, arterial partial oxygen pressure and mortality in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Evert; Peelen, Linda; Keijzers, Peter J.; Joore, Hans; de Lange, Dylan; van der Voort, Peter Hj; Bosman, Robert J.; de Waal, Ruud Al; Wesselink, Ronald; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate whether in-hospital mortality was associated with the administered fraction of oxygen in inspired air (FiO(2)) and achieved arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2). Methods This was a retrospective, observational study on data from the first

  16. Association between administered oxygen, arterial partial oxygen pressure and mortality in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Evert; Peelen, Linda; Keijzers, Peter J.; Joore, Hans; de Lange, Dylan; van der Voort, Peter H. J.; Bosman, Robert J.; de Waal, Ruud A. L.; Wesselink, Ronald; de Keizer, Nicolette F.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate whether in-hospital mortality was associated with the administered fraction of oxygen in inspired air (FiO(2)) and achieved arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)). Methods This was a retrospective, observational study on data from the first

  17. Effect of substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure on RF sputtered NiO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheemadan, Saheer; Santhosh Kumar, M. C.

    2018-04-01

    Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films were deposited by RF sputtering process and the physical properties were investigated for varying substrate temperatures and oxygen partial pressure. The variation of the crystallographic orientation and microstructure of the NiO thin films with an increase in substrate temperature were studied. It was observed that NiO thin films deposited at 350 °C shows relatively good crystalline characteristics with a preferential orientation along (111) plane. With the optimum substrate temperature of 350 °C, the NiO thin films were deposited under various oxygen partial pressures at the same experimental conditions. The structural, optical and electrical properties of NiO thin films under varying oxygen partial pressure of 10%–50% were investigated. From XRD it is clear that the films prepared in the pure argon atmosphere were amorphous while the films in oxygen partial pressure exhibited polycrystalline NiO phase. SEM and AFM investigations unveil that the higher substrate temperature improves the microstructure of the thin films. It is revealed that the NiO thin films deposited at oxygen partial pressure of 40% and a substrate temperature of 350 °C, showed higher electrical conductivity with p-type characteristics.

  18. Ketogenic diet for high partial pressure oxygen diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadao, Jason M; Vigilante, John A; DiGeorge, Nicholas W; O'Connor, Sunila E; Bear, Alexandria; Kenyon, Jeffrey; Annis, Heather; Dituri, Joseph; Dituri, Amy E; Whelan, Harry T

    2014-01-01

    A ketogenic diet (KD) may decrease central nervous system oxygen toxicity symptoms in divers, and in view of this implication a feasibility/ toxicity pilot study was performed to demonstrate tolerance of KD while performing normal diving profiles. The exact mechanism of neuroprotection from the KD remains unknown; however, evidence to support the efficacy of the KD in reducing seizures is present in epilepsy and oxygen toxicity studies, and may provide valuable insight in diving activities. Three divers (two males and one female ages 32-45 with a history of deep diving and high pO2 exposure) on the KD made dives to varying depths in Hawaii using fully closed-circuit MK-15 and Inspiration rebreathers. These rebreathers have an electronically controlled set point, allowing the divers to monitor and control the oxygen level in the breathing loop, which can be varied manually by the divers. Oxygen level was varied during descent, bottom depth and ascent (decompression). Divers fasted for 12-18 hours before diet initiation. The ketosis level was verified by urinating on a Ketostix (reagent strips for urinalysis). Ketosis was achieved and was easily monitored with Ketostix in the simulated operational environment. The KD did not interfere with the diving mission; no seizure activity or signs or symptoms of CNS toxicity were observed, and there were no adverse effects noted by the divers while on the KD.

  19. Non-site-specific allosteric effect of oxygen on human hemoglobin under high oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Masayoshi; Kurisaki, Ikuo; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2014-04-08

    Protein allostery is essential for vital activities. Allosteric regulation of human hemoglobin (HbA) with two quaternary states T and R has been a paradigm of allosteric structural regulation of proteins. It is widely accepted that oxygen molecules (O2) act as a "site-specific" homotropic effector, or the successive O2 binding to the heme brings about the quaternary regulation. However, here we show that the site-specific allosteric effect is not necessarily only a unique mechanism of O2 allostery. Our simulation results revealed that the solution environment of high O2 partial pressure enhances the quaternary change from T to R without binding to the heme, suggesting an additional "non-site-specific" allosteric effect of O2. The latter effect should play a complementary role in the quaternary change by affecting the intersubunit contacts. This analysis must become a milestone in comprehensive understanding of the allosteric regulation of HbA from the molecular point of view.

  20. Microvascular oxygen partial pressure during hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Kohei; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Poole, David C; Kano, Yutaka

    2015-12-15

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is a major therapeutic treatment for ischemic ulcerations that perforate skin and underlying muscle in diabetic patients. These lesions do not heal effectively, in part, because of the hypoxic microvascular O2 partial pressures (PmvO2 ) resulting from diabetes-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, which alters the dynamic balance between O2 delivery (Q̇o2) and utilization (V̇o2) rates. We tested the hypothesis that HBO in diabetic muscle would exacerbate the hyperoxic PmvO2 dynamics due, in part, to a reduction or slowing of the cardiovascular, sympathetic nervous, and respiratory system responses to acute HBO exposure. Adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly into diabetic (DIA: streptozotocin ip) and healthy (control) groups. A small animal hyperbaric chamber was pressurized with oxygen (100% O2) to 3.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA) at 0.2 ATA/min. Phosphorescence quenching techniques were used to measure PmvO2 in tibialis anterior muscle of anesthetized rats during HBO. Lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rate (RR) were measured electrophysiologically. During the normobaric hyperoxia and HBO, DIA tibialis anterior PmvO2 increased faster (mean response time, CONT 78 ± 8, DIA 55 ± 8 s, P < 0.05) than CONT. Subsequently, PmvO2 remained elevated at similar levels in CONT and DIA muscles until normobaric normoxic recovery where the DIA PmvO2 retained its hyperoxic level longer than CONT. Sympathetic nervous system and cardiac and respiratory responses to HBO were slower in DIA vs. CONT. Specifically the mean response times for RR (CONT: 6 ± 1 s, DIA: 29 ± 4 s, P < 0.05), HR (CONT: 16 ± 1 s, DIA: 45 ± 5 s, P < 0.05), and LSNA (CONT: 140 ± 16 s, DIA: 247 ± 34 s, P < 0.05) were greater following HBO onset in DIA than CONT. HBO treatment increases tibialis anterior muscle PmvO2 more rapidly and for a longer duration in DIA than CONT, but not to a greater level. Whereas respiratory, cardiovascular

  1. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  2. Real-Time Monitoring of Singlet Oxygen and Oxygen Partial Pressure During the Deep Photodynamic Therapy In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weitao; Huang, Dong; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yangyang; Gu, Yueqing; Qian, Zhiyu

    2016-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective noninvasive method for the tumor treatment. The major challenge in current PDT research is how to quantitatively evaluate therapy effects. To our best knowledge, this is the first time to combine multi-parameter detection methods in PDT. More specifically, we have developed a set of system, including the high-sensitivity measurement of singlet oxygen, oxygen partial pressure and fluorescence image. In this paper, the detection ability of the system was validated by the different concentrations of carbon quantum dots. Moreover, the correlation between singlet oxygen and oxygen partial pressure with laser irradiation was observed. Then, the system could detect the signal up to 0.5 cm tissue depth with 660 nm irradiation and 1 cm tissue depth with 980 nm irradiation by using up-conversion nanoparticles during PDT in vitro. Furthermore, we obtained the relationship among concentration of singlet oxygen, oxygen partial pressure and tumor cell viability under certain conditions. The results indicate that the multi-parameter detection system is a promising asset to evaluate the deep tumor therapy during PDT. Moreover, the system might be potentially used for the further study in biology and molecular imaging.

  3. Oxygen partial pressure effects on the magnetron sputtered WO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muğlu, G Merhan; Gür, E

    2016-01-01

    Electrochromism is changing color of a substance in response to the applied an external electric field and the phenomenon is reversible. WO 3 is very attractive material due to its electrochromic properties as well as it is also attractive for many different applications such as gas sensors, phosphorous screen, textile, glass industry. In this study, it is aimed to provide optimization of the optical and structural characteristics of WO 3 by changing the growth parameters mainly the oxygen partial pressure. The partial pressure of oxygen was changed with increments of 0.7 mTorr. For the analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), absorption, Raman spectroscopy measurements were used. When O 2 gas increased, peaks belong to the WO 3 was observed in XRD patterns at the 2 theta angles of 23.0, 11.0, 23.5 and 28.5 angles corresponding to the (002), (020) and (220) planes, respectively. This shows that there is a significant effect of increasing O 2 partial pressure in the formation of WO 3 films. The bandgap energy of the WO 3 thin films are found to be around 3.0 eV. Raman measurements showed vibrational modes of W-O-W stretching and bending modes which shows small shifts depending on the partial pressures of the O 2 . Obtained results indicated that better crystal structure is obtained with higher O 2 gas partial pressure. (paper)

  4. [Effect of oxygen tubing connection site on percutaneous oxygen partial pressure and percutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, S; Zhang, L M

    2017-04-12

    Objective: We evaluated the effects of administering oxygen through nasal catheters inside the mask or through the mask on percutaneous oxygen partial pressure (PcO(2))and percutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PcCO(2)) during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) to find a better way of administering oxygen, which could increase PcO(2) by increasing the inspired oxygen concentration. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers and 9 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated by type Ⅱ respiratory failure were included in this study. Oxygen was administered through a nasal catheter inside the mask or through the mask (oxygen flow was 3 and 5 L/min) during NPPV. PcO(2) and PcCO(2) were measured to evaluate the effects of administering oxygen through a nasal catheter inside the mask or through the mask, indirectly reflecting the effects of administering oxygen through nasal catheter inside the mask or through the mask on inspired oxygen concentration. Results: Compared to administering oxygen through the mask during NPPV, elevated PcO(2) was measured in administering oxygen through the nasal catheter inside the mask, and the differences were statistically significant ( P 0.05). Conclusion: Administering oxygen through a nasal catheter inside the mask during NPPV increased PcO(2) by increasing the inspired oxygen concentration but did not increase PcCO(2). This method of administering oxygen could conserve oxygen and be suitable for family NPPV. Our results also provided theoretical basis for the development of new masks.

  5. Oxygen partial pressure dependence of electrical conductivity in γ'-Bi2MoO6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, C.M.C.; Aragon, R.

    2008-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of γ'-Bi 2 MoO 6 was surveyed between 450 and 750 deg. C as a function of oxygen partial pressure, in the range 0.01-1 atm. A -1/6 power law dependence, consistent with a Frenkel defect model of doubly ionized oxygen vacancies and interstitials, is evidence for an n-type semiconductive component, with an optical band gap of 2.9 eV. The absence of this dependence is used to map the onset of dominant ionic conduction. - Graphical abstract: Temporal dependence of electrical conductivity at 500 deg. C for γ'-Bi 2 MoO 6 at controlled partial pressures of oxygen

  6. Oxidation of C/SiC Composites at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Serra, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-fiber reinforced SiC (C/SiC) composites are proposed for leading edge applications of hypersonic vehicles due to the superior strength of carbon fibers at high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). However, the vulnerability of the carbon fibers in C/SiC to oxidation over a wide range of temperatures remains a problem. Previous oxidation studies of C/SiC have mainly been conducted in air or oxygen, so that the oxidation behavior of C/SiC at reduced oxygen partial pressures of the hypersonic flight regime are less well understood. In this study, both carbon fibers and C/SiC composites were oxidized over a wide range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures to facilitate the understanding and modeling of C/SiC oxidation kinetics for hypersonic flight conditions.

  7. The Relationship Between Oxygen Reserve Index and Arterial Partial Pressure of Oxygen During Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Richard L; Dorotta, Ihab L; Wells, Briana; Juma, David; Applegate, Patricia M

    2016-09-01

    The use of intraoperative pulse oximetry (SpO2) enhances hypoxia detection and is associated with fewer perioperative hypoxic events. However, SpO2 may be reported as 98% when arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) is as low as 70 mm Hg. Therefore, SpO2 may not provide advance warning of falling arterial oxygenation until PaO2 approaches this level. Multiwave pulse co-oximetry can provide a calculated oxygen reserve index (ORI) that may add to information from pulse oximetry when SpO2 is >98%. This study evaluates the ORI to PaO2 relationship during surgery. We studied patients undergoing scheduled surgery in which arterial catheterization and intraoperative arterial blood gas analysis were planned. Data from multiple pulse co-oximetry sensors on each patient were continuously collected and stored on a research computer. Regression analysis was used to compare ORI with PaO2 obtained from each arterial blood gas measurement and changes in ORI with changes in PaO2 from sequential measurements. Linear mixed-effects regression models for repeated measures were then used to account for within-subject correlation across the repeatedly measured PaO2 and ORI and for the unequal time intervals of PaO2 determination over elapsed surgical time. Regression plots were inspected for ORI values corresponding to PaO2 of 100 and 150 mm Hg. ORI and PaO2 were compared using mixed-effects models with a subject-specific random intercept. ORI values and PaO2 measurements were obtained from intraoperative data collected from 106 patients. Regression analysis showed that the ORI to PaO2 relationship was stronger for PaO2 to 240 mm Hg (r = 0.536) than for PaO2 over 240 mm Hg (r = 0.0016). Measured PaO2 was ≥100 mm Hg for all ORI over 0.24. Measured PaO2 was ≥150 mm Hg in 96.6% of samples when ORI was over 0.55. A random intercept variance component linear mixed-effects model for repeated measures indicated that PaO2 was significantly related to ORI (β[95% confidence interval] = 0

  8. Growth of the microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans at high partial oxygen pressures and sub-saturating light intensity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, C.A.; Winter, de L.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Vermue, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of partial oxygen pressure on growth of Neochloris oleoabundans was studied at sub-saturating light intensity in a fully-controlled stirred tank photobioreactor. At the three partial oxygen pressures tested (PO2=0.24; 0.63; 0.84 bar), the specific growth rate was 1.38; 1.36 and 1.06

  9. The change of steel surface chemistry regarding oxygen partial pressure and dew point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norden, Martin; Blumenau, Marc; Wuttke, Thiemo; Peters, Klaus-Josef

    2013-04-01

    By investigating the surface state of a Ti-IF, TiNb-IF and a MnCr-DP after several series of intercritical annealing, the impact of the annealing gas composition on the selective oxidation process is discussed. On behalf of the presented results, it can be concluded that not the general oxygen partial pressure in the annealing furnace, which is a result of the equilibrium reaction of water and hydrogen, is the main driving force for the selective oxidation process. It is shown that the amounts of adsorbed gases at the strip surface and the effective oxygen partial pressure resulting from the adsorbed gases, which is mainly dependent on the water content of the annealing furnace, is driving the selective oxidation processes occurring during intercritical annealing. Thus it is concluded, that for industrial applications the dew point must be the key parameter value for process control.

  10. Design and control of the oxygen partial pressure of UO2 in TGA using the humidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Knight, T.W.; Roberts, E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We focus on measurement of oxygen partial pressure and change of O/M ratio under specific conditions produced by the humidification system. • This shows that the humidification system is stable, accurate, and reliable enough to be used for experiments of the oxygen partial pressure measurement for the oxide fuels. • The humidification system has benefits of easy control and flexibility for producing various oxygen partial pressures with fixed hydrogen gas flow rate. - Abstract: The oxygen to uranium (O/U) ratio of UO 2±x is determined by the oxygen content of the sample and is affected by oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) of the surrounding gas. Oxygen partial pressure is controllable by several methods. A common method to produce different oxygen partial pressures is the use of equilibria of different reaction gases. There are two common methods: H 2 O/H 2 reaction and CO 2 /CO reaction. In this work, H 2 O/H 2 reaction using a humidifier was employed and investigated to ensure that this humidification system for oxygen partial pressure is stable and accurate for use in Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) experiments with UO 2 . This approach has the further advantage of flexibility to make a wide range of oxygen partial pressure with fixed hydrogen gas flow rate only by varying temperature of water in the humidifier. The whole system for experiments was constructed and includes the humidification system, TGA, oxygen analyzer, and gas flow controller. Uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) samples were used for experiments and oxygen partial pressure was measured at the equilibrium state of stoichiometric UO 2.0 . Oxygen partial pressures produced by humidification (wet gas) system were compared to the approach using mixed dry gases (without humidification system) to demonstrate that the humidification system provides for more stable and accurate oxygen partial pressure control. This work provides the design, method, and analysis of a humidification system for

  11. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on oxidation of Mo-metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Megha; Gopal, Pawar; Reddy, G. B.

    2018-05-01

    This report explains the effect of oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) on oxidation of Mo-metal in oxygen plasma. XRD results indulge that oxide layers formed on Mo-surfaces at different oxygen partial pressures have two different oxide phases (i.e. orthorhombic MoO3 and monoclinic Mo8O23). Intense XRD peaks at high pressure (i.e. 2.0×10-1 Torr) points out the formation of thick oxide layer on Mo-surface due to presence of large oxygen species in chamber and less oxide volatilization. Whereas, at low PO2 (6.5×10-2 and 7.5×10-2 Torr.) the reduced peak strength is owing to high oxide volatilization rate. SEM micrographs and thickness measurements also support XRD results and confirm that the optimum -2value of PO2 to deposited thicker and uniform oxide film on glass substrate is 7.5×10-2 Torr through plasma assistedoxidation process. Further to study the compositional properties, EDX of the sample M2 (the best sample) is carried out, which confirms that the stoichiometric ratio is less than 3 (i.e. 2.88). Less stoichiometric ratio again confirms the presence of sub oxides in oxide layers on Mo metal as evidenced by XRD results. All the observed results are well in consonance with each other.

  12. Hypothesis: the regulation of the partial pressure of oxygen by the serotonergic nervous system in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Diana; Ikomi-Kumm, Julie

    2013-03-01

    The regulation of the partial pressure of oxygen by the serotonergic nervous system in hypoxia is a hypothesis, which proposes an inherent operative system in homo sapiens that allows central nervous system and endocrine-mediated vascular system adaption to variables in partial pressure of oxygen, pH and body composition, while maintaining sufficient oxygen saturation for the immune system and ensuring protection of major organs in hypoxic and suboptimal conditions. While acknowledging the importance of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation in the regulation of acid base balance, the hypothesis seeks to define the specific neuroendocrine/vascular mechanisms at work in regulating acid base balance in hypoxia and infection. The SIA (serotonin-immune-adrenergic) system is proposed as a working model, which allows central nervous system and endocrine-mediated macro- and micro vascular 'fine tuning'. The neurotransmitter serotonin serves as a 'hypoxic sensor' in concert with other operators to orchestrate homeostatic balance in normal and pathological states. The SIA system finely regulates oxygen, fuel and metabolic buffering systems at local sites to ensure optimum conditions for the immune response. The SIA system is fragile and its operation may be affected by infection, stress, diet, environmental toxins and lack of exercise. The hypothesis provides new insight in the area of neuro-gastroenterology, and emphasizes the importance of diet and nutrition as a complement in the treatment of infection, as well as the normalization of intestinal flora following antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. SrRuO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates at different oxygen partial pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Bin

    2013-01-08

    A comprehensive study of SrRuO3 thin films growth on (001) MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition in a wide oxygen pressure range from 10 to 300 mTorr was carried out. The experimental results showed a correlation between the lattice constants, resistivity, and oxygen partial pressures used. Ru deficiency detected only in films deposited at lower oxygen pressures (<50 mTorr), resulted in an elongation of the in-plane and out-of-plane lattice constants and an increase in the film resistivity. When deposited with oxygen partial pressure of 50 mTorr, SrRuO3 films had lattice parameters matching those of bulk SrRuO3 material and exhibited room temperature resistivity of 320 μΩ·cm. The resistivity of SrRuO 3/MgO films decreased with increasing oxygen partial pressure. Copyright © 2013 Materials Research Society.

  14. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Aude; Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra El; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique ‘tissue normoxia’ or ‘physioxia’ status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO2, i.e. ‘hypoxia’. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO2 values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O2 whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O2, an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. PMID:21251211

  15. Why is the partial oxygen pressure of human tissues a crucial parameter? Small molecules and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreau, Aude; El Hafny-Rahbi, Bouchra; Matejuk, Agata; Grillon, Catherine; Kieda, Claudine

    2011-06-01

    Oxygen supply and diffusion into tissues are necessary for survival. The oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), which is a key component of the physiological state of an organ, results from the balance between oxygen delivery and its consumption. In mammals, oxygen is transported by red blood cells circulating in a well-organized vasculature. Oxygen delivery is dependent on the metabolic requirements and functional status of each organ. Consequently, in a physiological condition, organ and tissue are characterized by their own unique 'tissue normoxia' or 'physioxia' status. Tissue oxygenation is severely disturbed during pathological conditions such as cancer, diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, etc., which are associated with decrease in pO(2), i.e. 'hypoxia'. In this review, we present an array of methods currently used for assessing tissue oxygenation. We show that hypoxia is marked during tumour development and has strong consequences for oxygenation and its influence upon chemotherapy efficiency. Then we compare this to physiological pO(2) values of human organs. Finally we evaluate consequences of physioxia on cell activity and its molecular modulations. More importantly we emphasize the discrepancy between in vivo and in vitro tissue and cells oxygen status which can have detrimental effects on experimental outcome. It appears that the values corresponding to the physioxia are ranging between 11% and 1% O(2) whereas current in vitro experimentations are usually performed in 19.95% O(2), an artificial context as far as oxygen balance is concerned. It is important to realize that most of the experiments performed in so-called normoxia might be dangerously misleading. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Oxidation of SiC/BN/SiC Composites in Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Boyd, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composites with a BN interphase are proposed for use as leading edge structures of hypersonic vehicles. The durability of these materials under hypersonic flight conditions is therefore of interest. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterize the oxidation kinetics of both the constituent fibers and composite coupons at four temperatures: 816, 1149, 1343, and 1538 C (1500, 2100, 2450, and 2800 F) and in oxygen partial pressures between 5% and 0.1% (balance argon) at 1 atm total pressure. One edge of the coupons was ground off so the effects of oxygen ingress into the composite could be monitored by post-test SEM and EDS. Additional characterization of the oxidation products was conducted by XPS and TOF-SIMS. Under most conditions, the BN oxidized rapidly, leading to the formation of borosilicate glass. Rapid initial oxidation followed by volatilization of boria lead to protective oxide formation and further oxidation was slow. At 1538C in 5% oxygen, both the fibers and coupons exhibited borosilicate glass formation and bubbling. At 1538C in 0.1% oxygen, active oxidation of both the fibers and the composites was observed leading to rapid SiC degradation. BN oxidation at 1538C in 0.1% oxygen was not significant.

  17. Oxygen partial pressure: a key to alloying and discovery in metal oxide--metal eutectic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.D.; Clark, G.W.; Oliver, B.F.

    1978-01-01

    Control of oxygen partial pressure is essential in the directional solidification of oxide--metal eutectic composites by techniques involving gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. The existence of end components in the eutectic composite is Po 2 sensitive as are melt stoichiometry, solid phase compositions, and vapor losses due to oxidation-volatilization. Simple criteria are postulated which can aid the experimentalist in selecting the proper gas mixture for oxide--metal eutectic composite growth. The Cr 2 O 3 --Mo--Cr systems was used to verify certain aspects of the proposed criteria

  18. TUNABLE MAGNETIC AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF Co-DOPED ZnO FILMS BY VARYING OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. G. WANG; H. W. ZHANG; X. L. TANG; Y. X. LI; Z. Y. ZHONG

    2011-01-01

    High quality Co-doped ZnO films with good reproducibility have been prepared under different oxygen partial pressure by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. These films were characterized using numerous characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, electrical transport, and magnetization measurements. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, magnetic, and electrical properties of Co-doped ZnO films has been systematically studied. It was found that the structural, ...

  19. Oxygen partial pressure effects on the RF sputtered p-type NiO hydrogen gas sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Erdal; Çoban, Ömer; Sarıtaş, Sevda; Tüzemen, Sebahattin; Yıldırım, Muhammet; Gür, Emre

    2018-03-01

    NiO thin films were grown by Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering method under different oxygen partial pressures, which are 0.6 mTorr, 1.3 mTorr and 2.0 mTorr. The effects of oxygen partial pressures on the thin films were analyzed through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Hall measurements. The change in the surface morphology of the thin films has been observed with the SEM and AFM measurements. While nano-pyramids have been obtained on the thin film grown at the lowest oxygen partial pressure, the spherical granules lower than 60 nm in size has been observed for the samples grown at higher oxygen partial pressures. The shift in the dominant XRD peak is realized to the lower two theta angle with increasing the oxygen partial pressures. XPS measurements showed that the Ni2p peak involves satellite peaks and two oxidation states of Ni, Ni2+ and Ni3+, have been existed together with the corresponding splitting in O1s spectrum. P-type conductivity of the grown NiO thin films are confirmed by the Hall measurements with concentrations on the order of 1013 holes/cm-3. Gas sensor measurements revealed minimum of 10% response to the 10 ppm H2 level. Enhanced responsivity of the gas sensor devices of NiO thin films is shown as the oxygen partial pressure increases.

  20. Dependence of mitochondrial and cytosolic adenine nucleotides on oxygen partial pressure in isolated hepatocytes. Application of a new rapid high pressure filtration technique for fractionation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hummerich, H; de Groot, H; Noll, T; Soboll, S

    1988-01-01

    By using a new rapid high pressure filtration technique, mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP and ADP contents were determined in isolated hepatocytes at different oxygen partial pressures. At 670 mmHg, subcellular adenine nucleotide contents and ATP/ADP ratios were comparable with values obtained with the digitonin fractionation technique. However at lower oxygen partial pressure ADP appears to be rephosphorylated during digitonin fractionation whereas with high pressure filtration fractionation ...

  1. Influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the phase evolution during Bi-2212 wire melt processing

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C.; Rikel, M.O.; Kadar, J.; Doerrer, C.; Di Michiel, M.; Ballarino, A.; Bottura, L.; Jiang, J.; Kametani, F.; Hellstrom, E.E.; Larbalestier, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the influence of the oxygen partial pressure pO2 up to 5.5 bar on the phase changes that occur during melt processing of a state-of-the-art Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire. Phase changes have been monitored in situ by high energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). We found that the stability of Bi-2212 phase is reduced with increasing pO2. For pO2>1 bar a significant amount of Bi-2212 phase decomposes upon heating in the range 400 to 650 °C. The extent of decomposition strongly increases with increasing pO2, and at pO2=5.5 bar Bi-2212 decomposes completely in the solid state. Textured Bi-2212 can be formed during solidification when pO2 is reduced to 0.45 bar when the precursor is molten. Since the formation of current limiting second phases is very sensitive to pO2 when it exceeds 1 bar, we recommend to reduce the oxygen partial pressure below the commonly used pO2=1 bar, in order to increase the pO2 margins and to make the overpressure process more robust.

  2. Solar fuel processing efficiency for ceria redox cycling using alternative oxygen partial pressure reduction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Meng; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Solar-driven non-stoichiometric thermochemical redox cycling of ceria for the conversion of solar energy into fuels shows promise in achieving high solar-to-fuel efficiency. This efficiency is significantly affected by the operating conditions, e.g. redox temperatures, reduction and oxidation pressures, solar irradiation concentration, or heat recovery effectiveness. We present a thermodynamic analysis of five redox cycle designs to investigate the effects of working conditions on the fuel production. We focused on the influence of approaches to reduce the partial pressure of oxygen in the reduction step, namely by mechanical approaches (sweep gassing or vacuum pumping), chemical approaches (chemical scavenger), and combinations thereof. The results indicated that the sweep gas schemes work more efficient at non-isothermal than isothermal conditions, and efficient gas phase heat recovery and sweep gas recycling was important to ensure efficient fuel processing. The vacuum pump scheme achieved best efficiencies at isothermal conditions, and at non-isothermal conditions heat recovery was less essential. The use of oxygen scavengers combined with sweep gas and vacuum pump schemes further increased the system efficiency. The present work can be used to predict the performance of solar-driven non-stoichiometric redox cycles and further offers quantifiable guidelines for system design and operation. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis was conducted for ceria-based thermochemical cycles. • Five novel cycle designs and various operating conditions were proposed and investigated. • Pressure reduction method affects optimal operating conditions for maximized efficiency. • Chemical oxygen scavenger proves to be promising in further increasing efficiency. • Formulation of quantifiable design guidelines for economical competitive solar fuel processing

  3. Effects of varying oxygen partial pressure on molten silicon-ceramic substrate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, D. P.; Barsoum, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    The silicon sessile drop contact angle was measured on hot pressed silicon nitride, silicon nitride coated on hot pressed silicon nitride, silicon carbon coated on graphite, and on Sialon to determine the degree to which silicon wets these substances. The post-sessile drop experiment samples were sectioned and photomicrographs were taken of the silicon-substrate interface to observe the degree of surface dissolution and degradation. Of these materials, silicon did not form a true sessile drop on the SiC on graphite due to infiltration of the silicon through the SiC coating, nor on the Sialon due to the formation of a more-or-less rigid coating on the liquid silicon. The most wetting was obtained on the coated Si3N4 with a value of 42 deg. The oxygen concentrations in a silicon ribbon furnace and in a sessile drop furnace were measured using the protable thoria-yttria solid solution electrolyte oxygen sensor. Oxygen partial pressures of 10 to the minus 7 power atm and 10 to the minus 8 power atm were obtained at the two facilities. These measurements are believed to represent nonequilibrium conditions.

  4. Critical hematocrit and oxygen partial pressure in the beating heart of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Mrowietz, C; Ploetze, K; Matschke, K; Jung, F

    2010-12-01

    In cardiac surgery the substitution of lost blood volume by plasma substitutes is a common therapeutical approach. None of the currently available blood substitutes has a sufficient oxygen transport capacity. This can limit the functional integrity of the myocardium known as highly oxygen consumptive. The study was aimed to get information about the minimal hematocrit, also known as critical hematocrit (cHct), which guarantees a stable and adequate oxygen partial pressure in the myocardium (pO2). In adult female pigs (n=7) the hematocrit was reduced by isovolemic blood dilution with an intravenous infusion of isotonic 4% gelatine polysuccinate solution, The substituted blood volume ranged between 3000ml and 7780ml (mean: 5254±1672ml). In all animals the pO2 of the myocardium of the beating heart and of the resting skeletal muscle increased until blood dilution resulted in a Hct decrease down to 15%. Further blood dilution resulted in a decrease of the pO2. Only after the Hct was <10% the pO2 was lower than before blood dilution and accompanied by a lethal ischemia of the myocardium. These data indicate a cHct of about 10% in the pig animal model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of oxygen partial pressure in microstructural development and properties of YBCO superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.P.; Guttschow, R.; Dusek, J.T.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented for the effect of oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) on the sintered density and microstructure of YBCO superconductors. Extruded YBCO wires were sintered at 910C at different values of pO 2 . Generally, the density increased with decreasing pO 2 , and a density of 91% was achieved at pO 2 = 0.01 atm. Wires sintered at pO 2 = 0.01 atm had a fine microstructure with an average grain size of ∼3 μm and an average strength of 191 MPa. The high strength is due to the small grain size, which causes a decrease in residual tensile stress because of grain anisotropy

  6. Increasing arterial oxygen partial pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with improved rates of hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindelboeck, Walter; Schindler, Otmar; Moser, Adrian; Hausler, Florian; Wallner, Simon; Strasser, Christa; Haas, Josef; Gemes, Geza; Prause, Gerhard

    2013-06-01

    As recent clinical data suggest a harmful effect of arterial hyperoxia on patients after resuscitation from cardiac arrest (CA), we aimed to investigate this association during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the earliest and one of the most crucial phases of recirculation. We analysed 1015 patients who from 2003 to 2010 underwent out-of-hospital CPR administered by emergency medical services serving 300,000 inhabitants. Inclusion criteria for further analysis were nontraumatic background of CA and patients >18 years of age. One hundred and forty-five arterial blood gas analyses including oxygen partial pressure (paO2) measurement were obtained during CPR. We observed a highly significant increase in hospital admission rates associated with increases in paO2 in steps of 100 mmHg (13.3 kPa). Subsequently, data were clustered according to previously described cutoffs (≤ 60 mmHg [8 kPa

  7. Changes in oxygen partial pressure of brain tissue in an animal model of obstructive apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Marta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive impairment is one of the main consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and is usually attributed in part to the oxidative stress caused by intermittent hypoxia in cerebral tissues. The presence of oxygen-reactive species in the brain tissue should be produced by the deoxygenation-reoxygenation cycles which occur at tissue level during recurrent apneic events. However, how changes in arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 during repetitive apneas translate into oxygen partial pressure (PtO2 in brain tissue has not been studied. The objective of this study was to assess whether brain tissue is partially protected from intermittently occurring interruption of O2 supply during recurrent swings in arterial SpO2 in an animal model of OSA. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g were used. Sixteen rats were anesthetized and non-invasively subjected to recurrent obstructive apneas: 60 apneas/h, 15 s each, for 1 h. A control group of 8 rats was instrumented but not subjected to obstructive apneas. PtO2 in the cerebral cortex was measured using a fast-response oxygen microelectrode. SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. The time dependence of arterial SpO2 and brain tissue PtO2 was carried out by Friedman repeated measures ANOVA. Results Arterial SpO2 showed a stable periodic pattern (no significant changes in maximum [95.5 ± 0.5%; m ± SE] and minimum values [83.9 ± 1.3%]. By contrast, brain tissue PtO2 exhibited a different pattern from that of arterial SpO2. The minimum cerebral cortex PtO2 computed during the first apnea (29.6 ± 2.4 mmHg was significantly lower than baseline PtO2 (39.7 ± 2.9 mmHg; p = 0.011. In contrast to SpO2, the minimum and maximum values of PtO2 gradually increased (p 2 were significantly greater relative to baseline and the first apnea dip, respectively. Conclusions These data suggest that the cerebral cortex is partially protected from intermittently occurring interruption of

  8. Preretinal partial pressure of oxygen gradients before and after experimental pars plana vitrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate preretinal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) gradients before and after experimental pars plana vitrectomy. Arteriolar, venous, and intervascular preretinal PO2 gradients were recorded in 7 minipigs during slow withdrawal of oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes (10-μm tip diameter) from the vitreoretinal interface to 2 mm into the vitreous cavity. Recordings were repeated after pars plana vitrectomy and balanced salt solution (BSS) intraocular perfusion. Arteriolar, venous, and intervascular preretinal PO2 at the vitreoretinal interface were 62.3 ± 13.8, 22.5 ± 3.3, and 17.0 ± 7.5 mmHg, respectively, before vitrectomy; 97.7 ± 19.9, 40.0 ± 21.9, and 56.3 ± 28.4 mmHg, respectively, immediately after vitrectomy; and 59.0 ± 27.4, 25.2 ± 3.0, and 21.5 ± 4.5 mmHg, respectively, 2½ hours after interruption of BSS perfusion. PO2 2 mm from the vitreoretinal interface was 28.4 ± 3.6 mmHg before vitrectomy; 151.8 ± 4.5 mmHg immediately after vitrectomy; and 34.8 ± 4.1 mmHg 2½ hours after interruption of BSS perfusion. PO2 gradients were still present after vitrectomy, with the same patterns as before vitrectomy. Preretinal PO2 gradients are not eliminated after pars plana vitrectomy. During BSS perfusion, vitreous cavity PO2 is very high. Interruption of BSS perfusion evokes progressive equilibration of vitreous cavity PO2 with concomitant progressive return of preretinal PO2 gradients to their previtrectomy patterns. This indicates that preretinal diffusion of oxygen is not altered after vitrectomy. The beneficial effect of vitrectomy in ischemic retinal diseases or macular edema may be related to other mechanisms, such as increased oxygen convection currents or removal of growth factors and cytokines secreted in the vitreous.

  9. Microenvironmental oxygen partial pressure in acute myeloid leukemia: Is there really a role for hypoxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Christina T; Fiegl, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Reduced oxygen partial pressure (pO2) has been recognized as being relevant in hematopoiesis and the pathophysiology of malignant diseases. Although hypoxic (meaning insufficient supply of oxygen) and anoxic areas are present and of pathophysiologic importance (by hypoxia-induced pathways such as HiF1α) in solid tumors, this may not be true for (malignant) hematologic cells. Hematopoiesis occurs in the stem cell niche, which is characterized, among other things, by extremely low pO2. However, in contrast to solid tumors, in this context, the low pO2 is physiological and this feature, among others, is shared by the malignant stem cell niche harboring leukemia-initiating cells. Upon differentiation, hematopoietic cells are constantly exposed to changes in pO2 as they travel throughout the human body and encounter arterial and venous blood and migrate into oxygen-carrier-free tissue with low pO2. Hematologic malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) make little difference in this respect and, whereas low oxygen is the usual environment of AML cells, recent evidence suggests no role for real hypoxia. Although there is no evidence that AML pathophysiology is related to hypoxia, leukemic blasts still show several distinct biological features when exposed to reduced pO2: they down- or upregulate membrane receptors such as CXCR4 or FLT3, activate or inhibit intracellular signaling pathways such as PI3K, and specifically secrete cytokines (IL-8). In summary, reduced pO2 should not be mistaken for hypoxia (nor should it be so called), and it does not automatically induce hypoxia-response mechanisms; therefore, a strict distinction should be made between physiologically low pO2 (physoxia) and hypoxia. Copyright © 2016 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The relation between in vivo ethylene production and oxygen partial pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, M.G.; Wild, de H.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Modelling in vivo ethylene production rate in relation to O2 partial pressure was used to improve understanding of enzyme kinetics of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACC oxidase). Tomato fruit were stored in an extensive range of O2 partial pressures at 8, 13 and 18 °C. Ethylene

  11. Residual oxygen time model for oxygen partial pressure near 130 kPa (1.3 atm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shykoff, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    A two-part residual oxygen time model predicts the probability of detectible pulmonary oxygen toxicity P(P[O2tox]) after dives with oxygen partial pressure (PO2) approximately 130 kPa, and provides a tool to plan dive series with selected risk of P[O2tox]. Data suggest that pulmonary oxygen injury at this PO2 is additive between dives. Recovery begins after a delay and continues during any following dive. A logistic relation expresses P(P[O2tox]) as a function of dive duration (T(dur)) [hours]: P(P[O2tox]) = 100/[1+exp (3.586-0.49 x T(dur))] This expression maps T(dur) to P(P[O2tox]) or, in the linear mid-portion of the curve, P(P[O2tox]) usefully to T(dur). For multiple dives or during recovery, it maps to an equivalent dive duration, T(eq). T(eq) was found after second dives of duration T(dur 2). Residual time from the first dive t(r) = T(eq) - T(dur2). With known t(r), t and T(dur) a recovery model was fitted. t(r) = T(dur) x exp [-k x((t-5)/T(dur)2], where t = t - 5 hours, k = 0.149 for resting, and 0.047 for exercising divers, and t represents time after surfacing. The fits were assessed for 1,352 man-dives. Standard deviations of the residuals were 8.5% and 18.3% probability for resting or exercise dives, respectively.

  12. Influence of polymeric microspheres on the myocardial oxygen partial pressure in the beating heart of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Mrowietz, C; Lee, S; Braune, S; Knaut, M; Lendlein, A; Franke, R P; Jung, F

    2011-07-01

    Injection of labeled microspheres is an established method in animal models to analyze the capillary organ blood flow at different time points. However, the microspheres can lead to stenoses of the capillary lumen, which might affect tissue oxygen supply. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of repeated injections of microspheres into the left coronary artery on the tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) in the downstream supplied myocardium of Göttingen minipigs. Tests (n=6 pigs each) were performed with two differently sized microspheres (ø=10 ± 0.1 μm (M10) or ø=15 ± 0.15 μm (M15)) from polystyrene. The pO(2) was measured in the midmyocardium of the left and right ventricle for 6 min continuously after each of five injections (1 × 10(6) microspheres each). There was a time laps of 12 min between each injection. In addition, the influence of the carrier solution was analyzed solely in the identical time frame. pO(2) decreased significantly in the myocardial area supplied by the ramus interventricularis paraconalis after injection of M15 microspheres. In contrast, the application of the M10 microspheres did not change the myocardial pO(2). This finding suggests to use microspheres with diameters not exceeding 10 μm for the coronary blood flow assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The influence of low partial oxygen pressure on the biolodical process of mesenchymal stromal cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovskyĭ, V Ia; Plotnikova, L M; Vesel'skyĭ, S P; Litovka, I H

    2014-01-01

    The influence of low partial oxygen pressure (Po2) on the amino acid composition in culture medium of human mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) lines 4BL has been studied. At 23 mm Hg (3% oxygen), a significant decrease (by 31%) in the concentration of proline and hydroxyproline was registered. Under these conditions, the concentration of serine and aspartic acid decreased by 45% compared to the control. Maximum consumption of free amino acids from the culture medium required for the synthesis of collagen (proline and hydroxyproline by 42%, serine and aspartic acid by 62%) was observed at a gas-phase Po2 of 38 mm Hg (5% O2). At Po2 76 mm Hg (10% O2), a lack of amino acids proline and hydroxyproline was only 21%, while that of glutamine and alanine amounted 12% compared to the control. This intensity ratio of consumption of amino acids may indicate that the maximum of MSC vital functions occurs at Po2 38 mm Hg.

  14. The influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rosales, C.; Schulze, H.A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1991-05-01

    The passivation layers formed by the oxidizing corrosion of high temperature alloys consist primarily of oxides and mixed oxides of the elements chromium, manganese and titanium. For a reproducible formation and characterization of such oxide layers it is necessary to know the phase equilibria of these oxide systems at temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions which will be relevant during their application. For the investigation of the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide, oxide powders were prepared and annealed at 1000deg C under different oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar. Phase identification and determination of lattice parameter using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as the direct measurement of phase boundaries as a function of oxygen partial pressure using the emf-methode were carried out for these investigations. In the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide the spinels play a decisive role in the oxigen partial pressure range examined. The spinel MnCr 2 O 4 may be regarded as the most significant compound. Part of the chronium can be replaced by trivalent manganese at high oxygen partial pressures and by trivalent titanium at low pressures, and the formation of a solid solution with the spinel Mn 2 TiO 4 is possible in all cases. In this way a coherent single-phase spinel region is observed which extends over the entire oxygen partial pressure range form 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar examined at 1000deg C. (orig.) [de

  15. Relations between pH, oxygen partial pressure and growth in cultured cell spheroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, J; Acker, H

    1988-11-15

    The pH gradients, oxygen partial-pressure gradients and growth curves were measured for 7 different types of spheroids. Growth curves were measured in liquid overlay culture and thereafter the spheroids were attached to cover glasses and transferred to a chamber for micro-electrode measurements. The spheroids were randomly divided for pH or pO2 measurements which then were made under conditions as identical as possible. The decreases in pO2 and pH, delta pO2 and delta pH were calculated as the difference between the values in the culture medium and the values 200 micron inside the spheroids. Each type of spheroid had a certain relation between delta pO2 and delta pH. The human colon carcinoma HT29, the mouse mammary carcinoma EMT6 and the hamster lung V79-379A spheroids had high values of the quotient delta pO2/delta pH. The human thyroid carcinoma HTh7 spheroids and the 3 types of human glioma spheroids had lower quotients. There was a tendency for fast-growing spheroids to have high quotients. Two extreme types of spheroids, HT29 (high quotient) and U-118 MG (low quotient) were analyzed for lactate production and oxygen consumption. The U-118 MG spheroids produced about 3 times more lactate and consumed about 3 times less oxygen than the HT29 spheroids. The differences in lactate production could not be explained by differences in the pyruvate Km values of lactate dehydrogenase. The results indicate that there are significant metabolic differences between the spheroid systems studied.

  16. Neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sub-acute traumatic brain injury: not by immediately improving cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bao-Chun; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can promote the recovery of neural function in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI), the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen treatment plays a neuroprotective role in TBI by increasing regional transcranial oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ) and oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 ). To test this idea, we compared two groups: a control group with 20 healthy people and a treatment group with 40 TBI patients. The 40 patients were given 100% oxygen of HBO for 90 minutes. Changes in rSO 2 were measured. The controls were also examined for rSO 2 and PaO 2 , but received no treatment. rSO 2 levels in the patients did not differ significantly after treatment, but levels before and after treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group. PaO 2 levels were significantly decreased after the 30-minute HBO treatment. Our findings suggest that there is a disorder of oxygen metabolism in patients with sub-acute TBI. HBO does not immediately affect cerebral oxygen metabolism, and the underlying mechanism still needs to be studied in depth.

  17. Relationship between arterial partial oxygen pressure after resuscitation from cardiac arrest and mortality in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lee P; Durward, Andrew; Tibby, Shane M

    2012-07-17

    Observational studies in adults have shown a worse outcome associated with hyperoxia after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Extrapolating from adult data, current pediatric resuscitation guidelines recommend avoiding hyperoxia. We investigated the relationship between arterial partial oxygen pressure and survival in patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) after cardiac arrest. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Intensive Care Audit Network (PICANet) database between 2003 and 2010 (n=122,521). Patients aged oxygen status and outcome was modeled with logistic regression, with nonlinearities explored via multivariable fractional polynomials. Covariates included age, sex, ethnicity, congenital heart disease, out-of-hospital arrest, year, Pediatric Index of Mortality-2 (PIM2) mortality risk, and organ supportive therapies. Of 1875 patients, 735 (39%) died in PICU. Based on the first arterial gas, 207 patients (11%) had hyperoxia (Pa(O)(2) ≥300 mm Hg) and 448 (24%) had hypoxia (Pa(O)(2) <60 mm Hg). We found a significant nonlinear relationship between Pa(O)(2) and PICU mortality. After covariate adjustment, risk of death increased sharply with increasing hypoxia (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.80-2.21 at Pa(O)(2) of 23 mm Hg). There was also an association with increasing hyperoxia, although not as dramatic as that for hypoxia (odds ratio, 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-1.37 at 600 mm Hg). We observed an increasing mortality risk with advancing age, which was more pronounced in the presence of congenital heart disease. Both severe hypoxia and, to a lesser extent, hyperoxia are associated with an increased risk of death after PICU admission after cardiac arrest.

  18. Influence of oxygen partial pressure on the characteristics of human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepiana, Jenifer; Meijide, Susana; Navarro, Rosaura; Hernández, M Luisa; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña

    2017-08-01

    Most of the in vitro studies using liver cell lines have been performed under atmospheric oxygen partial pressure (21% O 2 ). However, the oxygen concentrations in the liver and cancer cells are far from this value. In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of oxygen on 1) the tumor cell lines features (growth, steady-state ROS levels, GSH content, activities of antioxidant enzymes, p66 Shc and SOD expressions, metalloproteinases secretion, migration, invasion, and adhesion) of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, and b) the response of the cells to an oxidant stimulus (aqueous leaf extract of the V. baccifera plant species). For this purpose, three hepatocarcinoma cell lines with different p53 status, HepG2 (wild-type), Huh7 (mutated), and Hep3B (deleted), were cultured (6-30 days) under atmospheric (21%) and more physiological (8%) pO 2 . Results showed that after long-term culturing at 8% versus 21% O 2 , the cellular proliferation rate and the steady-state levels of mitochondrial O 2 - were unaffected. However, the intracellular basal ROS levels were higher independently of the characteristics of the cell line. Moreover, the lower pO 2 was associated with lower glutathione content, the induction of p66 Shc and Mn-SOD proteins, and increased SOD activity only in HepG2. This cell line also showed a higher migration rate, secretion of active metalloproteinases, and a faster invasion. HepG2 cells were more resistant to the oxidative stress induced by V. baccifera. Results suggest that the long-term culturing of human hepatoma cells at a low, more physiological pO 2 induces antioxidant adaptations that could be mediated by p53, and may alter the cellular response to a subsequent oxidant challenge. Data support the necessity of validating outcomes from studies performed with hepatoma cell cultures under ambient O 2 . Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth of the microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans at high partial oxygen pressures and sub-saturating light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Cláudia; de Winter, Lenneke; Janssen, Marcel; Vermuë, Marian H; Wijffels, René H

    2012-01-01

    The effect of partial oxygen pressure on growth of Neochloris oleoabundans was studied at sub-saturating light intensity in a fully-controlled stirred tank photobioreactor. At the three partial oxygen pressures tested (P(O)₂= 0.24; 0.63; 0.84 bar), the specific growth rate was 1.38; 1.36 and 1.06 day(-1), respectively. An increase of the P(CO)₂from 0.007 to 0.02 bar at P(O₂) of 0.84 bar resulted in an increase in the growth rate from 1.06 to 1.36 day(-1). These results confirm that the reduction of algal growth at high oxygen concentrations at sub-saturating light conditions is mainly caused by competitive inhibition of Rubisco. This negative effect on growth can be overcome by restoring the O(2)/CO(2) ratio by an increase in the partial carbon dioxide pressure. In comparison to general practice (P(O(2)) = 0.42 bar), working at partial O(2) pressure of 0.84 bar could reduce the energy requirement for degassing by a factor of 3-4. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Peroxynitrite effect on the haemoglobin oxygen affinity in vitro in presence of different partial pressure of carbon dioxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepuro, T L; Zinchuk, V V

    2011-08-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) besides its toxic possesses regulatory action that includes the modulation of oxygen binding properties of blood. The aim of this work was to estimate ONOO- effect on the haemoglobin oxygen affinity (HOA) in vitro in presence of different partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2). The ONOO- presence in venous blood in conditions of hypercapnia induced oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve shift leftward while in hypocapnic conditions the result of a different character was obtained. The revealed effect of ONOO- is realized, possibly, through various modifications ofhaemoglobin whose formation is dependent on the CO2 pressure. The ONOO- influences the HOA in different manner that can be important in regulation of blood oxygenation in lungs and maintenance of oxygen consumption in tissues.

  1. [The influence of oxygen partial pressure change and vascularization of rabbit wound through negative pressure wound therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Hu, Duan; Bai, Xiang-jun; Zhang, Kun; Li, Ren-jie; Xue, Chen-chen

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effect of vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) on variation of oxygen partial pressure (PtO2) and vascularization. The 12 cases of rabbit's wound models were undergoing the VSD (vacuum group, n = 6) or conventional therapy (conventional group, n = 6). Variation of PtO2 was measured by oxygen partial pressure admeasuring apparatus, expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) mRNA was measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR, content of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was measured by ELISA after tissue homogenate in 7 days. Vascular endothelial cell (VEC) and new blood capillary (NBC) of hematoxylin-eosin slice of tissue were counted by using light microscope. Average value of PtO2 of vacuum group was significant lower than conventional group (t = -99.780 to -5.305, P < 0.01). Expression of HIF-1α (30 minutes, 1, 6, 12 hours were 3.11 ± 0.07, 3.68 ± 0.26, 4.16 ± 0.13 and 3.91 ± 0.26 respectively) and content of VEGF (30 minutes, 1, 6, 12 hours were 103.3 ± 2.4, 134.2 ± 9.0, 167.8 ± 3.8 and 232.1 ± 9.5 respectively) of vacuum group were increased after 30 minutes and significant lower than conventional group (t = 13.038 - 80.208, P < 0.01), and both of them were reduced after 24 hours (P < 0.05). Counting numbers of VEC (2.47 ± 0.45 to 4.70 ± 0.38) and NBC (1.33 ± 0.49 to 4.33 ± 0.68) of vacuum group were increased at the same time-point and significant higher than conventional group (t = -0.670 to 16.500, P < 0.05). PtO2 of wound surface could be reduced significantly by VSD. Expression of HIF-1α and content of VEGF were increased by VSD for enhancing differentiated state of VEC and construction of NBC, which were better for vascularization and wound healing.

  2. Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure during Processing on the Thermoelectric Properties of Aerosol-Deposited CuFeO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöcker, Thomas; Exner, Jörg; Schubert, Michael; Streibl, Maximilian; Moos, Ralf

    2016-03-24

    In the field of thermoelectric energy conversion, oxide materials show promising potential due to their good stability in oxidizing environments. Hence, the influence of oxygen partial pressure during synthesis on the thermoelectric properties of Cu-Delafossites at high temperatures was investigated in this study. For these purposes, CuFeO₂ powders were synthetized using a conventional mixed-oxide technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were conducted to determine the crystal structures of the delafossites associated with the oxygen content during the synthesis. Out of these powders, films with a thickness of about 25 µm were prepared by the relatively new aerosol-deposition (AD) coating technique. It is based on a room temperature impact consolidation process (RTIC) to deposit dense solid films of ceramic materials on various substrates without using a high-temperature step during the coating process. On these dense CuFeO₂ films deposited on alumina substrates with electrode structures, the Seebeck coefficient and the electrical conductivity were measured as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure. We compared the thermoelectric properties of both standard processed and aerosol deposited CuFeO₂ up to 900 °C and investigated the influence of oxygen partial pressure on the electrical conductivity, on the Seebeck coefficient and on the high temperature stability of CuFeO₂. These studies may not only help to improve the thermoelectric material in the high-temperature case, but may also serve as an initial basis to establish a defect chemical model.

  3. Systematic trends of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films post annealed in low oxygen partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.; Werder, D.J.; Tiefel, T.H.; Marshall, J.H.; Siegal, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    Systematic studies have been performed on 1000 A YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films produced by the BaF 2 process and annealed in an oxygen partial pressure (p O 2 ) range from 740 Torr to 10 mTorr as well as a temperature range from 600 to 1050 degree C. The results show that while high quality films can be annealed in a wide range of oxygen partial pressure, they have different characteristics. In general, crystalline quality and T c are optimized at high p O 2 and high annealing temperature, while strong flux pinning and low normal state resistivity are achieved at lower values of both variables. Under optimized low p O 2 conditions, an ion channeling χ min of 6% is obtained on films as thick as 5000 A. This study will serve as a useful guide to tailoring film properties to the application at hand

  4. Measurement of Local Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Brain Tissue under Normoxia and Epilepsy with Phosphorescence Lifetime Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Bélanger, Samuel; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In this work a method for measuring brain oxygen partial pressure with confocal phosphorescence lifetime microscopy system is reported. When used in conjunction with a dendritic phosphorescent probe, Oxyphor G4, this system enabled minimally invasive measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in cerebral tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution during 4-AP induced epileptic seizures. Investigating epileptic events, we characterized the spatio-temporal distribution of the "initial dip" in pO2 near the probe injection site and along nearby arterioles. Our results reveal a correlation between the percent change in the pO2 signal during the "initial dip" and the duration of seizure-like activity, which can help localize the epileptic focus and predict the length of seizure. PMID:26305777

  5. Measurement of Local Partial Pressure of Oxygen in the Brain Tissue under Normoxia and Epilepsy with Phosphorescence Lifetime Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong; Bélanger, Samuel; Pouliot, Philippe; Lesage, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    In this work a method for measuring brain oxygen partial pressure with confocal phosphorescence lifetime microscopy system is reported. When used in conjunction with a dendritic phosphorescent probe, Oxyphor G4, this system enabled minimally invasive measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO2) in cerebral tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution during 4-AP induced epileptic seizures. Investigating epileptic events, we characterized the spatio-temporal distribution of the "initial dip" in pO2 near the probe injection site and along nearby arterioles. Our results reveal a correlation between the percent change in the pO2 signal during the "initial dip" and the duration of seizure-like activity, which can help localize the epileptic focus and predict the length of seizure.

  6. Ionic conductivity ageing investigation of 1Ce10ScSZ in different partial pressures of oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omar, Shobit; Belda, Adriana; Escardino, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    The conductivity and its ageing behaviour has been determined for zirconia co-doped with 10 mol% of Sc2O3 and 1 mol% CeO2 in different partial pressures of oxygen at 600 °C. After 3000 h, samples kept in air, in a humidified mixture of H2/N2 and in humidified H2 exhibited loss in the ionic...

  7. Interplay of the influence of oxygen partial pressure and rf power on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-25

    Jul 25, 2017 ... extra heating) and low pressure p = 0.5 mTorr, varying the rf power density between P = 0.57 and 2.83 W cm−2 at different relative oxygen ... thin films are used as window layers in solar cells [1–3]. Sput- tering (especially rf ... defect density [11,12]. In the literature there are works reporting the effect of rf.

  8. [The effects of oxygen partial pressure changes on the osteometric markers of the bone tissue in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovs'kyĭ, V Ia; Zamors'ka, T M; Ianko, R V

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the oxygen partial pressure changes on the osteometric and biochemical markers of bone tissue in rats. It was shown that breathing of altered gas mixture did not change the mass, general length, sagittal diameter and density thigh-bones in 12-month Wistar male-rats. The dosed normobaric hypoxia increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and decreased the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. At the same time normobaric hyperoxia with 40 and 90% oxygen conversely decreased the activity of alkaline phosphatase and increased the activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase.

  9. The Effect of Humidity and Oxygen Partial Pressure on LSM–YSZ Cathode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knöfel, Christina; Chen, Ming; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2011-01-01

    Two series of anode supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) were prepared, one with a composite cathode layer of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on top and the other further has a LSM current collector layer on top. The fuel cells were heat treated at 1...... of manganese concentration and strontium enrichment on the surface of the materials. Formation of monoclinic zirconia and zirconate phases was also observed. These results give a closer insight into possible degradation mechanisms of SOFC composite cathode materials in dependence of humidity and oxygen partial...

  10. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  11. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  12. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang-Jin; Li, Chao; Lv, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Cong; Yu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hui; Luo, Yun-Xiu; Li, Yan; Xiao, Mingyong; Yin, Jun; Lang, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3-127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2-53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7-124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2-62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14-47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice.

  13. Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Electrical and Optical Properties of DC Magnetron Sputtered Amorphous TiO2 Films

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Sekhar, M.; Kondaiah, P.; Radha Krishna, B.; Uthanna, S.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited on p-Si (100) and Corning glass substrates held at room temperature by DC magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures in the range 9 × 10−3–9 × 10−2 Pa. The influence of oxygen partial pressure on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the deposited films was systematically studied. XPS studies confirmed that the film formed at an oxygen partial pressure of 6×10−2 Pa was nearly stoichiometric. TiO2 films formed at...

  14. Oxidation behavior of V-Cr-Ti alloys in low-partial-pressure oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Uz, M.

    1998-01-01

    A test program is in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the effect of pO 2 in the exposure environment on oxygen uptake, scaling kinetics, and scale microstructure in V-Cr-Ti alloys. The data indicate that the oxidation process follows parabolic kinetics in all of the environments used in the present study. From the weight change data, parabolic rate constants were evaluated as a function of temperature and exposure environment. The temperature dependence of the parabolic rate constants was described by an Arrhenius relationship. Activation energy for the oxidation process was fairly constant in the oxygen pressure range of 1 x 10 -6 to 1 x 10 -1 torr for both the alloys. The activation energy for oxidation in air was significantly lower than in low-pO 2 environments, and for oxidation in pure O 2 at 760 torr was much lower than in low-pO 2 environments. X-ray diffraction analysis of the specimens showed that VO 2 was the dominant phase in low-pO 2 environments, while V 2 O 5 was dominant in air and in pure oxygen at 76f0 torr

  15. Simultaneous imaging of cerebral partial pressure of oxygen and blood flow during functional activation and cortical spreading depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadžić, Sava; Yuan, Shuai; Dilekoz, Ergin; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Ayata, Cenk; Boas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We developed a novel imaging technique that provides real-time two-dimensional maps of the absolute partial pressure of oxygen and relative cerebral blood flow in rats by combining phosphorescence lifetime imaging with laser speckle contrast imaging. Direct measurement of blood oxygenation based on phosphorescence lifetime is not significantly affected by changes in the optical parameters of the tissue during the experiment. The potential of the system as a novel tool for quantitative analysis of the dynamic delivery of oxygen to support brain metabolism was demonstrated in rats by imaging cortical responses to forepaw stimulation and the propagation of cortical spreading depression waves. This new instrument will enable further study of neurovascular coupling in normal and diseased brain. PMID:19340106

  16. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun H

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hongtao Sun,1,* Maohua Zheng,2,* Yanmin Wang,1 Yunfeng Diao,1 Wanyong Zhao,1 Zhengjun Wei1 1Sixth Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Logistics University of People’s Armed Police Force, Tianjin, 2Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2 in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI. Methods: There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP, jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2, and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Results: Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Conclusion: Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome. Keywords: severe traumatic brain injury, hypothermia, brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen, therapy

  17. Variations in alveolar partial pressure for carbon dioxide and oxygen have additive not synergistic acute effects on human pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Quentin P P; Formenti, Federico; Talbot, Nick P; Lunn, Daniel; Robbins, Peter A; Dorrington, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    The human pulmonary vasculature constricts in response to hypercapnia and hypoxia, with important consequences for homeostasis and adaptation. One function of these responses is to direct blood flow away from poorly-ventilated regions of the lung. In humans it is not known whether the stimuli of hypercapnia and hypoxia constrict the pulmonary blood vessels independently of each other or whether they act synergistically, such that the combination of hypercapnia and hypoxia is more effective than the sum of the responses to each stimulus on its own. We independently controlled the alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide (Paco 2) and oxygen (Pao 2) to examine their possible interaction on human pulmonary vasoconstriction. Nine volunteers each experienced sixteen possible combinations of four levels of Paco 2 (+6, +1, -4 and -9 mmHg, relative to baseline) with four levels of Pao 2 (175, 100, 75 and 50 mmHg). During each of these sixteen protocols Doppler echocardiography was used to evaluate cardiac output and systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, an index of pulmonary vasoconstriction. The degree of constriction varied linearly with both Paco 2 and the calculated haemoglobin oxygen desaturation (1-So2). Mixed effects modelling delivered coefficients defining the interdependence of cardiac output, systolic tricuspid pressure gradient, ventilation, Paco 2 and So2. No interaction was observed in the effects on pulmonary vasoconstriction of carbon dioxide and oxygen (p>0.64). Direct effects of the alveolar gases on systolic tricuspid pressure gradient greatly exceeded indirect effects arising from concurrent changes in cardiac output.

  18. The partial pressure of oxygen affects biomarkers of oxidative stress in cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, E F; Olsvik, P A; Berntssen, M H G; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K E

    2008-09-01

    Oxidative stress, the imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and the cellular detoxification of these reactive compounds, is believed to be involved in the pathology of various diseases. Several biomarkers for oxidative stress have been proposed to serve as tools in toxicological and ecotoxicological research. Not only may exposure to various pro-oxidants create conditions of cellular oxidative stress, but hyperoxic conditions may also increase the production of reactive oxygen species. The objective of the current study was to determine the extent to which differences in oxygen partial pressure would affect biomarkers of oxidative stress in a primary culture of hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Membrane integrity, metabolic activity, levels of total and oxidized glutathione (tGSH/GSSG) was determined, as well as mRNA expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), gamma-glutamyl-cystein synthetase (GCS) and thioredoxin (TRX). The results show that different biomarkers of oxidative stress are affected when the cell culture is exposed to atmospheric oxygen, and that changes such as increased GSSG content and induction of GSSG-R and GSH-Px can be reduced by culturing the cells under lower oxygen tension. Oxygen tension may thus influence results of in vitro based cell research and is particularly important when assessing parameters in the antioxidant defence system. Further research is needed to establish the magnitude of this effect in different cellular systems.

  19. Brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen predicts the outcome of severe traumatic brain injury under mild hypothermia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongtao; Zheng, Maohua; Wang, Yanmin; Diao, Yunfeng; Zhao, Wanyong; Wei, Zhengjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical significance and changes of brain tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PbtO2) in the course of mild hypothermia treatment (MHT) for treating severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI). There were 68 cases with sTBI undergoing MHT. PbtO2, intracranial pressure (ICP), jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) were continuously monitored, and clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale score. Of 68 patients with sTBI, PbtO2, SjvO2, and CPP were obviously increased, but decreased ICP level was observed throughout the MHT. PbtO2 and ICP were negatively linearly correlated, while there was a positive linear correlation between PbtO2 and SjvO2. Monitoring CPP and SjvO2 was performed under normal circumstances, and a large proportion of patients were detected with low PbtO2. Decreased PbtO2 was also found after MHT. Continuous PbtO2 monitoring could be introduced to evaluate the condition of regional cerebral oxygen metabolism, thereby guiding the clinical treatment and predicting the outcome.

  20. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Li Chao; Lv Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3–127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2–53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7–124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2–62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14–47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice. (author)

  1. High oxygen partial pressure increases photodynamic effect on HeLa cell lines in the presence of chloraluminium phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Robert; Kolarova, Hana; Bolek, Lukas; Binder, Svatopluk; Pizova, Klara; Hanakova, Adela

    2014-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is linked with oxidative damage of biomolecules causing significant impairment of essential cellular functions that lead to cell death. It is the reason why photodynamic therapy has found application in treatment of different oncological, cardiovascular, skin and eye diseases. Efficacy of PDT depends on combined action of three components; sensitizer, light and oxygen. In the present study, we examined whether higher partial pressure of oxygen increases lethality in HeLa cell lines exposed to light in the presence of chloraluminium phthalocyanine disulfonate (ClAlPcS2). ClAlPcS2- sensitized HeLa cells incubated under different oxygen conditions were exposed to PDT. Production of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were determined by appropriately sensitive fluorescence probes. The effect of PDT on HeLa cell viability under different oxygen conditions was quantified using the standard methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) test. At the highest oxygen concentration of 28 ± 2 mg/l HeLa cells were significantly more sensitive to light-activated ClAlPcS2 (EC50=0.29 ± 0.05 μM) in comparison to cells incubated at lower oxygen concentrations of 8 ± 0.5 and 0.5 ± 0.1 mg/l, where the half maximal effective concentration was 0.42 ± 0.06 μM and 0.94 ± 0.14 μM, respectively. Moreover, we found that the higher presence of oxygen is accompanied with higher production of singlet oxygen, a higher rate of type II photodynamic reactions, and a significant drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrate that the photodynamic effect in cervical cancer cells utilizing ClAlPcS2 significantly depends on oxygen level. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Changes in Arterial Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Partial Pressures on Cerebral Oximeter Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Andrew; Feiner, John R; Bickler, Philip E; Rollins, Mark D

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral oximetry (cerebral oxygen saturation; ScO2) is used to noninvasively monitor cerebral oxygenation. ScO2 readings are based on the fraction of reduced and oxidized hemoglobin as an indirect estimate of brain tissue oxygenation and assume a static ratio of arterial to venous intracranial blood. Conditions that alter cerebral blood flow, such as acute changes in PaCO2, may decrease accuracy. We assessed the performance of two commercial cerebral oximeters across a range of oxygen concentrations during normocapnia and hypocapnia. Casmed FORE-SIGHT Elite (CAS Medical Systems, Inc., USA) and Covidien INVOS 5100C (Covidien, USA) oximeter sensors were placed on 12 healthy volunteers. The fractional inspired oxygen tension was varied to achieve seven steady-state levels including hypoxic and hyperoxic PaO2 values. ScO2 and simultaneous arterial and jugular venous blood gas measurements were obtained with both normocapnia and hypocapnia. Oximeter bias was calculated as the difference between the ScO2 and reference saturation using manufacturer-specified weighting ratios from the arterial and venous samples. FORE-SIGHT Elite bias was greater during hypocapnia as compared with normocapnia (4 ± 9% vs. 0 ± 6%; P oxygen saturation and mixed venous oxygen tension, as well as increased oxygen extraction across fractional inspired oxygen tension levels (P oxygen extraction (P < 0.0001). Changes in PaCO2 affect cerebral oximeter accuracy, and increased bias occurs with hypocapnia. Decreased accuracy may represent an incorrect assumption of a static arterial-venous blood fraction. Understanding cerebral oximetry limitations is especially important in patients at risk for hypoxia-induced brain injury, where PaCO2 may be purposefully altered.

  3. Four-Hour Dives with Exercise While Breathing Oxygen Partial Pressure of 1.3 ATM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shykoff, B

    2006-01-01

    .... Still, because the increased ventilatory demands and blood flow to the lungs during underwater exercise may cause pulmonary injury or may increase oxygen-induced injury over those ventilatory demands...

  4. The influence of a hyperbaric environment and increased oxygen partial pressure on the corrosion of dental alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Christian; Heblich, Frank; Lenz, Rudolf; Ludwig, Klaus; Kern, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to determine whether there is a correlation between a hyperbaric environment or increased oxygen partial pressure and the corrosion of dental alloys used for dental restorations in divers. Samples of three commercially available dental alloys (palladium-based, reduced-gold-content and high-gold-content) were tested in the DIN EN ISO 1562 static immersion test and the amount of dissolved ions measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The specimens were exposed to one of the following three conditions: normobaric and normoxic conditions (PO2 21 kPa); 608 kPa (6 bar, PO2 127 kPa) pressurised air in a pressure chamber or 506 kPa (5 bar, PO2 304 kPa) pressurised nitrox in a pressure chamber. None of the exposures suggested a correlation between increased ion solubility as a measure of corrosion and increased ambient pressure of the three alloys. The reduced-gold-content alloy released zinc ions at twice the weekly recommended dose. When the palladium-based alloy was exposed to a hyperbaric or hyperbaric/hyperoxic environment, ion solubility increased only slightly for gallium and silver. Within the limited sample size of the current study it can be concluded that hyperbaric and/or hyperoxic conditions do not seem to be a risk for increased corrosion for any of the three tested alloys.

  5. Effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure in normoxia and in hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in normoxia and hypercapnia. Intervascular optic disc PO(2) was measured in 12 anesthetized minipigs by using oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes placed 0.1), despite a 21% increase of mean arterial pressure. Optic disc PO(2) increase under hypercapnia was blunted after L-NAME injection (DeltaPO(2) = 0.6 +/- 1.1 mm Hg; 3%; P > 0.1), and this effect was reversible by L-arginine. Moreover, L-NAME reduced the response to carbogen by 29% (DeltaPO(2) = 9.1 +/- 4.4 mm Hg; 49%; P = 0.01 versus before L-NAME). The response to hyperoxia was not affected. Whereas systemic NOS inhibition did not affect optic disc PO(2) in normoxia, a blunting effect was noted on the CO(2)-induced optic disc PO(2) increase. Nitric oxide appears to mediate the hypercapnic optic disc PO(2) increase.

  6. Oxygen partial pressure control during in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction on cerium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strach, M.; Belin, R.C.; Richaud, J-C.; Rogez, J.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium dioxide is widely used as a surrogate for plutonium dioxide in the studies of MOX type nuclear fuel. Thus, obtaining an accurate description of the structures present in this system in a range of temperatures is of importance to the development of fuel for the IV. generation of nuclear reactors. However, such a study requires appropriate scientific tools, in particular regarding the control and monitoring of the oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ). Here we discuss several in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments performed to determine the phases present in the hypo-stoichiometric CeO 2-x region of the phase diagram and clearly demonstrate the need for controlling the pO 2 . (authors)

  7. Oxygen Partial Pressure Is a Rate-Limiting Parameter for Cell Proliferation in 3D Spheroids Grown in Physioxic Culture Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Aurélie; Guillaume, Ludivine; Grimes, David Robert; Fehrenbach, Jérôme; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The in situ oxygen partial pressure in normal and tumor tissues is in the range of a few percent. Therefore, when studying cell growth in 3D culture systems, it is essential to consider how the physiological oxygen concentration, rather than the one in the ambient air, influences the proliferation parameters. Here, we investigated the effect of reducing oxygen partial pressure from 21% to 5% on cell proliferation rate and regionalization in a 3D tumor spheroid model. We found that 5% oxygen concentration strongly inhibited spheroid growth, changed the proliferation gradient and reduced the 50% In Depth Proliferation index (IDP50), compared with culture at 21% oxygen. We then modeled the oxygen partial pressure profiles using the experimental data generated by culturing spheroids in physioxic and normoxic conditions. Although hypoxia occurred at similar depth in spheroids grown in the two conditions, oxygen partial pressure was a major rate-limiting factor with a critical effect on cell proliferation rate and regionalization only in spheroids grown in physioxic condition and not in spheroids grown at atmospheric normoxia. Our findings strengthen the need to consider conducting experiment in physioxic conditions (i.e., tissue normoxia) for proper understanding of cancer cell biology and the evaluation of anticancer drugs in 3D culture systems.

  8. Oxidation of X20 in Water Vapour: The Effect of Temperature and Oxygen Partial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Montgomery, Melanie; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of X20 in various mixtures of water, oxygen and hydrogen was investigated at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C (time: 336 h). The samples were characterised using reflected light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy...

  9. Laser heating and oxygen partial pressure effects on the dynamic magnetic properties of perpendicular CoFeAlO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Tang, Minghong [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang, Zongzhi, E-mail: zzzhang@fudan.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lou, Shitao [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Jin, Q.Y. [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures (Ministry of Education), Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2016-07-01

    The impact of oxidation and laser heating on the dynamic magnetic properties of perpendicularly magnetized Co{sub 50}Fe{sub 25}Al{sub 25}O films has been studied by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect in a fs-laser pump-probe setup. We find that pump laser fluence F{sub p} can affect the effective magnetic anisotropy field and thus the precession frequency f seriously, leading to an increased dependence of effective magnetic damping factor α{sub eff} on the external field at higher fluences. Moreover, the α{sub eff} increases with increasing the oxygen partial pressure P{sub O2} while the uniaxial anisotropy energy K{sub u} and Landau factor g decrease, owing to the increased proportion of superparamagnetic CoFe oxides formed by over-oxidation. By optimizing both the F{sub p} and P{sub O2}, the intrinsic damping factor is determined to be lower than 0.028 for the perpendicular film showing a uniaxial anisotropy energy as high as 4.3×10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}. The results in this study provide a promising approach to manipulate the magnetic parameters for possible applications in spintronic devices. - Highlights: • A new kind of perpendicular thin film material, oxidized CoFeAl, has been fabricated. • The precession frequency and effective damping are strongly affected by higher fluence. • The effective damping factor increases with oxygen partial pressure. • The intrinsic damping factor is below 0.028 for the CFAO film with K{sub u}=4.3×10{sup 6} erg/cm{sup 3}.

  10. Monitoring in microvascular tissue transfer by measurement of oxygen partial pressure: four years experience with 125 microsurgical transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, René; Schaal, Thomas; Krimmel, Michael; Gülicher, Dirk; Reinert, Siegmar; Hoffmann, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    In a prospective study, the characteristics and benefit of an invasive measurement of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with the aid of a polarographic sensor were investigated in 125 microsurgical reconstructions of the head and neck area over a period of 45 months. Measurements were performed over 96 h in eight different types of microsurgically revascularized flaps for extra- and intraoral reconstructions and were evaluated separately for each flap type. Of 125 reconstructions the system indicated malperfusion in 18 cases. Salvage surgery was performed in 17 cases due to venous thrombosis (6 cases), arterial thrombosis (3 cases), a combination of arterial and venous thrombosis (2 cases), rheological problems (3 cases), venous insufficiency by hematoma (2 cases) and kinking of vessels (1 case). In 10 cases salvage surgery was successful, 7 flaps were lost despite salvage surgery. In all these cases, the polarographic probe indicated the necessity of salvage surgery correctly. After 96 h no malperfusion was seen. Postoperatively, a common and characteristic development of the oxygen partial pressure in different types of flaps was seen. Initially, a clear increase of pO(2) could be measured. During 96 h, a slow decrease of pO(2) was observed. In conclusion polarographic measurement of pO(2) can be an excellent apparative supplement for the postoperative clinical control of microsurgically revascularized transplants. In buried flaps, this technique represents the only reliable method for transplant monitoring. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise: a surrogate marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in patients with atrial septal defect and severe pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmivenkateshiah, Srinivas; Singhi, Anil K; Vaidyanathan, Balu; Francis, Edwin; Karimassery, Sundaram R; Kumar, Raman K

    2011-06-01

    To examine the utility of decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise as a marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. Treadmill exercise was performed in 18 patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained before and after peak exercise. A decline in the arterial pressure of oxygen of more than 10 millimetres of mercury after exercise was considered significant based on preliminary tests conducted on the controls. Cardiac catheterisation was performed in all patients and haemodynamic data sets were obtained on room air, oxygen, and a mixture of oxygen and nitric oxide (30-40 parts per million). There were 10 patients who had more than a 10 millimetres of mercury drop in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise and who had a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of more than 7 Wood units per square metre. Out of eight patients who had less than a 10 millimetres of mercury drop in arterial partial pressure of oxygen after exercise, seven had a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of less than 7 Wood units per square metre, p equals 0.0001. A decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen of more than 10 millimetres of mercury predicted a basal pulmonary vascular resistance index of more than 7 Wood units per square metre with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 90%. A decline in arterial partial pressure of oxygen following exercise appears to predict a high pulmonary vascular resistance index in patients with atrial septal defect and pulmonary hypertension. This test is a useful non-invasive marker of pulmonary vascular obstructive disease in this subset.

  12. Effects of oxygen partial pressure on structural and gasochromic properties of sputtered VOx thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Wei-Luen [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Lu, Yang-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National University of Tainan, Tainan 70005, Taiwan (China); Lu, Ying-Rui [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Program for Science and Technology of Accelerator Light Source, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chi-Liang [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chung-Li, E-mail: dong.cl@nsrrc.org.tw [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Chou, Wu-Ching [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chan, Ting-Shan; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Pao, Chih-Wen [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Weng-Sing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-01

    VOx films were deposited by radio-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering from a vanadium target in an Ar–O{sub 2} gas mixture and pure O{sub 2}. For the films deposited in the gas mixture, the Ar flow rate was controlled at 20 sccm and the oxygen flow rate was controlled at 1, 3, and 5 sccm, respectively. A thin (∼ 5 nm) Pt layer was deposited on the VOx thin films as a hydrogen catalyst. The long-range structural order, short-range atom arrangement, and gasochromic properties of the deposited films were studied. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) results indicate that the deposited films are amorphous. Lamellar structures were found at oxygen flow rates of 3 sccm and above. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) results show that the short-range atom arrangement of the lamellar VOx thin films is similar to that of crystal V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The GIXRD and XAS results show that the film obtained with the gas mixture and at an oxygen flow rate of 1 sccm did not significantly change after exposure to hydrogen, whereas the other films exhibited decreased interlayer distance, oxidation state, and crystallinity. The color of the films changed from light or deep yellow to gray. The results suggest that the gasochromic properties of the VOx thin films are related to the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-like atom arrangement and the interlayer distance of the lamellar structure. The films deposited with an oxygen flow rate of 3 sccm and above can be applied to H{sub 2} gas sensors. - Highlights: • Sputtered VOx film capped by Pt have potential for application in hydrogen sensor. • We present the X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the gasochromic VOx films. • Correlation of gasochromism and electronic structure of VOx film were studied. • Correlation of gasochromism and atomic structure were investigated.

  13. Regional alveolar partial pressure of oxygen measurement with parallel accelerated hyperpolarized gas MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlecek, Stephen; Hamedani, Hooman; Xu, Yinan; Emami, Kiarash; Xin, Yi; Ishii, Masaru; Rizi, Rahim

    2013-10-01

    Alveolar oxygen tension (Pao2) is sensitive to the interplay between local ventilation, perfusion, and alveolar-capillary membrane permeability, and thus reflects physiologic heterogeneity of healthy and diseased lung function. Several hyperpolarized helium ((3)He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based Pao2 mapping techniques have been reported, and considerable effort has gone toward reducing Pao2 measurement error. We present a new Pao2 imaging scheme, using parallel accelerated MRI, which significantly reduces measurement error. The proposed Pao2 mapping scheme was computer-simulated and was tested on both phantoms and five human subjects. Where possible, correspondence between actual local oxygen concentration and derived values was assessed for both bias (deviation from the true mean) and imaging artifact (deviation from the true spatial distribution). Phantom experiments demonstrated a significantly reduced coefficient of variation using the accelerated scheme. Simulation results support this observation and predict that correspondence between the true spatial distribution and the derived map is always superior using the accelerated scheme, although the improvement becomes less significant as the signal-to-noise ratio increases. Paired measurements in the human subjects, comparing accelerated and fully sampled schemes, show a reduced Pao2 distribution width for 41 of 46 slices. In contrast to proton MRI, acceleration of hyperpolarized imaging has no signal-to-noise penalty; its use in Pao2 measurement is therefore always beneficial. Comparison of multiple schemes shows that the benefit arises from a longer time-base during which oxygen-induced depolarization modifies the signal strength. Demonstration of the accelerated technique in human studies shows the feasibility of the method and suggests that measurement error is reduced here as well, particularly at low signal-to-noise levels. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

  15. [Generation of Superoxide Radicals by Complex III in Heart Mitochondria and Antioxidant Effect of Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes at Different Partial Pressure of Oxygen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudylina, A L; Ivanova, M V; Shumaev, K B; Ruuge, E K

    2016-01-01

    The EPR spin-trapping technique and EPR-oximetry were used to study generation of superoxide radicals in heart mitochondria isolated from Wistar rats under conditions of variable oxygen concentration. Lithium phthalocyanine and TEMPONE-15N-D16 were chosen to determine oxygen content in a gas-permeable capillary tube containing mitochondria. TIRON was used as a spin trap. We investigated the influence of different oxygen concentrations in incubation mixture and demonstrated that heart mitochondria can generate superoxide in complex III at different partial pressure of oxygen as well as under the conditions of deep hypoxia (partial pressure of oxygen, but the magnitude and kinetic characteristics of the effect depended on the concentration of the drug.

  16. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-photon high-resolution measurement of partial pressure of oxygen in cerebral vasculature and tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadžić, Sava; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Mandeville, Emiri T.; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Arai, Ken; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Devor, Anna; Lo, Eng H.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to measure oxygen partial pressure (pO2) with high temporal and spatial resolution in three dimensions is crucial for understanding oxygen delivery and consumption in normal and diseased brain. Among existing pO2 measurement methods, phosphorescence quenching is optimally suited for the task. However, previous attempts to couple phosphorescence with two-photon laser scanning microscopy have faced substantial difficulties because of extremely low two-photon absorption cross-sections of conventional phosphorescent probes. Here, we report the first practical in vivo two-photon high-resolution pO2 measurements in small rodents’ cortical microvasculature and tissue, made possible by combining an optimized imaging system with a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent nanoprobe. The method features a measurement depth of up to 250 µm, sub-second temporal resolution and requires low probe concentration. Most importantly, the properties of the probe allowed for the first direct high-resolution measurement of cortical extravascular (tissue) pO2, opening numerous possibilities for functional metabolic brain studies. PMID:20693997

  18. Quadratic function between arterial partial oxygen pressure and mortality risk in sepsis patients: an interaction with simplified acute physiology score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Ji, Xuqing

    2016-10-13

    Oxygen therapy is widely used in emergency and critical care settings, while there is little evidence on its real therapeutic effect. The study aimed to explore the impact of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 ) on clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis. A large clinical database was employed for the study. Subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria of sepsis were eligible for the study. All measurements of PaO 2 were extracted. The primary endpoint was death from any causes during hospital stay. Survey data analysis was performed by using individual ICU admission as the primary sampling unit. Quadratic function was assumed for PaO 2 and its interaction with other covariates were explored. A total of 199,125 PaO 2 samples were identified for 11,002 ICU admissions. Each ICU stay comprised 18 PaO 2 samples in average. The fitted multivariable model supported our hypothesis that the effect of PaO 2 on mortality risk was in quadratic form. There was significant interaction between PaO 2 and SAPS-I (p = 0.007). Furthermore, the main effect of PaO 2 on SOFA score was nonlinear. The study shows that the effect of PaO 2 on mortality risk is in quadratic function form, and there is significant interaction between PaO 2 and severity of illness.

  19. Two-photon high-resolution measurement of partial pressure of oxygen in cerebral vasculature and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakadzić, Sava; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Mandeville, Emiri T; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Arai, Ken; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Devor, Anna; Lo, Eng H; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Boas, David A

    2010-09-01

    Measurements of oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) with high temporal and spatial resolution in three dimensions is crucial for understanding oxygen delivery and consumption in normal and diseased brain. Among existing pO(2) measurement methods, phosphorescence quenching is optimally suited for the task. However, previous attempts to couple phosphorescence with two-photon laser scanning microscopy have faced substantial difficulties because of extremely low two-photon absorption cross-sections of conventional phosphorescent probes. Here we report to our knowledge the first practical in vivo two-photon high-resolution pO(2) measurements in small rodents' cortical microvasculature and tissue, made possible by combining an optimized imaging system with a two-photon-enhanced phosphorescent nanoprobe. The method features a measurement depth of up to 250 microm, sub-second temporal resolution and requires low probe concentration. The properties of the probe allowed for direct high-resolution measurement of cortical extravascular (tissue) pO(2), opening many possibilities for functional metabolic brain studies.

  20. Fluid responsiveness predicted by transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen in patients with circulatory failure: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyuan; Peng, Xiao; Pan, Chun; Cai, Shixia; Zhang, Xiwen; Xue, Ming; Yang, Yi; Qiu, Haibo

    2017-12-01

    Significant effort has been devoted to defining parameters for predicting fluid responsiveness. Our goal was to study the feasibility of predicting fluid responsiveness by transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (PtcO 2 ) in the critically ill patients. This was a single-center prospective study conducted in the intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Shock patients who presented with at least one clinical sign of inadequate tissue perfusion, defined as systolic blood pressure 40 mmHg in previously hypertensive patients or the need for vasopressive drugs; urine output 4 mmol/l, for less than 24 h in the absence of a contraindication for fluids were eligible to participate in the study. PtcO 2 was continuously recorded before and during a passive leg raising (PLR) test, and then before and after a 250 ml rapid saline infusion in 10 min. Fluid responsiveness is defined as a change in the stroke volume ≥10% after 250 ml of volume infusion. Thirty-four patients were included, and 14 responded to volume expansion. In the responders, the mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume and PtcO 2 increased significantly, while the heart rate decreased significantly by both PLR and volume expansion. Changes in the stroke volume induced either by PLR or volume expansion were significantly greater in responders than in non-responders. The correlation between the changes in PtcO 2 and stroke volume induced by volume expansion was significant. Volume expansion induced an increase in the PtcO 2 of 14% and PLR induced an increase in PtcO 2 of 13% predicted fluid responsiveness. This study suggested the changes in PtcO 2 induced by volume expansion and a PLR test predicted fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. Trial registration NCT02083757.

  1. [The effect of altered oxygen partial pressure on the resisitance to hypoxia and expression of oxygen-sensitive genes in Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezovs'kyĭ, V Ia; Chaka, O H; Litovka, I H; Levashov, M I; Ianko, R V

    2014-01-01

    As a result of resistance test to hypoxia of Drosophilas melanogaster of Oregon strain, we identified a high resistance (Group II) and low resistance (Group III) subpopulations of flies. Flies from groups II and III were incubated in a constant normobaric hypoxia (Po2=62-64 mm Hg) for 10 generations. A highly resistant group (Group IV) were exposed to a shortterm anoxia (Po,=1,5 mm Hg, 5 min) every generation. Larvae from Groups II, III, and IV demonstrated significantly elevated levels of Sir and CG 14740 expression. Larvae from Group II had a significantly higher expression of CG 14740 compared to group III. The restitution time after exposure to anoxia was significantly reduced in Group II (on 31% of the control values) Our results suggest that long-term adaptation to low oxygen partial pressure of highly resistant Drosophila significantly reduces the time of restitution and increases the expression of Sir2 and CG14740 genes.

  2. Reversible effects of oxygen partial pressure on genes associated with placental angiogenesis and differentiation in primary-term cytotrophoblast cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debiève, F; Depoix, C; Gruson, D; Hubinont, C

    2013-09-01

    Timely regulated changes in oxygen partial pressure are important for placental formation. Disturbances could be responsible for pregnancy-related diseases like preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. We aimed to (i) determine the effect of oxygen partial pressure on cytotrophoblast differentiation; (ii) measure mRNA expression and protein secretion from genes associated with placental angiogenesis; and (iii) determine the reversibility of these effects at different oxygen partial pressures. Term cytotrophoblasts were incubated at 21% and 2.5% O2 for 96 hr, or were switched between the two oxygen concentrations after 48 hr. Real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to evaluate cell fusion and differentiation, measuring transcript levels for those genes involved in cell fusion and placental angiogenesis, including VEGF, PlGF, VEGFR1, sVEGFR1, sENG, INHA, and GCM1. Cytotrophoblasts underwent fusion and differentiation in 2.5% O2 . PlGF expression was inhibited while sVEGFR1 expression increased. VEGF and sENG mRNA expressions increased in 2.5% compared to 21% O2 , but no protein was detected in the cell supernatants. Finally, GCM1 mRNA expression increased during trophoblast differentiation at 21% O2 , but was inhibited at 2.5% O2 . These mRNA expression effects were reversed by returning the cells to 21% O2 . Thus, low-oxygen partial pressure does not inhibit term-cytotrophoblast cell fusion and differentiation in vitro. Lowering the oxygen partial pressure from 21% to 2.5% caused normal-term trophoblasts to reversibly modify their expression of genes associated with placental angiogenesis. This suggests that modifications observed in pregnancy diseases such as preeclampsia or growth retardation are probably due to an extrinsic effect on trophoblasts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the structural and optical properties of dc sputtered ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkache, L.; Layadi, A.; Mosser, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present results on the effect of the partial pressure of oxygen (ppo) on the structural and optical properties of tin-doped indium oxide, In 2 O 3 :Sn (ITO), thin films deposited on glass substrates by reactive dc diode sputtering. The deposition rate decreases with increasing ppo. The ppo did not affect the chemical composition of the ITO films as inferred from X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). From X-ray diffraction, we find out that the samples have crystalline structure in the ppo range 2 x 10 -4 to 6 x 10 -4 mbar and are amorphous outside this range. These samples have a preferred orientation for ppo between 2 x 10 -4 and 4.5 x 10 -4 mbar, but as the ppo increased beyond 4.7 x 10 -4 mbar, the texture dominates. This change occurs for the same substrate temperature (about 130 deg. C). The grain size decreases as the ppo increases. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) have been used to investigate the surface roughness and the morphology of these samples. The optical transmission is greater than 90% in the visible region and does depend on the ppo. The refractive index n values are found to be in the 1.68-1.86 range. The energy gap values are between 3.1 and 3.5 eV.

  4. Effects of Temperature, Oxygen Partial Pressure, and Materials Selection on Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractories for Entrained-Flow Gasifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth

    The penetration rate of molten mineral contents (slag) from spent carbonaceous feedstock into porous ceramic-oxide refractory linings is a critical parameter in determining the lifecycle of integrated gasification combined cycle energy production plants. Refractory linings that withstand longer operation without interruption are desirable because they can mitigate consumable and maintenance costs. Although refractory degradation has been extensively studied for many other high-temperature industrial processes, this work focuses on the mechanisms that are unique to entrained-flow gasification systems. The use of unique feedstock mixtures, temperatures from 1450 °C to 1600 °C, and oxygen partial pressures from 10-7 atm to 10-9 atm pose engineering challenges in designing an optimal refractory material. Experimentation, characterization, and modeling show that gasifier slag infiltration into porous refractory is determined by interactions between the slag and the refractory that either form a physical barrier that impedes fluid flow or induce an increased fluid viscosity that decelerates the velocity of the fluid body. The viscosity of the slag is modified by the thermal profile of the refractory along the penetration direction as well as reactions between the slag and refractory that alter the chemistry, and thereby the thermo-physical properties of the fluid. Infiltration experiments reveal that the temperature gradient inherently present along the refractory lining limits penetration. A refractory in near-isothermal conditions demonstrates deeper slag penetration as compared to one that experiences a steeper thermal profile. The decrease in the local temperatures of the slag as it travels deeper into the refractory increases the viscosity of the fluid, which in turn slows the infiltration velocity of fluid body into the pores of the refractory microstructure. With feedstock mixtures that exhibit high iron-oxide concentrations, a transition-metal-oxide, the oxygen

  5. Influence of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on measurement performance in glucose-oxidase-based systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-11-01

    Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: oxygen sensitive. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Flurbiprofen axetil increases arterial oxygen partial pressure by decreasing intrapulmonary shunt in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Jun; Xie, Yan-Hu; Wang, Di; Chen, Kun-Zhou

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether flurbiprofen axetil (FA) alleviates hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV) by reducing the pulmonary shunt/total perfusion (Q s/Q t) ratio, and examined the relationship between the Q s/Q t ratio and the thromboxane B2 (TXB2)/6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α) ratio. Sixty patients undergoing esophageal resection for carcinoma were randomly assigned to groups F and C (n = 30 for each group). FA and placebo were administered i.v. 15 min before skin incision in groups F and C, respectively. The partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) was measured and the Q s/Q t ratio was calculated. Serum TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α, and endothelin (ET) were measured by radioimmunoassay. The relationship between TXB2/6-K-PGF1α and Q s/Q t was investigated. Compared with group C, PaO2 was higher and the Q s/Q t ratio was lower during OLV in group F (P < 0.05). After treatment with FA, both serum TXB2 and 6-K-PGF1α decreased significantly (P < 0.05) but the TXB2/6-K-PGF1α ratio increased significantly (P < 0.01). Increases in the TXB2/6-K-PGF1α ratio were correlated with reductions in the Q s/Q t ratio during OLV in group F (r = -0.766, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in serum ET between groups F and C. Treatment with FA reduced the Q s/Q t ratio and further increased the PaO2 level during OLV, possibly due to upregulation of the vasoactive agent TXB2/6-K-PGF1α ratio.

  7. Multi frequency phase fluorimetry (MFPF) for oxygen partial pressure measurement: ex vivo validation by polarographic clark-type electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Stefan; Duenges, Bastian; Klein, Klaus U; Hartwich, Volker; Mayr, Beate; Consiglio, Jolanda; Baumgardner, James E; Markstaller, Klaus; Basciani, Reto; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) at high temporal resolution remains a technological challenge. This study introduces a novel PO2 sensing technology based on Multi-Frequency Phase Fluorimetry (MFPF). The aim was to validate MFPF against polarographic Clark-type electrode (CTE) PO2 measurements. MFPF technology was first investigated in N = 8 anaesthetised pigs at FIO2 of 0.21, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. At each FIO2 level, blood samples were withdrawn and PO2 was measured in vitro with MFPF using two FOXY-AL300 probes immediately followed by CTE measurement. Secondly, MFPF-PO2 readings were compared to CTE in an artificial circulatory setup (human packed red blood cells, haematocrit of 30%). The impacts of temperature (20, 30, 40°C) and blood flow (0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0 L min(-1)) on MFPF-PO2 measurements were assessed. MFPF response time in the gas- and blood-phase was determined. Porcine MFPF-PO2 ranged from 63 to 749 mmHg; the corresponding CTE samples from 43 to 712 mmHg. Linear regression: CTE = 15.59+1.18*MFPF (R(2) = 0.93; P0.05). MFPF response-time (monoexponential) was 1.48±0.26 s for the gas-phase and 1.51±0.20 s for the blood-phase. MFPF-derived PO2 readings were reproducible and showed excellent correlation and good agreement with Clark-type electrode-based PO2 measurements. There was no relevant impact of temperature and blood flow upon MFPF-PO2 measurements. The response time of the MFPF FOXY-AL300 probe was adequate for real-time sensing in the blood phase.

  8. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure on Oxidation Behavior of CMnSi TRIP Steel in an Oxidation-Reduction Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Hwan; Huh, Joo-Youl [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Soo; Kim, Jong-Sang [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    An oxidation-reduction scheme is an alternative approach for improving the galvanizability of advanced high-strength steel in the continuous hot-dip galvanizing process. Here, we investigated the effect of oxygen partial pressure (Po{sub 2}) on the oxidation behavior of a transformation-induced plasticity steel containing 1.5 wt% Si and 1.6 wt% Mn during heating to and holding for 60 s at 700 ℃ under atmospheres with various Po{sub 2} values. Irrespective of Po{sub 2}, a thin amorphous Si-rich layer of Si-Mn-O was formed underneath the Fe oxide scale (a Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} bilayer) in the heating stage. In contrast to Si, Mn tended to segregate at the scale surface as (Fe,Mn){sub 2}O{sub 3}. The multilayered structure of (Fe,Mn){sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/amorphous Si-Mn-O remained even after extended oxidizing at 700 ℃ for 60 s. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was the dominantly growing oxide phase in the scale. The enhanced growth rate of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increasing Po{sub 2} resulted in the formation of more Kirkendall voids in the amorphous Si-rich layer and a less Mn segregation at the scale surface. The mechanisms underlying the absence of FeO and the formation of Kirkendall voids are discussed.

  9. [Simultaneous determination of oxygen partial pressure in the scala tympani, electrocochleography and blood pressure values in the guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, K; Lamm, C; Lamm, H; Schumann, K

    1989-02-01

    Nineteen guinea pigs were exposed to impulse noise from gunfire (G3 of the Federal German Army, 156 dB peak SPL), 6+6 shots or 12+6 shots, with a 3-s pulse interval. For simultaneous measurements of pO2, cochlea microphonics (CM) and compound action potentials of the auditory nerve (CAP), we used the thin 0.5 microns microcoaxial needle electrode described by Baumgaertl and Luebbers, which was placed through the roundwindow membrane into the scala tympani to a depth of 1000 microns. After exposure to the first 6 or 12 gunshots, the pO2 increased by about 20% of the original values in 12 guinea pigs (63%). In the following 30 min of recovery time the pO2 decreased, stabilized or showed a further decline. There were only 3 animals with a pO2 loss of 70% of the original values. Most animals showed a decline of 25% at the end of the recovery period. In all animals after 6 additional shots, the pO2 only decreased by another 5% of the original values. Amplitudes of CM and CAP were reduced by about 40% of the original values after 6 or 12 shots and by another 20%-24% (CM) and 5%-15% (CAP) after 6 additional shots. The intra-arterial blood pressure in the common carotid artery remained constant. The results are discussed with respect to the well-known morphological damage, subsequent ion imbalance and hypoxia within the cortilymph after exposure to gunfire. These changes are reflected in the loss of CMs and CAPs.

  10. SrRuO3 thin films grown on MgO substrates at different oxygen partial pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Bin; Petrov, Peter K.; Alford, Neil McN.

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive study of SrRuO3 thin films growth on (001) MgO substrates by pulsed laser deposition in a wide oxygen pressure range from 10 to 300 mTorr was carried out. The experimental results showed a correlation between the lattice constants

  11. Ultra smooth NiO thin films on flexible plastic (PET) substrate at room temperature by RF magnetron sputtering and effect of oxygen partial pressure on their properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandy, S.; Goswami, S.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Transparent p-type nickel oxide thin films were grown on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering technique in argon + oxygen atmosphere with different oxygen partial pressures at room temperature. The morphology of the NiO thin films grown on PET and glass substrates was studied by atomic force microscope. The rms surface roughnesses of the films were in the range 0.63-0.65 nm. These ultra smooth nanocrystalline NiO thin films are useful for many applications. High resolution transmission electron microscopic studies revealed that the grains of NiO films on the highly flexible PET substrate were purely crystalline and spherical in shape with diameters 8-10 nm. XRD analysis also supported these results. NiO films grown on the PET substrates were found to have better crystalline quality with fewer defects than those on the glass substrates. The sheet resistances of the NiO films deposited on PET and glass substrates were not much different; having values 5.1 and 5.3 kΩ/□ and decreased to 3.05, 3.1 kΩ/□ respectively with increasing oxygen partial pressure. The thicknesses of the films on both substrates were ∼700 nm. It was also noted that further increase in oxygen partial pressure caused increase in resistivity due to formation of defects in NiO.

  12. Structure and Electrical Properties of NdBa2Cu3Oy Thin Films by Laser Ablation at Low Oxygen Partial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mozhaev, Peter B.; Mozhaeva, Julia; Khoryushin, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    in the film can be suppressed by an increase of the deposition temperature or by a decrease of the oxygen partial pressure during deposition. The presence of Nd/Ba disorder during deposition stimulates the introduction of oxygen into the growing film. A simple model is proposed for estimation of oxygen......A deposition process for NdBa2Cu3Oy thin films by laser ablation at decreased deposition temperature was developed using substitution of oxygen with argon in the chamber during deposition. A low deposition rate is the crucial factor to obtain high-quality NBCO films. The Nd/Ba cation disorder...... contents in the film using structural parameters measured with XRD techniques. Studies of the post-deposition annealing process showed ordering of the Nd/Ba sub-lattice and intense oxygen in- and out-diffusion. The temperature of the post-deposition annealing step should be chosen low enough (∼400 °C...

  13. Alteration of striatal dopamine levels under various partial pressure of oxygen in pre-convulsive and convulsive phases in freely-moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoute, Cécile; Weiss, Michel; Risso, Jean-Jacques; Rostain, Jean-Claude

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in the striatal dopamine (DA) level in freely-moving rat exposed to different partial pressure of oxygen (from 1 to 5 ATA). Some works have suggested that DA release by the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons in the striatum could be disturbed by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) exposure, altering therefore the basal ganglia activity. Such changes could result in a change in glutamatergic and GABAergic control of the dopaminergic neurons into the SNc. Such alterations could provide more information about the oxygen-induced seizures observed at 5 ATA in rat. DA-sensitive electrodes were implanted into the striatum under general anesthesia. After 1 week rest, awaked rats were exposed to oxygen-nitrogen mixture at a partial pressure of oxygen of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ATA. DA level was monitored continuously (every 3 min) by in vivo voltammetry before and during HBO exposure. HBO induced a decrease in DA level in relationship to the increase in partial pressure of oxygen from 1 ATA to 4 ATA (-15 % at 1 ATA, -30 % at 2 ATA, -40 % at 3 ATA, -45 % at 4 ATA), without signs of oxygen toxicity. At 5 ATA, DA level strongly decreases (-75 %) before seizure which occurred after 27 min ± 7 HBO exposure. After the epileptic seizure the decrease in DA level disappeared. These changes and the biphasic effect of HBO were discussed in function of HBO action on neurochemical regulations of the nigro striatal pathway.

  14. Effect of low oxygen partial pressure to the bumblebee respiration; Naruhanabachi ni okeru taikichu sanso bun'atsu henka no kokyu ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komai, Y. [Japan Science and Technology Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-25

    Insects augment oxygen supply using convective transport during flight in two ways: with deforming tracheae by surrounding muscles movement (muscle pumping) and with contracting air sacs by exoskeleton movement (abdominal or thoracic pumping). However, because induced flow inside tracheae is difficult to measure, it is not known how the convective transport actually contributes. By comparison between direct measurement of oxygen partial pressure in a flight muscle based on electrochemical method and flight/ventilation activities in a bumblebee, Bumbus hypocrita hypocruta, a method was developed for estimating gas transport efficiency. Oxygen partial pressure, P{sub 02}, in the bee periodically fluctuated with discontinuous abdominal movement in normal air. While the P{sub 02} strongly varied among individuals in normal air, the P{sub 02} took a unique value in oxygen poor air ({<=}8%). By enhancing ventilation, the bee could respire in an oxygen poor atmosphere up to 2%. Furthermore, the bee could fly in an atmosphere of 6%, in which the P{sub 02} decreased to 0.7%. Estimated efficiency of the gas transport increases with atmospheric oxygen concentration decreases. (author)

  15. High temperature mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under low partial pressures of oxygen: application to the fuel cladding of gas fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hun, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the different Generation IV concepts under investigation for energy production. SiC/SiC composites are candidates of primary interest for a GFR fuel cladding use, thanks to good corrosion resistance among other properties. The mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under operating conditions have to be identified and quantified as the corrosion can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite. An experimental device has been developed to study the oxidation of silicon carbide under high temperature and low oxygen partial pressure. The results pointed out that not only parabolic oxidation, but also interfacial reactions and volatilization occur under such conditions. After determining the kinetics of each mechanism, as functions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature, the data are used for the modeling of the composites oxidation. The model will be used to predict the lifetime of the composite in operating conditions. (author) [fr

  16. Time required for partial pressure of arterial oxygen equilibration during mechanical ventilation after a step change in fractional inspired oxygen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, N; Tuŏrul, M; Demirarslan, A; Nahum, A; Adams, A; Akýncý, O; Esen, F; Telci, L

    2001-04-01

    To determine the time required for the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to reach equilibrium after a 0.20 increment or decrement in fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) during mechanical ventilation. A multi-disciplinary ICU in a university hospital. Twenty-five adult, non-COPD patients with stable blood gas values (PaO2/FIO2 > or = 180 on the day of the study) on pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). Following a baseline PaO2 (PaO2b) measurement at FIO2 = 0.35, the FIO2 was increased to 0.55 for 30 min and then decreased to 0.35 without any other change in ventilatory parameters. Sequential blood gas measurements were performed at 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min in both periods. The PaO2 values measured at the 30th min after a step change in FIO2 (FIO2 = 0.55, PaO2[55] and FIO2 = 0.35, PaO2[35]) were accepted as representative of the equilibrium values for PaO2. Each patient's rise and fall in PaO2 over time, PaO2(t), were fitted to the following respective exponential equations: PaO2b + (PaO2[55]-PaO2b)(1-e-kt) and PaO2[55] + (PaO2[35]-PaO2[55])(e-kt) where "t" refers to time, PaO2[55] and PaO2[35] are the final PaO2 values obtained at a new FIO2 of 0.55 and 0.35, after a 0.20 increment and decrement in FIO2, respectively. Time constant "k" was determined by a non-linear fitting curve and 90% oxygenation times were defined as the time required to reach 90% of the final equilibrated PaO2 calculated by using the non-linear fitting curves. Time constant values for the rise and fall periods were 1.01 +/- 0.71 min-1, 0.69 +/- 0.42 min-1, respectively, and 90% oxygenation times for rises and falls in PaO2 periods were 4.2 +/- 4.1 min-1 and 5.5 +/- 4.8 min-1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the rise and fall periods for the two parameters (p > 0.05). We conclude that in stable patients ventilated with PCV, after a step change in FIO2 of 0.20, 5-10 min will be adequate for obtaining a blood gas sample to measure a Pa

  17. Multi Frequency Phase Fluorimetry (MFPF) for Oxygen Partial Pressure Measurement: Ex Vivo Validation by Polarographic Clark-Type Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Stefan; Duenges, Bastian; Klein, Klaus U.; Hartwich, Volker; Mayr, Beate; Consiglio, Jolanda; Baumgardner, James E.; Markstaller, Klaus; Basciani, Reto; Vogt, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Measurement of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) at high temporal resolution remains a technological challenge. This study introduces a novel PO2 sensing technology based on Multi-Frequency Phase Fluorimetry (MFPF). The aim was to validate MFPF against polarographic Clark-type electrode (CTE) PO2 measurements. Methodology/Principal Findings MFPF technology was first investigated in N = 8 anaesthetised pigs at FIO2 of 0.21, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0. At each FIO2 level, blood samples were withdrawn and PO2 was measured in vitro with MFPF using two FOXY-AL300 probes immediately followed by CTE measurement. Secondly, MFPF-PO2 readings were compared to CTE in an artificial circulatory setup (human packed red blood cells, haematocrit of 30%). The impacts of temperature (20, 30, 40°C) and blood flow (0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2, 4.0 L min−1) on MFPF-PO2 measurements were assessed. MFPF response time in the gas- and blood-phase was determined. Porcine MFPF-PO2 ranged from 63 to 749 mmHg; the corresponding CTE samples from 43 to 712 mmHg. Linear regression: CTE = 15.59+1.18*MFPF (R2 = 0.93; PPO2 ranged from 20 to 567 mmHg and CTE samples from 11 to 575 mmHg. Linear regression: CTE = −8.73+1.05*MFPF (R2 = 0.99; PPO2 due to variations of temperature were less than 6 mmHg (range 0–140 mmHg) and less than 35 mmHg (range 140–750 mmHg); differences due to variations in blood flow were less than 15 mmHg (all P-values>0.05). MFPF response-time (monoexponential) was 1.48±0.26 s for the gas-phase and 1.51±0.20 s for the blood-phase. Conclusions/Significance MFPF-derived PO2 readings were reproducible and showed excellent correlation and good agreement with Clark-type electrode-based PO2 measurements. There was no relevant impact of temperature and blood flow upon MFPF-PO2 measurements. The response time of the MFPF FOXY-AL300 probe was adequate for real-time sensing in the blood phase. PMID:23565259

  18. The Effect of Sintering Oxygen Partial Pressure on a SmBiO3 Buffer Layer for Coated Conductors via Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of high-temperature YBa2Cu3O7−δ (YBCO superconducting material is a considerable prospect for the growing energy shortages. Here, SmBiO3 (SBO films were deposited on (100-orientated yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ simple crystal substrates via the chemical solution deposition (CSD approach for coated conductors, and the effects of sintering oxygen partial pressure on SBO films were studied. The crystalline structures and surface morphologies of SBO films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and atomic force microscope (AFM. The optimized growth temperature, the intensity ratios of the SBO (200 peak to the SBO (111 peak, and the crystallinities of SBO films increased with the sintering oxygen partial pressure. The SEM and AFM images displayed a smooth and well-distributed surface in the argon atmosphere. The subsequent YBCO films with superconducting transition temperatures (Tc = 89.5 K, 90.2 K, and 86.2 K and critical current densities (Jc = 0.88 MA/cm2, 1.69 MA/cm2, and 0.09 MA/cm2; 77 K, self-field were deposited to further check the qualities of the SBO layer. These results indicated that sintering oxygen partial pressure had an effect on the epitaxial growth of the SBO buffer layer and YBCO superconducting properties. The experimental results may be a usable reference for the epitaxial growth of YBCO-coated conductors and other oxides.

  19. The Ratio of Partial Pressure Arterial Oxygen and Fraction of Inspired Oxygen 1 Day After Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Onset Can Predict the Outcomes of Involving Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Cheng; Sung, Mei-I; Liu, Hsiao-Hua; Chen, Chin-Ming; Chiang, Shyh-Ren; Liu, Wei-Lun; Chao, Chien-Ming; Ho, Chung-Han; Weng, Shih-Feng; Hsing, Shu-Chen; Cheng, Kuo-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The initial hypoxemic level of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) defined according to Berlin definition might not be the optimal predictor for prognosis. We aimed to determine the predictive validity of the stabilized ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) following standard ventilator setting in the prognosis of patients with ARDS.This prospective observational study was conducted in a single tertiary medical center in Taiwan and compared the stabilized PaO2/FiO2 ratio (Day 1) following standard ventilator settings and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio on the day patients met ARDS Berlin criteria (Day 0). Patients admitted to intensive care units and in accordance with the Berlin criteria for ARDS were collected between December 1, 2012 and May 31, 2015. Main outcome was 28-day mortality. Arterial blood gas and ventilator setting on Days 0 and 1 were obtained.A total of 238 patients met the Berlin criteria for ARDS were enrolled, and they were classified as mild (n = 50), moderate (n = 125), and severe (n = 63) ARDS, respectively. Twelve (5%) patients who originally were classified as ARDS did not continually meet the Berlin definition, and a total of 134 (56%) patients had the changes regarding the severity of ARDS from Day 0 to Day 1. The 28-day mortality rate was 49.1%, and multivariate analysis identified age, PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1, number of organ failures, and positive fluid balance within 5 days as significant risk factors of death. Moreover, the area under receiver-operating curve for mortality prediction using PaO2/FiO2 on Day 1 was significant higher than that on Day 0 (P = 0.016).PaO2/FiO2 ratio on Day 1 after applying mechanical ventilator is a better predictor of outcomes in patients with ARDS than those on Day 0.

  20. The structural phase diagram and oxygen equilibrium partial pressure of YBa 2Cu 3O 6+ x studied by neutron powder diffraction and gas volumetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, N. H.; Lebech, B.; Poulsen, H. F.

    1990-12-01

    An experimental technique based on neutron powder diffraction and gas volumetry is presented and used to study the structural phase diagram of YBa 2Cu 3O 6+ x under equilibrium conditions in an extended part of ( x, T)-phase (0.15< x<0.92 and 25° C< T<725°C). Our experimental observations lend strong support to a recent two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour Ising model calculation (the ASYNNNI model) of the basal plane oxygen ordering based of first principle interaction parameters. Simultaneous measurements of the oxygen equilibrium partial pressure show anomalies, one of which proves the thermodynamic stability of the orthorhombic OII double cell structure. Striking similarity with predictions of recent model calculations support that another anomaly may be interpreted to result from local one-dimensional fluctuations in the distribution of oxygen atoms in the basal plane of tetragonal YBCO. Our pressure data also indicate that x=0.92 is a maximum obtainable oxygen concentration for oxygen pressures below 760 Torr.

  1. [Observation on changes of oxygen partial pressure in the deep tissues along the large intestine meridian during acupuncture in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Hu, Xiang-long; Wu, Zu-xing

    2010-06-01

    To observe changes of the partial oxygen pressure in the deep tissues along the Large Intestine Meridian (LIM) during acupuncture stimulation, so as to reveal the characteristics of energy metabolism in the tissues along the LIM. Thirty-one healthy volunteer subjects were enlisted in the present study. Partial oxygen pressure (POP) in the tissues (at a depth of about 1.5 cm) of acupoints Binao (LI 14), Shouwuli (LI 13), Shousanli (LI 10), 2 non-acupoints [the midpoints between Quchi (LI 11) and LI 14, and between Yangxi (LI 5) and LI 11) of the LIM, and 10 non-meridian points, 1.5-2.0 cm lateral and medial to each of the tested points of the LIM was detected before, during and after electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of Hegu (LI 4) by using a tissue oxygen tension needle-like sensor. In normal condition, the POP values in the deep tissues along the LIM were significantly higher than those of the non-meridian control points on its bilateral sides. During and after EA of Hegu (LI 4), the POP levels decreased significantly in the deep tissues along the LIM in comparison with pre-EA (P 0.05). POP is significantly higher in the deep tissues along the LIM of healthy subjects under normal conditions, which can be downregulated by EA of Hegu (LI 4), suggesting an increase of both the utilization rate of oxygen and energy metabolism after EA.

  2. Oxygen partial pressure treatment of the electron-doped superconductor (Nd0.92Ce0.08)2CuO4-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Ami, T.; Isobe, M.; Tanaka, M.

    1992-01-01

    The condition under which the superconducting phase in (Nd 1-x Ce x ) 2 CuO 4-δ with x=0.08 is obtained was determined in the 1/T-log Po 2 phase diagram using an oxygen partial pressure (Po 2 ) controllable heat treatment system in conjunction with a quench system. The superconducting area is very narrow and is adjacent to the area of significant decomposition. We determined that the a-axis lattice constant increased slightly as the character of the electric conduction changed from semiconductive to metallic. (orig.)

  3. Oxygen partial pressure treatment of the electron-doped superconductor (Nd0.92Ce0.08)2CuO4-δ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; Ami, T.; Isobe, M.; Tanaka, M.

    1992-01-01

    The condition under which the superconducting phase in (Nd 1-x Ce x ) 2 CuO 4-δ with x = 0.08 is obtained was determined in the 1/T-log Po 2 phase diagram using an oxygen partial pressure (Po 2 ) controllable heat treatment system in conjunction with a quench system. The superconducting area is very narrow and is adjacent to the area of significant decomposition. In this paper, the authors determined that the a-axis lattice constant increased slightly as the character of the electric conduction changed from semiconductive to metallic

  4. Study of the ZrO2-FeO-Fe2O3 system by thermogravimetry in partial pressure of oxygen and temperatures up to 15000C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, R.H.; Kiminami, A.

    1987-01-01

    The dissociation of iron oxide in the ZrO 2 -FeO-Fe 2 O 3 system was investigated in function of the temperature and the constant partial pressure of oxygen by thermal gravimetric analysis. The equilibrium diagram was constructed where the equilibrium relation between the solid phase of zirconium oxide, hematite and magnetite in 1437 0 C and PO 2 = 0.21 atm/m, as well as the equilibrium relation between the solid phase of zirconium oxide and hematite in lower temperatures than 1437 0 C were determined [pt

  5. Synthesis of mixed-valent {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs under controlled partial oxygen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Shaun R.; Blakely, Colin K. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Poltavets, Viktor V., E-mail: poltavets@chemistry.msu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Synthesis of mixed valent compounds, especially when multiple polymorphs exist, requires careful control of the preparation conditions. {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). pO{sub 2} regions of stability at 850 Degree-Sign C were determined for both phases for the first time. A modified oxygen buffer method was developed for the facile preparation of mixed valent oxides under controlled pO{sub 2}. {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the only known n=2 member of the AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} (A=alkali metal, M=3d metal) rock-salt related homolog series with layered cation ordering. The possibility of new members of the homolog series with other 3d metals is considered. - Graphical abstract: Schematic section of phase composition vs. partial O{sub 2} pressure diagram at 850 Degree-Sign C for Na/Fe=1/2 and structure models of {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled oxygen pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has rock-salt related structure with layered cation ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existence of the rock-salt related homolog series AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} is discussed.

  6. Advanced STEM/EDX investigation on an oxide scale thermally grown on a high-chromium iron–nickel alloy under very low oxygen partial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latu-Romain, L.; Madi, Y.; Mathieu, S.; Robaut, F.; Petit, J.-P.; Wouters, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A scale grown on a high-chromium iron–nickel alloy under low oxygen partial pressure was studied. • STEM-EDX maps at high resolution on a transversal thin lamella have been conducted. • The real complexity of the oxide layer has been highlighted. • These results explain the elevated number of semiconducting contributions. - Abstract: A thermal oxide scale has been grown on a high-chromium iron-nickel alloy under very low oxygen partial pressure (1050 °C, 10"−"1"0 Pa). In this paper, a special attention has been paid to morphological and chemical characterizations of the scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis at high resolution on a cross-section thin lamella beforehand prepared by using a combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope instrument. The complexity of the oxide layer is highlighted, and the correlation between the present results and the ones of a photoelectrochemical study is discussed.

  7. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the density of antiphase boundaries in Fe3O4 thin films on Si(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suraj Kumar; Husain, Sajid; Kumar, Ankit; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2018-02-01

    Polycrystalline Fe3O4 thin films were grown on Si(100) substrate by reactive DC sputtering at different oxygen partial pressures PO2 for controlling the growth associated density of antiphase boundaries (APBs). The micro-Raman analyses were performed to study the structural and electronic properties in these films. The growth linked changes in the APBs density are probed by electron-phonon coupling strength (λ) and isothermal magnetization measurements. The estimated values of λ are found to vary from 0.39 to 0.56 with the increase in PO2 from 2.2 × 10-5 to 3.0 × 10-5 Torr, respectively. The saturation magnetization (saturation field) values are found to increase (decrease) from 394 (5.9) to 439 (3.0) emu/cm3 (kOe) with the increase in PO2 . The sharp Verwey transition (∼120 K), low saturation field, high saturation magnetization and low value of λ (comparable to the bulk value ∼0.51) clearly affirm the negligible amount of APBs in the high oxygen partial pressure deposited thin films.

  8. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on the microstructural, optical and gas sensing characterization of nanostructured Gd doped ceria thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural properties of 10 mol% gadolinium doped ceria (CeO2 thin films that were deposited on quartz substrate at substrate temperature of 1023 K by using pulsed laser deposition with different oxygen partial pressures in the range of 50–200 mTorr. The influence of oxygen partial pressure on microstructural, morphological, optical and gas sensing characterization of the thin films was systematically studied. The microstructure of the thin films was investigated using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Morphological studies have been carried out using scanning electron microscope. The experimental results confirmed that the films were polycrystalline in nature with cubic fluorite structure. Optical properties of the thin films were examined using UV–vis spectrophotometer. The optical band gap calculated from Tauc’s relation. Gas sensing characterization has been carried at different operating temperatures (room temperature to 523 K for acetone gas. Response and recovery times of the sensor were calculated using transient response plot.

  9. Fabrication of lead-free piezoelectric Li2CO3-added (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 ceramics under controlled low oxygen partial pressure and their properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noritake, Kouta; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yuitoo, Isamu; Takeuchi, Teruaki; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yogo, Toshinobu

    2018-02-01

    Reduction-resistant lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 piezoceramics with high piezoelectric constants were fabricated by optimizing the amount of Li2CO3 added. Oxygen partial pressure was controlled during the sintering of (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Sn)O3 ceramics in a reducing atmosphere using H2-CO2 gas. Enhanced grain growth and a high-polarization state after poling treatment were achieved by adding Li2CO3. Optimizing the amount of Li2CO3 added to (Ba0.95Ca0.05)(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O3 ceramics sintered under a low oxygen partial pressure resulted in improved piezoelectric properties while maintaining the high sintered density. The prepared Li2CO3-added ceramic samples had homogeneous microstructures with a uniform dispersion of each major constituent element. However, the residual Li content in the 3 mol % Li2CO3-added (Ba0.95Ca0.05)(Ti0.95Sn0.05)O3 ceramics after sintering was less than 0.3 mol %. Sintered bodies of this ceramic prepared in a CO2 (1.5%)-H2 (0.3%)/Ar reducing atmosphere (PO2 = 10-8 atm at 1350 °C), exhibited sufficient electrical resistivity and a piezoelectric constant (d 33) exceeding 500 pC/N. The piezoelectric properties of this nonreducible ceramic were comparable or superior to those of the same ceramic sintered in air.

  10. A method for measuring brain partial pressure of oxygen in unanesthetized unrestrained subjects: the effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on brain tissue PO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, E; Natah, Siraj; Srinivasan, Sathyanarayanan; Dunn, Jeff F

    2010-11-30

    The level of tissue oxygenation provides information related to the balance between oxygen delivery, oxygen utilization, tissue reactivity and morphology during physiological conditions. Tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PtO(2)) is influenced by the use of anesthesia or restraint. These factors may impact the absolute level of PtO(2). In this study we present a novel fiber optic method to measure brain PtO(2). This method can be used in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals, provides absolute values for PO(2), has a stable calibration, does not consume oxygen and is MRI compatible. Brain PtO(2) was studied during acute hypoxia, as well as before and after 28 days of high altitude acclimatization. A sensor was chronically implanted in the frontal cortex of eight Wistar rats. It is comprised of a fiber optic probe with a tip containing material that fluoresces with an oxygen dependent lifetime. Brain PtO(2) declines by 80% and 76% pre- and post-acclimatization, respectively, when the fraction of inspired oxygen declines from 0.21 to 0.08. In addition, a linear relationship between brain PtO(2) and inspired O(2) levels was demonstrated r(2)=0.98 and r(2)=0.99 (pre- and post-acclimatization). Hypoxia acclimatization resulted in an increase in the overall brain PtO(2) by approximately 35%. This paper demonstrates the use of a novel chronically implanted fiber optic based sensor for measuring absolute PtO(2). It shows a very strong linear relationship in awake animals between inspired O(2) and tissue O(2), and shows that there is a proportional increase in PtO(2) over a range of inspired values after exposure to chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Transmission of arterial oxygen partial pressure oscillations to the cerebral microcirculation in a porcine model of acute lung injury caused by cyclic recruitment and derecruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, K U; Boehme, S; Hartmann, E K; Szczyrba, M; Heylen, L; Liu, T; David, M; Werner, C; Markstaller, K; Engelhard, K

    2013-02-01

    Cyclic recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) play a key role in the pathomechanism of acute lung injury (ALI) leading to respiration-dependent oscillations of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pa(O(2))). These Pa(O(2)) oscillations could also be forwarded to the cerebral microcirculation. In 12 pigs, partial pressure of oxygen was measured in the thoracic aorta (Pa(O(2))) and subcortical cerebral tissue (Pbr(O(2))). Cerebral cortical haemoglobin oxygen saturation (Sbr(O(2))), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and peripheral haemoglobin saturation (Sp(O(2))) were assessed by spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. Measurements at different fractions of inspired oxygen (F(I(O(2)))) were performed at baseline and during cyclic R/D. frequency domain analysis, the Mann-Whitney test, linear models to test the influence of Pa(O(2)) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) oscillations on cerebral measurements. Parameters [mean (SD)] remained stable during baseline. Pa(O(2)) oscillations [10.6 (8) kPa, phase(reference)], systemic arterial pressure (SAP) oscillations [20 (9) mm Hg, phase(Pa(O(2))-SAP) -33 (72)°], and Sp(O(2))oscillations [1.9 (1.7)%, phase(Pa(O(2))-Sp(O(2))) 264 (72)°] were detected during lung R/D at 1.0. Pa(O(2)) oscillations decreased [2.7 (3.5) kPa, P=0.0008] and Sp(O(2)) oscillations increased [6.8 (3.9)%, P=0.0014] at F(I(O(2))) 0.3. In the brain, synchronized Pbr(O(2)) oscillations [0.6 (0.4) kPa, phase(Pa(O(2))-Pbr(O(2))) 90 (39)°], Sbr(O(2)) oscillations [4.1 (1.5)%, phase(Pa(O(2))-Sbr(O(2))) 182 (54)°], and CBF oscillations [198 (176) AU, phase(Pa(O(2))-CBF) 201 (63)°] occurred that were dependent on Pa(O(2)) and SAP oscillations. Pa(O(2)) oscillations caused by cyclic R/D are transmitted to the cerebral microcirculation in a porcine model of ALI. These cyclic oxygen alterations could play a role in the crosstalk of acute lung and brain injury.

  12. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in helium and low-partial-pressure oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K.

    1997-01-01

    A test program is in progress to evaluate the effect of oxygen at low pO 2 on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)wt% Cr-(4-5)wt% Ti alloys. Some of the tensile specimens were precharged with oxygen at low pO 2 at 500 degrees C and reannealed in vacuum at 500 degrees C in environments with various pO 2 levels and subsequently tensile tested at room temperature. The preliminary results indicate that both approaches are appropriate for evaluating the effect of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the alloys. The data showed that in the relatively short-time tests conducted thus far, the maximum engineering stress slightly increased after oxygen exposure but the uniform and total elongation values exhibited significant decrease after exposure in oxygen-containing environments. The data for a specimen exposed to a helium environment were similar to those obtained in low pO 2 environments

  13. Oxygen Partial Pressure Impact on Characteristics of Indium Titanium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor Fabricated via RF Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Wu, Wei-Ting; Li, Jyun-Yi

    2017-06-26

    Indium titanium zinc oxide (InTiZnO) as the channel layer in thin film transistor (TFT) grown by RF sputtering system is proposed in this work. Optical and electrical properties were investigated. By changing the oxygen flow ratio, we can suppress excess and undesirable oxygen-related defects to some extent, making it possible to fabricate the optimized device. XPS patterns for O 1s of InTiZnO thin films indicated that the amount of oxygen vacancy was apparently declined with the increasing oxygen flow ratio. The fabricated TFTs showed a threshold voltage of -0.9 V, mobility of 0.884 cm²/Vs, on-off ratio of 5.5 × 10⁵, and subthreshold swing of 0.41 V/dec.

  14. Rf-sputtered vanadium oxide thin films: effect of oxygen partial pressure on structural and electrochemical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y J; Ryu, K S; Chang, S H; Park, S C; Yoon, S M; Kim, D K

    2001-01-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films with thickness of about 2000 A have been prepared by radio frequency sputter deposition using a V sub 2 O sub 5 target in a mixed argon and oxygen atmosphere with different Ar/O sub 2 ratio ranging from 99/1 to 90/10. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopic studies show that the oxygen content higher than 5% crystallizes a stoichiometric V sub O sub 5 phase, while oxygen deficient phase is formed in the lower oxygen content. The oxygen content in the mixed Ar + O sub 2 has a significant influence on electrochemical lithium insertion/deinsertion property. The discharge-charge capacity of vanadium oxide film increases with increasing the reactive oxygen content. The V sub O sub 5 film deposited at the Ar/O sub 2 ratio of 90/10 exhibits high discharge capacity of 100 mu Ah/cm sup 2 -mu m along with good cycle performance.

  15. Measurements of partial oxygen pressure pO2 using the OxyLite system in R3327-AT tumors under isoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bixiu; Urano, Muneyasu; O'Donoghue, Joseph A; Ling, C Clifton

    2006-09-01

    The presence of oxygen-deficient tumor cells is a critical issue in cancer therapy. To identify tumor hypoxia, tissue partial oxygen pressure (pO2) can be measured directly. The OxyLite system allows determination of pO2 in tumors and permits continuous measurements of pO2 at a fixed point. In this study, this system was used to continuously measure pO2 in R3327-AT tumors in animals anesthetized with isoflurane. In addition, continuous pO2 measurement was performed in the muscle in non-tumor-bearing animals. In animals breathing isoflurane balanced by air, tumor pO2 at fixed positions decreased rapidly within 1-2 min of probe positioning but remained stable thereafter. In animals breathing isoflurane balanced by pure oxygen, tumor pO2 was higher and remained high. We also measured pO2 values at multiple positions in R3327-AT tumors of various sizes, with anesthetized animals breathing either air or pure oxygen. Our data showed that the frequency of pO2 measurements below 2.5 or 5.0 mmHg was significantly higher in animals breathing air than in animals breathing pure oxygen. Measurements in different-sized tumors showed that the mean pO2 value decreased as tumor volume increased, with the largest change occurring between tumor volumes of 100 and 200 mm3. Our data demonstrate that the OxyLite system, when used with isoflurane anesthesia, is a valuable tool in the study of tumor hypoxia.

  16. Impact of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on the performance of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Tesar, Martina; Freckmann, Guido

    2014-03-01

    The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect glucose measurements with oxygen-sensitive systems. In this study, we assessed the influence of different pO2 levels on blood glucose (BG) measurements with five glucose oxidase (GOD) systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. All selected GOD systems were indicated by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased oxygen content of the blood sample. Venous blood samples of 16 subjects (eight women, eight men; mean age, 52 years; three with type 1 diabetes, four with type 2 diabetes, and nine without diabetes) were collected. Aliquots of each sample were adjusted to the following pO2 values: ≤45 mm Hg, approximately 70 mm Hg, and ≥150 mm Hg. For each system, five consecutive measurements on each sample were performed using the same test strip lot. Relative differences between the mean BG value at a pO2 level of approximately 70 mm Hg, which was considered to be similar to pO2 values in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG value at pO2 levels ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg were calculated. The GOD systems showed mean relative differences between 11.8% and 44.5% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and between -14.6% and -21.2% at pO2 values ≥150 mm Hg. For the GDH system, the mean relative differences were -0.3% and -0.2% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg, respectively. The magnitude of the pO2 impact on BG measurements seems to vary among the tested oxygen-sensitive GOD systems. The pO2 range in which oxygen-sensitive systems operate well should be provided in the product information.

  17. The effects of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure and sevoflurane on capillary venous cerebral blood flow and oxygen saturation during craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Klaus Ulrich; Glaser, Martin; Reisch, Robert; Tresch, Achim; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin

    2009-07-01

    Intraoperative routine monitoring of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation remains a technological challenge. Using the physiological principle of carbon dioxide reactivity of cerebral vasculature, we investigated a recently developed neuromonitoring device (oxygen-to-see, O2C device) for simultaneous measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rvCBF), blood flow velocity (rvVelo), oxygen saturation (srvO2), and hemoglobin amount (rvHb) at the capillary venous level in patients subjected to craniotomy. Twenty-six neurosurgical patients were randomly assigned to anesthesia with 1.4% or 2.0% sevoflurane end-tidal concentration. After craniotomy, a fiberoptic probe was applied on a macroscopically healthy surface of cerebral tissue next to the site of surgery. Simultaneous measurements in 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth were performed in each patient during lower (35 mm Hg) and higher (45 mm Hg) levels (random order) of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2). The principle of these measurements relies on the combination of laser-Doppler flowmetry (rvCBF, rvVelo) and photo-spectrometry (srvO2, rvHb). Linear models were fitted to test changes of end points (rvCBF, rvVelo, srvO2, rvHb) in response to lower and higher levels of PaCO2, 1.4% and 2.0% sevoflurane end-tidal concentration, and 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth. RvCBF and rvVelo were elevated by PaCO2 independent of sevoflurane concentration in 2 and 8 mm depth of cerebral tissue (P oxygen was decreased by elevated PaCO2. Unchanged levels of rvHb signify that there was no blood loss during measurements. Data suggest that the device allows detection of local changes in blood flow and oxygen saturation in response to different PaCO2 levels in predominant venous cerebral microvessels.

  18. Influence of Partial Pressure of Oxygen in Blood Samples on Measurement Performance in Glucose-Oxidase-Based Systems for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark, Annette; Schmid, Christina; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Background Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect blood glucose (BG) measurements, particularly in systems that employ the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme reaction on test strips. In this study, we assessed the impact of different pO2 values on the performance of five GOx systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. Two of the GOx systems are labeled by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased blood oxygen content, while the other three GOx systems are not. Methods Aliquots of 20 venous samples were adjusted to the following pO2 values: pO2 ~70 mmHg, which is considered to be similar to pO2 in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG result at pO2 pO2 pO2 ≥150 mmHg. For both pO2 levels, relative differences of all tested GOx systems were significant (p pO2 values pO2 variations lead to clinically relevant BG measurement deviations in GOx systems, even in GOx systems that are not labeled as being oxygen sensitive. PMID:24351177

  19. Tensile properties of V-Cr-Ti alloys after exposure in helium and low-partial-pressure oxygen environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    A test program is in progress to evaluate the effect of oxygen at low pO{sub 2} on the tensile properties of V-(4-5)wt% Cr-(4-5)wt% Ti alloys. Some of the tensile specimens were precharged with oxygen at low pO{sub 2} at 500{degrees}C and reannealed in vacuum at 500{degrees}C in environments with various pO{sub 2} levels and subsequently tensile tested at room temperature. The preliminary results indicate that both approaches are appropriate for evaluating the effect of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the alloys. The data showed that in the relatively short-time tests conducted thus far, the maximum engineering stress slightly increased after oxygen exposure but the uniform and total elongation values exhibited significant decrease after exposure in oxygen-containing environments. The data for a specimen exposed to a helium environment were similar to those obtained in low pO{sub 2} environments.

  20. Tailoring nanomaterial products through electrode material and oxygen partial pressure in a mini-arc plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Shumao; Mattson, Eric C.; Lu, Ganhua; Hirschmugl, Carol; Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija; Chen Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials with controllable morphology and composition are synthesized by a simple one-step vapor condensation process using a mini-arc plasma source. Through systematic investigation of mini-arc reactor parameters, the roles of carrier gas, electrode material, and precursor on producing diverse nanomaterial products are revealed. Desired nanomaterial products, including tungsten oxide nanoparticles (NPs), tungsten oxide nanorods (NRs), tungsten oxide and tin oxide NP mixtures and pure tin dioxide NPs can thus be obtained by tailoring reaction conditions. The amount of oxygen in the reactor is critical to determining the final nanomaterial product. Without any precursor material present, a lower level of oxygen in the reactor favors the production of W 18 O 49 NRs with tungsten as cathode, while a high level of oxygen produces more round WO 3 NPs. With the presence of a precursor material, amorphous particles are favored with a high ratio of argon:oxygen. Oxygen is also found to affect tin oxide crystallization from its amorphous phase in the thermal annealing. Results from this study can be used for guiding gas phase nanomaterial synthesis in the future.

  1. Developing a Customized Perfusion Bioreactor Prototype with Controlled Positional Variability in Oxygen Partial Pressure for Bone and Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Poh Soo; Eckert, Hagen; Hess, Ricarda; Gelinsky, Michael; Rancourt, Derrick; Krawetz, Roman; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Skeletal development is a multistep process that involves the complex interplay of multiple cell types at different stages of development. Besides biochemical and physical cues, oxygen tension also plays a pivotal role in influencing cell fate during skeletal development. At physiological conditions, bone cells generally reside in a relatively oxygenated environment whereas chondrocytes reside in a hypoxic environment. However, it is technically challenging to achieve such defined, yet diverse oxygen distribution on traditional in vitro cultivation platforms. Instead, engineered osteochondral constructs are commonly cultivated in a homogeneous, stable environment. In this study, we describe a customized perfusion bioreactor having stable positional variability in oxygen tension at defined regions. Further, engineered collagen constructs were coaxed into adopting the shape and dimensions of defined cultivation platforms that were precasted in 1.5% agarose bedding. After cultivating murine embryonic stem cells that were embedded in collagen constructs for 50 days, mineralized constructs of specific dimensions and a stable structural integrity were achieved. The end-products, specifically constructs cultivated without chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), showed a significant increase in mechanical stiffness compared with their initial gel-like constructs. More importantly, the localization of osteochondral cell types was specific and corresponded to the oxygen tension gradient generated in the bioreactor. In addition, CSA in complementary with low oxygen tension was also found to be a potent inducer of chondrogenesis in this system. In summary, we have demonstrated a customized perfusion bioreactor prototype that is capable of generating a more dynamic, yet specific cultivation environment that could support propagation of multiple osteochondral lineages within a single engineered construct in vitro. Our system opens up new possibilities for in vitro research on human

  2. Changes in Oxygen Partial Pressure in the Vitreous Body and Arterial Blood of Rabbits Depending on Oxygen Concentration in Inspired Mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amkhanitskaya, L I; Nikolaeva, G V; Sokolova, N A

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrated that the vitreous body of one-month-old rabbits becomes a "reservoir" for storage and accumulation of oxygen after exposure to additional oxygenation of the organism (O2 concentrations in inspired gas mixture were 40, 60, 85, and 99%). The higher was O2 concentration in inspired mixture, the higher was oxygen saturation of the blood and vitreous body. O2 concentration of 40% was relatively safe for eye tissues. O2 concentration >60% induced oxygen accumulation in the vitreous body, which can be a provoking factor for the development of oxygen-induced pathologies.

  3. Room Temperature Optical Constants and Band Gap Evolution of Phase Pure M1-VO2 Thin Films Deposited at Different Oxygen Partial Pressures by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectroscopic ellipsometry study was employed for phase pure VO2(M1 thin films grown at different oxygen partial pressures by reactive magnetron sputtering. The optical constants of the VO2(M1 thin films have been determined in a photon energy range between 0.73 and 5.05 eV. The near-infrared extinction coefficient and optical conductivity of VO2(M1 thin films rapidly increase with decreasing O2-Ar ratios. Moreover, two electronic transitions can be uniquely assigned. The energy gaps correlated with absorption edge (E1 at varied O2-Ar ratios are almost the same (~2.0 eV; consequently, the absorption edge is not significantly changed. However, the optical band gap corresponding to semiconductor-to-metal phase transition (E2 decreases from 0.53 to 0.18 eV with decreasing O2-Ar ratios.

  4. Measurement of alveolar oxygen partial pressure in the rat lung using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill spin-spin relaxation times of hyperpolarized 3He and 129Xe at 74 mT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraayvanger, Ryan J; Bidinosti, Christopher P; Dominguez-Viqueira, William; Parra-Robles, Juan; Fox, Matthew; Lam, Wilfred W; Santyr, Giles E

    2010-11-01

    Regional measurement of alveolar oxygen partial pressure can be obtained from the relaxation rates of hyperpolarized noble gases, (3) He and (129) Xe, in the lungs. Recently, it has been demonstrated that measurements of alveolar oxygen partial pressure can be obtained using the spin-spin relaxation rate (R(2) ) of (3) He at low magnetic field strengths (oxygen partial pressure measurements based on Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill R(2) values of hyperpolarized (3) He and (129) Xe in vitro and in vivo in the rat lung at low magnetic field strength (74 mT) are presented. In vitro spin-spin relaxivity constants for (3) He and (129) Xe were determined to be (5.2 ± 0.6) × 10(-6) Pa(-1) sec(-1) and (7.3 ± 0.4) × 10(-6) Pa(-1) s(-1) compared with spin-lattice relaxivity constants of (4.0 ± 0.4) × 10(-6) Pa(-1) s(-1) and (4.3 ± 1.3) × 10(-6) Pa(-1) s(-1), respectively. In vivo experimental measurements of alveolar oxygen partial pressure using (3) He in whole rat lung show good agreement (r(2) = 0.973) with predictions based on lung volumes and ventilation parameters. For (129) Xe, multicomponent relaxation was observed with one component exhibiting an increase in R(2) with decreasing alveolar oxygen partial pressure. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that the

  6. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammoniaoxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that

  7. Thermodynamic study of the MWG system/components and measurement of the oxygen partial pressure in the heat source capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    A thermodynamic study of the Milliwatt Generator heat source capsule was performed to determine the effects of the oxide fuel on container materials at elevated temperatures in order to evaluate the factors affecting embrittlement of T-111 alloy. The study indicates that relatively slow oxidation of the T-111 of the capsule occurs during pretreatment. Yttrium added to the 238 PuO 2 fuel charge is functioning in its designed role as an oxygen getter and is stabilizing at an O/Pu ratio of 1.75. The free energy of formation of hafnium oxide has been measured and found to be -70632 cal/mole; this suggests that the ability of hafnium to strongly function as an oxygen getter may be largely determined by the kinetics, and the free energy may play a lesser role

  8. Structural phase diagram and equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of YBa2Cu3O6+x

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.H.; Lebech, B.; Poulsen, H.F.

    1990-01-01

    of the ordering of oxygen. Oxygen equilibrium partial pressure shows significant variations with temperature and concentration which indicate that x = 0.15 and x = 0.92 are minimum and maximum oxygen concentrations. Measurements of oxygen in-diffusion flow show relaxation type behaviour: View the MathML source......An experimental technique by which in-situ gas volumetric measurements are carried out on a neutron powder diffractometer, is presented and used for simultaneous studies of oxygen equilibrium partial pressure and the structural phase diagram of YBa2Cu3O6 + x. Experimental data was collected under...... near equilibrium conditions at 350 points in (x,T)-space with 0.15 gas law in connection with iodiometric titration and structural analyses. The temperature...

  9. Internal stress and opto-electronic properties of ZnO thin films deposited by reactive sputtering in various oxygen partial pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyaerts, Romain; Poncelet, Olivier; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Proost, Joris

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we propose ZnO thin films as a suitable material for piezoresistors in transparent and flexible electronics. ZnO thin films have been deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature at various oxygen partial pressures. All the films have a wurtzite structure with a strong (0002) texture measured by XRD and are almost stoichiometric as measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The effect of oxygen concentration on grain growth has been studied by in-situ multi-beam optical stress sensor, showing internal stress going from 350 MPa to -1.1 GPa. The transition between tensile and compressive stress corresponds to the transition between metallic and oxidized mode of reactive sputtering. This transition also induces a large variation in optical properties—from absorbent to transparent, and in the resistivity—from 4 × 10 - 2 Ω .cm to insulating. Finally, the piezoresistance of the thin film has been studied and showed a gauge factor (ΔR/R)/ɛ comprised between -5.8 and -8.5.

  10. The role of central venous oxygen saturation, blood lactate, and central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure difference as a goal and prognosis of sepsis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittayachamnankul, Borwon; Chentanakij, Boriboon; Sruamsiri, Kamphee; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2016-12-01

    The current practice in treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock is to ensure adequate oxygenation and perfusion in patients, along with prompt administration of antibiotics, within 6 hours from diagnosis, which is considered the "golden hour" for the patients. One of the goals of treatment is to restore normal tissue perfusion. With this goal in mind, some parameters have been used to determine the success of treatment and mortality rate; however, none has been proven to be the best predictor of mortality rate in sepsis patients. Despite growing evidence regarding the prognostic indicators for mortality in sepsis patients, inconsistent reports exist. This review comprehensively summarizes the reports regarding the frequently used parameters in sepsis including central venous oxygen saturation, blood lactate, and central venous-to-arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure difference, as prognostic indicators for clinical outcomes in sepsis patients. Moreover, consistent findings and inconsistent reports for their pathophysiology and the potential mechanisms for their use as well as their limitations in sepsis patients are presented and discussed. Finally, a schematic strategy for potential management and benefits in sepsis patients is proposed based upon these current available data. There is currently no ideal biomarker that can indicate prognosis, predict progression of the disease, and guide treatment in sepsis. Further studies are needed to be carried out to identify the ideal biomarker that has all the desired properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does intraoperative low arterial partial pressure of oxygen increase the risk of surgical site infection following emergency exploratory laparotomy in horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Farré, Cristina; Prades, Marta; Ribera, Thaïs; Valero, Oliver; Taurà, Pilar

    2014-04-01

    Decreased tissue oxygenation is a critical factor in the development of wound infection as neutrophil mediated oxidative killing is an essential mechanism against surgical pathogens. The objective of this prospective case series was to assess the impact of intraoperative arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) on surgical site infection (SSI) in horses undergoing emergency exploratory laparotomy for acute gastrointestinal disease. The anaesthetic and antibiotic protocol was standardised. Demographic data, surgical potential risk factors and PaO2, obtained 1h after induction of anaesthesia were recorded. Surgical wounds were assessed daily for infection during hospitalisation and follow up information was obtained after discharge. A total of 84 adult horses were included. SSI developed in 34 (40.4%) horses. Multivariate logistic regression showed that PaO2, anaesthetic time and subcutaneous suture material were predictors of SSI (AUC=0.76, sensitivity=71%, specificity=65%). The use of polyglycolic acid sutures increased the risk and horses with a PaO2 value 2h had the highest risk of developing SSI (OR=9.01; 95% CI 2.28-35.64). The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that low intraoperative PaO2 contributes to the development of SSI following colic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure during Active Layer Deposition on Bias Stability of a-InGaZnO TFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiao-Ming; Zhu Hong-Bo; Wang Yong-Jin; Wu Chen-Fei; Lu Hai; Ren Fang-Fang

    2015-01-01

    The effect of oxygen partial pressure (P_O_2) during the channel layer deposition on bias stability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. As P_O_2 increases from 10% to 30%, it is found that the device shows enhanced bias stress stability with significantly reduced threshold voltage drift under positive gate bias stress. Based on the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, the concentration of oxygen vacancies (O_V) within the a-IGZO layer is suppressed by increasing P_O_2. Meanwhile, the low-frequency noise analysis indicates that the average trap density near the channel/dielectric interface continuously drops with increasing P_O_2. Therefore, the improved interface quality with increasing P_O_2 during the channel layer deposition can be attributed to the reduction of interface O_V-related defects, which agrees with the enhanced bias stress stability of the a-IGZO TFTs. (paper)

  13. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on texture development in lead zirconate titanate thin films processed from metalorganic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, Jarrod L.; Liedl, Gerald L.; Slamovich, Elliott B.

    1999-01-01

    Metalorganic liquid precursors were used to examine the effects of processing atmosphere on texture development in oriented Pb(Zr 0.60 Ti 0.40 )O 3 thin films. After removal of organic ligands via pyrolysis, the films were heated at 25 degree sign C/min in a 5% H 2 /Ar atmosphere until a switching temperature, after which the atmosphere was switched to pure oxygen. The films were heated to a maximum temperature of 650 degree sign C with switching temperatures ranging from 450 to 600 degree sign C. The degree of (111) orientation in the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films increased with increasing switching temperature, resulting in highly textured (111) PZT films. These results suggest that atmosphere control plays a significant role in texture development during rapid thermal processing. (c) 1999 Materials Research Society

  14. [Simultaneous determinations of oxygen partial pressure in the scala tympani, electrocochleography and blood pressure measurements in noise stress in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, K; Lamm, C; Lamm, H; Schumann, K

    1988-09-01

    In 14 guinea pigs the pO2 in the perilymph of the scala tympani fell to 50%-80% of the original value during exposure to noise consisting of 4,000 Hz clicks with a repetition rate of 20/s, 100 dB CHL = 120 dB SPL p.e., repeated twice over a period of 24 minutes each time. For the measurements of the pO2 we used the thin 0.5 micron micro-coaxial needle electrode described by Baumgärtl and Luebbers, which was placed through the round-window membrane in the scala tympani to a depth of 600 micron. The simultaneously recorded CAP latency times were prolonged by 0.8 ms at a test loudness of 60 and 80 dB CHL. The amplitudes of the CM had declined by 60%-70% of the original values at a test loudness of 80 dB SPL p.e. The intra-arterial blood pressure in the common carotid artery of all animals remained constant. As the cortilymph spaces communicate with the perilymph of the scala tympani, our measured decline of pO2 in the perilymph could indicate a cortilymph hypoxia. During exposure to noise the oxygen-dependent Na+ and K+ pumps, which maintain the ion balance and function of the organ of Corti, can decompensate due to lack of oxygen. That would lead to a K+ contamination of the cortilymph and to an intracellular Na+ accumulation, which can cause microstructural damage (hair cell-cilia fusion, hair cell, synaptic and dendritic swelling, hair cell contraction and sustained depolarization), which would be reflected in the CMs and CAPs.

  15. Discontinuous phase formation and selective attack of SiC materials exposed to low oxygen partial pressure environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tressler, R.E.; Spear, K.E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1993-09-01

    Three SiC materials were exposed to gas mixtures containing N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO at 1000-1300C, 1-740 torr for a few to 1000 h. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that CO is the predominant oxidizing species. A variety of corrosion processes were observed, including surface and internal pit formation, needle growth, grain boundary attack, and attack of impurities and surrounding material. In the case of a siliconized SiC, impurities such as Ca, Al, and Fe diffused rapidly through the Si matrix forming complex calcium aluminosilicates on the surface, leaving behind internal voids. Evaluation of the mechanical properties, including fractography, revealed a variety of degradative phenomena. Efforts to identify causes of pit formation suggested that the overall process was complex. Pits formed during attack of grain boundaries and regions containing transition metal impurities. Studies of single crystals showed preferential attack near impurities and crystalline defects, indicating that damaged crystals or certain crystal orientations in the polycrystalline materials are susceptible to attack. In addition, under some conditions where pit formation was observed, the strength of certain materials increased apparently due to flaw healing. It is suggested that flaws can heal in the absence of mechanical stress due to their high surface energy. However, second phases observed within partially healed surface cracks suggest impurities also contribute to the flaw healing processes.

  16. Determination of optimized oxygen partial pressure to maximize the liver regenerative potential of the secretome obtained from adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Kee-Hwan; Kim, Ok-Hee; Lee, Sang Kuon; Hong, Ha-Eun; Won, Seong Su; Jeon, Sang-Jin; Choi, Byung Jo; Jeong, Wonjun; Kim, Say-June

    2017-08-03

    A hypoxic-preconditioned secretome from stem cells reportedly promotes the functional and regenerative capacity of the liver more effectively than a control secretome. However, the optimum oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) in the cell culture system that maximizes the therapeutic potential of the secretome has not yet been determined. We first determined the cellular alterations in adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) cultured under different pO 2 (21%, 10%, 5%, and 1%). Subsequently, partially hepatectomized mice were injected with the secretome of ASCs cultured under different pO 2 , and then sera and liver specimens were obtained for analyses. Of all AML12 cells cultured under different pO 2 , the AML12 cells cultured under 1% pO 2 showed the highest mRNA expression of proliferation-associated markers (IL-6, HGF, and VEGF). In the cell proliferation assay, the AML12 cells cultured with the secretome of 1% pO 2 showed the highest cell proliferation, followed by the cells cultured with the secretome of 21%, 10%, and 5% pO 2 , in that order. When injected into the partially hepatectomized mice, the 1% pO 2 secretome most significantly increased the number of Ki67-positive cells, reduced serum levels of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6 and TNF-α), and reduced serum levels of liver transaminases. In addition, analysis of the liver specimens indicated that injection with the 1% pO 2 secretome maximized the expression of the intermediate molecules of the PIP3/Akt and IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathways, all of which are known to promote liver regeneration. The data of this study suggest that the secretome of ASCs cultured under 1% pO 2 has the highest liver reparative and regenerative potential of all the secretomes tested here.

  17. Differences in mortality based on worsening ratio of partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen corrected for immune system status and respiratory support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lachlan F; Bailey, Michael; Young, Paul; Pilcher, David V

    2012-03-01

    To define the relationship between worsening oxygenation status (worst PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio in the first 24 hours after intensive care unit admission) and mortality in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent ICU patients in the presence and absence of mechanical ventilation. Retrospective cohort study. Data were extracted from the Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database. Adult patients admitted to 129 ICUs in Australasia, 2000-2010. In hospital and ICU mortality; relationship between mortality and declining PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio by ventilation status and immune status. 457 750 patient records were analysed. Worsening oxygenation status was associated with increasing mortality in all groups. Higher mortality was seen in immunosuppressed patients than immunocompetent patients. After multivariate analysis, in mechanically ventilated patients, declining PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio in the first 24 hours of ICU admission was associated with a more rapidly rising mortality rate in immunosuppressed patients than non-immunosuppressed patients. Immunosuppression did not affect the relationship between oxygenation status and mortality in non-ventilated patients. Immunosuppression increases the risk of mortality with progressively worsening oxygenation status, but only in the presence of mechanical ventilation. Further research into the impact of mechanical ventilation in immunosuppressed patients is required.

  18. The Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure on Liquidus Temperature of a High-Level Waste Glass with Spinel as the Primary Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izak, Pavel; Hrma, Pavel R.; Wilson, Benjamin K.; Vienna, John D.

    2000-01-01

    The redox state of iron affects spinal crystallization in vitrified high-level waste (HLW) glass. Simulated HLW glass with spinel as the primary crystalline phase field was heat treated at constant temperatures within the interval from 850 C to 1300 C under varying atmospheres with oxygen partial pressure, Po2, ranging from 1x10-16 kPa (pure CO) to 101 kPa (pure O2). Liquidus temperature (TL) of glass increased with decreasing Po2 up to Po2 > 3 x 10-9 kPa. At Po2 < 3 x 10-9 kPa, Ni-Fe alloy precipitated from the glass, and TL decreased. Samples were analyzed with optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The mass fraction of spinel in glass was determined using quantitative X-ray diffraction. Spinel composition was investigated with energy disperse spectroscopy. Ferrous-ferric equilibrium at TL was calculated in a HLW glass as a function of temperature and Po2, based on the previous studies by Schreiber. TL/FeO over the interval 0.0063 < gFeO < 0.051 (1x10-2 kPa < Po2 < 3x10-9 kPa) was estimated from calculated ferrous-ferric equilibrium at TL as 1835 C

  19. Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the ferroelectric properties of pulsed laser deposited Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J. P. B.; Sekhar, K. C.; Almeida, A.; Agostinho Moreira, J.; Pereira, M.; Gomes, M. J. M.

    2013-11-01

    The Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3 thin films were grown on the Pt-Si substrate at 700 °C by using a pulsed laser deposition technique at different oxygen partial pressure (PO2) in the range of 1-20 Pa and their properties were investigated. It is observed that the PO2 during the deposition plays an important role on the tetragonal distortion ratio, surface morphology, dielectric permittivity, ferroelectric polarization, switching response, and leakage currents of the films. With an increase in PO2, the in-plane strain for the BST films changes from tensile to compressive. The films grown at 7.5 Pa show the optimum dielectric and ferroelectric properties and also exhibit the good polarization stability. It is assumed that a reasonable compressive strain, increasing the ionic displacement, and thus promotes the in-plane polarization in the field direction, could improve the dielectric permittivity. The butterfly features of the capacitance-voltage ( C- V) characteristics and the bell shape curve in polarization current were attributed to the domain reversal process. The effect of pulse amplitude on the polarization reversal behavior of the BST films grown at PO2 of 7.5 Pa was studied. The peak value of the polarization current shows exponential dependence on the electric field.

  20. Partial Oxygen Pressure Affects the Expression of Prognostic Biomarkers HIF-1 Alpha, Ki67, and CK20 in the Microenvironment of Colorectal Cancer Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lirong; Hu, Yu; Xi, Ning; Song, Jie; Huang, Wenjing; Song, Shanshan; Liu, Yiting; Liu, Xianying; Xie, Yingjun

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is prognostically important in colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. Partial oxygen pressure (pO 2 ) is an important parameter of hypoxia. The correlation between pO 2 levels and expression levels of prognostic biomarkers was measured in CRC tissues. Human CRC tissues were collected and pO 2 levels were measured by OxyLite. Three methods for tissue fixation were compared, including formalin, Finefix, and Finefix-plus-microwave. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was conducted by using the avidin-biotin complex technique for detecting the antibodies to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) alpha, cytokeratin 20 (CK20), and cell proliferation factor Ki67. The levels of pO 2 were negatively associated with the size of CRC tissues. Finefix-plus-microwave fixation has the potential to replace formalin. Additionally, microwave treatment improved Finefix performance in tissue fixation and protein preservation. The percentage of positive cells and gray values of HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 were associated with CRC development ( P < 0.05). The levels of pO 2 were positively related with the gray values of Ki67 and negatively related with the values of HIF-1 alpha and CK20 ( P < 0.05). Thus, the levels of microenvironmental pO 2 affect the expression of predictive biomarkers HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 in the development of CRC tissues.

  1. Tissue oxygen partial pressure in the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with claudication before, during and after a two-stage treadmill stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, F; Krüger, A; Pindur, G; Sternitzky, R; Franke, R P; Gori, T

    2014-01-01

    The role of the microcirculation in the pathophysiology and symptoms of peripheral arterial obliterative disease (PAOD) has been progressively emphasized during the past decades. Under resting conditions, already, the tissue oxygen partial pressure in the m. tibialis anterior (pO2im) is reduced to about 50% compared to healthy subjects. In the framework of this study the pO2im of patients with PAOD stage II according to Fontaine (n=16) in the m. tibialis anterior was measured under resting conditions and during walking on a treadmill in comparison to healthy subjects (n=10). Under resting conditions the pO2im only marginally differed between PAOD patients and healthy subjects. But during exercise the pO2im dropped significantly more severely in PAOD patients and a return to baseline values could only be reached when the treadmill was stopped and the patients stood still. The pO2im minima correlated clearly with the clinical symptom of calf pain. The data revealed that the pO2im values were lower in PAOD patients and dropped significantly faster during walking compared to the pO2im values in healthy subjects. The pO2im decrease correlated with the calf pain occurring when the pO2im values approached or fell below 10 mmHg.

  2. Combining central venous-to-arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide difference and central venous oxygen saturation to guide resuscitation in septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ting; Long, Yun; Chai, Wen-Zhao; Zhou, Xiang; Rui, Xi

    2013-12-01

    Central venous oxygen saturation (Scvo2) is a useful therapeutic target when treating septic shock. We hypothesized that combining Scvo2 and central venous-to-arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide difference (△Pco2) may provide additional information about survival. We performed a retrospective analysis of 172 patients treated for septic shock. All patients were treated using goal-directed therapy to achieve Scvo2 ≥ 70%. After 6 hours of treatment, we divided patients into 4 groups based on Scvo2 (<70% or ≥ 70%) and △Pco2 (<6 mm Hg or ≥ 6 mm Hg). Overall, 28-day mortality was 35.5%. For patients in whom the Scvo2 target was not achieved at 6 hours, mortality was 50.0%, compared with 29.5% in those in whom Scvo2 exceeded 70% (P = .009). In patients with Scvo2 ≥ 70%, mortality was lower if △Pco2 was <6 mm Hg than if △Pco2 was ≥ 6 mm Hg (56.1% vs 16.1%, respectively; P < .001) and 6-hour lactate clearance was superior (0.01 ± 0.61 vs 0.21 ± 0.31, respectively; P = .016). The combination of Scvo2 and △Pco2 appears to predict outcome in critically ill patients resuscitated from septic shock better than Scvo2 alone. Patients who meet both targets appear to clear lactate more efficiently. © 2013.

  3. Evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetic stability of P-type transparent conducting oxide, SrCu2O2 under various oxygen partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Takayuki; Yanagawa, Atsumi; Hashimoto, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ▶ Thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of SrCu 2 O 2 under various P(O 2 ) was estimated. ▶ The reaction rate for decomposition decreased with decreasing temperature and P(O 2 ). ▶ The activation energy for decomposition of SrCu 2 O 2 was estimated to be 66 kJ/mol. ▶ SrCu 2 O 2 showed less stability than those of other transparent p-type semiconductors. - Abstract: Kinetic stability of transparent p-type conducting oxide, SrCu 2 O 2 , has been evaluated by using X-ray diffraction measurement and thermogravimetry. It was revealed that SrCu 2 O 2 decomposed to mixture of CuO and Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 in air at temperatures above 300 °C. The decomposition reaction rate can be successfully explained by kinetic model assuming first-order chemical reaction. The rate constant can be suppressed with decreasing temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The activation energy for decomposition reaction of SrCu 2 O 2 calculated from Arrhenius plot was 66 kJ/mol, which was lower than those of other transparent p-type semiconductors such as CuAlO 2 and CuGaO 2 . The low decomposition temperature and activation energy for decomposition indicate that chemical stability of SrCu 2 O 2 is far lower than those of other p-type conducting oxides.

  4. Partial Oxygen Pressure Affects the Expression of Prognostic Biomarkers HIF-1 Alpha, Ki67, and CK20 in the Microenvironment of Colorectal Cancer Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is prognostically important in colorectal cancer (CRC therapy. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2 is an important parameter of hypoxia. The correlation between pO2 levels and expression levels of prognostic biomarkers was measured in CRC tissues. Human CRC tissues were collected and pO2 levels were measured by OxyLite. Three methods for tissue fixation were compared, including formalin, Finefix, and Finefix-plus-microwave. Immunohistochemistry (IHC staining was conducted by using the avidin-biotin complex technique for detecting the antibodies to hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 alpha, cytokeratin 20 (CK20, and cell proliferation factor Ki67. The levels of pO2 were negatively associated with the size of CRC tissues. Finefix-plus-microwave fixation has the potential to replace formalin. Additionally, microwave treatment improved Finefix performance in tissue fixation and protein preservation. The percentage of positive cells and gray values of HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 were associated with CRC development (P<0.05. The levels of pO2 were positively related with the gray values of Ki67 and negatively related with the values of HIF-1 alpha and CK20 (P<0.05. Thus, the levels of microenvironmental pO2 affect the expression of predictive biomarkers HIF-1 alpha, CK20, and Ki67 in the development of CRC tissues.

  5. Investigations on the determination of corrosion kinetics and the structure of corrosion products on high-temperature alloys under low oxygen partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poestges, A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1979-04-01

    On three nickel-base-alloys (NIMONIC 80A, INCONNEL 617 and ALLOY 713LC), which are planned as materials for components of the primary cooling circuit of high-temperature reactors, studies for the determination of the oxidation behaviour under reactor relevant conditions were performed. The test conditions were fixed at an oxygen partial pressure of 10 -16 bars with a total pressure of 0,2 bars and a temperature of 1080 0 C. The use of the X-ray diffraction analysis on the oxidised samples of type NIMONIC 80A showed the corrosion products Cr 2 O 3 , TiO 2 and Cr 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the outer oxide coating as well as Al 2 O 3 in the inner oxide zone. The samples of the alloy type INCOEL 617 showed the oxides Cr 2 O 3 and Cr 2 Ti 2 O 7 in the outer oxide coating. Samples of the alloy ALLOY 713LC showed Cr 2 O 3 and CrNbO 4 in the outer oxide coating and Al 2 O 3 in the zone of inner oxidation. Sufficient detection certainty was only ascertained by investigating samples with plane surface. For both alloys first mentioned, it was possible to prove the validity of the paralinear relationship W = k x t -1 / 2 - a x t for the increase in weight for the explanation of the time law of the oxidation. For the non-destructive determination of the oxide coating thickness on the alloys samples, the X-ray fluorescence analysis gave reproducible results of good precision. (orig.) [de

  6. A novel, non-invasive diagnostic clinical procedure for the determination of an oxygenation status of chronic lower leg ulcers using peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure measurements: results of its application in chronic venous insufficiency (CVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnikol, Wolfgang K R; Pötzschke, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The basis for the new procedure is the simultaneous transcutaneous measurement of the peri-ulceral oxygen partial pressure (tcPO(2)), using a minimum of 4 electrodes which are placed as close to the wound margin as possible, additionally, as a challenge the patient inhales pure oxygen for approximately 15 minutes. In order to evaluate the measurement data and to characterise the wounds, two new oxygen parameters were defined: (1) the oxygen characteristic (K-PO(2)), and (2) the oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO(2)) of a chronic wound. The first of these is the arithmetic mean of the two lowest tcPO(2) measurement values, and the second is the variation coefficient of the four measurement values. Using the K-PO(2) parameter, a grading of wound hypoxia can be obtained. To begin with, the physiologically regulated (and still compensated) hypoxia with K-PO(2) values of between 35 and 40 mmHg is distinguished from the pathological decompensated hypoxia with K-PO(2) values of between 0 and 35 mmHg; the first of these still stimulates self-healing (within the limits of the oxygen balance). The decompensated hypoxia can be (arbitrarily) divided into "simple" hypoxia (Grade I), intense hypoxia (Grade II) and extreme hypoxia (Grade III), with the possibility of intermediate grades (I/II and II/III).Measurements were carried out using the new procedure on the skin of the right inner ankle of 21 healthy volunteers of various ages, and in 17 CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) wounds. Sixteen of the 17 CVI wounds (i.e., 94%) were found to be pathologically hypoxic, a state which was not found in any of the healthy volunteers. The oxygen inhomogeneity (I-PO(2)) of the individual chronic wounds increased exponentially as a function of the hypoxia grading (K-PO(2)), with a 10-fold increase with extreme hypoxia in contrast to a constant value of approximately 14% in the healthy volunteers. This pronounced oxygen inhomogeneity explains inhomogeneous wound healing, resulting in the so

  7. Control of the threshold voltage by using the oxygen partial pressure in sputter-deposited InGaZnO4 thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jeung Sun; Lee, Kwang Bae

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the controllability of the threshold voltage (V th ) by varying the O 2 partial pressure in sputter-deposited of InGaZnO 4 thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs). We showed that the V th values could be linearly controlled from a depletion-type of V th ∼ -6 V to an enhancement-type of V th ∼ 2 V, without any abrupt change in μ sat , I on/off , and S, by only changing the O 2 partial pressure in a fixed region of the Ar partial pressure. Such V th controllability is thought to be due to the proper reduction of defect states and, in turn, to the preservation of high-performance TFT behavior.

  8. Pulmonary hyperpolarized (129) Xe morphometry for mapping xenon gas concentrations and alveolar oxygen partial pressure: Proof-of-concept demonstration in healthy and COPD subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouriadov, A; Farag, A; Kirby, M; McCormack, D G; Parraga, G; Santyr, G E

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) hyperpolarized (129) Xe morphometry magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to map regional differences in lung tissue micro-structure. We aimed to generate absolute xenon concentration ([Xe]) and alveolar oxygen partial pressure (pA O2 ) maps by extracting the unrestricted diffusion coefficient (D0 ) of xenon as a morphometric parameter. In this proof-of-concept demonstration, morphometry was performed using multi b-value (0, 12, 20, 30 s/cm(2) ) DW hyperpolarized (129) Xe images obtained in four never-smokers and four COPD ex-smokers. Morphometric parameters and D0 maps were computed and the latter used to generate [Xe] and pA O2 maps. Xenon concentration phantoms estimating a range of values mimicking those observed in vivo were also investigated. Xenon D0 was significantly increased (P = 0.035) in COPD (0.14 ± 0.03 cm(2) /s) compared with never-smokers (0.12 ± 0.02 cm(2) /s). COPD ex-smokers also had significantly decreased [Xe] (COPD = 8 ± 7% versus never-smokers = 13 ± 8%, P = 0.012) and increased pA O2 (COPD = 18 ± 3% versus never-smokers = 15 ± 3%, P = 0.009) compared with never-smokers. Phantom measurements showed the expected dependence of D0 on [Xe] over the range of concentrations anticipated in vivo. DW hyperpolarized (129) Xe MRI morphometry can be used to simultaneously map [Xe] and pA O2 in addition to providing micro-structural biomarkers of emphysematous destruction in COPD. Phantom measurements of D0 ([Xe]) supported the hypotheses that differences in subjects may reflect differences in functional residual capacity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Does donor arterial partial pressure of oxygen affect outcomes after lung transplantation? A review of more than 12,000 lung transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Farhan; Khan, Muhammad S; Heinle, Jeffrey S; Adachi, Iki; McKenzie, E Dean; Schecter, Marc G; Mallory, George B; Morales, David L S

    2012-04-01

    In lung transplantation (LTx), the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)) is traditionally regarded as critical information for assessment of donor lung function. Each center sets its own thresholds; by convention, a donor PaO(2) of less than 300 mm Hg has been considered disqualifying. Limited literature exists to support such a practice. We analyzed all LTxs performed in the United States over a 9-year period to assess the effect of donor PaO(2) on graft survival. The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database was queried for LTx (January 2000-November 2009). Of 12,545 LTx performed, 12,045 (96%) had donor PaO(2) data on a fraction of inspired oxygen of 1.0, recorded at the time of procurement. Mean donor PaO(2) was 407 ± 140 mm Hg. The majority of LTxs had a donor PaO(2) greater than 300 mm Hg (9593 (80%]) whereas PaO(2) was 200 mm Hg or less in 1830 (15%) and 201 to 300 in 582 (5%) donors. Use of donors with a PaO(2) of less than 200 increased over time from 5% (45) in 2000 to 21% (295) in 2009 (P = .002). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed no difference in graft survival with differing donor PaO(2)s, irrespective of whether patients had a single or double LTx. A Cox multivariable analysis of 21 donor characteristics demonstrated that donor PaO(2) had no association with graft survival. Donor PaO(2) levels did not affect graft survival. The use of donors with lower PaO(2)s could substantially increase the donor pool. We are not suggesting that donor PaO(2) is not important when assessing potential lung donors but its level of importance in regard to other criteria appears less than previously believed. Copyright © 2012 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Arterial oxygen partial pressures reduce the insulin-dependent induction of the perivenously located glucokinase in rat hepatocyte cultures: mimicry of arterial oxygen pressures by H2O2.

    OpenAIRE

    Kietzmann, T; Roth, U; Freimann, S; Jungermann, K

    1997-01-01

    Liver glucokinase (GK) is localized predominantly in the perivenous zone. GK mRNA was induced by insulin maximally under venous O2 partial pressure (pO2) and only half-maximally under arterial pO2. CoCl2 and desferrioxamine mimicked venous pO2 and enhanced the insulin-dependent induction of GK mRNA under arterial pO2. H2O2 mimicked arterial pO2 and reduced insulin-induced GK mRNA under venous pO2 to the lower arterial levels. Thus the zonal O2 gradient in liver seems to have a key role in the...

  11. Oxygen partial pressure modulates 67-kDa laminin receptor expression, leading to altered activity of the green tea polyphenol, EGCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Yamashita, Shuya; Kim, Yoon Hee; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Huang, Yuhui; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2012-09-21

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) exhibits anti-tumor activity mediated via the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR). In this study, we found that 67LR protein levels are reduced by exposure to low O(2) levels (5%), without affecting the expression of HIF-1α. We also found that EGCG-induced anti-cancer activity is abrogated under low O(2) levels (5%) in various cancer cells. Notably, treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, prevented down-regulation of 67LR and restored sensitivity to EGCG under 5% O(2). In summary, 67LR expression is highly sensitive to O(2) partial pressure, and the activity of EGCG can be regulated in cancer cells by O(2) partial pressure. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase relations and equilibrium oxygen partial pressures in the iron-titanium-oxygen system at 1373 K; Tetsu-chitan-sansokei no 1373K ni okeru sokankei to heiko sanso bun`atsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, O.; Ito, S.; Azakami, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-09-20

    Phase relations and the equilibrium oxygen partial pressures in the Fe-Ti-O ternary system at 1373 K have been studied using a thermogravimetric technique in various atmospheres buffered by a CO-CO2 gas mixture and X-ray diffraction technique. The results indicate that at 1373 K ilmenite (FeTiO3) can be reduced and decomposed to iron and rutile (TiO2). Consequently upgrading ilmenite to a rutile substitute is possible in principle. From the present results, the standard Gibbs energy of the following reactions was calculated to be -184.7, -196.0 kJ{center_dot}mol{sup -1} at 1373 K, respectively. Fe(s)+FeTiO3(s)+1/2O{sub 2}(g)=Fe2TiO4(s), Fe(s)+TiO{sub 2}(s)+1/2O{sub 2}(g)=`FeTiO3`(s). Both the activities of magnetite and ulv6spinel in the Fe2TiO4-Fe3O4 spinel solid solutions coexisting with metallic iron at 1373 K obtained exhibit negative deviations from Raoult`s law. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pH, oxygen and other variables collected from time series observations using SAMI-CO2, SAMI-pH, and other instruments from Buoy NH-10 off the coast of Newport, Oregon, United States, at the near bottom depth of ~80 meters from 2011-08-16 to 2015-08-25 (NCEI Accession 0145162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains time series measurements of near bottom partial pressure of carbon dioxide, pH, dissolved oxygen that are measured from SAMI-CO2, and...

  14. The influence of oxygen partial pressure on material properties of Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S thin film deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.G., E-mail: aliag@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Dejene, B.F. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba 9866 (South Africa); Swart, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    Eu{sup 3+}-doping has been of interest to improve the luminescent characteristics of thin-film phosphors. Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu{sup 3+} films have been grown on Si (100) substrates by using a Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The thin films grown under different oxygen deposition pressure conditions have been characterized using structural and luminescent measurements. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed mixed phases of cubic and hexagonal crystal structures. As the oxygen partial pressure increased, the crystallinity of the films improved. Further increase of the O{sub 2} pressure to 140 mtorr reduced the crystallinity of the film. Similarly, both scanning electron microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy confirmed that an increase in O{sub 2} pressure affected the morphology of the films. The average band gap of the films calculated from diffuse reflectance spectra using the Kubelka–Munk function was about 4.75 eV. The photoluminescence measurements indicated red emission of Y{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Eu{sup 3+} thin films with the most intense peak appearing at 619 nm, which is assigned to the {sup 5}D{sub 0}–{sup 7}F{sub 2} transition of Eu{sup 3+}. This most intense peak was totally quenched at higher O{sub 2} pressures. This phosphor may be a promising material for applications in the flat panel displays.

  15. Estimation of vapour pressure and partial pressure of subliming ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    conditions of (total) pressure by using thermogravimetry under those conditions. Further, from the partial pressure P, it is possible to determine the number of moles of material in the vapour phase using the ideal gas equation, PV = nRT, where P is the partial pressure, V the volume, n number of moles (of the vapour), R the ...

  16. Reconstruction of pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide during the Mesozoic era period using boron and oxygen isotopic compositions of fresh ammonoids & nautiloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Fukushima, Ayaka; Moriya, Kazuyori; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Tanabe, Kazushige

    2013-04-01

    The increase of partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the atmosphere induces global warming and ocean acidification at the modern condition. The reconstruction of pCO2 during the geological time is required together with proxy calibration by laboratory experiments to predict the future environments. Boron isotopic ratio is an excellent proxy for pH and the relevant partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the seawater (PCO2). This study is the first to quantify pH dependence of delta 11B of the ammonoids and nautiloids mainly in the Cretaceous and in Jurassic (70-162 Ma), which are expected to be much warmer due to higher PCO2. However, no reliable reconstruction data using foraminiferal delta 11B before Cenozoic era has been reported. We used the very fresh aragonite shells of ammonoids and nautiloids by big advantages. Since aragonite changes into secondary calcite by diagenesis, it is easy and effective to identify the degree of alteration at each sample by measuring calcite/aragonite ratio. Also we carefully conducted the assessment of secondary alteration from three perspectives: 1) Determination of calcite/aragonite ratio by X-ray diffraction (XRD), 2) Observation of microstructures of the nacreous layers by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 3) Measurement of trace element contents and stable isotope ratios. We conducted high precision boron isotope analysis of biogenic carbonates with +/- 0.1 per mil reproducibility by adopting positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS) methods. Also we analyzed delta 18O to estimate paleo-temperature, at which biogenic aragonite was formed. Combination of delta 11B and delta 18O of biogenic aragonite in 80 Ma and 86 Ma revealed that deeper dwellers showed lower delta 11B values, which corresponded to lower pH. This feature is consistent with those observed in the modern vertical water column. The respective shallow water temperature was 19.7 and 19.1 centigrade. Based on these results, the

  17. Oxygen binding to partially nitrosylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fago, Angela; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Hendrich, Michael P; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Reactions of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin (Hb) are important elements in protection against nitrosative damage. NO in the vasculature is depleted by the oxidative reaction with oxy Hb or by binding to deoxy Hb to generate partially nitrosylated Hb (Hb-NO). Many aspects of the formation and persistence of Hb-NO are yet to be clarified. In this study, we used a combination of EPR and visible absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of partially nitrosylated Hb with O2. Partially nitrosylated Hb samples had predominantly hexacoordinate NO-heme geometry and resisted oxidation when exposed to O2 in the absence of anionic allosteric effectors. Faster oxidation occurred in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) or inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), where the NO-heme derivatives had higher levels of pentacoordinate heme geometry. The anion-dependence of the NO-heme geometry also affected O2 binding equilibria. O2-binding curves of partially nitrosylated Hb in the absence of anions were left-shifted at low saturations, indicating destabilization of the low O2 affinity T-state of the Hb by increasing percentages of NO-heme, much as occurs with increasing levels of CO-heme. Samples containing IHP showed small decreases in O2 affinity, indicating shifts toward the low-affinity T-state and formation of inert α-NO/β-met tetramers. Most remarkably, O2-equilibria in the presence of the physiological effector DPG were essentially unchanged by up to 30% NO-heme in the samples. As will be discussed, under physiological conditions the interactions of Hb with NO provide protection against nitrosative damage without impairing O2 transport by Hb's unoccupied heme sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modulation of optical and electrical properties of sputtering-derived amorphous InGaZnO thin films by oxygen partial pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.F. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); He, G., E-mail: hegang@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Liu, M., E-mail: mliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanostructure, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, J.W.; Deng, B.; Wang, P.H.; Zhang, M. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Lv, J.G. [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hefei Normal University, Hefei 230061 (China); Sun, Z.Q. [School of Physics and Materials Science, Radiation Detection Materials and Devices Lab, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Sputtering-derived a-IGZO thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates in a mixed atmosphere of Ar and O{sub 2}. • XRD measurements have shown that the as-deposited thin films are all amorphous. • Blue shift in band gap and reduction in n with increasing the O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio have been detected. • Reduction of oxygen vacancies is suggested to be the cause of the band gap and resistivity increase. - Abstract: Sputtering-derived amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin films were grown on Si and glass substrates in a mixed ambient of Ar and O{sub 2} at fixed 0.5 Pa working pressure. The influence of O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio on the optical and electrical properties of a-IGZO thin films has been systematically investigated by means of characterization from spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), UV–vis spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. Results have shown that the band gap of the as-deposited IGZO films increases from 3.45 eV to 3.75 eV as the O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio increases from 0% to 20%. Blue shift in band gap and reduction in reactive index with increasing the O{sub 2}/Ar flow ratio have been detected. Electrical measurements have indicated the increase in resistivity at higher O{sub 2}/Ar gas flow ratio. Related mechanics about the increase in band gap and resistivity have been discussed in detail.

  19. An oxygen pressure sensor using surface acoustic wave devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) piezoelectric devices are finding widespread applications in many arenas, particularly in the area of chemical sensing. We have developed an oxygen pressure sensor based on coating a SAW device with an oxygen binding agent which can be tailored to provide variable sensitivity. The coating is prepared by dissolving an oxygen binding agent in a toluene solution of a copolymer which is then sprayed onto the surface of the SAW device. Experimental data shows the feasibility of tailoring sensors to measure the partial pressure of oxygen from 2.6 to 67 KPa (20 to 500 torr). Potential applications of this technology are discussed.

  20. [Values of mixed venous oxygen saturation and difference of mixed venous-arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide in monitoring of oxygen metabolism and treatment after open-heart operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chuanliang; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jianping

    2014-10-01

    To explore the clinic values of early goal directed treatment (EGDT) with the target of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO₂) and difference of mixed venous-arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pv-aCO₂) in monitoring of oxygen metabolism and treatment for patients post open-heart operation. A prospective study was conducted. The adult patients admitted to Third People's Hospital of Chengdu from December 2011 to March 2014 with SvO₂2 mmol/L when admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) were selected on whom elective open-heart operation and pulmonary artery catheter examination were done. All patients received EGDT with the target of SvO₂≥0.65 and Pv-aCO₂<6 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) and were divided into three groups by the values of SvO₂and Pv-aCO₂at 6-hour after ICU admission: A group with SvO₂≥0.65 and Pv-aCO₂<6 mmHg, B group with SvO₂≥0.65 and Pv-aCO₂≥6 mmHg, and C group with SvO₂<0.65. Then the changes and prognosis of the patients in different groups were observed. 103 cases were included, 44 in A group, 31 in B group and 28 in C group. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHEII) score in group A were significantly lower than that in group B or C at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours (T6, T24, T48, T72) of ICU admission (T6: 11.4 ± 5.8 vs. 13.9 ± 5.4, 13.7 ± 6.4; T24: 8.8 ± 3.7 vs. 10.8 ± 4.8, 11.8 ± 5.4; T48: 8.7 ± 4.1 vs. 9.6 ± 4.2, 10.2 ± 5.1; T72: 7.5 ± 3.4 vs. 8.6 ± 2.9, 9.2 ± 4.2, all P<0.05), and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) showed the same tendency (T6: 6.5 ± 4.3 vs. 8.0 ± 3.8, 9.1 ± 4.5; T24: 6.6 ±3.6 vs. 8.6 ± 3.9, 8.5 ± 3.3; T48: 5.2 ± 3.4 vs. 7.0 ± 3.6, 7.6 ± 5.1; T72: 4.6 ± 2.4 vs. 5.8 ± 2.5, 6.8 ± 3.5, all P<0.05). The values of blood lactic acid (mmol/L) in group A and B were significant lower than that in group C at T6, T24, T48 and T72 (T6: 1.60 ± 0.95, 2.20 ± 1.02 vs. 2.55 ± 1.39; T24: 2.26 ± 1.26, 2.70 ± 1.36 vs. 3.34 ± 2.36; T48: 2.01 ± 1.15, 2.17

  1. Pilot study assessment of dynamic vascular changes in breast cancer with near-infrared tomography from prospectively targeted manipulations of inspired end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W; Michaelsen, Kelly E; Jermyn, Michael; Mastanduno, Michael A; Frazee, Tracy E; Kaufman, Peter A; Paulsen, Keith D

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic vascular changes in the breast resulting from manipulation of both inspired end-tidal partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide were imaged using a 30 s per frame frequency-domain near-infrared spectral (NIRS) tomography system. By analyzing the images from five subjects with asymptomatic mammography under different inspired gas stimulation sequences, the mixture that maximized tissue vascular and oxygenation changes was established. These results indicate maximum changes in deoxy-hemoglobin, oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin of 21, 9, and 3%, respectively. Using this inspired gas manipulation sequence, an individual case study of a subject with locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) was analyzed. Dynamic NIRS imaging was performed at different time points during treatment. The maximum tumor dynamic changes in deoxy-hemoglobin increased from less than 7% at cycle 1, day 5 (C1, D5) to 17% at (C1, D28), which indicated a complete response to NAC early during treatment and was subsequently confirmed pathologically at the time of surgery.

  2. Effects of oxygen partial pressure, deposition temperature, and annealing on the optical response of CdS:O thin films as studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junda, Maxwell M.; Grice, Corey R.; Subedi, Indra; Yan, Yanfa; Podraza, Nikolas J. [Department of Physics & Astronomy and The Wright Center for Photovoltaics Innovation & Commercialization, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2016-07-07

    Ex-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements are made on radio frequency magnetron sputtered oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) thin films. Films are deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature and at 270 °C with varying oxygen to total gas flow ratios in the sputtering ambient. Ellipsometric spectra from 0.74 to 5.89 eV are collected before and after annealing at 607 °C to simulate the thermal processes during close-space sublimation of overlying cadmium telluride in that solar cell configuration. Complex dielectric function (ε = ε{sub 1} + iε{sub 2}) spectra are extracted for films as a function of oxygen gas flow ratio, deposition temperature, and post-deposition annealing using a parametric model accounting for critical point transitions and an Urbach tail for sub-band gap absorption. The results suggest an inverse relationship between degree of crystallinity and oxygen gas flow ratio, whereas annealing is shown to increase crystallinity in all samples. Direct band gap energies are determined from the parametric modeling of ε and linear extrapolations of the square of the absorption coefficient. As-deposited samples feature a range of band gap energies whereas annealing is shown to result in gap energies ranging only from 2.40 to 2.45 eV, which is close to typical band gaps for pure cadmium sulfide.

  3. psychrometry: from partial pressures to mole fractions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1980-03-01

    Mar 1, 1980 ... as an ideal gas mixture. Partial pressures then become identical: to mole fractions and sets of psychometric parameters result from rather elementary thermodynamic relations. Search for more accurate data has long led to the realization that neither dry air nor pure water vapour behaves like an ideal gas,.

  4. Surface acoustic wave oxygen pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transducer for the measurement of absolute gas-state oxygen pressure from pressures of less than 100 Pa to atmospheric pressure (1.01 x 10(exp 5) Pa) is based on a standard surface acoustic wave (SAW) device. The piezoelectric material of the SAW device is coated with a compound which will selectively and reversibly bind oxygen. When oxygen is bound by the coating, the mass of the coating increases by an amount equal to the mass of the bound oxygen. Such an increase in the mass of the coating causes a corresponding decrease in the resonant frequency of the SAW device.

  5. Agreement between arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen values obtained by direct arterial blood measurements versus noninvasive methods in conscious healthy and ill foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David M; Alcott, Cody J; Wang, Chong; Bornkamp, Jennifer L; Young, Jessica L; Sponseller, Brett A

    2011-11-15

    To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) with direct measurements of PaCO(2) and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (SaO(2)) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Validation study. 10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of PaCO(2) and PaO(2) along with SaO(2). Concurrently, PetCO(2) was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris, and SpO(2) was measured with a reflectance probe placed at the base of the tail. Paired values were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, and level of agreement was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. Mean ± SD difference between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2) was 0.1 ± 5.0 mm Hg. There was significant strong correlation (r = 0.779) and good agreement between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2). Mean ± SD difference between SaO(2) and SpO(2) was 2.5 ± 3.5%. There was significant moderate correlation (r = 0.499) and acceptable agreement between SaO(2) and SpO(2). Both PetCO(2) obtained by use of nasal capnography and SpO(2) obtained with a reflectance probe are clinically applicable and accurate indirect methods of estimating and monitoring PaCO(2) and SaO(2) in neonatal foals. Indirect methods should not replace periodic direct measurement of corresponding parameters.

  6. Effects of oxygen partial pressure on the ferroelectric properties of pulsed laser deposited Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.P.B.; Sekhar, K.C.; Pereira, M.; Gomes, M.J.M. [University of Minho, Centre of Physics, Braga (Portugal); Almeida, A.; Agostinho Moreira, J. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    The Ba{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}TiO{sub 3} thin films were grown on the Pt-Si substrate at 700 C by using a pulsed laser deposition technique at different oxygen partial pressure (PO{sub 2}) in the range of 1-20 Pa and their properties were investigated. It is observed that the PO{sub 2} during the deposition plays an important role on the tetragonal distortion ratio, surface morphology, dielectric permittivity, ferroelectric polarization, switching response, and leakage currents of the films. With an increase in PO{sub 2}, the in-plane strain for the BST films changes from tensile to compressive. The films grown at 7.5 Pa show the optimum dielectric and ferroelectric properties and also exhibit the good polarization stability. It is assumed that a reasonable compressive strain, increasing the ionic displacement, and thus promotes the in-plane polarization in the field direction, could improve the dielectric permittivity. The butterfly features of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and the bell shape curve in polarization current were attributed to the domain reversal process. The effect of pulse amplitude on the polarization reversal behavior of the BST films grown at PO{sub 2} of 7.5 Pa was studied. The peak value of the polarization current shows exponential dependence on the electric field. (orig.)

  7. Structure and oxygen incorporation in low pressure sputtered YBCO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, S.; Pandya, D. K.; Kashyap, S. C.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- δ (YBCO) have been successfully grown by reactive RF-magnetron sputtering technique at low pressure. The oxygen partial pressure of 0.95 mTorr, a total pressure (argon and oxygen) of 1.9 mTorr, and a substrate temperature of 775 grad C resulted in good quality films with T C (R=0) = 85.3 K and J Cmag (4.2 K) ≅ 2x10 7 A/cm 2 . The incorporation of oxygen in the as-grown films has been controlled by using different ambient - oxygen, air or argon during in-situ cooling. The superconducting behaviour of the films was studied using resistance-temperature and low field ac-susceptibility measurements and correlated with their structure. All the films exhibited metallic conduction in the normal state. The oxygen- and air- cooled films were superconducting, possessing the usual orthorhombic structure. The argon-cooled films were non-superconducting possessing the tetragonal structure, thus implying that the structure of the film during deposition is tetragonal which transforms to either of the oxygen rich orthorhombic-I or -II phases depending upon the oxygen/air ambient. The 'δ' values of 0.14, 0.32 and 0.70 and higher 'c'-parameters of 1.1785, 1.180 and 1.183 nm have been obtained for oxygen, air and argon cooled films respectively. (Authors)

  8. Computing the partial volume of pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiencke, Bent [Nestle USA, Corporate Engineering, 800 N. Brand Blvd, Glendale, CA 91203 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The computation of the partial and total volume of pressure vessels with various type of head profiles requires detailed knowledge of the head profile geometry. Depending on the type of head profile the derivation of the equations can become very complex and the calculation process cumbersome. Certain head profiles require numerical methods to obtain the partial volume, which for most application is beyond the scope of practicability. This paper suggests a unique method that simplifies the calculation procedure for the various types of head profiles by using one common set of equations without the need for numerical or complex computation methods. For ease of use, all equations presented in this paper are summarized in a single table format for horizontal and vertical vessels. (author)

  9. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra

  10. Chemical and structural changes in Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} (Ln=La, Pr or Nd) lanthanide nickelates as a function of oxygen partial pressure at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flura, Aurélien; Dru, Sophie; Nicollet, Clément; Vibhu, Vaibhav; Fourcade, Sébastien; Lebraud, Eric; Rougier, Aline; Bassat, Jean-Marc; Grenier, Jean-Claude, E-mail: grenier@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr

    2015-08-15

    The chemical stability of lanthanide nickelates Ln{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} (Ln=La, Pr or Nd) has been studied in the temperature range 25–1300 °C, either in air or at low pO{sub 2} (down to 10{sup −4} atm). Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) measurements coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization have shown that all compounds retain their K{sub 2}NiF{sub 4}-type structure in these conditions, while remaining over-stoichiometric in oxygen up to 1000 °C. Only Nd{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} starts to decompose into Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO above 1000 °C, at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. In addition, a careful analysis of the lanthanide nickelates structural features has been performed by in situ XRD, as a function of temperature and pO{sub 2}. For all compounds, a structural transition has been always observed in the temperature range 200–400 °C, in air or at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. In addition, their cell volume did not vary upon the variation of the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, these materials do not exhibit a chemical expansion in these conditions, which is beneficial for a fuel cell application as cathode layers. Additional dilatometry measurements have revealed that a temperature as high as 950 °C for Pr{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} or 1100 °C for La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} and Nd{sub 2}NiO{sub 4+δ} has to be reached in order to begin the sintering of the material particles, which is of primary importance to obtain an efficient electronic/ionic conduction in the corresponding designed cathode layers. Besides, excellent matching was found between the thermal expansion coefficients of lanthanide nickelates and SOFC electrolytes such as 8wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) or Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2−δ} (GDC), at least from 400 °C up to 1400 °C in air or up to 1200 °C at pO{sub 2}=10{sup −4} atm. - Graphical abstract: This study reports the good chemical stability of oxygen overstoichiometric Ln2NiO4+δ(Ln = La, Pr or Nd) at high temperatures

  11. Effects of ambient temperature and water vapor on chamber pressure and oxygen level during low atmospheric pressure stunning of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Paul H; Pritchard, David G

    2017-08-01

    The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure. Ambient temperature affects air density and water vapor pressure and thereby oxygen levels and the time at the minimum total pressure of ∼160 Torr (∼21 kPa) is varied from ∼120 to ∼220 sec to ensure an effective stun within the 280 seconds of each cycle. The reduction in total pressure results in a gradual reduction of oxygen partial pressure that was measured by a solid-state electrochemical oxygen sensor. The reduced oxygen pressure leads to hypoxia, which is recognized as a humane method of stunning poultry. The system maintains an oxygen concentration of air always reduces the oxygen concentrations to a value lower than in dry air. The partial pressure of water and oxygen were found to depend on the pump down parameters due to the formation of fog in the chamber and desorption of water from the birds and the walls of the vacuum chamber. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  12. Filterability of freshly-collected sickle erythrocytes under venous oxygen pressure without exposure to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth; Acholonu, Rhonda Graves; Ohene-Frempong, Kwaku; Asakura, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    We previously found that blood samples collected from steady-state patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) without exposure to air contain a new type of reversibly sickled cells (RSCs) with blunt edges at a level of as high as 78%. Since partial oxygenation of once-deoxygenated sickled cells with pointy edges to near venous oxygen pressure generates similar sickled cells with blunt edges in vitro, we named them as partially oxygenated sickled cells (POSCs). On the other hand, partial deoxygenation of once-oxygenated SS cells to venous oxygen pressure generates partially deoxygenated sickled cells (PDSCs) with pointy edges. In this study, we obtained blood samples from 6 steady-state patients with SCD under venous oxygen pressure without exposure to air, subjected them to various oxygenation/deoxygenation/reoxygenation cycles, and studied their filterability through a membrane filter with pore diameter of 3μm, the theoretical minimum diameter of a capillary. Our results indicated that discocytes, POSCs with blunt edges, and irreversibly sickled cells could deform and pass through the filter, while PDSCs with pointy edges were rigid and could not. The filterability of SS cells seems to be related to the length and amount of deoxy-hemoglobin S fibers in the cells. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Solubility of oxygen in a seawater medium in equilibrium with a high-pressure oxy-helium atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C D

    1979-06-01

    The molar oxygen concentration in a seawater medium in equilibrium with a high-pressure oxygen-helium atmosphere was measured directly in pressurized subsamples, using a modified version of the Winkler oxygen analysis. At a partial pressure of oxygen of 1 atm or less, its concentration in the aqueous phase was adequately described by Henry's Law at total pressures up to 600 atm. This phenomenon, which permits a straightforward determination of dissolved oxygen within hyperbaric systems, resulted from pressure-induced compensatory alterations in the Henry's Law variables rather than from a true obedience to the Ideal Gas Law. If the partial pressure of a gas contributes significantly to the hydrostatic pressure, Henry's Law is no longer adequate for determining its solubility within the compressed medium.

  14. Recommended practice for process sampling for partial pressure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, James E.; Ellefson, Robert E.; Raby, Bruce A.; Brucker, Gerardo A.; Waits, Robert K.

    2007-01-01

    This Recommended Practice describes and recommends various procedures and types of apparatus for obtaining representative samples of process gases from >10 -2 Pa (10 -4 Torr) for partial pressure analysis using a mass spectrometer. The document was prepared by a subcommittee of the Recommended Practices Committee of the American Vacuum Society. The subcommittee was comprised of vacuum users and manufacturers of mass spectrometer partial pressure analyzers who have practical experience in the sampling of process gas atmospheres

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ((approx)2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate

  16. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing...

  17. Microwave measurements of water vapor partial pressure at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.

    1991-01-01

    One of the desired parameters in the Yucca Mountain Project is the capillary pressure of the rock comprising the repository. This parameter is related to the partial pressure of water vapor in the air when in equilibrium with the rock mass. Although there are a number of devices that will measure the relative humidity (directly related to the water vapor partial pressure), they generally will fail at temperatures on the order of 150C. Since thee author has observed borehole temperatures considerably in excess of this value in G-Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a different scheme is required to obtain the desired partial pressure data at higher temperatures. This chapter presents a microwave technique that has been developed to measure water vapor partial pressure in boreholes at temperatures up to 250C. The heart of the system is a microwave coaxial resonator whose resonant frequency is inversely proportional to the square root of the real part of the complex dielectric constant of the medium (air) filling the resonator. The real part of the dielectric constant of air is approximately equal to the square of the refractive index which, in turn, is proportional to the partial pressure of the water vapor in the air. Thus, a microwave resonant cavity can be used to measure changes in the relative humidity or partial pressure of water vapor in the air. Since this type of device is constructed of metal, it is able to withstand very high temperatures. The actual limitation is the temperature limit of the dielectric material in the cable connecting the resonator to its driving and monitoring equipment-an automatic network analyzer in our case. In the following sections, the theory of operation, design, construction, calibration and installation of the microwave diagnostics system is presented. The results and conclusions are also presented, along with suggestions for future work

  18. Influence of oxygen at high pressure on the induction of damage in barley seeds by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, E.; Nilan, R.A.; Konzak, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of oxygen pressure prior to, during, and after irradiation on the induction of radiation damage was investigated using Himalaya (C.I. 620) barley seeds. Seeds were adjusted to water contents of 2 to 14% and then irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays in vacuo or under various oxygen tensions. After irradiation, the seeds were rehydrated at approximately 0 0 C in water continuously bubbled with oxygen or nitrogen. Biological effects of the treatments were recorded as M 1 seedling injury. Seeds irradiated in oxygen pressure sustained two or three times more damage than those irradiated in vacuo followed by rehydrating in oxygenated water. Greater damage occurred when seeds were (a) exposed to oxygen pressure and the pressure released before irradiation, (b) irradiated under oxygen pressure, or (c) irradiated in vacuo and then exposed to oxygen pressure than when irradiated in vacuo and rehydrated in oxygenated water. These results suggest that seeds can be saturated with oxygen before irradiation and also that the radiation-induced sites (presumably free radicals) which react with the oxygen are somewhat stable in very dry seeds. That the reaction probably occurs before the seeds are rehydrated was demonstrated by the failure to remove the effect of oxygen pressure between high oxygen pressure treatment and irradiation. The results indicate that placing the seeds under oxygen pressure may increase the rate and extent of the reactions occurring during post-radiation storage of seeds in the presence of oxygen. The increase in damage associated with aerobic rehydration is partially lost during aerobic storage and is largely pre-empted when seeds are placed under oxygen pressure. The decrease in damage associated with aerobic rehydration is accompanied by an increase in damage occurring with anaerobic rehydration, suggesting that the reaction which leads to damage was initiated before rehydration and to the same oxygen sensitive sites

  19. [Effect of hemodilution with 10% hydroxyethyl starch solution (MW 200,000/9.5) on the flow properties of blood, arterial blood gases and conjunctival oxygen partial pressure in patients with cerebral infarct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staedt, U; Hütt, M; Herrmann, B; Seufzer, U; Leweling, H

    1989-06-01

    Hemorheological parameters, arterial blood gases and conjunctival oxygen tension were measured in 15 patients with acute ischemic stroke and compared with values obtained in an age matched reference group. Since the conjunctival capillary bed is perfused by the ophthalmic artery, it reflects the oxygen delivery to the areas supplied by the internal carotid artery. Measurements of conjunctival oxygen tension are simple and safe. Patients with acute ischemic stroke showed a lowered conjunctival oxygen tension; this holds true especially to the ipsilateral side, i.e. the side where the attack occurred, and to a lesser extent to the other side. By contrast, the ratio of arterial/conjunctival pO2 was disturbed only on the ipsilateral side. Furthermore, these patients had pathologically elevated values for red cell aggregation, whole blood and plasma viscosity. After infusing 500 ml 10% middle-molecular-weight hydroxyethyl starch (10% HAES-steril) and phlebotomy (250 ml) blood fluidity was normalized, although the hematokrit was only slightly reduced. Arterial pO2 improved slightly while pCO2 remained unchanged. Conjunctival oxygen tension improved by 30% on the ipsilateral and by 10% on the contralateral side, the ipsilateral values always remaining significantly lower. The ratio conjunctival/arterial pO2 raised only on the ipsilateral side where it was below the reference range before hemodilution. In addition to the well known improvement of blood fluidity and augmentation of cerebral blood flow following hemodilution in patients with acute ischemic stroke, there seems to be an increase in oxygen supply in the territories of both internal carotid arteries, especially on the ipsilateral side as indicated by the values of conjunctival oxygen tension and the ratio of conjunctival to arterial pO2.

  20. The effect of O2 partial pressure on the structure and photocatalytic property of TiO2 films prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Baoshun; Zhao Xiujian; Zhao Qingnan; Li Chunling; He Xin

    2005-01-01

    The TiO 2 films were prepared on slide substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering at different oxygen partial pressure, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). The degradation of methyl orange aqueous solutions was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity. The results show that all films show crystalline anatase structure irrespective of oxygen partial pressure. The surface oxygen element exists in three forms, the first one is TiO 2 , the second one is OH - and the last one is physical absorbed water. The films deposited at oxygen partial pressure of 0.035 and 0.040 mTorr present better photocatalytic activity, which shows clear tendency to increase with oxygen partial pressure. Such photocatalytic activity results are considered to correlate with the crystalline structure, grain sizes and the OH - concentration

  1. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  2. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced electrochemical static vapor feed oxygen (O2) concentrator (SVFOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure...

  3. Arterial and venous oxygen partial pressure and utilization factor η, resp., and 133Xe muscle clearance after UV irradiation of skin or blood of healthy persons and patients with occlusive arterial disease and psoriasis, resp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherf, H.P.; Strangfeld, D.; Meffert, H.; Glatzel, E.; Siewert, H.; Soennichsen, N.; Correns, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    In three teams of test persons series of UV irradiations of the skin (λ max 365 nm) and of the blood (λ max 254 nm) were performed, and moreover pseudoirradiations of the blood as placebo and infrared irradiations of the skin were carried out. UV irradiations of the blood increased the factor η (O 2 utilization) in all test persons. In healthy persons and patients with psoriasis UV irradiations of the skin involved a homogeneous, but less distinct effect, this was, however, not the case in patients with vascular diseases. According to the results of the 133 Xe muscle clearance the improved utilization of oxygen does not result from increased peripheral blood supply. (author)

  4. A Low-Pressure Oxygen Storage System for Oxygen Supply in Low-Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, Roger P; Sobott, Bryn A; Peake, David J; Mutetire, Bagayana S; Moschovis, Peter P; Black, Jim Fp

    2017-12-01

    Widespread access to medical oxygen would reduce global pneumonia mortality. Oxygen concentrators are one proposed solution, but they have limitations, in particular vulnerability to electricity fluctuations and failure during blackouts. The low-pressure oxygen storage system addresses these limitations in low-resource settings. This study reports testing of the system in Melbourne, Australia, and nonclinical field testing in Mbarara, Uganda. The system included a power-conditioning unit, a standard oxygen concentrator, and an oxygen store. In Melbourne, pressure and flows were monitored during cycles of filling/emptying, with forced voltage fluctuations. The bladders were tested by increasing pressure until they ruptured. In Mbarara, the system was tested by accelerated cycles of filling/emptying and then run on grid power for 30 d. The low-pressure oxygen storage system performed well, including sustaining a pressure approximately twice the standard working pressure before rupture of the outer bag. Flow of 1.2 L/min was continuously maintained to a simulated patient during 30 d on grid power, despite power failures totaling 2.9% of the total time, with durations of 1-176 min (mean 36.2, median 18.5). The low-pressure oxygen storage system was robust and durable, with accelerated testing equivalent to at least 2 y of operation revealing no visible signs of imminent failure. Despite power cuts, the system continuously provided oxygen, equivalent to the treatment of one child, for 30 d under typical power conditions for sub-Saharan Africa. The low-pressure oxygen storage system is ready for clinical field trials. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Effects of oxygen partial pressure and annealing temperature on the residual stress of hafnium oxide thin-films on silicon using synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Debaleen [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Sinha, Anil Kumar [ISU, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, BARC, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Chakraborty, Supratic, E-mail: supratic.chakraborty@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Residual stress estimation thin hafnium oxide film with thickness of <10 nm. • A mathematical expression is proposed for stress estimation of thin-film using GIXRD. • Residual stress varies with argon content in Ar/O{sub 2} plasma and annealing temperature. • Variation of stress is explained by IL swelling and enhanced structural relaxation. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) technique is employed here to estimate the residual stress of < 10 nm thin hafnium oxide film deposited on Si (100) substrate at different argon/oxygen ratios using reactive rf sputtering. A decrease in residual stress, tensile in nature, is observed at higher annealing temperature for the samples deposited with increasing argon ratio in the Ar/O{sub 2} plasma. The residual stress of the films deposited at higher p{sub Ar} (Ar:O{sub 2} = 4:1) is also found to be decreased with increasing annealing temperature. But the stress is more or less constant with annealing temperature for the films deposited at lower Ar/O{sub 2} (1:4) ratio. All the above phenomena can be explained on the basis of swelling of the interfacial layer and enhanced structural relaxation in the presence of excess Hf in hafnium oxide film during deposition.

  6. Toe blood pressure and leg muscle oxygenation with body posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Velderrain, Armando; Cardno, Michael; Mateus, Jaime; Kumar, Ravindra; Schlabs, Thomas; Hargens, Alan R

    2011-05-01

    In 1980 Katkov and Chestukhin measured blood pressures and oxygenation invasively at various body tilt angles at different locations on the body, including the foot. To our knowledge, such measurements have not been performed noninvasively. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure toe blood pressure (TBP) and lower limb muscle oxygenation noninvasively at various body tilt angles, and to assess the use of a Finometer for noninvasive TBP measurements. Our noninvasive results are compared with those performed by Katkov and Chestukhin. We hypothesized that: 1) the Finometer provides a noninvasive measurement of TBP at different tilt angles; and 2) muscle oxygenation is highest with 0 and -6 degrees, and decreases with increased head-up tilt (HUT). There were 10 subjects who were exposed to different body tilt angles (-6, 0, 10, 30, 70, and 90 degrees). At each angle we measured TBP noninvasively with a Finometer and muscle tissue oxygenation by near infrared spectroscopy. We found a strong correlation between TBP using the Finometer and TBP predicted by adding the hydrostatic component due to body tilt to the standard arm blood pressure measurement. At 10, 30, 70, and 90 degrees both TBP and tissue oxygenation were significantly different from the 0 degree (supine) level. Oxygenation decreased and TBP increased with higher HUT angles. No differences were observed in TBP or oxygenation between -6 and 0 degree. The Finometer accurately measures TBP noninvasively with body tilt. Also, muscle oxygenation is highest at small HUT angles and decreases with increased HUT.

  7. Experimental studies on radiation effects under high pressure oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, E [Osaka Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry

    1974-06-01

    The effect of oxygen tension on the radiosensitivity of tumor cells is well known, but its clinical application for radiotherapy is not yet established. Rabbits with V x 2 carcinoma in the maxilla were irradiated by /sup 60/Co under high pressure oxygen (experimental group), and compared with those treated in air (control group). For the purpose of examining the clinical effects of high pressure oxygen, an experiment was made in vivo. The following items were compared respectively: a) Tumor regression effect b) Tumor clearance rate c) Survival days d) Half size reduction time e) Inhibition of DNA synthesis in the tumor tissue. Results obtained were as follows: a) 56 per cent of animals showed tumor regression in the experimental group, whereas it occured 26 per cent in the control group. b) 53 per cent of animals showed tumor disappearance in the experimental group, while it was observed only in 13 per cent in the control group. c) Only 2 of 30 rabbits irradiated in air survived over 180 days, whereas 11 of 30 rabbits survived meanwhile in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen. d) About 11 days were necessary to reduce the tumor size by half after irradiation in the group under high pressure oxygen, while it took 17 days in the group treated in normal air. e) DNA synthesis was inhibited more prominently in the group irradiated under high pressure oxygen in normal air.

  8. OXYGEN PRESSURE REGULATOR DESIGN AND ANALYSIS THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios KOSMARAS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen production centers produce oxygen in high pressure that needs to be defused. A regulator is designed and analyzed in the current paper for medical use in oxygen production centers. This study aims to design a new oxygen pressure regulator and perform an analysis using Finite Element Modeling in order to evaluate its working principle. In the design procedure,the main elements and the operating principles of a pressure regulator are taking into account. The regulator is designed and simulations take place in order to assessthe proposed design. Stress analysis results are presented for the main body of the regulator, as well as, flow analysis to determine some important flow characteristics in the inlet and outlet of the regulator.

  9. Effects of oxygen concentration on atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge in Argon-Oxygen Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechun; Li, Dian; Wang, Younian

    2016-09-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) can generate a low-temperature plasma easily at atmospheric pressure and has been investigated for applications in trials in cancer therapy, sterilization, air pollution control, etc. It has been confirmed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role in the processes. In this work, we use a fluid model to simulate the plasma characteristics for DBD in argon-oxygen mixture. The effects of oxygen concentration on the plasma characteristics have been discussed. The evolution mechanism of ROS has been systematically analyzed. It was found that the ground state oxygen atoms and oxygen molecular ions are the dominated oxygen species under the considered oxygen concentrations. With the oxygen concentration increasing, the densities of electrons, argon atomic ions, resonance state argon atoms, metastable state argon atoms and excited state argon atoms all show a trend of decline. The oxygen molecular ions density is high and little influenced by the oxygen concentration. Ground state oxygen atoms density tends to increase before falling. The ozone density increases significantly. Increasing the oxygen concentration, the discharge mode begins to change gradually from the glow discharge mode to Townsend discharge mode. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11175034).

  10. High-Pressure Oxygen Generation for Outpost EVA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Conger, Bruce; Ewert, Michael K.; Anderson, Molly S.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of oxygen consumption for crew extravehicular activity (EVA) in future lunar exploration missions will be significant. Eight technologies to provide high pressure EVA O2 were investigated. They are: high pressure O2 storage, liquid oxygen (LOX) storage followed by vaporization, scavenging LOX from Lander followed by vaporization, LOX delivery followed by sorption compression, water electrolysis followed by compression, stand-alone high pressure water electrolyzer, Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and Power Elements sharing a high pressure water electrolyzer, and ECLSS and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) Elements sharing a high pressure electrolyzer. A trade analysis was conducted comparing launch mass and equivalent system mass (ESM) of the eight technologies in open and closed ECLSS architectures. Technologies considered appropriate for the two architectures were selected and suggested for development.

  11. Determination of the partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure lamp arcs: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabourniotis, D.; Couris, S.; Damelincourt, J.J.; Aubes, M.

    1986-01-01

    The partial pressure of thallium in high-pressure Hg-TlI discharges with different mercury, thallium, and electron pressures has been measured by using the optically thin line Tl 655 nm and the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm. The partial pressure of the arc axis has been measured from the line Tl 655nm. The effective partial pressure has been measured from the self-reversed line Tl 535 nm on the basis of the multiparameter method, and it has been calculated from the known axis pressure of thallium and the calculation of its radial variation by taking into account the chemical reactions. The experimental results confirm the dispersion character of the blue wing of the line Tl 535 nm. The systematic difference obtained between the measured and calculated effective pressure, particularly at the moment of minimum electron density, may be interpreted by deviations from the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) caused by overpopulation of the upper level of the line Tl 535 nm

  12. Negative pressure wound therapy for partial-thickness burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumville, Jo C; Munson, Christopher; Christie, Janice

    2014-12-15

    A burn wound is a complex and evolving injury, with both local and systemic consequences. Burn treatments include a variety of dressings, as well as newer strategies, such as negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), which, by means of a suction force that drains excess fluids from the burn, tries to promote the wound healing process and minimise progression of the burn wound. To assess the effectiveness of NPWT for people with partial-thickness burns. We searched the Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 04 September 2014); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 8). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) that evaluated the safety and effectiveness of NPWT for partial-thickness burns. Two review authors used standardised forms, and extracted the data independently. We assessed each trial for risk of bias, and resolved differences by discussion. One RCT, that was an interim report, satisfied the inclusion criteria. We undertook a narrative synthesis of results, as the absence of data and poor reporting precluded us from carrying out any formal statistical analysis. The trial was at high risk of bias. There was not enough evidence available to permit any conclusions to be drawn regarding the use of NPWT for treatment of partial-thickness burn wounds.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-10-29

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the July 1--September 30, 2003 time period.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-01-30

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1--December 31, 2002 time period.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-07-23

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the April 1--June 30, 2003 time period.

  16. Development of Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed Partial Gasification Module (PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Robertson

    2003-12-31

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building bock that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the October 1 - December 31, 2003 time period.

  17. Oxybiotest project: microorganisms under pressure. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO and simple pressure interaction on selected bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanon Vincenzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HyperBaric Oxygen (HBO therapy involves exposure to pure oxygen in a pressurized room, and it is an already well-established treatment for various conditions, including those originated by serious infections. Starting from the observation of an increased number of patients who were accessing our HBO units for diseases supported from concomitant multidrug-resistant microorganisms, as well as considering the evident clinical benefit and laboratory final outcome of those patients at the end of the treatment, aim of our study was to measure, or better define at least, if there was any interaction between a hyperbaric environment and some selected microorganisms and if those positive results were due to the increased oxygen partial pressure (pO2 value or just to the increased pressure, regardless of the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 applied (21÷100%. Design and methods We applied various increased pO2 values in a hyperbaric environment. Our study design was tailored in four steps to answer four specific questions, ordered in a progressive process: OxyBioTest (OBT-1,2,3, and 4. Specifically, we chose to investigate possible changes in the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and in the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of multi-resistant microorganisms after a single session of hyperbaric therapy. Results OBT-1 and OBT-2 provide a semi-quantitative confirmation of the bacterio-cidal and cytostatic effects of HBO. HBO is cidal only if the total exposure pressure is elevated, and cidal or cytostatic effect are not always dependent on the pO2 applied. OBT-4 has shown the adjuvant effect of HBO and antimicrobial drug against some selected bacteria. Discussion We seem allowed to hypothesize that only in case of a good approach to a lesion, permitting smaller bacterial loads thanks to surgical debridement and/or eventual antibiotic therapy for example, You can observe the clear effectiveness of the HyperBaric Oxygen (HBO

  18. High Pressure and High Temperature State of Oxygen Enriched Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, M.; Zhang, S.; Jeanloz, R.; Militzer, B.

    2016-12-01

    Interior models for Uranus and Neptune include a hydrogen/helium/water outer envelope and a core of rock and metal at the center, with superionic water-rich ice proposed as comprising an intermediate layer. Here we consider an oxygen-enriched ice, such as H2O2 hydrogen peroxide (± water), that could form through chemical reaction between water-rich and underlying rocky (i.e., oxygen-rich) layers. As oxygen and its compounds (e.g., H2O, SiO2) form metallic fluids at pressures above 100-150 GPa, the problem amounts to considering oxygen alloying of semiconducting or metallic water. The density of H2O2 is 1.45 g/cc at ambient pressure and 0° C, increasing to 1.71 g/cc in the solid state at about -20° C. There are no Hugoniot data beyond 30 GPa, so we estimated Hugoniots for H2O2 with different initial densities, using both a mixing model based on Hugoniot data for H2O2 and 1/2 O2 (molar volume summation under pressure) and ab initio calculations for unreacted H2O2. The results agree with each other to pressures of about 200 GPa, and the ab initio calculations show evidence of a superionic state at temperatures as low as 500 K, much lower than for water ice. Hydrogen peroxide is expected to be liquid along planetary isentropes for Uranus and Neptune, suggesting that H2O2 may not be present as a pure compound in these planets. Instead, oxygen-enriched H2O ice may be the relevant form of water and oxygen, and might be produced in the laboratory by way of dynamic compression of H2O2 or laser-heating of statically compressed H2O + O2 and/or H2O2.

  19. An experimental study of pressure shadows in partially molten rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chao; Zhao, Yong-Hong; Kohlstedt, David L.

    2013-11-01

    As a two-phase, solid-melt material flows around rigid particles, melt-depleted and melt-enriched regions (i.e., pressure shadows) develop due to the coupled fluxes of melt and solid driven by pressure gradients around the particles. To study this compaction-decompaction process, samples composed of fine-grained San Carlos olivine plus mid-ocean ridge basalt containing dispersed sub-millimeter-sized, single crystal beads of olivine were deformed in torsion at a temperature of 1473 K and a confining pressure of 300 MPa. Indicated by melt distribution maps obtained from reflected-light optical and backscattered electron microscopy, melt-enriched and melt-depleted regions around the beads became observable at a local shear strain of γ≈1 in samples with an initially homogeneously distributed melt fraction of ϕ≈0.05. The melt-enriched regions (ϕbarhigh≈0.06 to 0.10) and the melt-depleted regions (ϕbarlow≈0.02 to 0.04), extending as far as one radius of the bead, were symmetrically distributed around the bead. The flow field of the olivine matrix determined from crystallographic preferred orientations agrees with theoretical predictions based on two-phase flow analysis. These experiments are the first to produce pressure shadows in partially molten rocks. One implication of this study is that it will be possible to constrain the ratio of bulk to shear viscosity, which is inferred from the distribution of melt using a combination of experimental observations and numerical simulations.

  20. Stability and oxygen permeation behavior of Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ–La0.8Sr0.2CrO3−δ composite membrane under large oxygen partial pressure gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Bo; Yi, Jianxin; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Chen, Chusheng

    2006-01-01

    The stability and oxygen permeation behavior of the Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ–La0.8Sr0.2CrO3−δ dual-phase composite were investigated under a large oxygen gradient with one side of it exposed to air and the other side to CO, CH4 or H2 at elevated temperatures. An oxygen permeation flux of 8.6 × 10−7 mol cm−2

  1. Oxygen consumption in EPDM irradiated under different oxygen pressures and at different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, N.; Ngono-Ravache, Y.; Ramillon, J.-M.; Balanzat, E.

    2005-01-01

    We conceived a novel set-up for measuring the radiochemical yields of oxygen consumption in polymers. The measurement is based on a sampling of the gas mixture with a mass spectrometer, before and after irradiation. We irradiated an ethylene, propylene and 1,4-hexadiene terpolymer (EPDM) with 1 MeV electron and 10.75 MeV/A carbon beams. Samples were irradiated under oxygen within a wide range of pressure (5-200 mbar). The yields under C irradiation are four times smaller than the yields under electron irradiation. This shows that radiooxidation is very sensitive to the linear energy transfer of the projectiles and hence to the heterogeneity of the energy deposition. The oxygen consumption yields do not vary significantly in the range of pressure investigated; even at 5 mbar, the kinetics is still governed by the bimolecular recombination of peroxy radicals

  2. Solubilities of oxygenated aromatic solids in pressurized hot water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karásek, Pavel; Planeta, Josef; Roth, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2009), s. 1457-1461 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/0886; GA ČR GA203/08/1536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oxygenated aromatics * solubility * pressurized hot water Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.695, year: 2009

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  4. Correlação entre a fração inspirada de oxigênio, a pressão parcial de oxigênio materno e a pressão parcial de oxigênio fetal durante parto cesáreo em gestações normais Correlación entre la fracción inspirada de oxígeno, la presión parcial de oxígeno materno y la presión parcial de oxígeno fetal durante el parto por cesárea en embarazos normales Correlation between the inspired fraction of oxygen, maternal partial oxygen pressure, and fetal partial oxygen pressure during cesarean section of normal pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Viana de Castro

    2009-08-01

    ón.? MÉTODO: Se estudiaron veinte pacientes embarazadas, sometidas a la raquianestesia, a través de gasometrías arteriales, con diferentes fracciones inspiradas de oxígeno y correlacionadas con la gasometría fetal. RESULTADOS: El aumento de la fracción inspirada de oxígeno materno no se correlacionó con el aumento de la presión parcial de oxígeno fetal. CONCLUSIONES: La inducción de hiperoxia materna a través de la oxigenoterapia suplementaria, no fue capaz de aumentar la presión parcial de oxígeno en el feto. No hubo modificación en los parámetros gasométricos fetales, incluso en el caso del cambio de esos parámetros en la parturiente, inducidos por la hiperoxia durante la cesárea bajo raquianestesia.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite changes in pulmonary function, maternal oxygenation is maintained during obstetric regional blocks. But in those situations, the administration of supplementary oxygen to parturients is a common practice. Good fetal oxygenation is the main justification; however, this has not been proven. The objective of this randomized, prospective study was to test the hypothesis of whether maternal hyperoxia is correlated with an increase in fetal gasometric parameters in elective cesarean sections. METHODS: Arterial blood gases of 20 parturients undergoing spinal block with different inspired fractions of oxygen were evaluated and correlated with fetal arterial blood gases. RESULTS: An increase in maternal inspired fraction of oxygen did not show any correlation with an increase of fetal partial oxygen pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Induction of maternal hyperoxia by the administration of supplementary oxygen did not increase fetal partial oxygen pressure. Fetal gasometric parameters did not change even when maternal parameters changed, induced by hyperoxia, during cesarean section under spinal block.

  5. Elucidating mechanisms for insect body size: partial support for the oxygen-dependent induction of moulting hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelä, Sami M; Viinamäki, Sonja; Keret, Netta; Gotthard, Karl; Hohtola, Esa; Välimäki, Panu

    2018-01-25

    Body size is a key life history trait, and knowledge of its mechanistic basis is crucial in life history biology. Such knowledge is accumulating for holometabolous insects, whose growth is characterised and body size affected by moulting. According to the oxygen-dependent induction of moulting (ODIM) hypothesis, moult is induced at a critical mass at which oxygen demand of growing tissues overrides the supply from the tracheal respiratory system, which principally grows only at moults. Support for the ODIM hypothesis is controversial, partly because of a lack of proper data to explicitly test the hypothesis. The ODIM hypothesis predicts that the critical mass is positively correlated with oxygen partial pressure ( P O 2 ) and negatively with temperature. To resolve the controversy that surrounds the ODIM hypothesis, we rigorously test these predictions by exposing penultimate-instar Orthosia gothica (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae to temperature and moderate P O 2  manipulations in a factorial experiment. The relative mass increment in the focal instar increased along with increasing P O 2 , as predicted, but there was only weak suggestive evidence of the temperature effect. Probably owing to a high measurement error in the trait, the effect of P O 2  on the critical mass was sex specific; high P O 2  had a positive effect only in females, whereas low P O 2  had a negative effect only in males. Critical mass was independent of temperature. Support for the ODIM hypothesis is partial because of only suggestive evidence of a temperature effect on moulting, but the role of oxygen in moult induction seems unambiguous. The ODIM mechanism thus seems worth considering in body size analyses. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charton, Antoine; Péronnet, François; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply.

  7. Oxygenation of the traditional and thin-walled MT-YBCO in flowing oxygen and under high evaluated oxygen pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prikhna, Tatiana; Chaud, Xavier; Gawalek, Wolfgang; Rabier, Jaques; Savchuk, Yaroslav; Joulain, Anne; Vlasenko, Andrey; Moshchil, Viktor; Sergienko, Nina; Dub, Sergey; Melnikov, Vladimir; Litzkendorf, Doris; Habisreuther, Tobias; Sverdun, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The high pressure-high temperature oxygenation of thin-walled MT-YBCO (with artificially produced holes) allows decreasing the amount of macrocracks and increasing j c of the material. The MT-YBCO produced from Y123 and Y211 in the fields higher than 2 T showed higher j c in the ab-planes and lower j c in the c-direction than the MT-YBCO manufactured from Y123 and Y 2 O 3 and can be explained by the difference in twin and microcrack density that in turn can be affected by the difference in Y211 phase distribution

  8. Contamination of liquid oxygen by pressurized gaseous nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; King, Tracy K.; Ngo, Kim Chi

    1989-01-01

    The penetration of pressurized gaseous nitrogen (GN2) into liquid oxygen (LOX) was investigated experimentally in the 7-inch High Temperature Tunnel, the pilot tunnel for the 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel (8'HTT) at Langley Research Center. A preliminary test using a nuclear monitor revealed the extent of the liquid nitrogen (LN2) build-up at the LOX interface as a function of GN2 pressure. Then an adaptation of the differential flash vaporization technique was used to determine the binary diffusivity of the LOX-LN2 system at a temperature of 90.2 K. The measured value D equals 0.000086 sq cm/s + or - 25 percent together with two prior measurements at lower temperatures revealed an excellent fit to the Arrhenius equation, yielding a pre-exponential factor D sub 0 equals 0.0452 sq cm/s and an activation enthalpy H equals 1.08 kcal/mol. At a pressure of 1700 psi and holding time of 15 min, the penetration of LN2 into LOX (to a 1 percent contamination level) was found to be 0.9 cm, indicating but minimal impact upon 8'HTT operations.

  9. Impaired Muscle Oxygenation and Elevated Exercise Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Patients: Links With Vascular Stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipla, Konstantina; Triantafyllou, Areti; Koletsos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Stavros; Sachpekidis, Vasileios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Douma, Stella

    2017-08-01

    This study examined in vivo (1) skeletal muscle oxygenation and microvascular function, at rest and during handgrip exercise, and (2) their association with macrovascular function and exercise blood pressure (BP), in newly diagnosed, never-treated patients with hypertension and normotensive individuals. Ninety-one individuals (51 hypertensives and 40 normotensives) underwent office and 24-hour ambulatory BP, arterial stiffness, and central aortic BP assessment, followed by a 5-minute arterial occlusion and a 3-minute submaximal handgrip exercise. Changes in muscle oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and tissue oxygen saturation were continuously monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy and beat-by-beat BP by Finapres. Hypertensives had higher ( P age and body mass index (BMI) adjusted). When exercising at the same submaximal intensity, hypertensives required a significantly greater ( P hypertension exhibit prominent reductions in in vivo indices of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, suggestive of mitochondrial dysfunction, and blunted muscle microvascular reactivity. These dysfunctions were associated with higher aortic systolic BP and arterial stiffness. Dysregulations in muscle oxygen delivery/utilization and microvascular stiffness, in hypertensive patients, partially contribute to their exaggerated BP during exercise. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Separating the effects of partial submergence and soil oxygen demand on plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bodegom, Peter M; Sorrell, Brian K; Oosthoek, Annelies; Bakker, Chris; Aerts, Rien

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands, a distinct zonation of plant species composition occurs along moisture gradients, due to differential flooding tolerance of the species involved. However, "flooding" comprises two important, distinct stressors (soil oxygen demand [SOD] and partial submergence) that affect plant survival and growth. To investigate how these two flooding stressors affect plant performance, we executed a factorial experiment (water depth x SOD) for six plant species of nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor conditions, occurring along a moisture gradient in Dutch dune slacks. Physiological, growth, and biomass responses to changed oxygen availability were quantified for all species. The responses were consistent with field zonation, but the two stressors affected species differently. Increased SOD increased root oxygen deprivation, as indicated by either raised porosity or increased alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in roots of flood-intolerant species (Calamagrostis epigejos and Carex arenaria). While SOD affected root functioning, partial submergence tended more to reduce photosynthesis (as shown both by gas exchange and 13C assimilation), leaf dark respiration, 13C partitioning from shoots to roots, and growth of these species. These processes were especially affected if the root oxygen supply was depleted by a combination of flooding and increased SOD. In contrast, the most flood-tolerant species (Juncus subnodulosus and Typha latifolia) were unaffected by any treatment and maintained high internal oxygen concentrations at the shoot : root junction and low root ADH activity in all treatments. For these species, the internal oxygen transport capacity was well in excess of what was needed to maintain aerobic metabolism across all treatments, although there was some evidence for effects of SOD on their nitrogen partitioning (as indicated by 865N values) and photosynthesis. Two species intermediate in flooding tolerance (Carex nigra and Schoenus nigricans) responded more

  11. Study of atomic excitations in sputtering with targets partially covered with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, J.; Veje, E.

    1984-01-01

    We have bombarded pure, elemental targets of Be, B, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, and Au with 80 keV Ar + ions and studied excitation of sputtered atoms or ions under UHV conditions as well as with oxygen present at the target surface. The measurements on Mg, Al, Si, and Ti have been done at projectile incidence angles from 0 0 to 85 0 . Excitation probabilities for gold were found to be only very little influenced by oxygen, but for Be, B, Mg, Al, Si, and Ti, the excitation probabilities were in many, but not all, cases found to depend strongly on the oxygen pressure as well as on the beam current density. This indicates that the excitation mechanism is strongly dependent on the initial electronic conditions of the solid. (orig.)

  12. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of ion beam sputtered indium tin oxide films as a function of oxygen pressure during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Aharoni, H.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was performed on ion beam sputter deposited films of indium tin oxide as a function of O 2 partial pressure during deposition. The oxygen partial pressure was varied over the range of 2.5 x 10 -6 --4.0 x 10 -5 Torr. Changes in composition as well as in the deconvoluted In 3d 5 /sub // 2 , Sn 3d 5 /sub // 2 , and O 1s core level spectra were observed and correlated with the variation of the oxygen partial pressure during deposition. Results show that the films become increasingly stoichiometric as P/sub =/ is increased and that the excess oxygen introduced during deposition is bound predominantly to the Sn and has little or no effect on the In--O bonding

  13. Barley seed ageing: genetics behind the dry elevated pressure of oxygen ageing and moist controlled deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela eNagel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental seed ageing approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the elevated partial pressure of oxygen (EPPO approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed ageing under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of ageing with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (OWB-D, carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to ageing in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (OWB-R, carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses using 2,832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions.

  14. Neonatal oxidative stress depends on oxygen blood pressure in umbilical artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, F; De Bernardo, G; Longini, M; Sordino, D; Scaramuzzini, G; Tataranno, M L; Belvisi, E; Bazzini, F; Perrone, S; Buonocore, G

    2016-01-01

    With advancing gestation, partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) and pH fall significantly. Hypoxia is a main factor inducing free radical generation and thereby oxidative stress (OS). Placental and fetal tissue response when oxygen becomes restricted is complex and partially known. We tested the hypothesis that changes in umbilical artery and vein blood gas concentrations modulate OS occurrence in the newborn. Seventy umbilical artery and vein plasma samples were collected from healthy term newborns immediately after delivery. F2 Isoprostanes (F2-Isop) were measured in all samples as reliable markers of lipid peroxidation. Significantly lower pCO2 and higher pO2 and pH were found in umbilical vein than in artery, as expected. A positive correlation was detected between pH and pO2 only in umbilical artery (p=0.019). F2-Isop levels were no different between artery and vein in cord blood. Significant correlations were found between F2-Isop and pCO2 (p=0.025) as well as between F2-Isop and pH in umbilical vein (p=0.027). F2-Isop correlated with pCO2 (p=0.007) as well as with pO2 values (p=0.005) in umbilical artery blood. Oxidative stress (OS) in newborns depends on oxygen concentrations in umbilical artery. OS biomarkers significantly correlate with pO2 and in umbilical artery but not in umbilical vein. In normoxic conditions fetal-maternal gas exchanges occurring in placenta re-establish normal higher oxygen levels in umbilical vein than artery, with a normal production of free radicals without any deleterious effects.

  15. Partial Pressures of Te2 and Thermodynamic Properties of Ga-Te System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with Ga(1-x)Te(x) samples were measured by optical absorption technique from 450 to 1100 C for compositions, x, between 0.333 and 0.612. To establish the relationship between the partial pressure of Te, and the measured optical absorbance, the calibration runs of a pure Te sample were also conducted to determine the Beer's Law constants. The partial pressures of Te2 in equilibrium with the GaTe(s) and Ga2Te3(s)compounds, or the so-called three-phase curves, were established. These partial pressure data imply the existence of the Ga3Te4(s) compound. From the partial pressures of Te2 over the Ga-Te melts, partial molar enthalpy and entropy of mixing for Te were derived and they agree reasonable well with the published data. The activities of Te in the Ga-Te melts were also derived from the measured partial pressures of Te2. These data agree well with most of the previous results. The possible reason for the high activity of Te measured for x less than 0.60 is discussed.

  16. Pressures of Partial Crystallization of Magmas Along Transforms: Implications for Crustal Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. L.; Zerda, C.; Brown, D.; Ciaramitaro, S. C.; Barton, M.

    2016-12-01

    Plate spreading at mid-ocean ridges is responsible for the creation of most of the crust on earth. The ridge system is very complex and many questions remain unresolved. Among these is the nature of magma plumbing systems beneath transform faults. Pervious workers have suggested that increased conductive cooling along transforms promotes higher pressures of partial crystallization, and that this explains the higher partial pressures of crystallization inferred for magmas erupted along slow spreading ridges compared to magmas erupted along faster spreading ridges. To test this hypothesis, we undertook a detailed analysis of pressures of partial crystallization for magmas erupted at 3 transforms along the fast to intermediate spreading East Pacific Rise(Blanco, Clipperton, and Siqueiros) and 3 transforms along the slow spreading Mid Atlantic Ridge(Famous Transform B, Kane, and 15°20'N). Pressures of partial crystallization were calculated from the compositions of glasses (quenched liquids) lying along the P (and T) dependent olivine, plagioclase, and augite cotectic using the method described by Kelley and Barton (2008). Published analyses of mid-ocean ridge basalt glasses sampled from these transforms and surrounding ridge segments were used as input data. Samples with anomalous chemical compositions and samples that yielded pressures associated with unrealistically large uncertainties were filtered out of the database. The pressures of partial crystallization for the remaining 916 samples ranged from 0 to 520 MPa with the great majority ( 95%) of sample returning pressures of less than 300 MPa. Pressures of 300 MPa) are associated with a small number of samples from the Pacific segments. Except for the Blanco, pressures of partial crystallization do not increase as transforms are approached. These observations contrast with those of previous workers, who reported anomalously high pressures (up to 1000 MPa) for a large number of samples erupted near both Atlantic

  17. Prevention of Hypoxemia During Apnea Testing: A Comparison of Oxygen Insufflation And Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andreas H; Couillard, Philippe; Bader, Ryan; Dhillon, Peter; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Doig, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Apnea testing is an essential step in the clinical diagnosis of brain death. Current international guidelines recommend placement of an oxygen (O 2 ) insufflation catheter into the endotracheal tube to prevent hypoxemia, but use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) valve may be more effective at limiting arterial partial pressure of O 2 (PO 2 ) reduction. We performed a multicenter study assessing consecutive apnea tests in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in two cities utilizing differing protocols. In one city, O 2 catheters are placed and arterial blood gases (ABGs) performed at intervals determined by the attending physician. In the other city, a resuscitation bag with CPAP valve is attached to the endotracheal tube, and ABGs performed every 3-5 min. We assessed arterial PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ), pH, and blood pressure at the beginning and termination of each apnea test. Thirty-six apnea tests were performed using an O 2 catheter and 50 with a CPAP valve. One test per group was aborted because of physiological instability. There were no significant differences in the degree of PO 2 reduction (-59 vs. -32 mmHg, p = 0.72), rate of PCO 2 rise (3.2 vs. 3.9 mmHg per min, p = 0.22), or pH decline (-0.02 vs. -0.03 per min, p = 0.06). Performance of ABGs at regular intervals was associated with shorter test duration (10 vs. 7 min, p pressure decline (p = 0.006). Both methods of O 2 supplementation are associated with similar changes in arterial PO 2 and PCO 2 . Performance of ABGs at regular intervals shortens apnea test duration and may avoid excessive pH reduction and consequent hemodynamic effects.

  18. Oxygenation of the traditional and thin-walled MT-YBCO in flowing oxygen and under high evaluated oxygen pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikhna, Tatiana [Institute for Superhard Materials, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev 04074 (Ukraine)], E-mail: prikhna@iptelecom.net.ua; Chaud, Xavier [CNRS/CRETA, 25, Avenue des Martyrs BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Gawalek, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, Jena (Germany); Rabier, Jaques [Universite de Poitiers, CNRS/Lab. de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630 CNRS-Universite de Poitiers SP2MI, BP 30179, F-86962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope Cedex (France); Savchuk, Yaroslav [Institute for Superhard Materials, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev 04074 (Ukraine); Joulain, Anne [Universite de Poitiers, CNRS/Lab. de Metallurgie Physique, UMR 6630 CNRS-Universite de Poitiers SP2MI, BP 30179, F-86962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope Cedex (France); Vlasenko, Andrey; Moshchil, Viktor; Sergienko, Nina; Dub, Sergey; Melnikov, Vladimir [Institute for Superhard Materials, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev 04074 (Ukraine); Litzkendorf, Doris; Habisreuther, Tobias [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, Jena (Germany); Sverdun, Vladimir [Institute for Superhard Materials, 2 Avtozavodskaya Street, Kiev 04074 (Ukraine)

    2007-09-01

    The high pressure-high temperature oxygenation of thin-walled MT-YBCO (with artificially produced holes) allows decreasing the amount of macrocracks and increasing j{sub c} of the material. The MT-YBCO produced from Y123 and Y211 in the fields higher than 2 T showed higher j{sub c} in the ab-planes and lower j{sub c} in the c-direction than the MT-YBCO manufactured from Y123 and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and can be explained by the difference in twin and microcrack density that in turn can be affected by the difference in Y211 phase distribution.

  19. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O–CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5 MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography....... Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulfate reduction rate upon the addition of methane to the sample....

  20. Ignition of PTFE-lined flexible hoses by rapid pressurization with oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, Dwight; Bamford, Larry J.; Newton, Barry E.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1989-01-01

    A high-volume pneumatic-impact system has been used to test PTFE-lined stainless steel braided hoses, in order to characterize the roles played in the mechanism of oxygen-induced ignition by impact pressure, pressurization rate, and upstream and downstream volumes of the hose. Ignitions are noted to have occurred at impact pressures well below the working pressure of the hoses, as well as at pressurization rates easily obtainable through manual operation of valves. The use of stainless steel hardlines downstream of the hose prevented ignitions at all pressures and pressurization rates; internal observations have shown evidence of shock ionization in the oxygen prior to ignition.

  1. Design improvement for partial penetration welds of Pressurizer heater sleeves to head junctures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Seon; Lee, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Tae-Jung; Kim, Moo-Yong

    2007-01-01

    ASME Code, Section III allows partial penetration welds for openings for instrumentation on which there are substantially no piping reactions and requires to have interference fit or limited diametral clearance between nozzles and vessel penetrations for the partial penetration welds. Pressurizer heater sleeves are nonaxisymmetrically attached on the hill-side of bottom head by partial penetration welds. The excessive stresses in the partial penetration weld regions of the heater sleeves are induced by pressure and thermal transient loads and also by the deformation due to manual welding process. The purpose of this study is 1) to improve design for the partial penetration welds between heater sleeves to head junctures, 2) to demonstrate the structural integrity according to the requirements of ASME Code, Section III and 3) to improve welding procedure considering the proposed design

  2. Growth of MoO3 nanostructured thin films as a function of O2-partial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we synthesized molybdenum trioxide (α-MoO3) nanostructured thin films (NSTs) with nanoflakes (NFs) on the Ni-coated glass substrates employing plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP) as a function of oxygen partial pressure (PO2). The effect of oxygen partial pressure on structural, morphological, and vibrational properties have been investigated systematically. The structural analysis divulged that all films deposited at different PO2 have pure orthorhombic phase, no impurity phase is detected under the limit of resolution. The morphological studies of samples is carried out by SEM, revealed that features as well as alignment of MoO3 NSTs can be monitored by PO2 and the sample having best features is obtained at 7.5×10-2 Torr. In addition, the more insight information is accomplished by TEM/HRTEM on the best featured sample, which confirmed the single crystalline nature of nanoflakes. The vibrational study of all samples are performed by FTIR, and strongly supports the XRD observations. All the results are in consonance with each other.

  3. The effect of O2 partial pressure on the photoluminescence of ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Y.M.; Li, X.P.; Su, S.C.; Cao, P.J.; Jia, F.; Han, S.; Zeng, Y.X.; Liu, W.J.; Zhu, D.L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, photoluminescence (PL) of ZnO thin films prepared on c-Al 2 O 3 substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method at different O 2 partial pressures is investigated. For all samples, a narrow ultraviolet (UV) emission and a broad visible emission can be observed at room-temperature (RT). With increasing O 2 partial pressures from 0.2 to 5 Pa, the intensity ratio of the UV to visible emissions increases, and the energy positions of the UV emission band shift to the high energy side. It is noted that the visible part includes two emission bands of green luminescence (GL) and yellow luminescence (YL), in which the GL emission is strong at low oxygen pressure and the YL emission becomes dominant at high O 2 partial pressures. The temperature-dependent PL spectra show that the UV emission is composed of two bands labeled FX and FA. The dependences and possible assignments of these PL bands are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We confirmed that the RT UV emission band is due to two transitions of the FX and FA. • The intensity of the FX and FA emission bands strongly depends on oxygen partial pressures. • We deduced that the acceptor-like defects located in the grain boundaries are responsible for the FA emission. • The visible emission includes the GL related to V O and the YL related to V Zn or O i . • The GL emission strongly affects the UV emission

  4. Skeletal muscle oxygen pressure fields in artificially ventilated, critically ill patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, N.; Jorfeldt, L.; Lewis, D.H.; Oedman, S.

    1980-01-01

    The MDO (Mehrdraht Dostmund Oberflaeche) oxygen electrode was used in a study of skeletal muscle oxygen pressure fields, presented as histograms, in critically ill patients artificially ventilated with gas mixtures of different oxygen concentrations. The histograms were compared with forearm blood flow measurements performed with strain gauge plethysmography. Local blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) were also studied by the simultaneous clearances of 133 xenon and 51 Cr-EDTA. The histogram distribution type was normal, i.e. approximately Gaussian, at arterial oxygen pressure levels between 10 and 18 kPa. At arterial oxygen pressures outside this range the histogram distribution types were abnormal, i.e. they showed a non-symmetrical distribution of oxygen pressure values, but their mean was approximately the same as in the normal histogram. However, there were significantly higher tissue oxygen pressure mean values in the patients (3.43 kPa) than in a group of healthy human volunteers (2.25 kPa). Mean forearm blood flow and the clearances of 133 xenon and 51 Cr-EDTA showed marked variations during the measurements both intraindividually and interindividually. Mean forearm blood flow and mean clearances of 133 xenon showed opposite trends compared with arterial oxygen pressures. Mean clearances of 51 Cr-EDTA and mean PS showed minor variations at the different arterial oxygen pressure levels. (author)

  5. The effect of temperature and pressure on the oxygen reduction reactions in polyelectrolyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdcroft, S.; Abdou, M.S.; Beattie, P.; Basura, V. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The effect of temperature and pressure on the oxygen reduction reaction in polyelectrolyte membranes was described. Polyelectrolytes chosen for the experiment differed in composition, weight and flexibility of the polymer chains. The study was conducted in a solid state electrochemical cell at temperatures between 30 and 95 degrees C and in the pressure range of 1 to 5 atm. The solubility of oxygen in these membranes was found to follow Henry`s Law, while the diffusion coefficient decreased with pressure. The effect of temperature on the solubility of oxygen and the diffusion coefficient of oxygen in the membranes was similar to that observed in solution electrolytes. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Pressure broadening of atomic oxygen two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinov, D.; Drag, C.; Blondel, C.; Guaitella, O.; Golda, J.; Klarenaar, B.L.M.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Booth, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, considered to be a determining reactant in plasma applications at ambient pressure, is routinely detected by two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). Here, pressure broadening of the (2p 4 3 P 2  →  3p 3 P J=0,1,2) two-photon transition in oxygen atoms was

  7. Acidogenesis driven by hydrogen partial pressure towards bioethanol production through fatty acids reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Omprakash; Butti, Sai Kishore; Venkata Mohan, S.

    2017-01-01

    H 2 partial pressure drives the reduction of carboxylic acid (short chain fatty acids) formed as primary metabolites in acidogenic fermentation to form bioalcohols. Microbial catalysis under the influence of H 2 partial pressure was evaluated in comparison with a reactor operated at atmospheric pressure under identical conditions. Carboxylic acid reduction gets regulated selectively by the influence of elevated pressures and redox conditions, resulting in the formation of alcohols. The non-equilibrium of the intra and extracellular H 2 ions causes the anaerobic bacteria to alter their pathways as a function of interspecies H 2 transfer. Ethanol production was quantified, as acetic acid was the major carboxylic acid synthesised during acidogenesis. H 2 pressure influenced the electrochemical activity which was reflected in the distinct variation of the electron transfer rates and the catalytic activity of redox mediators (NAD + /NADH, flavoproteins and iron-sulphur clusters). The bioprocess depicted in this communication depicted a non-genetic regulation of product formation, understanding the acidogenic metabolism and alternate route for alcohol production. - Highlights: • H 2 partial pressure in HPR aided in the reduction of carboxylic acids to alcohols. • Production and consumption rate of VFAs were correlating with alcohol formation. • Metabolic shift was evident with bioelectrochical analysis. • NADH/NAD + ratio and H 2 partial pressure coupled in enhanced solventogenesis.

  8. Effects of oxygen gas pressure on properties of iron oxide films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Qixin; Shi, Wangzhou; Liu, Feng; Arita, Makoto; Ikoma, Yoshifumi; Saito, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Nishio, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pulsed laser deposition is a promising technique for growing iron oxide films. ► Crystal structure of the iron oxide films strongly depends on oxygen gas pressure. ► Optimum of the oxygen gas pressure leads single phase magnetite films with high crystal quality. -- Abstract: Iron oxide films were grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition at oxygen gas pressures between 1 × 10 −5 and 1 × 10 −1 Pa with a substrate temperature of 600 °C. Atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray absorption fine structure, and vibrational sample magnetometer analysis revealed that surface morphology and crystal structure of the iron oxide films strongly depend on the oxygen gas pressure during the growth and the optimum oxygen gas pressure range is very narrow around 1 × 10 −3 Pa for obtaining single phase magnetite films with high crystal quality

  9. Oxygen-Independent Pressure Sensitive Paint, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) systems are excellent tools for performing global pressure measurements in aerodynamic testing, especially in wind tunnel studies. The...

  10. Growth responses of Neurospora crassa to increased partial pressures of the noble gases and nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, R G; Schreiner, H R; Doebbler, G F

    1966-02-01

    Buchheit, R. G. (Union Carbide Corp., Tonawanda, N.Y.), H. R. Schreiner, and G. F. Doebbler. Growth responses of Neurospora crassa to increased partial pressures of the noble gases and nitrogen. J. Bacteriol. 91:622-627. 1966.-Growth rate of the fungus Neurospora crassa depends in part on the nature of metabolically "inert gas" present in its environment. At high partial pressures, the noble gas elements (helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) inhibit growth in the order: Xe > Kr> Ar > Ne > He. Nitrogen (N(2)) closely resembles He in inhibitory effectiveness. Partial pressures required for 50% inhibition of growth were: Xe (0.8 atm), Kr (1.6 atm), Ar (3.8 atm), Ne (35 atm), and He ( approximately 300 atm). With respect to inhibition of growth, the noble gases and N(2) differ qualitatively and quantitatively from the order of effectiveness found with other biological effects, i.e., narcosis, inhibition of insect development, depression of O(2)-dependent radiation sensitivity, and effects on tissue-slice glycolysis and respiration. Partial pressures giving 50% inhibition of N. crassa growth parallel various physical properties (i.e., solubilities, solubility ratios, etc.) of the noble gases. Linear correlation of 50% inhibition pressures to the polarizability and of the logarithm of pressure to the first and second ionization potentials suggests the involvement of weak intermolecular interactions or charge-transfer in the biological activity of the noble gases.

  11. Fuel cell serves as oxygen level detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Monitoring the oxygen level in the air is accomplished by a fuel cell detector whose voltage output is proportional to the partial pressure of oxygen in the sampled gas. The relationship between output voltage and partial pressure of oxygen can be calibrated.

  12. Non stoichiometry in U3O(8±x), its temperature and oxygen pressure dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez De Sastre, M.S.; Philippot, J.; Moreau, C.

    1967-01-01

    The deviation from stoichiometry in uranium oxide U 3 O 8 obtained by oxidation of UO 2 , has been studied with respect to its dependence on temperature and oxygen pressure. It is shown that the ratio r = O/U increases with oxygen pressure up to 200 mm Hg at any temperature. At higher pressures, this ratio tends toward a limit which decreases with increasing temperatures. The curve r = f(P) suggest a chemisorption phenomenon as the reaction limiting mechanism. (authors) [fr

  13. Evaluation of Nd:YAG laser on partial oxygen saturation of pulpal blood in anterior hypersensitive teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birang, Reza; Kaviani, Naser; Mohammadpour, Mehdi; Abed, Ahmad Moghareh; Gutknecht, Norbert; Mir, Maziar

    2008-07-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity has of long been known to be a common clinical problem in dental practices. Lasers have recently come to play a prominent role in the treatment of this disorder. They might, however, cause dental pulp damage. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser on partial oxygen saturation of pulpal blood in sensitive anterior teeth. In this clinical trial, 65 hypersensitive teeth were selected and randomly allocated to two groups. The study group involved Nd:YAG laser treatment, while no treatment was employed for the control group. Using a pulse oximetry system, evaluations were preformed of the partial oxygen saturation in the pulpal blood before, immediately after, 1 week after, and 1 month after the treatment. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software and repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired-samples t tests. The mean partial oxygen saturation of the blood was found to be 85.4% in the study group, which was not significantly different from that of the control group. No significant differences were observed in the control group between the means obtained from pretreatment and post-treatment intervals (P > 0.05). The Post-treatment partial oxygen saturation mean rose to 89.3% (P = 0.001) and remained constant throughout the following week after it. However, no significant differences were found between the pretreatment partial oxygen saturation mean and the same measurement 1 month after treatment (P = 0.702). Nd:YAG laser therapy for dentine desensitization of anterior teeth caused no persistent changes in the partial oxygen saturation of pulpal blood. It may, therefore, be concluded that the diffusion of heat induced by the Nd:YAG laser into the pulp within the limit of the desensitization parameters cause no irreversible damages in the dental pulp.

  14. Oxygen pressure-tuned epitaxy and magnetic properties of magnetite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Junran [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Wenqing [York-Nanjing Joint Centre (YNJC) for Spintronics and Nanoengineering, Department of Electronics, The University of York, YO10 3DD (United Kingdom); Zhang, Minhao; Zhang, Xiaoqian; Niu, Wei; Gao, Ming [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Xuefeng, E-mail: xfwang@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Du, Jun [School of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang, Rong [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Yongbing, E-mail: ybxu@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Photonic and Electronic Materials, Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); York-Nanjing Joint Centre (YNJC) for Spintronics and Nanoengineering, Department of Electronics, The University of York, YO10 3DD (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Quasi-2D Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films were obtained by PLD. • RHEED under different oxygen pressure were observed. • Influence of oxygen pressure on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films were investigated. • Epitaxy and magnetic properties were tuned by oxygen pressure. • The ratio of Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} fitted by XPS is the tuned factor of M{sub s}. - Abstract: Quasi-two-dimensional magnetite epitaxial thin films have been synthesized by pulsed laser deposition technique at various oxygen pressures. The saturation magnetizations of the magnetite films were found to decrease from 425 emu/cm{sup 3}, which is close to the bulk value, to 175 emu/cm{sup 3} as the growth atmospheres varying from high vacuum (∼1 × 10{sup −8} mbar) to oxygen pressure of 1 × 10{sup −3} mbar. The ratio of the Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+} increases from 2 to 2.7 as oxygen pressure increasing shown by XPS fitting, which weakens the net magnetic moment generated by Fe{sup 2+} at octahedral sites as the spins of the Fe{sup 3+} ions at octahedral and tetrahedral sites are aligned in antiparallel. The results offer direct experimental evidence of the influence to the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} ratio and the magnetic moment in magnetite epitaxy films by oxygen pressure, which is significant for spintronic applications.

  15. The equilibrium hydrogen pressure-temperature diagram for the liquid sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knights, C.F.; Whittingham, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The underlying equilibria in the sodium-hydrogen-oxygen system are presented in the form of a completmentary hydrogen equilibrium pressure-temperature diagram, constructed by using published data and supplemented by experimental measurements of hydrogen equilibrium pressures over condensed phases in the system. Possible applications of the equilibrium pressure-temperature phase diagram limitations regarding its use are outlined

  16. High Pressure Oxygen Generation for Future Exploration Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is the development of a cathode feed electrolysis cell stack capable of generating 3600 psi oxygen at a relevant scale for future exploration...

  17. Sensing performances of ZnO nanostructures grown under different oxygen pressures to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Jin; Peng, Xiaoyan; Wang, Zhenbo; Feng, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Surface morphology depends on the oxygen pressure. ► Structural degradation was observed for the ZnO samples when oxygen pressure was overhigh. ► The sensitivity of the ZnO-based sensors increase with grown oxygen pressure. -- Abstract: For extensive use in an industrialized process of individual ZnO nanostructures applied in gas sensors, a simple, inexpensive, and safe synthesis process is required. Here, nanostructured ZnO films were grown by a pulsed laser deposition technique under different oxygen pressures. Scanning electron microscopy images show nanopores, nanotips, and nanoparticles are obtained and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate oxygen concentration of the synthesized samples increases monotonously with oxygen pressure. The sensor based on ZnO with high oxygen concentration has high sensitivity, rapid response (9 s) and recovery (80 s) behavior to 500 ppm hydrogen below 150 °C. Experimental data indicate that high oxygen concentration effectively improves the sensing properties of nanostructured ZnO.

  18. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, CA (United States)); DeJong, T.M. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States))

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O[sub 3]) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O[sub 3] partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O[sub 3] partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 [mu]Pa Pa[sup [minus]1] O[sub 3] in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O[sub 3] treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO[sub 2] assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O[sub 3] partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O[sub 3] and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O[sub 3] treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O[sub 3] exposure.

  19. Photosynthesis and growth response of almond to increased atmospheric ozone partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retzlaff, W.A.; Williams, L.E.; DeJong, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    Uniform nursery stock of five almond cultivars [Prunus dulcis (Mill) D.A. Webb syn. P. amygdalus Batsch, cv. Butte, Carmel, Mission, Nonpareil, and Sonora] propagated on peach (P. domstica L. Batsch.) rootstock were exposed to three different atmospheric ozone (O 3 ) partial pressures. The trees were planted in open-top fumigation chambers on 19 Apr. 1989 at the University of California Kearny Agricultural Center located in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Exposures of the trees to three atmospheric O 3 partial pressures lasted from 1 June to 2 Nov. 1989. The mean 12-h [0800-2000 h Pacific Daylight Time (PDT)] O 3 partial pressures measured in the open-top chambers during the experimental period were 0.038, 0.060, and 0.112 μPa Pa -1 O 3 in the charcoal filtered, ambient, and ambient + O 3 treatments, respectively. Leaf net CO 2 assimilation, trunk cross-sectional area growth, and root, trunk, foliage, and total dry weight of Nonpareil were reduced by increased atmospheric O 3 partial pressures. Mission was unaffected by O 3 and Butte, Carmel, and Sonora were intermediate in their responses. Foliage of Nonpareil also abscised prematurely in the ambient and ambient + O 3 treatments. The results indicate that there are almond cultivars that are sensitive to O 3 exposure

  20. Partial Discharge Measurements in HV Rotating Machines in Dependence on Pressure of Coolant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kršňák

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the pressure of the coolant used in high voltage rotating machines on partial discharges occurring in stator insulation is discussed in this paper. The first part deals with a theoretical analysis of the topic. The second part deals with the results obtained on a real generator in industrial conditions. Finally, theoretical assumptions and obtained results are compared.

  1. Effect of oxygen pressure on sensitivity of CR-39 used for astronauts radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, T.; Yabe, S.; Nagamatsu, A.; Tawara, H.; Kumagai, H.; Miyazawa, Y.; Kitajo, K.; Kodaira, S.; Yasuda, N.

    2006-01-01

    The personal radiation dosimeters for astronauts are exposed to low-pressure oxygen gas (0.29 atmospheres) during extra-vehicle activities. CR-39 plastic track detectors are one of the typical passive dosimeters for space radiation monitoring. We investigated change in track formation sensitivity of the antioxidant-doped CR-39 plastic with which oxygen gas comes in contact at different pressures up to 2 atmospheres for 1h to 10 days. The oxygen effect on sensitivity was measured for the C, Si and Fe ions (10-200 keV/μm) from the HIMAC heavy ion accelerator. The sensitivity is obviously sensitive to oxygen pressure at heavy-ion exposures, but not sensitive to the experience of oxygen atmosphere before and after the ion exposures. The maximum sensitivity is obtained at 0.29 atmospheres. The present experimental data suggested that the effect depends on LET of incident particles. (author)

  2. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  3. Microvascular oxygen pressure in the pig intestine during haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinaasappel, M.; van Iterson, M.; Ince, C.

    1999-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between microvascular and venous oxygen pressures during haemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in the pig intestine. To this end microvascular PO2 (microPO2) was measured by quenching of Pd-porphyrin phosphorescence by oxygen and validated for

  4. Association between intraoperative tissue oxygenation, arterial blood pressure and noradrenaline use in urological patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.J.; Schwarte, L.A.; Hakenberg, O.W.; Scheeren, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Goal of Study: Inadequate tissue oxygenation should be prevented during surgery as it might cause postoperative morbidity. In this observational study we looked at factors that might influence tissue oxygenation (StO2) such as blood pressure and use of vasoactive drugs. Materials and

  5. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...density storage of gases remains a major technological hurdle for many fields. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), for example, reduced their hydrogen

  6. Partial alignment and measurement of residual dipolar couplings of proteins under high hydrostatic pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yinan; Wand, A. Joshua, E-mail: wand@mail.med.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Johnson Research Foundation (United States)

    2013-08-15

    High-pressure NMR spectroscopy has emerged as a complementary approach for investigating various structural and thermodynamic properties of macromolecules. Noticeably absent from the array of experimental restraints that have been employed to characterize protein structures at high hydrostatic pressure is the residual dipolar coupling, which requires the partial alignment of the macromolecule of interest. Here we examine five alignment media that are commonly used at ambient pressure for this purpose. We find that the spontaneous alignment of Pf1 phage, d(GpG) and a C12E5/n-hexnanol mixture in a magnetic field is preserved under high hydrostatic pressure. However, DMPC/DHPC bicelles and collagen gel are found to be unsuitable. Evidence is presented to demonstrate that pressure-induced structural changes can be identified using the residual dipolar coupling.

  7. Cathodic over-potential and hydrogen partial pressure coupling in hydrogen evolution reaction of marine steel under hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, X.L.; Zhou, Q.J.; Li, J.X.; Volinsky, Alex A.; Su, Y.J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Hydrostatic pressure increases the Volmer and the Heyrovsky reactions rates. •Hydrostatic pressure decreases the Tafel reaction rate. •Hydrogen adsorption conditions change with pressure under −1.2 and −1.3 V SSE . •Under −1.2 and −1.3 V SSE , the Heyrovsky reaction dominates the hydrogen recombination. •Under −1.0 and −1.1 V SSE , the Tafel reaction dominates the hydrogen recombination. -- Abstract: A new electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) model, which considers both the Tafel recombination and the Heyrovsky reaction under permeable boundary conditions, was developed to characterize the kinetic parameters of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) under hydrostatic pressure. The effect of the hydrostatic pressure on the kinetic parameters of the HER and the permeation of A514 steel in alkaline solution were measured using potentiodynamic polarization, the Devanathan cell hydrogen permeation, and EIS. The hydrostatic pressure accelerates the Volmer reaction and inhibits the Tafel recombination, which increases the number of adsorbed hydrogen atoms. On the other hand, the pressure accelerates the Heyrovsky reaction, which decreases the amount of adsorbed hydrogen atoms. At 10 to 40 MPa hydrostatic pressure within the −1.0 to −1.1 V SSE cathodic potential region, the HER is controlled by hydrogen partial pressure, and hydrogen adsorption is the Langmuir type. Within the −1.2 to −1.3 V SSE cathodic potential region, the HER is controlled by the potential, and hydrogen adsorption gradually transfers from the Langmuir type to the Temkin type with increasing hydrostatic pressure.

  8. Sodium addition and/or oxygen saturation of iohexol during normal and reduced perfusion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence on contractile force (CF) and the propensity for ventricular fibrillation (VF) from infusing the non-ionic contrast medium iohexol during normal (75 cm H 2 O) and reduced perfusion pressure (35 cm H 2 O) were investigated in the isolated rabbit heart. Both during normal and reduced perfusion pressure iohexol (150 mg I/ml) with oxygen saturation caused a smaller reduction of CF than iohexol without oxygen. During reduced pressure iohexol with sodium addition (28 mM NaCl) caused less depression of CF than iohexol without sodium. The combination of sodium addition and oxygen saturation had the least influence on CF. Iohexol (350 mg I/ml) without sodium had a similar fibrillatory propensity during both normal and reduced pressure. Enriching iohexol with 28 mM NaCl decreased the risk of VF. The decrease was similar during both normal and reduced pressure. The risk of VF from oxygen saturation of iohexol (350 mg I/ml, without sodium) was similar during both normal and reduced pressure. It is concluded that a small addition of sodium and/or oxygen saturation of a non-ionic monomeric contrast medium have beneficial effects on the heart both during normal perfusion pressure and during ischemia. (orig.)

  9. Theoretical basis of oxygen pressure control in liquid Pb-Bi using YSZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, S. H.; Hwang, I. S.; Park, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    To develop a liquid Pb-Bi cooled reactor, it is necessary to solve the structural material corrosion problem caused by Pb-Bi. This experiment examine the fundamental behaviors to practically test the oxide film formation on the surface of structural material known as solution of corrosion inhibition in liquid Pb-Bi. The corrosion inhibition through oxide film formation is to prevent metals from dissolving into liquid Pb-Bi though not forming coolants slug resulted from oxidation. In this paper, we examined the oxygen pressure controllability using YSZ in cover gas, and theoretically derived the relationship between oxygen cover gas pressure and dissolved oxygen in liquid Pb-Bi

  10. Pressure balanced type membrane covered polarographic oxygen detectors for use in high temperature-high pressure water, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Norio; Uchida, Shunsuke

    1984-01-01

    A pressure balanced type membrane covered polarographic oxygen detector was developed to determine directly oxygen concentrations in high temperature, high pressure water without cooling and pressure reducing procedures. The detector is characterized by the following features: (1) The detector body and the membrane for oxygen penetration are made of heat resistant resin. (2) The whole detector body is contained in a pressure chamber where interior and exterior pressures of the detector are balanced. (3) Thermal expansion of the electrolyte is absorbed by deformation of a diaphragm attached to the detector bottom. (4) The effect of dissolved Ag + on the signal current is eliminated by applying a guard electrode. As a result of performance tests at elevated temperature, it was demonstrated that a linear relationship between oxygen concentration and signal current was obtained up to 285 0 C, which was stabilized by the guard electrode. The minimum O 2 concentration detectable was 0.03ppm (9.4 x 10 -7 mol/kg). (author)

  11. Change in the work function of zirconium by oxidation at high temperatures and low oxygen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Naito, Shizuo; Mabuchi, Mahito; Hashino, Tomoyasu

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the work function of zirconium on oxidation are measured at oxygen pressures of 3.0 x 10 -6 - 3.0 x 10 -4 Pa and at temperatures in the range 426-775 K. The work function first decreases then increases until a final saturation stage is reached. Use of secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) shows that the changes correspond to oxygen adsorption, oxide nucleation and oxide growth, respectively. The initial decrease in work function is interpreted by the incorporation of oxygen adatoms into the subsurface. The oxygen adsorption potential of zirconium is evaluated by an effective medium theory, and the physical origin of the incorporation of oxygen adatoms is discussed. The positive change in the work function caused by oxide formation and the temperature and pressure dependences of the change in the work function by oxidation are explained qualitatively. (author)

  12. Effect of partial sports massage on blood pressure and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Pystupa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity and demand for different types of massages (including sports is a growing need for research on specific forms. There is also a need to study the advantages and effects on various body functions. The objective was to study the effect of partial sports massage on blood pressure and heart rate in both men and women. Material and methods. Research has been extended 80 healthy men and women are physically active (age 20-25 years. Blood pressure and heart rate were made on the left arm automatic digital device (model HEM - 907. The device is intended to measure blood pressure. It is established that it is possible to verify the existing beliefs. This promotes more efficient use of massage therapy. Conclusions . Sports massage has an effect on hemodynamic changes, the increase (decrease in blood pressure acceleration (deceleration of the heart rate. It depends on what part of the body exposed to the massage procedure.

  13. High-pressure oxygenation of thin-wall YBCO single-domain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaud, X; Savchuk, Y; Sergienko, N; Prikhna, T; Diko, P

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen annealing of ReBCO bulk material, necessary to achieve superconducting properties, usually induces micro- and macro-cracks. This leads to a crack-assisted oxygenation process that allows oxygenating large bulk samples faster than single crystals. But excellent superconducting properties are cancelled by the poor mechanical ones. More progressive oxygenation strategy has been shown to reduce drastically the oxygenation cracks. The problem then arises to keep a reasonable annealing time. The concept of bulk Y123 single-domain samples with thin-wall geometry has been introduced to bypass the inherent limitation due to a slow oxygen diffusion rate. But it is not enough. The use of a high oxygen pressure (16 MPa) enables to speed up further the process. It introduces a displacement in the equilibrium phase diagram towards higher temperatures, i.e., higher diffusion rates, to achieve a given oxygen content in the material. Remarkable results were obtained by applying such a high pressure oxygen annealing process on thin-wall single-domain samples. The trapped field of 16 mm diameter Y123 thin-wall single-domain samples was doubled (0.6T vs 0.3T at 77K) using an annealing time twice shorter (about 3 days). The initial development was made on thin bars. The advantage of thin-wall geometry is that such an annealing can be applied directly to a much larger sample

  14. Ce-Fe-O mixed oxide as oxygen carrier for the direct partial oxidation of methane to syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永刚; 王华; 李孔斋

    2010-01-01

    The Ce-Fe-O mixed oxide with a ratio of Ce/Fe=7:3, which was prepared by coprecipitation method and employed as oxygen carrier, for direct partial oxidation of methane to syngas in the absence of gaseous oxygen was explored. The mixed oxide was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the catalytic performances were studied in a fixed-bed quartz reactor and a thermogravimetric reactor, respectively. Approximately 99.4% H2 se...

  15. Thermodynamic Calculations of Hydrogen-Oxygen Detonation Parameters for Various Initial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Loren E.; Edse, Rudolph

    1961-01-01

    Composition, temperature, pressure and density behind a stable detonation wave and its propagation rate have been calculated for seven hydrogen-oxygen mixture at 1, 5, 25 and 100 atm initial pressure, and at an initial temperature of 40C. For stoichiometric mixtures that calculations also include an initial temperature of 200C. According to these calculations the detonation velocities of hydrogen-oxygen mixtures increase with increasing initial pressure, but decrease slightly when the initial temperature is raised from 40 to 200 C. The calculated detonation velocities agree satisfactorily with values determined experimentally. These values will be published in the near future.

  16. Measurement and prediction of the solubility of acid gases in monoethanolamine solutions at low partial pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, P; Mather, A E

    1977-12-01

    An apparatus for the determination of the solubility of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and their mixtures in ethanolamine solutions at low pressures is described. With this apparatus, the solubility of H/sub 2/S, CO/sub 2/ and their mixtures in aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine was measured at partial pressures between 0.001 kPa and 9 kPa at temperatures of 80 and 100/sup 0/C. The results for the mixture were compared with two methods of prediction based on a thermodynamic model. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Syngas fermentation to biofuels: Effects of hydrogen partial pressure on hydrogenase efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skidmore, Bradley E.; Baker, Ryan A.; Banjade, Dila R.; Bray, Jason M.; Tree, Douglas R.; Lewis, Randy S.

    2013-01-01

    Producing biofuels from gasified biomass (synthesis gas) via microbial fermentation is currently being pursued as one alternative in biofuels development. In synthesis gas fermentation, reducing equivalents from H 2 oxidation via hydrogenase is important towards directing more carbon towards product formation. In this work, kinetic studies of H 2 utilization via the Clostridium P11 hydrogenase enzyme were performed to determine the most appropriate model to predict hydrogenase activity as a function of H 2 partial pressure. An important aspect of this work included the proper analysis of electron acceptors used in the kinetic studies. The K H 2 model parameter governing the effect of H 2 partial pressure on activity was ∼30 kPa (absolute), independent of the type and concentration of electron acceptor. The K H 2 value indicates that H 2 partial pressures typically associated with syngas fermentation will result in compromised efficiency of the hydrogenase activity. -- Highlights: ► We model hydrogenase activity as a function of H 2 and electron acceptors. ► Model shows the H 2 kinetic parameter is independent of electron acceptor. ► Hydrogenase efficiency is compromised at H 2 levels observed in gasified biomass

  18. Biomass hydrolysis inhibition at high hydrogen partial pressure in solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazier, E A; Trably, E; Steyer, J P; Escudie, R

    2015-08-01

    In solid-state anaerobic digestion, so-called ss-AD, biogas production is inhibited at high total solids contents. Such inhibition is likely caused by a slow diffusion of dissolved reaction intermediates that locally accumulate. In this study, we investigated the effect of H2 and CO2 partial pressure on ss-AD. Partial pressure of H2 and/or CO2 was artificially fixed, from 0 to 1 557mbars for H2 and from 0 to 427mbars for CO2. High partial pressure of H2 showed a significant effect on methanogenesis, while CO2 had no impact. At high [Formula: see text] , the overall substrate degradation decreased with no accumulation of metabolites from acidogenic bacteria, indicating that the hydrolytic activity was specifically impacted. Interestingly, such inhibition did not occur when CO2 was added with H2. This result suggests that CO2 gas transfer is probably a key factor in ss-AD from biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Simulation of Oxygen Disintegration and Mixing With Hydrogen or Helium at Supercritical Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi

    2012-01-01

    The simulation of high-pressure turbulent flows, where the pressure, p, is larger than the critical value, p(sub c), for the species under consideration, is relevant to a wide array of propulsion systems, e.g. gas turbine, diesel, and liquid rocket engines. Most turbulence models, however, have been developed for atmospheric-p turbulent flows. The difference between atmospheric-p and supercritical-p turbulence is that, in the former situation, the coupling between dynamics and thermodynamics is moderate to negligible, but for the latter it is very significant, and can dominate the flow characteristics. The reason for this stems from the mathematical form of the equation of state (EOS), which is the perfect-gas EOS in the former case, and the real-gas EOS in the latter case. For flows at supercritical pressure, p, the large eddy simulation (LES) equations consist of the differential conservation equations coupled with a real-gas EOS. The equations use transport properties that depend on the thermodynamic variables. Compared to previous LES models, the differential equations contain not only the subgrid scale (SGS) fluxes, but also new SGS terms, each denoted as a correction. These additional terms, typically assumed null for atmospheric pressure flows, stem from filtering the differential governing equations, and represent differences between a filtered term and the same term computed as a function of the filtered flow field. In particular, the energy equation contains a heat-flux correction (q-correction) that is the difference between the filtered divergence of the heat flux and the divergence of the heat flux computed as a function of the filtered flow field. In a previous study, there was only partial success in modeling the q-correction term, but in this innovation, success has been achieved by using a different modeling approach. This analysis, based on a temporal mixing layer Direct Numerical Simulation database, shows that the focus in modeling the q

  20. Optimizing the physical ergonomics indices for the use of partial pressure suits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Li, Xianxue; Hedge, Alan; Hu, Huimin; Feathers, David; Qin, Zhifeng; Xiao, Huajun; Xue, Lihao; Zhou, Qianxiang

    2015-03-01

    This study developed an ergonomic evaluation system for the design of high-altitude partial pressure suits (PPSs). A total of twenty-one Chinese males participated in the experiment which tested three types of ergonomics indices (manipulative mission, operational reach and operational strength) were studied using a three-dimensional video-based motion capture system, a target-pointing board, a hand dynamometer, and a step-tread apparatus. In total, 36 ergonomics indices were evaluated and optimized using regression and fitting analysis. Some indices that were found to be linearly related and redundant were removed from the study. An optimal ergonomics index system was established that can be used to conveniently and quickly evaluate the performance of different pressurized/non-pressurized suit designs. The resulting ergonomics index system will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for mission planners, suit designers and engineers to design equipment for human use, and to aid in assessing partial pressure suits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Voltage and partial pressure dependent defect chemistry in (La,Sr)FeO3-δ thin films investigated by chemical capacitance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexander; Rupp, Ghislain M; Fleig, Jürgen

    2018-05-03

    La0.6Sr0.4FeO3-δ (LSF) thin films of different thickness were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and characterized by using three electrode impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical film capacitance was analyzed in relation to oxygen partial pressure (0.25 mbar to 1 bar), DC polarization (0 m to -600 m) and temperature (500 to 650 °C). For most measurement parameters, the chemical bulk capacitance dominates the overall capacitive properties and the corresponding defect chemical state depends solely on the oxygen chemical potential inside the film, independent of atmospheric oxygen pressure and DC polarization. Thus, defect chemical properties (defect concentrations and defect formation enthalpies) could be deduced from such measurements. Comparison with LSF defect chemical bulk data from the literature showed good agreement for vacancy formation energies but suggested larger electronic defect concentrations in the films. From thickness-dependent measurements at lower oxygen chemical potentials, an additional capacitive contribution could be identified and attributed to the LSF|YSZ interface. Deviations from simple chemical capacitance models at high pressures are most probably due to defect interactions.

  2. Voltage and partial pressure dependent defect chemistry in (La,Sr)FeO3–δ thin films investigated by chemical capacitance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Ghislain M.; Fleig, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    La0.6Sr0.4FeO3–δ (LSF) thin films of different thickness were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and characterized by using three electrode impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical film capacitance was analyzed in relation to oxygen partial pressure (0.25 mbar to 1 bar), DC polarization (0 m to –600 m) and temperature (500 to 650 °C). For most measurement parameters, the chemical bulk capacitance dominates the overall capacitive properties and the corresponding defect chemical state depends solely on the oxygen chemical potential inside the film, independent of atmospheric oxygen pressure and DC polarization. Thus, defect chemical properties (defect concentrations and defect formation enthalpies) could be deduced from such measurements. Comparison with LSF defect chemical bulk data from the literature showed good agreement for vacancy formation energies but suggested larger electronic defect concentrations in the films. From thickness-dependent measurements at lower oxygen chemical potentials, an additional capacitive contribution could be identified and attributed to the LSF|YSZ interface. Deviations from simple chemical capacitance models at high pressures are most probably due to defect interactions. PMID:29671421

  3. ARMAZENAMENTO DE MAÇÃS 'ROYAL GALA' SOB DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS E PRESSÕES PARCIAIS DE OXIGÊNIO E GÁS CARBÔNICO STORAGE OF 'ROYAL GALA' APPLE UNDER DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND CARBON DIOXIDE AND OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AURI BRACKMANN

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento e condições de atmosfera controlada sobre a manutenção da qualidade da maçã cv. Royal Gala. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em um esquema bifatorial, com 4 repetições e a amostra composta por 25 frutos. Os oito tratamentos originaram-se da combinação de dois níveis do fator temperatura (-0.5ºC e 0ºC com quatro níveis do fator condição de atmosfera controlada (1kPa O2/2kPa CO2, 1,2kPa O2/2kPa CO2, 1kPa de O2/3kPa CO2 e 1,2kPa O2/3kPa CO2. As avaliações foram realizadas após nove meses de armazenamento, na abertura das câmaras, e após sete dias de exposição dos frutos à temperatura de 20ºC. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, as temperaturas testadas não diferiram estatisticamente com relação à acidez titulável na saída da câmara, sendo que a melhor combinação de gases foi 1,2 kPa de O2 e 2 kPa de CO2. Já após sete dias de armazenamento a 0ºC, não houve diferença estatística com relação à concentração de gases. A temperatura de 0ºC apresentou maior firmeza de polpa, menor incidência de frutos com polpa farinhenta e degenerescência da polpa após sete dias a 20ºC. A combinação de gases 1,0kPa de O2 e 2 e 3 kPa de CO2 apresentou melhor manutenção da acidez titulável e menores valores de ocorrência de podridões e distúrbios fisiológicos. Concluiu-se que a melhor temperatura de armazenamento para a cv. Royal Gala é de 0(0C e a melhor combinação de gases é de 1kPa de O2 e 2 e 3 kPa de CO2.This work was conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature and CA storage conditions on the quality of 'Royal Gala' apples. The experiemtal desig was completely randomized with 4 replications of 25 fruits. Evaluated temperatures were --0,5ºC and 0ºC combined with following O2 and CO2 partial pressures: 1kPa O2/ 2kPa CO2, 1,2kPa O2/ 2kPa CO2, 1kPa O2/ 3 kPa CO2

  4. Material Usage in High Pressure Oxygen Systems for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Michael; Sievers, D. Elliott

    2014-01-01

    The Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS) for the International Space Station (ISS) Program was required as part of the Space Shuttle retirement efforts to sustain the ISS life support systems. The system is designed around a 7000 psia Oxygen or Nitrogen Recharge Tank Assembly which is able to be utilized both internally and externally to the ISS. Material selection and usage were critical to ensure oxygen compatibility for the design, while taking into consideration toxicity, weldability, brazability and general fabrication and assembly techniques. The system uses unique hardware items such a composite overwrap pressure vessel (COPV), high pressure mechanical gauges, compact regulators and valves, quick disconnects, metal tubing and flexhoses. Numerous challenges and anomalies were encountered due to the exotic nature of this project which will be discussed in detail. The knowledge gained from these anomalies and failure resolutions can be applied to more than space applications, but can also be applicable to industry pressurized systems.

  5. Effects of hyperbaric treatment in cerebral air embolism on intracranial pressure, brain oxygenation, and brain glucose metabolism in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Robert A.; Drenthen, Judith; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lameris, Thomas W.; Visser, Gerhard H.; Klein, Jan; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen treatment after cerebral air embolism on intracranial pressure, brain oxygenation, brain glucose/lactate metabolism, and electroencephalograph. DESIGN: Prospective animal study. SETTING: Hyperbaric chamber. SUBJECTS: Eleven Landrace/Yorkshire

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Method and Apparatus for Removal of Organic Matter with Atomic and Ionic Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor); Rutledge, Sharon K. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A gas stream containing ionic and atomic oxygen in inert gas is used to remove organic matter from a substrate. The gas stream is formed by flowing a mixture of gaseous oxygen in an inert gas such as helium at atmospheric pressure past a high voltage, current limited, direct current arc which contacts the gas mixture and forms the ionic and atomic oxygen. The arc is curved at the cathode end and the ionic oxygen formed by the arc nearer to the anode end of the arc is accelerated in a direction towards the cathode by virtue of its charge. The relatively high mass to charge ratio of the ionic oxygen enables at least some of it to escape the arc before contacting the cathode and it is directed onto the substrate. This is useful for cleaning delicate substrates such as fine and historically important paintings and delicate equipment and the like.

  7. Magnetic susceptibility measurement of solid oxygen at pressures up to 3.3 GPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, M., E-mail: mitoh@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuruda, H.; Deguchi, H. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Ishizuka, M. [Renovation Center of Instruments for Science Education and Technology, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2014-01-07

    The magnetic susceptibility of solid oxygen had long been observed only in the restricted pressure region below 0.8 GPa. We succeeded in extending the pressure region up to 3.3 GPa by clamping condensed oxygen in the sample chamber of a miniature diamond anvil cell and measuring the dc magnetic susceptibility using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. In this experiment, the well-known α–β and β–γ transitions are observed in the phase diagram, suggesting consistency with the previous results of X-ray and Raman studies. In addition, a new magnetic anomaly is observed in the β phase.

  8. Pressure distribution of implant-supported removable partial dentures with stress-breaking attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kentaro; Kurihara, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yasunori; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2014-04-01

    This in vitro study investigated the pressure distribution of the implant-supported removable partial dentures (RPDs) with the stress-breaking attachments under the occlusal force. The experimental model of bilateral missing premolars and molars was modified from a commercial simulation model. Five pressure sensors were embedded near the bilateral first molars, first premolars, and medio-lingual alveolar crest. Two implants were placed near the second molars, and they were connected to the denture base using the following conditions: complete separation between the denture base and implant with cover screws (CRPD), flexible connection with a stress-breaking ball (SBB) attachment, and rigid connection without stress breaking with healing caps (HC). The pressure at five different areas of the soft tissue and the displacement of the RPDs were simultaneously measured, loading up to 50 N. The coefficient of variation (CV) for each connection was calculated from all data of the pressure at five areas to evaluate the pressure distribution. The pressure on medio-lingual alveolar crest and molars of the HC was less than SBB and CRPD. In contrast, the pressure on premolars of SBB was greater than for the HC and CRPD. The CV of SBB was less than that of HC and CRPD. Denture displacement of HC and SBB was less than for CRPD. Within the in vitro limitations, precise denture settlements and pressure distribution under the denture base could be controlled using an SBB attachment. An SBB attachment might be able to protect the implant from harmful force. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen production by the iodine-sulphur thermochemical cycle. Total and partial pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Doizi; V Dauvois; J L Roujou; V Delanne; P Fauvet; B Larousse; O Hercher; P Carles; C Moulin

    2006-01-01

    The iodine sulphur thermochemical cycle appears to be one of the most promising candidate for the massive production of hydrogen using nuclear energy. The key step in this cycle is the HI distillation section which must be optimized to get a good efficiency of the overall cycle. The concept of reactive versus extractive distillation of HI has been proposed because of its potentiality. The design and the optimization of the reactive distillation column requires the knowledge of the liquid vapour equilibrium over the ternary HI-I 2 -H 2 O mixtures up to 300 C and 100 bars. A general methodology based on three experimental devices imposed by the very corrosive and concentrated media will be described: 1) I1 for the total pressure measurement versus different ternary compositions. 2) I2 for the partial and total pressure measurements around 130 C and 2 bars to validate the choice of the analytical optical 'online' techniques we have proposed. 3) I3 for the partial and total pressures measurements in the process domain. The results obtained on pure samples, binary mixtures HI-H 2 O and ternary mixtures using an experimental design analysis in the experimental device I2 will be discussed. (authors)

  10. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and

  11. Effects of inoculum type and bulk dissolved oxygen concentration on achieving partial nitrification by entrapped-cell-based reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Limpiyakorn, Tawan; Khan, Eakalak

    2014-07-01

    An entrapment of nitrifiers into gel matrix is employed as a tool to fulfill partial nitrification under non-limiting dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in bulk solutions. This study aims to clarify which of these two attributes, inoculum type and DO concentration in bulk solutions, is the decisive factor for partial nitrification in an entrapped-cell based system. Four polyvinyl alcohol entrapped inocula were prepared to have different proportions of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and nitrite-oxidizing activity. At a DO concentration of 3 mg l(-1), the number of active NOB cells in an inoculum was the decisive factor for partial nitrification enhancement. However, when the DO concentration was reduced to 2 mg l(-1), all entrapped cell inocula showed similar degrees of partial nitrification. The results suggested that with the lower bulk DO concentration, the preparation of entrapped cell inocula is not useful as the DO level becomes the decisive factor for achieving partial nitrification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensor for Measuring Hydrogen Partial Pressure in Parabolic Trough Power Plant Expansion Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Cooney, Daniel A.

    2017-06-27

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Acciona Energy North America are working together to design and implement a process system that provides a permanent solution to the issue of hydrogen buildup at parabolic trough power plants. We are pursuing a method that selectively removes hydrogen from the expansion tanks that serve as reservoirs for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) that circulates in the collector field and power block components. Our modeling shows that removing hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a design rate reduces and maintains dissolved hydrogen in the circulating HTF to a selected target level. Our collaborative work consists of several tasks that are needed to advance this process concept to a development stage, where it is ready for implementation at a commercial power plant. Our main effort is to design and evaluate likely process-unit operations that remove hydrogen from the expansion tanks at a specified rate. Additionally, we designed and demonstrated a method and instrumentation to measure hydrogen partial pressure and concentration in the expansion-tank headspace gas. We measured hydrogen partial pressure in the headspace gas mixture using a palladium-alloy membrane, which is permeable exclusively to hydrogen. The membrane establishes a pure hydrogen gas phase that is in equilibrium with the hydrogen in the gas mixture. We designed and fabricated instrumentation, and demonstrated its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen partial pressures over a range of three orders of magnitude. Our goal is to install this instrument at the Nevada Solar One power plant and to demonstrate its effectiveness in measuring hydrogen levels in the expansion tanks under normal plant operating conditions.

  13. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriacou, P A; Shafqat, K; Pal, S K

    2007-01-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO 2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  14. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  15. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  16. Direct Synthesis of Methanol by Partial Oxidation of Methane with Oxygen over Cobalt Modified Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Krisyuningsih Krisnandi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Partial oxidation of methane over mesoporous catalyst cobalt modified H-ZSM-5 has been carried out. Mesoporous Na-ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 35.4 was successfully synthesized using double template method which has high surface area (450 m2/g and average pore diameter distribution of 1.9 nm. The as-synthesized Na-ZSM-5 was converted to H-ZSM-5 through multi-exchange treatment with ammonium ion solution, causing decreased crystallinity and surface area, but increased porous diameter, due to dealumination during treatment process. Moreover, H-ZSM-5 was loaded with cobalt (Co = 2.5% w by the incipient impregnation method and calcined at 550 °C. Partial oxidation of methane was performed in the batch reactor with 0.75 bar methane and 2 bar of nitrogen (with impurities of 0.5% oxygen as the input at various reaction time (30, 60 and 120 min. The reaction results show that cobalt species in catalyst has an important role, because H-ZSM-5 cannot produce methanol in partial oxidation of methane. The presence of molecular oxygen increased the percentage of methanol yield. The reaction is time-dependent with the highest methanol yield (79% was acquired using Co/H-ZSM-5 catalyst for 60 min.

  17. Effects of oxygen pressure on the oxidation behavior of Ni-20FCr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Atsushi; Nii, Kazuyoshi

    1982-01-01

    The Ni-20Cr alloy was oxidized at 1373 K at various oxygen partial pressures, ranging from 10 -7 to 10 4 Pa, which were controlled by Ar-O 2 mixtures. A large difference was observed between the oxidation behavior in a high Po 2 (>= 10 2 Pa) range and that in a low Po 2 ( 2 of 10 4 and 1 Pa, the former being typical in high Po 2 and the latter in low Po 2 . The mass gain-time curves showed that the growth rate of scale in the low Po 2 lie between the parabolic and linear law, while that in the high Po 2 obeys the parabolic law, which indicates that the scale formed in the low Po 2 is less protective than that in the high Po 2 . It was found, on the other hand, that the oxide scales formed in the low Po 2 were more adherent to the alloy than those formed in the high Po 2 . In the high Po 2 a large amount of spalling was observed on cooling even in short time oxidation. The oxide scales formed in the low Po 2 were uniform in thickness and rather porous, while those formed in the high Po 2 were dense and non-uniform in thickness. In the low Po 2 a number of small voids were found at the oxide-alloy interface. In the high Po 2 , however, large voids were found; this suggests the occurrence of plastic deformation of the oxide and the alloy by the stress induced in the growing scale. The above difference in oxidation behavior can be ascribed to the difference between growth mechanisms of the oxide scale in the high and low Po 2 . (author)

  18. Heavy-ion induced secondary electron emission from Mg, Al, and Si partially covered with oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, J; Veje, E.

    1984-01-01

    We have bombarded Mg, Al, and Si with 80 keV Ar + ions and measured the secondary electron emission yields at projectile incidence angles from 0 0 to 85 0 , with oxygen present at the target as well as under UHV conditions. The total secondary electron emission yields are found to depend fairly much on the amount of oxygen present. The three elements studied show relatively large individual variations. For all three elements, and with as well as without oxygen present, the relative secondary electron emission yield is observed to vary as 1/cos v, where v is the angle of incidence of the projectiles. This seems to indicate that the secondary electron production is initiated uniformly along the projectile path in the solid, in a region close to the surface. The results are discussed, and it is tentatively suggested, that the increase in secondary electron emission, caused by the presence of oxygen, originates from neutralization of sputtered oxygen, which initially is sitting as O 2- ions. (orig.)

  19. The Determination of the Percent of Oxygen in Air Using a Gas Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James; Chancey, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    The experiment of determination of the percent of oxygen in air is performed in a general chemistry laboratory in which students compare the results calculated from the pressure measurements obtained with the calculator-based systems to those obtained in a water-measurement method. This experiment allows students to explore a fundamental reaction…

  20. Pharmacologic Interventions to Improve Splanchnic Oxygenation During Ventilation with Positive End-Expiratory Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fournell, A.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Picker, O.; Schwarte, L. A.; Wolf, M; Bucher, HU; Rudin, M; VanHuffel, S; Wolf, U; Bruley, DF; Harrison, DK

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is an indispensable tool in the management of respiratory failure to preserve or improve lung function and systemic oxygenation. However, PEEP per se may also, as has been shown in experimental animals, impair regional

  1. A New Way to Calculate Flow Pressure for Low Permeability Oil Well with Partially Penetrating Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Ping

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the validity of the previous models on calculating flow pressure for oil well with partially perforating fracture, a new physical model that obeys the actual heterogeneous reservoir characteristics was built. Different conditions, including reservoir with impermeable top and bottom borders or the reservoir top which has constant pressure, were considered. Through dimensionless transformation, Laplace transformation, Fourier cosine transformation, separation of variables, and other mathematical methods, the analytical solution of Laplace domain was obtained. By using Stephenson numerical methods, the numerical solution pressure in a real domain was obtained. The results of this method agree with the numerical simulations, suggesting that this new method is reliable. The following sensitivity analysis showed that the pressure dynamic linear flow curve can be divided into four flow streams of early linear flow, midradial flow, advanced spherical flow, and border controlling flow. Fracture length controls the early linear flow. Permeability anisotropy significantly affects the midradial flow. The degree of penetration and fracture orientation dominantly affect the late spherical flow. The boundary conditions and reservoir boundary width mainly affect the border controlling flow. The method can be used to determine the optimal degree of opening shot, vertical permeability, and other useful parameters, providing theoretical guidance for reservoir engineering analysis.

  2. Relationship between pre-extubation positive endexpiratory pressure and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijane Oliveira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction After removal of endotracheal tube and artificial ventilation, ventilatory support should be continued, offering oxygen supply to ensure an arterial oxygen saturation close to physiological. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure before extubation on the oxygenation indices of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with seventy-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting divided into three groups and ventilated with different positive-end expiratory pressure levels prior to extubation: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=32; Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=26; and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=20. Oxygenation index data were obtained from arterial blood gas samples collected at 1, 3, and 6 h after extubation. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease and those who underwent off-pump, emergency, or combined surgeries were excluded. For statistical analysis, we used Shapiro-Wilk, G, Kruskal-Wallis, and analysis of variance tests and set the level of significance at P<0.05. Results Groups were homogenous with regard to demographic, clinical, and surgical variables. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the first 6 h after extubation with regard to oxygenation indices and oxygen therapy utilization. Conclusion: In this sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the use of different positive-end expiratory pressure levels before extubation did not affect gas exchange or oxygen therapy utilization in the first 6 h after endotracheal tube removal.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIONG FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE(PGM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archie Robertson

    2003-04-17

    Foster Wheeler Power Group, Inc. is working under US Department of Energy contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% and produce near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines, or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The amount of syngas and char produced by the PGM can be tailored to fit the production objectives of the overall plant, i.e., power generation, clean liquid fuel production, chemicals production, etc. Hence, PGM is a robust building block that offers all the advantages of coal gasification but in a more user-friendly form; it is also fuel flexible in that it can use alternative fuels such as biomass, sewerage sludge, etc. This report describes the work performed during the January 1--March 31, 2003 time period.

  4. Reproducibility of proximal and distal transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements during exercise in stage 2 arterial claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyé, P; Picquet, J; Jaquinandi, V; Enon, B; Leftheriotis, G; Saumet, J-L; Abraham, P

    2004-06-01

    Although transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements (tcpO2) are largely used in the investigation of vascular patients, its reproducibility is still debated. Indeed an unpredictable gradient exists between arterial and transcutaneous oxygen pressure. We hypothesised that indices taking into account changes over time and independent of absolute starting values would be more reproducible than other indices. comparative test-retest procedure (1 to 13 days between tests). institutional practice, ambulatory care. 15 subjects with stage 2 claudication. tcpO2 recordings at rest and at exercise during the 2 treadmill tests. calculation of the Delta-from-rest of oxygen pressure index (limb tcpO2 changes minus chest tcpO2 changes), of the resting - or minimal values attained during exercise - of absolute tcpO2 and of the regional perfusion index (regional perfusion index: ration of limb to chest). Both absolute tcpO2 and regional perfusion index at rest showed low reproducibility. During exercise the best reproducibility was attained through Delta-from-rest of oxygen pressure index calculation. Equations from the linear regression analysis (test 2 versus test 1) were 0.88 x -4.2 (r(2)=0.82) at the buttock level and 0.82 x -3.8 (r(2)=0.80) at the calf level. TcpO2 measurement on the calf or buttock during exercise, is a reproducible measurement in patients with vascular claudication, specifically when corrected for exercise-induced systemic pO2 changes trough Delta-from-rest of oxygen pressure calculation.

  5. Flow Field Measurements of Methane-Oxygen Turbulent Nonpremixed Flames at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Kimio; Kikkawa, Hoshitaka; Akamatsu, Fumiteru; Katsuki, Masashi

    We carried out the flow field measurement of methane-oxygen turbulent nonpremixed flame in non-combusting and combusting situations at high pressures using LDV. The main objectives are to study the influences of combustion on the turbulence structure at high pressures and to provide detailed data on which numerical predictions on such flows can rely. Direct observation and CH* chemiluminescence detection are conducted at high pressures up to 1.0MPa. It was found that the flame length at elevated pressures became constant. From flow field measurements, the following features of flames at elevated pressure were found: (1) the existence of flame suppressed turbulence in the upstream region of the jet and enhanced it in the downstream region with increasing pressure; (2) Turbulence in the flame was more anisotropic than in the corresponding cold jet in all regions of the flow with increasing pressure; (3) Reynolds shear stresses did not change at elevated pressure; (4) Combustion processes had a marked influence on the turbulence macroscale under high pressures, however, the turbulence macroscale was not changed even with the increase in pressure.

  6. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Partial Pressure and Emission of CO2 and CH4 in and Amazon Floodplain Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, B. R.; Amaral, J. H.; Barbosa, P.; Kasper, D.; MacIntyre, S.; Cortes, A.; Sarmento, H.; Borges, A. V.; Melack, J. M.; Farjalla, V.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon floodplain contains a variety of wetland environments which contribute CO2 and CH4 to the regional and global atmospheres. The partial pressure and emission of these greenhouse gases (GHGs) varies: 1) between habitats, 2) seasonally, as the characteristics these habitats changes and 3) diurnally, in response to diurnal stratification. In this study, we investigated the combined influence of these factors on the partial pressure and emission of GHGs in Lago Janauacá, a central Amazon floodplain lake (3o23' S; 60o18' O). All measurements were made between August of 2014 and April of 2015 at two different sites and in three distinct habitats: open water, flooded forest, flooded macrophytes. Concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in air were measured continuously with a cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer, Los Gatos Research´s Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (UGGA). Vertical profiles o pCO2 and pCH4 were measured using the UGGA connected to an electric pump and equilibrator. Diffusive surface emissions were estimated with the UGGA connected to a static floating chamber. To investigate the influence of vertical stratification and mixing on GHG partial pressure and emissions, a meteorological station and submersible sensor chain were deployed at each site. Meteorological sensors included wind speed and direction. The submersible chains included thermistors and oxygen sensors. Depth profiles of partial pressure and diffusive emissions for both CO2 and CH4 varied diurnally, seasonally and between habitats. Both pCO2 and pCH4 were consistently higher in bottom than surface waters with the largest differences occurring at high water when thermal stratification was most stable. Methane emissions and partial pressures were highest at low water while pCO2 and CO2 fluxes were highest during high water periods, with 35% of CO2 fluxes at low water being negative. The highest average surface value of pCO2 (5491 μatm), encountered during rising water, was ~3 times

  7. The Upside-Down Biosphere: Evidence for the Partially Oxygenated Oceans During the Archean Eon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    This is a commentary on the preceding chapter by Ohmoto et al., in which it is suggested that oxygen concentrations have been high throughout Earth history. This is a contentious suggestion at odds with the prevailing view in the field, which contends that atmospheric oxygen concentrations rose from trace levels to a few percent of modern-day levels around 2.5 b.y. ago. This comment notes that many of the data sets cited by Ohmoto et al. as evidence for a relatively oxidized environment come from deep-ocean settings. This presents a possibility to reconcile some of these data and suggestions with the overwhelming evidence for an atmosphere free of oxygen at that time. Specifically, it is possible that deep-ocean waters were relatively oxidized with respect to certain redox pairs. These deep-ocean waters would have been more oxidized than surface waters, thus representing an "upside-down biosphere," as originally proposed 25 years ago by Jim Walker.

  8. Oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3 limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, B.A.; van Hassel, B.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The oxygen permeation flux through La1-ySryFeO3-δ (y = 0.1, 0.2) in a large oxygen partial pressure gradient (air/CO, CO2 mixture) was found to be limited by the carbon monoxide oxidation rate at the low oxygen partial pressure side of the membrane. The oxygen permeation flux through the membrane

  9. Hydro-isomerization of n-hexane on bi-functional catalyst: Effect of total and hydrogen partial pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoa, Dao Thi Kim; Loc, Luu Cam

    2017-09-01

    The effect of both total pressure and hydrogen partial pressure during n-hexane hydro-isomerization over platinum impregnated on HZSM-5 was studied. n-Hexane hydro-isomerization was conducted at atmospheric pressure and 0.7 MPa to observe the influence of total pressure. In order to see the effect of hydrogen partial pressure, the reaction was taken place at different partial pressure of hydrogen varied from 307 hPa to 718 hPa by dilution with nitrogen to keep the total pressure at 0.1 MPa. Physico-chemical characteristics of catalyst were determined by the methods of nitrogen physi-sorption BET, SEM, XRD, TEM, NH3-TPD, TPR, and Hydrogen Pulse Chemi-sorption. Activity of catalyst in the hydro-isomerization of n-hexane was studied in a micro-flow reactor in the temperature range of 225-325 °C; the molar ratio H2/ hydrocarbon: 5.92, concentration of n-hexane: 9.2 mol.%, GHSV 2698 h-1. The obtained catalyst expressed high acid density, good reducing property, high metal dispersion, and good balance between metallic and acidic sites. It is excellent contact for n-hexane hydro-isomerization. At 250 °C, n-hexane conversion and selectivity were as high as 59-76 % and 85-99 %, respectively. It was found that catalytic activity was promoted either by total pressure or hydrogen partial pressure. At total pressure of 0.7 MPa while hydrogen partial pressure of 718 hPa, catalyst produced 63 RON liquid product containing friendly environmental iso-paraffins which is superior blending stock for green gasoline. Hydrogen did not only preserve catalyst actives by depressing hydrocracking and removing coke precursors but also facilitated hydride transfer step in the bi-functional bi-molecular mechanism.

  10. Influence of oxygen, partial vacuum, temperature and relative humidity combined with gamma radiation on the mosquito, culex pipiens complex L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-rahman, A.M.; Wakid, A.M.; Hafez, M.; Hafez, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of pupae of culex pipiens L. With gamma radiation only (60 Gy) caused 47-57.83% decrease in adult emergence. Treatment with oxygen or partial vacuum (0.1 torr) for one hour caused insignificant decrease in adult emergence. This decrease became significant when the exposure time was prolonged to two hours. Exposure of pupae to 10 degree C for one or two hours or to 31% R.H. for 3 hours caused highly significant decrease in adult emergence. When radiation was combined with any of the factors applied, a pronounced decrease in adult emergence was recorded, especially when combined with 31% R.H. for 3 hours. In all treatments, females lived longer than males. Exposure of pupae to oxygen gas or 31% R.H. Only, prolonged the life span of the produced adults, while exposure to radiation, partial vacuum or low temperature only shortened it. This effect was also observed when gamma radiation was combined with these two factors. 4 fig.,1 tab

  11. Numerical simulation of physicochemical interactions between oxygen atom and phosphatidylcholine due to direct irradiation of atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma to biological membrane with quantum mechanical molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Satoshi; Yoshida, Taketo; Tochikubo, Fumiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Plasma medicine is one of the most attractive applications using atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasma. With respect to direct contact of the discharge plasma with a biological membrane, reactive oxygen species play an important role in induction of medical effects. However, complicated interactions between the plasma radicals and membrane have not been understood well. In the present work, we simulated elemental processes at the first stage of physicochemical interactions between oxygen atom and phosphatidylcholine using the quantum mechanical molecular dynamics code in a general software AMBER. The change in the above processes was classified according to the incident energy of oxygen atom. At an energy of 1 eV, the abstraction of a hydrogen atom and recombination to phosphatidylcholine were simultaneously occurred in chemical attachment of incident oxygen atom. The exothermal energy of the reaction was about 80% of estimated one based on the bond energies of ethane. An oxygen atom over 10 eV separated phosphatidylcholine partially. The behaviour became increasingly similar to physical sputtering. The reaction probability of oxygen atom was remarkably high in comparison with that of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that we can uniformly estimate various physicochemical dynamics of reactive oxygen species against membrane lipids.

  12. Partial-depth modulation study of anions and neutrals in low pressure silane plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozurteille, C.; Dorier, J.L.; Hollenstein, C.; Sansonnens; Howling, A.A.

    1995-10-01

    Partial-depth modulation of the rf power in a capacitive discharge is used to investigate the relative importance of negative ions and neutral radicals for particle formation in low power, low pressure silane plasmas. For less than 85% modulation depth, anions are trapped indefinitely in the plasma and particle formation ensues, whereas the polymerised neutral flux magnitudes and dynamics are independent of the modulation depth and the powder formation. These observations suggest that negative ions could be the particle precursors in plasma conditions where powder appears many seconds after plasma ignition. Microwave interferometry and mass spectrometry were combined to infer an anion density of ≅7.10 9 cm -3 which is approximately twice the free electron density in these modulated plasmas. (author) 6 figs., tabs., refs

  13. Further Controversies About Brain Tissue Oxygenation Pressure-Reactivity After Traumatic Brain Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Donnelly, Joseph; Aries, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    arterial pressure and intracranial pressure. A new ORx index based on brain tissue oxygenation and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) has been proposed that similarly allows for evaluation of cerebrovascular reactivity. Conflicting results exist concerning its clinical utility. METHODS: Retrospective......BACKGROUND: Continuous monitoring of cerebral autoregulation is considered clinically useful due to its ability to warn against brain ischemic insults, which may translate to a relationship with adverse outcome. It is typically performed using the pressure reactivity index (PRx) based on mean...... analysis was performed in 85 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). ORx was calculated using three time windows of 5, 20, and 60 min. Correlation coefficients and individual "optimal CPP" (CPPopt) were calculated using both PRx and ORx, and relation to patient outcome investigated. RESULTS...

  14. Initial stages of oxidation of near-stoichiometric titanium carbide at low oxygen pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabalin, I.L.; Vishnyakov, V.M.; Bull, D.J.; Keens, S.G.; Yamshchikov, L.F.; Shabalin, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    A novel approach to the oxidation mechanism of near-stoichiometric TiC is presented. It is confirmed by consideration of solid-state chemical kinetics model and electron microscopy observations in parallel. At low oxygen pressures and moderate temperatures the initial step of the process is connected with the dissolution of oxygen and subsequent decomposition of oxygen-oversaturated oxycarbide, which ultimately results in the nucleation of oxide phase, in particular anatase, belike stabilised by residual carbon. An anatase-rutile transformation is concurrent with deeper carbon burn-off in the oxide scale, which sinters at higher temperatures. This mechanism shifts the process to a gas diffusion regime, governed by the scale permeability, but determined by solid-state diffusion that is reflected in the kinetics, as further temperature increase is accompanied by a decrease of the oxidation rate, so in general the process is characterised by the negative value of apparent activation energy

  15. The utilization of a pressurized-graphite/water/oxygen mixture for irradiated graphite incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, G.; Perotin, J.P.; Charlot, P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the interest of the utilization of a pressurized-graphite/water/oxygen mixture in the incineration of irradiated graphite. The aqueous phase comes in the form of a three-dimensional system that traps pressurized oxygen, the pulverulent solid being dispersed at the liquid/gas interfaces. These three-phasic formulations give the following advantages: reduction of the apparent viscosity of the mixture in comparison with a solid/liquid mixture at the same solid concentration; reduction of the solid/liquid interactions; self-pulverizability. thus promoting reduction of the flame length utilization of conventional burners; reduction of the flue gas flow rate; complete thermal destruction of graphite. (author)

  16. Effects of Partially Ionised Medical Oxygen, Especially with O2•−, in Vibration White Finger Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavomír Perečinský

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major symptom of hand-arm vibration syndrome is a secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon—vibration white finger (VWF—which results from a vasospasm of the digital arteries caused by work with vibration devices leading to occupational disease. Pharmacotherapy of VWF is often ineffective or has adverse effects. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of inhalation of partially ionized oxygen (O2•− on peripheral blood vessels in the hands of patients with VWF. Ninety one (91patients with VWF underwent four-finger adsorption plethysmography, and the pulse wave amplitude was recorded expressed in numeric parameters—called the native record. Next, a cold water test was conducted following with second plethysmography. The patients were divided in to the three groups. First and second inhaled 20-min of ionized oxygen O2•− or oxygen O2 respectively. Thirth group was control without treatment. All three groups a follow-up third plethysmography—the post-therapy record. Changes in the pulse wave amplitudes were evaluated. Inpatients group inhaling O2•− a modest increase of pulse wave amplitude was observed compared to the native record; patients inhaling medical oxygen O2 and the control showed a undesirable decline of pulse wave amplitude in VWF fingers. Strong vasodilatation were more frequent in the group inhaling O2•− compare to O2 (p < 0.05. Peripheral vasodilatation achieved by inhalation of O2•− could be used for VWF treatment without undesirable side effect in hospital as well as at home environment.

  17. Titanium oxidation-reduction at low oxygen pressure under electron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasca, R.; Passeggi, M.C.G.; Ferron, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the electron bombardment on the first stages of the titanium oxidation process has been studied by means of Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Using Factor Analysis and the valence electron dependence behaviour of the titanium LMV Auger transition, we found that the process is strongly dependent on the oxygen pressure and electron current density. Depending on the irradiation conditions, films of different thickness and Ti oxidized states are obtained

  18. Development of pressurized coal partial combustor; Kaatsu sekitan bubun nenshoro gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Kawamura, K [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Tanaka, T [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan); Muramatsu, T [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    The coal partial combustor (CPC) uses a combustion technology with which coal is burned at elevated temperatures and under revolution, the constituents are captured on the furnace wall and removed as molten slag from the furnace. This is a combustion technology to reduce load of ash on subsequent devices. To generate a molten condition, it is necessary to raise the combustion temperature as high as possible (to about 1600 degC in the furnace), but this is effective for a gas turbine composite power generation system. An efficiency of higher than 45% may be expected at the power transmission terminal. As an operation on subsidy from the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, the normal-pressure CPC technology has already been established, and a research on pressurized CPC is being progressed since fiscal 1991. The research is in progress with a schedule that elemental tests for 7 tons per day production are conducted until fiscal 1995, a 25 tons per day pilot plant will be completed by November 1997, and verification tests for long-term continuous operation will be implemented until 1998. The 7 tons per day elemental tests have identified gasification performance and slag extraction performance using five types of coal having different properties. 7 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Ignition characteristics of the nickel-based alloy UNS N07001 in pressurized oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransford, J. W.; Billiard, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    The development of ignition and combustion in pressurized oxygen atmospheres was studied for the nickel-based alloy UNS N07001. Ignition of the alloy was achieved by heating the top surface of a cylindrical specimen with a continuous-wave CO2 laser. Two heating procedures were used. In the first, laser power was adjusted to maintain an approximately linear increase in surface temperature. In the second, laser power was periodically increased until autoheating (self-heating) was established. It was found that the alloy would autoheat to combustion from temperatures below the solidus temperature. In addition, the alloy had a tendency to develop combustion zones (hot spots) at high oxygen pressures when the incremental (step) heating test mode was used. Unique points on the temperature-time curves that describe certain events are defined and the temperatures at which these events occur are given for the oxygen pressure range of 1.72 to 13.8 MPa (250 to 2000 psia).

  20. Limitations of potentiometric oxygen sensors operating at low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical processes that limit the range of oxygen partial pressures in which potentiometric oxygen sensors can be used, were analysed using a theoretical and an experimental approach. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on porous Pt/yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ......) electrodes between 10−6 and 0.2 bar and at temperatures between 500 and 950 °C. The flow of oxide ions and electron holes through a sensor cell, with a YSZ electrolyte, were calculated under similar conditions. The oxygen permeation of the sensor cell was insignificant at an oxygen partial pressure of 10......−6 bar for an inlet flow rate higher than 2 L h−1 between 600 and 800 °C. The polarisation resistance measured between 10−6 and 10−4 bar was found to be inversely proportional to the oxygen partial pressure, nearly temperature independent and inversely proportional to the inlet gas flow rate, which shows...

  1. Quantitative measurements of ground state atomic oxygen in atmospheric pressure surface micro-discharge array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Kong, M. G.; Britun, N.; Snyders, R.; Leys, C.; Nikiforov, A.

    2017-06-01

    The generation of atomic oxygen in an array of surface micro-discharge, working in atmospheric pressure He/O2 or Ar/O2 mixtures, is investigated. The absolute atomic oxygen density and its temporal and spatial dynamics are studied by means of two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. A high density of atomic oxygen is detected in the He/O2 mixture with up to 10% O2 content in the feed gas, whereas the atomic oxygen concentration in the Ar/O2 mixture stays below the detection limit of 1013 cm-3. The measured O density near the electrode under the optimal conditions in He/1.75% O2 gas is 4.26  ×  1015 cm-3. The existence of the ground state O (2p 4 3 P) species has been proven in the discharge at a distance up to 12 mm away from the electrodes. Dissociative reactions of the singlet O2 with O3 and deep vacuum ultraviolet radiation, including the radiation of excimer \\text{He}2\\ast , are proposed to be responsible for O (2p 4 3 P) production in the far afterglow. A capability of the surface micro-discharge array delivering atomic oxygen to long distances over a large area is considered very interesting for various biomedical applications.

  2. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on small oxygen-related clusters in silicon: LVM studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, L.I.; Lindstroem, J.L.; Misiuk, A.

    2003-01-01

    Local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy is used to explore the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) on the formation of small oxygen-related clusters (dimers, trimers, thermal donors, and C-O complexes) at 450 deg. C and 650 deg. C in Cz-Si crystals with different impurity content and prehistory. It is found, in agreement with previous studies, that HP enhances the oxygen clustering in Cz-Si at elevated temperatures. The effect of HP is related mainly to enhancement in the diffusivity of single oxygen atoms and small oxygen aggregates. HP does not noticeably increase the binding energies of the most simple oxygen related complexes like O 2i , C s O ni . The biggest HP effect on the thermal double donor (TDDs) generation is revealed in hydrogenated samples. Heat-treatment of such samples at 450 deg. C under HP results in extremely high TDD introduction rates as well as in a strong increase in the concentration of the first TDD species

  3. Atmospheric Airborne Pressure Measurements Using the Oxygen A Band for the ASCENDS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriguez, Mike; Stephen, Mark; Hasselbrack, William; Allan, Graham; Mao, Jiamping,; Kawa, Stephan R.; Weaver, Clark J.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne atmospheric pressure measurements using new fiber-based laser technology and the oxygen A-band at 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are required for a number of NASA Earth science missions and specifically for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve predictions on any future climate change. The ultimate goal of a CO2 remote sensing mission, such as ASCENDS, is to derive the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere in terms of mole fraction in unit of parts-per-million (ppmv) with regard to dry air. Therefore, both CO2 and the dry air number of molecules in the atmosphere are needed in deriving this quantity. O2 is a stable molecule and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere. Measuring the O2 absorption in the atmosphere can thus be used to infer the dry air number of molecules and then used to calculate CO2 concentration. With the knowledge of atmospheric water vapor, we can then estimate the total surface pressure needed for CO2 retrievals. Our work, funded by the ESTO IIP program, uses fiber optic technology and non-linear optics to generate 765 nm laser radiation coincident with the Oxygen A-band. Our pulsed, time gated technique uses several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to the O2 absorption line. The choice of wavelengths allows us to measure the pressure by using two adjacent O2 absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm fits the O2 lineshapes and derives the pressure. Our measurements compare favorably with a local weather monitor mounted outside our laboratory and a local weather station.

  4. Instability of supercritical porosity in highly doped ceria under reduced oxygen partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teocoli, Francesca; Ni, De Wei; Esposito, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The thermomechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of low relative density (∼0.40) gadolinium-doped ceria are characterized under oxidative and reducing conditions at high temperatures. The electronic defects generated in the structure by Ce4+ to Ce3+ reduction play an important role on ...

  5. Influence of Cr upon hydrogen permeationin Ni3Al at low partial pressure of oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří; Rothová, Věra

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2001), s. 245-251 ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS2041105; GA ČR GA106/99/1179 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : hydrogen * intermetallics * permeation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2001

  6. Effect of the oxygen partial pressure on ferritic stainless steel AISI 441 at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, M.F.; Carvalho, I.S.; Santos, R.S.; Correa, O.V.; Ramanathan, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    Stainless steels can be exposed to aggressive gases at high temperatures. To understand the behavior of oxidation of the steel AISI 441 was made oxidation at temperatures between 850 ° C and 950 ° C, at two different atmospheres: synthetic air, using tubular furnace and Argon, containing 1ppm O_2, in thermobalance. The kinetics of oxidation of the films was established by measuring the mass gain per unit of area as a function of the oxidation time. The microstructure and chemical composition of the oxides were analyzed by SEM, EDS and XRD. Chemical analysis showed that films formed on steel AISI 441 had mostly chromium oxide and the following elements: Cr, Mn, Fe, Ti and Si. Regarding the kinetics of oxidation, it was observed that in synthetic air, the steel oxidation increased gradually with the temperature, but in argon, it showed the highest oxidation at 900 ° C and the lowest oxidation at 950 ° C. (author)

  7. Partial neuromuscular blockade in humans enhances muscle blood flow during exercise independently of muscle oxygen uptake and acetylcholine receptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Krustrup, Peter; Iaia, F Marcello

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one-legged k......This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one...... conductance during exercise, events that are not associated with either acetylcholine or an increased oxygen demand. The results do not support an essential role for acetylcholine, released form the neuromuscular junction, in exercise hyperaemia or for the enhanced blood flow during neuromuscular blockade....... The enhanced exercise hyperemia during partial neuromuscular blockade may be related to a greater recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibres. Key words: blood flow, neuromuscular blockade, exercise, skeletal muscle....

  8. Effects of dissolved oxygen and pH on nitrous oxide production rates in autotrophic partial nitrification granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Rathnayake M L D; Oshiki, Mamoru; Ishii, Satoshi; Segawa, Takahiro; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH on nitrous oxide (N2O) production rates and pathways in autotrophic partial nitrification (PN) granules were investigated at the granular level. N2O was primarily produced by betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, mainly Nitrosomonas europaea, in the oxic surface layer (production increased with increasing bulk DO concentration owing to activation of the ammonia (i.e., hydroxylamine) oxidation in this layer. The highest N2O emissions were observed at pH 7.5, although the ammonia oxidation rate was unchanged between pH 6.5 and 8.5. Overall, the results of this study suggest that in situ analyses of PN granules are essential to gaining insight into N2O emission mechanisms in a granule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Negative pressure wound therapy after partial diabetic foot amputation: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G; Lavery, Lawrence A

    2005-11-12

    Diabetic foot wounds, particularly those secondary to amputation, are very complex and difficult to treat. We investigated whether negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) improves the proportion and rate of wound healing after partial foot amputation in patients with diabetes. We enrolled 162 patients into a 16-week, 18-centre, randomised clinical trial in the USA. Inclusion criteria consisted of partial foot amputation wounds up to the transmetatarsal level and evidence of adequate perfusion. Patients who were randomly assigned to NPWT (n=77) received treatment with dressing changes every 48 h. Control patients (n=85) received standard moist wound care according to consensus guidelines. NPWT was delivered through the Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) Therapy System. Wounds were treated until healing or completion of the 112-day period of active treatment. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study has been registered with , number NCT00224796. More patients healed in the NPWT group than in the control group (43 [56%] vs 33 [39%], p=0.040). The rate of wound healing, based on the time to complete closure, was faster in the NPWT group than in controls (p=0.005). The rate of granulation tissue formation, based on the time to 76-100% formation in the wound bed, was faster in the NPWT group than in controls (p=0.002). The frequency and severity of adverse events (of which the most common was wound infection) were similar in both treatment groups. NPWT delivered by the VAC Therapy System seems to be a safe and effective treatment for complex diabetic foot wounds, and could lead to a higher proportion of healed wounds, faster healing rates, and potentially fewer re-amputations than standard care.

  10. Hydrogen/Oxygen Reactions at High Pressures and Intermediate Temperatures: Flow Reactor Experiments and Kinetic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Glarborg, Peter

    A series of experimental and numerical investigations into hydrogen oxidation at high pressures and intermediate temperatures has been conducted. The experiments were carried out in a high pressure laminar flow reactor at 50 bar pressure and a temperature range of 600–900 K. The equivalence ratio......, the mechanism is used to simulate published data on ignition delay time and laminar burning velocity of hydrogen. The flow reactor results show that at reducing, stoichiometric, and oxidizing conditions, conversion starts at temperatures of 750–775 K, 800–825 K, and 800–825 K, respectively. In oxygen atmosphere......, ignition occurs at the temperature of 775–800 K. In general, the present model provides a good agreement with the measurements in the flow reactor and with recent data on laminar burning velocity and ignition delay time....

  11. Thermal behaviour of pressure tube under fully and partially voided heating conditions using 19 pin fuel element simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Ashwini K.; Kumar, Ravi; Gupta, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, B.; Mukhopadhya, D.; Lele, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor temperature can rise drastically during LOCA due to failure of heat transportation system and subsequently leads to mechanical deformations like sagging, ballooning and breaching of pressure tube. To understand the phenomenon an experiment has been carried out using 19 pin fuel element simulator. Main purpose of the experiment was to trace temperature profiles over the pressure tube, calandria tube and clad tubes of 220 MWe Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR). The symmetrical heating of pressure tube of 1 m length was done through resistance heating of 19 pins under 13.5 kW power using a rectifier and the variation of temperatures over the circumference of pressure tube (PT), calandria tube (CT) and clad tubes were measured. The sagging of pressure tube was initiated at 460 deg C temperature and highest temperature attained was 650 deg C. The highest temperature attained by clad tubes was 680 deg C (over outer ring) and heat is dissipated to calandria vessel mainly due to radiation and natural convection. Again to simulate partially voided conditions, asymmetrical heating of pressure was carried out by injecting 8 kW power to upper 8 pins of fuel simulator. A maximum temperature difference of 295 deg C was observed over the circumference of pressure tube which highlights the magnitude of thermal stresses and its role in breaching of pressure tube under partially voided conditions. Integrity of pressure tube was retained during both symmetrical and asymmetrical heatup conditions. (author)

  12. [Correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide in ventilated newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jin-Xing; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Huang, Hui-Jun; Yu, Zhen-Zhu; Yang, Hui; He, Liu-Fang

    2014-05-01

    To study the correlation between end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in ventilated newborns. Thirty-one ventilated newborn underwent mainstream PetCO2 monitoring; meanwhile, arterial blood gas analysis was performed. The correlation and consistency between PetCO2 and PaCO2 were assessed. A total of 85 end-tidal and arterial CO2 pairs were obtained from 31 ventilated newborns. The mean PetCO2 (41±10 mm Hg) was significantly lower than the corresponding mean PaCO2 (46±11 mm Hg) (Plimits of consistency, -3.3 to 13.6 mmHg), and 5% (4/85) of the points were beyond the 95%CI. When the oxygenation index (OI) was less than 300 mm Hg (n=48), there was a significant positive correlation between PetCO2 and PaCO2 (r=0.85, Plimits of consistency, -2.6 to 14.5 mm Hg), and 4.2% (2/48) of the points were beyond the 95%CI. When the OI was more than 300 mm Hg (n=37), there was also a significant positive correlation between PetCO2 and PaCO2 (r=0.91, Plimits of consistency, -3.9 to 12.1 mm Hg), and 5% (2/37) of the points were beyond the 95%CI. There is a good correlation and consistency between PetCO2 and PaCO2 in ventilated newborns.

  13. Glycaemic, uricaemic and blood pressure response to beverages with partial fructose replacement of sucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Natasha; Peng, Mei; Oey, Indrawati; Venn, Bernard Joseph

    2018-03-20

    The European Food Safety Authority approved a health claim (ID558) relating to lowered postprandial glycaemia when fructose replaces 30% of sucrose in foods and beverages. We assessed the effects of partial replacement of sucrose with fructose on serum glucose, uric acid and blood pressure. A randomised, crossover, double blind trial of 12 normoglycaemic participants consuming beverages containing 50 g blends of fructose and sucrose in proportions; 67% sucrose/33% fructose (67%S:33%F); 50% each (50%S:50%F) and 33%S:67%F; a 100% sucrose reference beverage was tested twice. Serum glucose and uric acid concentrations were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min and incremental area-under-the-curve (iAUC) calculated. The geometric mean (95% CI) glycaemic iAUC following the 100% sucrose, 67%S:33%F, 50%S:50%F and 33%S:67%F blended beverages were 96 (63,145), 71 (46,109), 60 (39, 93) and 39 (12, 86) mmol/L min, respectively. At 33% fructose replacement, the proportionally lower iAUC of -28.5% (95% CI: -62.1, 5.2) mmol/L min was not different to sucrose alone. The response was lowered by fructose replacement of 50 and 67% and overall there was an inverse association (p beverages were 1320 (393, 2248), 3062 (1553, 4570), 3646 (2446, 4847), 3623 (2020, 5226) µmol/L min. Uric acid concentration was raised by all fructose-containing beverages with 33% fructose replacement causing an increase of 1741 (95% CI: 655, 2829) µmol/L min compared with sucrose alone. Blood pressure was not different among beverages. Reduced postprandial glycaemia was achieved by the substitution of sucrose with fructose although elevated uricaemic responses should be cautioned.

  14. Pressure and partial wetting effects on superhydrophobic friction reduction in microchannel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Friction reduction in microchannel flows can help alleviate the inherently taxing pumping power requirements associated with the dimensions involved. One possible way of achieving friction reduction is through the introduction of surface microtexturing that can lead to a superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state. The Cassie-Baxter state is characterized by the presence of air pockets within the surface microtexturing believed to act as an effective "shear free" (or at least shear reduced) layer, decreasing the overall friction characteristics of the surface. Most work in this area has concentrated on optimizing the surface microtexturing geometry to maximize the friction reduction effects and overall stability of the Cassie-Baxter state. However, less attention has been paid to the effects of partially wetted conditions induced by pressure and the correlation between the liquid-gas interface location within the surface microtexturing and the microchannel flow characteristics. This is mainly attributed to the difficulty in tracking the interface shape and location within the microtexturing in the typical top-down view arrangements used in most studies. In this paper, a rectangular microchannel with regular microtexturing on the sidewalls is used to visualize and track the location of the air-water interface within the roughness elements. While visually tracking the wetting conditions in the microtextures, pressure drops versus flow rates for each microchannel are measured and analyzed in terms of the non-dimensional friction coefficient. The frictional behavior of the Poiseuille flow suggests that (1) the air-water interface more closely resembles a no-slip boundary rather than a shear-free one, (2) the friction is rather insensitive to the degree of microtexturing wetting, and (3) the fully wetted (Wenzel state) microtexturing provides lower friction than the non-wetted one (Cassie state), in corroboration with observations (1) and (2).

  15. Positive end-expiratory pressure improves gas exchange and pulmonary mechanics during partial liquid ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmse, M; Fujino, Y; Hess, D; Kacmarek, R M

    1998-11-01

    Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perflubron (PFB) has been proposed as an adjunct to the current therapies for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Because PFB has been also referred to as "liquid PEEP," distributing to the most gravity-dependent regions of the lung, less attention has been paid to the amount of applied positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). We hypothesized that higher PEEP levels than currently applied are needed to optimize gas exchange, and that the lower inflection point (LIP) of the pressure-volume curve could be used to estimate the amount of PEEP needed when the lung is filled with PFB. Lung injury was induced in 23 sheep by repeated lung lavage with warmed saline until the PaO2/FIO2 ratio fell below 150. Five sheep were used to investigate the change of the LIP when the lung was filled with PFB in increments of 5 ml/kg/body weight to a total of 30 ml/kg/body weight. To evaluate the impact of PEEP set at LIP +1 cm H2O we randomized an additional 15 sheep to three groups with different doses (7.5 ml, 15 ml, 30 ml/kg/body weight) of PFB. In random order a PEEP of 5 cm H2O or PEEP at LIP +1 cm H2O was applied. The LIP decreased with incremental filling of PFB to a minimum at 10 ml (p PFB shifts the LIP to the left, and that setting PEEP at LIP +1 cm H2O improves gas exchange at moderate to high doses of PFB.

  16. The Role of the Pressure in the Partial Regularity Theory for Weak Solutions of the Navier-Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Diego; Lemarié-Rieusset, Pierre-Gilles; Mayoufi, Kawther

    2018-04-01

    We study the role of the pressure in the partial regularity theory for weak solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. By introducing the notion of dissipative solutions, due to D uchon and R obert (Nonlinearity 13:249-255, 2000), we will provide a generalization of the Caffarelli, Kohn and Nirenberg theory. Our approach sheels new light on the role of the pressure in this theory in connection to Serrin's local regularity criterion.

  17. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of fully hydrated Nafion membranes at high and low hydrogen partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsampas, M.N.; Brosda, S.; Vayenas, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    The proton transport mechanism in fully hydrated Nafion 117 membranes was examined via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and steady-state current–potential measurements both in a symmetric H 2 , Pt|Nafion|Pt, H 2 cell and in a H 2 , Pt|Nafion|Pt, air PEM fuel cell with hydrogen partial pressure values, P H 2 , varied between 0.5 kPa and 100 kPa. In agreement with recent studies it is found that for low P H 2 values the steady-state current–potential curves exhibit bistability and regions of positive slope. In these regions the Nyquist plots are found to exhibit negative real part impedance with a large imaginary component, while the Bode plots show a pronounced negative phase shift. These observations are consistent with the mechanism involving two parallel routes of proton conduction in fully hydrated Nafion membranes, one due to proton migration in the aqueous phase, the other due to proton transfer, probably involving tunneling, between adjacent sulfonate groups in narrow pores. The former mechanism dominates at high P H 2 values and the latter dominates in the low P H 2 region where the real part of the impedance is negative.

  18. Identification of combustion intermediates in low-pressure premixed pyridine/oxygen/argon flames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenyu; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Taichang; Zhu, Aiguo; Qi, Fei

    2008-12-25

    Combustion intermediates of two low-pressure premixed pyridine/oxygen flames with respective equivalence ratios of 0.56 (C/O/N = 1:4.83:0.20) and 2.10 (C/O/N = 1:1.29:0.20) have been identified with tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry techniques. About 80 intermediates in the rich flame and 60 intermediates in the lean flame, including nitrogenous, oxygenated, and hydrocarbon intermediates, have been identified by measurements of photoionization mass spectra and photoionization efficiency spectra. Some radicals and new nitrogenous intermediates are identified in the present work. The experimental results are useful for studying the conversion of volatile nitrogen compounds and understanding the formation mechanism of NO(x) in flames of nitrogenous fuels.

  19. Hydrostatic pressure effects on oxygen-related irradiation-produced defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, H.J.; Samara, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure has been used to investigate the E c -0.164 eV acceptor level for the oxygen-vacancy (O-V) defect in γ-ray irradiated Si, and the annealing/formation of oxygen-related defects in neutron-irradiated Si. The acceptor level is found to move closer to the conduction band and away from the valence band. There is also a relatively large inward (outward) breathing mode lattice relaxation accompanying electron emission (capture) from this level. Both results reflect the antibonding nature of the level and are qualitatively consistent with the Watkins-Corbett model for the O-V defect. The annealing rate was found to increase with pressure for the O-V defect at 350 0 C with a derived activation volume of -4.5A 3 /defect, where the negative sign implies inward relaxation (contraction) on annealing. Pressure has relatively little effect on annealing of the C-Si-O C(3) defect which is interstitial in nature, but strongly favors the formation of the dioxygen defect. The intensity of the O 2 -V band after annealing at 20 kbar is 5 times higher than that following similar annealing at 0 kbar. This intensity is higher than that achievable by any isochronal or isothermal annealing steps at 0 kbar. These results are discussed qualitatively in terms of models for the various defects. (author)

  20. Reaction of Oxygen with Chromium and Chromium Carbide at Low O2 Pressures and High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Dong O.; Kang, Sung G.; Paik, Young N.

    1984-01-01

    The oxidation rate of chromium carbide has been measured continuously using thermogravimetric analysis at different oxygen pressures ranging from 1.33x10 -2 to 2.67x10 -1 Pa O 2 at 1000-1300 .deg. C. The oxidation of pure chromium has also been studied between 1000-1300 .deg. C under 6.67x10 -2 Pa O 2 and compared with that of chromium carbide. The oxidation of chromium carbide showed a linear behavior which was different from that of chromium. The oxidation rate of chromium carbide increased with increasing temperature and oxygen pressure was lower than of pure chromium. Above 1200 .deg. C, the volatile oxide was formed and evaporated causing a weight loss. The compositions and morphology of the oxide were studied with X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope, respectively. The morphology of oxide changed with varying temperature and pressure. The oxide scale was consisted of mainly two different layers of Cr 2 O 3 and CrO, and the properties of oxide scale were correlated with oxidation behavior. The oxide film formed in the above test condition has been detached from the carbide surface. The crack and pore were thought to be from CO gas evolving at the interface of chromium carbide and its oxide and the major factor of the linear behavior of chromium carbide

  1. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael D.; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios on a global scale are currently needed to gain a better understanding of climate change and its possible impact on our planet. In order to remotely measure greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere with regard to dry air, the air number density in the atmosphere is also needed in deriving the greenhouse gas concentrations. Since oxygen is stable and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere at 20.95%, the measurement of an oxygen absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density and used to calculate the dry air mixing ratio of a greenhouse gas, such as carbon dioxide or methane. OUT technique of measuring Oxygen uses integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) with an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDF A) laser system and single photon counting module (SPCM). It measures the absorbance of several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to an O2 absorption line in the A-band at 764.7 nm. The choice of wavelengths allows us to maximize the pressure sensitivity using the trough between two absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm uses ancillary meteorological and aircraft altitude information to fit the experimentally obtained lidar O2 line shapes to a model atmosphere and derives the pressure from the profiles of the two lines. We have demonstrated O2 measurements from the ground and from an airborne platform. In this paper we will report on our airborne measurements during our 2011 campaign for the ASCENDS program.

  2. Liquid oxygen liquid acquisition device bubble point tests with high pressure lox at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurns, J. M.; Hartwig, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    When transferring propellant in space, it is most efficient to transfer single phase liquid from a propellant tank to an engine. In earth's gravity field or under acceleration, propellant transfer is fairly simple. However, in low gravity, withdrawing single-phase fluid becomes a challenge. A variety of propellant management devices (PMDs) are used to ensure single-phase flow. One type of PMD, a liquid acquisition device (LAD) takes advantage of capillary flow and surface tension to acquire liquid. The present work reports on testing with liquid oxygen (LOX) at elevated pressures (and thus temperatures) (maximum pressure 1724 kPa and maximum temperature 122 K) as part of NASA's continuing cryogenic LAD development program. These tests evaluate LAD performance for LOX stored in higher pressure vessels that may be used in propellant systems using pressure fed engines. Test data shows a significant drop in LAD bubble point values at higher liquid temperatures, consistent with lower liquid surface tension at those temperatures. Test data also indicates that there are no first order effects of helium solubility in LOX on LAD bubble point prediction. Test results here extend the range of data for LOX fluid conditions, and provide insight into factors affecting predicting LAD bubble point pressures.

  3. The prognostic value of cerebral oxygenation and retrograde pressure during carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Карпенко

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study aimed to determine the predictive value of retrograde pressure (RP indicators and cerebral oxygenation in the evaluation of ischemic brain damage during carotid endarterectomy (CEA.Methods: This nonrandomized, prospective pilot study included 87 patients with asymptomatic stenosis greater than 70% who underwent carotid endarterectomy under general anesthesia. Brain tolerance to ischemia was determined by measuring and evaluating RP (∆rSO2 and cerebral oxygenation (rSO2 during a trial clamping of the carotid artery. Depending on the degree of reduction of cerebral oxygenation from the baseline (∆rSO2 during a trial clamping of the carotid artery, patients were divided into 3 groups: the first group (n = 35 - ∆rSO2 <9.9%, the second group (n = 35 - ∆rSO2 from 10 to 19.9%, the third group (n = 14 - ∆rSO2 ≥ 20%. The primary end-point of the study was to obtain the AUC value exceeding 0.70, which could mean a high predictive quality of research methods. Results: There were no perioperative strokes or myocardial infarctions during the study. Average time of carotid artery clamping was 28 (26-30 minutes. 3 patients who received temporary shunts were excluded from the study because of a simultaneous decrease in the rSO2 and ∆rSO2 indicators. It was found out that S-100 and NSE protein concentration in all groups did not significantly differ at different stages (p> 0.05. A temporary shutdown of blood flow in the carotid artery during CEA is accompanied by significant elevation of cerebral damage markers (S100, NSE concentration with their subsequent restoration at 3 days after surgery. ROC - analysis revealed that none of the methods for assessing cerebral ischemic tolerance (RP, ∆rSO2 and rSO2 is precise enough (AUC > 0.7 to predict brain injury during carotid endarterectomy. Satisfactory, but a poor quality (AUC< 0.7 of predicting an increase in the reference values of S-100 protein neuromarkers was demonstrated by

  4. Study of the decarburization of 18-8 stainless steel by oxygen at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armand, G.; Lapujoulade, J.

    1964-01-01

    The kinetic of the decarburization of a 18-8 stainless-steel by oxygen at low pressure has been studied between 1050 and 1200 C. The measurement of the carbon content of the sample is carried out by chemical analysis. Three mechanisms take place in that decarburization: diffusion of carbon in the steel; velocity at the superficial reaction C + 1/2 O 2 ↔ CO; pumping out of CO. The second mechanism seems to govern the overall kinetic. The activation energy of the phenomenon is 108 ± 24 Kcal/mole. (authors) [fr

  5. Tissue Oxygenation and Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy When Applied to the Feet of Persons With Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Na; Lee, Jong Seok; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jung, Hye-Kyung

    Our group has reported that negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) decreases tissue oxygenation by 84% in the foot of diabetic patients because the pad of the connecting drainage tube and foam sponge of the NPWT system compress the wound bed. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an NPWT modified dressing application reduces tissue oxygenation in the feet of persons with diabetes mellitus. A prospective, clinical, observational study. We enrolled 30 patients with diabetic mellitus; their mean age was 63.9 ± 11.2 years (mean ± standard deviation). All were cared for at the diabetic wound center at an academic tertiary medical center in South Korea between 2014 and January 2015. Transcutaneous partial oxygen pressures (TcpO2) were measured to determine tissue oxygenation levels beneath modified NPWT dressings. A TcpO2 sensor was fixed at the tarsometatarsal area of the contralateral unwounded foot. A negative pressure of -125 mm Hg was applied until TcpO2 reached a plateau state; values were measured before, during, and after the modified NPWT. The Wilcoxon' and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare differences between these measurements. TcpO2 levels decreased by 26% during the modified NPWT. Mean TcpO2 values before, during, and after turning off the therapy were 54.3 ± 15.3 mm Hg, 41.6 ± 16.3 mm Hg, and 53.3 ± 15.6 mm Hg (P drainage tube significantly reduces the amount of tissue oxygenation loss beneath foam dressings on the skin of the foot dorsum in diabetic patients.

  6. A polygeneration from a dual-gas partial catalytic oxidation coupling with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanhong; Huang, Yi; Gong, Minhui; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Yi, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new polygeneration system (PL-PCO-OPMR) to DME/methanol/power is proposed. • Exergeo-economic analysis is adopted to disclose the performance of systems. • Key technological conditions and parameters for PL-PCO-OPMR are optimized. • PL-PCO-OPMR shows high energy efficiency and low CO_2 emission. • PL-PCO-OPMR is an attractive way for high efficient and clean use of COG and CGG. - Abstract: Polygeneration system, typically involving chemicals/fuels and electricity co-production, is a promising technology for the sustainable development of energy and environment. In this study, a new polygeneration system based on coal and coke oven gas (COG) inputs for co-production of dimethyl ether (DME)/methanol and electricity is proposed. In the new system, an appropriate syngas for the synthesis of DME is from coal gasified gas (CGG) reforming of COG coupled with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor, in which both COG and CGG reforming process and fuel combustion process are incorporated, which reduces exergy destruction in the whole reforming process. In order to obtain the best performance of CO_2 reduction, energy saving and economic benefit, the key operation parameters of the proposed process are analyzed and optimized. The new system is compared with the process based on CH_4/CO_2 dry reforming, in terms of exergy efficiency, exergy cost and CO_2 emissions. Through the new system, the exergy efficiency can be increased by 7.8%, the exergy cost can be reduced by 0.88 USD/GJ and the CO_2 emission can be reduced by 0.023 kg/MJ. These results suggest that the polygeneration system from CGG and COG partial catalytic oxidation coupling with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor (PL-PCO-OPMR) would be a more attractive way for highly efficient and clean use of CGG and COG.

  7. Pressure-induced magnetic collapse and metallization of molecular oxygen: The ζ-O2 phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, S.; Chiarotti, G.; Scandolo, S.; Tosatti, E.

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of solid oxygen in the pressure range between 5-116 GPa is studied by ab-initio simulations, showing a spontaneous phase transformation from the antiferromagnetic insulating δ-O 2 phase to a non-magnetic, metallic molecular phase. The calculated static structure factor of this phase is in excellent agreement with X-ray diffraction data in the metallic ζ-O 2 phase above 96 GPa. We thus propose that ζ-O 2 should be base centered monoclinic with space group C2/m and 4 molecules per cell, suggesting a re-indexing of the experimental diffraction peaks. Physical constraints on the intermediate-pressure ε - O 2 phase are also obtained. (author)

  8. Theoretical study of the partial molar volume change associated with the pressure-induced structural transition of ubiquitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takashi; Ohyama, Shusaku; Kovalenko, Andriy; Hirata, Fumio

    2007-09-01

    The partial molar volume (PMV) change associated with the pressure-induced structural transition of ubiquitin is analyzed by the three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) theory of molecular solvation. The theory predicts that the PMV decreases upon the structural transition, which is consistent with the experimental observation. The volume decomposition analysis demonstrates that the PMV reduction is primarily caused by the decrease in the volume of structural voids in the protein, which is partially canceled by the volume expansion due to the hydration effects. It is found from further analysis that the PMV reduction is ascribed substantially to the penetration of water molecules into a specific part of the protein. Based on the thermodynamic relation, this result implies that the water penetration causes the pressure-induced structural transition. It supports the water penetration model of pressure denaturation of proteins proposed earlier.

  9. Pressure of a partially ionized hydrogen gas: numerical results from exact low temperature expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alastuey, A. [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS, Lyon (France); Ballenegger, V. [Institut UTINAM, Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, Besancon (France)

    2010-01-15

    We consider a partially ionized hydrogen gas at low densities, where it reduces almost to an ideal mixture made with hydrogen atoms in their ground-state, ionized protons and ionized electrons. By performing systematic low-temperature expansions within the physical picture, in which the system is described as a quantum electron-proton plasma interacting via the Coulomb potential, exact formulae for the first.ve leading corrections to the ideal Saha equation of state have been derived[A. Alastuey, V. Ballenegger et al., J. Stat. Phys. 130, 1119 (2008)]. Those corrections account for all effects of interactions and thermal excitations up to order exp(E{sub H} /kT) included, where E{sub H} {approx_equal} -13.6 eV is the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom. Among the.ve leading corrections, three are easy to evaluate, while the remaining ones involve suitably truncated internal partition functions of H{sub 2} molecules and H{sup -} and H{sub 2}{sup +} ions, for which no analytical formulae are available in closed form. We estimate those partitions functions at.nite temperature via a simple phenomenology based on known values of rotational and vibrational energies. This allows us to compute numerically the leading deviations to the Saha pressure along several isotherms and isochores. Our values are compared with those of the OPAL tables (for pure hydrogen) calculated within the ACTEX method (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in normal pressure hydrocephalus after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Kikuchi, Haruhiko; Taki, Waro; Kobayashi, Akira; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1989-05-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the authors measured cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen metabolic rates (CMRO{sub 2}), the cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) in eight normal volunteers, six SAH patients with NPH, and seven patients without NPH by {sup 15}O-labeled gas and positron emission tomography (PET). In the NPH group, PET revealed a decrease in CBF in the lower regions of the cerebral cortex and a diffuse decrease in CMRO{sub 2}. The decrease in CBF in the lower frontal, temporal, and occipital cortices was significantly greater in the NPH than in the non-NPH group. Reduction of CMRO{sub 2} was also more extensive in the NPH group, and both CBF and CMRO{sub 2} were more markedly decreased in the lower frontal region. OEF was increased in all areas in both of the patient groups, but the increase was not significant in most areas. CBF, CMRO{sub 2} and OEF did not significantly differ between the non-NPH group and the normal volunteers. There was no significant difference in CBV among the three groups. These results indicate that NPH involves impairment of cerebral oxygen metabolism in the lower regions of the cerebral cortex, particularly in the lower frontal region. (author).

  11. Computational study of sheath structure in oxygen containing plasmas at medium pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrach, Rudolf; Novak, Stanislav; Ibehej, Tomas; Hrachova, Vera

    2016-09-01

    Plasma mixtures containing active species are used in many plasma-assisted material treatment technologies. The analysis of such systems is rather difficult, as both physical and chemical processes affect plasma properties. A combination of experimental and computational approaches is the best suited, especially at higher pressures and/or in chemically active plasmas. The first part of our study of argon-oxygen mixtures was based on experimental results obtained in the positive column of DC glow discharge. The plasma was analysed by the macroscopic kinetic approach which is based on the set of chemical reactions in the discharge. The result of this model is a time evolution of the number densities of each species. In the second part of contribution the detailed analysis of processes taking place during the interaction of oxygen containing plasma with immersed substrates was performed, the results of the first model being the input parameters. The used method was the particle simulation technique applied to multicomponent plasma. The sheath structure and fluxes of charged particles to substrates were analysed in the dependence on plasma pressure, plasma composition and surface geometry.

  12. Understanding the Oxygen Evolution Reaction Mechanism on CoOx using Operando Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, Marco; Yang, Jinhui; Nappini, Silvia; Magnano, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a promising approach for renewable production of hydrogen from solar energy and requires interfacing advanced water-splitting catalysts with semiconductors. Understanding the mechanism of function of such electrocatalysts at the atomic scale and under realistic working conditions is a challenging, yet important, task for advancing efficient and stable function. This is particularly true for the case of oxygen evolution catalysts and, here, we study a highly active Co 3 O 4 /Co(OH) 2 biphasic electrocatalyst on Si by means of operando ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy performed at the solid/liquid electrified interface. Spectral simulation and multiplet fitting reveal that the catalyst undergoes chemical-structural transformations as a function of the applied anodic potential, with complete conversion of the Co(OH) 2 and partial conversion of the spinel Co 3 O 4 phases to CoO(OH) under precatalytic electrochemical conditions. Furthermore, we observe new spectral features in both Co 2p and O 1s core-level regions to emerge under oxygen evolution reaction conditions on CoO(OH). The operando photoelectron spectra support assignment of these newly observed features to highly active Co 4+ centers under catalytic conditions. Comparison of these results to those from a pure phase spinel Co 3 O 4 catalyst supports this interpretation and reveals that the presence of Co(OH) 2 enhances catalytic activity by promoting transformations to CoO(OH). The direct investigation of electrified interfaces presented in this work can be extended to different materials under realistic catalytic conditions, thereby providing a powerful tool for mechanism discovery and an enabling capability for catalyst design.

  13. [Efficacy observation on application of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness scald wound in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuan-an; Chai, Jia-ke; Tuo, Xiao-ye; Cai, Jian-hua; Li, Dong-jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Hua; Cai, Jin-dong

    2013-02-01

    To observe the effect of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness scald in children. Three hundred and seven children with superficial partial-thickness scald hospitalized from August 2009 to May 2012 were divided into negative pressure therapy group (NPT, n = 145) and control group (C, n = 162) according to the random number table. Patients in group NPT were treated with negative pressure from within post injury day (PID) 3 to PID 9 (with -16 kPa pressure), while traditional occlusive dressing method was used in group C. Changes in body temperature, wound healing condition, frequency of dressing change were compared between group NPT and group C. Bacterial culture results of wounds were compared before and after treatment in group NPT. Volume of drained transudate per one percent of wound area was recorded in group NPT on PID 1 to PID 3. Data were processed with t test or chi-square test. The incidence of high fever was significantly lower in group NPT (26.9%, 39/145) than in group C (63.6%, 103/162, χ(2) = 41.419, P partial-thickness scald.

  14. Continuous distending pressure effects on variables contributing to oxygenation in healthy and ARDS model pigs during HFOV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Marianna; Hajny, Ondrej; Roubik, Karel

    2014-10-01

    High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an alternative mode of mechanical ventilation. HFOV has been shown to provide adequate ventilation and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and may represent an effective lung-protective ventilation in patients where conventional ventilation is failing. The aim of this study is to evaluate effects of continuous distending pressure (CDP) on variables that contribute to the oxygenation in healthy and ARDS lung model pigs. Methods. In order to simulate a lung disease, lung injury was induced by lavage with normal saline with detergent in three pigs. HFOV ventilation was applied before and after the lung lavage. CDP was stepwise increased by 2 cmH2O, until the maximum CDP (before the lung lavage 32 cmH2O and after the lung lavage 42 cmH2O) and then it was stepwise decreased by 2 cmH2O to the initial value. In this paper we analyzed the following parameters acquired during our experiments: partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), cardiac output (CO) and mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (SvO2). In order to find how both PaO2 and CO affected SvO2 during the increase of CDP before and after lavage, a nonlinear regression fitting of the response in SvO2 on the predictors (PaO2 and CO) was implemented. Results. Before the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 remained constant, CO strongly decreased and SvO2 slightly decreased. After the lavage, with increasing of CDP, PaO2 strongly increased, CO decreased and SvO2 increased. So, development of SvO2 followed the PaO2 and CO trends. Changes in PaO2 and CO occur at decisive CDP step and it was much higher after the lung lavage compared to the healthy lungs. The implemented nonlinear model gives a good goodness of fitting in all three pigs. The values of PaO2 and CO estimated coefficients changed at the same decisive step of CDP identified by the trends. Also the algorithm identified a CDP step much higher after the lung lavage

  15. Blood pressure and calf muscle oxygen extraction during plantar flexion exercise in peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, J Carter; Miller, Amanda J; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. Although PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady-state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups. In the first experiment, eight patients with PAD and eight healthy controls performed fatiguing plantar flexion exercise (from 0.5 to 7 kg for up to 14 min). In the second experiment, seven patients with PAD and seven healthy controls performed low-intensity plantar flexion exercise (2.0 kg for 14 min). BP, heart rate (HR), and SmO 2 were measured continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO 2 is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, expressed as a percent. At fatigue, patients with PAD had a greater increase in mean arterial BP (18 ± 2 vs. vs. 10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.029) and HR (14 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 2 beats/min, P = 0.033) and a greater reduction in SmO 2 (-54 ± 10 vs. -12 ± 4%, P = 0.001). However, both groups had similar physiological responses to low-intensity, nonpainful plantar flexion exercise. These data suggest that patients with PAD have altered oxygen uptake and/or utilization during fatiguing exercise coincident with an augmented BP response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this laboratory study, patients with peripheral artery disease performed plantar flexion exercise in the supine posture until symptoms of claudication occurred. Relative to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects we found that patients had a higher blood pressure response, a higher heart rate response, and a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation as

  16. Development of a low tritium partial pressure permeation system for mass transport measurement in lead lithium eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawelko, R.; Shimada, M.; Katayama, K.; Fukada, S.; Terai, T.

    2014-01-01

    A new experimental system designed to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in materials important to fusion technology is operational at the Safety and Tritium Applied Research (STAR) facility located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The tritium permeation measurement system was developed as part of the Japan/US TITAN collaboration to investigate tritium mass transfer properties in liquid lead lithium eutectic (LLE) alloy. The system is similar to a hydrogen/deuterium permeation measurement system developed at Kyushu University and also incorporates lessons learned from previous tritium permeation experiments conducted at the STAR facility. This paper describes the experimental system that is configured specifically to measure tritium mass transfer properties at low tritium partial pressures. We present preliminary tritium permeation results for α-Fe and α-Fe/LLE samples at 600degC and at tritium partial pressures between 1.0E-3 and 2.4 Pain helium. The preliminary results are compared with literature data. (author)

  17. A DLTS study of the evolution of oxygen precipitates in Si at high temperature and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, I.V.; Popov, V.P.; Fedina, L.I.; Shaimeev, S.S.; Misiuk, A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the dissolution of oxygen precipitates introduced beforehand into Si at temperatures of 920-1000 K (over period of 96 h) is investigated by the DLTS method. A measurement procedure, based on the formation of electrically active complexes (interstitial oxygen atom-vacancy) during electron irradiation of the samples, is proposed. It is shown that the precipitates do not decompose when point defects are introduced at room temperature. As the treatment temperature increases (to 1220-1650 K), for the same values of the hydrostatic pressure (up to 1.3 GPa) the intensity of the decomposition of oxygen precipitates increases and at 1650 K they are completely dissolved. Study of the decomposition kinetics showed that hydrostatic pressure raises the limit of solubility of the oxygen atoms Oi and slows down their diffusion. It is determined that the diffusion activation energy Ea, just as the preexponential factor D0, in the expression for the diffusion decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure, resulting in a lower diffusion. Possible mechanisms for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on oxygen diffusion near a precipitate are discussed

  18. Atmospheric constraints for the CO2 partial pressure on terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone

    OpenAIRE

    von Paris, P.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hedelt, P.; Rauer, H.; Selsis, F.; Stracke, B.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, several potentially habitable, probably terrestrial exoplanets and exoplanet candidates have been discovered. The amount of CO2 in their atmosphere is of great importance for surface conditions and habitability. In the absence of detailed information on the geochemistry of the planet, this amount could be considered as a free parameter. Up to now, CO2 partial pressures for terrestrial planets have been obtained assuming an available volatile reservoir and outgassing scenarios...

  19. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO LEVELS OF SUCTION PRESSURE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaji

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endotracheal suctioning is one of the common supportive measures in intensive care units (ICU, which may be related to complications such as hypoxia. However, a questionable efficacy is still identified to choose suctioning pressure between 130 mmHg and 140 mmHg that is effective for patients with endotracheal tube. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of 130 mmHg and 140 mmHg suctioning pressure on oxygen saturation in patients with endotracheal tube. Methods: This research used a quasy experimental design with pretest and posttest group. The study was conducted from 31 January to 1 March 2017 in the Hospital of Panti Wilasa Citarum and Hospital of Roemani Muhammadiyah Semarang. There were 30 samples recruited using consecutive sampling, with 15 assigned in the 130 mmHg and 140 mmHg suctioning pressure group. Pulse oximetry was used to measure oxygen saturation. Paired t-test and Independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Findings showed that there was a statistically significant effect of 130 and 140 mmHg suctioning pressure on oxygen saturation in patients with ETT with p-value <0.05. There was a significant mean difference of oxygen saturation between 130 mmHg and 140 mmHg suctioning pressure group with p-value 0.004 (<0.05. The mean difference of oxygen saturation between both groups was 13.157. Conclusion: The 140 mmHg suctioning pressure is more effective compared with 130 mmHg suctioning pressure in increasing oxygen saturation in patients with ETT.

  20. Method for sensing and measuring a concentration or partial pressure of a reactant used in a redox reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findl, E.

    1984-12-21

    A method for sensing or measuring the partial pressure or concentration of an electroactive species used in conjunction with an electrolyte, the method being characterized by providing a constant current between an anode and a cathode of an electrolyte-containing cell, while measuring changes in voltage that occur between either the anode and cathode or between a reference electrode and one of the main electrodes of the cell, thereby to determine the concentration or partial pressure of the electro-active species as a function of said measured voltage changes. The method of the invention can be practiced using either a cell having only an anode and a cathode, or using a cell having an anode and a cathode in combination with a reference electrode. Accurate measurements of small concentrations or partial pressures of electro-active species are obtainable with the method of the invention, by using constant currents of only a few microamperes between the anode and cathode of the cell, while the concentration-determining voltage is measured.

  1. Human Decompression Trial With 1.3 ATA Oxygen in Helium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) was tasked to develop helium-oxygen decompression tables for a proposed closed circuit breathing apparatus which Will deliver a constant oxygen partial pressure of 1.3 atmospheres (ATA...

  2. Evaluation of adherence to ambulatory liquid oxygen treatment: are commercialized dual-pressure transducers helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeller, Mafalda; Eusébio, Ermelinda; Almeida, João; Winck, João Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Treatment adherence is widely recognized as a critical problem in long-term oxygen therapy, particularly in ambulatory liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Adherence-monitoring strategies may be helpful in managing patients. We evaluated subjects' adherence to LOX using VisionOx and compared these results with the subjects' own adherence diaries and self-reported perceptions of use. Patients using LOX were recruited for a clinical interview; the number of days/week and the mean time of use according to subjects' perceptions were recorded. A 14-day diary was provided for every subject while VisionOx was attached to the LOX. VisionOx is a small device that uses pressure transducers to detect oxygen flow and the subject's breathing frequency. Information is stored and downloaded using dedicated software. Nineteen subjects were included (57.9% male with a median age of 63 years). When asked about the perception of LOX use, subjects self-reported using the device for a median of 100.0% of days (78.9% reported to have used it every day) for a median time of 180 min/day. According to data from VisionOx and subjects' diaries during the 14-day evaluation period, the median use was 92.8% of days for 210 min/day. No difference was found between the diaries and VisionOx data. Regarding subjects' perceptions of use, the declared use of LOX percent was significantly higher than reported in the diaries (P = .045) and VisionOx monitoring (P = .045) even though both underestimated the median use per day. Subjects overestimated adherence to LOX therapy (when measuring percent of days of use) compared to adherence diary and objective adherence monitoring. Because no significant difference was found comparing the diaries and VisionOx use, either may be helpful in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Calculation of Oxygen Fugacity in High Pressure Metal-Silicate Experiments and Comparison to Standard Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Ghiorso, M.

    2009-01-01

    Calculation of oxygen fugacity in high pressure and temperature experiments in metal-silicate systems is usually approximated by the ratio of Fe in the metal and FeO in the silicate melt: (Delta)IW=2*log(X(sub Fe)/X(sub FeO)), where IW is the iron-wustite reference oxygen buffer. Although this is a quick and easy calculation to make, it has been applied to a huge variety of metallic (Fe- Ni-S-C-O-Si systems) and silicate liquids (SiO2, Al2O3, TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O systems). This approach has surely led to values that have little meaning, yet are applied with great confidence, for example, to a terrestrial mantle at "IW-2". Although fO2 can be circumvented in some cases by consideration of Fe-M distribution coefficient, these do not eliminate the effects of alloy or silicate liquid compositional variation, or the specific chemical effects of S in the silicate liquid, for example. In order to address the issue of what the actual value of fO2 is in any given experiment, we have calculated fO2 from the equilibria 2Fe (metal) + SiO2 (liq) + O2 = Fe2SiO4 (liq).

  4. Evaluation of a three-dimensional ultrasound localisation system incorporating probe pressure correction for use in partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E J; Symonds-Taylor, R; Treece, G M; Gee, A H; Prager, R W; Brabants, P; Evans, P M

    2009-10-01

    This work evaluates a three-dimensional (3D) freehand ultrasound-based localisation system with new probe pressure correction for use in partial breast irradiation. Accuracy and precision of absolute position measurement was measured as a function of imaging depth (ID), object depth, scanning direction and time using a water phantom containing crossed wires. To quantify the improvement in accuracy due to pressure correction, 3D scans of a breast phantom containing ball bearings were obtained with and without pressure. Ball bearing displacements were then measured with and without pressure correction. Using a single scan direction (for all imaging depths), the mean error was <1.3 mm, with the exception of the wires at 68.5 mm imaged with an ID of 85 mm, which gave a mean error of -2.3 mm. Precision was greater than 1 mm for any single scan direction. For multiple scan directions, precision was within 1.7 mm. Probe pressure corrections of between 0 mm and 2.2 mm have been observed for pressure displacements of 1.1 mm to 4.2 mm. Overall, anteroposterior position measurement accuracy increased from 2.2 mm to 1.6 mm and to 1.4 mm for the two opposing scanning directions. Precision is comparable to that reported for other commercially available ultrasound localisation systems, provided that 3D image acquisition is performed in the same scan direction. The existing temporal calibration is imperfect and a "per installation" calibration would further improve the accuracy and precision. Probe pressure correction was shown to improve the accuracy and will be useful for the localisation of the excision cavity in partial breast radiotherapy.

  5. Efficient absorption of SO{sub 2} with low-partial pressures by environmentally benign functional deep eutectic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Ren, Shuhang [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029 (China); Hou, Yucui [Department of Chemistry, Taiyuan Normal University, Taiyuan, 030031 (China); Wu, Weize, E-mail: wzwu@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Environmentally benign deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on betaine or L-carnitine with ethylene glycol were designed with a function and used to efficiently capture SO{sub 2} with low partial pressures. - Highlights: • Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were designed with a function to absorb low-conc. SO{sub 2}. • Betaine(Bet) and L-carnitine(L-car) with a functional group were used as H-bond acceptor. • Bet + ethylene glycol (EG) DES and L-car + EG DES are environmentally benign. • L-car + EG DES can absorb 0.644 mol SO{sub 2} per mole L-car (0.37% SO{sub 2}). • L-car + EG DES is a promising absorbent for SO{sub 2} capture. - Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emitted from the burning of fossil fuels is one of the main air contaminants. In this work, we found that environmentally benign solvents, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) could be designed with a function to absorb low-partial pressure SO{sub 2} from simulated flue gas. Two kinds of biodegradable functional DESs based on betaine (Bet) and L-carnitine (L-car) as hydrogen bond accepters (HBA) and ethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrogen bond donor (HBD) were prepared with mole ratios of HBA to HBD from 1:3 to 1:5, and they were investigated to absorb SO{sub 2} with different partial pressures at various temperatures. The results showed that the two DESs could absorb low-partial pressure SO{sub 2} efficiently. SO{sub 2} absorption capacities of the DESs with HBA/HBD mole ratio of 1:3 were 0.332 mol SO{sub 2}/mol HBA for Bet + EG DES and 0.820 mol SO{sub 2}/mol HBA for L-car + EG DES at 40 °C with a SO{sub 2} partial pressure of 0.02 atm. In addition, the regeneration experiments demonstrated that the absorption capacities of DESs did not change after five absorption and desorption cycles. Furthermore, the absorption mechanism of SO{sub 2} by DESs was studied by FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and {sup 13}C NMR spectra. It was found that there are strong acid–base interactions between SO{sub 2} and

  6. Efficient absorption of SO_2 with low-partial pressures by environmentally benign functional deep eutectic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai; Ren, Shuhang; Hou, Yucui; Wu, Weize

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Environmentally benign deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based on betaine or L-carnitine with ethylene glycol were designed with a function and used to efficiently capture SO_2 with low partial pressures. - Highlights: • Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were designed with a function to absorb low-conc. SO_2. • Betaine(Bet) and L-carnitine(L-car) with a functional group were used as H-bond acceptor. • Bet + ethylene glycol (EG) DES and L-car + EG DES are environmentally benign. • L-car + EG DES can absorb 0.644 mol SO_2 per mole L-car (0.37% SO_2). • L-car + EG DES is a promising absorbent for SO_2 capture. - Abstract: Sulfur dioxide (SO_2) emitted from the burning of fossil fuels is one of the main air contaminants. In this work, we found that environmentally benign solvents, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) could be designed with a function to absorb low-partial pressure SO_2 from simulated flue gas. Two kinds of biodegradable functional DESs based on betaine (Bet) and L-carnitine (L-car) as hydrogen bond accepters (HBA) and ethylene glycol (EG) as a hydrogen bond donor (HBD) were prepared with mole ratios of HBA to HBD from 1:3 to 1:5, and they were investigated to absorb SO_2 with different partial pressures at various temperatures. The results showed that the two DESs could absorb low-partial pressure SO_2 efficiently. SO_2 absorption capacities of the DESs with HBA/HBD mole ratio of 1:3 were 0.332 mol SO_2/mol HBA for Bet + EG DES and 0.820 mol SO_2/mol HBA for L-car + EG DES at 40 °C with a SO_2 partial pressure of 0.02 atm. In addition, the regeneration experiments demonstrated that the absorption capacities of DESs did not change after five absorption and desorption cycles. Furthermore, the absorption mechanism of SO_2 by DESs was studied by FT-IR, "1H NMR and "1"3C NMR spectra. It was found that there are strong acid–base interactions between SO_2 and −COO"− on HBA.

  7. Rosemary and oxygen scavenger in active packaging for prevention of high-pressure induced lipid oxidation in pork patties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolumar Garcia, Jose Tomas; Lapena Gomez, David; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Three different packaging systems: vacuum packaging, rosemary active packaging, and oxygen scavenger packaging were compared for their ability to counteract lipid oxidation in pork patties upon storage at 5 °C for 60 days following high pressure processing (HPP) (700 MPa, 10 min, 5 °C). Lipid...... oxidation was studied at the surface and the inner part by measuring secondary lipid oxidation products (TBARs) and the tendency to form radicals by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Lipid oxidation was lower in the inner part than at the surface for all three packaging systems. Rosemary active...... packaging was the most effective method to protect pork patties from the HPP-induced lipid oxidation, while oxygen scavenger packaging was not effective since residual oxygen remained in the package in the initial period of storage. The kinetics of the oxygen trapping by oxygen scavengers appears...

  8. CO2 reactivity and brain oxygen pressure monitoring in severe head injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona Suazo, J A; Maas, A I; van den Brink, W A; van Santbrink, H; Steyerberg, E W; Avezaat, C J

    2000-09-01

    To investigate the effect of hyperventilation on cerebral oxygenation after severe head injury. A prospective, observational study. Neurointensive care unit at a university hospital. A total of 90 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbrO2) was performed as a measure of cerebral oxygenation. Arterial PCO2 was decreased each day over a 5-day period for 15 mins by increasing minute volume on the ventilator setting to 20% above baseline. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed before and after changing ventilator settings. Multimodality monitoring, including PbrO2, was performed in all patients. Absolute and relative PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity was calculated. Outcome at 6 months was evaluated according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. Effective hyperventilation, defined by a decrease of PaCO2 > or =2 torr (0.27 kPa), was obtained in 218 (84%) of 272 tests performed. Baseline PaCO2 averaged 32.3 +/- 4.5 torr (4.31 +/- 0.60 kPa). Average reduction in PaCO2 was 3.8 +/- 1.7 torr (0.51 +/- 0.23 kPa). PbrO2 decreased by 2.8 +/- 3.7 torr (0.37 +/- 0.49 kPa; p < .001) from a baseline value of 26.5 +/- 11.6 torr (3.53 +/- 1.55 kPa). PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity was low on day 1 (0.8 +/- 2.3 torr [0.11 +/- 0.31 kPa]), increasing on subsequent days to 6.1 +/- 4.4 torr (0.81 +/- 0.59 kPa) on day 5. PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity on days 1 and 2 was not related to outcome. In later phases in patients with unfavorable outcome, relative reactivity was increased more markedly, reaching statistical significance on day 5. Increased hyperventilation causes a significant reduction in PbrO2, providing further evidence for possible increased risk of secondary ischemic damage during hyperventilation. The low PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity on day 1 indicates the decreased responsiveness of cerebral microvascular vessels to PaCO2 changes, caused by generalized vascular narrowing. The increasing PbrO2/PaCO2 reactivity from days 2 to 5 suggests that the risk of

  9. Noninvasive Intracranial Pressure and Tissue Oxygen Measurements for Space and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, A. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Watenpaugh, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the following: Increasing intracranial pressure in humans during simulated microgravity. and near-infrared monitoring of model chronic compartment syndrome in exercising skeletal muscle. Compared to upright-seated posture, 0 deg. supine, 6 deg. HDT, and 15 deg. HDT produced TMD changes of 317 +/- 112, 403 +/- 114, and 474 +/- 112 n1 (means +/- S.E.), respectively. Furthermore, postural transitions from 0 deg. supine to 6 deg. HDT and from 6 deg. to 15 deg. HDT generated significant TMD changes (p less than 0.05). There was no hysteresis when postural transitions to HDT were compared to reciprocal transitions toward upright seated posture. Currently, diagnosis of chronic compartment syndrome (CCS) depends on measurement of intramuscular pressure by invasive catheterization. We hypothesized that this syndrome can be detected noninvasively by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, which tracks variations in muscle hemoglobin/myoglobin oxygen saturation. CCS was simulated in the tibialis anterior muscle of 7 male and 3 female subjects by gradual inflation of a cuff placed around the leg to 40 mmHg during 14 minutes of cyclic isokinetic dorsiflexion exercise. On a separate day, subjects underwent the identical exercise protocol with no external compression. In both cases, tissue oxygenation (T(sub O2) was measured in the tibialis anterior by NIR spectroscopy and normalized to a percentage scale between baseline and a T(sub O2) nadir reached during exercise to ischemic exhaustion. Over the course of exercise, T(sub O2) declined at a rate of 1.4 +/- 0.3% per minute with model CCS, yet did not decrease during control exercise. Post-exercise recovery of T(sub O2) was slower with model CCS (2.5 +/- 0.6 min) than in control (1.3 +/- 0.2 min). These results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can detect muscle deoxygenation caused by pathologically elevated intramuscular pressure in exercising skeletal muscle. Consequently, this technique shows promise as a

  10. Singlet oxygen generation in a high pressure non-self-sustained electric discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, Adam; Norberg, Seth; Shawcross, Paul; Lempert, Walter R; Rich, J William; Adamovich, Igor V

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents results of singlet oxygen generation experiments in a high-pressure, non-self-sustained crossed discharge. The discharge consists of a high-voltage, short pulse duration, high repetition rate pulsed discharge, which produces ionization in the flow, and a low-voltage dc discharge which sustains current in a decaying plasma between the pulses. The sustainer voltage can be independently varied to maximize the energy input into electron impact excitation of singlet delta oxygen (SDO). The results demonstrate operation of a stable and diffuse crossed discharge in O 2 -He mixtures at static pressures of at least up to P 0 = 380 Torr and sustainer discharge powers of at least up to 1200 W, achieved at P 0 = 120 Torr. The reduced electric field in the positive column of the sustainer discharge varies from E/N = 0.3 x 10 -16 to 0.65 X 10 -16 V cm 2 , which is significantly lower than E/N in self-sustained discharges and close to the theoretically predicted optimum value for O 2 (a 1 Δ) excitation. Measurements of visible emission spectra O 2 (b 1 Σ → X 3 Σ) in the discharge afterglow show the O 2 (b 1 Σ) concentration to increase with the sustainer discharge power and to decrease as the O 2 fraction in the flow is increased. Rotational temperatures inferred from these spectra in 10% O 2 -90% He flows at P 0 = 120 Torr and mass flow rates of m-dot = 2.2 are 365-465 K. SDO yield at these conditions, 1.7% to 4.4%, was inferred from the integrated intensity of the (0, 0) band of the O 2 (a 1 Δ → X 3 Σ) infrared emission spectra calibrated using a blackbody source. The yield remains nearly constant in the discharge afterglow, up to at least 15 cm distance from the discharge. Kinetic modelling calculations using a quasi-one-dimensional nonequilibrium pulser-sustainer discharge model coupled with the Boltzmann equation for plasma electrons predict gas temperature rise in the discharge in satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurements

  11. Annealing temperature and O2 partial pressure dependence of T(sub c) in HgBa2CuO(4+delta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Q.; Cao, Y.; Chen, F.; Xue, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of HgBa2CuO(4+delta) (Hg-1201) were annealed under various conditions. After carefully controlling annealing time, annealing temperature (T(sub a)) and O2 partial pressure (P(sub 0)), we were able to find the reversible annealing conditions for Hg-1201. Under 1 atm O2 at 260 C less than or equal to T(sub a) less than or equal to 400 C, the obtained T(sub c) is nearly the same (approximately 97 K). However, it decreases quickly with T(sub a) greater than 300 C in high vacuum (P(sub 0) approximately 10(exp -8) atm), and reaches zero at T(sub a) = 400 C. On the other hand, T(sub c) decreases with the decrease of T(sub a) in high-pressure O2 (approximately 500 atm) and reaches approximately 20 K at about 240 C. In the entire annealing region, the oxygen surplus varies significantly from 0.03 to 0.4, and a wide range of T(sub c) variation (0 goes to 97 K goes to 20 K) was obtained with anion doping alone.

  12. Influence of N2 partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Abdallah, B.; Ahmad, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of N2 partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N2 partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N2 partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N2 partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N2 partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N2 partial pressure.

  13. Influence of N_2 partial pressure on structural and microhardness properties of TiN/ZrN multilayers deposited by Ar/N_2 vacuum arc discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Abdallah, B.; Ahmad, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of N_2 partial pressure on structural, mechanical and wetting properties of multilayered TiN/ZrN thin films deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N_2 + Ar) gas mixtures is investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the average texturing coefficient of (1 1 1) orientation and the grain size of both TiN and ZrN individual layers increase with increasing the N_2 partial pressure. The Rutherford back scattering (RBS) measurements and analysis reveal that incorporation of the nitrogen in the film increases with increasing the N_2 partial pressure and both TiN and ZrN individual layers have a nitrogen over-stoichiometry for N_2 partial pressure ⩾50%. The change in the film micro-hardness is correlated to the changes in crystallographic texture, grain size, stoichiometry and the residual stress in the film as a function of the N_2 partial pressure. In particular, stoichiometry of ZrN and TiN individual is found to play the vital role in determining the multilayer hardness. The multilayer film deposited at N_2 partial pressure of 25% has the best stoichiometric ratio of both TiN and ZrN layers and the highest micro-hardness of about 32 GPa. In addition, water contact angle (WCA) measurements and analysis show a decrease in the work of adhesion on increasing the N_2 partial pressure.

  14. Intracrystalline fractionation of oxygen isotopes between hydroxyl and non-hydroxyl sites in kaolinite measured by thermal dehydroxylation and partial fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Jean-Pierre; Savin, Samuel M.

    1996-02-01

    Thermal dehydroxylation and partial fluorination techniques were used to measure intracrystalline fractionation of oxygen isotopes between hydroxyl and non-hydroxyl sites in kaolinite. Several aliquots of a well characterized, fine-grained (rates, and target temperatures. Measured δ18O values of both the liberated water and the dehydroxylated residue are consistent over a wide range of temperatures (550 850°C) when dehydroxylation is performed in a single-step fashion at a rapid heating rate (>50°C/min.). Similar dehydroxylation experiments indicate that brucite dehydroxylation occurs without any significant isotopic fractionation of the oxygen isotopes. By extrapolation we postulate that no significant fractionation occurs during single-step thermal dehydroxylation of fine-grained kaolinite, provided that dehydroxylation is performed under well controlled conditions. In contrast, gibbsite dehydroxylation is accompanied by substantial isotopic fractionation. This is probably the result of the complex, multi-pathway dehydroxylation reaction of this mineral. Similarly, thermal dehydroxylation of coarsegrained (>1 μm) kaolinites and dickites of weathering and hydrothermal origin yield results that are dependent on the temperature of dehydroxylation. We suggest that this effect may be caused by isotopic exchange during diffusion of water molecules through coarse particles. Partial fluorination of fine-grained kaolinite in the presence of excess F2 at low temperatures (rate of reaction of hydroxyl oxygen than of non-hydroxyl oxygen, but examination of the isotopic data as well as XRD and IR analyses of the residues after partial fluorination indicates that the separation between the two types of oxygen is not complete. The results, therefore, do not yield a reliable δ18O value of the hydroxyl oxygen. The results of this study suggest that the thermal dehydroxylation technique may be appropriate for analysis of OH groups in fine-grained kaolinite. The partial

  15. The effect of hydrostatic pressure on conductivity behaviour of needle crystals of iodine and oxygen doped niobium-sulphur compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balla, D.D.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Obolenskij, M.A.; Beletskij, V.I.; Chashka, Kh.B.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the hydrostatic pressures up to 11 kbar on conductivity behaviour of the needle crystal of iodine and oxygen doped niobium-sulphur compounds were studied in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. It is shown that in the temperature range 110-300 K conductivity is thermal activated (P=1 bar). Below 110 K the Mott characteristic is observed. Under hydrostatic pressure the deviations from Mott characteristic occurs. The analysis of data suggested that crystals are doped semiconductors

  16. Femtosecond, two-photon laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of atomic oxygen in an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jacob B.; Sands, Brian L.; Kulatilaka, Waruna D.; Roy, Sukesh; Scofield, James; Gord, James R.

    2015-06-01

    Femtosecond, two-photon-absorption laser-induced-fluorescence (fs-TALIF) spectroscopy is employed to measure space- and time-resolved atomic-oxygen distributions in a nanosecond, repetitively pulsed, externally grounded, atmospheric-pressure plasma jet flowing helium with a variable oxygen admixture. The high-peak-intensity, low-average-energy femtosecond pulses result in increased TALIF signal with reduced photolytic inferences. This allows 2D imaging of absolute atomic-oxygen number densities ranging from 5.8   ×   1015 to 2.0   ×   1012cm-3 using a cooled CCD with an external intensifier. Xenon is used for signal and imaging-system calibrations to quantify the atomic-oxygen fluorescence signal. Initial results highlight a transition in discharge morphology from annular to filamentary, corresponding with a change in plasma chemistry from ozone to atomic oxygen production, as the concentration of oxygen in the feed gas is changed at a fixed voltage-pulse-repetition rate. In this configuration, significant concentrations of reactive oxygen species may be remotely generated by sustaining an active discharge beyond the confines of the dielectric capillary, which may benefit applications that require large concentrations of reactive oxygen species such as material processing or biomedical devices.

  17. Determination of oxygen nonstoichiometry and diffusivity in mixed conducting oxides by oxygen Coulometric titration. II. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and defect model for La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhorst, M.H.R.; Lankhorst, M.H.R.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The oxygen nonstoichiometry of La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-delta has been determined as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature using a high-temperature coulometric titration cell. For each measured value of the oxygen chemical potential, the oxygen nonstoichiometry is found to be nearly

  18. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tremsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods. The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (∼739 ± 98 kPa and ∼751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ∼758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ∼ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. The ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.

  19. Improved oxygenation during standing performance of deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure after cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Henrik; Faager, Gun; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    Breathing exercises after cardiac surgery are often performed in a sitting position. It is unknown whether oxygenation would be better in the standing position. The aim of this study was to evaluate oxygenation and subjective breathing ability during sitting vs standing performance of deep breathing exercises on the second day after cardiac surgery. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 189) were randomized to sitting (controls) or standing. Both groups performed 3 × 10 deep breaths with a positive expiratory pressure device. Peripheral oxygen saturation was measured before, directly after, and 15 min after the intervention. Subjective breathing ability, blood pressure, heart rate, and pain were assessed. Oxygenation improved significantly in the standing group compared with controls directly after the breathing exercises (p < 0.001) and after 15 min rest (p = 0.027). The standing group reported better deep breathing ability compared with controls (p = 0.004). A slightly increased heart rate was found in the standing group (p = 0.047). After cardiac surgery, breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure, performed in a standing position, significantly improved oxygenation and subjective breathing ability compared with sitting performance. Performance of breathing exercises in the standing position is feasible and could be a valuable treatment for patients with postoperative hypoxaemia.

  20. Pressure of a partially ionized hydrogen gas : numerical results from exact low temperature expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Alastuey , Angel; Ballenegger , Vincent

    2010-01-01

    8 pages; International audience; We consider a partially ionized hydrogen gas at low densities, where it reduces almost to an ideal mixture made with hydrogen atoms in their ground-state, ionized protons and ionized electrons. By performing systematic low-temperature expansions within the physical picture, in which the system is described as a quantum electron-proton plasma interacting via the Coulomb potential, exact formulae for the first five leading corrections to the ideal Saha equation ...

  1. Evaluation of the Oxygen Concentrator Prototypes: Pressure Swing Adsorption Prototype and Electrochemical Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    An oxygen concentrator is needed to provide enriched oxygen in support of medical contingency operations for future exploration human spaceflight programs. It would provide continuous oxygen to an ill or injured crew member in a closed cabin environment. Oxygen concentration technology is being pursued to concentrate oxygen from the ambient environment so oxygen as a consumable resource can be reduced. Because oxygen is a critical resource in manned spaceflight, using an oxygen concentrator to pull oxygen out of the ambient environment instead of using compressed oxygen can provide better optimization of resources. The overall goal of this project is to develop an oxygen concentrator module that minimizes the hardware mass, volume, and power footprint while still performing at the required clinical capabilities. Should a medical event occur that requires patient oxygenation, the release of 100 percent oxygen into a small closed cabin environment can rapidly raise oxygen levels to the vehicles fire limit. The use of an oxygen concentrator to enrich oxygen from the ambient air and concentrate it to the point where it can be used for medical purposes means no oxygen is needed from the ultra-high purity (99.5+% O2) oxygen reserve tanks. By not adding oxygen from compressed tanks to the cabin environment, oxygen levels can be kept below the vehicle fire limit thereby extending the duration of care provided to an oxygenated patient without environmental control system intervention to keep the cabin oxygen levels below the fire limits. The oxygen concentrator will be a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearable device. A demonstration unit for the International Space Station (ISS) is planned to verify the technology and provide oxygen capability. For the ISS, the demonstration unit should not exceed 10 kg (approximately 22 lb), which is the soft stowage mass limit for launch on resupply vehicles for the ISS. The unit's size should allow for transport within the

  2. Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Methane/Oxygen Flames at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Flame structure and soot formation were studied within soot-containing laminar premixed mc1hane/oxygen flames at atmospheric pressure. The following measurements were made: soot volume fractions by laser extinction, soot temperatures by multiline emission, gas temperatures (where soot was absent) by corrected fine-wire thermocouples, soot structure by thermophoretic sampling and transmission electron microscope (TEM), major gas species concentrations by sampling and gas chromatography, and gas velocities by laser velocimetry. Present measurements of gas species concentrations were in reasonably good agreement with earlier measurements due to Ramer et al. as well as predictions based on the detailed mechanisms of Frenklach and co-workers and Leung and Lindstedt: the predictions also suggest that H atom concentrations are in local thermodynamic equilibrium throughout the soot formation region. Using this information, it was found that measured soot surface growth rates could be correlated successfully by predictions based on the hydrogen-abstraction/carbon-addition (HACA) mechanisms of both Frenklach and co-workers and Colket and Hall, extending an earlier assessment of these mechanisms for premixed ethylene/air flames to conditions having larger H/C ratios and acetylene concentrations. Measured primary soot particle nucleation rates were somewhat lower than the earlier observations for laminar premixed ethylene/air flames and were significantly lower than corresponding rates in laminar diffusion flames. for reasons that still must be explained.

  3. A radio-frequency nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma operating with argon and oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravej, M.; Yang, X.; Hicks, R.F.; Penelon, J.; Babayan, S.E.

    2006-01-01

    A capacitively coupled, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed that produces a high concentration of reactive species at a gas temperature below 300 deg. C. The concentration of ground-state oxygen atoms produced by the discharge was measured by NO titration, and found to equal 1.2 vol %, or 1.2±0.4x10 17 cm -3 , using 6.0 vol % O 2 in argon at 150 W/cm 3 . The ozone concentration determined at the same conditions was 4.3±0.5x10 14 cm -3 . A model of the gas phase reactions was developed and yielded O atom and O 3 concentrations in agreement with experiment. This plasma source etched Kapton registered at 5.0 μm/s at 280 deg. C and an electrode-to-sample spacing of 1.5 cm. This fast etch rate is attributed to the high O atom flux generated by the plasma source

  4. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Del Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility.

  5. Two Regimes of Bandgap Red Shift and Partial Ambient Retention in Pressure-Treated Two-Dimensional Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Gang [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203, China; Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, United States; Kong, Lingping [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203, China; Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, United States; Guo, Peijun [Center; Stoumpos, Constantinos C. [Department; Hu, Qingyang [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203, China; Liu, Zhenxian [Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, United States; Cai, Zhonghou [Advanced; Gosztola, David J. [Center; Mao, Ho-kwang [Center for High Pressure Science and Technology Advanced Research, Shanghai 201203, China; Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, United States; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Department; Schaller, Richard D. [Center; Department

    2017-10-09

    The discovery of elevated environmental stability in two-dimensional (2D) Ruddlesden–Popper hybrid perovskites represents a significant advance in low-cost, high-efficiency light absorbers. In comparison to 3D counterparts, 2D perovskites of organo-lead-halides exhibit wider, quantum-confined optical bandgaps that reduce the wavelength range of light absorption. Here, we characterize the structural and optical properties of 2D hybrid perovskites as a function of hydrostatic pressure. We observe bandgap narrowing with pressure of 633 meV that is partially retained following pressure release due to an atomic reconfiguration mechanism. We identify two distinct regimes of compression dominated by the softer organic and less compressible inorganic sublattices. Our findings, which also include PL enhancement, correlate well with density functional theory calculations and establish structure–property relationships at the atomic scale. These concepts can be expanded into other hybrid perovskites and suggest that pressure/strain processing could offer a new route to improved materials-by-design in applications.

  6. Diffusion coefficients of oxygen and hemoglobin as obtained simultaneously from photometric determination of the oxygenation of layers of hemoglobin solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.; Kreuzer, F.; van Wely, F. K.

    1980-01-01

    The oxygenation of layers of deoxygenated hemoglobin solutions after a sudden exposure to a gas containing oxygen at a partial pressure P1 has been studied by a photometric method. Layer thicknesses varied between 50 and 250 micron, hemoglobin concentrations between 0.1 and 0.34kg/l, and oxygen

  7. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  8. La2CuO4+δ: Synthesis under high oxygen pressure and study of phase relations and energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.P.; Mehta, A.; DiCarlo, J.; Navrotsky, A.

    1994-01-01

    High oxygen pressures have been achieved in a piston-cylinder apparatus using a double capsule assembly consisting of a sealed outer Au capsule, containing an oxygen source (KMnO 4 ), and an inner, open Pt capsule containing the sample. Using this technique, La 2 CuO 4 was annealed at 800 degree C, 5--25 kbar for 2--4 h. Transposed temperature drop calorimetry at 704 degree C was used to determine the enthalpy of oxidation, and weight loss measurements characterized the oxygen nonstoichiometry, δ, in La 2 CuO 4+δ , in the high-pressure, oxygen annealed samples. For samples analyzed at room temperature, x-ray diffraction measurements show that beyond δ∼0.10--0.13, additional oxygen is accommodated in a perovskite-like LaCuO 3-α phase. An analysis of the thermochemical measurements indicates that the nature of holes in La 2 CuO 4+δ could change in the range of δ∼0.03--0.06. 16,17 It is further suggested that the observed change in the thermochemical behavior in the range of δ∼0.01--0.06 could be the driving influence behind the spinodal decomposition of La 2 CuO 4+δ at low temperatures (Dabrowski et al. 10 )

  9. Influence of oxygen pressure and aging on LaAlO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihwey; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Aeppli, Gabriel; David, Adrian; Lin, Weinan; Wu, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structures of LaAlO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 substrates at oxygen pressure of 10−3 millibars or 10−5 millibars, where kinetics of ablated species hardly depend on oxygen background pressure, are compared. Our

  10. Investigation of oxygen growth pressure effects on titanium dioxide:cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Erhong

    2007-12-01

    Room temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors not only play an important role in the development of spintronics, but also are interesting from the viewpoint of fundamental physics since they combine two important realms of condensed matter physics: magnetism and semiconduction. This dissertation presents a study on selected magnetic transition metal doped oxides as potential diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS). The goal is to understand the room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) mechanism in TiO2-delta: Co. Several steps have been taken to approach this problem. Polycrystalline and epitaxial TiO2-delta: Co thin films were deposited on (0001) alpha-Al2O3 substrates by PLD under well controlled growth conditions. Detailed characterization demonstrates that laser ablated TiO2-delta: Co under low oxygen growth pressure (PO2) is a multiphase system with Co nanoparticles precipitated out of the TiO2 lattice. Depending on PO2, the samples show dramatically different magnetic behavior. For example, with PO2 lower than a critical value a transition from a blocked magnetic state at low temperature to a superparamagnetic state at higher temperature is observed, which is a signature of superparamagnetic Co nanoparticles. For samples grown under higher PO2, the blocking temperatures are higher than 350K, as determined from zero field cooled/field cooled (ZFC/FC) measurements. In agreement with this observation, the hopping transport behavior expected in multiphase granular metal systems, ln(rho) ˜ T -1/2 is observed for most of the samples in the measured temperature range and low bias (linear I-V) regime. Related hopping conduction behaviour in magnetic fields and high electrical fields (non-linear I-V regime) will also be presented. Cross sectional TEM images provide further corroboration of the multiphase structure of these materials. Preliminary work to understand the mechanism dominating the room temperature ferromagnetism in SnO2-delta: Co is also presented. To obtain

  11. Oxygen-Rich Lithium Oxide Phases Formed at High Pressure for Potential Lithium-Air Battery Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenge; Kim, Duck Young; Yang, Liuxiang; Li, Nana; Tang, Lingyun; Amine, Khalil; Mao, Ho-Kwang

    2017-09-01

    The lithium-air battery has great potential of achieving specific energy density comparable to that of gasoline. Several lithium oxide phases involved in the charge-discharge process greatly affect the overall performance of lithium-air batteries. One of the key issues is linked to the environmental oxygen-rich conditions during battery cycling. Here, the theoretical prediction and experimental confirmation of new stable oxygen-rich lithium oxides under high pressure conditions are reported. Three new high pressure oxide phases that form at high temperature and pressure are identified: Li 2 O 3 , LiO 2 , and LiO 4 . The LiO 2 and LiO 4 consist of a lithium layer sandwiched by an oxygen ring structure inherited from high pressure ε-O 8 phase, while Li 2 O 3 inherits the local arrangements from ambient LiO 2 and Li 2 O 2 phases. These novel lithium oxides beyond the ambient Li 2 O, Li 2 O 2 , and LiO 2 phases show great potential in improving battery design and performance in large battery applications under extreme conditions.

  12. One hour effects of salbutamol and formoterol on blood pressure, heart rate and oxygen saturation in asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Andrade Capuchinho-Júnior

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, partial oxygen saturation (SpO2 and heart rate (HR disorders for an hour after short and long acting ß2-agonists. Material and methods: Twenty-four severe persistent asthma Pulmonology outpatients at Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle were selected. SBP, DBP, SpO2 and HR values were determined before and after 400 μg of salbutamol and 12 μg of formoterol, on different days, with a minimum interval of 24 hours. Results: All patients showed ventilatory obstruction, as seen by a reduced FEV1/FVC ratio. There was no statistical SBP/DBP/HR difference after bronchodilator agents, but SpO2 increased with salbutamol. Conclusion: A standard dose of salbutamol and formoterol does not cause haemodynamic disorder. Resumo: Objectivo: Analisar os possíveis efeitos do uso de β-2-agonistas, de curta e longa duração, nas pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD, na saturação parcial de oxigénio (SpO2 e na frequência cardíaca (FC, durante o período de uma hora. Material e métodos: Vinte e quatro doentes com asma persistente grave, em tratamento no ambulatório de Pneumologia do Hospital Universitário Gaffrée e Guinle, foram seleccionados para um ensaio clínico sequencial e cruzado. Os valores da PAS, PAD, SpO2 e FC foram registados antes e após o uso de broncodilatadores, salbutamol 400 μg e formoterol 12 μg, em dias diferentes, com intervalo mínimo de 24 horas. Resultados: Todos os doentes apresentaram distúrbio ventilatório obstrutivo, identificado pela redução da relação entre o volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEMS e a capacidade vital forçada (CVF. Após o uso de substância broncodilatadora, não houve variação significativa nas PAS e PAD, nem na FC; porém, a SpO2 aumentou com o uso de salbutamol. Conclusão: Não foram observadas

  13. Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J L; Liu, D X; Iza, F; Kong, M G; Rong, M Z

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O 2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O 2 , electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O 2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry. (fast track communication)

  14. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Contrasting characteristics of sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air and atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen glow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. L.; Liu, D. X.; Iza, F.; Rong, M. Z.; Kong, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Glow discharges in air are often considered to be the ultimate low-temperature atmospheric pressure plasmas for numerous chamber-free applications. This is due to the ubiquitous presence of air and the perceived abundance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in air plasmas. In this paper, sub-microsecond pulsed atmospheric air plasmas are shown to produce a low concentration of excited oxygen atoms but an abundance of excited nitrogen species, UV photons and ozone molecules. This contrasts sharply with the efficient production of excited oxygen atoms in comparable helium-oxygen discharges. Relevant reaction chemistry analysed with a global model suggests that collisional excitation of O2 by helium metastables is significantly more efficient than electron dissociative excitation of O2, electron excitation of O and ion-ion recombination. These results suggest different practical uses of the two oxygen-containing atmospheric discharges, with air plasmas being well suited for nitrogen and UV based chemistry and He-O2 plasmas for excited atomic oxygen based chemistry.

  15. Effects of topical negative pressure therapy on tissue oxygenation and wound healing in vascular foot wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Nathaniel; Rodda, Odette A; Sleigh, Jamie; Vasudevan, Thodur

    2017-08-01

    Topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy is widely used in the treatment of acute wounds in vascular patients on the basis of proposed multifactorial benefits. However, numerous recent systematic reviews have concluded that there is inadequate evidence to support its benefits at a scientific level. This study evaluated the changes in wound volume, surface area, depth, collagen deposition, and tissue oxygenation when using TNP therapy compared with traditional dressings in patients with acute high-risk foot wounds. This study was performed with hospitalized vascular patients. Forty-eight patients were selected with an acute lower extremity wound after surgical débridement or minor amputation that had an adequate blood supply without requiring further surgical revascularization and were deemed suitable for TNP therapy. The 22 patients who completed the study were randomly allocated to a treatment group receiving TNP or to a control group receiving regular topical dressings. Wound volume and wound oxygenation were analyzed using a modern stereophotographic wound measurement system and a hyperspectral transcutaneous oxygenation measurement system, respectively. Laboratory analysis was conducted on wound biopsy samples to determine hydroxyproline levels, a surrogate marker to collagen. Differences in clinical or demographic characteristics or in the location of the foot wounds were not significant between the two groups. All patients, with the exception of two, had diabetes. The two patients who did not have diabetes had end-stage renal failure. There was no significance in the primary outcome of wound volume reduction between TNP and control patients on day 14 (44.2% and 20.9%, respectively; P = .15). Analyses of secondary outcomes showed a significant result of better healing rates in the TNP group by demonstrating a reduction in maximum wound depth at day 14 (36.0% TNP vs 17.6% control; P = .03). No significant findings were found for the other outcomes of changes

  16. Prognostic role of alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference in acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu Jente; Chang Shihtai; Cheng Huiwen; Chung Changmin; Chu, Chiming; Cheng Nyejan; Ho Wanching

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the utility of the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (AaDO 2 ) in predicting the short-term prognosis of acute pulmonary embolism (PE). This study retrospectively enrolled 114 consecutive patients with acute PE, diagnosed by either spiral computed tomography or high probability ventilation-perfusion lung scans. During the first 24 h of admission, all patients had initial artery blood gas collected under room air. Patient exclusion criteria were chronic lung disease, septic emboli, and moderate and low probability lung scans. Patients were assigned to 2 groups based on either 30-day death or a 30-day composite event. Receiver operating characteristic analyses was used to determine the AaDO 2 cut-off value for predicting primary and composite endpoints. Statistical analysis demonstrated significant differences in AaDO 2 between the 30-day composite endpoint group and the 30-day composite event-free survival group (p=0.012). The AaDO 2 had a strong trend between the 30-day death group and the survival group (p=0.062). The best cut-off value for AaDO 2 was 53 mmHg and using this, the positive predictive value for 30-day death was 25% and the negative predictive value was 92%. For the 30-day composite endpoint, the positive predictive value for AaDO 2 was 35%, and the negative predictive value was 84%. In this study, thrombocytopenia was also an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with acute PE. The AaDO 2 measurement is a highly useful and simple measurement for predicting short-term prognosis in patients with acute PE. It has high negative predictive value and moderate positive predictive value for 30-day death and 30-day composite event. Aggressive thrombolytic treatment strategies should be considered for patients with an initial poor prognostic parameter (ie, AaDO 2 ≥53 mmHg). (author)

  17. Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Mi Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22 gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis.

  18. Structural, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of ZrNx films deposited by Ar/N2 vacuum arc discharge: Effect of nitrogen partial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, B.; Naddaf, M.; A-Kharroub, M.

    2013-03-01

    Non-stiochiometric zirconium nitride (ZrNx) thin films have been deposited on silicon substrates by vacuum arc discharge of (N2 + Ar) gas mixtures at different N2 partial pressure ratio. The microstructure, mechanical, electrical and wetting properties of these films are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering (RBS) technique, conventional micro-hardness testing, electrical resistivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle (CA) measurements. RBS results and analysis show that the (N/Zr) ratio in the film increases with increasing the N2 partial pressure. A ZrNx film with (Zr/N) ratio in the vicinity of stoichiometric ZrN is obtained at N2 partial pressure of 10%. XRD and Raman results indicate that all deposited films have strained cubic crystal phase of ZrN, regardless of the N2 partial pressure. On increasing the N2 partial pressure, the relative intensity of (1 1 1) orientation with respect to (2 0 0) orientation is seen to decrease. The effect of N2 partial pressure on micro-hardness and the resistivity of the deposited film is revealed and correlated to the alteration of grain size, crystallographic texture, stoichiometry and residual stress developed in the film. In particular, it is found that residual stress and nitrogen incorporation in the film play crucial role in the alteration of micro-hardness and resistivity respectively. In addition, CA and AFM results demonstrate that as N2 partial pressure increases, both the surface hydrophobicity and roughness of the deposited film increase, leading to a significant decrease in the film surface free energy (SFE).

  19. Carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in wood constituents of Pinus halepensis as indicators of precipitation, temperature and vapour pressure deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrio, J.P.; Voltas, J.

    2005-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions (δ 13 C, δ 18 O) in tree rings have been shown to bear relevant climatic signals. However, little is known about the interrelationship between both isotopes in wood constituents for species from other than relatively wet climates. We hypothesized that in a species adapted to temporary droughts (e.g. Pinus halepensis Mill.) the signal derived from δ 18 O in precipitation would be hidden by the strong variability in leaf transpirative enrichment. To test this assumption, we compared the effect of precipitation, temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on δ 18 O and δ 13 C along 23 sites covering the ecological range for this species. We extracted the cores from the south side of four to six adult dominant trees per aspect (north/south) within each site. For each aspect and site, fragments of the period 1975-1999 were pooled and milled to a fine powder. To further test the postulated need for cellulose purification in the assessment of climatic information, we studied these relationships in whole and extracted wood, holocellulose and lignin. In all wood fractions, δ 13 C was related to annual precipitation [r=0.58 (P 18 O only holocellulose showed consistent relationships with climatic data, being strongly significant for VPD [r=0.66 (P 18 O in precipitation, confirming that transpirative enrichment (driven by VPD) dampened the source signal in P. halepensis. The relationships between δ 13 C and δ 18 O were generally poor, regardless of the wood constituent, suggesting that although both variables were somewhat related to transpirative demand, they were relatively independent. This was further confirmed by building stepwise models using both isotopes to predict annual and seasonal precipitation [r 2 = 0.34 (P 2 = 0.15 (P 2 = 0.31 (P< 0.01) to 0.55 (P< 0.001)]. We concluded that, even when partially describing the same climate variables, the information underlying the two isotopes can be regarded as complementary

  20. Equilibrium partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite as a function of relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassin, Arnault [BRGM-ISTO-UMR 7327, 3av. C. Guillemin, B.P. 36009, Orleans, 45060 (France); Marty, Nicolas; Henry, Benoit; Tremosa, Joachim; Gailhanou, Helene; Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, 3av. C. Guillemin, B.P. 36009, Orleans, 45060 (France); Made, Benoit; Altmann, Scott [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet,Chatenay-Malabry,92298 (France)

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the behavior of a clay mineral-rich rock submitted to different physical-chemical perturbations is important for assessing the safety of nuclear waste disposal facilities in the corresponding geological formations. In this work we studied the effect of rock desaturation on the CO{sub 2} partial pressure signature of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite. This integrated study, which combines experiments and geochemical modeling, points out the primary role of capillary forces on the chemical equilibria. In particular, it was possible to model, without any fitting parameters, the experimental decrease of pCO{sub 2} as a function of decreasing water content in the argillite. Moreover, this application to a complex natural system is an example of confirmation of the theoretical concepts of geochemistry in capillary contexts and is promising for dealing with other natural and industrial systems. (authors)

  1. Origin of electrical improvement of amorphous TaInZnO TFT by oxygen thermo-pressure-induced process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byung Du; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae; Lim, Jun Hyung; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Park, Jin-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Novel amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistors (AOS-TFTs) have already stepped up as an alternative solution for application in mass-produced active matrix organic light-emitting diodes, as well as flexible and transparent electronics. However, the factors related to the device properties (mobility (μ sat ) and stability (ΔV th )) are still unclear. Since most factors are strongly related to oxygen elements, the versatile thermo-pressure-induced process (TPP) has been applied to improve novel TaInZnO TFT performances with regard to mobility and stability by controlling the oxygen pressure, resulting in the optimum values (improving μ sat by 50% and ΔV th by 30%). It is found that the TPP may suppress the occupied trap states as well as increase the unoccupied trapping states in tantalum indium zinc oxide subgap states, depending on the oxygen pressure in TPP. In addition, the origin of the improvement is unveiled with x-ray photoemission and x-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS). The TPP in AOS-TFTs can effectively improve and be used to manipulate device properties such as mobility and stability easily. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and XAS as a defect state analyser may also provide understanding of the origins of device instability as well as evolutionary electrical improvement in AOS-TFTs. (paper)

  2. Synthesis gas generation by high pressure partial oxidation (HP POX {sup registered}); Synthesegaserzeugung durch Hochdruck-Partialoxidation (HP POX {sup registered})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, B.; Seifert, P.; Zeissler, R. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen; Walter, St. [Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The high pressure synthesis gas process HP POX (High Pressure Partial Oxidation) is a thermal conversion process, which converts e.g. natural gas or heavy residue oil with oxygen to fuel or synthesis gas. Innovative burner technologies allow autothermal catalytic or non-catalytic reforming of gaseous feedstock and gasification of liquid feed streams. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide rich synthesis gases with low methane content (particularly suitable as feed gas for methanol synthesis) can be generated. The technology represents a new generation of entrained flow gasification characterized by the new developed equipment and a design pressure of 100 bar. According to the feeds, the HP POX gasification process is the link between the downstream synthesis chemistry (use of gaseous and liquid feeds) and the power plant process (liquid or solid fuels as suspension or slurry). The HP POX development is carried out together with the Lurgi AG at the Institute for Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering (IEC). The 5 MW HP POX test plant built in Freiberg by Lurgi is core of the joint research project, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWA), the Saxon Ministry of Science and the Fine Arts (SMWK), and the mg technologies ag (parent company of Lurgi). The conducted sets of experiments indicate that the unit can be operated in a safe, smooth and stable manner. During this periods of operation, which included nine test campaigns for autothermal reforming (ATR), the maximum pressure for ATR amounted to 70 bar which exceeds the current benchmark in industry for 30 bar. Main objective of R and D work is the development of modelling tools for extreme gasification conditions and different gasification principles of up to 100 bar. These tools are supposed to improve the understanding of the entire gasification process. Their development requires a systematic investigation of the reaction mechanisms and the interactions with the process

  3. Numerical study on characteristics of radio-frequency discharge at atmospheric pressure in argon with small admixtures of oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Liu, Yue

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a 1D fluid model is developed to study the characteristics of a discharge in argon with small admixtures of oxygen at atmospheric pressure. This model consists of a series of equations, including continuity equations for electrons, positive ions, negative ions and neutral particles, the energy equation, and the Poisson equation for electric potential. Special attention has been paid to the electron energy dissipation and the mechanisms of electron heating, while the admixture of oxygen is in the range of 0.1%-0.6%. It is found that when the oxygen-to-argon ratio grows, the discharge is obviously divided into three stages: electron growth, electron reduction and the electron remaining unchanged. Furthermore, the cycle-averaged electric field, electron temperature, electron Ohmic heating, electron collisionless heating, electron energy dissipation and the net electron production are also studied in detail, and when the oxygen-to-argon ratio is relatively larger (R = 0.6%), double value peaks of electron Ohmic heating appear in the sheath. According to the results of the numerical simulation, various oxygen-to-argon ratios result in different amounts of electron energy dissipation and electron heating.

  4. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2013-09-01

    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  5. Gluteal blood flow and oxygenation during electrical stimulation-induced muscle activation versus pressure relief movements in wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C. A. J.; Zwinkels, M.; van Dijk, T.; de Groot, S.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J. M.; Janssen, T. W. J.

    Background: Prolonged high ischial tuberosities pressure (IT pressure), decreased regional blood flow (BF) and oxygenation (%SO2) are risk factors for developing pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES)-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle

  6. Internal-reference solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaland, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor has been developed that eliminates the conventional oxygen reference in previous solid-electrolyte oxygen sensor designs and is, therefore, ideally suited as an insertion device for remote oxygen monitoring applications. It is constructed with two cells of stabilized zirconia sealed into a small unit using a new high-temperature platinum-zirconia seal. One electrochemical cell monitors the ratio of oxygen partial pressures inside and outside the sensor while the other solid-electrolyte cell is used for quantitative electrochemical pumping of oxygen. The internal oxygen reference is generated by initially pumping all oxygen out of the known internal volume of the sensor and then quantitatively pumping oxygen back in until oxygen partial pressures are equal inside and out. This information is used with the ideal gas law to calculate oxygen partial pressures. Tests were conducted from 400 to 1000 0 C in mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen spanning approximately 0.2 to 21 percent oxygen concentration range. Sensors with sputtered platinum and porous platinum paste electrodes were compared

  7. Long-term operation of oxygen-limiting membrane bioreactor (MBR) for the development of simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanqi; Wang, Gang; Xu, Xiaochen; Yang, Yuesuo; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-07-18

    In this study, an oxygen-limiting membrane bioreactor (MBR) with recirculation of biogas for relieving membrane fouling was successfully operated to realize the simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) process. The MBR operation was considered effective in the long-term test with total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.86% and 98.91%, respectively. Membrane fouling was significantly alleviated due to the recirculation of biogas and the membrane had been cleaned four times with a normal filtration period of 52 days. The co-existence of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anammox and denitrifying bacteria in MBR was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence in situ hybridizations (FISH) analysis. Furthermore, AOB were found close to the granule surface, while denitrifying bacteria and anammox were in the deeper layer of granules. Potential in excellent TN and COD removal, operational stability and sustainability, as well as in alleviating membrane fouling is expected by using this oxygen-limiting MBR.

  8. Partial deoxygenation of extender improves sperm quality, reduces lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species during cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, B; Ghosh, S K; Lone, S A; Prasad, J K; Das, G K; Katiyar, R; Mustapha, Abdul Rahman; Kumar, Ajay; Verma, M R

    2018-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of partial deoxygenation of extender on sperm quality, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) during cryopreservation of semen. Semen extender was prepared freshly and split into three sub-extenders [Extender I: control (non-deoxygenated), Extender II (partially deoxygenated by using LN 2 flushing) and Extender III (partially deoxygenated mechanically by vacuum pump)]. Amounts of dissolved oxygen (DO) were determined in all the three extenders and also in post-thaw semen. Ejaculates with mass motility of  ≥3+ and individual progressive motility of 70% or greater were collected from Murrah buffalo bulls and utilized in the study. Each semen sample was divided into Groups I (diluted with Extender I), II (diluted with Extender II) and III (diluted Extender III) with a maximum of 60 × 10 6 sperm/mL. French mini straws (0.25 mL) were filled with the extended semen samples, sealed with polyvinyl alcohol powder, kept for 3 h at 5 °C for equilibration and then stored in an automatic programmable freezer until the temperature of straws reached -145 °C followed by plunging the straws into liquid nitrogen (-196 °C). Semen samples were evaluated at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages for various variables [sperm motility, live sperm count, acrosomal integrity, hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) response, LPO and ROS concentrations]. The mean DO was less (P fertility of frozen-thawed buffalo sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood flow and tissue oxygen pressures of liver and pancreas in rats: effects of volatile anesthetics and of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmar, B; Conzen, P F; Kerner, T; Habazettl, H; Vierl, M; Waldner, H; Peter, K

    1992-09-01

    The object of this investigation was to compare the effects of volatile anesthetics and of hemorrhage at comparable arterial blood pressures on splanchnic blood flow (radioactive microspheres) and tissue oxygenation of the liver and pancreas (surface PO2 [PSO2] electrodes). In contrast to earlier studies, we did not use identical minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration multiples as a reference to compare volatile anesthetics; rather, we used the splanchnic perfusion pressure. Under general anesthesia (intravenous chloralose) and controlled ventilation, 12 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent laparotomy to allow access to abdominal organs. Mean arterial pressure was decreased from 84 +/- 3 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM) at control to 50 mm Hg by 1.0 +/- 0.1 vol% halothane, 2.2 +/- 0.2 vol% enflurane, and 2.3 +/- 0.1 vol% isoflurane in a randomized sequence. For hemorrhagic hypotension, blood was withdrawn gradually until a mean arterial pressure of 50 mm Hg was attained. Volatile anesthetics and hemorrhage reduced cardiac output, and hepatic arterial, portal venous, and total hepatic blood flows by comparable degrees. Mean hepatic PSO2 decreased significantly from 30.7 +/- 2.6 mm Hg at control to 17.4 +/- 2 and 17.5 +/- 2 mm Hg during enflurane and isoflurane (each P less than 0.05) anesthesia, respectively. The decrease to 11.5 +/- 2.5 mm Hg was more pronounced during halothane anesthesia. Hemorrhagic hypotension was associated with the lowest hepatic PSO2 (3.4 +/- 1.3 mm Hg) and the highest number of hypoxic (0-5 mm Hg 86%) and anoxic PSO2 values (0 mm Hg 46%). Pancreatic blood flow and oxygenation remained unchanged from control during halothane and enflurane administration, whereas isoflurane increased both variables. Hemorrhagic hypotension slightly reduced pancreatic flow (-8%) but significantly decreased PSO2 from 58 +/- 5 mm Hg at control to 36 +/- 3 mm Hg, with 7% of all measured values in the hypoxic range. Thus, volatile anesthetics preserved pancreatic but not hepatic

  10. Highly pressurized partially miscible liquid-liquid flow in a micro-T-junction. I. Experimental observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ning; Wen, John Z.; Ren, Carolyn L.

    2017-04-01

    This is the first part of a two-part study on a partially miscible liquid-liquid flow (liquid carbon dioxide and deionized water) which is highly pressurized and confined in a microfluidic T-junction. Our main focuses are to understand the flow regimes as a result of varying flow conditions and investigate the characteristics of drop flow distinct from coflow, with a capillary number, C ac , that is calculated based on the continuous liquid, ranging from 10-3 to 10-2 (10-4 for coflow). Here in part I, we present our experimental observation of drop formation cycle by tracking drop length, spacing, frequency, and after-generation speed using high-speed video and image analysis. The drop flow is chronologically composed of a stagnating and filling stage, an elongating and squeezing stage, and a truncating stage. The common "necking" time during the elongating and squeezing stage (with C ac˜10-3 ) for the truncation of the dispersed liquid stream is extended, and the truncation point is subsequently shifted downstream from the T-junction corner. This temporal postponement effect modifies the scaling function reported in the literature for droplet formation with two immiscible fluids. Our experimental measurements also demonstrate the drop speed immediately following their generations can be approximated by the mean velocity from averaging the total flow rate over the channel cross section. Further justifications of the quantitative analysis by considering the mass transfer at the interface of the two partially miscible fluids are provided in part II.

  11. Impact of carbon monoxide partial pressures on methanogenesis and medium chain fatty acids production during ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Elizondo, Sofia; Miceli, Joseph; Torres, Cesar I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are important biofuel precursors. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a sustainable electron and carbon donor for fatty acid elongation, since it is metabolized to MCFA precursors, it is toxic to most methanogens, and it is a waste product generated in the gasification of waste biomass. The main objective of this work was to determine if the inhibition of methanogenesis through the continuous addition of CO would lead to increased acetate or MCFA production during fermentation of ethanol. The effects of CO partial pressures (P CO ; 0.08-0.3 atm) on methanogenesis, fatty acids production, and the associated microbial communities were studied in batch cultures fed with CO and ethanol. Methanogenesis was partially inhibited at P CO  ≥ 0.11 atm. This inhibition led to increased acetate production during the first phase of fermentation (0-19 days). However, a second addition of ethanol (day 19) triggered MCFA production only at P CO  ≥ 0.11 atm, which probably occurred through the elongation of acetate with CO-derived ethanol and H 2 :CO 2 . Accordingly, during the second phase of fermentation (days 20-36), the distribution of electrons to acetate decreased at higher P CO , while electrons channeled to MCFA increased. Most probably, Acetobacterium, Clostridium, Pleomorphomonas, Oscillospira, and Blautia metabolized CO to H 2 :CO 2 , ethanol and/or fatty acids, while Peptostreptococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and other Clostridiales utilized these metabolites, along with the provided ethanol, for MCFA production. These results are important for biotechnological systems where fatty acids production are preferred over methanogenesis, such as in chain elongation systems and microbial fuel cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Inferences about pressures and vertical extension of cloud layers from POLDER3/PARASOL measurements in the oxygen A-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmons, Marine; Ferlay, Nicolas; Parol, Frédéric; Vanbauce, Claudine; Mcharek, Linda

    2013-05-01

    We present new inferences about cloud vertical structures from multidirectionnal measurements in the oxygen A-band. The analysis of collocated data provided by instruments onboard satellite platforms within the A-Train, as well as simulations have shown that for monolayered clouds, the cloud oxygen pressure PO2 derived from the POLDER3 instrument was sensitive to the cloud vertical structure in two ways: First, PO2 is actually close to the pressure of the geometrical middle of cloud and we propose a method to correct it to get the cloud top pressure (CTP), and then to obtain the cloud geometrical extent. Second, for the liquid water clouds, the angular standard deviation σPO2 of PO2 is correlated with the geometrical extent of cloud layers, which makes possible a second estimation of the cloud geometrical thickness. The determination of the vertical location of cloud layers from passive measurements, eventually completed from other observations, would be useful in many applications for which cloud macrophysical properties are needed.

  13. Modeling of a Piezoelectric MEMS Micropump Dedicated to Insulin Delivery and Experimental Validation Using Integrated Pressure Sensors: Application to Partial Occlusion Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fournier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical model based on equivalent electrical networks has been built to simulate the dynamic behavior of a positive-displacement MEMS micropump dedicated to insulin delivery. This device comprises a reservoir in direct communication with the inlet check valve, a pumping membrane actuated by a piezo actuator, two integrated piezoresistive pressure sensors, an anti-free-flow check valve at the outlet, and finally a fluidic pathway up to the patient cannula. The pressure profiles delivered by the sensors are continuously analyzed during the therapy in order to detect failures like occlusion. The numerical modeling is a reliable way to better understand the behavior of the micropump in case of failure. The experimental pressure profiles measured during the actuation phase have been used to validate the numerical modeling. The effect of partial occlusion on the pressure profiles has been also simulated. Based on this analysis, a new management of partial occlusion for MEMS micropump is finally proposed.

  14. Local Cytokine Concentrations and Oxygen Pressure Are Related to Maturation of the Collateral Circulation in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmer, Stephan H.; van Royen, Niels; Moerland, Perry D.; Fledderus, Joost O.; Henriques, José P.; van der Schaaf, René J.; Vis, Marije M.; Baan, Jan; Koch, Karel T.; Horrevoets, Anton J. G.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Piek, Jan J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to determine cytokine and oxygen gradients over the collateral circulation in humans. Background The molecular background of the maturation of the collateral circulation in response to coronary narrowing is poorly understood in humans, partly because of difficulties in

  15. Improved wound management by regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy and regulated, oxygen- enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy through basic science research and clinical assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Topaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RNPT should be regarded as a state-of-the-art technology in wound treatment and the most important physical, nonpharmaceutical, platform technology developed and applied for wound healing in the last two decades. RNPT systems maintain the treated wound′s environment as a semi-closed, semi-isolated system applying external physical stimulations to the wound, leading to biological and biochemical effects, with the potential to substantially influence wound-host interactions, and when properly applied may enhance wound healing. RNPT is a simple, safe, and affordable tool that can be utilized in a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, with reduced need for complicated surgical procedures, and antibiotic treatment. This technology has been shown to be effective and safe, saving limbs and lives on a global scale. Regulated, oxygen-enriched negative pressure-assisted wound therapy (RO-NPT is an innovative technology, whereby supplemental oxygen is concurrently administered with RNPT for their synergistic effect on treatment and prophylaxis of anaerobic wound infection and promotion of wound healing. Understanding the basic science, modes of operation and the associated risks of these technologies through their fundamental clinical mechanisms is the main objective of this review.

  16. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  17. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopaev, D V; Malykhin, E M; Zyryanov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O 3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature T V was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O 3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O( 3 P), O 2 , O 2 ( 1 Δ g ) and O 3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O 3 and O( 3 P) density profiles and T V calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter-ozone production probability (γ O 3 ) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O 3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O( 3 P) and O 2 . The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse γ O 3 data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models-the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model-was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O 3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up

  18. Oxygen source-oriented control of atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of VO2 for capacitive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Vernardou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxides of different crystalline orientation planes have successfully been fabricated by chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure using propanol, ethanol and O2 gas as oxygen sources. The thick a-axis textured monoclinic vanadium dioxide obtained through propanol presented the best electrochemical response in terms of the highest specific discharge capacity of 459 mAh g-1 with a capacitance retention of 97 % after 1000 scans under constant specific current of 2 A g-1. Finally, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the charge transfer of Li+ through the vanadium dioxide / electrolyte interface was easier for this sample enhancing significantly its capacitance performance.

  19. Investigation of the niobium-oxygen system under low pressure and between 550 K and 2350 K: solid solution, surface overlay and reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupille, Jacques

    1974-09-01

    This research thesis addresses the behaviour of transition metals when interacting with oxygen, more particularly in the case of phase formation, but also adsorption and desorption which occur in the case of interaction with low pressure oxygen. It focuses on the case of niobium in solid solution. After a description of phases present in the niobium-oxygen system, and a discussion of reactivities of oxygen and water vapour, the author describes the experimental methods (apparatus and installations, samples, measured values), discusses the study of the surface-volume transfer constant of the niobium-oxygen solution, and the niobium-oxygen interaction mechanisms at high (superior to 1700 K) and low (inferior to 1000 K) temperatures: oxide desorption, oxygen reaction kinetics

  20. Oxygen permeation modelling of perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; van Hassel, B.A.; Kawada, Tatsuya; Sakai, Natsuko; Yokokawa, Harumi; Dokiya, Masayuki; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A point defect model was used to describe the oxygen nonstoichiometry of the perovskites La0.75Sr0.25CrO3, La0.9Sr0.1FeO3, La0.9Sr0.1CoO3 and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. Form the oxygen vacancy concentration predicte by the point defect model, the ionic conductivity

  1. Changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the Mauritanian–Cap Vert upwelling region between 2005 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Dávila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coastal upwellings along the eastern margins of major ocean basins represent regions of large ecological and economic importance due to the high biological productivity. The role of these regions for the global carbon cycle makes them essential in addressing climate change. The physical forcing of upwelling processes that favor production in these areas are already being affected by global warming, which will modify the intensity of upwelling and, consequently, the carbon dioxide cycle. Here, we present monthly high-resolution surface experimental data for temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in one of the four most important upwelling regions of the planet, the Mauritanian–Cap Vert upwelling region, from 2005 to 2012. This data set provides direct evidence of seasonal and interannual changes in the physical and biochemical processes. Specifically, we show an upwelling intensification and an increase of 0.6 Tg yr−1 in CO2 outgassing due to increased wind speed, despite increased primary productivity. This increase in CO2 outgassing together with the observed decrease in sea surface temperature at the location of the Mauritanian Cap Blanc, 21° N, produced a pH rate decrease of −0.003 ± 0.001 yr−1.

  2. Highly pressurized partially miscible liquid-liquid flow in a micro-T-junction. II. Theoretical justifications and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ning; Wen, John Z.; Ren, Carolyn L.

    2017-04-01

    This is the second part of a two-part study on a partially miscible liquid-liquid flow (carbon dioxide and deionized water) that is highly pressurized and confined in a microfluidic T-junction. In the first part of this study, we reported experimental observations of the development of flow regimes under various flow conditions and the quantitative characteristics of the drop flow including the drop length, after-generation drop speed, and periodic spacing development between an emerging drop and the newly produced one. Here in part II we provide theoretical justifications to our quantitative studies on the drop flow by considering (1) C O2 hydration at the interface with water, (2) the diffusion-controlled dissolution of C O2 molecules in water, and (3) the diffusion distance of the dissolved C O2 molecules. Our analyses show that (1) the C O2 hydration at the interface is overall negligible, (2) a saturation scenario of the dissolved C O2 molecules in the vicinity of the interface will not be reached within the contact time between the two fluids, and (3) molecular diffusion does play a role in transferring the dissolved molecules, but the diffusion distance is very limited compared with the channel geometry. In addition, mathematical models for the drop length and the drop spacing are developed based on the observations in part I, and their predictions are compared to our experimental results.

  3. CO partial pressure dependence of the kinetics of melting of HbS aggregates studied in high concentration phosphate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroutiounian, Svetlana

    2002-10-01

    Deoxygenated sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) monomers enter the polymer phase either by incorporation into a critical nucleus, through heterogeneous nucleation and or through linear growth of the polymers when the concentration of monomers exceeds the solubility. CO-bound, R-state HbS monomers do not polymerize. Thus, polymer melting is enhanced by binding of carbon monoxide (CO) to HbS polymerized monomers. In our study, the melting of HbS aggregates mediated by dilution and CO binding to polymerized monomers is observed with time-resolved extinction spectroscopy. The CO partial pressure (pCO) dependence of the kinetics of melting is studied for pCO = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1 atm with difference progress curves. A phenomenological description with slow and fast relaxation modes reveals a variable relaxation time near the pCO=0.5 due to competition of kinetic mechanisms. The slow component increases with increasing pCO. It has a positive intercept due to the combined action of dilution of the sample and CO-ligation. The pCO dependence is near linear due to non-cooperative CO binding. Significant slowing down of aged samples, most likely due to gelation, is observed. As possible mechanism for variable relaxation time near pCO=0.5atm the fractional percolation threshold is discussed. This work was supported by NIH grant HL58091 (awarded to Daniel. B. Kim-Shapiro).

  4. Effect of partial oxygen pressure on physicochemical properties of Kh18N10T steel at isothermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.N.; Oshe, E.K.; Fokin, M.N.; Bogdanova, S.V.; Loskutov, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Auger-electron spectroscopy, photoelectric polarization, conductometry methods have been used to analyze chemical and defect composition of surface oxide layers, formed on stainless steel Kh18N10T in vacuum (10 -9 - 10 -2 torr) and at temperatures 593-673 K. The boundary conditions of manifestation of extermal behaviour of the dependence of the surface oxide growth rate at isothermal oxidation of this steel are determined. The relation between passivation properties of the surface oxide and the magnitude of the edge angle of the surface wetting with molten tin is revealed

  5. Precipitates in YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films annealed at low oxygen partial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.; Werder, D.J.; Tiefel, T.H.; Fleming, R.M.; Marshall, J.H.; Siegal, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the precipitates in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) thin films grown by the BaF 2 process in p O 2 =4 Torr and 700 degree C. While stoichiometric films result in BaCuO 2 surface precipitates, we have found Y 2 Cu 2 O 5 precipitates embedded in the matrix of the same film. Off stoichiometric films with Ba/Y 2 Cu 2 O 5 in the film matrix. The estimated densities of the two precipitates favor a stoichiometric YBCO film matrix. This behavior is not explainable in terms of phase equilibria and is attributed to kinetic effects. The electrical properties of the films degrade as the Ba/Y ratio deviates from 2.00

  6. Impact of Donor Arterial Partial Pressure of Oxygen on Outcomes After Lung Transplantation in Adult Cystic Fibrosis Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Don; Kopp, Benjamin T; Kirkby, Stephen E; Reynolds, Susan D; Mansour, Heidi M; Tobias, Joseph D; Tumin, Dmitry

    2016-08-01

    Donor PaO2 levels are used for assessing organs for lung transplantation (LTx), but survival implications of PaO2 levels in adult cystic fibrosis (CF) patients receiving LTx are unclear. UNOS registry data spanning 2005-2013 were used to test for associations of donor PaO2 with patient survival and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) in adult (age ≥ 18 years) first-time LTx recipients diagnosed with CF. The analysis included 1587 patients, of whom 1420 had complete data for multivariable Cox models. No statistically significant differences among donor PaO2 categories of ≤200, 201-300, 301-400, or >400 mmHg were found in univariate survival analysis (log-rank test p = 0.290). BOS onset did not significantly differ across donor PaO2 categories (Chi-square p = 0.480). Multivariable Cox models of patient survival supported the lack of difference across donor PaO2 categories. Interaction analysis found a modest difference in survival between the two top categories of donor PaO2 when examining patients with body mass index (BMI) in the lowest decile (≤16.5 kg/m(2)). Donor PaO2 was not associated with survival or BOS onset in adult CF patients undergoing LTx. Notwithstanding statistically significant interactions between donor PaO2 and BMI, there was no evidence of post-LTx survival risk associated with donor PaO2 below conventional thresholds in any subgroup of adults with CF.

  7. The alveolar to arterial oxygen partial pressure difference is associated with pulmonary diffusing capacity in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosin, Marco; Vignati, Carlo; Novi, Angela; Salvioni, Elisabetta; Veglia, Fabrizio; Alimento, Marina; Merli, Guido; Sciomer, Susanna; Sinagra, Gianfranco; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe

    2016-11-01

    In chronic heart failure (HF), the alveolar-capillary membrane undergoes a remodeling process that negatively affects gas exchange. In case of alveolar-capillary gas diffusion impairment, arterial desaturation (SaO 2 ) is rarely observed in HF patients. At play are 3 factors: overall pulmonary diffusing capacity (assessed as lung diffusion for CO, DLCO), global O 2 consumption (VO 2 ) and alveolar (A) to arterial (a) pO 2 gradient (AaDO 2 ). In 100 consecutive stable HF patients, DLCO, resting respiratory gases and arterial blood gases were measured to determine VO 2, paO 2 , pAO 2 and AaDO 2 . DLCO was poorly but significantly related to AaDO 2 . The correlation improved after correcting AaDO 2 for VO 2 (p<0.001, r=0.49). Both VO 2 and AaDO 2 were independently associated with DLCO (p<0.001). Patients with reduced DLCO showed no differences as regards paO 2 and pAO 2 . AaDO 2 /VO 2 showed a higher gradient in patients with lower DLCO. AaDO 2 increase and VO 2 reduction allow preventing low SaO 2 in HF patients with reduced DLCO. Accordingly, we suggest considering AaDO 2 and VO 2 combined and reporting AaDO 2 /VO 2 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of arterial oxygen partial pressure after changes in FIO₂: validation and clinical application of a novel formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, H M; Hardman, J G

    2011-11-01

    Existing methods allow prediction of Pa(O₂) during adjustment of Fi(O₂). However, these are cumbersome and lack sufficient accuracy for use in the clinical setting. The present studies aim to extend the validity of a novel formula designed to predict Pa(O₂) during adjustment of Fi(O₂) and to compare it with the current methods. Sixty-seven new data sets were collected from 46 randomly selected, mechanically ventilated patients. Each data set consisted of two subsets (before and 20 min after Fi(O₂) adjustment) and contained ventilator settings, pH, and arterial blood gas values. We compared the accuracy of Pa(O₂) prediction using a new formula (which utilizes only the pre-adjustment Pa(O₂) and pre- and post-adjustment Fi(O₂) with prediction using assumptions of constant Pa(O₂)/Fi(O₂) or constant Pa(O₂)/Pa(O₂). Subsequently, 20 clinicians predicted Pa(O₂) using the new formula and using Nunn's isoshunt diagram. The accuracy of the clinician's predictions was examined. The 95% limits of agreement (LA(95%)) between predicted and measured Pa(O₂) in the patient group were: new formula 0.11 (2.0) kPa, Pa(O₂)/Fi(O₂) -1.9 (4.4) kPa, and Pa(O₂)/Pa(O₂) -1.0 (3.6) kPa. The LA(95%) of clinicians' predictions of Pa(O₂) were 0.56 (3.6) kPa (new formula) and -2.7 (6.4) kPa (isoshunt diagram). The new formula's prediction of changes in Pa(O₂) is acceptably accurate and reliable and better than any other existing method. Its use by clinicians appears to improve accuracy over the most popular existing method. The simplicity of the new method may allow its regular use in the critical care setting.

  9. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Surki, A.A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under

  10. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) can replace methods for measuring partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2017-01-01

    We compared end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) with partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in domestic pigs anesthetized for neuroscience. There was good agreement between ETCO2 and PCO2 under both hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia conditions. ETCO2 saves time by continually providing...

  11. X-ray diffraction analysis of the phase transition orthorhombic-tetragonal in Y(1-x)Ca(x)Ba2Cu3O(7) superconductors dependent on the oxygen pressure at 500 and 600deg C. Etude de la transition orthorhombique-tetragonale dans les supraconducteurs Y sub 1-x Ca sub x Ba sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub z par diffraction des rayons X en fonction de la pression d'oxygene a 500 et 600deg C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzelin, B [Lab. C.N.S., Chimie Generale, Univ. Paris 11, 91 - Orsay (France)

    1991-04-15

    The oxygen partial pressures and the oxygen composition z dependence of the lattice parameters of Y{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub z} have been investigated by X-ray diffraction at 500 and 600deg C for 10%, 20% and 30% calcium content. The coexistence of the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases is observed in an oxygen composition range which decreases with increasing calcium content. The tetragonal phase occurs alone at the same oxygen content: z=6.745 in a temperature range of approximately 100deg C whatever the calcium content. Its structural transition will be first order with no second order at all, as undoped 1-2-3. Lastly it is noticed that the superconductivity is independent of the structural O-T transition. (orig.).

  12. Transparent and Flexible Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors and Inverters using Low-pressure Oxygen Annealing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kimoon; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jiwan; Oh, Min Suk

    2018-05-01

    We report on the transparent and flexible enhancement-load inverters which consist of zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) fabricated at low process temperature. To control the electrical characteristics of oxide TFTs by oxygen vacancies, we applied low-pressure oxygen rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process to our devices. When we annealed the ZTO TFTs in oxygen ambient of 2 Torr, they showed better electrical characteristics than those of the devices annealed in the air ambient of 760 Torr. To realize oxide thin film transistor and simple inverter circuits on flexible substrate, we annealed the devices in O2 of 2 Torr at 150° C and could achieve the decent electrical properties. When we used transparent conductive oxide electrodes such as indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium tin oxide (ITO), our transparent and flexible inverter showed the total transmittance of 68% in the visible range and the voltage gain of 5. And the transition voltage in voltage transfer curve was located well within the range of operation voltage.

  13. Dependence of Ozone Generation on Gas Temperature Distribution in AC Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge in Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Go; Akashi, Haruaki

    AC atmospheric pressure multi-filament dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen has been simulated using two dimensional fluid model. In the discharge, three kinds of streamers have been obtained. They are primary streamers, small scale streamers and secondary streamers. The primary streamers are main streamers in the discharge and the small scale streamers are formed after the ceasing of the primary streamers. And the secondary streamers are formed on the trace of the primary streamers. In these streamers, the primary and the small scale streamers are very effective to generate O(3P) oxygen atoms which are precursor of ozone. And the ozone is generated mainly in the vicinity of the dielectrics. In high gas temperature region, ozone generation decreases in general. However, increase of the O(3P) oxygen atom density in high gas temperature region compensates decrease of ozone generation rate coefficient. As a result, amount of ozone generation has not changed. But if the effect of gas temperature was neglected, amount of ozone generation increases 10%.

  14. Reproducing early Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure by modeling the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Wolfgang; Fu, Yunjiao; Ilger, Jan-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The well defined composition of the Comanche rock's carbonate (Magnesite0.62Siderite0.25Calcite0.11Rhodochrosite0.02) and its host rock's composition, dominated by Mg-rich olivine, enable us to reproduce the atmospheric CO2partial pressure that may have triggered the formation of these carbonates. Hydrogeochemical one-dimensional transport modeling reveals that similar aqueous rock alteration conditions (including CO2partial pressure) may have led to the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops (Gusev Crater) and also in the ultramafic rocks exposed in the Nili Fossae region. Hydrogeochemical conditions enabling the formation of Mg-rich solid solution carbonate result from equilibrium species distributions involving (1) ultramafic rocks (ca. 32 wt% olivine; Fo0.72Fa0.28), (2) pure water, and (3) CO2partial pressures of ca. 0.5 to 2.0 bar at water-to-rock ratios of ca. 500 molH2O mol-1rock and ca. 5°C (278 K). Our modeled carbonate composition (Magnesite0.64Siderite0.28Calcite0.08) matches the measured composition of carbonates preserved in the Comanche rocks. Considerably different carbonate compositions are achieved at (1) higher temperature (85°C), (2) water-to-rock ratios considerably higher and lower than 500 mol mol-1 and (3) CO2partial pressures differing from 1.0 bar in the model set up. The Comanche rocks, hosting the carbonate, may have been subjected to long-lasting (>104 to 105 years) aqueous alteration processes triggered by atmospheric CO2partial pressures of ca. 1.0 bar at low temperature. Their outcrop may represent a fragment of the upper layers of an altered olivine-rich rock column, which is characterized by newly formed Mg-Fe-Ca solid solution carbonate, and phyllosilicate-rich alteration assemblages within deeper (unexposed) units.

  15. [Reduced muscular oxygen tension and nerve impulse transmission from antishock hose. Reduction of oxygen tension in the tibial muscle and impulse transmission in the peroneal nerve from pneumatic -1 pressure from antishock hose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, C; Völker, H U; Weber, F; Albert, U; Sterk, J; Helm, M; Gerngross, H; Thomas, A

    1998-07-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, whether the pneumatic pressure of an antishock-trouser (AST) of 20-40 mm Hg induces a decreased oxygenation of the anterior tibial muscle and attenuates muscular response potential (MRP) of n. peronaeus profundus? Among 22 normotensive, healthy volunteers the AST were tested by applying pressure values between 0 and 100 mm Hg and measuring the intracompartmental pressure, the muscular oxygen pressure as well as the MRP by electroneurographic means within a period of 6 hours. The median initial intracompartmental pressure value of the m. tibialis anterior was 12.0 mm Hg (Q25%/Q75%: 8.9/17.3), the muscular oxygen pressure 14.8 mm Hg (Q25%/Q75%: 11.5/22.0). Transmission of the pneumatic AST-leg segment pressure to the muscle: 97.7% (Q25%/Q75%: 89.2/99.8). Already in the low AST pressure field (20-40 mm Hg) a severe hypoxia occurred in one case. A reduction of MRP was noticed at an AST pressure rate of 10 mm Hg. In 5 of 6 cases AST pressure values of 60 mm Hg led to pathological pO2-values within 5-20 minutes. Almost without exception AST-pressure rates < 60 mm Hg resulted in an anoxia of the muscle and loss of the MRP. We should demand that the AST are only applied with models where the pressure generated within the single segments can be controlled by pressure gauge. The application of the AST seems to be justified for polytraumatised in severe haemorrhagic shock where the risk of a local tissue ischemia with systemical consequences must deliberately be accepted.

  16. New fundamental equations of thermodynamics for systems in chemical equilibrium at a specified partial pressure of a reactant and the standard transformed formation properties of reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberty, R.A.; Oppenheim, I.

    1993-01-01

    When temperature, pressure, and the partial pressure of a reactant are fixed, the criterion of chemical equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the transformed Gibbs energy G' that is obtained by using a Legendre transform involving the chemical potential of the reactant that is fixed. For reactions of ideal gases, the most natural variables to use in the fundamental equation are T, P', and P B , where P' is the partial pressure of the reactants other than the one that is fixed and P B is the partial pressure of the reactant that is fixed. The fundamental equation for G' yields the expression for the transformed entropy S', and a transformed enthalpy can be defined by the additional Legendre transform H'=G'+TS'. This leads to an additional form of the fundamental equation. The calculation of transformed thermodynamic properties and equilibrium compositions is discussed for a simple system and for a general multireaction system. The change, in a reaction, of the binding of the reactant that is at a specified pressure can be calculated using one of the six Maxwell equations of the fundamental equation in G'

  17. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure made Using an IPDA Lidar Operating in the Oxygen A-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Abshire, James B.; Stephen, Mark; Rodriquez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Mao, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    We report airborne measurements of atmospheric pressure made using an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar that operates in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are needed for NASA s Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission to measure atmospheric CO2. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve our predictions of climate change. The goal of ASCENDS is to determine the CO2 dry mixing ratio with lidar measurements from space at a level of 1 ppm. Analysis to date shows that with current weather models, measurements of both the CO2 column density and the column density of dry air are needed. Since O2 is a stable molecule that uniformly mixed in the atmosphere, measuring O2 absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density. We have developed an airborne (IPDA) lidar for Oxygen, with support from the NASA ESTO IIP program. Our lidar uses DFB-based seed laser diodes, a pulsed modulator, a fiber laser amplifier, and a non-linear crystal to generate wavelength tunable 765 nm laser pulses with a few uJ/pulse energy. The laser pulse rate is 10 KHz, and average transmitted laser power is 20 mW. Our lidar steps laser pulses across a selected line O2 doublet near 764.7 nm in the Oxygen A-band. The direct detection lidar receiver uses a 20 cm diameter telescope, a Si APD detector in Geiger mode, and a multi-channel scalar to detect and record the time resolved laser backscatter in 40 separate wavelength channels. Subsequent analysis is used to estimate the transmission line shape of the doublet for the laser pulses reflected from the ground. Ground based data analysis allows averaging from 1 to 60 seconds to increase SNR in the transmission line shape of the doublet. Our retrieval algorithm fits the expected O2 lineshapes against the measurements and

  18. Oxygen, the lung and the diver: friends and foes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, Pieter-Jan A. M.; Sterk, Peter J.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the number of professional and sports divers is increasing. Most of them breathe diving gases with a raised partial pressure of oxygen (PO2). However, if the PO2 is between 50 and 300 kPa (375-2250 mmHg) (hyperoxia), pathological pulmonary changes can develop, known as pulmonary oxygen

  19. Oxygen Toxicity and Special Operations Forces Diving: Hidden and Dangerous

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingelaar, Thijs T.; van Ooij, Pieter-Jan A. M.; van Hulst, Rob A.

    2017-01-01

    In Special Operations Forces (SOF) closed-circuit rebreathers with 100% oxygen are commonly utilized for covert diving operations. Exposure to high partial pressures of oxygen (PO2) could cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) and pulmonary system. Longer exposure time and higher PO2 leads

  20. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  1. Oxygen Plasma Treatment of Rubber Surface by the Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma Torch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Bong-ju; Kusano, Yukihiro; Kato, Nobuko

    1997-01-01

    adhesive. The adhesion property was improved by treatment of the rubber compound with plasma containing oxygen radicals. Physical and chemical changes of the rubber surface as a result of the plasma treatment were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and fourier transform......A new application of the atmospheric cold plasma torch has been investigated. Namely, the surface treatment of an air-exposed vulcanized rubber compound. The effect of plasma treatment was evaluated by the bondability of the treated rubber compound with another rubber compound using a polyurethane...

  2. Negative pressure wound therapy via vacuum-assisted closure following partial foot amputation: what is the role of wound chronicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G; Lavery, Lawrence A; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-03-01

    Randomised clinical trials (RCTs) to evaluate diabetic foot wound therapies have systematically eliminated large acute wounds from evaluation, focusing only on smaller chronic wounds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the proportion and rate of wound healing in acute and chronic wounds after partial foot amputation in individuals with diabetes treated with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) delivered by the vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device or with standard wound therapy (SWT). This study constitutes a secondary analysis of patients enrolled in a 16-week RCT of NPWT: 162 open foot amputation wounds (mean wound size = 20.7 cm(2)) were included. Acute wounds were defined as the wounds less than 30 days after amputation, whereas chronic wounds as the wounds greater than 30 days. Inclusion criteria consisted of individuals older than 18 years, presence of a diabetic foot amputation wound up to the transmetatarsal level and adequate perfusion. Wound size and healing were confirmed by independent, blinded wound evaluators. Analyses were done on an intent-to-treat basis. There was a significantly higher proportion of acute wounds (SWT = 59; NPWT = 63) than chronic wounds (SWT = 26; NPWT = 14), evaluated in this clinical trial (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of acute and chronic wounds achieving complete wound closure in either treatment group. Despite this finding, the Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated statistically significantly faster healing in the NPWT group in both acute (P = 0.030) and chronic wounds (P = 0.033). Among the patients treated with NPWT via the VAC, there was not a significant difference in healing as a function of chronicity. In both the acute and the chronic wound groups, results for patients treated with NPWT were superior to those for the patients treated with SWT. These results appear to indicate that wound duration should not deter the clinician from using this modality to treat complex wounds.

  3. Effect of deposition temperature & oxygen pressure on mechanical properties of (0.5) BZT-(0.5)BCT ceramic thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailaja, P.; Kumar, N. Pavan; Rajalakshmi, R.; Kumar, R. Arockia; Ponpandian, N.; Prabahar, K.; Srinivas, A.

    2018-05-01

    Lead free ferroelectric thin films of {(0.5) BZT-(0.5) BCT} (termed as BCZT) were deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition at four deposition temperatures 600, 650, 700, 750°C and at two oxygen pressures viz. 75mtorr and 100 mtorr using BCZT ceramic target (prepared by solid state sintering method). The effect of deposition temperature and oxygen pressure on the structure, microstructure and mechanical properties of BCZT films were studied. X-ray diffraction patterns of deposited films confirm tetragonal crystal symmetry and the crystallinity of the films increases with increasing deposition temperature. Variation in BCZT grain growth was observed when the films are deposited at different temperatures andoxygen pressures respectively. The mechanical properties viz. hardness and elastic modulus were also found to be high with increase in the deposition temperature and oxygen pressure. The results will be discussed.

  4. Vaporization study on vanadium-oxygen solid solution by mass spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, W.; Matsui, Tsuneo; Naito, Keiji

    1986-01-01

    The vapor pressures over vanadium-oxygen solid solution (0.001 ≤ O/V ≤ 0.145) were measured by mass-spectrometric method in the temperature range of 1,855 ∼ 2,117 K. The main vapor species were observed to be V(g) and VO(g). The vapor pressure of V(g) is higher than that of VO(g) over the solid solutions with all O/V ratios except for O/V = 0.145. The vapor pressure of V(g) is nearly independent of O/V ratio. The vapor pressure of VO(g) decreases with decreasing O/V ratio. The oxygen partial pressure was calculated as a function of temperature and O/V ratio from the vapor pressures of V(g) and VO(g), from which the partial molar enthalpy and entropy of oxygen in the solid solution were determined. The partial molar enthalpy of oxygen was observed to be independent of composition, suggesting the presence of very weak interaction between interstitial oxygens. The compositional dependence of the partial molar entropy of oxygen can be explained by assuming the occupation of the octahedral site in bcc vanadium lattice by the interstitial oxygens. The excess partial molar entropy of oxygen was compared with the value derived from the sum of the contributions from the volume expansion, electronic heat capacity and vibrational terms. (author)

  5. Bacteria killing effect of pulsed plasmas in oxygen+air at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akan, T.

    2005-01-01

    Bacteria Killing Method. The high voltage pulsed plasma is a non-equilibrium plasma and generates UV photons, ozone and active oxygen. The aim of this paper is to present a simple device to generate plasma able to kill efficiently bacteria. One of the probes charged with bacteria, was kept as a control probes (not exposed to the pulsed plasma), the rest of the probes were exposed to the pulsed plasma and afterwards compared with above mentioned control probe (reference sample). During treatment the bacteria were exposed to the active atoms, molecules, charged particles and photons generated by the pulsed plasma. The temperature of the support of samples with bacteria exposed to plasma increased during the treatment with only 1-2 degrees. Full killing time of Staphylococcus species as low as 3 minutes have been obtained quite easily

  6. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  7. The Effect of Pressure on Iron Speciation in Silicate Melts at a Fixed Oxygen Fugacity: The Possibility of a Redox Profile Through a Terrestrial Magma Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, K.; Frost, D. J.; McCammon, C. A.; Rubie, D. C.; Boffa Ballaran, T.

    2017-12-01

    As terrestrial planets accreted, mantle silicates equilibrated with core-forming metallic iron, which would have imposed a mantle oxygen fugacity below the iron-wüstite oxygen buffer. Throughout Earth's history, however, the oxygen fugacity of at least the accessible portions of the upper mantle has been 4-5 orders of magnitude higher. The process that caused the rapid increase in the redox state of the mantle soon after core formation is unclear. Here we test the possibility that pressure stabilises ferric iron in silicate melts, as has been observed in silicate minerals. A deep magma ocean, which would have likely existed towards the end of accretion, could then develop a gradient in oxygen fugacity for a fixed ferric-ferrous ratio as a result of pressure. We have equilibrated an andesitic melt with a Ru-RuO2 buffer in a multianvil press between 5 and 24 GPa. Further experiments were performed on the same melt in equilibrium with iron metal. The recovered melts were then analysed using Mössbauer spectroscopy to determine the ferric/ferrous ratio. The results show that for the Ru-RuO2 buffer at lower pressures, the ferric iron content decreases with pressure, due to a positive volume change of the reaction FeO + 1/4O2 = FeO1.5. Ferric iron content also appears to be sensitive to water content at lower pressures. However, above 15 GPa this trend apparently reverses and the ferric iron content increases with pressure. This reversal in pressure dependence would drive the oxygen fugacity of a deep magma ocean with a fixed ferric/ferrous ratio down with increasing depth. This would create a redox gradient, where the magma ocean could potentially be in equilibrium with metallic iron at its base but more oxidised in its shallower regions. Crystallisation of this magma ocean could render an upper mantle oxygen fugacity similar to that in the Earth's accessible mantle today.

  8. Effect of oxygen at low and high light intensities on the growth of Neochloris oleoabundans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa, C.A.; Compadre, A.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of partial oxygen pressure on growth of Neochloris oleoabundans was studied at near-saturating light intensity in a fully-controlled photobioreactor. At the partial oxygen pressures tested (PO2=0.24; 0.42; 0.63; 0.84 bar), the specific growth rate was 1.36; 1.16; 0.93 and 0.68 day-1,

  9. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on dynamics and spatial distribution of protein partial molar volume: time-resolved surficial Kirkwood-Buff approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Isseki; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nakada, Kyoko; Nagaoka, Masataka

    2010-09-30

    The influence of hydrostatic pressure on the partial molar volume (PMV) of the protein apomyoglobin (AMb) was investigated by all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using the time-resolved Kirkwood-Buff (KB) approach, the dynamic behavior of the PMV was identified. The simulated time average value of the PMV and its reduction by 3000 bar pressurization correlated with experimental data. In addition, with the aid of the surficial KB integral method, we obtained the spatial distributions of the components of PMV to elucidate the detailed mechanism of the PMV reduction. New R-dependent PMV profiles identified the regions that increase or decrease the PMV under the high pressure condition. The results indicate that besides the hydration in the vicinity of the protein surface, the outer space of the first hydration layer also significantly influences the total PMV change. These results provide a direct and detailed picture of pressure induced PMV reduction.

  10. Biomethanation Of Syngas Using Anaerobic Sludge: Shift In The Catabolic Routes With The CO Partial Pressure Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sancho-Navarro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Syngas generated by thermal gasification of biomass or coal can be steam reformed and purified into methane, which could be used locally for energy needs, or re-injected in the natural gas grid. As an alternative to chemical catalysis, the main components of the syngas (CO, CO2, and H2 can be used as substrates by a wide range of microorganisms, to be converted into gas biofuels, including methane. This study evaluates the carboxydotrophic (CO-consuming methanogenic potential present in an anaerobic sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB reactor treating waste water, and elucidates the CO conversion routes to methane at 35±3˚C. Kinetic activity tests under CO at partial pressures (pCO varying from 0.1 to 1.5 atm (0.09-1.31 mmol/L in the liquid phase showed a significant carboxydotrophic activity potential for growing conditions on CO alone. A maximum methanogenic activity of 1 mmol CH4 per g of volatile suspended solid and per day was achieved at 0.2 atm of CO (0.17 mmol/L, and then the rate decreased with the amount of CO supplied. The intermediary metabolites such as acetate, H2 and propionate started to accumulate at higher CO concentrations. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES, fluoroacetate, and vancomycin showed that in a mixed culture CO was converted mainly to acetate by acetogenic bacteria, which was further transformed to methane by acetoclastic methanogens, while direct methanogenic CO conversion was negligible. Methanogenesis was totally blocked at high pCO in the bottles (≥ 1 atm. However it was possible to achieve higher methanogenic potential under a 100% CO atmosphere after acclimation of the sludge to CO. This adaptation to high CO concentrations led to a shift in the archaeal population, then dominated by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens, which were able to take over acetoclastic methanogens, while syntrophic acetate oxidizing (SAO bacteria oxidized acetate into CO2 and H2. The disaggregation

  11. Biomethanation of Syngas Using Anaerobic Sludge: Shift in the Catabolic Routes with the CO Partial Pressure Increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho Navarro, Silvia; Cimpoia, Ruxandra; Bruant, Guillaume; Guiot, Serge R

    2016-01-01

    Syngas generated by thermal gasification of biomass or coal can be steam reformed and purified into methane, which could be used locally for energy needs, or re-injected in the natural gas grid. As an alternative to chemical catalysis, the main components of the syngas (CO, CO2, and H2) can be used as substrates by a wide range of microorganisms, to be converted into gas biofuels, including methane. This study evaluates the carboxydotrophic (CO-consuming) methanogenic potential present in an anaerobic sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor treating waste water, and elucidates the CO conversion routes to methane at 35 ± 3°C. Kinetic activity tests under CO at partial pressures (pCO) varying from 0.1 to 1.5 atm (0.09-1.31 mmol/L in the liquid phase) showed a significant carboxydotrophic activity potential for growing conditions on CO alone. A maximum methanogenic activity of 1 mmol CH4 per g of volatile suspended solid and per day was achieved at 0.2 atm of CO (0.17 mmol/L), and then the rate decreased with the amount of CO supplied. The intermediary metabolites such as acetate, H2, and propionate started to accumulate at higher CO concentrations. Inhibition experiments with 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES), fluoroacetate, and vancomycin showed that in a mixed culture CO was converted mainly to acetate by acetogenic bacteria, which was further transformed to methane by acetoclastic methanogens, while direct methanogenic CO conversion was negligible. Methanogenesis was totally blocked at high pCO in the bottles (≥1 atm). However it was possible to achieve higher methanogenic potential under a 100% CO atmosphere after acclimation of the sludge to CO. This adaptation to high CO concentrations led to a shift in the archaeal population, then dominated by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens, which were able to take over acetoclastic methanogens, while syntrophic acetate oxidizing (SAO) bacteria oxidized acetate into CO2 and H2. The disaggregation of the

  12. Formation of Pyrylium from Aromatic Systems with a Helium:Oxygen Flowing Atmospheric Pressure Afterglow (FAPA) Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badal, Sunil P.; Ratcliff, Tyree D.; You, Yi; Breneman, Curt M.; Shelley, Jacob T.

    2017-06-01

    The effects of oxygen addition on a helium-based flowing atmospheric pressure afterglow (FAPA) ionization source are explored. Small amounts of oxygen doped into the helium discharge gas resulted in an increase in abundance of protonated water clusters by at least three times. A corresponding increase in protonated analyte signal was also observed for small polar analytes, such as methanol and acetone. Meanwhile, most other reagent ions (e.g., O2 +·, NO+, etc.) significantly decrease in abundance with even 0.1% v/v oxygen in the discharge gas. Interestingly, when analytes that contained aromatic constituents were subjected to a He:O2-FAPA, a unique (M + 3)+ ion resulted, while molecular or protonated molecular ions were rarely detected. Exact-mass measurements revealed that these (M + 3)+ ions correspond to (M - CH + O)+, with the most likely structure being pyrylium. Presence of pyrylium-based ions was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry of the (M + 3)+ ion compared with that of a commercially available salt. Lastly, rapid and efficient production of pyrylium in the gas phase was used to convert benzene into pyridine. Though this pyrylium-formation reaction has not been shown before, the reaction is rapid and efficient. Potential reactant species, which could lead to pyrylium formation, were determined from reagent-ion mass spectra. Thermodynamic evaluation of reaction pathways was aided by calculation of the formation enthalpy for pyrylium, which was found to be 689.8 kJ/mol. Based on these results, we propose that this reaction is initiated by ionized ozone (O3 +·), proceeds similarly to ozonolysis, and results in the neutral loss of the stable CHO2 · radical. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Muscle tissue oxygenation, pressure, electrical, and mechanical responses during dynamic and static voluntary contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Pernille; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Søgaard, Karen

    2006-01-01

    tension (rTO(2)) would be larger during dynamic (DYN) than intermittent static (IST) low force contractions; and that (2) oxygen tension would remain lower in the resting periods subsequent to DYN as compared to those following IST. Eight subjects performed elbow flexions with identical time......-tension products: (1) DYN as a 20 degrees elbow movement of 2 s concentric and 2 s eccentric followed by a 4 s rest; and (2) IST with a 4 s contraction followed by a 4 s rest. Each session was performed for 1 min at 10 and 20% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The force, bipolar surface EMG, MMG, IMP, rTO......, respectively), and a similar picture was seen for the eccentric phase. However, no differences were seen in rTO(2) in either the contraction or the rest periods. In a prolonged rest period (8 s) after the sessions, DYN but not IST showed rTO(2) above baseline level. In conclusion, rTO(2) in DYN and IST were...

  14. Influence of oxygen pressure and aging on LaAlO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Jihwey

    2014-02-24

    The crystal structures of LaAlO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO3 substrates at oxygen pressure of 10−3 millibars or 10−5 millibars, where kinetics of ablated species hardly depend on oxygen background pressure, are compared. Our results show that the interface between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 is sharper when the oxygen pressure is lower. Over time, the formation of various crystalline phases is observed while the crystalline thickness of the LaAlO3 layer remains unchanged. X-ray scattering as well as atomic force microscopy measurements indicate three-dimensional growth of such phases, which appear to be fed from an amorphous capping layer present in as-grown samples.