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Sample records for partial oxidation pox

  1. Synthesis gas generation by high pressure partial oxidation (HP POX {sup registered}); Synthesegaserzeugung durch Hochdruck-Partialoxidation (HP POX {sup registered})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, B.; Seifert, P.; Zeissler, R. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Chemieingenieurwesen; Walter, St. [Lurgi AG, Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    The high pressure synthesis gas process HP POX (High Pressure Partial Oxidation) is a thermal conversion process, which converts e.g. natural gas or heavy residue oil with oxygen to fuel or synthesis gas. Innovative burner technologies allow autothermal catalytic or non-catalytic reforming of gaseous feedstock and gasification of liquid feed streams. Hydrogen and carbon monoxide rich synthesis gases with low methane content (particularly suitable as feed gas for methanol synthesis) can be generated. The technology represents a new generation of entrained flow gasification characterized by the new developed equipment and a design pressure of 100 bar. According to the feeds, the HP POX gasification process is the link between the downstream synthesis chemistry (use of gaseous and liquid feeds) and the power plant process (liquid or solid fuels as suspension or slurry). The HP POX development is carried out together with the Lurgi AG at the Institute for Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering (IEC). The 5 MW HP POX test plant built in Freiberg by Lurgi is core of the joint research project, which is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour (BMWA), the Saxon Ministry of Science and the Fine Arts (SMWK), and the mg technologies ag (parent company of Lurgi). The conducted sets of experiments indicate that the unit can be operated in a safe, smooth and stable manner. During this periods of operation, which included nine test campaigns for autothermal reforming (ATR), the maximum pressure for ATR amounted to 70 bar which exceeds the current benchmark in industry for 30 bar. Main objective of R and D work is the development of modelling tools for extreme gasification conditions and different gasification principles of up to 100 bar. These tools are supposed to improve the understanding of the entire gasification process. Their development requires a systematic investigation of the reaction mechanisms and the interactions with the process

  2. Temperature oscillations in methanol partial oxidation reactor for the production of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinsu; Byeon, Jeonguk; Seo, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jietae [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Methanol partial oxidation (POX) is a well-known reforming reaction for the production of hydrogen from methanol. Since POX is relatively fast and highly exothermic, this reforming method will be efficient for the fast start-up and load-following operation. However, POX generates hot spots around catalyst and even oscillations in the reactor temperature. These should be relieved for longer operations of the reactor without catalyst degradations. For this, temperature oscillations in a POX reactor are investigated experimentally. Various patterns of temperature oscillations according to feed flow rates of reactants and reactor temperatures are obtained. The bifurcation phenomena from regular oscillations to chaotic oscillations are found as the methanol flow rate increases. These experimental results can be used for theoretical analyses of oscillations and for designing safe reforming reactors.

  3. Temperature oscillations in methanol partial oxidation reactor for the production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinsu; Byeon, Jeonguk; Seo, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyun Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jietae

    2013-01-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (POX) is a well-known reforming reaction for the production of hydrogen from methanol. Since POX is relatively fast and highly exothermic, this reforming method will be efficient for the fast start-up and load-following operation. However, POX generates hot spots around catalyst and even oscillations in the reactor temperature. These should be relieved for longer operations of the reactor without catalyst degradations. For this, temperature oscillations in a POX reactor are investigated experimentally. Various patterns of temperature oscillations according to feed flow rates of reactants and reactor temperatures are obtained. The bifurcation phenomena from regular oscillations to chaotic oscillations are found as the methanol flow rate increases. These experimental results can be used for theoretical analyses of oscillations and for designing safe reforming reactors

  4. Catalyst development and systems analysis of methanol partial oxidation for the fuel processor - fuel cell integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newson, E; Mizsey, P; Hottinger, P; Truong, T B; Roth, F von; Schucan, Th H [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  5. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  6. Detection and partial molecular characterization of atypical plum pox virus isolates from naturally infected sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Atypical isolates of plum pox virus (PPV) were discovered in naturally infected sour cherry in urban ornamental plantings in Moscow, Russia. The isolates were detected by polyclonal double antibody sandwich ELISA and RT-PCR using universal primers specific for the 3'-non-coding and coat protein (CP) regions of the genome but failed to be recognized by triple antibody sandwich ELISA with the universal monoclonal antibody 5B and by RT-PCR using primers specific to for PPV strains D, M, C and W. Sequence analysis of the CP genes of nine isolates revealed 99.2-100 % within-group identity and 62-85 % identity to conventional PPV strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the atypical isolates represent a group that is distinct from the known PPV strains. Alignment of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of CP demonstrated their close similarity to those of a new tentative PPV strain, CR.

  7. Allelic variation at the rpv1 locus controls partial resistance to Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poque, S; Pagny, G; Ouibrahim, L; Chague, A; Eyquard, J-P; Caballero, M; Candresse, T; Caranta, C; Mariette, S; Decroocq, V

    2015-06-25

    Sharka is caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees. In orchards, the virus is transmitted by aphids and by grafting. In Arabidopsis, PPV is transferred by mechanical inoculation, by biolistics and by agroinoculation with infectious cDNA clones. Partial resistance to PPV has been observed in the Cvi-1 and Col-0 Arabidopsis accessions and is characterized by a tendency to escape systemic infection. Indeed, only one third of the plants are infected following inoculation, in comparison with the susceptible Ler accession. Genetic analysis showed this partial resistance to be monogenic or digenic depending on the allelic configuration and recessive. It is detected when inoculating mechanically but is overcome when using biolistic or agroinoculation. A genome-wide association analysis was performed using multiparental lines and 147 Arabidopsis accessions. It identified a major genomic region, rpv1. Fine mapping led to the positioning of rpv1 to a 200 kb interval on the long arm of chromosome 1. A candidate gene approach identified the chloroplast phosphoglycerate kinase (cPGK2) as a potential gene underlying the resistance. A virus-induced gene silencing strategy was used to knock-down cPGK2 expression, resulting in drastically reduced PPV accumulation. These results indicate that rpv1 resistance to PPV carried by the Cvi-1 and Col-0 accessions is linked to allelic variations at the Arabidopsis cPGK2 locus, leading to incomplete, compatible interaction with the virus.

  8. Enhanced performance of solid oxide electrolysis cells by integration with a partial oxidation reactor: Energy and exergy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visitdumrongkul, Nuttawut; Tippawan, Phanicha; Authayanun, Suthida; Assabumrungrat, Suttichai; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Process design of solid oxide electrolyzer integrated with a partial oxidation reactor is studied. • Effect of key operating parameters of partial oxidation reactor on the electrolyzer performance is presented. • Exergy analysis of the electrolyzer process is performed. • Partial oxidation reactor can enhance the solid oxide electrolyzer performance. • Partial oxidation reactor in the process is the highest exergy destruction unit. - Abstract: Hydrogen production without carbon dioxide emission has received a large amount of attention recently. A solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) can produce pure hydrogen and oxygen via a steam electrolysis reaction that does not emit greenhouse gases. Due to the high operating temperature of SOEC, an external heat source is required for operation, which also helps to improve SOEC performance and reduce operating electricity. The non-catalytic partial oxidation reaction (POX), which is a highly exothermic reaction, can be used as an external heat source and can be integrated with SOEC. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the effect of operating parameters of non-catalytic POX (i.e., the oxygen to carbon ratio, operating temperature and pressure) on SOEC performance, including exergy analysis of the process. The study indicates that non-catalytic partial oxidation can enhance the hydrogen production rate and efficiency of the system. In terms of exergy analysis, the non-catalytic partial oxidation reactor is demonstrated to be the highest exergy destruction unit due to irreversible chemical reactions taking place, whereas SOEC is a low exergy destruction unit. This result indicates that the partial oxidation reactor should be improved and optimally designed to obtain a high energy and exergy system efficiency.

  9. Pox infection among captive peacocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Falluji, M M; Tantawi, H H; Al-Bana, A; Al-Sheikhly, S

    1979-10-01

    An outbreak of avian pox was detected among captive peacocks (Pavo cristatus) at Baghdad Zoological Park during spring, 1978. A total of 45 of the 60 birds in the aviary developed pox lesions around the beaks and eyes. Morbidity was 75% and mortality was 13%. A virus isolated from the skin lesions produced large plaques on the chorioallantoic membrane of developing chicken embryos and induced cytopathic effect characteristic for pox viruses in chicken embryo cell cultures. The virus neither haemagglutinated nor haemadsorbed to chicken erythrocytes. It was ether resistant and chloroform sensitive. Chickens inoculated with the virus by scarification developed localized pox-like lesions, while turkeys had only transient swelling of feather follicles at the site of inoculation. Virus partially purified with Genetron 113 was precipitated by antisera to fowlpox and pigeon pox viruses.

  10. Avian pox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.

    1999-01-01

    Avian pox is the common name for a mild-to-severe, slowdeveloping disease of birds that is caused by a large virus belonging to the avipoxvirus group, a subgroup of poxviruses. This group contains several similar virus strains; some strains have the ability to infect several groups or species of birds but others appear to be species-specific. Mosquitoes are common mechanical vectors or transmitters of this disease. Avian pox is transmitted when a mosquito feeds on an infected bird that has viremia or pox virus circulating in its blood, or when a mosquito feeds on virus-laden secretions seeping from a pox lesion and then feeds on another bird that is susceptible to that strain of virus. Contact with surfaces or exposure to air-borne particles contaminated with poxvirus can also result in infections when virus enters the body through abraded skin or the conjunctiva or the mucous membrane lining that covers the front part of the eyeball and inner surfaces of the eyelids of the eye.

  11. Studies on the serological relationships between avian pox, sheep pox, goat pox and vaccinia viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, P. K.; Nilakantan, P. R.

    1970-01-01

    By using neutralization, complement fixation and immunogel-diffusion tests, it has been demonstrated that cross-reactions occur between various avian pox viruses and between sheep pox and goat pox viruses. No such reactions were demonstrated between avian pox viruses and vaccinia virus or between avian pox and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. Furthermore, no serological relationship was demonstrable between vaccinia virus and sheep pox and goat pox viruses. PMID:4989854

  12. Partial oxidation of 2-propanol on perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumathi, R.; Viswanathan, B.; Varadarajan, T.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Madras (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-12-31

    Partial oxidation of 2-propanol was carried out on AB{sub 1-x}B`{sub x}O{sub 3} (A=Ba, B=Pb, Ce, Ti; B`=Bi, Sb and Cu) type perovskite oxides. Acetone was the major product observed on all the catalysts. All the catalysts underwent partial reduction during the reaction depending on the composition of the reactant, nature of the B site cation and the extent of substitution at B site. The catalytic activity has been correlated with the reducibility of the perovskite oxides determined from Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR) studies. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic properties of partially oxidized Fe films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Miguel Angel; Lopez-Dominguez, Victor; Hernando, Antonio

    Hybrid magnetic nanostructures exhibit appealing properties due to interface and proximity effects. A simple and interesting system of hybrid magnetic nanomaterials are partially oxidized ferromagnetic films. We have fabricated Fe films by thermal evaporation and performed a partial oxidation to magnetite (Fe3O4) by annealing in air at different times and temperatures. The magnetic properties of the films evolve from those of pure metallic iron to pure magnetite, showing intermediate states where the proximity effects control the magnetic behavior. At some stages, the magnetization curves obtained by SQUID and MOKE magnetometry exhibit important differences due to the dissimilar contribution of both phases to the magneto-optical response of the system This work has been supported by the Ministerio Español de Economia y Competitividad (MINECO) MAT2013-48009-C4-1. V.L.D and M.A.G. acknowledges financial support from BBVA foundation.

  14. Bactericidal activity of partially oxidized nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Julia; Dringen, Ralf; Zare, Richard N; Maas, Michael; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2014-06-24

    Nanodiamonds are a class of carbon-based nanoparticles that are rapidly gaining attention, particularly for biomedical applications, i.e., as drug carriers, for bioimaging, or as implant coatings. Nanodiamonds have generally been considered biocompatible with a broad variety of eukaryotic cells. We show that, depending on their surface composition, nanodiamonds kill Gram-positive and -negative bacteria rapidly and efficiently. We investigated six different types of nanodiamonds exhibiting diverse oxygen-containing surface groups that were created using standard pretreatment methods for forming nanodiamond dispersions. Our experiments suggest that the antibacterial activity of nanodiamond is linked to the presence of partially oxidized and negatively charged surfaces, specifically those containing acid anhydride groups. Furthermore, proteins were found to control the bactericidal properties of nanodiamonds by covering these surface groups, which explains the previously reported biocompatibility of nanodiamonds. Our findings describe the discovery of an exciting property of partially oxidized nanodiamonds as a potent antibacterial agent.

  15. Partial oxidation of municipal sludge with activited carbon catalyst in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yang; Wang Shuzhong; Gong Yanmeng; Xu Donghai; Tang Xingying; Ma Honghe

    2010-01-01

    The partial oxidation (POX) characteristics of municipal sludge in supercritical water (SCW) were investigated by using batch reactor. Effects of reaction parameters such as oxidant equivalent ratio (OER), reaction time and temperature were investigated. Activated carbon (AC) could effectively improve the mole fraction of H 2 in gas product at low OER. However, high OER (greater than 0.3) not only led to the combustion reaction of CO and H 2 , but also caused corrosion of reactor inner wall. Hydrogenation and polymerization of the intermediate products are possible reasons for the relative low COD removal rate in our tests. Metal oxide leached from the reactor inner wall and the main components of the granular sludge were deposited in the AC catalyst. Reaction time had more significant effect on BET surface area of AC than OER had. Long reaction time led to the methanation reaction following hydrolysis and oxidation reaction of AC in SCW in the presence of oxygen. Correspondingly, the possible reaction mechanisms were proposed.

  16. Proline Oxidase (POX) as A Target for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononczuk, Joanna; Czyzewska, Urszula; Moczydlowska, Joanna; Surażyński, Arkadiusz; Palka, Jerzy; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) is an enzyme catalyzing the first step of proline degradation, during which ROS and/or ATP is generated. POX is widely distributed in living organisms and is responsible for a number of regulatory processes such as redox homeostasis, osmotic adaptation, cell signaling and oxidative stress. Recent data provided evidence that POX plays an important role in carcinogenesis and tumor growth. POX may induce apoptosis in both intrinsic and extrinsic way. Due to ROS generation, POX may induce caspase-9 activity, which mediates mitochondrial apoptosis (intrinsic apoptosis pathway). POX can also stimulate TRAIL (tumor necrosis factorrelated apoptosis inducing ligand) and DR5 (death receptor 5) expression, resulting in cleavage of procaspase-8 and thus extrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, this tumor suppressor in certain environmental conditions may act as a prosurvival factor. Genotoxic, inflammatory and metabolic stress may switch POX from tumor growth inhibiting to tumor growth supporting factor. The potential mechanisms which may regulate switching of POX mode are discussed in this review.

  17. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    This thesis explores the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of pyrolysis oils to syngas and chemicals. First, an exploration of model compounds and their chemistries under CPO conditions is considered. Then CPO experiments of raw pyrolysis oils are detailed. Finally, plans for future development in this field are discussed. In Chapter 2, organic acids such as propionic acid and lactic acid are oxidized to syngas over Pt catalysts. Equilibrium production of syngas can be achieved over Rh-Ce catalysts; alternatively mechanistic evidence is derived using Pt catalysts in a fuel rich mixture. These experiments show that organic acids, present in pyrolysis oils up to 25%, can undergo CPO to syngas or for the production of chemicals. As the fossil fuels industry also provides organic chemicals such as monomers for plastics, the possibility of deriving such species from pyrolysis oils allows for a greater application of the CPO of biomass. However, chemical production is highly dependent on the originating molecular species. As bio oil comprises up to 400 chemicals, it is essential to understand how difficult it would be to develop a pure product stream. Chapter 3 continues the experimentation from Chapter 2, exploring the CPO of another organic functionality: the ester group. These experiments demonstrate that equilibrium syngas production is possible for esters as well as acids in autothermal operation with contact times as low as tau = 10 ms over Rh-based catalysts. Conversion for these experiments and those with organic acids is >98%, demonstrating the high reactivity of oxygenated compounds on noble metal catalysts. Under CPO conditions, esters decompose in a predictable manner: over Pt and with high fuel to oxygen, non-equilibrium products show a similarity to those from related acids. A mechanism is proposed in which ethyl esters thermally decompose to ethylene and an acid, which decarbonylates homogeneously, driven by heat produced at the catalyst surface. Chapter 4

  18. Electrochemical and partial oxidation of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul

    2008-10-01

    negligible coke formation on the novel fabricated anode by electroless plating process. Hydrogen is an environmentally cleaner source of energy. The recent increase in the demand of hydrogen as fuel for all types of fuel cells and petroleum refining process has boosted the need of production of hydrogen. Methane, a major component of natural gas is the major feedstock for production of hydrogen. The route of partial oxidation of methane to produce syngas (CO + H2) offers significant advantages over commercialized steam reforming process for higher efficiency and lower energy requirements. Partial oxidation of methane was studied by pulsing O2 into a CH4 flow over Rh/Al2O3 in a sequence of in situ infrared (IR) cell and fixed bed reactor at 773 K. The results obtained from the sequence of an IR cell followed by a fixed bed reactor show that (i) adsorbed CO produced possesses a long residence time, indicating that adsorbed oxygen leading to the formation of CO is significantly different from those leading to CO2 and (ii) CO2 is not an intermediate species for the formation of CO. In situ IR of pulse reaction coupled with alternating reactor sequence is an effective approach to study the primary and secondary reactions as well as the nature of their adsorbed species. As reported earlier, hydrogen remains to be the most effective fuel for fuel cells, the production of high purity hydrogen from naturally available resources such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas requires a number of energy-intensive steps, making fuel cell processes for stationary electric power generation prohibitively uneconomic. Direct use of coal or coal gas as the feed is a promising approach for low cost electricity generation. Coal gas solid oxide fuel cell was studied by pyrolyzing Ohio #5 coal to coal gas and transporting to a Cu anode solid oxide fuel cell to generate power. The study of coal-gas solid oxide fuel cell is divided into two sections, i.e., (i) understanding the composition of coal gas by

  19. [Is allastrim small pox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiexeira, L A

    2000-01-01

    Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of Sao Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de Sao Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emilio Ribas, director of the Servico Sanitario, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  20. Characteristics of hydrogen produced by partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming in a small methanol reformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Rong-Fang; Chou, Huann-Ming; Lee, Chiou-Hwang; Tsai, Hsien-Te

    This paper investigates experimentally, the transient characteristics of a small methanol reformer using partial oxidation (POX) and auto-thermal reforming (ATR) for fuel cell applications. The parameters varied were heating temperature, methanol supply rate, steady mode shifting temperature, O 2/C (O 2/CH 3OH) and S/C (H 2O/CH 3OH) molar ratios with the main aim of promoting a rapid response and a high flow rate of hydrogen. The experiments showed that a high steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a faster temperature rise at the catalyst outlet and vice versa and that a low steady mode shifting temperature resulted in a lower final hydrogen concentration. However, when the mode shifting temperature was too high, the hydrogen production response was not necessarily improved. It was subsequently shown that the optimum steady mode shifting temperature for this experimental set-up was approximately 75 °C. Further, the hydrogen concentration produced by the auto-thermal process was as high as 49.12% and the volume flow rate up to 23.0 L min -1 compared to 40.0% and 20.5 L min -1 produced by partial oxidation.

  1. Advances in the Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanli Zhu; Xutao Zhao; Youquan Deng

    2004-01-01

    The conversion and utilization of natural gas is of significant meaning to the national economy,even to the everyday life of people. However, it has not become a popular industrial process as expected due to the technical obstacles. In the past decades, much investigation into the conversion of methane,predominant component of natural gas, has been carried out. Among the possible routes of methane conversion, the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas is considered as an effective and economically feasible one. In this article, a brief review of recent studies on the mechanism of the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas together with catalyst development is wherein presented.

  2. Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Biomass/Oil Mixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, Václav; Hanika, Jiří; Tukač, V.; Lederer, J.; Kovač, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2013), s. 1940-1945 ISSN 1934-8983 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA MPO 2A-2TP1/024 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : hydrocarbon oil * biomass * catalytic partial oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.davidpublishing.com/journals_info.asp?jId=1718#

  3. Oxidative stress and partial migration in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    of oxidative status in migration biology, particularly in fish. Semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus 1758) exhibit partial migration, where some individuals smoltify and migrate to sea, and others become stream residents, providing us with an excellent model to investigate the link between...... oxidative stress and migration. Using the brown trout, we obtained blood samples from juveniles from a coastal stream in Denmark in the fall prior to peak seaward migration which occurs in the spring, and assayed for antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and oxidative stress levels...

  4. Heterogeneous Partial (ammOxidation and Oxidative Dehydrogenation Catalysis on Mixed Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Védrine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of heterogeneous partial (ammoxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH of hydrocarbons. The review has been voluntarily restricted to metal oxide-type catalysts, as the partial oxidation field is very broad and the number of catalysts is quite high. The main factors of solid catalysts for such reactions, designated by Grasselli as the “seven pillars”, and playing a determining role in catalytic properties, are considered to be, namely: isolation of active sites (known to be composed of ensembles of atoms, Me–O bond strength, crystalline structure, redox features, phase cooperation, multi-functionality and the nature of the surface oxygen species. Other important features and physical and chemical properties of solid catalysts, more or less related to the seven pillars, are also emphasized, including reaction sensitivity to metal oxide structure, epitaxial contact between an active phase and a second phase or its support, synergy effect between several phases, acid-base aspects, electron transfer ability, catalyst preparation and activation and reaction atmospheres, etc. Some examples are presented to illustrate the importance of these key factors. They include light alkanes (C1–C4 oxidation, ethane oxidation to ethylene and acetic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O and Nb doped NiO, propene oxidation to acrolein on BiMoCoFe-O systems, propane (ammoxidation to (acrylonitrile acrylic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O mixed oxides, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride on VPO: (VO2P2O7-based catalyst, and isobutyric acid ODH to methacrylic acid on Fe hydroxyl phosphates. It is shown that active sites are composed of ensembles of atoms whose size and chemical composition depend on the reactants to be transformed (their chemical and size features and the reaction mechanism, often of Mars and van Krevelen type. An important aspect is the fact that surface composition and surface crystalline structure vary with reaction on stream until

  5. Chicken pox in pregnancy : an obstetric concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-10-01

    Chicken pox is a common viral infection presenting with fever and discrete vesicular lesions. This infection can be widely detected in developing countries, especially for those tropical countries. The pregnant can get chicken pox, and this becomes an important obstetrical concern. In this specific paper, the author hereby details and discusses on chicken pox in pregnancy. Clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are briefly summarized. In addition, the effects of chicken pox on pregnancy as well as the vertical transmission are also documented.

  6. Isolation of two tissue-specific Drosophila paired box genes, Pox meso and Pox neuro.

    OpenAIRE

    Bopp, D; Jamet, E; Baumgartner, S; Burri, M; Noll, M

    1989-01-01

    Two new paired domain genes of Drosophila, Pox meso and Pox neuro, are described. In contrast to the previously isolated paired domain genes, paired and gooseberry, which contain both a paired and a homeo-domain (PHox genes), Pox meso and Pox neuro possess no homeodomain. Evidence suggesting that the new genes encode tissue-specific transcriptional factors and belong to the same regulatory cascade as the other paired domain genes includes (i) tissue-specific expression of Pox meso in the soma...

  7. 77 FR 58469 - Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2011-0004] RIN 0579-AD58 Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... interim rule that amended the plum pox regulations to provide for the payment of compensation to eligible... are required to be destroyed in order to prevent the spread of plum pox. The interim rule also...

  8. Interaction of dimethylamine with clean and partially oxidized copper surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber, J. A.; Rogers, J. W.; Banse, B. A.; Koel, B. E.

    1990-05-01

    The interaction of dimethylamine (DMA) with partially oxidized polycrystalline copper [Cu(poly)] and clean and partially oxidized Cu(110) between 110 and 500 K has been examined using electron stimulated desorption (ESD), high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). ESD mass spectra of the DMA adsorbed on O/Cu(poly) between 112 and 230 K consistently display peaks at 44 amu [(CH 3) 2N] + and 46 amu [(CH 3) 2NH-H] +, but no significant parent peak at 45 amu [(CH 3) 2NH] +, even though this last feature is prominent in the gas-phase mass spectrum. OH - is not observed at temperatures below 184 K and the yield at higher temperatures is much less than that of O +. HREELS of DMA on clean and oxygen covered Cu(110) obtained at temperatures between 100 and 320 K show characteristic vibrational spectra for molecular DMA and no OH(a) vibrational modes. TPD results show that the desorption profiles of all the major peaks in the DMA mass spectrum follow that of the parent peak with no evidence for production of H 2O. The ESD, HREELS and TPD results all indicate that DMA is molecularly and reversibly adsorbed, with no significant formation of surface hydroxyl species. The results indicate that preferential adsorption of amines from amine/epoxy mixtures onto metal oxide surfaces could passivate the surface and prevent subsequent bonding to the epoxy resin.

  9. The chemical energy unit partial oxidation reactor operation simulation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrakin, A. N.; Selivanov, A. A.; Batrakov, P. A.; Sotnikov, D. G.

    2018-01-01

    The chemical energy unit scheme for synthesis gas, electric and heat energy production which is possible to be used both for the chemical industry on-site facilities and under field conditions is represented in the paper. The partial oxidation reactor gasification process mathematical model is described and reaction products composition and temperature determining algorithm flow diagram is shown. The developed software product verification showed good convergence of the experimental values and calculations according to the other programmes: the temperature determining relative discrepancy amounted from 4 to 5 %, while the absolute composition discrepancy ranged from 1 to 3%. The synthesis gas composition was found out practically not to depend on the supplied into the partial oxidation reactor (POR) water vapour enthalpy and compressor air pressure increase ratio. Moreover, air consumption coefficient α increase from 0.7 to 0.9 was found out to decrease synthesis gas target components (carbon and hydrogen oxides) specific yield by nearly 2 times and synthesis gas target components required ratio was revealed to be seen in the water vapour specific consumption area (from 5 to 6 kg/kg of fuel).

  10. Reactor modeling and process analysis for partial oxidation of natural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, B.A.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyses a novel process of partial oxidation of natural gas and develops a numerical tool for the partial oxidation reactor modeling. The proposed process generates syngas in an integrated plant of a partial oxidation reactor, a syngas turbine and an air separation unit. This is called

  11. 9 CFR 113.326 - Avian Pox Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Avian Pox Vaccine. 113.326 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.326 Avian Pox Vaccine. Fowl Pox Vaccine and Pigeon Pox Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... established as follows: (1) Fowl pox susceptible birds all of the same age and from the same source, shall be...

  12. Chemical polishing of partially oxidized T-111 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teaney, P.E.

    1974-01-01

    The specimens were pressure-mounted in Bakelite and ground through 600 grit on silicon carbide papers. The specimens were rough-polished on a vibratory polisher for 4 to 6 h, using a water slurry of one micron alumina on Texmet, followed by 0.3-μ alumina on Texmet overnight. Final polishing was accomplished by continuous swabbing with a chemical polish. A chemical polish consisting of ten parts lactic acid, four parts nitric acid, and four parts hydrofluoric acid worked well for the T-111 parent material specimens; however, in the partially oxidized specimens, considerable pitting and staining occurred in the oxygen-affected zone and in the transition zone between the oxygen-affected zone and the parent material. A chemical polish was developed for the partially oxidized specimens by adjusting the ratio of the acids to ten parts lactic acid, two parts nitric acid, and two parts hydrofluoric acid. This slowed the chemical attack on the oxygen-affected zone considerably and, with continuous swabbing, the pitting and stain could be avoided. The specimens were rinsed and checked occasionally on the metallograph to determine when the proper polish had been obtained. Some specimens required intermittent polishing times up to 1 / 2 hour. No relationship could be established between the oxygen content of the specimen and the time required for chemical polishing in the partially oxidized specimens. However, the microstructure of the transition zone was the most difficult to obtain, and specimens with uniform reaction zones across the width of the specimen polished quicker than those with the transition zone

  13. Laser-induced partial oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Y.; Wu, X.W.; Koda, S.

    1995-01-01

    A laser-induced partial oxidation of cyclohexane was studied in the liquid phase. With KrF excimer laser (248 nm) irradiation to neat liquid cyclohexane in which O 2 was dissolved, cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone were obtained with very high selectivities, together with cyclohexane as a minor product. Radical recombination reactions to produce dicyclohexyl ether and bicyclohexyl also took place, while these products were not observed in the gas phase reaction. These experimental results were considered to be due not only to higher concentration of cyclohexane but to the cage effect in the liquid phase oxidation. To clarify the reaction progress including the photoabsorption process, the effects of laser intensity and O 2 pressure on product distribution were studied. (author)

  14. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lorigados Pedre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched, and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, nitric oxide (NO, uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE and nitrotyrosine (3-NT. All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001 while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively. Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005 similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001, whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001. Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables.

  15. Pox in mourning doves in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.

    1961-01-01

    Pox infection has occurrcd in mourning doves in at least 8 states on 12 separate occasions. Unsuccessful attempts were made to transmit both fowl pox (chicken isolate) and passerine pox (cowbird isolate) to mourning doves.

  16. Modeling of termokinetic oscillations at partial oxidation of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, A. V.; Belyaev, A. A.; Inovenkov, I. N.; Nefedov, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    Partial oxidation of natural gas at moderate temperatures below 1500 K has significant interest for a number of industrial applications. But such processes can proceed at different unstable regimes including oscillating modes. Nonlinear phenomena at partial oxidation of methane were observed at different conditions. The investigation of the complex nonlinear system of equations that describes this process is a real method to insure its stability at industrial conditions and, at the same time, is an effective tool for its further enhancement. Numerical analysis of methane oxidation kinetics in the continuous stirred-tank reactor, with the use of detailed kinetic model has shown the possibility of the appearance of oscillating modes in the appropriate range of reaction parameters that characterize the composition, pressure, reagents flow, thermophysical features of the system, and geometry of the reactor. The appearance of oscillating modes is connected both with the reaction kinetics, heat release and sink and reagents introduction and removing. At that, oscillations appear only at a limited range of parameters, but can be accompanied by significant change in the yield of products. We have determined the range of initial temperature and pressure at which oscillations can be observed, if all other parameters remained fixed. The boundaries of existence of oscillations on the phase plane were calculated. It was shown that depending on the position inside the oscillation region the oscillations have different frequency and amplitude. It was reviled the role of heat exchange with the environment: at the absence of heat exchange the oscillating modes are impossible. In the vicinity of the boundary of phase range, where oscillations exist, significant change of concentration of some products were observed, for example, that of CO2, which in this case one of the principal products is. At that, insignificant increase in pressure not only change the character of CO2 behaving

  17. Study of film graphene/graphene oxide obtained by partial reduction chemical of oxide graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascho, J.L.S.; Costa, S.F.; Hoepfner, J.C.; Pezzin, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained by partial chemical reduction of graphite oxide (OG) as well as its resistance to solvents. Films of graphene/graphene oxide are great candidates for replacement of indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) in photoelectric devices. The OG was obtained from natural graphite, by Hummer's method modified, and its reduction is made by using sodium borohydride. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of Fourier transform (FTIR), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution (SEM/FEG) for the characterization of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained were performed. This film proved to be resilient, not dispersing in any of the various tested solvents (such as ethanol, acetone and THF), even under tip sonication, this resistance being an important property for the applications. Furthermore, the film had a morphology similar to that obtained by other preparation methods.(author)

  18. Production of reduction gases: partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippmer, K

    1976-04-01

    After some general remarks on reduction gas and quality demands, the Texaco process of partial oxidation with scrubbing is dealt with. A comparison of current iron-sponge techniques shows that a heat demand below 3 M kcal/t Fe should be envisaged, which means that heavy fuel oil or coal should be used. The special features of oxygen generation, coal processing, demands made on fuel oil, gasoline, and natural gas, gas generation, soot recovery, hydrogen sulphide-carbon dioxide scrubbing, system Benfield HP process, recycle-carbon dioxide scrubbing, auxiliary steam system, gas preheating, recycle gas cooling and compression, process data and heat balances for natural gas (one-heat system) and heating fuel oil or naphtha (two-heat system) are given.

  19. Pox 186: A Nearby Protogalaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael

    1999-07-01

    Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies {BCDGs} typically consist of clusters of early-type stars embedded in older, evolved stellar populations similar in size and shape to normal dwarf ellipticals. However, deep ground-based CCD images of one faint BCDG, Pox 186, reveal a very compact { 5" diameter} structure with no evidence of an underlying older population. Optical spectroscopy of this object also indicates that a large number of Wolf-Rayet stars are present, which implies that a burst of star formation must have occurred very recently {Pox 186 is a protogalaxy, forming its very first generation of stars. Further investigation of this possibility requires the high angular resolution and ultraviolet spectral coverage that only HST can provide. Using WFPC2, we propose to image the galaxy in the U, V, and I bands, in order to better test for the presence of an underlying evolved population and to reveal any substructure in its star-forming regions. Using STIS, we will obtain low-resolution ultraviolet spectra of the galaxy for combination with ground-based spectra covering the optical through near infrared. This will allow us to determine its spectral energy distribution, metallicity, and dust content, which will in turn constrain its age and star formation history.

  20. Generation of synthesis gas by partial oxidation of natural gas in a gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, R.; Tober, E.; Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Meer, Theodorus H.

    2006-01-01

    The application of partial oxidation in a gas turbine (PO-GT) in the production of synthesis gas for methanol production is explored. In PO-GT, methane is compressed, preheated, partial oxidized and expanded. For the methanol synthesis a 12% gain in thermal efficiency has been calculated for the

  1. Mixed conducting materials for partial oxidation of hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frade, J. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with additional conditions for the conservation of carbon and hydrogen were used to predict the gas composition obtained by partial oxidation of methane as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature; this was used to assess the stability and oxygen permeability requirements of mixed conducting membrane materials proposed for this purpose. A re-examination of known mixed conductors shows that most materials with highest permeability still fail to fulfil the requirements of stability under reducing conditions. Other materials possess sufficient stability but their oxygen permeability is insufficient. Different approaches were thus used to attempt to overcome those limitations, including changes in composition in the A and B site positions of ABO3 perovskites, and tests of materials with different structure types. Promising results were obtained mainly for some materials with perovskite or related K2NiF4-type structures. Limited stability of the most promising materials shows that one should rely mainly on kinetic limitations in the permeate side to protect the mixed conductor from severe reducing conditions.

    Se han usado cálculos termodinámicos con condiciones adicionales para la conservación del carbono e hidrógeno para predecir la composición del gas obtenido mediante la oxidación parcial del metano en función de la presión parcial de oxígeno y de la temperatura; esto se ha usado para asegurar los requerimientos de estabilidad y permeabilidad al oxígeno de los materiales conductores mixtos empleados como membrana para este propósito. Un nuevo exámen de los conductores mixtos conocidos muestra que la mayoría de los materiales con la mayor permeabilidad todavía fallan en el cumplimiento de los requerimientos de estabilidad bajo condiciones reductoras. Otros materiales poseen suficiente estabilidad, pero su permeabilidad al oxígeno es insuficiente. Por ello se han empleado diferentes

  2. Experimental and modeling study of hydrogen/syngas production and particulate emissions from a natural gas-fueled partial oxidation engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillian, Michael H.; Lawson, Seth A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a combustion model was first applied to conditions representing varying compression ratios and equivalence ratios to investigate engine exhaust composition from partial oxidation (POX) of natural gas in reciprocating engines. The model was experimentally validated over a range of equivalence ratios from 1.3 to 1.6 with a spark-ignited single cylinder engine fueled by natural gas. The modeling results matched well with engine gaseous emission data over the experimental range. The model was also extended to higher equivalence ratios to predict H 2 and CO production at engine conditions and stoichiometries representative of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine operation. Secondly, over the same experimental range of equivalence ratios, particulate samples were taken to determine both total particulate mass production (g/hph) via gravimetric measurement as well as particle size distribution and loading via a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). While experiments indicate hydrogen yields up to 11% using spark ignition (SI), modeling results indicate that greater than 20% H 2 yield may be possible in HCCI operation. Over the experimental range, rich-burn particulate matter (PM) production is no greater than that from typical lean-burn operation. Finally, an energy balance was performed over the range of engine experimental operation. (author)

  3. Edward jenner and the small pox vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A

    2011-01-01

    Edward Jenner, who discovered that it is possible to vaccinate against Small Pox using material from Cow Pox, is rightly the man who started the science of immunology. However, over the passage of time many of the details surrounding his astounding discovery have been lost or forgotten. Also, the environment within which Jenner worked as a physician in the countryside, and the state of the art of medicine and society are difficult to appreciate today. It is important to recall that people were still being bled at the time, to relieve the presence of evil humors. Accordingly, this review details Jenner's discovery and attempts to place it in historical context. Also, the vaccine that Jenner used, which decreased the prevalence of Small Pox worldwide in his own time, and later was used to eradicate Small Pox altogether, is discussed in light of recent data.

  4. Edward Jenner and the small pox vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Edward Jenner, who discovered that it is possible to vaccinate against Small Pox using material from Cow Pox, is rightly the man who started the science of immunology. However, over the passage of time many of the details surrounding his astounding discovery have been lost or forgotten. Also, the environment within which Jenner worked as a physician in the countryside, and the state of the art of medicine and society are difficult to appreciate today. It is important to recall that people were still being bled at the time, to relieve the presence of evil humors. Accordingly, this review details Jenner’s discovery and attempts to place it in historical context. Also, the vaccine that Jenner used, which decreased the prevelance of Small Pox worldwide in his own time, and later was used to eradicate Small Pox altogether, is discussed in light of recent data.

  5. How to hold an ethical pox party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz

    2018-04-01

    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Some may consider pox parties more morally objectionable than opting out of vaccination through non-medical exemptions. In this paper, I argue that this is not the case. Pox parties involve immediate risk of harm for children and reduce future harms, whereas opting out of vaccination places children at long-term risk of harms that increase with time, at least for some pathogens. Regarding harm to others through onward transmission of infection, this can be easily prevented in the case of pox parties-given the relatively controlled timing of infection-by quarantining attendees after the party, whereas opting out of vaccination involves risks to others that are more difficult to control. I defend three criteria for an ethical pox party: (1) that the disease is sufficiently low risk, (2) that parents consent to their child's attendance and (3) that children exposed to infection are quarantined and isolated appropriately. I argue that, if these criteria are met, pox parties are morally preferable to non-vaccination; such parties involve less risk to non-consenting others and, for some pathogens in some cases, even involve less risk for the children who participate. Thus, policies that permit non-medical exemption to vaccination should also permit ethical pox parties. Alternatively, if pox parties are not permitted, then vaccination should be mandated for those without medical contraindication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Edward Jenner and the small pox vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall A Smith

    2011-01-01

    Edward Jenner, who discovered that it is possible to vaccinate against Small Pox using material from Cow Pox, is rightly the man who started the science of immunology. However, over the passage of time many of the details surrounding his astounding discovery have been lost or forgotten. Also, the environment within which Jenner worked as a physician in the countryside, and the state of the art of medicine and society are difficult to appreciate today. It is important to recall that people wer...

  7. Partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of the reduced field intensity and the background reaction temperature in the partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor. We obtained important mechanistic insight

  8. Hydrogen or Soot?: Partial Oxidation of High-boiling Hydrocarbon Wastes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lederer, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Nečesaný, F.; Poslední, W.; Tukač, V.; Veselý, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 1 (2015), s. 5-11 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : partial oxidation * waste * hydrocarbon Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.675, year: 2015

  9. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  10. ‘GETTING’ THE POX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability. PMID:26345376

  11. Avian pox in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Olivia J; Uhart, Marcela M; Rago, Virginia; Pereda, Ariel J; Smith, Jeffrey R; Van Buren, Amy; Clark, J Alan; Boersma, P Dee

    2012-07-01

    Avian pox is an enveloped double-stranded DNA virus that is mechanically transmitted via arthropod vectors or mucosal membrane contact with infectious particles or birds. Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from two colonies (Punta Tombo and Cabo Dos Bahías) in Argentina showed sporadic, nonepidemic signs of avian pox during five and two of 29 breeding seasons (1982-2010), respectively. In Magellanic Penguins, avian pox expresses externally as wart-like lesions around the beak, flippers, cloaca, feet, and eyes. Fleas (Parapsyllus longicornis) are the most likely arthropod vectors at these colonies. Three chicks with cutaneous pox-like lesions were positive for Avipoxvirus and revealed phylogenetic proximity with an Avipoxvirus found in Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) from the Falkland Islands in 1987. This proximity suggests a long-term circulation of seabird Avipoxviruses in the southwest Atlantic. Avian pox outbreaks in these colonies primarily affected chicks, often resulted in death, and were not associated with handling, rainfall, or temperature.

  12. 76 FR 27219 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...-0089] Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... that amended the plum pox virus (PPV) regulations by removing portions of Adams County, PA, from the...: Background The plum pox virus (PPV) is an extremely serious viral disease of plants that can affect many...

  13. Direct Partial Oxidation of Natural Gas to Liquid Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund

    2007-01-01

    Direkte delvis oxidation af naturgas til flydende kemikalier er en attraktiv industriel proces, hvor naturgas omdannes til stoffer; primært methanol (CH3OH) som let kan transporteres over store afstande. Omdannelsen sker i en simpel et-trinsproces under højt tryk, lave forbrændingstemperaturer, s...

  14. Study of propane partial oxidation on vanadium-containing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komashko, G.A.; Khalamejda, S.V.; Zazhigalov, V.A. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1998-12-31

    The present results indicate that maximum selectivity to acrylic acid can be reached over V-P-Zr-O catalysts. When the hydrocarbon concentration is 5.1 vol.% the selectivity is about 30% at quite high paraffin conversion. Conclusively, some explanations to the observed facts can be given. The V-P-O catalyst promotion with lanthanum by means of mechanochemical treatment is distinguished by the additive uniform spreading all over the matrix surface. Such twophase system is highly active in propane conversion (lanthanum oxide) and further oxidation of the desired products. The similar properties are attributed to V-P-Bi-La-O catalyst. Bismuth, tellurium and zirconium additives having clearly defined acidic properties provoke the surface acidity strengthening and make easier desorption of the acidic product (acrylic acid) from the surface lowering its further oxidation. Additionally, since bismuth and zirconium are able to form phosphates and, according to, to create space limitations for the paraffin molecule movement out of the active group boundaries, this can be one more support in favour of the selectivity increase. With this point of view very interesting results were obtained. It has been shown that the more limited the size of the vanadium unit, the higher the selectivity is. Monoclinic phase AV{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 10} which consists in clusters of four vanadium atoms is sensibly more reactive than the orthorhombic phase consists in V{sub {infinity}} infinite chains. (orig.)

  15. Oxidation of C/SiC Composites at Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Serra, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Carbon-fiber reinforced SiC (C/SiC) composites are proposed for leading edge applications of hypersonic vehicles due to the superior strength of carbon fibers at high temperatures (greater than 1500 C). However, the vulnerability of the carbon fibers in C/SiC to oxidation over a wide range of temperatures remains a problem. Previous oxidation studies of C/SiC have mainly been conducted in air or oxygen, so that the oxidation behavior of C/SiC at reduced oxygen partial pressures of the hypersonic flight regime are less well understood. In this study, both carbon fibers and C/SiC composites were oxidized over a wide range of temperatures and oxygen partial pressures to facilitate the understanding and modeling of C/SiC oxidation kinetics for hypersonic flight conditions.

  16. Veterinary College Virologist To Discuss Small Pox

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2003-01-01

    The words "small pox" have become almost synonymous with the word "bio-terrorism" in our post 9/11 world. Once thought eradicated, it is now viewed as the number one threat among a host of bio-terror agents that might be deployed against America and an immunization program is underway.

  17. Experimental and simulation analysis of hydrogen production by partial oxidation of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, U. [National Univ. of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-10-15

    Partial oxidation of methanol is the only self-sustaining process for onboard production of hydrogen. For this a fixed bed catalytic reactor is designed, based on heterogeneous catalytic reaction. To develop an optimized process, simulation is carried out using ASPEN HYSYS v 7.1. Reaction kinetics is developed on the basis of Langmuir Hinshel wood model. 45:55:5 of CuO: ZnO: Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is used as a catalyst. Simulation results are studied in detail to understand the phenomenon of partial oxidation of methanol inside the reactor. An experimental rig is developed for hydrogen production through partial oxidation of methanol. Results obtained from process simulation and experimental work; are compared with each other. (author)

  18. Partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xuming

    2015-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of the reduced field intensity and the background reaction temperature in the partial oxidation of methane in a temperature-controlled dielectric barrier discharge reactor. We obtained important mechanistic insight from studying high-temperature and low-pressure conditions with similar reduced field intensities. In the tested range of background temperatures (297 < T < 773 K), we found that the conversion of methane and oxygen depended on both the electron-induced chemistry and the thermo-chemistry, whereas the chemical pathways to the products were overall controlled by the thermo-chemistry at a given temperature. We also found that the thermo-chemistry enhanced the plasma-assisted partial oxidation process. Our findings expand our understanding of the plasma-assisted partial oxidation process and may be helpful in the design of cost-effective plasma reformers. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.

  19. Effect of oxygen partial pressure on oxidation of Mo-metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Megha; Gopal, Pawar; Reddy, G. B.

    2018-05-01

    This report explains the effect of oxygen partial pressure (PO2 ) on oxidation of Mo-metal in oxygen plasma. XRD results indulge that oxide layers formed on Mo-surfaces at different oxygen partial pressures have two different oxide phases (i.e. orthorhombic MoO3 and monoclinic Mo8O23). Intense XRD peaks at high pressure (i.e. 2.0×10-1 Torr) points out the formation of thick oxide layer on Mo-surface due to presence of large oxygen species in chamber and less oxide volatilization. Whereas, at low PO2 (6.5×10-2 and 7.5×10-2 Torr.) the reduced peak strength is owing to high oxide volatilization rate. SEM micrographs and thickness measurements also support XRD results and confirm that the optimum -2value of PO2 to deposited thicker and uniform oxide film on glass substrate is 7.5×10-2 Torr through plasma assistedoxidation process. Further to study the compositional properties, EDX of the sample M2 (the best sample) is carried out, which confirms that the stoichiometric ratio is less than 3 (i.e. 2.88). Less stoichiometric ratio again confirms the presence of sub oxides in oxide layers on Mo metal as evidenced by XRD results. All the observed results are well in consonance with each other.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of goat pox viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P; Jaisree, S; Balakrishnan, S; Senthilkumar, K; Mahaprabhu, R; Mishra, A; Maity, B; Ghosh, T K; Karmakar, A P

    2018-02-01

    Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages. Nucleotide sequence of complete p32 gene using randomly selected two isolates and three clinical specimens revealed presence of Goat pox virus (GTPV)-specific signature residues in all the sequences. Phylogenetic analysis using the present five sequences along with GenBank data of GTPV complete p32 gene sequences showed all the GTPV sequences cluster together except Pellor strain (NC004003) and FZ Chinese strain (KC951854). The five sequences either from WB or TN cluster more closely with GTPV isolates of Maharashtra state that were responsible for cross species outbreak of pox disease in both sheep (KF468759) and goats (KF468762) in India during the year 2010. All the Indian goat pox viruses, including the Mukteswar strain, isolated in 1946 and sequence reported in 2004 clustered together with the GTPVs causing the recent outbreaks. It was observed that GTPVs caused similar clinical manifestation irrespective of their geographical locations and breed characteristics, no variation observed among the Indian isolates based on p32 gene over the period of seventy years and disease outbreaks could not be observed or reported in vaccinated goats. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Ce-Fe-O mixed oxide as oxygen carrier for the direct partial oxidation of methane to syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永刚; 王华; 李孔斋

    2010-01-01

    The Ce-Fe-O mixed oxide with a ratio of Ce/Fe=7:3, which was prepared by coprecipitation method and employed as oxygen carrier, for direct partial oxidation of methane to syngas in the absence of gaseous oxygen was explored. The mixed oxide was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the catalytic performances were studied in a fixed-bed quartz reactor and a thermogravimetric reactor, respectively. Approximately 99.4% H2 se...

  2. Direct Partial Oxidations Using Molecular Oxygen - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Richard [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In 2006, Richard A. Kemp (University of New Mexico) and Karen I. Goldberg (University of Washington) formed a team and began to investigate new strategies to accomplish direct selective aerobic oxidations, with a particular emphasis on the epoxidation of propylene and higher olefins. This DOE-BES funded project was renewed twice and concluded after a no-cost extension earlier this year. Multiple novel strategies involving homogeneous catalyst systems were initiated and investigated during the award. Important fundamental understanding and insight concerning requirements for promotion of aerobic olefin epoxidation was generated. During the tenure of this project, new knowledge was generated concerning the synthesis, characterization and aerobic reactivity of metal hydrides and hydroxides. Key results describing synthetic strategies and optimization of the preparation of mononuclear late metal hydrides were published. The team reported the first example of O2 insertion into a Pd-H bond, a reaction which had been proposed in the literature but never previously observed. Our experimental investigation of the mechanism was later followed by computational work, and a description of what is now referred to as the Hydrogen Atom Abstraction (HAA) pathway for this reaction has been widely accepted in the community. After investigation of many other late metal hydrides, both experimentally and computationally, the team put together a chapter that included a description of key contributing factors that allow reaction by the HAA mechanism. A brief sampling of other classic papers from our project include hydrogenolysis reactions of late metal hydroxide and alkoxide complexes, the synthesis of nickel-hydrides, and the involvement of hemilabile ligands in promoting new reaction pathways.

  3. Modelling of the partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes on Mo-V-oxides based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, H.; Petzoldt, J.C.; Stein, B.; Weimer, C.; Gaube, J.W. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

    1998-12-31

    A kinetic model based on the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism that allows to describe the microkinetics of the heterogeneously catalysed partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes is presented. This conversion is represented by a network, composed of the oxidation of the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehyde towards the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acid and the consecutive oxidation of the acid as well as the parallel reaction of the aldehyde to products of deeper oxidation. The reaction steps of aldehyde respectively acid oxidation and catalyst reoxidation have been investigated separately in transient experiments. The combination of steady state and transient experiments has led to an improved understanding of the interaction of the catalyst with the aldehyde and the carboxylic acids as well as to a support of the kinetic model assumptions. (orig.)

  4. Reaction scheme of partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over yttrium-stabilized zirconia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.J.; van Ommen, J.G.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2004-01-01

    The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied with in situ FTIR and both steady-state and transient experiments. The four major products, CO, H2, CO2, and H2O, are primary products of CPOM over YSZ. Besides these major products and traces of

  5. The influence of partial oxidation mechanisms on tar destruction in TwoStage biomass gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Egsgaard, Helge; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    adsorption and determined by stable isotope dilution analysis. The results have shown that partial oxidation reduces and converts primary tars into low molecular weight, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), primarily naphthalene. At temperatures above 950°C practically all phenol is converted...

  6. Development of a novel reactor concept for the partial oxidation of methane to syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The gas-to-liquid process, consisting of the partial oxidation of methane (POM) followed by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, is a promising alternative to conventional oil processing for the production of liquid fuels. The cost of a conventional POM process is mainly determined by cryogenic air

  7. Modelling of a reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor for the partial oxidation of methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Gas-To-Liquid (GTL) processes have great potential as alternative to conventional oil and coal processing for the production of liquid fuels. In GTL-processes the partial oxidation of methane (POM) is combined with the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. An important part of the investment costs of a

  8. Partial Oxidation of High-Boiling Hydrocarbon Mixtures in the Pilot Unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Lederer, J.; Nečesaný, F.; Poslední, W.; Tukač, V.; Veselý, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 12 (2014), s. 1701-1706 ISSN 0366-6352 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : partial oxidation * high-boiling hydrocarbons * pilot plant Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry , Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.468, year: 2014

  9. Hydrogen generator, via catalytic partial oxidation of methane for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Vincenzo; Pino, Lidia; Di Leonardo, Raffaele; Lagana', Massimo; Maggio, Gaetano

    It is well known that the most acknowledged process for generation of hydrogen for fuel cells is based upon the steam reforming of methane or natural gas. A valid alternative could be a process based on partial oxidation of methane, since the process is mildly exothermic and therefore not energy intensive. Consequently, great interest is expected from conversion of methane into syngas, if an autothermal, low energy intensive, compact and reliable process could be developed. This paper covers the activities, performed by the CNR Institute of Transformation and Storage of Energy (CNR-TAE), on theoretical and experimental studies for a compact hydrogen generator, via catalytic selective partial oxidation of methane, integrated with second generation fuel cells (EC-JOU2 contract). In particular, the project focuses the attention on methane partial oxidation via heterogeneous selective catalysts, in order to: demonstrate the basic catalytic selective partial oxidation of methane (CSPOM) technology in a subscale prototype, equivalent to a nominal output of 5 kWe; develop the CSPOM technology for its application in electric energy production by means of fuel cells; assess, by a balance of plant analysis, and a techno-economic evaluation, the potential benefits of the CSPOM for different categories of fuel cells.

  10. Kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol over a Fe-Mo catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic steady-state kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over a commercial Fe-Mo catalyst has been studied experimentally in a differentially operated reactor at temperatures of 230–260 °C, over a wide range of methanol and oxygen concentrations. The principal

  11. Kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol over a Fe-Mo catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic steady-state kinetics of the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde over a commercial Fe-Mo catalyst has been studied experimentally in a differentially operated reactor at temperatures of 230¿260 °C, over a wide range of methanol and oxygen concentrations. The principal

  12. Oxygen partial pressure: a key to alloying and discovery in metal oxide--metal eutectic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.D.; Clark, G.W.; Oliver, B.F.

    1978-01-01

    Control of oxygen partial pressure is essential in the directional solidification of oxide--metal eutectic composites by techniques involving gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. The existence of end components in the eutectic composite is Po 2 sensitive as are melt stoichiometry, solid phase compositions, and vapor losses due to oxidation-volatilization. Simple criteria are postulated which can aid the experimentalist in selecting the proper gas mixture for oxide--metal eutectic composite growth. The Cr 2 O 3 --Mo--Cr systems was used to verify certain aspects of the proposed criteria

  13. Development of a simultaneous partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation process in a single reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunja; Fujii, Naoki; Lee, Taeho; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Up-flow oxygen-controlled biofilm reactors equipped with a non-woven fabric support were used as a single reactor system for autotrophic nitrogen removal based on a combined partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reaction. The up-flow biofilm reactors were initiated as either a partial nitrifying reactor or an anammox reactor, respectively, and simultaneous partial nitrification and anammox was established by careful control of the aeration rate. The combined partial nitrification and anammox reaction was successfully developed in both biofilm reactors without additional biomass inoculation. The reactor initiated as the anammox reactor gave a slightly higher and more stable mean nitrogen removal rate of 0.35 (±0.19) kg-N m(-3) d(-1) than the reactor initiated as the partial nitrifying reactor (0.23 (±0.16) kg-N m(-3) d(-1)). FISH analysis revealed that the biofilm in the reactor started as the anammox reactor were composed of anammox bacteria located in inner anoxic layers that were surrounded by surface aerobic AOB layers, whereas AOB and anammox bacteria were mixed without a distinguishable niche in the biofilm in the reactor started as the partial nitrifying reactor. However, it was difficult to efficiently maintain the stable partial nitrification owing to inefficient aeration in the reactor, which is a key to development of the combined partial nitrification and anammox reaction in a single biofilm reactor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk assessment of the risk of introduction and distribution of Sheep and goat pox in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...

  15. Biological degradation of partially oxidated constituents of stabilized sapropel; Biologischer Abbau teiloxidierter Inhaltsstoffe stabilisierter Faulschlaemme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheminski, A.; Krull, R.; Hempel, D.C. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Bioverfahrenstechnik

    1999-07-01

    Partial oxidation of sapropel with ozone destroys the cell walls of microorganisms in sludge and releases the cell constituents. Substances that are not biologically degraded because of the size or structure of their molecules are transformed into smaller, water-soluble and biologically degradable fractions by the reaction with ozone. The experiments aim to render the partially oxidated sewage sludge constituents highly biologically degradable using a minimum of oxidation agents. For the experiments described, stabilized sapropels with low biological activity are used. Hence the ozone is mainly used for the partial oxidation of recalcitrant constituents. (orig.) [German] Durch partielle Oxidation von Faulschlaemmen mit Ozon werden die Zellwaende der Mikroorganismen im Schlamm zerstoert und die Zellinhaltsstoffe freigesetzt. Dabei werden Substanzen, die aufgrund ihrer Molekuelgroesse oder -struktur biologisch nicht abgebaut werden, durch die Reaktion mit Ozon in kleinere, wasserloesliche und biologisch abbaubare Bruchstuecke ueberfuehrt. Ziel der Versuche ist es, durch den Einsatz moeglichst geringer Mengen an Oxidationsmitteln eine hohe biologische Abbaubarkeit der teiloxidierten Klaerschlamminhaltsstoffe zu erreichen. Fuer die hier vorgestellten Experimente wurden stabilisierte Faulschlaemme mit geringer biologischer Aktivitaet eingesetzt. Dadurch wird das Ozon vorwiegend zur Teiloxidation recalcitranter Inhaltsstoffe genutzt. (orig.)

  16. One-Pot Synthesis of Cu(II Complex with Partially Oxidized TTF Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Oshio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The one-pot synthesis of a Cu(II complex with partially oxidized tetrathiafulvalene (TTF moieties in its capping MT-Hsae-TTF ligands, [CuII(MT-sae-TTF2] [CuICl2] was realized by the simultaneous occurrence of Cu(II complexation and CuIICl2 mediated oxidation of TTF moieties. The crystal structure was composed of one-dimensional columns formed by partially oxidized TTF moieties and thus the cation radical salt showed relatively high electrical conductivity. Tight binding band structure calculations indicated the existence of a Peierls gap due to the tetramerization of the TTF moieties in the one-dimensional stacking column at room temperature, which is consistent with the semiconducting behavior of this salt.

  17. A review of sheep pox and goat pox: perspective of their control and eradication in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Mirzaie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sheep pox and goat pox (SGP of small ruminants are most severing pox diseases of domestic animals, and they have a very important role in agricultural economy. Thereby, SGP are included in the notifiable diseases of Office International des Epizooties (OIE. Time and place distributions of these diseases are relatively stable worldwide. Transportation of infected animals could spread these viruses to the new areas. In most countries in which capripox are enzootic, vaccination and bio-security are the only two main control measures. SGP control programs have been commenced about 50 years ago in Iran, and there is a good situation for eradication of it. In this review, readers can find latest information in some essential aspects of etiology, distribution, transmission, and control of the diseases. Besides, current situation of the disease in Iran has been described, which perhaps are similar to the other endemic areas in the world.

  18. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy Under Construction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, M. R.; Vacca, W. D.

    2000-12-01

    We have obtained deep images of the ultracompact ( ~ 3'') blue compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 in the F336W, F555W, and F814W filters of the Planetary Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have additionally obtained a low-resolution near ultraviolet spectrum of the object with STIS and combine this with a ground-based spectrum covering the visible continuum and emission lines. Our images confirm this object to be highly compact, with a maximum projected size of only ~ 240 pc, making it one of the smallest galaxies known. We also confirm that the outer regions of the galaxy consist of an evolved stellar population, ruling out earlier speculations that POX 186 is a protogalaxy. However, the PC images reveal the galaxy to have a highly irregular morphology, with a pronounced tidal arm on its western side. This morphology is strongly suggestive of a recent collision between two smaller components which has in turn triggered the central starburst. The F336W image also shows that the material in this tidal stream is actively star forming. Given the very small ( ~ 100 pc) sizes of the colliding components, POX 186 may be a dwarf galaxy in the early stages of formation, which would be consistent with current ``downsizing'' models of galaxy formation in which the least massive objects are the last to form. This work is supported by NASA and the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  19. The current status of sheep pox disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Indrani, B K; Hosamani, M; Singh, R K

    2006-01-01

    Sheep are the moving banks of shepherds and their economic contribution in terms of meat, wool and skin/hide is immense. Various infectious diseases jeopardize the optimum productivity; among which sheep pox is more important as the disease restricts the export of sheep and their products besides other economic losses. Although, clinical signs are indicative of the disease but a laboratory confirmation is necessary for unequivocal diagnosis and studying epidemiology. The causative agent, sheep pox virus (SPV), is antigenically and genetically closely related to goat pox virus (GPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), the other members of the genus capripox virus. In some countries, SPV and GPV are cross infective to small ruminants posing problem in diagnosis and epidemiology. However, recent studies have showed that the viruses are phylogenetically distinct and can be differentiated by molecular tools. Prophylaxis using attenuated vaccines is the choice of control measure as the immunity is long lasting. Detailed information on isolation, identification, pathology, epidemiology, diagnosis and prophylaxis would not only help in updating the knowledge of scientific fraternity but will be useful to the policy makers in order to formulate appropriate measures for control and eradication of the disease. This synthesis is to present an up-to-date review of the disease and its control to provide the reader with an overview of the problem.

  20. Oxidation of SiC/BN/SiC Composites in Reduced Oxygen Partial Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Boyd, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced SiC composites with a BN interphase are proposed for use as leading edge structures of hypersonic vehicles. The durability of these materials under hypersonic flight conditions is therefore of interest. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to characterize the oxidation kinetics of both the constituent fibers and composite coupons at four temperatures: 816, 1149, 1343, and 1538 C (1500, 2100, 2450, and 2800 F) and in oxygen partial pressures between 5% and 0.1% (balance argon) at 1 atm total pressure. One edge of the coupons was ground off so the effects of oxygen ingress into the composite could be monitored by post-test SEM and EDS. Additional characterization of the oxidation products was conducted by XPS and TOF-SIMS. Under most conditions, the BN oxidized rapidly, leading to the formation of borosilicate glass. Rapid initial oxidation followed by volatilization of boria lead to protective oxide formation and further oxidation was slow. At 1538C in 5% oxygen, both the fibers and coupons exhibited borosilicate glass formation and bubbling. At 1538C in 0.1% oxygen, active oxidation of both the fibers and the composites was observed leading to rapid SiC degradation. BN oxidation at 1538C in 0.1% oxygen was not significant.

  1. Partial oxidation of n- and i-pentane over promoted vanadium-phosphorus oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazhigalov, V.A.; Mikhajluk, B.D.; Komashko, G.A. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1998-12-31

    It is known, that the cost of raw materials for catalytic oxidation processes is about 60% of the product price. Cheap initial compounds to produce variety of products and to replace olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons are paraffins. That is why catalytic systems which could be possibly rather efficient in selective oxidation of paraffin hydrocarbons are under very close investigation now. One of such processes in n-pentane oxidation. The obtained results on n-pentane oxidation over VPO catalysts were quite encouraging in respect of possible reach high selectivity and yield of phthalic anhydride. However, in our work it was shown that the main product of n-pentane oxidation in the presence of VPO catalytic system as well as VPMeO was maleic anhydride. Some later our results were confirmed in, where to grow the selectivity towards phthalic anhydride the Co-additive was introduced. On the basis of the proposal made before on the mechanism of paraffins conversion over the vanadyl pyrophosphate surface with their activation at the first and fourth carbon atoms, we assumed possible methylmaleic (citraconic) anhydride forming at n- and i-pentane oxidation. This assumption has been recently supported by both our and other researchers` experimental results. In it was also hypothized possible mechanistic features for phthalic anhydride forming from n-pentane. The present work deals with the results of n- and i-pentane oxidation over VPO catalysts promoted with Bi, Cs, Te, Zr. (orig.)

  2. Models for the Configuration and Integrity of Partially Oxidized Fuel Rod Cladding at High Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefken, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    Models were designed to resolve deficiencies in the SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations of the configuration and integrity of hot, partially oxidized cladding. These models are expected to improve the calculations of several important aspects of fuel rod behavior. First, an improved mapping was established from a compilation of PIE results from severe fuel damage tests of the configuration of melted metallic cladding that is retained by an oxide layer. The improved mapping accounts for the relocation of melted cladding in the circumferential direction. Then, rules based on PIE results were established for calculating the effect of cladding that has relocated from above on the oxidation and integrity of the lower intact cladding upon which it solidifies. Next, three different methods were identified for calculating the extent of dissolution of the oxidic part of the cladding due to its contact with the metallic part. The extent of dissolution effects the stress and thus the integrity of the oxidic part of the cladding. Then, an empirical equation was presented for calculating the stress in the oxidic part of the cladding and evaluating its integrity based on this calculated stress. This empirical equation replaces the current criterion for loss of integrity which is based on temperature and extent of oxidation. Finally, a new rule based on theoretical and experimental results was established for identifying the regions of a fuel rod with oxidation of both the inside and outside surfaces of the cladding. The implementation of these models is expected to eliminate the tendency of the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to overpredict the extent of oxidation of the upper part of fuel rods and to underpredict the extent of oxidation of the lower part of fuel rods and the part with a high concentration of relocated material. This report is a revision and reissue of the report entitled, Improvements in Modeling of Cladding Oxidation and Meltdown

  3. Partial oxidation of methane over Ni/Mg/Al/La mixed oxides prepared from layered double hydrotalcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [Low Carbon Energy Conversion Center, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhao, Ning; Wei, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China); Sun, Yuhan [Low Carbon Energy Conversion Center, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203 (China); State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi (China)

    2010-11-15

    A series of Ni/Mg/Al/La mixed oxides prepared by thermal decomposition of layered double hydrotalcites (HT) were characterized by XRD, ICP, EXAFS, TGA, TPR-H{sub 2}, SEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption technique. The results revealed the formation of periclase-type catalysts with mesoporous structure, and the addition of La{sup 3+} lowered the phase crystallization with the formation of small oxide particles. Such catalysts had both high activities and stabilities toward partial oxidation of methane (POM). The catalyst containing 6.5 mol.% La{sup 3+} showed the highest performance at 1053 K with CH{sub 4} conversion of 99%, CO selectivity of 93% and H{sub 2} selectivity of 96%, which could be attributed to the presence of highly dispersed nickel and then the resistance to coke formation due to the promotion effect of lanthanum. (author)

  4. Hydrogen Production via Synthetic Gas by Biomass/Oil Partial Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanika, Jiří; Lederer, J.; Tukač, V.; Veselý, Václav; Kováč, D.

    176-177, - (2011), s. 286-290 ISSN 1385-8947. [International Conference on Chemical Reactors CHEMREACTOR-19 /19./. Vienna, 05.09.2010-09.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-2TP1/024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen * biomass * partial oxidation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.461, year: 2011

  5. Thermodynamic Study on the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Methane to Syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUJian; WEIWeisheng; 等

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas (CO+H2) has been simulated thermodynamically with the advanced process simulator PRO/Ⅱ. The influences of temperature,pressure,CH4/O2 ratio and steam addition in feed gas on the conversion of CH4 selectively to syngas and heat duty required were investigated, and their effects on carbon formation were also discussed. The simulation results were in good agreement with the literature data taken from a spouted bed reactor.

  6. Visualizing a Catalyst at Work during the Ignition of the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimmerle, Bertram; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Baiker, Alfons

    2009-01-01

    We present a spatiotemporal operando X-ray absorption study of a highly dynamic process, the ignition of the noble metal catalyzed partial oxidation of methane. Evolvement and propagation of the platinum component's structural changes are investigated with a high-speed X-ray camera, which...... in combination with temperature profiling by IR-thermography and catalytic activity measurements by online mass spectrometry gives insight into the first stages of the ignition of the reaction toward hydrogen and carbon monoxide....

  7. Kinetic studies of isooctane partial oxidation over a nickel-based catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Hussameldin; Idem, Raphael; Aboudheir, Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    The production of hydrogen (H 2 ) for fuel cell applications in mobile vehicles by reforming technologies such as partial oxidation of various fossil fuels has gained much attention recently. In this study, the production of H 2 by the catalytic partial oxidation of isooctane ((C 8 H 18 ) used here as a surrogate for gasoline) was investigated over alumina (AI 2 O 3 )supported nickel (Ni) catalyst. The work investigated the kinetics of the partial oxidation of isooctane over a stable Ni/□-AI 2 O 3 catalyst in the range of 863 to 913 K, at atmospheric pressure, W/F i c8 in the range of 1.97 to 8.58 g h mol - 1, and molar feed ratio in the range of 2.0 to 8.0 experiments to obtain kinetic data were performed in a 12.7 mm diameter Inconel micro-reactor housed in an electrically controlled furnace. The chemical reaction was then modeled using rate models developed from the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-hougen-Watson (LHHW) and Eley-Rideal (ER) formulations. The model parameters were estimated using an adaptive Gauss-Newton and Marquardi-Levenberg minimization algorithm. Rival models were screened for their thermodynamic consistency and physicochemical significance of estimated parameters. Langmuir-Hinshelwood-hougen-Watson mechanism requiring the dissociative adsorption of isooctane and oxygen on two different sites appeared to be the most likely pathway for the partial oxidation reaction of isooctane. Reaction order with respect to isooctane indicates the strong coverage of nickel by isooctane. The activation energy of 73±3.1 kJ mol - 1 estimated from the LHHW model is consistent with the trend observed with lower hydrocarbons.(Author)

  8. Adiabatic Gasification and Pyrolysis of Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Catalina Rodriguez; Gerardo Gordillo

    2011-01-01

    Colombian coffee industry produces about 0.6 million tons of husk (CH) per year which could serve as feedstock for thermal gasification to produce gaseous and liquid fuels. The current paper deals with: (i) CH adiabatic gasification modeling using air-steam blends for partial oxidation and (ii) experimental thermogravimetric analysis to determine the CH activation energy (E). The Chemical Equilibrium with Applications Program (CEA), developed by NASA, was used to estimate the effect of equiva...

  9. Does methyl jasmonate modify the oxidative stress response in Phaseolus coccineus treated with Cu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaka, Agnieszka; Wójcik, Małgorzata; Dresler, Sławomir; Mroczek-Zdyrska, Magdalena; Maksymiec, Waldemar

    2016-02-01

    The contribution of methyl jasmonate (MJ) as a signal molecule able to take part in the defense mechanism against copper (Cu)-imposed oxidative stress was studied in the leaves and roots of runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) plants. Roots of plants cultivated hydroponically were preincubated in MJ (10µM) for 1h or 24h and subsequently exposed to Cu (50µM) for 5h (short-term experiment) or 5 days (long-term experiment). Enzymatic (activity of superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; guaiacol peroxidase, POX) and non-enzymatic (accumulation of malondialdehyde, MDA; homoglutathione, hGSH; proline; anthocyanins; low molecular weight organic acids, LMWOAs) responses were determined in the leaves and roots. The antioxidative defense mechanism was significantly activated after Cu supplementation. In most cases, activities of ROS (reactive oxygen species) scavenging enzymes like SOD, CAT, APX, POX, as well as MDA, hGSH and proline concentrations increased following Cu exposure. MJ showed a time-dependent effect on antioxidative enzymes activity. In the short-term experiment, MJ elevated CAT, APX and POX activities in the roots, and POX activity in the leaves of non-Cu-treated plants. In the long-term experiment, MJ not only decreased POX and partially CAT activity in the roots, but also increased the MDA level and partially CAT activity in the leaves of the control plants. In Cu-treated plants, MJ reduced APX, but elevated POX activity in the leaves after 5-h exposure. After 5-day-Cu treatment, MJ inhibited POX activity in the leaves and mainly reduced SOD and CAT activities in the roots. Moreover, in the long-term experiment, MJ reduced tartrate and pyruvate in the leaves of Cu-stressed plants, but mostly elevated tartrate and malate in the roots comparing with Cu alone treatment. MJ alone and under Cu excess did not alter accumulation of MDA, hGSH and proline comparing with Cu alone, but partially elevated anthocyanin concentration. The

  10. Avian Pox in Native Captive Psittacines, Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Felipe C B; Marín, Sandra Y; Resende, Maurício; Silva, Aila S G; Coelho, Hannah L G; Barbosa, Mayara B; D'Aparecida, Natália S; de Resende, José S; Torres, Ana C D; Martins, Nelson R S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate an outbreak of avian pox in psittacines in a conservation facility, we examined 94 birds of 10 psittacine species, including sick and healthy birds. We found psittacine pox virus in 23 of 27 sick birds and 4 of 67 healthy birds. Further characterization is needed for these isolates.

  11. Complete and Partial Photo-oxidation of Dissolved Organic Matter Draining Permafrost Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Collin P; Cory, Rose M

    2016-04-05

    Photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and partially oxidized compounds is an important component of the carbon cycle in the Arctic. Thawing permafrost soils will change the chemical composition of DOM exported to arctic surface waters, but the molecular controls on DOM photodegradation remain poorly understood, making it difficult to predict how inputs of thawing permafrost DOM may alter its photodegradation. To address this knowledge gap, we quantified the susceptibility of DOM draining the shallow organic mat and the deeper permafrost layer of arctic soils to complete and partial photo-oxidation and investigated changes in the chemical composition of each DOM source following sunlight exposure. Permafrost and organic mat DOM had similar lability to photomineralization despite substantial differences in initial chemical composition. Concurrent losses of carboxyl moieties and shifts in chemical composition during photodegradation indicated that photodecarboxylation could account for 40-90% of DOM photomineralized to CO2. Permafrost DOM had a higher susceptibility to partial photo-oxidation compared to organic mat DOM, potentially due to a lower abundance of phenolic moieties with antioxidant properties. These results suggest that photodegradation will likely continue to be an important control on DOM fate in arctic freshwaters as the climate warms and permafrost soils thaw.

  12. Partial oxidation of n-hexadecane through decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in supercritical water

    KAUST Repository

    Alshammari, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. This work reports the experimental analysis of partial oxidation of n-hexadecane under supercritical water conditions. A novel reactor flow system was developed which allows for total decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a separate reactor followed partial oxidation of n-hexadecane in a gasification reactor instead of having both reactions in one reactor. The kinetics of hydrothermal decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was studied in order to confirm its full conversion into water and oxygen under the desired partial oxidation conditions, and the kinetic data were found in a good agreement with previously reported literature. The gas yield and gasification efficiency were investigated under different operating parameters. Furthermore, the profile of C-C/C=C ratio was studied which showed the favourable conditions for maximising yields of n-alkanes via hydrogenation of their corresponding 1-alkenes. Enhanced hydrogenation of 1-alkenes was observed at higher O/C ratios and higher residence times, shown by the increase in the C-C/C=C ratio to more than unity, while increasing the temperature has shown much less effect on the C-C/C=C ratio at the current experimental conditions. In addition, GC-MS analysis of liquid samples revealed the formation of heavy oxygenated compounds which may suggest a new addition reaction to account for their formation under the current experimental conditions. Results show new promising routes for hydrogen production with in situ hydrogenation of heavy hydrocarbons in a supercritical water reactor.

  13. Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water: Optimization by response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Haidong; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water was investigated. • The process was optimized by Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology. • GY H2 , TRE and CR could exhibit up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC −1 , 82.54% and 94.56%. • Small amounts of oxidant can decrease the generation of tar and char. - Abstract: To achieve the maximum H 2 yield (GY H2 ), TOC removal rate (TRE) and carbon recovery rate (CR), response surface methodology was applied to optimize the process parameters for supercritical water partial oxidation (SWPO) of landfill leachate in a batch reactor. Quadratic polynomial models for GY H2 , CR and TRE were established with Box–Behnken design. GY H2 , CR and TRE reached up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC −1 , 82.54% and 94.56% under optimum conditions, respectively. TRE was invariably above 91.87%. In contrast, TC removal rate (TR) only changed from 8.76% to 32.98%. Furthermore, carbonate and bicarbonate were the most abundant carbonaceous substances in product, whereas CO 2 and H 2 were the most abundant gaseous products. As a product of nitrogen-containing organics, NH 3 has an important effect on gas composition. The carbon balance cannot be reached duo to the formation of tar and char. CR increased with the increase of temperature and oxidation coefficient

  14. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, toluene, and ethanol vapors by a partially saturated permeable reactive barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodlu, Mojtaba G.; Hassanizadeh, S. Majid; Hartog, Niels; Raoof, Amir

    2014-08-01

    The mitigation of volatile organic compound (VOC) vapors in the unsaturated zone largely relies on the active removal of vapor by ventilation. In this study we considered an alternative method involving the use of solid potassium permanganate to create a horizontal permeable reactive barrier for oxidizing VOC vapors. Column experiments were carried out to investigate the oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene, and ethanol vapors using a partially saturated mixture of potassium permanganate and sand grains. Results showed a significant removal of VOC vapors due to the oxidation. We found that water saturation has a major effect on the removal capacity of the permeable reactive layer. We observed a high removal efficiency and reactivity of potassium permanganate for all target compounds at the highest water saturation (Sw = 0.6). A change in pH within the reactive layer reduced oxidation rate of VOCs. The use of carbonate minerals increased the reactivity of potassium permanganate during the oxidation of TCE vapor by buffering the pH. Reactive transport of VOC vapors diffusing through the permeable reactive layer was modeled, including the pH effect on the oxidation rates. The model accurately described the observed breakthrough curve of TCE and toluene vapors in the headspace of the column. However, miscibility of ethanol in water in combination with produced water during oxidation made the modeling results less accurate for ethanol. A linear relationship was found between total oxidized mass of VOC vapors per unit volume of permeable reactive layer and initial water saturation. This behavior indicates that pH changes control the overall reactivity and longevity of the permeable reactive layer during oxidation of VOCs. The results suggest that field application of a horizontal permeable reactive barrier can be a viable technology against upward migration of VOC vapors through the unsaturated zone.

  15. Partial Oxidation of n-Butane over a Sol-Gel Prepared Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphorous oxide (VPO is traditionally manufactured from solid vanadium oxides by synthesizing VOHPO4∙0.5H2O (the precursor followed by in situ activation to produce (VO2P2O7 (the active phase. This paper discusses an alternative synthesis method based on sol-gel techniques. Vanadium (V triisopropoxide oxide was reacted with ortho-phosphoric acid in an aprotic solvent. The products were dried at high pressure in an autoclave with a controlled excess of solvent. This procedure produced a gel of VOPO4 with interlayer entrapped molecules. The surface area of the obtained materials was between 50 and 120 m2/g. Alcohol produced by the alkoxide hydrolysis reduced the vanadium during the drying step, thus VOPO4 was converted to the precursor. This procedure yielded non-agglomerated platelets, which were dehydrated and evaluated in a butane-air mixture. Catalysts were significantly more selective than the traditionally prepared materials with similar intrinsic activity. It is suggested that the small crystallite size obtained increased their selectivity towards maleic anhydride.

  16. A novel technique for hydrogen production from hog-manure in supercritical partial oxidation (SCWPO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Emhemmed A.; Charpentier, Paul [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Nakhla, George [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering; Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the catalytic hydrogen production from hog manure using supercritical water partial oxidation was investigated in a batch reactor at a temperature of 500 C, and pressure of 28 MPa using several metallic catalysts. Hog manure was characterized by a total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (TCOD, SCOD) of 57000 and 28000 mg/L, total and volatile suspended solids (TSS, VSS) of 25000, 19000, and ammonia of 2400 mg/L, respectively. The order of H{sub 2} production was the following: Pd/AC > Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Ru/AC > AC > NaOH. The order of COD reduction efficiency was as follows: NaOH > Ru/AC > AC > Ru/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} > Pd/AC. The behaviour of the volatile fatty acids (VFA's), ethanol, methanol, ammonia, H{sub 2}S, and Sulfate was investigated experimentally and discussed. A 35 % reduction in the H{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} yields was observed in the sequential gasification partial oxidation (oxidant at an 80 % of theoretical requirement) experiments compared to the gasification experiments (catalyst only). Moreover, this reduction in gas yields was coincided with a 45 % reduction in the liquid effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), 60 % reduction of the ammonia concentration in the liquid effluent, and 20 % reduction in the H{sub 2}S concentration in the effluent gas. (orig.)

  17. Transmission studies involving a wet fowl pox isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazer, T H; Harrell, J S; Blalock, H G

    1983-01-01

    An isolate of fowl pox (FP) virus from a case of "wet" pox in commercial white leghorn (WL) pullets was used to expose WL cockerels via the comb-scratch (CS), eye-drop (ED), or laryngeal-swab (LS) route. Seven days postinoculation (PI), the groups challenged via CS had scabby proliferative pox lesions at the challenge site, the groups challenged via LS had slight dyspnea and rales, and 20% of the cockerels challenged via ED had mild conjunctivitis and lacrimation. By termination of the trial on day 21 PI, the CS-challenged groups had developed pronounced pox lesions. The LS-challenged groups showed severe dyspnea and rales with pronounced raised plaque-like lesions at the opening to the trachea and extending into the upper quarter of the trachea with heavy yellowish caseous exudate partly occluding the glottis. The ED-challenged groups had severe lacrimation and conjunctivitis and small pox lesions on the face, comb, and wattles; 12 of 18 had proliferative lesions on the oral mucosa in the area of the larynx. Forty-five percent of the LS-challenged groups died of suffocation. Pox virus was re-isolated from tissues in all treatment groups. Wet pox transmission appears to be possible via the LS and ED routes.

  18. Partially oxidized atomic cobalt layers for carbon dioxide electroreduction to liquid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Lin, Yue; Jiao, Xingchen; Sun, Yongfu; Luo, Qiquan; Zhang, Wenhua; Li, Dianqi; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Electroreduction of CO2 into useful fuels, especially if driven by renewable energy, represents a potentially ‘clean’ strategy for replacing fossil feedstocks and dealing with increasing CO2 emissions and their adverse effects on climate. The critical bottleneck lies in activating CO2 into the CO2•- radical anion or other intermediates that can be converted further, as the activation usually requires impractically high overpotentials. Recently, electrocatalysts based on oxide-derived metal nanostructures have been shown to enable CO2 reduction at low overpotentials. However, it remains unclear how the electrocatalytic activity of these metals is influenced by their native oxides, mainly because microstructural features such as interfaces and defects influence CO2 reduction activity yet are difficult to control. To evaluate the role of the two different catalytic sites, here we fabricate two kinds of four-atom-thick layers: pure cobalt metal, and co-existing domains of cobalt metal and cobalt oxide. Cobalt mainly produces formate (HCOO-) during CO2 electroreduction; we find that surface cobalt atoms of the atomically thin layers have higher intrinsic activity and selectivity towards formate production, at lower overpotentials, than do surface cobalt atoms on bulk samples. Partial oxidation of the atomic layers further increases their intrinsic activity, allowing us to realize stable current densities of about 10 milliamperes per square centimetre over 40 hours, with approximately 90 per cent formate selectivity at an overpotential of only 0.24 volts, which outperforms previously reported metal or metal oxide electrodes evaluated under comparable conditions. The correct morphology and oxidation state can thus transform a material from one considered nearly non-catalytic for the CO2 electroreduction reaction into an active catalyst. These findings point to new opportunities for manipulating and improving the CO2 electroreduction properties of metal systems

  19. Effects of Oxygen Partial Pressure on Oxidation Behavior of CMnSi TRIP Steel in an Oxidation-Reduction Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong-Hwan; Huh, Joo-Youl [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung-Soo; Kim, Jong-Sang [POSCO Technical Research Laboratories, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    An oxidation-reduction scheme is an alternative approach for improving the galvanizability of advanced high-strength steel in the continuous hot-dip galvanizing process. Here, we investigated the effect of oxygen partial pressure (Po{sub 2}) on the oxidation behavior of a transformation-induced plasticity steel containing 1.5 wt% Si and 1.6 wt% Mn during heating to and holding for 60 s at 700 ℃ under atmospheres with various Po{sub 2} values. Irrespective of Po{sub 2}, a thin amorphous Si-rich layer of Si-Mn-O was formed underneath the Fe oxide scale (a Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} bilayer) in the heating stage. In contrast to Si, Mn tended to segregate at the scale surface as (Fe,Mn){sub 2}O{sub 3}. The multilayered structure of (Fe,Mn){sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/amorphous Si-Mn-O remained even after extended oxidizing at 700 ℃ for 60 s. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was the dominantly growing oxide phase in the scale. The enhanced growth rate of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with increasing Po{sub 2} resulted in the formation of more Kirkendall voids in the amorphous Si-rich layer and a less Mn segregation at the scale surface. The mechanisms underlying the absence of FeO and the formation of Kirkendall voids are discussed.

  20. Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water: Optimization by response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Shuzhong; Xu, Haidong; Guo, Yang; Tang, Xingying

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Partial oxidation of landfill leachate in supercritical water was investigated. • The process was optimized by Box–Behnken design and response surface methodology. • GY{sub H2}, TRE and CR could exhibit up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC{sup −1}, 82.54% and 94.56%. • Small amounts of oxidant can decrease the generation of tar and char. - Abstract: To achieve the maximum H{sub 2} yield (GY{sub H2}), TOC removal rate (TRE) and carbon recovery rate (CR), response surface methodology was applied to optimize the process parameters for supercritical water partial oxidation (SWPO) of landfill leachate in a batch reactor. Quadratic polynomial models for GY{sub H2}, CR and TRE were established with Box–Behnken design. GY{sub H2}, CR and TRE reached up to 14.32 mmol·gTOC{sup −1}, 82.54% and 94.56% under optimum conditions, respectively. TRE was invariably above 91.87%. In contrast, TC removal rate (TR) only changed from 8.76% to 32.98%. Furthermore, carbonate and bicarbonate were the most abundant carbonaceous substances in product, whereas CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} were the most abundant gaseous products. As a product of nitrogen-containing organics, NH{sub 3} has an important effect on gas composition. The carbon balance cannot be reached duo to the formation of tar and char. CR increased with the increase of temperature and oxidation coefficient.

  1. Nitrous Oxide Production in a Granule-based Partial Nitritation Reactor: A Model-based Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lai; Sun, Jing; Liu, Yiwen; Dai, Xiaohu; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2017-04-03

    Sustainable wastewater treatment has been attracting increasing attentions over the past decades. However, the production of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potent GHG, from the energy-efficient granule-based autotrophic nitrogen removal is largely unknown. This study applied a previously established N 2 O model, which incorporated two N 2 O production pathways by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (AOB denitrification and the hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) oxidation). The two-pathway model was used to describe N 2 O production from a granule-based partial nitritation (PN) reactor and provide insights into the N 2 O distribution inside granules. The model was evaluated by comparing simulation results with N 2 O monitoring profiles as well as isotopic measurement data from the PN reactor. The model demonstrated its good predictive ability against N 2 O dynamics and provided useful information about the shift of N 2 O production pathways inside granules for the first time. The simulation results indicated that the increase of oxygen concentration and granule size would significantly enhance N 2 O production. The results further revealed a linear relationship between N 2 O production and ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) (R 2  = 0.99) under the conditions of varying oxygen levels and granule diameters, suggesting that bulk oxygen and granule size may exert an indirect effect on N 2 O production by causing a change in AOR.

  2. Occurrence and characterization of plum pox virus strain D isolates from European Russia and Crimea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Prikhodko, Yuri; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2016-02-01

    Numerous plum pox virus (PPV) strain D isolates have been found in geographically distant regions of European Russia and the Crimean peninsula on different stone fruit hosts. Phylogenetic analysis of their partial and complete genomes suggests multiple introductions of PPV-D into Russia. Distinct natural isolates from Prunus tomentosa were found to bear unique amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of the coat protein (CP) that may contribute to the adaptation of PPV-D to this host. Serological analysis using the PPV-D-specific monoclonal antibody 4DG5 provided further evidence that mutations at positions 58 and 59 of the CP are crucial for antibody binding.

  3. Steam and partial oxidation reforming options for hydrogen production from fossil fuels for PEM fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM generates electrical power from air and from hydrogen or hydrogen rich gas mixtures. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in converting current hydrocarbon based marine fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable to the PEM fuel cells on board ships. Using chemical flow sheeting software, the total system efficiency has been calculated. Natural gas appears to be the best fuel for hydrogen rich gas production due to its favorable composition of lower molecular weight compounds. This paper presents a study for a 250 kW net electrical power PEM fuel cell system utilizing a partial oxidation in one case study and steam reformers in the second. This study has shown that steam-reforming process is the most competitive fuel processing option in terms of fuel processing efficiency. Partial oxidation process has proved to posses the lowest fuel processing efficiency. Among the options studied, the highest fuel processing efficiency is achieved with natural gas steam reforming system.

  4. Hydrogen production by ethanol partial oxidation over nano-iron oxide catalysts produced by chemical vapour synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Wael Ahmed Abou Taleb Sayed

    2011-01-13

    This work presents the experimental results of the synthesis of unsupported and supported SiC iron oxide nanoparticles and their catalytic activity towards ethanol partial oxidation. For comparison, further unsupported iron oxide phases were investigated towards the ethanol partial oxidation. These {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}/{gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase catalysts were prepared by the CVS method using Fe(CO){sub 5} as precursor, supplied by another author. The {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC nanoparticles were prepared by the CVS method using a home made hot wall reactor technique at atmospheric pressure. Ferrocene and tetramethylsilane were used as precursor for the production process. Process parameters of precursor evaporation temperature, precursor concentration, gas mixture velocity and gas mixture dilution were investigated and optimised to produce particle sizes in a range of 10 nm. For Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiC catalyst series production, a new hot wall reactor setup was used. The particles were produced by simultaneous thermal decomposition of ferrocene and tetramethylsilane in one reactor from both sides. The production parameters of inlet tube distance inside the reactor, precursor evaporation temperature and carrier gas flow were investigated to produce a series of samples with different iron oxide content. The prepared catalysts composition, physical and chemical properties were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM, BET surface area, FTIR, XPS and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The catalytic activity for the ethanol gas-phase oxidation was investigated in a temperature range from 260 C to 290 C. The product distributions obtained over all catalysts were analysed with mass spectrometry analysis tool. The activity of bulk Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC nanoparticles was compared with prepared nano-iron oxide phase catalysts. The reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature and O{sub 2}/ethanol ratio were investigated. The catalysts

  5. Chromatographic analysis of toxic phosphylated oximes (POX): a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christian; Worek, Franz; John, Harald

    2010-10-01

    Poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OP), e.g. pesticides and nerve agents, causes inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by phosphylation of the active site serine residue. Consequently, accumulation of stimulating acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft induces cholinergic crisis which ultimately may lead to death. For standard causal therapy, enzyme reactivators are administered representing oxime derivatives of quarternary pyridinium compounds, e.g. pralidoxime (2-PAM), obidoxime and HI 6. The mechanism of action includes removal of the phosphyl moiety by a nucleophilic attack of the oximate molecule substituting the enzyme and forming a phosphylated oxime (POX). POX is produced in stoichiometric amounts of reactivated enzyme and exhibits a significantly enhanced toxicity (inhibition rate constant) when compared to the parent OP. However, stability of POX under physiological conditions appears to be highly limited. Nevertheless, the presence of POX reveals a potential critical issue for both therapeutic efficacy in vivo and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modelling based on cholinesterase activity data. Detailed characterization represents an important need for elaboration of the entire oxime pharmacology.Nevertheless, reports on POX toxicity and analysis are quite rare and may therefore be indicative of the challenge of POX analysis. This review provides a concise overview of chromatographic approaches applied to POX separation. Chromatography represents the key technology for POX purification and quantification in kinetic in vitro studies using buffers and biological fluids. Applications based on reversed-phase chromatography (RPC), ion pair chromatography (IPC) and an affinity approach as well as thin layer chromatography (TLC) are discussed and novel applications and data are presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Fatal pox infection in a rough-legged hawk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G.L.; Pass, D.A.; Beggs, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Natural pox infection occurred in a free-living rough-legged hawk (Buteo lagopus) in northeastern North Dakota. Gross, histological and electron microscopic findings were typical of pox infection, and characteristic lesions developed in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) but not in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) following inoculation with case material. Death of the rough-legged hawk was attributed to starvation resulting from inability to capture prey and to blood loss from foot lesions.

  7. Partial catalytic oxidation of CH{sub 4} to synthesis gas for power generation - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantzaras, I.; Schneider, A.

    2006-03-15

    The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over rhodium catalysts has been investigated experimentally and numerically in the pressure range of 4 to 10 bar. The methane/oxidizer feed has been diluted with large amounts of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} (up to 70% vol.) in order to simulate new power generation cycles with large exhaust gas recycle. Experiments were carried out in an optically accessible channel-flow reactor that facilitated laser-based in situ measurements, and also in a subscale gas-turbine catalytic reactor. Full-elliptic steady and transient two-dimensional numerical codes were used, which included elementary hetero-/homogeneous chemical reaction schemes. The following are the key conclusions: a) Heterogeneous (catalytic) and homogeneous (gas-phase) schemes have been validated for the partial catalytic oxidation of methane with large exhaust gas recycle. b) The impact of added H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} has been elucidated. The added H{sub 2}O increased the methane conversion and hydrogen selectivity, while it decreased the CO selectivity. The chemical impact of CO{sub 2} (dry reforming) was minimal. c) The numerical model reproduced the measured catalytic ignition times. It was further shown that the chemical impact of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} on the catalytic ignition delay times was minimal. d) The noble metal dispersion increased with different support materials, in the order Rh/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Rh/ZrO{sub 2}, and Rh/Ce-ZrO{sub 2}. An evident relationship was established between the noble metal dispersion and the catalytic behavior. (authors)

  8. Partial oxidation process for producing a stream of hot purified gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, T.F.; Robin, A.M.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Suggitt, R.M.

    1995-03-28

    A partial oxidation process is described for the production of a stream of hot clean gas substantially free from particulate matter, ammonia, alkali metal compounds, halides and sulfur-containing gas for use as synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas. A hydrocarbonaceous fuel comprising a solid carbonaceous fuel with or without liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel or gaseous hydrocarbon fuel, wherein said hydrocarbonaceous fuel contains halides, alkali metal compounds, sulfur, nitrogen and inorganic ash containing components, is reacted in a gasifier by partial oxidation to produce a hot raw gas stream comprising H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, NH{sub 3}, HCl, HF, H{sub 2}S, COS, N{sub 2}, Ar, particulate matter, vapor phase alkali metal compounds, and molten slag. The hot raw gas stream from the gasifier is split into two streams which are separately deslagged, cleaned and recombined. Ammonia in the gas mixture is catalytically disproportionated into N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. The ammonia-free gas stream is then cooled and halides in the gas stream are reacted with a supplementary alkali metal compound to remove HCl and HF. Alkali metal halides, vaporized alkali metal compounds and residual fine particulate matter are removed from the gas stream by further cooling and filtering. The sulfur-containing gases in the process gas stream are then reacted at high temperature with a regenerable sulfur-reactive mixed metal oxide sulfur sorbent material to produce a sulfided sorbent material which is then separated from the hot clean purified gas stream having a temperature of at least 1000 F. 1 figure.

  9. [Monkey-pox, a model of emergent then reemergent disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, A J; Matton, T; Courbot-Georges, M C

    2004-01-01

    The recent emergence of monkey pox in the United States of America highlights the problem (known for other infectious agents) of dissemination of pathogens outside their endemic area, and of subsequent global threats of variable gravity according to agents. It is a real emergency since monkey pox had been confined to Africa for several decades, where small epidemics occurred from time to time, monkey pox is a "miniature smallpox" which, in Africa, evolves on an endemic (zoonotic) mode with, as reservoirs, several species of wild rodents (mainly squirrels) and some monkey species. It can be accidentally transmitted to man then develops as epidemics, sometimes leading to death. The virus was imported in 2003 in the United States of America, via Gambia rats and wild squirrels (all African species), and infected prairie dogs (which are now in fashion as pets), then crossed the species barrier to man. In the United States of America, screening campaigns, epidemiological investigations, and subsequent treatments led to a rapid control of the epidemic, which is a model of emergent disease for this country. Therapeutic and preventive measures directly applicable to monkey pox are discussed. They can also be applied against other pox virus infections (including smallpox). The risk of criminal introduction of pox viruses is discussed since it is, more than ever, a real worldwide threat.

  10. The influence of the oxygen partial pressure on the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Rosales, C.; Schulze, H.A.; Naoumidis, A.; Nickel, H.

    1991-05-01

    The passivation layers formed by the oxidizing corrosion of high temperature alloys consist primarily of oxides and mixed oxides of the elements chromium, manganese and titanium. For a reproducible formation and characterization of such oxide layers it is necessary to know the phase equilibria of these oxide systems at temperature and oxygen partial pressure conditions which will be relevant during their application. For the investigation of the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide, oxide powders were prepared and annealed at 1000deg C under different oxygen partial pressures ranging from 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar. Phase identification and determination of lattice parameter using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as the direct measurement of phase boundaries as a function of oxygen partial pressure using the emf-methode were carried out for these investigations. In the quasi-ternary system Cr-Mn-Ti-oxide the spinels play a decisive role in the oxigen partial pressure range examined. The spinel MnCr 2 O 4 may be regarded as the most significant compound. Part of the chronium can be replaced by trivalent manganese at high oxygen partial pressures and by trivalent titanium at low pressures, and the formation of a solid solution with the spinel Mn 2 TiO 4 is possible in all cases. In this way a coherent single-phase spinel region is observed which extends over the entire oxygen partial pressure range form 0.21 bar to 10 -21 bar examined at 1000deg C. (orig.) [de

  11. Sharka: how do plants respond to Plum pox virus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Moreno, María J; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, is one of the most studied plant viruses, and major advances in detection techniques, genome characterization and organization, gene expression, transmission, and the description of candidate genes involved in PPV resistance have been described. However, information concerning the plant response to PPV infection is very scarce. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the research carried out to date in order to elucidate how plants cope with PPV infection and their response at different levels, including the physiological, biochemical, proteomic, and genetic levels. Knowledge about how plants respond to PPV infection can contribute to the development of new strategies to cope with this disease. Due to the fact that PPV induces an oxidative stress in plants, the bio-fortification of the antioxidative defences, by classical or biotechnological approaches, would be a useful tool to cope with PPV infection. Nevertheless, there are still some gaps in knowledge related to PPV-plant interaction that remain to be filled, such as the effect of PPV on the hormonal profile of the plant or on the plant metabolome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Identification of key nitrous oxide production pathways in aerobic partial nitrifying granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Song, Yanjun; Rathnayake, Lashitha; Tumendelger, Azzaya; Satoh, Hisashi; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2014-10-01

    The identification of the key nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathways is important to establish a strategy to mitigate N2O emission. In this study, we combined real-time gas-monitoring analysis, (15)N stable isotope analysis, denitrification functional gene transcriptome analysis and microscale N2O concentration measurements to identify the main N2O producers in a partial nitrification (PN) aerobic granule reactor, which was fed with ammonium and acetate. Our results suggest that heterotrophic denitrification was the main contributor to N2O production in our PN aerobic granule reactor. The heterotrophic denitrifiers were probably related to Rhodocyclales bacteria, although different types of bacteria were active in the initial and latter stages of the PN reaction cycles, most likely in response to the presence of acetate. Hydroxylamine oxidation and nitrifier denitrification occurred, but their contribution to N2O emission was relatively small (20-30%) compared with heterotrophic denitrification. Our approach can be useful to quantitatively examine the relative contributions of the three pathways (hydroxylamine oxidation, nitrifier denitrification and heterotrophic denitrification) to N2O emission in mixed microbial populations. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Catalytic partial oxidation of methane over porous silica supported VO{sub x} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirovano, C.; Schoenborn, E.; Kalevaru, V.N.; Wohlrab, S.; Luecke, B.; Martin, A. [University Rostock e.V., Rostock (Germany). Leibniz Inst. for Catalysis

    2011-07-01

    High surface area mesoporous siliceous MCM-41 and SBA-15 materials have been used as supports to disperse vanadium oxide species using wet impregnation and incipient wetness impregnation methods. These materials were used as catalysts for the partial oxidation of methane (POM) to formaldehyde. The physico-chemical properties of the solids were studied by means of BET, DR-UV/Vis spectroscopy, Py-FTIR and TEM. The influence of support and the preparation method on the dispersion of VOx is also investigated. The catalytic properties of the catalysts were examined in a fixed bed stainless steel reactor at 923 K. So far a maximum production of formaldehyde can be detected on SBA-15 supported VOx-catalysts prepared by incipient wetness impregnation. On this V/SBA-15 material a covalent attachment of catalytic active molecular vanadium species dominates, which in turn leads to a lower activation temperature and thereby reduced over-oxidation. From the best case, the space time yield of HCHO could be reached close to 775 g{sub HCHO} Kg{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1}. (orig.)

  14. Partial thermodynamic functions of hydrogen in complex hydrated vanadium(5) and tungsten(6) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.L.; Zakharova, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    The partial thermodynamic characteristics of hydrogen in the complex hydrated vanadium(5) and tungsten(6) oxides, obtained through the sol-gel method, of the general formula H 2 V 12-y W y O 31+δ ·nH 2 O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) are determined through the emf method. The changes in these values (ΔG-bar(H 2 ), ΔH-bar(H 2 ) and ΔS-bar(H 2 )) in dependence on the compound composition are discussed. It is established that ΔG-bar(H 2 ) phases, amorphous to X-rays are determined by the ΔS-bar(H 2 ) value and crystalline ones by ΔH-bar(H 2 ). The scheme of the phase relationships of the H 2 O-H-WO 3 -V 2 O 5 system, whereto the given phases are related are presented [ru

  15. Microbial resource management for the mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions from the Partial Nitritation- Anammox process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Jan-Michael

    Urban wastewater treatment plants are designed to remove pathogens and pollutants from wastewater in order to provide sanitation and to protect receiving water bodies from eutrophication. Reactive nitrogen, mainly in the form of ammonium, is one of the components in wastewater that is converted...... to dinitrogen gas during treatment. The Partial Nitritation-Anammox process (PNA) uses the capacity of autotrophic aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB and AnAOB) to perform this task. The process is mainly applied to treat ammonium-rich wastewater streams with low concentrations of organic...... with the specific ammonia removal rate, while during non-aerated phases net N2O production rates were positively correlated with the nitrite concentration (NO2-). Operation of PNA at reduced specific ammonia removal rates is, therefore, a feasible strategy to mitigate N2O emissions. However, when high ammonium...

  16. Adiabatic Gasification and Pyrolysis of Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Rodriguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombian coffee industry produces about 0.6 million tons of husk (CH per year which could serve as feedstock for thermal gasification to produce gaseous and liquid fuels. The current paper deals with: (i CH adiabatic gasification modeling using air-steam blends for partial oxidation and (ii experimental thermogravimetric analysis to determine the CH activation energy (E. The Chemical Equilibrium with Applications Program (CEA, developed by NASA, was used to estimate the effect of equivalence ratio (ER and steam to fuel ratio (S : F on equilibrium temperature and gas composition of ~150 species. Also, an atom balance model was developed for comparison purposes. The results showed that increased ER and (S : F ratios produce mixtures that are rich in H2 and CO2 but poor in CO. The value for the activation energy was estimated to be 221 kJ/kmol.

  17. Simulation study of a PEM fuel cell system fed by hydrogen produced by partial oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdogan, S [Marmara University, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); Ersoz, A; Olgun, H [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Energy Systems and Environmental Research Institute, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2003-09-01

    Within the frame of sustainable development, efficient and clean, if possible zero emission energy production technologies are of utmost importance in various sectors such as utilities, industry, households and transportation. Low-temperature fuel cell systems are suitable for powering transportation systems such as automobiles and trucks in an efficient and low-emitting manner. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems constitute the most promising low temperature fuel cell option being developed globally. PEM fuel cells generate electric power from air and hydrogen or from a hydrogen rich gas via electrochemical reactions. Water and waste heat are the only by-products of PEM fuel cells. There is great interest in converting current hydrocarbon based common transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel into hydrogen rich gases acceptable by PEM fuel cells. Hydrogen rich gases can be produced from conventional transportation fuels via various reforming technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are the three major reforming technologies. In this paper, we discuss the results of a simulation study for a PEM fuel cell with partial oxidation. The Aspen HYSYS 3.1 code has been used for simulation purposes. Two liquid hydrocarbon fuels have been selected to investigate the effect of average molecular weights of hydrocarbons, on the fuel processing efficiency. The overall system efficiency depends on the fuel preparation and fuel cell efficiencies as well as on the heat integration within the system. It is desired to investigate the overall system efficiencies for net electrical power production at 100 kW considering bigger scale transport applications. Results indicate that fuel properties, fuel preparation system operating parameters and PEM fuel cell polarization curve characteristics all affect the overall system efficiency. (authors)

  18. Characteristic of nitrous oxide production in partial denitrification process with high nitrite accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Rui; Peng, Yongzhen; Cao, Shenbin; Wang, Shuying; Niu, Meng

    2016-03-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production during the partial denitrification process with nitrate (NO3(-)-N) to nitrite (NO2(-)-N) transformation ratio of 80% was investigated in this study. Results showed that N2O was seldom observed before complete depletion of NO3(-)-N, but it was closely related to the reduction of NO2(-)-N rather than NO3(-)-N. High COD/NO3(-)-N was in favor of N2O production in partial denitrification with high NO2(-)-N accumulation. It was seriously enhanced at constant acidic pH due to the free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition. However, the N2O production was much lower at initial pH of 5.5 and 6.5 due to the pH increase during denitrification process. Significantly, the pH turning point could be chosen as a controlled parameter to denote the end of NO3(-)-N reduction, which could not only achieve high NO2(-)-N accumulation but also decrease the N2O production significantly for practical application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING / FEASIBILITY STUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER,M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC36-00GO10529 for the Department of Energy, General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The Key potential advantages of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reaching and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carreid out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an acitvated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low

  20. Hybrid Nitrous Oxide Production from a Partial Nitrifying Bioreactor: Hydroxylamine Interactions with Nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Akihiko; Sugawara, Sho; Hojo, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Yuki; Riya, Shohei; Harper, Willie F; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Kuroiwa, Megumi; Isobe, Kazuo; Katsuyama, Chie; Suwa, Yuichi; Koba, Keisuke; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2017-03-07

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) production from a bioreactor for partial nitrification (PN). Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) enriched from a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were subjected to N 2 O production pathway tests. The N 2 O pathway test was initiated by supplying an inorganic medium to ensure an initial NH 4 + -N concentration of 160 mg-N/L, followed by 15 NO 2 - (20 mg-N/L) and dual 15 NH 2 OH (each 17 mg-N/L) spikings to quantify isotopologs of gaseous N 2 O ( 44 N 2 O, 45 N 2 O, and 46 N 2 O). N 2 O production was boosted by 15 NH 2 OH spiking, causing exponential increases in mRNA transcription levels of AOB functional genes encoding hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (haoA), nitrite reductase (nirK), and nitric oxide reductase (norB) genes. Predominant production of 45 N 2 O among N 2 O isotopologs (46% of total produced N 2 O) indicated that coupling of 15 NH 2 OH with 14 NO 2 - produced N 2 O via N-nitrosation hybrid reaction as a predominant pathway. Abiotic hybrid N 2 O production was also observed in the absence of the AOB-enriched biomass, indicating multiple pathways for N 2 O production in a PN bioreactor. The additional N 2 O pathway test, where 15 NH 4 + was spiked into 400 mg-N/L of NO 2 - concentration, confirmed that the hybrid N 2 O production was a dominant pathway, accounting for approximately 51% of the total N 2 O production.

  1. Enzymatic Upgrading of Heavy Crudes via Partial Oxidation or Conversion of PAHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A P; Davison, B H; Kuritz, T

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate new enzyme-based technologies for upgrading of heavy oils. Enzymes were selected for screening from those capable of conversion of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) reported in the literature. Oxidative reactions of PAHs using hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant with conversion to partially oxidized products were used. The enzymes (lignin peroxidase, cytochrome c) were tested in various organic solvents and found to loose activity in pure organic solvents. A thermodynamic analysis revealed lack of effective interaction between the substrate and enzyme as the cause for low activity. The protein cytochrome c was modified to work in organic media by chemical hydrophobic group attachment. Two different modifications were made: attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and alkyl groups. Alkyl groups, being small could be attached at interior locations within the core of the enzyme and possibly near the active site. Increase in the threshold solvent concentration where maximum enzyme activity occurred indicated potential of this strategy for effective enzyme-substrate interaction. Further improvements in enzyme activity called for other diverse methods due to the unavailability of sufficient chemical modification sites. Genetic techniques were therefore explored for further improvements. These experiments focused on cloning of a gene for the fungal enzyme lignin peroxidase (lip) into yeast Pichia pastoris, which would allow easy manipulation of the gene. However, differences in the fungal and yeast cellular machinery impeded significant expression of the fungal enzyme. Several strategies were explored to allow higher-level expression of the enzyme, which was required for enzyme improvement. The strategies used in this investigation are described in the report. Industrial in-kind support was available throughout the project period. review of the research results was carried out on a regular basis (bimonthly reports and annual

  2. A case control study of fowl pox in southeastern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, D M; Martin, S W

    1990-06-01

    An outbreak of fowl pox, which occurred in south-eastern Ontario between July 1988 and April 1989, was investigated in the spring of 1989 to determine factors associated with the spread of the disease. Clinical fowl pox was confirmed on five farms (cases). Twenty-seven farms, out of 35 egg producers with quota from Durham region to Northumberland county, provided information as controls. Bivariate analyses were performed on mail survey data using Fisher's exact test and odds ratios. Although the tests of hypotheses lacked statistical power because of the small number of case farms, and barns, a number of significant associations were found. At the farm level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets purchased from a particular pullet grower. At the barn level, fowl pox infection was associated with pullets from a particular grower, mixing different groups of pullets, and a trend towards having birds early in the laying period, and higher numbers of birds placed. Fowl pox-infected barns had higher mortality and lower egg production postoutbreak. The results may indicate that the virus enters the laying barn at, or near, the time new birds are placed. Better communication among producers, catch-and-fill crews, and others associated with the egg industry, as well as more complete records of dates, sources, and persons involved with pullet placements, are recommended.

  3. Oscillatory Behavior during the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Methane: Following Dynamic Structural Changes of Palladium Using the QEXAFS Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoetzel, Jan; Frahm, Ronald; Kimmerle, Bertram

    2012-01-01

    oxidation of methane, the catalyst reduced from the end to the beginning of the catalyst bed and oxidized again toward the end as soon as the entire catalyst bed was reduced. On an entirely oxidized catalyst bed, only total oxidation of methane was observed and consumed the oxygen until the conditions...... of the Pd particles at increasing age of the catalyst was observed, which leads to a lower oscillation frequency. Effects of particle size, oven temperature, and oxygen/methane ratio on the oscillation behavior were studied in detail. The deactivation period (reoxidation of Pd) was much less influenced...... by the oven temperature than the ignition behavior of the catalytic partial oxidation of methane. This indicates that deactivation is caused by an autoreduction of the palladium at the beginning of the catalyst bed due to the high temperature achieved by total oxidation of methane....

  4. Interpersonal Tension: A Two-Factor Approach to the POX Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mahesh

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical explanation, in terms of a two-factor approach to a Person-Other-Issue (POX) Situation is offered, in an attempt to fill the void that exists in the face of the Heider-Newcomb controversy about POX balance. Validity and parsimony is demonstrated by applying it to some of the POX data reported in earlier studies. (Author/BL)

  5. Plasma-assisted partial oxidation of methane at low temperatures: numerical analysis of gas-phase chemical mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goujard, Valentin; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Yuzawa, Shuhei; Okazaki, Ken [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, 1528552, Tokyo (Japan); Agiral, Anil, E-mail: tnozaki@mech.titech.ac.jp [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-07-13

    Methane partial oxidation was investigated using a plasma microreactor. The experiments were performed at 5 and 300 deg. C. Microreactor configuration allows an efficient evacuation of the heat generated by methane partial oxidation and dielectric barrier discharges, allowing at the same time a better temperature control. At 5 deg. C, liquid condensation of low vapour pressure compounds, such as formaldehyde and methanol, occurs. {sup 1}H-NMR analysis allowed us to demonstrate significant CH{sub 3}OOH formation during plasma-assisted partial oxidation of methane. Conversion and product selectivity were discussed for both temperatures. In the second part of this work, a numerical simulation was performed and a gas-phase chemical mechanism was proposed and discussed. From the comparison between the experimental results and the simulation it was found that CH{sub 3}OO{center_dot} formation has a determinant role in oxygenated compound production, since its fast formation disfavoured radical recombination. At 5 deg. C the oxidation leads mainly towards oxygenated compound formation, and plasma dissociation was the major phenomenon responsible for CH{sub 4} conversion. At 300 deg. C, higher CH{sub 4} conversion resulted from oxidative reactions induced by {center_dot}OH radicals with a chemistry predominantly oxidative, producing CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  6. Partial oxidation of TiN coating by hydrothermal treatment and ozone treatment to improve its osteoconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Le, Thi Bang; Zhou, Guanghong; Zheng, Chuanbo; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O 3 ) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O 3 treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100 °C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O 3 treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O 3 treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant. - Highlights: • TiN coating surface was oxidized by hydrothermal or ozone treatment while preserving its hardness. • Improved wettability, decontamination and interstitial N promoted osteoblast responses. • Partial oxidation makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant with good osteoconductivity.

  7. Partial oxidation of TiN coating by hydrothermal treatment and ozone treatment to improve its osteoconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli, E-mail: linly311@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Le, Thi Bang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhou, Guanghong [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Zheng, Chuanbo, E-mail: zjust316@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O{sub 3}) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O{sub 3} treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100 °C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O{sub 3} treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O{sub 3} treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant. - Highlights: • TiN coating surface was oxidized by hydrothermal or ozone treatment while preserving its hardness. • Improved wettability, decontamination and interstitial N promoted osteoblast responses. • Partial oxidation makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant with good osteoconductivity.

  8. Development of a membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor - 2 - Experimental demonstration and modeling for the partial oxidation of methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, S.A.R.K.; Laverman, J.A.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    A small laboratory-scale membrane-assisted fluidized bed reactor (MAFBR) was constructed in order to experimentally demonstrate the reactor concept for the partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Methanol conversion and product selectivities were measured at various overall fluidization

  9. Palm H-FAME Production through Partially Hydrogenation using Nickel/Carbon Catalyst to Increase Oxidation Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramayeni Elsa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods to improve the oxidation stability of palm biodiesel is through partially hydrogenation. The production using Nickel/Carbon catalyst to speed up the reaction rate. Product is called Palm H-FAME (Hydrogenated FAME. Partial hydrogenation breaks the unsaturated bond on FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, which is a key component of the determination of oxidative properties. Changes in FAME composition by partial hydrogenation are predicted to change the oxidation stability so it does not cause deposits that can damage the injection system of diesel engine, pump system, and storage tank. Partial hydrogenation is carried out under operating conditions of 120 °C and 6 bar with 100:1, 100:3, 100:5, 100:10 % wt catalyst in the stirred batch autoclave reactor. H-FAME synthesis with 100:5 % wt Ni/C catalyst can decrease the iodine number which is the empirical measure of the number of unsaturated bonds from 91.78 to 82.38 (g-I2/100 g with an increase of oxidation stability from 585 to 602 minutes.

  10. Effect of surface composition of yttrium-stabilized zirconia on partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.J.; van Ommen, J.G.; Knoester, A.; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2005-01-01

    Catalytic partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (CPOM) over yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) was studied within a wide temperature window (500¿1100 °C). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS). The influence of calcination

  11. Exploring the chemical kinetics of partially oxidized intermediates by combining experiments, theory, and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyermann, Karlheinz; Mauß, Fabian; Olzmann, Matthias; Welz, Oliver; Zeuch, Thomas

    2017-07-19

    Partially oxidized intermediates play a central role in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. In this perspective, we focus on the chemical kinetics of alkoxy radicals, peroxy radicals, and Criegee intermediates, which are key species in both combustion and atmospheric environments. These reactive intermediates feature a broad spectrum of chemical diversity. Their reactivity is central to our understanding of how volatile organic compounds are degraded in the atmosphere and converted into secondary organic aerosol. Moreover, they sensitively determine ignition timing in internal combustion engines. The intention of this perspective article is to provide the reader with information about the general mechanisms of reactions initiated by addition of atomic and molecular oxygen to alkyl radicals and ozone to alkenes. We will focus on critical branching points in the subsequent reaction mechanisms and discuss them from a consistent point of view. As a first example of our integrated approach, we will show how experiment, theory, and kinetic modeling have been successfully combined in the first infrared detection of Criegee intermediates during the gas phase ozonolysis. As a second example, we will examine the ignition timing of n-heptane/air mixtures at low and intermediate temperatures. Here, we present a reduced, fuel size independent kinetic model of the complex chemistry initiated by peroxy radicals that has been successfully applied to simulate standard n-heptane combustion experiments.

  12. The production of hydrogen through the uncatalyzed partial oxidation of methane in an internal combustion engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karim, Ghazi A.; Wierzba, I. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    The thermodynamic and kinetic limitations of the uncatalyzed partial oxidation of methane for the production of synthesis gas, which is made up of mostly hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a variety of proportions, are reviewed. It is suggested that such processes can be made to proceed successfully in a conventional internal combustion engine when operated on excessively rich mixtures of methane and oxygenated air. This is achieved while simultaneously producing power and regenerative exhaust gas heating. Experimental results are described that show a dual fuel engine of the compression ignition type with pilot liquid fuel injection can be operated on excessively rich mixtures of methane and air supplemented with oxygen gas to produce hydrogen rich gas with high methane conversion rates. Similarly, a spark ignition engine was reported to be equally capable of such production and performance. It is shown that there are viable prospects for the simultaneous production of synthesis gas in engines with efficient useful mechanical power and exhaust gas regenerative heating. (author)

  13. The syngas production by partial oxidation using a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yoon Cheol; Lim, Mun Sup; Chun, Young Nam

    2009-01-01

    It is essential to develop the environment-friendly alternative energies urgently considering the limited fossil fuel and the global warming caused by environmental destruction. In this research, the new technology was studied to produce syngas from methane or simulated biogas with a HCCI reforming engine. The purpose is to provide the basics for the research on biogas treatment mainly comprising of methane and carbon dioxide, the cause of global warming. This experiment was conducted on the changes in syngas concentration according to the variations of oxygen/methane ratio, total flow rate, intake heating temperature, CO 2 in mixture and oxygen enrichment with partial oxidation. Through the parametric screening studies, optimum conditions and their results in this study was taken as follows; The maximum content of syngas was; 27.4% at 0.3 of oxygen/methane ratio, 32.38% at 117.3 L/min of total flow rate, and 35.83% at 355 C of intake heating temperature. 41.06% of syngas was produced at 50.33% of oxygen enrichment ratio. (author)

  14. Partially reduced graphene oxide based FRET on fiber-optic interferometer for biochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, B C; Wu, Y; Yu, C B; He, J R; Rao, Y J; Gong, Y; Fu, F; Chen, Y F; Li, Y R

    2016-03-24

    Fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) with naturally exceptional selectivity is a powerful technique and widely used in chemical and biomedical analysis. However, it is still challenging for conventional FRET to perform as a high sensitivity compact sensor. Here we propose a novel 'FRET on Fiber' concept, in which a partially reduced graphene oxide (prGO) film is deposited on a fiber-optic modal interferometer, acting as both the fluorescent quencher for the FRET and the sensitive cladding for optical phase measurement due to refractive index changes in biochemical detection. The target analytes induced fluorescence recovery with good selectivity and optical phase shift with high sensitivity are measured simultaneously. The functionalized prGO film coated on the fiber-optic interferometer shows high sensitivities for the detections of metal ion, dopamine and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), with detection limits of 1.2 nM, 1.3 μM and 1 pM, respectively. Such a prGO based 'FRET on fiber' configuration, bridging the FRET and the fiber-optic sensing technology, may serve as a platform for the realization of series of integrated 'FRET on Fiber' sensors for on-line environmental, chemical, and biomedical detection, with excellent compactness, high sensitivity, good selectivity and fast response.

  15. CO{sub 2} separation by calcium looping from full and partial fuel oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivalingam, Senthoorselvan

    2013-06-05

    This thesis work deals with the research and development of calcium looping process for CO{sub 2} separation from full and partial fuel oxidation based power generation systems. CO{sub 2} is the main greenhouse gas and undoubtedly a major contributor to the global warming. It is estimated that more than one third of the total anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions come from fossil fuel based heat and power generation. Moreover, fossil fuels are unlikely to be phased out rapidly, since developing alternative energy sources not only take time but also require huge investments and infrastructure. An alternative way to reduce emissions in a medium term is to capture the CO{sub 2} from fossil fueled power plants and store it away from the atmosphere. This process system combining a bunch of technologies is called carbon capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture is an important and costly part of CCS and an array of technologies is considered for this. Calcium looping (CaL) is one of such and seems to offer effective and efficient CO{sub 2} separation from fuel oxidation processes. CaL process involves separation of CO{sub 2} at high temperatures (600-700 C) by calcium sorbents (CaO). CO{sub 2} reacts with CaO in a carbonation process and produces CaCO{sub 3}. In a subsequent thermal regeneration (>850 C) called calcination, the CO{sub 2} is released from CaCO{sub 3}. By alternating carbonations and calcinations over multiple cycles, CO{sub 2} is separated from a gas stream. Moreover, the CaL is realised in industrial scale with dual fluidised bed reactors for CO{sub 2} capture (the carbonator) and sorbent regeneration (the calciner). As a process in the development, research is still required in many aspects from thermodynamic modeling to experimental studies. Research works have been carried out in process simulations, sorbent reactivity and optimisation studies in a controlled reactor environment and process parametric studies in a semi-pilot scale CaL test facility

  16. CO2 separation by calcium looping from full and partial fuel oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivalingam, Senthoorselvan

    2013-01-01

    This thesis work deals with the research and development of calcium looping process for CO 2 separation from full and partial fuel oxidation based power generation systems. CO 2 is the main greenhouse gas and undoubtedly a major contributor to the global warming. It is estimated that more than one third of the total anthropogenic CO 2 emissions come from fossil fuel based heat and power generation. Moreover, fossil fuels are unlikely to be phased out rapidly, since developing alternative energy sources not only take time but also require huge investments and infrastructure. An alternative way to reduce emissions in a medium term is to capture the CO 2 from fossil fueled power plants and store it away from the atmosphere. This process system combining a bunch of technologies is called carbon capture and storage (CCS). CO 2 capture is an important and costly part of CCS and an array of technologies is considered for this. Calcium looping (CaL) is one of such and seems to offer effective and efficient CO 2 separation from fuel oxidation processes. CaL process involves separation of CO 2 at high temperatures (600-700 C) by calcium sorbents (CaO). CO 2 reacts with CaO in a carbonation process and produces CaCO 3 . In a subsequent thermal regeneration (>850 C) called calcination, the CO 2 is released from CaCO 3 . By alternating carbonations and calcinations over multiple cycles, CO 2 is separated from a gas stream. Moreover, the CaL is realised in industrial scale with dual fluidised bed reactors for CO 2 capture (the carbonator) and sorbent regeneration (the calciner). As a process in the development, research is still required in many aspects from thermodynamic modeling to experimental studies. Research works have been carried out in process simulations, sorbent reactivity and optimisation studies in a controlled reactor environment and process parametric studies in a semi-pilot scale CaL test facility. ASPEN Plus power plant simulations integrating the CaL based CO 2

  17. Prevalence, distribution, and risk factor for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardjadj, Moustafa

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study using a tested questionnaire was carried out across Algeria between January and June 2014. Our investigation demonstrated that of the 150 flocks visited, 21 were positive for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) with an overall flock prevalence of 14% (95% CI 11.08-16.92%) suggesting that SPGP is endemic in Algeria. Our results showed also that the disease appears only in sheep and no case affecting goats has been reported. For the risk factor analysis, univariate analysis of variables followed by a multiple logistic regression identified steppe region (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 0.87-2.57; P = 0.037), large flocks (OR = 2. 19, 95% CI 1.02-3.36; P = 0.027), and transhumance (OR = 3.98, 95% CI 2.59-5.34; P = 0.021) as risk factors in the spread of the disease. Furthermore, our study revealed that the use of vaccination as preventive measures in the selected flocks decreased the odds for SPGP positivity by 5.78 (95% CI 2.22-9.34; P < 0.001) times compared to non vaccinated flocks. In conclusion, our findings documented an evidence of a widespread distribution and endemic establishment of the SPGP in Algerian sheep population despite the annual vaccination program. Consequently, the vaccination must cover all the Algerian sheep population to improve animal welfare and reduce economic losses associated with outbreak episodes.

  18. Ion-channel genosensor for the detection of specific DNA sequences derived from Plum Pox Virus in plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecka, Kamila; Michalczuk, Lech; Radecka, Hanna; Radecki, Jerzy

    2014-10-09

    A DNA biosensor for detection of specific oligonucleotides sequences of Plum Pox Virus (PPV) in plant extracts and buffer is proposed. The working principles of a genosensor are based on the ion-channel mechanism. The NH2-ssDNA probe was deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface to form an amide bond between the carboxyl group of oxidized electrode surface and amino group from ssDNA probe. The analytical signals generated as a result of hybridization were registered in Osteryoung square wave voltammetry in the presence of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- as a redox marker. The 22-mer and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences derived from PPV and DNA samples from plants infected with PPV were used as targets. Similar detection limits of 2.4 pM (31.0 pg/mL) and 2.3 pM (29.5 pg/mL) in the concentration range 1-8 pM were observed in the presence of the 22-mer ssDNA and 42-mer complementary ssDNA sequences of PPV, respectively. The genosensor was capable of discriminating between samples consisting of extracts from healthy plants and leaf extracts from infected plants in the concentration range 10-50 pg/mL. The detection limit was 12.8 pg/mL. The genosensor displayed good selectivity and sensitivity. The 20-mer partially complementary DNA sequences with four complementary bases and DNA samples from healthy plants used as negative controls generated low signal.

  19. On the formation of nitrogen oxides during the combustion of partially pre-vaporized droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moesl, Klaus Georg

    2012-12-12

    This study contributes to the topic of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) formation at the level of single droplet and droplet array combustion. The influence of the degree of droplet vaporization and the influence of ambient conditions on NO{sub x} emissions are studied in detail by experiments as well as by numerical simulations. Consequently, this study illustrates correlations and dependencies of the most relevant parameters with respect to the formation of NO{sub x}. It merges the fields of droplet pre-vaporization, ignition, combustion, and exhaust gas formation, including a sophisticated approach to NO{sub x} determination. Even though the study was conducted in order to help understand the fundamental process of burning idealized droplets, the processes in spray combustion have also been taken into consideration within its scope. The portability of results obtained from those idealized droplet burning regimes is evaluated for real applications. Thus, this study may also help to derive design recommendations for liquid-fueled combustion devices. While the experimental part focuses on droplet array combustion, the numerical part highlights spherically symmetric single droplet combustion. By performing experiments in a microgravity environment, quasi-spherical conditions were facilitated for droplet burning, and comparability was provided for the experimental and numerical results. A novelty of the numerical part is the investigation of mechanisms of NO{sub x} formation under technically relevant conditions. This includes partial pre-vaporization of the droplets as well as droplet combustion in a hot exhaust gas environment, such as an aero-engine. The results show that the trade-off between ambient temperature and available oxygen determines the NO{sub x} formation of droplets burning in hot exhaust gas. If the ambient temperature is high and there is still sufficient oxygen for full oxidation of the fuel provided by the droplet, the maximum of NOx formation is

  20. Loss of aphid transmissibility of plum pox virus isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamenova, I.; Lohuis, H.; Peters, D.

    2002-01-01

    The aphid transmissibility of seven Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates and the amino acid sequences of their coat proteins were analysed Two aphid transmissible isolates PPV-A and PPV-P contained the DAG amino triplet, while DAL or NAG replaced this triplet in the coat proteins of non-aphid transmissible

  1. Vitiligo iridis and glaucoma: a rare sequelae of small pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Patel, S R; Mohini, P; Venkatesh, R; Sengupta, S

    2015-10-01

    Vitiligo iridis refers to focal areas of iris atrophy as sequelae of small pox infection. We report a series of patients with unilateral vitiligo iridis, some of whom presented with secondary open-angle glaucoma. Three patients with vitiligo iridis underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination including intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, slit lamp biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, and fundus evaluation. Patients' facial features were also documented and photographed. All patients were in their sixth decade. Two out the three had elevated IOP (52 mm Hg and 36 mm Hg) in the same eye as vitiligo iridis, at initial presentation. Gonioscopy showed patchy iris hyperpigmentation and fundus evaluation showed glaucomatous optic disc changes in the involved eye. One patient responded favourably to topical antiglaucoma medications, whereas the other was taken up for combined phacoemulsification-trabeculectomy with good results. The third patient had normal IOP in the involved eye. All three patients gave a history of small pox in childhood and had pitted facial scars typical of previous small pox infection. Vitiligo iridis may be associated with the secondary glaucoma as a long-term sequelae of small pox. It may be prudent to periodically follow-up such patients for development of raised IOP in the future.

  2. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.

  3. Evaluation of Some Fowl Pox, Gumboro and Newcastle Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of live commercial fowl pox (FP), Gumboro disease (GD) and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines manufactured by four laboratories and on sale in Nigeria were tested. One of the nine vaccines yielded Aspergillus sp., two Salmonella sp. and three Escherichia coli when grown on culture media. All the four ND ...

  4. RABBIT POX : II. PATHOLOGY OF THE EPIDEMIC DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, H S

    1934-09-30

    The lesions found in animals with epidemic rabbit pox have been described in this paper. The most distinctive gross lesion in all organs and tissues was the small nodule or papule which was found to consist of mononuclear infiltration and necrosis. Diffuse lesions were also found in which the infiltration was widespread and accompanied by edema, hemorrhage and extensive necrosis of affected tissues and organs. The possibility of the diffuse lesions being due to the action of secondary invaders was considered, but available evidence indicated that the different types, including pneumonia, represented reactions to a single causative agent. Moreover, an intimate relationship was observed to exist between lesions and small blood vessels in which primary endothelial damage was usually apparent. The degree of vascular damage generally corresponded to the extent of the lesion and it is probable that this in turn corresponded to the dose of the causative agent. The close analogy between the clinical manifestations and pathological processes of this disease in the rabbit and small pox in man led to the conclusion that the disease in the rabbit is essentially the same as small pox, and that it is probably produced by a virus closely related to the virus of small pox. Available evidence indicated that the infection originated in the Institute and that it spread in atypical form or masked by some other disease until it reached the breeding colony as a clearly defined epidemic infection.

  5. 75 FR 81087 - Plum Pox Virus; Update of Quarantined Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... for host material. Since the fruit itself is not a vector of the disease, the quarantine imposes no.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The plum pox virus (PPV) is an extremely serious viral disease of plants... fruit that is produced is often misshapen and blemished. PPV is transmitted under natural conditions by...

  6. Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eliza; Joss, Adriano; Emmenegger, Lukas; Kipf, Marco; Wolf, Benjamin; Mohn, Joachim; Wunderlin, Pascal

    2015-10-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) production pathways in a single stage, continuously fed partial nitritation-anammox reactor were investigated using online isotopic analysis of offgas N2O with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS). N2O emissions increased when reactor operating conditions were not optimal, for example, high dissolved oxygen concentration. SP measurements indicated that the increase in N2O was due to enhanced nitrifier denitrification, generally related to nitrite build-up in the reactor. The results of this study confirm that process control via online N2O monitoring is an ideal method to detect imbalances in reactor operation and regulate aeration, to ensure optimal reactor conditions and minimise N2O emissions. Under normal operating conditions, the N2O isotopic site preference (SP) was much higher than expected - up to 40‰ - which could not be explained within the current understanding of N2O production pathways. Various targeted experiments were conducted to investigate the characteristics of N2O formation in the reactor. The high SP measurements during both normal operating and experimental conditions could potentially be explained by a number of hypotheses: i) unexpectedly strong heterotrophic N2O reduction, ii) unknown inorganic or anammox-associated N2O production pathway, iii) previous underestimation of SP fractionation during N2O production from NH2OH, or strong variations in SP from this pathway depending on reactor conditions. The second hypothesis - an unknown or incompletely characterised production pathway - was most consistent with results, however the other possibilities cannot be discounted. Further experiments are needed to distinguish between these hypotheses and fully resolve N2O production pathways in PN-anammox systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization geometries of a vortex gliding-arc reactor for partial oxidation of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guofeng, Xu; Xinwei, Ding

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the geometry of gliding-arc reactor – such as distance between the electrodes, outlet diameter, and inlet position – on the reactor characteristics (methane conversion, hydrogen yield, and energy efficiency) have not been fully investigated. In this paper, AC gliding-arc reactors including the vortex flow configuration are designed to produce hydrogen from the methane by partial oxidation. The influence of vortex flow configuration on the reactor characteristics is also studied by varying the inlet position. When the inlet of the gliding-arc reactor is positioned close to the outlet, reverse vortex flow reactor (RVFR), the maximum energy efficiency reaches 50% and the yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide are 40% and 65%, respectively. As the distance between electrodes increases from 5 mm to 15 mm, both hydrogen yield and energy efficiency increase approximately 10% for the RVFR. The energy efficiency and hydrogen yield are highest when the ratio of the outlet diameter to the inner diameter is 0.5 for the RVFR. Experimental results indicate that the flow field in the plasma reactor has an important influence on the reactor performance. Furthermore, hydrogen production increases as the number of feed gas flows in contact with the plasma zone increases. -- Highlights: ► Gliding-arc reactors were designed to produce hydrogen for studying the characteristics of the vortex flow reactor. ► Hydrogen yield of reverse vortex flow reactor was 10% higher than that of forward vortex flow reactor. ► Maximum energy efficiency was 50% for reverse vortex flow reactor. ► If discharge power was supplied to the reactors, the reactor performance increased with increasing distance between electrodes. ► Optimum ratio of the outlet and inner diameter was 1/2.

  8. Effects of dissolved oxygen and pH on nitrous oxide production rates in autotrophic partial nitrification granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Rathnayake M L D; Oshiki, Mamoru; Ishii, Satoshi; Segawa, Takahiro; Satoh, Hisashi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    The effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH on nitrous oxide (N2O) production rates and pathways in autotrophic partial nitrification (PN) granules were investigated at the granular level. N2O was primarily produced by betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, mainly Nitrosomonas europaea, in the oxic surface layer (production increased with increasing bulk DO concentration owing to activation of the ammonia (i.e., hydroxylamine) oxidation in this layer. The highest N2O emissions were observed at pH 7.5, although the ammonia oxidation rate was unchanged between pH 6.5 and 8.5. Overall, the results of this study suggest that in situ analyses of PN granules are essential to gaining insight into N2O emission mechanisms in a granule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reactions of POxCly- ions with O2(a 1[Delta]g), H2O, and Cl2 at 298 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midey, Anthony J.; Dotan, Itzhak; Viggiano, A. A.

    2008-06-01

    The rate constants and product branching ratios for the reactions of phosphorus oxychloride anions, POxCly- for x = 1-2 and y = 1-3, with O2(a 1[Delta]g), Cl2, and H2O have been measured in a selected ion flow tube (SIFT) at 298 K. A mixture of O2(a 1[Delta]g) in O2 has been produced using a recently designed chemical singlet oxygen generator (sparger) with an emission detection scheme adopted previously in our laboratory. The experiments continue a series of investigations into the oxidation reactions of POxCly- ions, searching for pathways to the terminal PO2- and PO3- ions observed in combustion chemistry with POCl3 present. None of the POxCly- ions react with H2O or O2(a 1[Delta]g). The O2(a 1[Delta]g) rate constants have a limit of <1 × 10-11 cm3 s-1, except for PO2Cl- where a limit of <5 × 10-11 cm3 s-1 has been determined. The H2O rate constants have limits of <1 × 10-11 cm3 s-1. All of the POxCly- ions react with Cl2, excluding PO3- and PO2Cl2-. Depending on the reactant ion, Cl-, Cl2- or PO2Cl2- product ions form.

  10. The partial pressure of oxygen affects biomarkers of oxidative stress in cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, E F; Olsvik, P A; Berntssen, M H G; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K E

    2008-09-01

    Oxidative stress, the imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and the cellular detoxification of these reactive compounds, is believed to be involved in the pathology of various diseases. Several biomarkers for oxidative stress have been proposed to serve as tools in toxicological and ecotoxicological research. Not only may exposure to various pro-oxidants create conditions of cellular oxidative stress, but hyperoxic conditions may also increase the production of reactive oxygen species. The objective of the current study was to determine the extent to which differences in oxygen partial pressure would affect biomarkers of oxidative stress in a primary culture of hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Membrane integrity, metabolic activity, levels of total and oxidized glutathione (tGSH/GSSG) was determined, as well as mRNA expression levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), gamma-glutamyl-cystein synthetase (GCS) and thioredoxin (TRX). The results show that different biomarkers of oxidative stress are affected when the cell culture is exposed to atmospheric oxygen, and that changes such as increased GSSG content and induction of GSSG-R and GSH-Px can be reduced by culturing the cells under lower oxygen tension. Oxygen tension may thus influence results of in vitro based cell research and is particularly important when assessing parameters in the antioxidant defence system. Further research is needed to establish the magnitude of this effect in different cellular systems.

  11. SUPERCRITICAL WATER PARTIAL OXIDATION PHASE I - PILOT-SCALE TESTING/FEASIBILTY SUDIES FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SPRITZER.M; HONG,G

    2005-01-01

    General Atomics (GA) is developing Supercritical Water Partial Oxidation (SWPO) as a means of producing hydrogen from low-grade biomass and other waste feeds. The Phase I Pilot-scale Testing/Feasibility Studies have been successfully completed and the results of that effort are described in this report. The key potential advantage of the SWPO process is the use of partial oxidation in-situ to rapidly heat the gasification medium, resulting in less char formation and improved hydrogen yield. Another major advantage is that the high-pressure, high-density aqueous environment is ideal for reacting and gasifying organics of all types. The high water content of the medium encourages formation of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich products and is especially compatible with high water content feeds such as biomass materials. The high water content of the medium is also effective for gasification of hydrogen-poor materials such as coal. A versatile pilot plant for exploring gasification in supercritical water has been established at GA's facilities in San Diego. The Phase I testing of the SWPO process with wood and ethanol mixtures demonstrated gasification efficiencies of about 90%, comparable to those found in prior laboratory-scale SCW gasification work carried out at the University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM), as well as other biomass gasification experience with conventional gasifiers. As in the prior work at UHM, a significant amount of the hydrogen found in the gas phase products is derived from the water/steam matrix. The studies at UHM utilized an indirectly heated gasifier with an activated carbon catalyst. In contrast, the GA studies utilized a directly heated gasifier without catalyst, plus a surrogate waste fuel. Attainment of comparable gasification efficiencies without catalysis is an important advancement for the GA process, and opens the way for efficient hydrogen production from low-value, dirty feed materials. The Phase I results indicate that a practical

  12. Direct Synthesis of Methanol by Partial Oxidation of Methane with Oxygen over Cobalt Modified Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Krisyuningsih Krisnandi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Partial oxidation of methane over mesoporous catalyst cobalt modified H-ZSM-5 has been carried out. Mesoporous Na-ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 35.4 was successfully synthesized using double template method which has high surface area (450 m2/g and average pore diameter distribution of 1.9 nm. The as-synthesized Na-ZSM-5 was converted to H-ZSM-5 through multi-exchange treatment with ammonium ion solution, causing decreased crystallinity and surface area, but increased porous diameter, due to dealumination during treatment process. Moreover, H-ZSM-5 was loaded with cobalt (Co = 2.5% w by the incipient impregnation method and calcined at 550 °C. Partial oxidation of methane was performed in the batch reactor with 0.75 bar methane and 2 bar of nitrogen (with impurities of 0.5% oxygen as the input at various reaction time (30, 60 and 120 min. The reaction results show that cobalt species in catalyst has an important role, because H-ZSM-5 cannot produce methanol in partial oxidation of methane. The presence of molecular oxygen increased the percentage of methanol yield. The reaction is time-dependent with the highest methanol yield (79% was acquired using Co/H-ZSM-5 catalyst for 60 min.

  13. Protein oxidation in muscle foods: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marianne; Heinonen, Marina; Baron, Caroline P.

    2011-01-01

    insight into the reactions involved in the oxidative modifications undergone by muscle proteins. Moreover, a variety of products derived from oxidized muscle proteins, including cross-links and carbonyls, have been identified. The impact of oxidation on protein functionality and on specific meat quality...... and consequences of Pox in muscle foods. The efficiency of different anti-oxidant strategies against the oxidation of muscle proteins is also reported.......Protein oxidation in living tissues is known to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of relevant degenerative diseases, whereas the occurrence and impact of protein oxidation (Pox) in food systems have been ignored for decades. Currently, the increasing interest among food scientists...

  14. A novel partial SOI LDMOSFET with periodic buried oxide for breakdown voltage and self heating effect enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali Mahabadi, S. E.; Rajabi, Saba; Loiacono, Julian

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a partial silicon on insulator (PSOI) lateral double diffused metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (LDMOSFET) with periodic buried oxide layer (PBO) for enhancing breakdown voltage (BV) and self-heating effects (SHEs) is proposed for the first time. This new structure is called periodic buried oxide partial silicon on insulator (PBO-PSOI). In this structure, periodic small pieces of SiO2 were used as the buried oxide (BOX) layer in PSOI to modulate the electric field in the structure. It was demonstrated that the electric field is distributed more evenly by producing additional electric field peaks, which decrease the common peaks near the drain and gate junctions in the PBO-PSOI structure. Hence, the area underneath the electric field curve increases which leads to higher breakdown voltage. Also a p-type Si window was introduced in the source side to force the substrate to share the vertical voltage drop, leading to a higher vertical BV. Furthermore, the Si window under the source and those between periodic pieces of SiO2 create parallel conduction paths between the active layer and substrate thereby alleviating the SHEs. Simulations with the two dimensional ATLAS device simulator from the Silvaco suite of simulation tools show that the BV of PBO-PSOI is 100% higher than that of the conventional partial SOI (C-PSOI) structure. Furthermore the PBO-PSOI structure alleviates SHEs to a greater extent than its C-PSOI counterpart. The achieved drain current for the PBO-PSOI structure (100 μA), at drain-source voltage of VDS = 100 V and gate-source voltage of VGS = 25 V, is shown to be significantly larger than that in C-PSOI and fully depleted SOI (FD-SOI) structures (87 μA and 51 μA respectively). Drain current can be further improved at the expense of BV by increasing the doping of the drift region.

  15. Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M A; Khafagi, M H

    2016-12-01

    To isolate, identify, and differentiate Capripoxviruses (CaPV) (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus) infections by egg inoculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) in clinically affected animals in Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. A total of 37 scab samples were collected from clinically suspected field cases of sheep pox and goat pox. These samples were collected during (2014-2015) during different outbreaks of sheep pox and goat pox from Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. The samples were subjected to egg inoculation, TEM, and (RPO30) gene-based PCR. By using the egg inoculation: Previously prepared 37 scab samples (n=23 sheep and n=14 goats) were inoculated on the chorioallantoic membrane of specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (12 days old age). In the presence of the suitable percentage of humidity and candling, the inoculated eggs were incubated at 37°C. By using the TEM: Samples showed positive pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membranes, were fixed in glutaraldehyde, then processed and sectioned for TEM. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, 30 of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened. Using the egg inoculation, a characteristic pock lesions for poxviruses were seen in 30/37 (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) (81.08%). Using the TEM, examination of the positive samples after egg inoculation revealed positive result in 23/30 (n=15 sheep and n=8 goats) (76.66%). The positive results represented by the presence of negatively stained oval-shape virus particles. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, out of 30 total of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened, 27 (90%) samples (n=17 sheep and n=10 goats) were positive. The given band sizes of sheep and goats were 172 and 152 bp, respectively. PCR assay depended on RPO30 gene can be used lonely for the

  16. Efficiency gain of solid oxide fuel cell systems by using anode offgas recycle - Results for a small scale propane driven unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Oelze, Jana; Lindermeir, Andreas; Spitta, Christian; Steffen, Michael; Küster, Torben; Chen, Shaofei; Schlitzberger, Christian; Leithner, Reinhard

    The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation.

  17. An Outbreak of Sheep Pox in Zabajkalskij kray of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksyutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Agafonov, A P; Taranov, O S; Glotov, A G; Miheev, V N; Shchelkunov, S N; Sergeev, A N

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we investigated recent sheep pox outbreaks that occurred in Ononsky and Borzunsky regions of Zabajkalskij kray of Russia. The outbreaks involved in 2756 animals of which 112 were infected and 3 were slaughtered. Samples of injured skin of infected sheep were analysed by electron microscopy and CaPV-specific P32 gene amplification. Following sequence analysis of entire P32 gene showed that both specimens were identical to the sequence of several sheep poxvirus isolates from China and India. The close location of China to the last decade's Russian outbreaks suggest that possible future outbreaks in Russia could occur along the border regions with countries where sheep and goat pox are not controlled. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Emergence of a Novel Avian Pox Disease in British Tit Species

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Becki; Lachish, Shelly; Colvile, Katie M.; Durrant, Chris; Peck, Kirsi M.; Toms, Mike P.; Sheldon, Ben C.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major) from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Br...

  19. Epidemic pox and malaria in native forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C. T.; Dusek, R. J.; Iko, W. M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies by Warner in the 1950’s and van Riper in the 1970’s identified disease as a potential limiting factor in the distribution and abundance of Hawaii’s native forest birds. Mosquito-transmitted protozoan and viral infections caused by malarial parasites and pox virus were especially significant. Both organisms were introduced to the islands after the arrival of Europeans and are thought to have affected avian communities the same way that measles devastated native Hawaiian peoples.

  20. Applications of pox virus vectors to vaccination: an update.

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti, E

    1996-01-01

    Recombinant pox viruses have been generated for vaccination against heterologous pathogens. Amongst these, the following are notable examples. (i) The engineering of the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus to express the rabies virus glycoprotein. When applied in baits, this recombinant has been shown to vaccinate the red fox in Europe and raccoons in the United States, stemming the spread of rabies virus infection in the wild. (ii) A fowlpox-based recombinant expressing the Newcastle disease...

  1. Case report: Pox in the mourning dove in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Herman, C.M.; King, E.S.

    1960-01-01

    Although trichomoniasis has received attention as a cause of death among mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura),  ittle work has been done on other diseases of this species. Kossack and Hanson2 reported the occurrence of pox lesions in mourning doves in Illinois. Rosen3 reported that "pigeon pox" had caused a severe mortality in a mourning dove flock near Yreka, Siskiyou County, California. A severe outbreak of pox that occurred in a captive flock of mourning doves at the Patuxent Research Refuge further emphasizes the need for more study of this disease as a cause of dove mortality. Twenty-two mourning doves were live trapped on the Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland, in September, 1958. The doves were examined for presence of Trichomonas gallinae and, when found to be free of trichomonads, were made the nucleus of a captive dove colony. A mourning dove that had a small, pink nodule on the left eyelid was captured on the Agricultural Research Center on September 17, 1958. The nodule was excised and the cut surface was treated with tincture of merthiolate. The dove then was added to the dove colony.

  2. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veirs, Douglas K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  3. Oscillatory behaviour of catalytic properties, structure and temperature during the catalytic partial oxidation of methane on Pd/Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimmerle, B.; Baiker, A.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2010-01-01

    Pd/Al2O3 catalysts showed an oscillatory behaviour during the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of methane, which was investigated simultaneously by IR-thermography, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and online mass-spectrometry to correlate the temperature, state of the catalyst and catalytic...... to self-reduction leading to extinction of the process. The latter was the key driver for the oscillations and thus gave additional insight into the mechanism of partial methane oxidation....

  4. Carbon-coated magnetic palladium: applications in partial oxidation of alcohols and coupling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic carbon supported Pd catalyst has been synthesized via in situ generation of nanoferrites and incorporation of carbon from renewable cellulose via calcination; catalyst can be used for oxidation of alcohols, amination reaction and arylation of aryl halides (cross coupli...

  5. In situ photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation for O2 translational kinetic energy induced oxidation processes of partially-oxidized Si(001) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2001-01-01

    The influence of translational kinetic energy of incident O 2 molecules for the passive oxidation process of partially-oxidized Si(001) surfaces has been studied by photoemission spectroscopy. The translational kinetic energy of O 2 molecules was controlled up to 3 eV by a supersonic seed beam technique using a high temperature nozzle. Two translational kinetic energy thresholds (1.0 eV and 2.6 eV) were found out in accordance with the first-principles calculation for the oxidation of clean surfaces. Si-2p photoemission spectra measured in representative translational kinetic energies revealed that the translational kinetic energy dependent oxidation of dimers and the second layer (subsurface) backbonds were caused by the direct dissociative chemisorption of O 2 molecules. Moreover, the difference in chemical bonds for oxygen atoms was found out to be as low and high binding energy components in O-1s photoemission spectra. Especially, the low binding energy component increased with increasing the translational kinetic energy that indicates the translational kinetic energy induced oxidation in backbonds. (author)

  6. Partial oxidation of dimethyl ether using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al prepared through the anodic oxidation of aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B Y; Lee, K H; Kim, K; Byun, D J; Ha, H P; Byun, J Y

    2011-07-01

    The partial oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) was investigated using the structured catalyst Rh/Al2O3/Al. The porous Al2O3 layer was synthesized on the aluminum plate through anodic oxidation in an oxalic-acid solution. It was observed that about 20 nm nanopores were well developed in the Al2O3 layer. The thickness of Al2O3 layer can be adjusted by controlling the anodizing time and current density. After pore-widening and hot-water treatment, the Al2O3/Al plate was calcined at 500 degrees C for 3 h. The obtained delta-Al2O3 had a specific surface area of 160 m2/g, making it fit to be used as a catalyst support. A microchannel reactor was designed and fabricated to evaluate the catalytic activity of Rh/Al2O3/Al in the partial oxidation of DME. The structured catalyst showed an 86% maximum hydrogen yield at 450 degrees C. On the other hand, the maximum syngas yield by a pack-bed-type catalyst could be attained by using a more than fivefold Rh amount compared to that used in the structured Rh/Al2O3/Al catalyst.

  7. Strategies for catalyst development: possibilities of the ``rational approach`` illustrated with partial oxidation reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W.; Schedel-Niedrig, T.; Schloegl, R. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany). Abt. Oberflaechenphysik

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses two petrochemical selective oxidation reactions namely the practised formation of styrene (STY) and the desired oxidative functionalisation of propane. The present knowledge about the mode of operation of oxide catalysts is critically considered. The dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene (EB) should be described by an oxidehydration with water acting as oxidant. The potential role of the coke formed during catalytic reaction as co-catalyst will be discussed. Selective oxidation is connected with the participation of lattice oxygen mechanism which transforms unselective gas phase oxygen into selective oxygen. The atomistic description of this process is still quite unclear as well as the electron structural properties of the activated oxygen atom. The Role of solid state acidity as compared to the role of lattice oxygen is much less well investigated modern multiphase-multielement oxide (MMO) catalysts. The rationale is that the significant efforts made to improve current MMO systems by chemical modifications can be very much more fruitful when in a first step the mode of action of a catalyst is clarified on the basis of suitable experiments. Such time-consuming experiments at the beginning of a campaign for catalyst improvement pay back their investment in later stages of the project when strategies of chemical development can be derived on grounds of understanding. (orig.)

  8. The use of commercial microwave dissolution equipment for the fast and reliable dissolution of high-fired POX and MOX samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, J.; McInnes, C.; Firkin, S.

    1998-09-01

    The use of commercially available microwave dissolution equipment for the fast and reliable dissolution of high-fired plutonium dioxide (POX) and mixed oxide (MOX) samples has been evaluated for application to Safeguards Analysis. Under the auspices of the UK R and D Support Programme to the IAEA, equipment has been purchased and tested for the high-pressure microwave dissolution of POX samples fired to 1250 deg. C and MOX samples fired to 1600 deg. C, in concentrated nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture. Considerable problems were encountered during development of procedures for microwave dissolution, resulting largely from sudden changes in pressure within dissolution vessels, which resulted in actuation of safety interlocks designed to prevent overpressurisation. These difficulties were alleviated by controlling the microwave power to reduce the reaction temperature and pressure, and also by introducing additional safety valves into the digestion vessels. Using microwave digestion, dissolution times for high fired POX and MOX samples were substantially reduced. Samples which required ca. 10 hours to dissolve by conventional means could be dissolved in ca. 80 minutes by microwave digestion. Whilst a similar performance in terms of plutonium recovery was achieved for some materials by microwave and conventional dissolution, for other materials microwave dissolution gave higher plutonium recoveries but with poorer precision. This suggests the possible presence of some plutonium oxide within high-fired materials which is more difficult to dissolve than the bulk, and which is perhaps dissolved to an additional but variable degree by the current microwave dissolution procedure. Microwave dissolution has been demonstrated to increase the speed of dissolution of high-fired POX and MOX materials, compared with conventional dissolution. However, the technique has not yet proved satisfactory for the complete dissolution of all high-fired materials tested because of

  9. Borax partially prevents neurologic disability and oxidative stress in experimental spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Emine Rabia; Gökce, Emre Cemal; Sönmez, Mehmet Akif; Namuslu, Mehmet; Gökce, Aysun; Bodur, A Said

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential effects of borax on ischemia/reperfusion injury of the rat spinal cord. Twenty-one Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups: sham (no ischemia/reperfusion), ischemia/reperfusion, and borax (ischemia/reperfusion + borax); each group was consist of 7 animals. Infrarenal aortic cross clamp was applied for 30 minutes to generate spinal cord ischemia. Animals were evaluated functionally with the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scoring system and inclined-plane test. The spinal cord tissue samples were harvested to analyze tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase activity, xanthine oxidase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and total oxidant status and to perform histopathological examination. At the 72nd hour after ischemia, the borax group had significantly higher Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan and inclined-plane scores than those of ischemia/reperfusion group. Histopathological examination of spinal cord tissues in borax group showed that treatment with borax significantly reduced the degree of spinal cord edema, inflammation, and tissue injury disclosed by light microscopy. Xanthine oxidase activity and total oxidant status levels of the ischemia/reperfusion group were significantly higher than those of the sham and borax groups (P borax group were significantly higher than those of the ischemia/reperfusion group (P borax groups in terms of total antioxidant capacity levels (P > .05). The nitric oxide levels and nitric oxide synthase activity of all groups were similar (P > .05). Borax treatment seems to protect the spinal cord against injury in a rat ischemia/reperfusion model and improve neurological outcome. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrous oxide production in intermittently aerated Partial Nitritation-Anammox reactor: oxic N2O production dominates and relates with ammonia removal rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Jan-Michael; Jensen, Marlene Mark; Smets, Barth F.

    2018-01-01

    Emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide from the Partial Nitritation-Anammox process are of concern and can determine the carbon footprint of the process. In order to reduce nitrous oxide emissions intermittent aeration regimes have been shown to be a promising mode of operation, possibly due...

  11. 75 FR 20558 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plum Pox Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ...] Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Plum Pox Compensation AGENCY... destroyed to eradicate plum pox virus. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on plum pox compensation, contact Dr. S. Anwar Rizvi, Senior...

  12. 40 CFR 174.531 - Coat protein of plum pox virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat protein of plum pox virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.531 Coat protein of plum pox virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of the coat protein of plum pox virus in or on the...

  13. Fuel processor integrated H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation technology for sulfur removal in fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, T.H.; Berry, D.A.; Lyons, K.D.; Beer, S.K.; Freed, A.D. [U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (USA). National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-12-01

    H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation technology with an activated carbon catalyst was found to be a promising method for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from fuel cell hydrocarbon feedstocks. Three different fuel cell feedstocks were considered for analysis: sour natural gas, sour effluent from a liquid middle distillate fuel processor and a Texaco O{sub 2}-blown coal-derived synthesis gas. The H{sub 2}S catalytic partial oxidation reaction, its integratability into fuel cell power plants with different hydrocarbon feedstocks and its salient features are discussed. Experimental results indicate that H{sub 2}S concentration can be removed down to the part-per-million level in these plants. Additionally, a power law rate expression was developed and reaction kinetics compared to prior literature. The activation energy for this reaction was determined to be 34.4 kJ/g mol with the reaction being first order in H{sub 2}S and 0.3 order in O{sub 2}. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Partial oxidation of methane to methanol over catalyst ZSM-5 from coal fly ash and rice husk ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirda Yanti Fusia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane is one of the greenhouse gases that can be converted into liquid fuels such as methanol to retain most of the energy of methane and produce a cleaner environment. The conversion of methane to methanol using ZMS-5 represents a breakthrough in the utilization of methane. However, material sources for zeolite synthesis as catalyst usually are pro-analysis grade materials, which are expensive. Therefore, in this research, coal fly ash and rice husk ash were used as raw materials for mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis. First, coal fly ash and rice husk were subjected to pre-treatment to extract silicate (SiO44− and aluminate (AlO45− and impurities separation. The ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized through hydrothermal treatment using two types of templates. After ZSM-5 was synthesized, it was modified with Cobalt through impregnation method. The catalytic activity of both ZSM-5 and Co/ZSM-5 zeolites as heterogeneous catalysts in partial oxidation of methane were preliminary tested and compared with that commercial one. The result showed that the zeolite catalyst ZSM-5 from fly ash coal and rice husk ash has the potential to be used as catalysts in the partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  15. Oxidation of X20 in Water Vapour: The Effect of Temperature and Oxygen Partial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Montgomery, Melanie; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of X20 in various mixtures of water, oxygen and hydrogen was investigated at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C (time: 336 h). The samples were characterised using reflected light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy...

  16. Catalytic ring-​opening copolymerization of limonene oxide and phthalic anhydride : toward partially renewable polyesters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nejad, E.; Pionasari, A; Melis, van C.G.W.; Koning, C.E.; Duchateau, R.

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic ring-¿opening copolymn. of limonene oxide with phthalic anhydride was performed applying metal t-¿Bu-¿salophen complexes (t-¿Bu-¿salophen)¿MX; M = Cr, X = Cl (1)¿, M = Al, X = Cl (2)¿, M = Co, X = OAc (3)¿, M = Mn, X = Cl (4)¿, t-¿Bu-¿salophen =

  17. Catalysis by Atomic-Sized Centers: Methane Activation for Partial Oxidation and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-21

    example, H adsorbed alone on an oxide surface will bind to oxygen to form a hydroxide . However, if a Lewis base (e.g. any electron donor) is...that on a gold surface, which is not surprising considering the bonding character between the cluster and metal surfaces. The high mobility verifies

  18. Oxidation behavior of V-Cr-Ti alloys in low-partial-pressure oxygen environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Uz, M.

    1998-01-01

    A test program is in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the effect of pO 2 in the exposure environment on oxygen uptake, scaling kinetics, and scale microstructure in V-Cr-Ti alloys. The data indicate that the oxidation process follows parabolic kinetics in all of the environments used in the present study. From the weight change data, parabolic rate constants were evaluated as a function of temperature and exposure environment. The temperature dependence of the parabolic rate constants was described by an Arrhenius relationship. Activation energy for the oxidation process was fairly constant in the oxygen pressure range of 1 x 10 -6 to 1 x 10 -1 torr for both the alloys. The activation energy for oxidation in air was significantly lower than in low-pO 2 environments, and for oxidation in pure O 2 at 760 torr was much lower than in low-pO 2 environments. X-ray diffraction analysis of the specimens showed that VO 2 was the dominant phase in low-pO 2 environments, while V 2 O 5 was dominant in air and in pure oxygen at 76f0 torr

  19. [EFFECTIVENESS OF PREVENTIVE VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS OF CHICKEN POX IN MILITARY COLLECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubodelov, D V; Rybin, V V; Rikhter, V V; Yaroslavtsev, V V; Gritsik, A A; Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Semenenko, T A; Kuzin, S N

    2015-01-01

    Study the effectiveness of preventive vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox in military collectives. In the focus of chicken pox, 200 servicemen of the new addition by conscription were immunized once against chicken pox; 97 servicemen by conscription of the new addition (comparison group) were not vaccinated. Epidemiologic and immunologic effectiveness of conduction of preventive vaccine prophylaxis in chicken pox focus were studied. In the group of 200 soldiers, that were present in the focus of infection and were immunized once against chicken pox, only 2 cases of this disease were registered (10 per thousand). In the comparison group, that consisted of 97 unvaccinated servicemen, chicken pox disease was registered in 7 individuals (72 per thousand). Epidemiologic effectiveness of preventive vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox amounted to 86%. Immunologic effectiveness of vaccination 2-3 weeks after the immunization was 42%, and 2 months after--44%. Local reactions in the form of hyperemia (up to 1.5 cm) and edema were noted in 10% of the vaccinated at the location of preparation administration; in 1.7%--general reaction in the form of temperature increase to 37.8°C was observed. Post-vaccinal complications in the immunized group were not detected. Preventive vaccination of servicemen allows to minimize the spread of chicken pox, however can not serve as means of complete elimination of the infection from military collectives.

  20. Cloning and sequencing of phenol oxidase 1 (pox1) gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gene (pox1) encoding a phenol oxidase 1 from Pleurotus ostreatus was sequenced and the corresponding pox1-cDNA was also synthesized, cloned and sequenced. The isolated gene is flanked by an upstream region called the promoter (399 bp) prior to the start codon (ATG). The putative metalresponsive elements ...

  1. Nitrous oxide production pathways in a partial nitritation-anammox reactor: Isotopic evidence for nitrous oxide production associated anaerobic ammonium oxidation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlin, P.; Harris, E. J.; Joss, A.; Emmenegger, L.; Kipf, M.; Mohn, J.; Siegrist, H.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a strong greenhouse gas and a major sink for stratospheric ozone. In biological wastewater treatment N2O can be produced via several pathways. This study investigates the dynamics of N2O emissions from a nitritation-anammox reactor, and links its interpretation to the nitrogen and oxygen isotopic signature of the emitted N2O. A 400-litre single-stage nitritation-anammox reactor was operated and continuously fed with digester liquid. The isotopic composition of N2O emissions was monitored online with quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy (QCLAS; Aerodyne Research, Inc.; Waechter et al., 2008). Dissolved ammonium and nitrate were monitored online (ISEmax, Endress + Hauser), while nitrite was measured with test strips (Nitrite-test 0-24mgN/l, Merck). Table 1. Summary of experiments conducted to understand N2O emissions Experimental conditions O2[mgO2/L] NO2-[mgN/L] NH4+[mgN/L] N2O/NH4+[%] Normal operation production pathway, which is hypothesized to be mediated by anammox activity (Figure 1). A less likely explanation is that the SP of N2O was increased by partial N2O reduction by heterotrophic denitrification. Various experiments were conducted to further investigate N2O formation pathways in the reactor. Our data reveal that N2O emissions increased when reactor operation was not ideal, for example when dissolved oxygen was too high (Table 1). SP measurements confirmed that these N2O peaks were due to enhanced nitrifier denitrification, generally related to nitrite build-up in the reactor (Figure 1; Table 1). Overall, process control via online N2O monitoring was confirmed to be an ideal method to detect imbalances in reactor operation and regulate aeration, to ensure optimal reactor conditions and minimise N2O emissions. ReferencesWaechter H. et al. (2008) Optics Express, 16: 9239-9244. Wunderlin, P et al. (2013) Environmental Science & Technology 47: 1339-1348.

  2. A new partial SOI-LDMOSFET with a modified buried oxide layer for improving self-heating and breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali Mahabadi, S E; Orouji, Ali A; Keshavarzi, P; Moghadam, Hamid Amini

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, we propose a partial silicon-on-insulator (P-SOI) lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor (LDMOSFET) with a modified buried layer in order to improve breakdown voltage (BV) and self-heating effects (SHEs). The main idea of this work is to control the electric field by shaping the buried layer. With two steps introduced in the buried layer, the electric field distribution is modified. Also a P-type window introduced makes the substrate share the vertical voltage drop, leading to a high vertical BV. Moreover, four interface electric field peaks are introduced by the buried P-layer, the Si window and two steps, which modulate the electric field in the SOI layer and the substrate. Hence, a more uniform electric field is obtained; consequently, a high BV is achieved. Furthermore, the Si window creates a conduction path between the active layer and substrate and alleviates the SHE. Two-dimensional simulations show that the BV of double step partial silicon on insulator is nearly 69% higher and alleviates SHEs 17% in comparison with its single step partial SOI counterpart and nearly 265% higher and alleviate SHEs 18% in comparison with its conventional SOI counterpart

  3. Comparison of partial and full nitrification processes applied for treating high-strength nitrogen wastewaters: microbial ecology through nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joon Ho; Kwan, Tiffany; Chandran, Kartik

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the microbial ecology, gene expression, biokinetics, and N2O emissions from a lab-scale bioreactor operated sequentially in full-nitrification and partial-nitrification modes. Based on sequencing of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) populations during full- and partial-nitrification modes were distinct from one another. The concentrations of AOB (XAOB) and their respiration rates during full- and partial-nitrification modes were statistically similar, whereas the concentrations of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (XNOB) and their respiration rates declined significantly after the switch from full- to partial-nitrification. The transition from full-nitrification to partial nitrification resulted in a protracted transient spike of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions, which later stabilized. The trends in N2O and NO emissions correlated well with trends in the expression of nirK and norB genes that code for the production of these gases in AOB. Both the transient and stabilized N2O and NO emissions during partial nitrification were statistically higher than those during steady-state full-nitrification. Based on these results, partial nitrification strategies for biological nitrogen removal, although attractive for their reduced operating costs and energy demand, may need to be optimized against the higher carbon foot-print attributed to their N2O emissions.

  4. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of sheep pox and goat pox viruses in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, R K; Pandey, A B

    2016-06-01

    A Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the highly conserved DNA polymerase gene of capripox virus genome was developed and evaluated for rapid detection of sheep pox and goat pox viruses. The optimized LAMP assay is found specific and sensitive for amplification of target DNA with a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% and 100% respectively compared to quantitative PCR. The detection rate of LAMP, PCR and Q-PCR assays is found to be 81.5%, 67% and 83% respectively. This LAMP assay has the potential for rapid clinical diagnosis and surveillance of sheep pox and goat pox in field diagnostic laboratories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased penile expression of transforming growth factor and elevated systemic oxidative stress in rabbits with chronic partial bladder outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W-Y; Chang, P-J; Lin, Y-P; Wu, S-B; Chen, C-S; Levin, R M; Wei, Y-H

    2012-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to support the direct link between obstructive bladder dysfunction and erectile dysfunction (ED). However, there have been few pathophysiological studies to determine the relationship between lower urinary tract syndrome (LUTS) and ED. As the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) that induces the synthesis of collagen in the penile tissues is critical for the development of ED, the first aim of this study was to investigate the expression of TGF-β1 in the penis from male rabbits with chronic partial bladder outlet obstruction (PBOO). Besides, it has been suggested that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanism of ED. Thus, the second aim of this study was to further investigate whether the urinary or serum oxidative stress markers are involved in chronic PBOO-induced penile dysfunction. A total of 16 male New Zealand White rabbits were separated equally into four groups: a control group and PBOO groups obstructed for 2, 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Using the RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, a progressive increase of TGF-β1 in penis was found at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after obstruction. Moreover, the biomarkers for oxidative stress or oxidative damage were significantly detected in the penis of rabbits after PBOO, which include the enhancement of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine and plasma, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), as well as reduction of glutathione (GSH). On the basis of our results, the increase of TGF-β1 and elevated systemic oxidative stress may play key roles to contribute to penile dysfunction after chronic PBOO. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Becki; Lachish, Shelly; Colvile, Katie M; Durrant, Chris; Peck, Kirsi M; Toms, Mike P; Sheldon, Ben C; Cunningham, Andrew A

    2012-01-01

    Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major) from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents) outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents). The majority (90%) of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3%) than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%). Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  7. Emergence of a novel avian pox disease in British tit species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becki Lawson

    Full Text Available Avian pox is a viral disease with a wide host range. In Great Britain, avian pox in birds of the Paridae family was first diagnosed in a great tit (Parus major from south-east England in 2006. An increasing number of avian pox incidents in Paridae have been reported each year since, indicative of an emergent infection. Here, we utilise a database of opportunistic reports of garden bird mortality and morbidity to analyse spatial and temporal patterns of suspected avian pox throughout Great Britain, 2006-2010. Reports of affected Paridae (211 incidents outnumbered reports in non-Paridae (91 incidents. The majority (90% of Paridae incidents involved great tits. Paridae pox incidents were more likely to involve multiple individuals (77.3% than were incidents in non-Paridae hosts (31.9%. Unlike the small wart-like lesions usually seen in non-Paridae with avian pox in Great Britain, lesions in Paridae were frequently large, often with an ulcerated surface and caseous core. Spatial analyses revealed strong clustering of suspected avian pox incidents involving Paridae hosts, but only weak, inconsistent clustering of incidents involving non-Paridae hosts. There was no spatial association between Paridae and non-Paridae incidents. We documented significant spatial spread of Paridae pox from an origin in south-east England; no spatial spread was evident for non-Paridae pox. For both host clades, there was an annual peak of reports in August/September. Sequencing of the avian poxvirus 4b core protein produced an identical viral sequence from each of 20 great tits tested from Great Britain. This sequence was identical to that from great tits from central Europe and Scandinavia. In contrast, sequence variation was evident amongst virus tested from 17 non-Paridae hosts of 5 species. Our findings show Paridae pox to be an emerging infectious disease in wild birds in Great Britain, apparently originating from viral incursion from central Europe or Scandinavia.

  8. Effects of Urtica dioica on oxidative stress, proliferation and apoptosis after partial hepatectomy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Serhat; Kanter, Mehmet; Erboga, Mustafa; Toydemir, Toygar; Sayhan, Mustafa Burak; Onur, Hatice

    2015-05-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) in rats. A total of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated, PH and PH + UD; each group contains eight animals. The rats in UD-treated groups were given UD oils (2 ml/kg/day) once a day orally for 7 days starting 3 days prior to hepatectomy operation. At day 7 after resection, liver samples were collected. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated in liver homogenates. Moreover, histopathological examination, mitotic index (MI), proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling, proliferation index (PI), transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay, apoptotic index (AI) were evaluated at day 7 after hepatectomy. As a result, UD significantly increased MI and PI, significantly decreased AI and also attenuated hepatic vacuolar degeneration and sinusoidal congestion in PH rats. UD treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue MDA level and increased the reduced SOD activity and GSH level in the tissues. These results suggest that UD pretreatment was beneficial for rat liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Pox 186: An ultracompact galaxy with dominant ionized gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseva, N. G.; Papaderos, P.; Izotov, Y. I.; Noeske, K. G.; Fricke, K. J.

    2004-07-01

    We present a ground-based optical spectroscopic and HST U, V, I photometric study of the blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Pox 186. It is found that the emission of the low-surface brightness (LSB) component in Pox 186 at radii ⪉3 arcsec (⪉270 pc in linear scale) is mainly gaseous in origin. We detect Hα emission out to radii as large as 6 arcsec. At radii ⪆3 arcsec the light of the LSB component is contaminated by the emission of background galaxies complicating the study of the outermost regions. The surface brightness distribution in the LSB component can be approximated by an exponential law with a scale length α ⪉ 120 pc. This places Pox 186 among the most compact dwarf galaxies known. The derived α is likely to be an upper limit to the scale length of the LSB component because of the strong contribution of the gaseous emission. The oxygen abundance in the bright H II region derived from the 4.5 m Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) and 3.6 m ESO telescope spectra are 12 + log (O/H) = 7.76 ± 0.02 and 7.74 ± 0.01 (˜Z⊙/15), respectively, in accordance with previous determinations. The helium mass fractions found in this region are Y = 0.248 ± 0.009 (MMT) and Y = 0.248 ± 0.004 (3.6 m) suggesting a high primordial helium abundance. The MMT Observatory is a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, ESO program 71.B-0032(A). 12+\\log(O/H)⊙ = 8.92 (Anders & Grevesse \\cite{Anders89}).

  10. AFM review study on pox viruses and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnesorge, F M; Hörber, J K; Häberle, W; Czerny, C P; Smith, D P; Binnig, G

    1997-10-01

    Single living cells were studied in growth medium by atomic force microscopy at a high--down to one image frame per second--imaging rate over time periods of many hours, stably producing hundreds of consecutive scans with a lateral resolution of approximately 30-40 nm. The cell was held by a micropipette mounted onto the scanner-piezo as shown in Häberle, W., J. K. H. Hörber, and G. Binnig. 1991. Force microscopy on living cells. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9:1210-0000. To initiate specific processes on the cell surface the cells had been infected with pox viruses as reported earlier and, most likely, the liberation of a progeny virion by the still-living cell was observed, hence confirming and supporting earlier results (Häberle, W., J. K. H. Hörber, F. Ohnesorge, D. P. E. Smith, and G. Binnig. 1992. In situ investigations of single living cells infected by viruses. Ultramicroscopy. 42-44:1161-0000; Hörber, J. K. H., W. Häberle, F. Ohnesorge, G. Binnig, H. G. Liebich, C. P. Czerny, H. Mahnel, and A. Mayr. 1992. Investigation of living cells in the nanometer regime with the atomic force microscope. Scanning Microscopy. 6:919-930). Furthermore, the pox viruses used were characterized separately by AFM in an aqueous environment down to the molecular level. Quasi-ordered structural details were resolved on a scale of a few nm where, however, image distortions and artifacts due to multiple tip effects are probably involved--just as in very high resolution (small dark spots in the light microscope, that we believed to be the regions in the cell plasma where viruses are assembled; this is known from the literature on electron microscopy on pox-infected cells and referred to there as "virus factories" (e.g., Moss, B. 1986. Replication of pox viruses. In Fundamental Virology, B. N. Fields and D. M. Knape, editors. Raven Press, New York. 637-655). Therefore, we assume that the cells stay alive during imaging, in our experience for approximately 30-45 h p.i.).

  11. Obtainment of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconium oxide with yttrium and rare earth oxides, from Brazilian zirconite, for ceramic aim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, S.

    1991-05-01

    This work presents experimental results for processing of brazilian zirconite in order to obtain zirconium oxide with Yttrium and Rare Earth oxide by mutual coprecipitation for ceramics purposes. Due to analysis of experimental results was possible to obtain the optimum conditions for each one of technological route stage, such as: alkaline fusion; acid leaching; sulfactation and coprecipitation. (author)

  12. OXIDATIVE-REFORMING OF METHANE AND PARTIAL OXIDATION OF METHANE REACTIONS OVER NiO/PrO2/ZrO2 CATALYSTS: EFFECT OF NICKEL CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. O. Asencios

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work the behavior of NiO-PrO2-ZrO2 catalysts containing various nickel loadings was evaluated in the partial oxidation of methane and oxidative-reforming reactions of methane. The catalysts were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (in situ-XRD, Temperature Programmed Reduction (H2-TPR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/EDX and Adsorption-Desorption of nitrogen (BET area. The reactions were carried out at 750 °C and 1 atm for 5 hours. The catalysts were studied with different nickel content: 0, 5, 10 and 15% (related to total weight of catalyst, wt%. In both reactions, the catalyst containing the mixture of the three oxides (NiO/PrO2/ZrO2 with 15% nickel (15NiPrZr catalyst showed the best activity for the conversion of the reactants into Syngas and showed high selectivity for H2 and CO. The results suggest that the promoter PrO2 and the Niº centers are in a good proportion in the catalyst with 15% Ni. Our results showed that low nickel concentrations in the catalyst led to high metallic dispersion; however, very low nickel concentrations did not favor the methane transformation into Syngas. The catalyst containing only NiO/ZrO2 in the mixture was not sufficient for the catalysis. The presence of the promoter PrO2 was very important for the catalysis of the POM.

  13. Partial IGF-1 deficiency induces brain oxidative damage and edema, which are ameliorated by replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, Juan E; Muñoz, Úrsula; García-Magariño, Mariano; Sádaba, María C; Castilla-Cortázar, Inma

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) induces multiple cytoprotective effects on every tissue, including the brain. Since the mechanisms by which IGF-1 produces neuroprotection are not fully understood, the aim of this work was to delve into the underlying mechanisms. IGF-1 deficient mice (Hz) were compared with wild type (WT) and Hz mice treated with low doses of IGF-1 (2 µg/100 g body weight/day) for 10 days (Hz + IGF). Gene expression, quantitative PCR, histology, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed in the three groups. IGF-1 deficiency induced increased oxidative damage determined by markers of lipid peroxidation and hypoxia, as well as gene expression of heat shock proteins, antioxidant enzymes, and molecules involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial protection. These changes correlated with edema and learning impairment in Hz mice. IGF-1 therapy improved all these alterations. In conclusion, IGF-1 deficiency is responsible for increased brain oxidative damage, edema, and impaired learning and memory capabilities which are rescued by IGF-1 replacement therapy. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  14. The uptake and excretion of partially oxidized sulfur expands the repertoire of energy resources metabolized by hydrothermal vent symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinart, R A; Gartman, A; Sanders, J G; Luther, G W; Girguis, P R

    2015-05-07

    Symbiotic associations between animals and chemoautotrophic bacteria crowd around hydrothermal vents. In these associations, symbiotic bacteria use chemical reductants from venting fluid for the energy to support autotrophy, providing primary nutrition for the host. At vents along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center, the partially oxidized sulfur compounds (POSCs) thiosulfate and polysulfide have been detected in and around animal communities but away from venting fluid. The use of POSCs for autotrophy, as an alternative to the chemical substrates in venting fluid, could mitigate competition in these communities. To determine whether ESLC symbioses could use thiosulfate to support carbon fixation or produce POSCs during sulfide oxidation, we used high-pressure, flow-through incubations to assess the productivity of three symbiotic mollusc genera-the snails Alviniconcha spp. and Ifremeria nautilei, and the mussel Bathymodiolus brevior-when oxidizing sulfide and thiosulfate. Via the incorporation of isotopically labelled inorganic carbon, we found that the symbionts of all three genera supported autotrophy while oxidizing both sulfide and thiosulfate, though at different rates. Additionally, by concurrently measuring their effect on sulfur compounds in the aquaria with voltammetric microelectrodes, we showed that these symbioses excreted POSCs under highly sulfidic conditions, illustrating that these symbioses could represent a source for POSCs in their habitat. Furthermore, we revealed spatial disparity in the rates of carbon fixation among the animals in our incubations, which might have implications for the variability of productivity in situ. Together, these results re-shape our thinking about sulfur cycling and productivity by vent symbioses, demonstrating that thiosulfate may be an ecologically important energy source for vent symbioses and that they also likely impact the local geochemical regime through the excretion of POSCs.

  15. Partially and fully de-alloyed glassy ribbons based on Au: Application in methanol electro-oxidation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschalidou, Eirini Maria, E-mail: epaschal@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy); Scaglione, Federico [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy); Gebert, Annett; Oswald, Steffen [Leibniz Institut für Festkörper- und Werkstoffforschung IFW, Helmholtzstraße 20, 01069, Dresden (Germany); Rizzi, Paola; Battezzati, Livio [Dipartimento di Chimica e Centro Interdipartimentale NIS (Nanostructured Surfaces and Interfaces), Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, electrochemical de-alloying of an amorphous alloy, Au{sub 40}Cu{sub 28}Ag{sub 7}Pd{sub 5}Si{sub 20}, cast in ribbon form by melt spinning, has been performed, obtaining self standing nanoporous materials suitable for use as electrodes for electrocatalytic applications. The de-alloying encompasses removal of less noble elements and the crystallization of Au, resulting in interconnected ligaments whose size and morphology are described as a function of time. Depending on de-alloying time, the crystals may contain residual amounts of Cu, Ag and Pd, as shown by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) in a basic solution. Current density peaks in the 0.16–0.28 V range (vs Ag/AgCl) indicate that the porous ribbons are active for the electro-oxidation of methanol. The partially de-alloyed samples, which still partially contain the amorphous phase because of the shorter etching times, have finer ligaments and display peaks at lower potential. However, the current density decreases rapidly during repeated potential scans. This is attributed to the obstruction of Au sites, mainly by the Cu oxides formed during the scans. The fully de-alloyed ribbons display current peaks at about 0.20 V and remain active for hundreds of scans at more than 60% of the initial current density. They can be fully re-activated to achieve the same performance levels after a brief immersion in nitric acid. The good activity is due to trapped Ag and Pd atoms in combination with ligament morphology. - Graphical abstract: Fine ligaments and pores made by de-alloying a glassy ribbon of a Au-based alloy, homogeneously produced across the thickness (25 μm) for studying methanol's electro-oxidation behavior. - Highlights: • Size and composition of nanoporous layers tailored in de-alloying Au-based glassy ribbons. • From amorphous precursor fine crystals occur in ligaments with residual Pd and Ag. • Fully de

  16. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, F W; Wallace, D B; Putterill, J F; Gerdes, G H

    2009-09-01

    When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin prick-like holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called "classical crocodile pox" and the newly discovered form "atypical crocodile pox". The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  17. Identification and partial sequencing of a crocodile poxvirus associated with deeply penetrating skin lesions in farmed Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.W. Huchzermeyer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available When large numbers of crocodile skins were downgraded because of the presence of small pin pricklike holes, collapsed epidermal cysts were found deep in the dermis of juvenile crocodiles while forming cysts were observed in hatchlings. Histopathology of these forming cysts showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions in proliferating and ballooning epidermal cells. Pox virions were seen in electron microscope preparations made from the scabs of such early lesions. The partial sequencing of virus material from scrapings of these lesions and comparison of it with the published sequence of crocodile poxvirus showed the virus associated with the deep lesions to be closely related, but different. To differentiate between the two forms of crocodile pox infection it is suggested that the previously known form should be called ''classical crocodile pox'' and the newly discovered form ''atypical crocodile pox''. The application of strict hygiene measures brought about a decline in the percentage of downgraded skins.

  18. Rare earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinhuan; Yang Xia; Yu Xiaodan; Xu, Leilei; Kang Wanli; Yan Wenhua; Gao Hongfeng; Liu Zhonghe; Guo Yihang

    2009-01-01

    Rare-earth oxide-doped titania nanocomposites (RE 3+ /TiO 2 , where RE = Eu 3+ , Pr 3+ , Gd 3+ , Nd 3+ , and Y 3+ ) were prepared by a one-step sol-gel-solvothermal method. The products exhibited anatase phase structure, mesoporosity, and interesting surface compositions with three oxygen species and two titanium species. The products were used as the photocatalysts to degrade a partially hydrolysis polyacrylamide (HPAM) under UV-light irradiation, a very useful polymer in oil recovery. For comparison, Degussa P25 and as-prepared pure TiO 2 were also tested under the same conditions. The enhanced photocatalytic activity was obtained on as-prepared Eu 3+ (Gd 3+ , Pr 3+ )/TiO 2 composites, and the reasons were explained. Finally, the degradation pathway of HPAM over the RE 3+ /TiO 2 composite was put forward based on the intermediates produced during the photocatalysis procedure.

  19. Study of the dynamics of the MoO2-Mo2C system for catalytic partial oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba Torres, Christian Martin

    On a global scale, the energy demand is largely supplied by the combustion of non-renewable fossil fuels. However, their rapid depletion coupled with environmental and sustainability concerns are the main drivers to seek for alternative energetic strategies. To this end, the sustainable generation of hydrogen from renewable resources such as biodiesel would represent an attractive alternative solution to fossil fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen's lower environmental impact and greater independence from foreign control make it a strong contender for solving this global problem. Among a wide variety of methods for hydrogen production, the catalytic partial oxidation offers numerous advantages for compact and mobile fuel processing systems. For this reaction, the present work explores the versatility of the Mo--O--C catalytic system under different synthesis methods and reforming conditions using methyl oleate as a surrogate biodiesel. MoO2 exhibits good catalytic activity and exhibits high coke-resistance even under reforming conditions where long-chain oxygenated compounds are prone to form coke. Moreover, the lattice oxygen present in MoO2 promotes the Mars-Van Krevelen mechanism. Also, it is introduced a novel beta-Mo2C synthesis by the in-situ formation method that does not utilize external H2 inputs. Herein, the MoO 2/Mo2C system maintains high catalytic activity for partial oxidation while the lattice oxygen serves as a carbon buffer for preventing coke formation. This unique feature allows for longer operation reforming times despite slightly lower catalytic activity compared to the catalysts prepared by the traditional temperature-programmed reaction method. Moreover, it is demonstrated by a pulse reaction technique that during the phase transformation of MoO2 to beta-Mo2C, the formation of Mo metal as an intermediate is not responsible for the sintering of the material wrongly assumed by the temperature-programmed method.

  20. Hydrogen or synthesis gas production via the partial oxidation of methane over supported nickel-cobalt catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Alaric C.W. [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833 (Singapore); Chen, Luwei; Lin, Jianyi [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences, 1 Pesek Road, Jurong Island, Singapore 627833 (Singapore); Kee Leong, Weng [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Johnson, Brian F.G.; Khimyak, Tetyana [University Chemical Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge, UK CB2 1EW (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    Activity, selectivity, and coking-resistance of a series of Ni{sub x}Co{sub y} (where x,y are the respective metal loadings of 0, 1, 2 or 3 wt.%; x+y=3) bimetallic catalysts supported on CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been studied for hydrogen/synthesis gas production via the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of methane. Catalysts were characterized by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray fluorescence multi-element analysis (XRF). Their activity for the partial oxidation of methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (at 1 bar, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 144,000cm{sup 3}g{sup -1}h{sup -1} and CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2} molar ratio of 2) was investigated, and coke deposited on the spent catalysts was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The activity was found to decrease in the order of Ni{sub 2}Co>Ni{sub 3}>NiCo{sub 2}>>Co{sub 3}, while CO and H{sub 2} selectivities were found to be in the order ofNi{sub 2}Co>Ni{sub 3}{approx}NiCo{sub 2}>Co{sub 3}. Ni{sub 2}Co is also shown to be more resistant to coking as compared to Ni{sub 3}, which is a current catalyst of choice. Results show that not only does Ni{sub 2}Co have the highest activity and selectivity among all the catalysts tested, it is also relatively resistant to coking. This finding would be helpful for catalyst design to achieve high coking resistivity catalysts for hydrogen production from CPO of methane. (author)

  1. Adiabatic Fixed-Bed Gasification of Colombian Coffee Husk Using Air-Steam Blends for Partial Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Bonilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing energy consumption, mostly supplied by fossil fuels, has motivated the research and development of alternative fuel technologies to decrease the humanity’s dependence on fossil fuels, which leads to pollution of natural sources. Small-scale biomass gasification, using air-steam blends for partial oxidation, is a good alternative since biomass is a neutral carbon feedstock for sustainable energy generation. This research presents results obtained from an experimental study on coffee husk (CH gasification, using air-steam blends for partial oxidation in a 10 kW fixed-bed gasifier. Parametric studies on equivalence ratio (ER (1.53 < ER < 6.11 and steam-fuel (SF ratio (0.23 < SF < 0.89 were carried out. The results show that increasing both SF and ER results in a syngas rich in CH4 and H2 but poor in CO. Also, decreased SF and ER decrease the peak temperature (Tpeak at the gasifier combustion zone. The syngas high heating value (HHV ranged from 3112 kJ/SATPm3 to 5085 kJ/SATPm3 and its maximum value was obtained at SF = 0.87 and ER = 4.09. The dry basis molar concentrations of the species, produced under those operating conditions (1.53 < ER < 6.11 and 0.23 < SF < 0.89, were between 1.12 and 4.1% for CH4, between 7.77 and 13.49% for CO, and between 7.54 and 19.07% for H2. Other species were in trace amount.

  2. Reaction phenomena of catalytic partial oxidation of methane under the impact of carbon dioxide addition and heat recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Shih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The reaction phenomena of CPOM (catalytic partial oxidation of methane) in a Swiss-roll reactor are studied numerically where a rhodium-based catalyst bed is embedded at the center of the reactor. CO 2 is added into the feed gas and excess enthalpy recovery is performed to evaluate their influences on CPOM performance. In the study, the mole ratio of O 2 to CH 4 (O 2 /CH 4 ratio) is fixed at 0.5 and the mole ratio of CO 2 to O 2 (CO 2 /O 2 ratio) is in the range of 0–2. The results reveal that CO 2 addition into the influent has a slight effect on methane combustion, but significantly enhances dry reforming and suppresses steam reforming. The reaction extents of steam reforming and dry reforming in CPOM without heat recovery and CO 2 addition are in a comparable state. Once CO 2 is added into the feed gas, the dry reforming is enhanced, thereby dominating CH 4 consumption. Compared to the reactor without excess enthalpy recovery, heat recirculation drastically increases the maximum reaction temperature and CH 4 conversion in the catalyst bed; it also intensifies the H 2 selectivity, H 2 yield, CO 2 conversion, and syngas production rate. The predictions indicate that the heat recirculation is able to improve the syngas formation up to 45%. - Highlights: • Catalytic partial oxidation of methane with CO 2 addition and heat recovery is studied. • CO 2 addition has a slight effect on methane combustion. • CO 2 addition significantly enhances dry reforming and suppresses steam reforming. • Dry reforming dominates CH 4 consumption when CO 2 addition is large. • Heat recirculation can improve the syngas formation up to 45%

  3. Partial oxidation of D-xylose to maleic anhydride and acrylic acid over vanadyl pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaznavi, Touraj; Neagoe, Cristian; Patience, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Xylose is the second most abundant sugar after glucose. Despite its tremendous potential to serve as a renewable feedstock, few commercial processes exploit this resource. Here, we report a new technology in which a two-fluid nozzle atomizes a xylose-water solution into a capillary fluidized bed operating above 300 °C. Xylose-water droplets form at the tip of the injector, vaporize then react with a heterogeneous mixed oxide catalyst. A syringe pump metered the solution to the reactor charged with 1 g of catalyst. Product yield over vanadyl pyrophosphate was higher compared to molybdenum trioxide-cobalt oxide and iron molybdate; it reached 25% for maleic anhydride, 17% for acrylic acid and 11% for acrolein. Gas residence time was 0.2 s. The catalyst was free of coke even after operating for 4 h – based on a thermogravimetric analysis of catalyst withdrawn from the reactor. Below 300 °C, powder agglomerated at the tip of the injector at 300 °C; it also agglomerated with a xylose mass fraction of 7% in water. - Highlights: • D-xylose reacts to form maleic anhydride and acrylic acid above 250 °C. • Vanadyl pyrophosphate is both active and selective for maleic and acrylic acid. • Acid and acrolein yield approaches 50% for a xylose mass fraction of 3% in water. • Catalyst agglomerates at low temperatures and high xylose aqueous mass fraction. • Atomization quality is a determining factor to minimize agglomeration

  4. Sheep pox in Tunisia: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chehida, F; Ayari-Fakhfakh, E; Caufour, P; Amdouni, J; Nasr, J; Messaoudi, L; Haj Ammar, H; Sghaier, S; Bernard, C; Ghram, A; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2018-02-01

    Sheep pox, a well-known endemic capripox infection, has significant impacts on small ruminant populations in Tunisia. It is responsible for high economic losses throughout North Africa due to its enzootic nature and to the active animal transhumance existing in some governorates in Tunisia. The aim of this review was to analyse data gathered on annual vaccination campaigns designed to control its spread by reducing the level of endemicity and to describe diagnostic and management tools adapted to the Tunisian situation. Seasonal, temporal and spatial distributions of sheep pox outbreaks, as well as related clinical features, were found. It was concluded from this review that establishing strong herd immunization through individual animal immunization, creating adequate infrastructure, increasing awareness among breeders, setting up a field-based surveillance network and improving routine diagnostic methods need to be the major components of a programme to eradicate the disease. It was also felt that cost-benefit analyses of the surveillance and control strategies used would help in controlling its persistence. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakova, Olga V; Zaitsev, Valentin L; Iskakov, Bulat K; Tailakova, Elmira T; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Stanbekova, Gulshan E; Beisenov, Daniyar K; Abduraimov, Yergali O; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y; Nemchinov, Lev G; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  6. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Chervyakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122, orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  7. [The history of small pox prevention in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, C H

    1993-01-01

    The first record of small pox epidemics in Korea claims that the malignant pestilence came from China around the 4th-5th century. Records have been found indicating that this pestilence attacked Korea every few years and that the havoc it caused was beyond description. China was the first country in the orient to use Jenner's vaccine, 10 years after its invention in 1796. The effect of the vaccine had been widely recognized and it was introduced to Korea through Japan. Mr. Sok-Yong Chi, an educator who was much interested in modern medical science, with the cooperation of the public, introduced wide usage of the vaccine in December 1879. Through continued effort with vaccination by 1959 this pestilence had completely disappeared from this country. Before the introduction of vaccinations, the variolation method, which came from China was also practiced here. Its effect was not recognized by the public and the method did not become popular. In addition, a few other methods to prevent this pestilence were introduced. Methods such as inhalation of pox-liquid and insertion of scar-pills (a chinese style of intranasal inoculation) were also practiced. ...

  8. Troglitazone induced apoptosis via PPARγ activated POX-induced ROS formation in HT29 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Lv, XiaoWen; Shi, JiePing; Hu, XiaoSong; DU, YuGuo

    2011-08-01

    In order to investigate the potential mechanisms in troglitazone-induced apoptosis in HT29 cells, the effects of PPARγ and POX-induced ROS were explored. [3- (4, 5)-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Annexin V and PI staining using FACS, plasmid transfection, ROS formation detected by DCFH staining, RNA interference, RT-PCR & RT-QPCR, and Western blotting analyses were employed to investigate the apoptotic effect of troglitazone and the potential role of PPARγ pathway and POX-induced ROS formation in HT29 cells. Troglitazone was found to inhibit the growth of HT29 cells by induction of apoptosis. During this process, mitochondria related pathways including ROS formation, POX expression and cytochrome c release increased, which were inhibited by pretreatment with GW9662, a specific antagonist of PPARγ. These results illustrated that POX upregulation and ROS formation in apoptosis induced by troglitazone was modulated in PPARγ-dependent pattern. Furthermore, the inhibition of ROS and apoptosis after POX siRNA used in troglitazone-treated HT29 cells indicated that POX be essential in the ROS formation and PPARγ-dependent apoptosis induced by troglitazone. The findings from this study showed that troglitazone-induced apoptosis was mediated by POX-induced ROS formation, at least partly, via PPARγ activation. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Impact of universal vaccination against chicken pox in Navarre, 2006-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, M García; Catalán, J Castilla; Zamarbide, F Irisarri; Berastegui, M Arriazu; Gurrea, A Barricarte

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 universal vaccination against chicken pox was introduced in the vaccine calendar of Navarre. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of this measure on the incidence of chicken pox in both the vaccinated cohorts (direct effect) and in the unvaccinated cohorts (indirect effect). Chicken pox is a disease of individualized compulsory notification. We analyzed the annual incidence by age groups between 2006 and 2010. Hospital admittances with chicken pox or complicated chicken pox as the principal diagnosis were taken from the minimum basic data set on hospital discharges for the years 2006 to 2009. The incidence of chicken pox has fallen by 93.0%, from 8.04 cases per 1,000 inhabitants in 2006 to 0.56 per 1,000 inhabitants in 2010 (ppox has fallen by 96.3%. In the cohorts vaccinated at 10 and 14 years, a fall of 93.6% can also be observed in children from 10 to 14 years, and of 85.0% in those of 15 to 19 years. In the unvaccinated age groups we can observe falls of 88.2% in children under one year, of 73.3% in those of 7 to 9 years, and of 84.6% in people over 20 years. In 2006 there were 25 hospital admissions due to chicken pox in Navarre and in 2009 this figure fell to 7. The rate of admissions fell by 71%. The introduction of universal chicken pox vaccination in Navarre has resulted in a rapid and very steep reduction of the incidence of chicken pox in both vaccinated and unvaccinated people.

  10. Evaluation of Cytology for Diagnosing Avian Pox in Wild Turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydock, Kira; Brown, Holly; Nemeth, Nicole; Poulson, Rebecca; Casalena, Mary Jo; Johnson, Joshua B; Brown, Justin

    2018-03-01

    Avian pox virus is a common cause of proliferative skin disease in wild turkeys ( Meleagris gallopavo); however, other etiologies may produce grossly indistinguishable lesions. Common methods for diagnosing avian pox include histopathology, virus isolation, and PCR. While these methods are sufficient in most cases, each has their limitations. Cytology is a cost-effective and rapid approach that may be useful when traditional diagnostics are not feasible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of cytology relative to histopathology and PCR for avian pox diagnosis in wild turkeys. Fifty wild turkeys were submitted for necropsy due to nodular skin lesions on unfeathered skin of the head. Of these, five had similar skin lesions on the unfeathered legs and 26 had plaques on the mucosa of the oropharynx or esophagus. Representative skin, oropharyngeal, and esophageal lesions from all birds were examined with cytology and histopathology. Skin lesions on the head of each bird were also tested for avian pox virus via PCR. Histopathology and PCR were equally sensitive in diagnosing avian pox from skin lesions on the head. There were no significant differences between cytologic and histopathologic diagnosis of avian pox from skin lesions on the head (sensitivity = 97.4%, specificity = 100.0%), legs (sensitivity = 75.0%, specificity = 100.0%), or from lesions in the oropharynx and esophagus (sensitivity of 62.5%). Similarly, there were no significant differences between PCR and cytology for diagnosis of pox viral skin lesions of the head. Relative to PCR detection of avian pox virus, cytology had a sensitivity of 90.0% and a specificity of 90.0%. These results suggest that cytology is a useful tool for diagnosis of avian pox in wild turkeys.

  11. Excellent performance of Pt-C/TiO2 for methanol oxidation: Contribution of mesopores and partially coated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinbing; Zhuang, Wei; Lu, Linghong; Li, Licheng; Zhu, Jiahua; Mu, Liwen; Li, Wei; Zhu, Yudan; Lu, Xiaohua

    2017-12-01

    Partial deposition of carbon onto mesoporous TiO2 (C/TiO2) were prepared as supporting substrate for Pt catalyst development. Carbon deposition is achieved by in-situ carbonization of furfuryl alcohol. The hybrid catalysts were characterized by XRD, Raman, SEM and TEM and exhibited outstanding catalytic activity and stability in methanol oxidation reaction. The heterogeneous carbon coated on mesoporous TiO2 fibers provided excellent electrical conductivity and strong interfacial interaction between TiO2 support and Pt metal nanoparticles. Methanol oxidation reaction results showed that the activity of Pt-C/TiO2 is 3.0 and 1.5 times higher than that of Pt-TiO2 and Pt-C, respectively. In addition, the Pt-C/TiO2 exhibited a 6.7 times enhanced stability compared with Pt-C after 2000 cycles. The synergistic effect of C/TiO2 is responsible for the enhanced activity of Pt-C/TiO2, and its excellent durability could be ascribed to the strong interfacial interaction between Pt nanoparticles and C/TiO2 support.

  12. Effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure in normoxia and in hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Ioannis K; Pournaras, Jean-Antoine C; Stangos, Alexandros N; Pournaras, Constantin J

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of systemic nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition on optic disc oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in normoxia and hypercapnia. Intervascular optic disc PO(2) was measured in 12 anesthetized minipigs by using oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes placed 0.1), despite a 21% increase of mean arterial pressure. Optic disc PO(2) increase under hypercapnia was blunted after L-NAME injection (DeltaPO(2) = 0.6 +/- 1.1 mm Hg; 3%; P > 0.1), and this effect was reversible by L-arginine. Moreover, L-NAME reduced the response to carbogen by 29% (DeltaPO(2) = 9.1 +/- 4.4 mm Hg; 49%; P = 0.01 versus before L-NAME). The response to hyperoxia was not affected. Whereas systemic NOS inhibition did not affect optic disc PO(2) in normoxia, a blunting effect was noted on the CO(2)-induced optic disc PO(2) increase. Nitric oxide appears to mediate the hypercapnic optic disc PO(2) increase.

  13. Catalytic Activity Studies of Vanadia/Silica–Titania Catalysts in SVOC Partial Oxidation to Formaldehyde: Focus on the Catalyst Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niina Koivikko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, silica–titania supported catalysts were prepared by a sol–gel method with various compositions. Vanadia was impregnated on SiO2-TiO2 with different loadings, and materials were investigated in the partial oxidation of methanol and methyl mercaptan to formaldehyde. The materials were characterized by using N2 physisorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM, NH3-TPD, and Raman techniques. The activity results show the high importance of an optimized SiO2-TiO2 ratio to reach a high reactant conversion and formaldehyde yield. The characteristics of mixed oxides ensure a better dispersion of the active phase on the support and in this way increase the activity of the catalysts. The addition of vanadium pentoxide on the support lowered the optimal temperature of the reaction significantly. Increasing the vanadia loading from 1.5% to 2.5% did not result in higher formaldehyde concentration. Over the 1.5%V2O5/SiO2 + 30%TiO2 catalyst, the optimal selectivity was reached at 415 °C when the maximum formaldehyde concentration was ~1000 ppm.

  14. Calculation of gas-flow in plasma reactor for carbon partial oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bespala, Evgeny; Myshkin, Vyacheslav; Novoselov, Ivan; Pavliuk, Alexander; Makarevich, Semen; Bespala, Yuliya

    2018-03-01

    The paper discusses isotopic effects at carbon oxidation in low temperature non-equilibrium plasma at constant magnetic field. There is described routine of experiment and defined optimal parameters ensuring maximum enrichment factor at given electrophysical, gas-dynamic, and thermodymanical parameters. It has been demonstrated that at high-frequency generator capacity of 4 kW, supply frequency of 27 MHz and field density of 44 mT the concentration of paramagnetic heavy nuclei 13C in gaseous phase increases up to 1.78 % compared to 1.11 % for natural concentration. Authors explain isotopic effect decrease during plasmachemical separation induced by mixing gas flows enriched in different isotopes at the lack of product quench. With the help of modeling the motion of gas flows inside the plasma-chemical reactor based on numerical calculation of Navier-Stokes equation authors determine zones of gas mixing and cooling speed. To increase isotopic effects and proportion of 13C in gaseous phase it has been proposed to use quench in the form of Laval nozzle of refractory steel. The article represents results on calculation of optimal Laval Nozzle parameters for plasma-chemical reactor of chosen geometry of. There are also given dependences of quench time of products on pressure at the diffuser output and on critical section diameter. Authors determine the location of quench inside the plasma-chemical reactor in the paper.

  15. Partial oxidation of methane to syngas on Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Rh/Ce-ZrO{sub 2} catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Raquel L.; Bitencourt, Isabela G.; Passos, Fabio B., E-mail: fbpassos@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica e Petroleo

    2013-01-15

    The partial oxidation of methane with {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-, CeO{sub 2}-, ZrO{sub 2}- and Ce-ZrO{sub 2}-supported rhodium catalysts was investigated. DRIFTS (diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy) measurements of adsorbed CO showed the formation of different rhodium species on different supports, which influenced the dispersion of the metal. The effects of the metal dispersion, oxygen storage capacity on the activity of these catalysts for the partial oxidation of methane are discussed. (author)

  16. Lycium barbarum (wolfberry reduces secondary degeneration and oxidative stress, and inhibits JNK pathway in retina after partial optic nerve transection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying Li

    Full Text Available Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina.

  17. Lycium Barbarum (Wolfberry) Reduces Secondary Degeneration and Oxidative Stress, and Inhibits JNK Pathway in Retina after Partial Optic Nerve Transection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongying; Liang, Yuxiang; Chiu, Kin; Yuan, Qiuju; Lin, Bin; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai

    2013-01-01

    Our group has shown that the polysaccharides extracted from Lycium barbarum (LBP) are neuroprotective for retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in different animal models. Protecting RGCs from secondary degeneration is a promising direction for therapy in glaucoma management. The complete optic nerve transection (CONT) model can be used to study primary degeneration of RGCs, while the partial optic nerve transection (PONT) model can be used to study secondary degeneration of RGCs because primary degeneration of RGCs and secondary degeneration can be separated in location in the same retina in this model; in other situations, these types of degeneration can be difficult to distinguish. In order to examine which kind of degeneration LBP could delay, both CONT and PONT models were used in this study. Rats were fed with LBP or vehicle daily from 7 days before surgery until sacrifice at different time-points and the surviving numbers of RGCs were evaluated. The expression of several proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways were detected with Western-blot analysis. LBP did not delay primary degeneration of RGCs after either CONT or PONT, but it did delay secondary degeneration of RGCs after PONT. We found that LBP appeared to exert these protective effects by inhibiting oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway and by transiently increasing production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This study suggests that LBP can delay secondary degeneration of RGCs and this effect may be linked to inhibition of oxidative stress and the JNK/c-jun pathway in the retina. PMID:23894366

  18. Multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of pox and pox-like diseases in dromedary Camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Abdelmalik I; Al-Busada, Khalid A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M

    2015-07-07

    Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. Three distinct viruses may cause them: camelpox virus (CMLV), camel parapox virus (CPPV) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (CdPV). These diseases are often difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost-and timesaving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a multiplex PCR assay able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets and was validated with viral genomic DNA extracted from known virus strains (n = 14) and DNA extracted from homogenized clinical skin specimens (n = 86). The assay detects correctly the target pathogens by amplification of targeted genes, even in case of co-infection. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. This assay provide rapid, sensitive and specific method for identifying three important viruses in specimens collected from dromedary camels with varying clinical presentations.

  19. Ozone decomposition kinetics on alumina: effects of ozone partial pressure, relative humidity and repeated oxidation cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Sullivan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The room temperature kinetics of gas-phase ozone loss via heterogeneous interactions with thin alumina films has been studied in real-time using 254nm absorption spectroscopy to monitor ozone concentrations. The films were prepared from dispersions of fine alumina powder in methanol and their surface areas were determined by an in situ procedure using adsorption of krypton at 77K. The alumina was found to lose reactivity with increasing ozone exposure. However, some of the lost reactivity could be recovered over timescales of days in an environment free of water, ozone and carbon dioxide. From multiple exposures of ozone to the same film, it was found that the number of active sites is large, greater than 1.4x1014 active sites per cm2 of surface area or comparable to the total number of surface sites. The films maintain some reactivity at this point, which is consistent with there being some degree of active site regeneration during the experiment and with ozone loss being catalytic to some degree. The initial uptake coefficients on fresh films were found to be inversely dependent on the ozone concentration, varying from roughly 10-6 for ozone concentrations of 1014 molecules/cm3 to 10-5 at 1013 molecules/cm3. The initial uptake coefficients were not dependent on the relative humidity, up to 75%, within the precision of the experiment. The reaction mechanism is discussed, as well as the implications these results have for assessing the effect of mineral dust on atmospheric oxidant levels.

  20. A DRIFTS study of the partial oxidation of ethanol on Rh catalysts; Estudo da oxidacao parcial do etanol em catalisadores de Rh por DRIFTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Raquel Lima; Passos, Fabio Barboza, E-mail: fbpassos@vm.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica e de Petroleo

    2013-09-01

    The partial oxidation of ethanol on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2} and Ce{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}O{sub 2} supported rhodium catalysts was investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The catalysts were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and cyclohexane dehydrogenation. DRIFTS studies on the partial oxidation of ethanol showed that ethanol is adsorbed dissociatively, through O-H bond breaking, with the formation of ethoxy species, followed by successive dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and acetyl species. Further oxidation to acetate and carbonate species lead to the formation of CO, CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2} by decomposition. The presence of CeO{sub 2} in the catalysts favored the oxidation steps due to its oxygen storage capacity. (author)

  1. High temperature mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under low partial pressures of oxygen: application to the fuel cladding of gas fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hun, N.

    2011-01-01

    Gas Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the different Generation IV concepts under investigation for energy production. SiC/SiC composites are candidates of primary interest for a GFR fuel cladding use, thanks to good corrosion resistance among other properties. The mechanisms and kinetics of SiC oxidation under operating conditions have to be identified and quantified as the corrosion can decrease the mechanical properties of the composite. An experimental device has been developed to study the oxidation of silicon carbide under high temperature and low oxygen partial pressure. The results pointed out that not only parabolic oxidation, but also interfacial reactions and volatilization occur under such conditions. After determining the kinetics of each mechanism, as functions of oxygen partial pressure and temperature, the data are used for the modeling of the composites oxidation. The model will be used to predict the lifetime of the composite in operating conditions. (author) [fr

  2. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible for the latter. To elucidate the role of POX in oxLDL-mediated cytotoxicity, we knocked down POX via small interfering RNA and found that this (i) further reduced viability of cancer cells treated with oxLDL; (ii) decreased oxLDL-associated reactive oxygen species generation; (iii) decreased autophagy measured via beclin-1 protein level and light-chain 3 protein (LC3)-I into LC3-II conversion. Using POX-expressing cell model, we established that single POX overexpression was sufficient to activate autophagy. Thus, it led to autophagosomes accumulation and increased conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. Moreover, beclin-1 gene expression was directly dependent on POX catalytic activity, namely the generation of POX-dependent superoxide. We conclude that POX is critical in the cellular response to the noxious effects of oxLDL by activating protective autophagy.

  3. POX 186: A Dwarf Galaxy in the Process of Formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Michael R.; Vacca, William D.

    2002-12-01

    We present deep U-, V-, and I-band images of the ``ultracompact'' blue dwarf galaxy POX 186 obtained with the Planetary Camera 2 of the Hubble Space Telescope. We have also obtained a near-ultraviolet spectrum of the object with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and combine this with a new ground-based optical spectrum. The images confirm the galaxy to be extremely small, with a maximum extent of only 300 pc, a luminosity of ~10-4L*, and an estimated mass of ~107 Msolar. Its morphology is highly asymmetric, with a tail of material on its western side that may be tidal in origin. The U-band image shows this tail to be part of a stream of material in which stars have recently formed. Most of the star formation in the galaxy is, however, concentrated in a central, compact (d~10-15 pc) star cluster. We estimate this cluster to have a total mass of ~105 Msolar, to be forming stars at a rate of less than 0.05 yr-1, and to have a maximum age of a few million years. The outer regions of the galaxy are significantly redder than the cluster, with V-I colors consistent with a population dominated by K and M stars. From our analysis of the optical spectrum we find the galaxy to have a metallicity Z~=0.06 Zsolar and to contain a significant amount of internal dust [E(B-V)~=0.28] both values agree with previous estimates. While these results rule out earlier speculation that POX 186 is a protogalaxy, its morphology, mass, and active star formation suggest that it represents a recent (within ~108 yr) collision between two clumps of stars of subgalactic size (~100 pc). POX 186 may thus be a very small dwarf galaxy that, dynamically speaking, is still in the process of formation. This interpretation is supported by the fact that it resides in a void, so its morphology cannot be explained as the result of an encounter with a more massive galaxy. Clumps of stars this small may represent the building blocks required by hierarchical models of galaxy formation, and these results

  4. THE APPROACHES TO DESIGNING OF NEW GENERATION VACCINES AGAINST THE SHEEP POX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Yilmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review the authors analyzed the sheep pox disease, which occurs outbreaks all over the world particularly in Asia and Africa causing substantial losses in trade of animal and animal products. They categorized the sheep pox disease is one of the prioritized groups of diseases against which the World Organization for Animal Health is fighting. Data concerning a sheep poxes’ history, epidemiology, epizootiology, mortality and economic impact, clinical and pathological signs, features of capripoxvirus that forms the disease are given. Diagnosis treatment and vaccine have been investigated as well. The main conclusion is done according which the designing of new vaccine generation against the sheep pox disease could be as an alternative approach against sheep pox.

  5. Role and Relative Effectiveness of Immune System for Combating Small Pox and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Taqaddas

    2014-01-01

    The human body has a complex system of innate and adaptive mechanisms for combating infection. This article discusses the role and relative effectiveness of these mechanisms in relation to small pox and AIDS.

  6. Preparation and tumor cell model based biobehavioral evaluation of the nanocarrier system using partially reduced graphene oxide functionalized by surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Yimin Wang,1 Kunping Liu,1,2 Zewei Luo,1 Yixiang Duan1 1Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Key Laboratory of Bio-resource and Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, College of Life Science, Sichuan University, 2Faculty of Biotechnology Industry, Chengdu University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China Background: Currently, surfactant-functionalized nanomaterials are tending toward development of novel tumor-targeted drug carriers to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer therapy. Now, investigating the biocompatibility and uptake mechanism of specific drug delivery systems is a growing trend, but usually a troublesome issue, in simple pharmaceutical research.Methods: We first reported the partially reduced graphene oxide modified with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (PSS as a nanocarrier system. Then, the nanocarrier was characterized by atomic force microscope, scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, ultraviolet–visible (UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Epirubicin (EPI was attached to PSSG via π–π stacking, hydrogen bonding, and physical absorption to form conjugates of PSSG–EPI. The adsorption and desorption profiles, cytotoxicity coupled with drug accumulation, and uptake of PSSG and PSSG–EPI were evaluated. Finally, the subcellular behaviors, distribution, and biological fate of the drug delivery system were explored by confocal laser scanning microscope using direct fluorescence colocalization imaging and transmission electron microscopy.Results: The partially reduced graphene oxide sheets functionalized by surfactant exhibit good dispersibility. Moreover, due to much less carboxyl groups retained on the edge of PSSG sheets, the nanocarriers exhibit biocompatibility in vitro. The obtained PSSG shows a high drug-loading capacity of 2.22 mg/mg. The complexes of PSSG–EPI can be transferred to

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Plum pox virus in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maejima, Kensaku; Himeno, Misako; Komatsu, Ken; Takinami, Yusuke; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Shuichiro; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-05-01

    For a molecular epidemiological study based on complete genome sequences, 37 Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates were collected from the Kanto region in Japan. Pair-wise analyses revealed that all 37 Japanese isolates belong to the PPV-D strain, with low genetic diversity (less than 0.8%). In phylogenetic analysis of the PPV-D strain based on complete nucleotide sequences, the relationships of the PPV-D strain were reconstructed with high resolution: at the global level, the American, Canadian, and Japanese isolates formed their own distinct monophyletic clusters, suggesting that the routes of viral entry into these countries were independent; at the local level, the actual transmission histories of PPV were precisely reconstructed with high bootstrap support. This is the first description of the molecular epidemiology of PPV based on complete genome sequences.

  8. Multiwavelength Observations of the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Carol E.; Barth, A. J.; Ho, L. C.; Rutledge, R. E.; Greene, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    POX 52 is an unusual narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, having an estimated black hole mass of order 105 solar masses and a dwarf host galaxy with an absolute magnitude of only MV = -17.6, which gives us a unique opportunity to study black hole-bulge relations in the low-mass regime. We present new observations from a multiwavelength campaign to study its active nucleus and host galaxy. The data include observations from the Chandra and XMM-Newton Observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Very Large Array. Chandra data show a highly variable point source with a 2.0 10.0 keV luminosity of 0.7 * 1042 ergs/s. We will also describe the X-ray spectral shape, the structure of the host galaxy as determined from GALFIT modeling of the HST ACS/HRC images, and the spectral energy distribution of the active nucleus.

  9. Initial oxidation processes of Si(001) surfaces by supersonic O2 molecular beams. Different oxidation mechanisms for clean and partially-oxidized surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2002-01-01

    Potential energy barriers for dissociative chemisorption of O 2 molecules on Si(001) clean surfaces were investigated using supersonic O 2 molecular beams and photoemission spectroscopy. Relative initial sticking probabilities of O 2 molecules and the saturated oxygen amount on the Si(001) surface were measured as a function of incident energy of O 2 molecules. Although the probability was independent on the incident energy in the region larger than 1 eV, the saturated oxygen amount was dependent on the incident energy without energy thresholds. An Si-2p photoemission spectrum of the Si(001) surface oxidized by thermal O 2 gas revealed the oxygen insertion into dimer backbond sites. These facts indicate that a reaction path of the oxygen insertion into dimer backbonds through bridge sites is open for the clean surface oxidation, and the direct chemisorption probability at the backbonds is negligibly small comparing with that at the bridge sites. (author)

  10. Effect of Mass-Transport Limitations on the Performance of a Packed Bed Membrane Reactor for Partial Oxidations. Transport from the Membrane to the Packed Bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    With a packed bed membrane reactor, the product yield can be significantly enhanced for partial oxidation systems, via distributive addition of oxygen to the reaction mixture along the axial coordinate of the reactor, provided that the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target

  11. Effect of mass-transport limitations on the performance of a packed bed membrane reactor for partial oxidations. Transport from the membrane to the packed bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Annaland, van M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    With a packed bed membrane reactor, the product yield can be significantly enhanced for partial oxidation systems, via distributive addition of oxygen to the reaction mixture along the axial coordinate of the reactor, provided that the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target

  12. Effect of mass-transport limitations on the performance of a packed bed membrane reactor for partial oxidations. Intraparticle mass transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Annaland, van M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    For partial oxidation systems, where the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target product is smaller than the reaction order in oxygen of the consecutive reaction rate toward the waste product, a packed bed membrane reactor can be applied to distributively dose oxygen along the

  13. Effect of Mass-Transport Limitations on the Performance of a Packed Bed Membrane Reactor for Partial Oxidations. Intraparticle Mass Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sint Annaland, M.; Kurten, U.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    For partial oxidation systems, where the reaction order in oxygen of the formation rate of the target product is smaller than the reaction order in oxygen of the consecutive reaction rate toward the waste product, a packed bed membrane reactor can be applied to distributively dose oxygen along the

  14. Methane partial oxidation over a LaCr0.85Ru0.15O3 catalyst : Characterization, activity tests and kinetic modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melchiori, T.; Di Felice, L.; Mota, N.; Navarro, R.M.; Fierro, J.L.G.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Gallucci, F.

    2014-01-01

    A new LaCr0.85Ru0.15O3 perovskite-type catalyst for CH4 partial oxidation with a high activity and selectivity for syngas with good thermal stability and resistance against coking has been developed. In this paper, the catalyst preparation method, catalyst characterization, results of catalytic

  15. The reaction mechanism of the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas: a transient kinetic study over rhodium and a comparison with platinum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallens, E.P.J.; Hoebink, J.H.B.J.; Marin, G.B.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas over rhodium sponge has been investigated by admitting pulses of pure methane and pure oxygen as well as mixtures of methane and oxygen to rhodium sponge at temperatures from 873 to 1023 K. Moreover, pulses of oxygen followed by methane and vice

  16. Alastrim, varíola é? Is allastrim small pox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma controvérsia científica havida em São Paulo entre 1910 e 1913, que opôs dois destacados médicos da cidade: Antonio Carini, diretor do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, e Emílio Ribas, diretor do Serviço Sanitário. A questão em jogo era a classificação de uma doença que reinava no estado. Para Carini tratava-se de varíola, para Ribas era uma entidade mórbida chamada de alastrim. A polêmica teve início na Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia e, posteriormente, migrou para outros fóruns, incorporando novos personagens. A apresentação e discussão dessa controvérsia objetiva contribuiu para a compreensão do processo de construção e estabilização de um consenso científico no campo das ciências biomédicas.Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of São Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emílio Ribas, director of the Serviço Sanitário, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  17. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for specific and rapid detection of differential goat pox virus and sheep pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhixun; Fan, Bin; Wu, Guohua; Yan, Xinmin; Li, Yingguo; Zhou, Xiaoli; Yue, Hua; Dai, Xueling; Zhu, Haixia; Tian, Bo; Li, Jian; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-17

    Capripox viruses are economically important pathogens in goat and sheep producing areas of the world, with specific focus on goat pox virus (GTPV), sheep pox virus (SPPV) and the Lumpy Skin Disease virus (LSDV). Clinically, sheep pox and goat pox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. This presents a real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of Capripox outbreaks. A LAMP method was developed for the specific differential detection of GTPV and SPPV using three sets of LAMP primers designed on the basis of ITR sequences. Reactions were performed at 62°C for either 45 or 60 min, and specificity confirmed by successful differential detection of several GTPV and SPPV isolates. No cross reactivity with Orf virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), A. marginale Lushi isolate, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Chlamydophila psittaci, Theileria ovis, T. luwenshuni, T. uilenbergi or Babesia sp was noted. RFLP-PCR analysis of 135 preserved epidemic materials revealed 48 samples infected with goat pox and 87 infected with sheep pox, with LAMP test results showing a positive detection for all samples. When utilizing GTPV and SPPV genomic DNA, the universal LAMP primers (GSPV) and GTPV LAMP primers displayed a 100% detection rate; while the SPPV LAMP detection rate was 98.8%, consistent with the laboratory tested results. In summary, the three sets of LAMP primers when combined provide an analytically robust method able to fully distinguish between GTPV and SPPV. The presented LAMP method provides a specific, sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool for the distinction of GTPV and SPPV infections, with the potential to be standardized as a detection method for Capripox viruses in endemic areas.

  18. Plum pox virus capsid protein suppresses plant pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaise, Valerie; Candresse, Thierry

    2017-08-01

    The perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by immune receptors launches defence mechanisms referred to as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Successful pathogens must suppress PTI pathways via the action of effectors to efficiently colonize their hosts. So far, plant PTI has been reported to be active against most classes of pathogens, except viruses, although this defence layer has been hypothesized recently as an active part of antiviral immunity which needs to be suppressed by viruses for infection success. Here, we report that Arabidopsis PTI genes are regulated upon infection by viruses and contribute to plant resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV). Our experiments further show that PPV suppresses two early PTI responses, the oxidative burst and marker gene expression, during Arabidopsis infection. In planta expression of PPV capsid protein (CP) was found to strongly impair these responses in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis, revealing its PTI suppressor activity. In summary, we provide the first clear evidence that plant viruses acquired the ability to suppress PTI mechanisms via the action of effectors, highlighting a novel strategy employed by viruses to escape plant defences. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Formation of polymerization compounds during thermal oxidation of cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil and their blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Arellano, D. Laboratório de Óleos e Gorduras, Departa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of cottonseed oil, partially hydrogenated cottonseed oil and their blends, with iodine values between 60 and 110, tocopherol-stripped or not by aluminium oxide treatment, were submitted to thermal oxidation, at 180 °C, for 10 hours. Samples were collected at 0, 2, 5, 8 and 10 hours, for the determination of dimers and polymers (degradation compounds and of tocopherols. The influence of the degree of hydrogenation on the formation of dimers and polymers and the role of originally present tocopherols in the protection of fats and oils against thermal degradation was verified. The degradation curves for tocopherols showed a fast destruction rate for the tocopherols present in cottonseed fats and oil (α and γ-tocopherols, with residual levels close to zero after 10 hours under thermal oxidation conditions. Nevertheless, samples with their natural tocopherols presented a slower rate of thermal degradation. The unsaturation degree was apparently more important in the protection against thermal degradation than the content of tocopherolsMuestras de aceite de algodón, aceite de algodón parcialmente hidrogenado y sus mezclas, con índices de yodo de 60 a 110, tratadas o no con óxido de aluminio, fueron sometidas a termoxidación, a 180 °C, durante 10 horas. Se retiraron muestras en los tiempos 0, 2, 5, 8 y 10 horas, para determinación de dímeros y polímeros (compuestos de degradación y de tocoferoles. Se verificó la influencia del grado de hidrogenación sobre la formación de dímeros y polímeros, y también el papel de los tocoferoles originalmente presentes en el aceite y en las grasas, en la protección contra la degradación térmica. Las curvas de degradación de los tocoferoles mostraron una destrucción bastante rápida de los tocoferoles presentes en el aceite y en las grasas de algodón (α y γ-tocoferoles, con niveles residuales próximos a cero después de 10 horas de termoxidación. Aún así, muestras con sus

  20. Bio-oil steam reforming, partial oxidation or oxidative steam reforming coupled with bio-oil dry reforming to eliminate CO{sub 2} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xun [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Lu, Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Biomass is carbon-neutral and utilization of biomass as hydrogen resource shows no impact on atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. Nevertheless, a significant amount of CO{sub 2} is always produced in biomass gasification processes. If the CO{sub 2} produced can further react with biomass, then the biomass gasification coupled with CO{sub 2} reforming of biomass will result in a net decrease of CO{sub 2} level in atmosphere and produce the chemical raw material, syngas. To achieve this concept, a ''Y'' type reactor is developed and applied in bio-oil steam reforming, partial oxidation, or oxidative steam reforming coupled with CO{sub 2} reforming of bio-oil to eliminate the emission of CO{sub 2}. The experimental results show that the reaction systems can efficiently suppress the emission of CO{sub 2} from various reforming processes. The different coupled reaction systems generate the syngas with different molar ratio of CO/H{sub 2}. In addition, coke deposition is encountered in the different reforming processes. Both catalysts and experimental parameters significantly affect the coke deposition. Ni/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst shows much higher resistivity toward coke deposition than Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, while employing high reaction temperature is vital for elimination of coke deposition. Although the different coupled reaction systems show different characteristic in terms of product distribution and coke deposition, which all can serve as methods for storage of the carbon from fossil fuels or air. (author)

  1. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of a sheep pox virus isolated from the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X L; Yang, F; Li, H X; Dou, Y X; Meng, X L; Li, H; Luo, X N; Cai, X P

    2013-05-14

    An outbreak of sheep pox was investigated in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China. Through immunofluorescence testing, isolated viruses, polymerase chain reaction identification, and electron microscopic examination, the isolated strain was identified as a sheep pox virus. The virus was identified through sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene, open reading frame (ORF) 095, and ORF 103 genes. This study is the first to use the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes as candidate genes for the analysis of sheep pox. The results showed that the ORF 095 and ORF 103 genes could be used for the genotyping of the sheep pox virus.

  2. Hairy root transgene expression analysis of a secretory peroxidase (PvPOX1) from common bean infected by Fusarium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Renfeng; Wu, Xingbo; Wang, Yingjie; Zhuang, Yan; Chen, Jian; Wu, Jing; Ge, Weide; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin; Blair, Matthew W

    2017-07-01

    Plant peroxidases (POXs) are one of the most important redox enzymes in the defense responses. However, the large number of different plant POX genes makes it necessary to carefully confirm the function of each paralogous POX gene in specific tissues and disease interactions. Fusarium wilt is a devastating disease of common bean caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli. In this study, we evaluated a peroxidase gene, PvPOX1, from a resistant common bean genotype, CAAS260205 and provided direct evidence for PvPOX1's role in resistance by transforming the resistant allele into a susceptible common bean genotype, BRB130, via hairy root transformation using Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Analysis of PvPOX1 gene over-expressing hairy roots showed it increased resistance to Fusarium wilt both in the roots and the rest of transgenic plants. Meanwhile, the PvPOX1 expressive level, the peroxidase activity and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) accumulation were also enhanced in the interaction. The result showed that the PvPOX1 gene played an essential role in Fusarium wilt resistance through the occurrence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced hypersensitive response. Therefore, PvPOX1 expression was proven to be a valuable gene for further analysis which can strengthen host defense response against Fusarium wilt through a ROS activated resistance mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of PEEP and inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary gas exchange during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation with small volumes of perfluorocarbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M; Kuhlen, R; Falter, F; Reyle-Hahn, M; Dembinski, R; Rossaint, R

    2000-04-01

    Partial liquid ventilation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inhaled nitric oxide (NO) can improve ventilation/perfusion mismatch in acute lung injury (ALI). The aim of the present study was to compare gas exchange and hemodynamics in experimental ALI during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation at two different levels of PEEP, with and without the inhalation of nitric oxide. Seven pigs (24+/-2 kg BW) were surfactant-depleted by repeated lung lavage with saline. Gas exchange and hemodynamic parameters were assessed in all animals during gaseous and subsequent partial liquid ventilation at two levels of PEEP (5 and 15 cmH2O) and intermittent inhalation of 10 ppm NO. Arterial oxygenation increased significantly with a simultaneous decrease in cardiac output when PEEP 15 cmH2O was applied during gaseous and partial liquid ventilation. All other hemodynamic parameters revealed no relevant changes. Inhalation of NO and instillation of perfluorocarbon had no additive effects on pulmonary gas exchange when compared to PEEP 15 cmH2O alone. In experimental lung injury, improvements in gas exchange are most distinct during mechanical ventilation with PEEP 15 cmH2O without significantly impairing hemodynamics. Partial liquid ventilation and inhaled NO did not cause an additive increase of PaO2.

  4. Development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) automotive auxiliary power unit (APU) fueled by gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMinco, C.; Mukerjee, S.; Grieve, J.; Faville, M.; Noetzel, J.; Perry, M.; Horvath, A.; Prediger, D.; Pastula, M.; Boersma, R.; Ghosh, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design and the development progress of a 3 to 5 auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a gasoline fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). This fuel cell was supplied reformate gas (reactant) by a partial oxidation (POx) catalytic reformer utilizing liquid gasoline and designed by Delphi Automotive Systems. This reformate gas consists mainly of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and nitrogen and was fed directly in to the SOFC stack without any additional fuel reformer processing. The SOFC stack was developed by Global Thermoelectric and operates around 700 o C. This automotive APU produces power to support future 42 volt vehicle electrical architectures and loads. The balance of the APU, designed by Delphi Automotive Systems, employs a packaging and insulation design to facilitate installation and operation on-board automobiles. (author)

  5. Investigation of partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide for dry desulfurisation of fuel gases; Untersuchung der Partialoxidation von Schwefelwasserstoff zur Trockenentschwefelung von Brenngasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliemczak, U.

    2002-07-01

    Three process variants for direct desulfurisation in the dry state of coal gasification gases by partial oxidation of H{sub 2}S were investigated in Prenflo conditions: 1. Heterogeneously catalyzed partial oxidation of H{sub 2}S on fly dust followed by sulfur deposition on the dust; 2. Non-catalyzed partial oxidation of H{sub 2}S in a homogeneous gaseous phase followed by sulfur deposition in a spray separator; 3. Heterogeneously catalyzed partial oxidation of H{sub 2}S in a fixed bed. The experiments were carried out in conditions similar to the crude gas conditions of slag bath gasification at SVZ Schwarze Pumpe. The fixed bed materials investigated were hearth furnace coke, Berl saddles, and an activated carbon developed specially for the investigations, Oxorbon CJ. The focus of the investigations was on the envisaged continuous operation of the process. [German] Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde an einer zu diesem Zweck modifizierten Technikumsanlage die trockene Direktentschwefelung von Brenngasen aus der Kohlevergasung durch partielle Oxidation von H{sub 2}S untersucht. Im Vordergrund standen zwei Verfahrensvarianten, deren Eignung fuer die Bedingungen der Prenflo-Vergasung ueberprueft werden sollte: Variante 1: die heterogen katalysierte Partialoxidation von H{sub 2}S an Flugstaub mit anschliessender Schwefelabscheidung auf dem Staub und, Variante 2: die nichtkatalysierte Partialoxidation von H{sub 2}S in homogener Gasphase mit anschliessender Schwefelabscheidung in einem Spruehabscheider. Ausgehend von den Versuchsergebnissen der Verfahrensvarianten 1 und 2 wurde zusaetzlich als Verfahrensvariante 3 die heterogen katalysierte Partialoxidation von H{sub 2}S am Festbett untersucht. Diese Versuche orientierten sich an den Rohgasbedingungen der Schlackebadvergasung des SVZ Schwarze Pumpe. Als Festbettmaterialien kamen Herdofenkoks, Berlsaettel und eine, speziell fuer diese Verfahrensvariante entwickelte Aktivkohle Oxorbon CJ, zum Einsatz. Die Eignung des

  6. Bias-induced migration of ionized donors in amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors with full bottom-gate and partial top-gate structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory Mativenga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bias-induced charge migration in amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs confirmed by overshoots of mobility after bias stressing dual gated TFTs is presented. The overshoots in mobility are reversible and only occur in TFTs with a full bottom-gate (covers the whole channel and partial top-gate (covers only a portion of the channel, indicating a bias-induced uneven distribution of ionized donors: Ionized donors migrate towards the region of the channel that is located underneath the partial top-gate and the decrease in the density of ionized donors in the uncovered portion results in the reversible increase in mobility.

  7. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures

  8. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono Tsukuba Ibaraki, 305-8568 (Japan); Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi [Application Development Project, Corporate R and D, NGK Insulators, Ltd., 2-56 Suda-cho Mizuho-ku Nagoya-shi Aichi, 467-8530 (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T{sub cell}) of 750 C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T{sub ref}) with various fuel utilizations (U{sub f}) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO{sub 2} concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T{sub cell} is higher than T{sub ref}. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U{sub f} decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell. (author)

  9. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru; Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T cell) of 750 °C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T ref) with various fuel utilizations (U f) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO 2 concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T cell is higher than T ref. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U f decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell.

  10. A polygeneration from a dual-gas partial catalytic oxidation coupling with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Yanhong; Huang, Yi; Gong, Minhui; Li, Wenying; Feng, Jie; Yi, Qun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new polygeneration system (PL-PCO-OPMR) to DME/methanol/power is proposed. • Exergeo-economic analysis is adopted to disclose the performance of systems. • Key technological conditions and parameters for PL-PCO-OPMR are optimized. • PL-PCO-OPMR shows high energy efficiency and low CO_2 emission. • PL-PCO-OPMR is an attractive way for high efficient and clean use of COG and CGG. - Abstract: Polygeneration system, typically involving chemicals/fuels and electricity co-production, is a promising technology for the sustainable development of energy and environment. In this study, a new polygeneration system based on coal and coke oven gas (COG) inputs for co-production of dimethyl ether (DME)/methanol and electricity is proposed. In the new system, an appropriate syngas for the synthesis of DME is from coal gasified gas (CGG) reforming of COG coupled with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor, in which both COG and CGG reforming process and fuel combustion process are incorporated, which reduces exergy destruction in the whole reforming process. In order to obtain the best performance of CO_2 reduction, energy saving and economic benefit, the key operation parameters of the proposed process are analyzed and optimized. The new system is compared with the process based on CH_4/CO_2 dry reforming, in terms of exergy efficiency, exergy cost and CO_2 emissions. Through the new system, the exergy efficiency can be increased by 7.8%, the exergy cost can be reduced by 0.88 USD/GJ and the CO_2 emission can be reduced by 0.023 kg/MJ. These results suggest that the polygeneration system from CGG and COG partial catalytic oxidation coupling with an oxygen-permeable membrane reactor (PL-PCO-OPMR) would be a more attractive way for highly efficient and clean use of CGG and COG.

  11. Structural changes of noble metal catalysts during ignition and extinction of the partial oxidation of methane studied by advanced QEXAFS techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Beier, M.; Kimmerle, B.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of the ignition and extinction of the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of methane to hydrogen and carbon monoxide over Pt-Rh/Al2O3 and Pt/Al2O3 were studied in the subsecond timescale using quick-EXAFS with a novel cam-driven X-ray monochromator employing Si(111) and Si(311) crystals...... to discuss the potential and limitation of this technique in catalysis and related areas. With respect to the noble metal catalysed partial oxidation of methane, several interesting observations were made: structural changes during ignition were-independent of the chosen reaction conditions......-significantly faster than during the extinction of the reaction. The dynamic behavior of the catalysts was dependent on the flow conditions and the respective noble metal component(s). Higher reaction gas flow led to a faster ignition process. While the ignition over Pt-Rh/Al2O3 occurred at lower temperature than over...

  12. Study of film graphene/graphene oxide obtained by partial reduction chemical of oxide graphite; Estudo de filme de grafeno/oxido de grafeno obtido por reducao quimica parcial do oxido de grafite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascho, J.L.S.; Costa, S.F.; Hoepfner, J.C.; Pezzin, S.H., E-mail: juliagascho@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina (UDESC), Joinville, SC (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the morphology of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained by partial chemical reduction of graphite oxide (OG) as well as its resistance to solvents. Films of graphene/graphene oxide are great candidates for replacement of indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) in photoelectric devices. The OG was obtained from natural graphite, by Hummer's method modified, and its reduction is made by using sodium borohydride. Infrared spectroscopy analysis of Fourier transform (FTIR), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution (SEM/FEG) for the characterization of graphene/graphene oxide film obtained were performed. This film proved to be resilient, not dispersing in any of the various tested solvents (such as ethanol, acetone and THF), even under tip sonication, this resistance being an important property for the applications. Furthermore, the film had a morphology similar to that obtained by other preparation methods.(author)

  13. Axial Changes of Catalyst Structure and Temperature in a Fixed-Bed Microreactor During Noble Metal Catalysed Partial Oxidation of Methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannemann, S.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Kimmerle, B.

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPO) over flame-made 2.5%Rh-2.5%Pt/Al2O3 and 2.5%Rh/Al2O3 in 6%CH4/3%O-2/He shows the potential of in situ studies using miniaturized fixed-bed reactors, the importance of spatially resolved studies and its combination with infrared thermography and on-...

  14. Update on Plum pox virus distribution in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol AKBAŞ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Extensive surveys to determine the occurrence of Plum pox virus (PPV in Turkey were carried out between 2007 and 2010 in commercial stone fruit orchards and nurseries, in non commercial stone fruit trees at other locations, and in rural and urban residential properties located in 56 of Turkey’s 81 provinces. A total of 5,762 samples were collected from almond, apricot, mahaleb, nectarine, plum, peach, sweet cherry and sour cherry and tested by biological indexing, DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Two hundred and twenty two samples from 4 regions (the Aegean region, the Central Anatolia region, the Marmara region and the Mediterranean region were found to be infected with PPV. This virus has occurred in Turkey since 1968. This is the first record of PPV occurrence in Aksaray, Çanakkale, İzmir, Kayseri, and Konya provinces.

  15. Sero-prevalence, risk factors and distribution of sheep and goat pox in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentie, Tsegaw; Fenta, Nigusie; Leta, Samson; Molla, Wassie; Ayele, Birhanu; Teshome, Yechale; Nigatu, Seleshe; Assefa, Ashenafi

    2017-12-11

    Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease. A total of 672 serum samples were collected from 30 Kebeles and tested using virus neutralization test. From a total of 672 sera tested, 104 (15.5%) were positive for sheep and goat pox virus antibody; from which 56 (17%) were sheep and 48 (14%) were goats. The diseases were prevalent in all study zones, the highest sero-prevalence was observed in South Gondar (20.9%) and the lowest in North Gondar and West Gojjam zones (11.9% each). From the potential risk factors considered (species, sex, age, agro-ecology and location); only sex and age were significantly associated (p pox is one of the most prevalent and widespread diseases of sheep and goats in the study area. Hence, annual mass vaccination program must be implemented for economic and viable control of sheep and goat pox diseases in the Amhara region in particular and at a national level in general.

  16. SEQUENTIAL PATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN TURKEYS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH CHICKEN POX VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammd Mubarak and Muhammad Mahmoud

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25, 4-weeks old, turkey poults were used in the present study. Birds were inoculated by chicken pox virus at the dose of 3 x l07.6/ml. Skin biopsy samples were taken sequentially from the same inoculated bird at 12 and 24 hours and at 2nd, 3rd, 4'h, 5th, 7th, l0th, 14th and 21 days post inoculation (PI. Tissue samples from upper respiratory and digestive tracts were also collected. Pox cytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies were detected between 4 and 7 days PI in epidermal the cell as well as in the follicular and sinus epithelium. Proliferative and necrobiotic epithelial changes were observed. Thereafter, pox inclusions disappeared with the appearance of vesicular, pustular and ulcerative lesions. This was accompanied by the gradual development of granulation tissue and finally scar tissue formed. Ultrastructure of the inclusion bodies and fine changes of the affected epidermal cell were illustrated.. It was concluded that the inoculated chicken pox virus is highly pathogenic for turkeys. Taking sequential biopsy samples from the same inoculated bird was found to yield more accurate follow up of the pox skin lesions.

  17. [The world is free of pox - Implementation and success of a grandiose program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, S

    1980-12-15

    At the beginning of this century the compulsory vaccination and revaccination which was legally founded after the introduction of the vaccination by Jenner (1796) led to the removal of the smallpox in Europe and Northern America. However, up to the sixties in the developing countries of Asia, Africa as well as of Southern America and Middle America still fell ill and died of small-pox millions of people. Between 1953 and 1973 importations into countries of Europe and Northern America took place in 51 cases. In 1959 on the motion of the USSR the WHO decided performance of a world-wide eradication programme of small-pox which could be led to success with comprehensive personal, material and financial support of many countries. Flanking scientific, technological and methodical measures were of essential importance. In May 1980 the World Health Assembly in Geneva announced in solemn form the world-wide eradication of the small-pox and gave recommendations to the member countries for concluding measures concerning the small-pox vaccination, the foundation of vaccine reserves and the control of the epidemiological situation in the world. Also in the GDR the small-pox vaccination in childhood could be abolished.

  18. The Host Galaxy and Central Engine of the Dwarf Active Galactic Nucleus POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Carol E.; Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2008-10-01

    We present new multiwavelength observations of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy POX 52 in order to investigate the properties of the host galaxy and the active nucleus and to examine the mass of its black hole, previously estimated to be ~105 M⊙. HST ACS HRC images show that the host galaxy has a dwarf elliptical morphology (MI = - 18.4 mag, Sérsic index n = 4.3) with no detected disk component or spiral structure, confirming previous results from ground-based imaging. X-ray observations from both Chandra and XMM-Newton show strong (factor of 2) variability over timescales as short as 500 s, as well as a dramatic decrease in the absorbing column density over a 9 month period. We attribute this change to a partial covering absorber, with a 94% covering fraction and NH = 58+ 8.4-9.2 × 1021 cm -2, that moved out of the line of sight in between the XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. Combining these data with observations from the VLA, Spitzer, and archival data from 2MASS and GALEX, we examine the SED of the active nucleus. Its shape is broadly similar to typical radio-quiet quasar SEDs, despite the very low bolometric luminosity of Lbol = 1.3 × 1043 ergs s-1. Finally, we compare black hole mass estimators, including methods based on X-ray variability, and optical scaling relations using the broad Hβ line width and AGN continuum luminosity, finding a range of black hole mass from all methods to be MBH = (2.2-4.2) × 105 M⊙, with an Eddington ratio of Lbol/LEdd ≈ 0.2-0.5.

  19. PoxA, yjeK, and elongation factor P coordinately modulate virulence and drug resistance in Salmonella enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarre, William Wiley; Zou, S Betty; Roy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    We report an interaction between poxA, encoding a paralog of lysyl tRNA-synthetase, and the closely linked yjeK gene, encoding a putative 2,3-beta-lysine aminomutase, that is critical for virulence and stress resistance in Salmonella enterica. Salmonella poxA and yjeK mutants share extensive...

  20. A low-temperature partial-oxidation-methanol micro reformer with high fuel conversion rate and hydrogen production yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsueh-Sheng; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Huang, Yuh-Jeen; Su, Yu-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A low-operating temperature of the POM-mode micro methanol reformer is obtained. • The effect of channel design on the performance is studied. • The effect of solid content and binder’ ratio on the performance is studied. • The centrifugal process is benefit for the modification of performance. • 98% of methanol conversion rate of the micro reformer can be obtained at 180 °C. - Abstract: A partial oxidation methanol micro reformer (POM-μReformer) with finger-shaped channels for low operating temperature and high conversing efficiency is proposed in this study. The micro reformer employs POM reaction for low temperature operation (less than 200 °C), exothermic reaction, and quick start-up, as well as air feeding capability; and the finger type reaction chambers for increasing catalyst loading as well as reaction area for performance enhancement. In this study, centrifugal technique was introduced to assist on the catalyst loading with high amount and uniform distribution. The solid content (S), binder’s ratio (B), and channel design (the ratio between channel’s length and width, R) were investigated in detail to optimize the design parameters. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) were employed to analyze the performance of the POM-μReformer. The result depicted that the catalyst content and reactive area could be much improved at the optimized condition, and the conversion rate and hydrogen selectivity approached 97.9% and 97.4%, respectively, at a very low operating temperature of 180 °C with scarce or no binder in catalyst. The POM-μReformer can supply hydrogen to fuel cells by generating 2.23 J/min for 80% H 2 utilization and 60% fuel cell efficiency at 2 ml/min of supplied reactant gas, including methanol, oxygen and argon at a mixing ratio of 12.2%, 6.1% and 81.7%, respectively

  1. Modeling sheep pox disease from the 1994-1998 epidemic in Evros Prefecture, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesios, C; Demiris, N; Abas, Z; Dadousis, K; Koutroumanidis, T

    2014-10-01

    Sheep pox is a highly transmissible disease which can cause serious loss of livestock and can therefore have major economic impact. We present data from sheep pox epidemics which occurred between 1994 and 1998. The data include weekly records of infected farms as well as a number of covariates. We implement Bayesian stochastic regression models which, in addition to various explanatory variables like seasonal and environmental/meteorological factors, also contain serial correlation structure based on variants of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We take a predictive view in model selection by utilizing deviance-based measures. The results indicate that seasonality and the number of infected farms are important predictors for sheep pox incidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The etiology of white pox, a lethal disease of the Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Kathryn L; Porter, James W; Ritchie, Kim B; Polson, Shawn W; Mueller, Erich; Peters, Esther C; Santavy, Deborah L; Smith, Garriet W

    2002-06-25

    Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses of living cover in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. The rate of tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2 x day(-1), and is greatest during periods of seasonally elevated temperature. In Florida, the spread of white pox fits the contagion model, with nearest neighbors most susceptible to infection. In this report, we identify a common fecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as the causal agent of white pox. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that a bacterial species associated with the human gut has been shown to be a marine invertebrate pathogen.

  3. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  4. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  5. Effect of partial oxygen pressure on physicochemical properties of Kh18N10T steel at isothermal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, V.N.; Oshe, E.K.; Fokin, M.N.; Bogdanova, S.V.; Loskutov, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Auger-electron spectroscopy, photoelectric polarization, conductometry methods have been used to analyze chemical and defect composition of surface oxide layers, formed on stainless steel Kh18N10T in vacuum (10 -9 - 10 -2 torr) and at temperatures 593-673 K. The boundary conditions of manifestation of extermal behaviour of the dependence of the surface oxide growth rate at isothermal oxidation of this steel are determined. The relation between passivation properties of the surface oxide and the magnitude of the edge angle of the surface wetting with molten tin is revealed

  6. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF CYTOKINES SERUM LEVELS IN CHILDREN WITH CHICKEN POX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Zheleznikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The serum levels of cytokines IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-4, IL-10 were tested in ELISA in 74 children with different courses of chicken pox. Moderate severity course of chicken pox was accompanied by significant increase of IL-1β, IL-8, IFNα, IFNγ, IL-10 levels, but severe course of infection was associated with cytokine response reduction. Manifestation of varicella-zoster virus encephalitis was accompanied by the rise of IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and IL-10 levels during the second week of disease. 

  7. Aphid Transmission of the Ontario Isolate of Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, D Thomas; Vickers, Patricia M; Bittner, Lori A; Stobbs, Lorne W; Foottit, Robert G

    2015-10-01

    Utilization of timed virus acquisition access probes in studies of plum pox virus (PPV) transmission by aphids demonstrated that endemic species transmitted the virus readily from plum, Prunus domestica (L.) Batsch; peach, P. persica (L.); or dwarf flowering almond, P. glandulosa Thunberg., to peach seedlings. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), was shown to be the most efficient vector. Acquisition of virus by green peach aphids from infected peach leaves resulted in 18-28% infected peach seedlings, while aphids previously fed on infected leaves of plum transferred virus to 36% of peach seedlings. Although the spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola (Patch), was a less efficient vector than M. persicae it is perhaps more important for the spread of PPV due to its greater abundance and occurrence earlier in the season when peach trees are thought to be more susceptible to infection. Virus transmission rates varied depending on the virus source and healthy test plant species. In contrast to many previous studies, aphid inoculation of the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana Domin occurred at a low rate, never exceeding 4%. Acquisition of PPV by M. persicae from infected peach fruit was greatly reduced compared with acquisition from leaves. The results of this research indicate that the Ontario isolate of PPV-D is readily transmissible by aphids to peach and natural spread of the virus needs to be considered in future management or eradication programs. © Her Majesty in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  8. [Small pox--infection, therapy and anaesthesiological management (part 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langefeld, T W; Engel, J; Menges, T; Hempelmann, G

    2003-07-01

    Smallpox is an acute contagious and sometimes fatal infectious disease. It is caused by the variola-virus. Smallpox is characterized by a typical disease form with a progressive distinctive skin rash, especially at face, arms and legs. Smallpox has a fatality rate of about 30 % and the therapy of infected patients is only symptomatically. As prevention the WHO initiated worldwide vaccination programs in the year 1967. The last naturally occurring case of smallpox in the world was in Somalia in 1977. Since then the only known cases of smallpox happened from an outbreak in Birmingham, England caused by a laboratory accident in the year of 1979. On May the 8 th 1980 the disease was declared as eliminated from the world by the WHO (WHO-Resolution 33.33). A natural occurrence of the variola-virus seems to be not given. Nevertheless the virus exists for research in two laboratories, the American Centers of Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia and in the Russian Research Center for Virology and Biotechnics in Kolzowo, Sibiria. Threatening infections with smallpox or other microorganisms, used as bioweapons, get a new dimension through global terrorism. The variola-virus represents an optimal candidate for bioweapons. It is easy to replicate, it is highly contagious and the transmission over aerosol or direct contact from man to man is easy to handle. After the disease was eliminated from the world, routine vaccination among general public was stopped. Therefore younger people don't possess any vaccination protection. Older formerly vaccinated people probably have only a non-sufficient protection. Because of the smallpox elimination a lot of physicians have no experience with this disease. An outbreak of this smallpox isn't only controlled by new vaccination. In our times we need adapted prevention-standards, pox-alarm plans and quarantine standards.

  9. Advanced STEM/EDX investigation on an oxide scale thermally grown on a high-chromium iron–nickel alloy under very low oxygen partial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latu-Romain, L.; Madi, Y.; Mathieu, S.; Robaut, F.; Petit, J.-P.; Wouters, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A scale grown on a high-chromium iron–nickel alloy under low oxygen partial pressure was studied. • STEM-EDX maps at high resolution on a transversal thin lamella have been conducted. • The real complexity of the oxide layer has been highlighted. • These results explain the elevated number of semiconducting contributions. - Abstract: A thermal oxide scale has been grown on a high-chromium iron-nickel alloy under very low oxygen partial pressure (1050 °C, 10"−"1"0 Pa). In this paper, a special attention has been paid to morphological and chemical characterizations of the scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis at high resolution on a cross-section thin lamella beforehand prepared by using a combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope instrument. The complexity of the oxide layer is highlighted, and the correlation between the present results and the ones of a photoelectrochemical study is discussed.

  10. Conservation, Divergence, and Genome-Wide Distribution of PAL and POX A Gene Families in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, H C; Singh, N K; Sharma, T R

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic and syntenic comparison were performed for the genes responsible for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase A (POX A) enzymes in nine plant species representing very diverse groups like legumes (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula), fruits (Vitis vinifera), cereals (Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa), trees (Populus trichocarpa), and model dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Brachypodium distachyon) species. A total of 87 and 1045 genes in PAL and POX A gene families, respectively, have been identified in these species. The phylogenetic and syntenic comparison along with motif distributions shows a high degree of conservation of PAL genes, suggesting that these genes may predate monocot/eudicot divergence. The POX A family genes, present in clusters at the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes, might be evolving and expanding with higher rate than the PAL gene family. Our analysis showed that during the expansion of POX A gene family, many groups and subgroups have evolved, resulting in a high level of functional divergence among monocots and dicots. These results will act as a first step toward the understanding of monocot/eudicot evolution and functional characterization of these gene families in the future.

  11. POX 52: A Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy with an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Ho, Luis C.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2004-05-01

    We describe new optical images and spectra of POX 52, a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus that was originally detected in the POX objective-prism survey. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with broad components to the permitted line profiles, and we classify POX 52 as a Seyfert 1 galaxy. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical, and its brightness profile is best fit by a Sérsic model with an index of 3.6+/-0.2 and a total magnitude of MV=-17.6. Applying mass-luminosity-line width scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ line width and nonstellar continuum luminosity, we find MBH~1.6×105Msolar. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy, measured from the Ca II λ8498, 8542 lines, is 36+/-5 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105Msolar. Further searches for active nuclei in dwarf galaxies can provide unique constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106Msolar.

  12. An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae (or Cow-pox. 1798).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Alfred B; Ghim, Shin-Je; Sundberg, John P

    2016-03-01

    Few papers have had a greater impact on the health of the human species than the simple, yet elegant, observations and clinical trials of Edward Jenner with what was at the time called the Cow Pox. In fact, this was a naturally attenuated rodent (probably rat) pox that could infect horses and, through farriers and farm hands, dairy cattle. While commonly called the Cow Pox at the time, Jenner's transmission studies between humans used infectious materials from horses. His methods provided protection from the serious effects of smallpox infections. In 1977, smallpox was considered to be eradicated, although people continue to be infected by pox viruses from other mammalian species. We consider this to be our 'favorite historical paper' because it emphasizes careful clinical observation followed by relatively simple clinical testing can have a profound influence on human health, even when almost nothing is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Continued follow-up with strict attention to detail resulted in a crude but effective way to deal with an epidemic, methods still used today for containing infectious diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. ETIOLOGY OF WHITE POX, A LETHAL DISEASE OF THE CARIBBEAN ELKHORN CORAL, ACROPORA PALMATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of the shallow-water Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, are being decimated by white pox disease, with losses in the Florida Keys typically in excess of 70%. Tissue loss is rapid, averaging 2.5 cm2 day-1. A bacterium isolated from diseased A. palmata was shown...

  14. Plum pox virus (PPV) genome expression in genetically engineered RNAi plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important approach to controlling sharka disease caused by Plum pox virus (PPV) is the development of PPV resistant plants using small interfering RNAs (siRNA) technology. In order to evaluate siRNA induced gene silencing, we studied, based on knowledge of the PPV genome sequence, virus genome t...

  15. Cutaneous form of pox infection among captive peafowl (Pavo cristatus) chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ahrar; Yousaf, Arfan; Khan, M Zargham; Siddique, Muhammad; Gul, S Tehseen; Mahmood, Fazal

    2009-02-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the epidemiology and lesions of avian pox in captive peafowl chicks. Overall values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality were 45.2%, 27.1% and 60.0%, respectively. The chicks of 9 to 12 weeks of age showed a significantly (P<0.001) higher prevalence rate than other age groups. The morbidity and mortality due to avian pox in peafowl chicks was significantly (P<0.001) reduced when kept in mosquito-proof cages and hatched under broody chicken hens. Morbidity due to poxvirus infection on the peafowl farm was 82%, 26% and 12% in successive years. This reduction might have been the result of the introduction of mosquito-proof nets after year 1, although this was not the subject of a controlled experiment. All of the peafowl chicks suffering from dry pox showed pustular and nodular lesions on eye lids, beak, legs and toes. Distribution of lesions in different body parts varied significantly (P<0.023). Lesion diameters were less than 1 cm (59.73%), 1 to 2 cm (23.75%) and more than 2 cm (16.87%). Histopathological studies revealed extensive proliferation of subdermal connective tissue and infiltration of heterophils and macrophages. The keratinocytes showed degenerative changes in the form of cytoplasmic vacuolation, ballooning and hyper-chromatic nuclei. Eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions (Bollinger bodies) in keratinocytes were consistently present. It was concluded that avian pox rendered high morbidity, mortality and case fatality in peafowl chicks.

  16. Conservation, Divergence, and Genome-Wide Distribution of PAL and POX A Gene Families in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Rawal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic and syntenic comparison were performed for the genes responsible for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and peroxidase A (POX A enzymes in nine plant species representing very diverse groups like legumes (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, fruits (Vitis vinifera, cereals (Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa, trees (Populus trichocarpa, and model dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana and monocot (Brachypodium distachyon species. A total of 87 and 1045 genes in PAL and POX A gene families, respectively, have been identified in these species. The phylogenetic and syntenic comparison along with motif distributions shows a high degree of conservation of PAL genes, suggesting that these genes may predate monocot/eudicot divergence. The POX A family genes, present in clusters at the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes, might be evolving and expanding with higher rate than the PAL gene family. Our analysis showed that during the expansion of POX A gene family, many groups and subgroups have evolved, resulting in a high level of functional divergence among monocots and dicots. These results will act as a first step toward the understanding of monocot/eudicot evolution and functional characterization of these gene families in the future.

  17. Analyzing the dependence of oxygen incorporation current density on overpotential and oxygen partial pressure in mixed conducting oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zixuan; Chen, Di; Chueh, William C

    2017-08-30

    The oxygen incorporation reaction, which involves the transformation of an oxygen gas molecule to two lattice oxygen ions in a mixed ionic and electronic conducting solid, is a ubiquitous and fundamental reaction in solid-state electrochemistry. To understand the reaction pathway and to identify the rate-determining step, near-equilibrium measurements have been employed to quantify the exchange coefficients as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. However, because the exchange coefficient contains contributions from both forward and reverse reaction rate constants and depends on both oxygen partial pressure and oxygen fugacity in the solid, unique and definitive mechanistic assessment has been challenging. In this work, we derive a current density equation as a function of both oxygen partial pressure and overpotential, and consider both near and far from equilibrium limits. Rather than considering specific reaction pathways, we generalize the multi-step oxygen incorporation reaction into the rate-determining step, preceding and following quasi-equilibrium steps, and consider the number of oxygen ions and electrons involved in each. By evaluating the dependence of current density on oxygen partial pressure and overpotential separately, one obtains the reaction orders for oxygen gas molecules and for solid-state species in the electrode. We simulated the oxygen incorporation current density-overpotential curves for praseodymium-doped ceria for various candidate rate-determining steps. This work highlights a promising method for studying the exchange kinetics far away from equilibrium.

  18. Sequential treatment with intradermal incision (intracision) and 2,940-nm Er:YAG laser for chicken pox scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ju; Kim, Young Koo; Choi, Sun Young; Park, Kui Young; Seo, Seong Jun

    2014-01-01

    Boxcar scars, such as chicken pox scars, are round to oval depressions with sharply defined vertical edges. Subcision is a simple and safe procedure for treatment of atrophic and depressed scars, but boxcar scars are generally not eliminated by subcision. Intradermal incision technique (intracision) can treat chicken pox scars by untethering fibrotic strands, raising collagen synthesis, and having additional intradermal blood pocket formation. We have found that chicken pox scars further improve when intracision is followed by laser skin resurfacing. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor-P with (R)-ß-lysine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Hervé; Zou, S Betty; Bullwinkle, Tammy J

    2011-01-01

    The lysyl-tRNA synthetase paralog PoxA modifies elongation factor P (EF-P) with a-lysine at low efficiency. Cell-free extracts containing non-a-lysine substrates of PoxA modified EF-P with a change in mass consistent with addition of ß-lysine, a substrate also predicted by genomic analyses. EF......-P was efficiently functionally modified with (R)-ß-lysine but not (S)-ß-lysine or genetically encoded a-amino acids, indicating that PoxA has evolved an activity orthogonal to that of the canonical aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases....

  20. Characterization of structure and activity of garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ichi, Sarra; Miodek, Anna; Sauriat-Dorizon, Hélène; Mahy, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Céline; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2011-01-01

    Structural characterization and study of the activity of new POX(1B) protein from garlic which has a high peroxidase activity and can be used as a biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds were performed and compared with the findings for other heme peroxidases. The structure-function relationship was investigated by analysis of the spectroscopic properties and correlated to the structure determined by a new generation of high-performance hybrid mass spectrometers. The reactivity of the enzyme was analyzed by studies of the redox activity toward various ligands and the reactivity with various substrates. We demonstrated that, in the case of garlic peroxidase, the heme group is pentacoordinated, and has an histidine as a proximal ligand. POX(1B) exhibited a high affinity for hydrogen peroxide as well as various reducing cosubstrates. In addition, high enzyme specificity was demonstrated. The k(cat) and K(M) values were 411 and 400 mM(-1) s(-1) for 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and 2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), respectively. Furthermore, the reduction of nitro compounds in the presence of POX(1B) was demonstrated by iron(II) nitrosoalkane complex assay. In addition, POX(1B) showed a great potential for application for drug metabolism since its ability to react with 1-nitrohexane in the presence of sodium dithionite was demonstrated by the appearance of a characteristic Soret band at 411 nm. The high catalytic efficiency obtained in the case of the new garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)) is suitable for the monitoring of different analytes and biocatalysis.

  1. The Relationship Between Structural and Catalytic Activity of α and γ-Bismuth-Molybdate Catalysts for Partial Oxidation of Propylene to Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fansuri, H.; Pham, G. H.; Wibawanta, S.; Zhang, D. K.; French, David

    Bismuth-molybdate catalysts are known to be effective for catalytic partial oxidation of propylene to acrolein. Their properties and the kinetics and reaction mechanisms for acrolein production have been extensively studied, especially in their basic forms, such as α, β, and γ-bismuth-molybdate. Although the reaction mechanisms have been reported widely in the literature, a general agreement has not been reached, especially from a catalyst-structure point of view. The present contribution reports an effort to understand the structural changes of α and γ-bismuth-molybdate catalysts at varying temperatures as examined using high temperature XRD and to relate the catalyst performance (activity and selectivity) for propylene partial oxidation to acrolein. The XRD analysis was performed at temperature between 250 and 450°C in ambient atmosphere and the Rietveld refinement method was used to extract unit cell parameters. The results showed a distinct similarity between the shapes of the thermal expansion of the catalysts and their activity and selectivity curves, indicating a significant role that the catalyst interatomic structure plays in the overall reaction mechanism.

  2. Influence of oxygen partial pressure and salinity on the community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the Schelde estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollmann, A.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated in the Schelde estuary. Simultaneously with the increase of oxygen and salinity, a shift of the dominant AOB was observed. Molecular analysis based on 16S rRNA genes showed that the

  3. Phosphorus oxide gate dielectric for black phosphorus field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, W.; Tayari, V.; Fakih, I.; Korinek, A.; Caporali, M.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Heun, S.; Botton, G. A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental stability of the layered semiconductor black phosphorus (bP) remains a challenge. Passivation of the bP surface with phosphorus oxide, POx, grown by a reactive ion etch with oxygen plasma is known to improve photoluminescence efficiency of exfoliated bP flakes. We apply phosphorus oxide passivation in the fabrication of bP field effect transistors using a gate stack consisting of a POx layer grown by reactive ion etching followed by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. We observe room temperature top-gate mobilities of 115 cm2 V-1 s-1 in ambient conditions, which we attribute to the low defect density of the bP/POx interface.

  4. Human sewage identified as likely source of white pox disease of the threatened Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kathryn Patterson; Porter, James W; Turner, Jeffrey W; Thomas, Brian J; Looney, Erin E; Luna, Trevor P; Meyers, Meredith K; Futch, J Carrie; Lipp, Erin K

    2010-05-01

    Caribbean elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, has been decimated in recent years, resulting in the listing of this species as threatened under the United States Endangered Species Act. A major contributing factor in the decline of this iconic species is white pox disease. In 2002, we identified the faecal enterobacterium, Serratia marcescens, as an etiological agent for white pox. During outbreaks in 2003 a unique strain of S. marcescens was identified in both human sewage and white pox lesions. This strain (PDR60) was also identified from corallivorious snails (Coralliophila abbreviata), reef water, and two non-acroporid coral species, Siderastrea siderea and Solenastrea bournoni. Identification of PDR60 in sewage, diseased Acropora palmata and other reef invertebrates within a discrete time frame suggests a causal link between white pox and sewage contamination on reefs and supports the conclusion that humans are a likely source of this disease.

  5. Synthesis of ZSM-5 zeolite from coal fly ash and rice husk: characterization and application for partial oxidation of methane to methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnandi, Y. K.; Yanti, F. M.; Murti, S. D. S.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesian fly ash (SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio = 3.59) was used together with rice husk (SiO2 92%) as raw material for mesoporous ZSM-5 zeolite synthesis. Prior being used, coal fly ash and rice husk were subjected to pre-treatment in order to extract silicate (SiO4 4-) and aluminate (AlO4 5-) and to remove the impurities. Then the ZSM-5 zeolite were synthesized through hydrothermal treatment using two types of templates (TPAOH and PDDA). The as-synthesized ZSM-5 was characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX, and BET. The result of FTIR showed peaks at 1250-950 cm-1 (v asymetric T-O), 820-650 cm-1 (v symetric T-O), and at 650-500 cm-1 confirming the presence of the five number ring of the pentasil structure. The result of XRD showed the appearance of certain peaks in the position 2 theta between 7-9° and 22-25° indicative of ZSM-5 structure, but also showed the pattern of low intensity magnetite and hematite. The SEM image showed the rough surface of hexagonal crystals from ZSM-5 structure, indicative of mesoporosity in the structure. EDX result showed Si/Al ratio of 20, while surface area analysis gave SA of 43.16. The ZSM-5 zeolites then was modified with cobalt oxide through impregnation method. The catalytic activity as heterogeneous catalysts in partial oxidation of methane was tested. The result showed that hence the catalytic activity of ZSM-5 and Co/ZSM-5 from fly ash and rice husk were still inferior compared to the pro-analysis sourced-counterpart, they were potential to be used as catalyst in the partial oxidation of methane to methanol.

  6. Influence of Ti Content on the Partial Oxidation of TixFeCoNi Thin Films in Vacuum Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chu Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of Ti content and vacuum annealing on the microstructure evolution of TixFeCoNi (x = 0, 0.5, and 1 thin films and the underlying mechanisms. The as-deposited thin film transformed from an FCC (face center cubic structure at x = 0 into an amorphous structure at x = 1, which can be explained by determining topological instability and a hard ball model. After annealing was performed at 1000 °C for 30 min, the films presented a layered structure comprising metal solid solutions and oxygen-deficient oxides, which can be major attributed to oxygen traces in the vacuum furnace. Different Ti contents provided various phase separation and layered structures. The underlying mechanism is mainly related to the competition among possible oxides in terms of free energy production at 1000 °C.

  7. Genetic Susceptibility, Colony Size, and Water Temperature Drive White-Pox Disease on the Coral Acropora palmata

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Erinn M.; van Woesik, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, g...

  8. Microwave-Assisted Coprecipitation Synthesis of LaCoO3 Nanoparticles and Their Catalytic Activity for Syngas Production by Partial Oxidation of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Alvarez-Galvan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available LaCoO3 perovskite-type oxides were prepared by microwave-assisted coprecipitation route and investigated in the catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM to syngas. This preparation method aims to achieve higher specific surface areas (ssa than soft-chemical methods commonly used in the preparation of engineered materials. In an attempt to accomplish the creation of mesostructured porous LaCoO3, an ionic template such as cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide has been used as endotemplate in some samples. The influence of pH and the type of precipitating agent has been studied. The materials have been characterized at different levels: morphology has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, textural properties by nitrogen adsorption–desorption at −196°C, structural analysis by X-ray diffraction, surface composition by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal stability by thermogravimetric analysis, and carbon formation in spent catalysts by Raman spectroscopy. Structure-activity correlations point out that the precipitating agent has a key role on the morphology and porosity of the resultant oxide, as well as on the average crystalline domain of lanthanum perovskite (catalyst precursor. Thus, the use of ammonium hydroxide as precipitant leads to materials with a higher surface area and a greater ssa of cobalt (per unit mass, improving their catalytic performance for the CPOM reaction. The best catalytic performance was found for the catalyst prepared using ammonium hydroxide as precipitant (pH 9 and without adding CTAB as endotemplate.

  9. Ni/SiO2 Catalyst Prepared with Nickel Nitrate Precursor for Combination of CO2 Reforming and Partial Oxidation of Methane: Characterization and Deactivation Mechanism Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of Ni/SiO2 catalyst in the process of combination of CO2 reforming and partial oxidation of methane to produce syngas was studied. The Ni/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by using incipient wetness impregnation method with nickel nitrate as a precursor and characterized by FT-IR, TG-DTA, UV-Raman, XRD, TEM, and H2-TPR. The metal nickel particles with the average size of 37.5 nm were highly dispersed over the catalyst, while the interaction between nickel particles and SiO2 support is relatively weak. The weak NiO-SiO2 interaction disappeared after repeating oxidation-reduction-oxidation in the fluidized bed reactor at 700°C, which resulted in the sintering of metal nickel particles. As a result, a rapid deactivation of the Ni/SiO2 catalysts was observed in 2.5 h reaction on stream.

  10. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high.

  11. Anchoring Tri(8-QuinolinolatoIron Onto Sba-15 for Partial Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol Using Water as the Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaoyuan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tri(8-quinolinolatoiron complex immobilized onto SBA-15 catalyst has been synthesized through a stepwise procedure. The characterization results indicated that the BET surface area, total pore volume and average pore width decrease after stepwise modification of SBA-15, while the structure keeps intact. Catalytic tests showed that FeQ3-SBA-15 catalyzes the oxidation reaction well with 34.8% conversion of benzyl alcohol and 74.7% selectivity to benzaldehyde when water is used as the solvent after 1 h reaction. In addition, homogeneous catalyst tri(8-quinolinolatoiron exhibits very bad catalytic behavior using water as the solvent.

  12. Functional Consequences of Intracellular Proline Levels Manipulation Affecting PRODH/POX-Dependent Pro-Apoptotic Pathways in a Novel in Vitro Cell Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Ilona; Surazynski, Arkadiusz; Chrusciel, Marcin; Miltyk, Wojciech; Doroszko, Milena; Rahman, Nafis; Palka, Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    The effect of impaired intracellular proline availability for proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX)-dependent apoptosis was studied. We generated a constitutively knocked-down PRODH/POX MCF-7 breast cancer cell line (MCF-7shPRODH/POX) as a model to analyze the functional consequences of impaired intracellular proline levels. We have used inhibitor of proline utilization in collagen biosynthesis, 2-metoxyestradiol (MOE), inhibitor of prolidase that generate proline, rapamycin (Rap) and glycyl-proline (GlyPro), substrate for prolidase. Collagen and DNA biosynthesis were evaluated by radiometric assays. Cell viability was determined using Nucleo-Counter NC-3000. The activity of prolidase was determined by colorimetric assay. Expression of proteins was assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescence bioimaging. Concentration of proline was analyzed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. PRODH/POX knockdown decreased DNA and collagen biosynthesis, whereas increased prolidase activity and intracellular proline level in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. All studied compounds decreased cell viability in MCF-7 and MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. DNA biosynthesis was similarly inhibited by Rap and MOE in both cell lines, but GlyPro inhibited the process only in MCF-7shPRODH/POX and MOE+GlyPro only in MCF-7 cells. All the compounds inhibited collagen biosynthesis, increased prolidase activity and cytoplasmic proline level in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells and contributed to the induction of pro-survival mode only in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. In contrast, all studied compounds upregulated expression of pro-apoptotic protein only in MCF-7 cells. PRODH/POX was confirmed as a driver of apoptosis and proved the eligibility of MCF-7shPRODH/POX cell line as a highly effective model to elucidate the different mechanisms underlying proline utilization or generation in PRODH/POX-dependent pro-apoptotic pathways. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Rf-sputtered vanadium oxide thin films: effect of oxygen partial pressure on structural and electrochemical properties

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Y J; Ryu, K S; Chang, S H; Park, S C; Yoon, S M; Kim, D K

    2001-01-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films with thickness of about 2000 A have been prepared by radio frequency sputter deposition using a V sub 2 O sub 5 target in a mixed argon and oxygen atmosphere with different Ar/O sub 2 ratio ranging from 99/1 to 90/10. X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopic studies show that the oxygen content higher than 5% crystallizes a stoichiometric V sub O sub 5 phase, while oxygen deficient phase is formed in the lower oxygen content. The oxygen content in the mixed Ar + O sub 2 has a significant influence on electrochemical lithium insertion/deinsertion property. The discharge-charge capacity of vanadium oxide film increases with increasing the reactive oxygen content. The V sub O sub 5 film deposited at the Ar/O sub 2 ratio of 90/10 exhibits high discharge capacity of 100 mu Ah/cm sup 2 -mu m along with good cycle performance.

  14. The impact of partial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-deficiency on mitochondrial oxidant stress, DNA fragmentation and liver injury during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Anup; Lebofsky, Margitta; Weinman, Steven A.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. The mechanism of cell death is initiated by formation of a reactive metabolite that binds to mitochondrial proteins and promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a critical defense enzyme located in the mitochondrial matrix. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the functional consequences of partial SOD2-deficiency (SOD2+/-) on intracellular signaling mechanisms of necrotic cell death after APAP overdose. Treatment of C57Bl/6J wild type animals with 200 mg/kg APAP resulted in liver injury as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activities (2870 ± 180 U/L) and centrilobular necrosis at 6 h. In addition, increased tissue glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and GSSG-to-GSH ratios, delayed mitochondrial GSH recovery, and increased mitochondrial protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine protein adducts indicated mitochondrial oxidant stress. In addition, nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay) correlated with translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) was documented by the mitochondrial translocation of phospho-JNK. SOD2+/- mice showed 4-fold higher ALT activities and necrosis, an enhancement of all parameters of the mitochondrial oxidant stress, more AIF release and more extensive DNA fragmentation and more prolonged JNK activation. Conclusions: the impaired defense against mitochondrial superoxide formation in SOD2+/- mice prolongs JNK activation after APAP overdose and consequently further enhances the mitochondrial oxidant stress leading to exaggerated mitochondrial dysfunction, release of intermembrane proteins with nuclear DNA fragmentation and more necrosis.

  15. Structural evidence for the partially oxidized dipyrromethene and dipyrromethanone forms of the cofactor of porphobilinogen deaminase: structures of the Bacillus megaterium enzyme at near-atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azim, N.; Deery, E.; Warren, M. J.; Wolfenden, B. A. A.; Erskine, P.; Cooper, J. B.; Coker, A.; Wood, S. P.; Akhtar, M.

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses a key early step in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. Two near-atomic resolution structures of PBGD from B. megaterium are reported that demonstrate the time-dependent accumulation of partially oxidized forms of the cofactor, including one that possesses a tetrahedral C atom in the terminal pyrrole ring. The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses an early step of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor, which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue (Cys241 in the Bacillus megaterium enzyme). The cofactor is extended during the reaction by the sequential addition of the four substrate molecules, which are released as a linear tetrapyrrole product. Expression in Escherichia coli of a His-tagged form of B. megaterium PBGD has permitted the X-ray analysis of the enzyme from this species at high resolution, showing that the cofactor becomes progressively oxidized to the dipyrromethene and dipyrromethanone forms. In previously solved PBGD structures, the oxidized cofactor is in the dipyromethenone form, in which both pyrrole rings are approximately coplanar. In contrast, the oxidized cofactor in the B. megaterium enzyme appears to be in the dipyrromethanone form, in which the C atom at the bridging α-position of the outer pyrrole ring is very clearly in a tetrahedral configuration. It is suggested that the pink colour of the freshly purified protein is owing to the presence of the dipyrromethene form of the cofactor which, in the structure reported here, adopts the same conformation as the fully reduced dipyrromethane form

  16. [Retrobulbar optic nevritis and chicken pox: a case report in a child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelandt, V; Fayol, L; Hugonenq, C; Mancini, J; Chabrol, B

    2005-03-01

    We report here the case of a three-year-old boy presenting with an optic neuritis during the invasive phase of a chicken pox. This clinical, infrequent picture, can be directly due to the virus or be secondary to an auto-immune mechanism. The examination of the ocular fundus, the profile of the spinal fluid, the MRI and the measure of visual evoked potential allow to reach diagnosis and to identify the type of lesion. There is no consensus on the treatment of this optic neuritis and the current attitude is therapeutic abstention because of a rapid spontaneous improvement. Cerebellitis, meningitis can also be seen during chicken pox. Their evolution is quickly favorable, not requiring additional exam. Encephalitis can result from an auto-immune lesion of the white matter and require then the use of corticoids with antiviral drugs.

  17. Habitual Coffee Consumption Does Not Correlate with Blood Pressure, Inflammation and Endothelial Dysfunction but Partially Correlates with Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erizal Sugiono

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage in the world and has been known to have effects on cardiovascular system. Many researchers have examined the effects of coffee consumption on blood pressure (BP and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, but their results were inconsistent and still remain a subject of controversy. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction have been known as risk factors of hypertension and CVD. Those factors are also known to be affected by coffee consumption. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the effects of habitual coffee consumption on BP and to examine the role of oxidative stress (F2 isoprostane, inflammation (high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and endothelial dysfunction (asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study in which 47 healthy, non-smoking men aged 30-60 years with varying coffee-drinking habits were enrolled. BP and blood/urine analysis of biomarkers were measured in the morning before activity. Coffee consumption was assessed using a questionnaire. The differences among variables were analyzed using ANOVA and the correlations between variables were analyzed using Kendall’s Tau correlation analysis. RESULTS: Habitual coffee consumption did not correlate with systolic/diastolic BP (r=-0.02; p=0.856 and r=0.15; p=0.230, respectively. Concentrations of ADMA and hsCRP were also not correlated with coffee consumption (r=0.03; p=0.764 and r=0.04; p=0.701, respectively. Coffee consumption only showed significant correlation with F2 isoprostane (r=0.34; p=0.004. CONCLUSIONS: BP was not affected by coffee consumption although coffee consumption has a significant correlation with F2 isoprostane. These findings suggest that correlation between coffee consumption and BP might be explained by other factors that were not included in this study. KEYWORDS: coffee, caffeine, cardiovascular disease, blood pressure, oxidative

  18. Oxygen Partial Pressure Impact on Characteristics of Indium Titanium Zinc Oxide Thin Film Transistor Fabricated via RF Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Hung; Chang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Shoou-Jinn; Wu, Wei-Ting; Li, Jyun-Yi

    2017-06-26

    Indium titanium zinc oxide (InTiZnO) as the channel layer in thin film transistor (TFT) grown by RF sputtering system is proposed in this work. Optical and electrical properties were investigated. By changing the oxygen flow ratio, we can suppress excess and undesirable oxygen-related defects to some extent, making it possible to fabricate the optimized device. XPS patterns for O 1s of InTiZnO thin films indicated that the amount of oxygen vacancy was apparently declined with the increasing oxygen flow ratio. The fabricated TFTs showed a threshold voltage of -0.9 V, mobility of 0.884 cm²/Vs, on-off ratio of 5.5 × 10⁵, and subthreshold swing of 0.41 V/dec.

  19. Nitrous oxide reduction genetic potential from the microbial community of an intermittently aerated partial nitritation SBR treating mature landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarró, J; Hernández-Del Amo, E; Gich, F; Ruscalleda, M; Balaguer, M D; Colprim, J

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates the microbial community dynamics in an intermittently aerated partial nitritation (PN) SBR treating landfill leachate, with emphasis to the nosZ encoding gene. PN was successfully achieved and high effluent stability and suitability for a later anammox reactor was ensured. Anoxic feedings allowed denitrifying activity in the reactor. The influent composition influenced the mixed liquor suspended solids concentration leading to variations of specific operational rates. The bacterial community was low diverse due to the stringent conditions in the reactor, and was mostly enriched by members of Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as determined by 16S rRNA sequencing from excised DGGE melting types. The qPCR analysis for nitrogen cycle-related enzymes (amoA, nirS, nirK and nosZ) demonstrated high amoA enrichment but being nirS the most relatively abundant gene. nosZ was also enriched from the seed sludge. Linear correlation was found mostly between nirS and the organic specific rates. Finally, Bacteroidetes sequenced in this study by 16S rRNA DGGE were not sequenced for nosZ DGGE, indicating that not all denitrifiers deal with complete denitrification. However, nosZ encoding gene bacteria was found during the whole experiment indicating the genetic potential to reduce N2O. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiology of the Emergent Disease Paridae pox in an Intensively Studied Wild Bird Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachish, Shelly; Lawson, Becki; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Sheldon, Ben C.

    2012-01-01

    Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major) reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%), but was far less prevalent (<1%) in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations. PMID:23185230

  1. POX 4 and Tol 35: Two Peculiar Wolf-Rayet Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, David I.; Esteban, César

    1999-12-01

    We present results of narrowband (Hα and adjacent continuum) and broadband (U, B, and V) optical CCD imaging together with high-resolution Hα spectroscopy of the blue compact Wolf-Rayet dwarf galaxies POX 4 and Tol 35. POX 4 has a fainter, irregular, and diffuse companion located 20.5" (4.7 kpc) along the minor axis of the galaxy, which is visible also in the Hα emission. The difference in recession velocity between the galaxy and the companion is about 130 km s-1. The observational results lead us to propose that POX 4 could be interpreted as a low-mass ring galaxy, produced by a head-on intrusion of the fainter companion. Regarding the other object, a spectrum taken along the major axis of Tol 35 shows the coexistence of systems of motion with a velocity difference of about 50 km s-1. Moreover, the deep continuum-subtracted Hα image of the galaxy shows very faint features that resemble the beginning of crossed tidal tails or gaseous filaments powered by the mechanical action of the young stellar population. In this sense, Tol 35 could be interpreted either as an object in an intermediate-stage merging process between two gas-rich dwarf galaxies or as an object suffering the effect of a galactic wind.

  2. The Great Pox and the Surgeon's Role in the Sixteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen Shotwell, R

    2017-01-01

    The sixteenth century saw a shift in perceptions of the scope of surgery. The medieval focus on elevating the status of surgery had been accompanied by a certain distancing of surgery from manual operations, but the medical humanism of the sixteenth century embraced manual skills as an important part of medicine, most noticeably in the case of anatomy. In the first part of this paper I use accounts of the treatment of ulcers as a way of exploring these changes in perceptions. Ulcers were a well-known surgical ailment in medieval medicine, but in the sixteenth century they were also associated with the Great Pox. This made their treatment an important test case for establishing the scope of surgery and ultimately led Gabriele Falloppio to claim that ulcers from the Pox were not a part of surgery at all. In the second half of the paper, I look at sixteenth-century descriptions of surgery found in works on surgery and anatomy and note how important the idea of the efficacy of surgical treatment was in them. I conclude by suggesting that the concern with efficacy was itself another aspect of the arrival of the Pox.

  3. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S M; Pearson, Caroline R; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R; Lamien, Charles E; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P C

    2014-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of the emergent disease Paridae pox in an intensively studied wild bird population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Lachish

    Full Text Available Paridae pox, a novel avipoxvirus infection, has recently been identified as an emerging infectious disease affecting wild tit species in Great Britain. The incursion of Paridae pox to a long-term study site where populations of wild tits have been monitored in detail for several decades provided a unique opportunity to obtain information on the local-scale epidemiological characteristics of this novel infection during a disease outbreak. Using captures of >8000 individual birds, we show that, within two years of initial emergence, Paridae pox had become established within the population of great tits (Parus major reaching relatively high peak prevalence (10%, but was far less prevalent (<1% in sympatric populations of several other closely related, abundant Paridae species. Nonlinear smoothing models revealed that the temporal pattern of prevalence among great tits was characterised by within-year fluctuations indicative of seasonal forcing of infection rates, which was likely driven by multiple environmental and demographic factors. There was individual heterogeneity in the course of infection and, although recovery was possible, diseased individuals were far less likely to be recaptured than healthy individuals, suggesting a survival cost of infection. This study demonstrates the value of long-term monitoring for obtaining key epidemiological data necessary to understand disease dynamics, spread and persistence in natural populations.

  5. Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppurainen, Eeva S.M.; Pearson, Caroline R.; Bachanek-Bankowska, Katarzyna; Knowles, Nick J.; Amareen, Shadi; Frost, Lorraine; Henstock, Mark R.; Lamien, Charles E.; Diallo, Adama; Mertens, Peter P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases. PMID:24973760

  6. Differential active site loop conformations mediate promiscuous activities in the lactonase SsoPox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Hiblot

    Full Text Available Enzymes are proficient catalysts that enable fast rates of Michaelis-complex formation, the chemical step and products release. These different steps may require different conformational states of the active site that have distinct binding properties. Moreover, the conformational flexibility of the active site mediates alternative, promiscuous functions. Here we focused on the lactonase SsoPox from Sulfolobus solfataricus. SsoPox is a native lactonase endowed with promiscuous phosphotriesterase activity. We identified a position in the active site loop (W263 that governs its flexibility, and thereby affects the substrate specificity of the enzyme. We isolated two different sets of substitutions at position 263 that induce two distinct conformational sampling of the active loop and characterized the structural and kinetic effects of these substitutions. These sets of mutations selectively and distinctly mediate the improvement of the promiscuous phosphotriesterase and oxo-lactonase activities of SsoPox by increasing active-site loop flexibility. These observations corroborate the idea that conformational diversity governs enzymatic promiscuity and is a key feature of protein evolvability.

  7. Vascular ATP-sensitive potassium channels are over-expressed and partially regulated by nitric oxide in experimental septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Solène; Sennoun, Nacira; Dron, Anne-Gaëlle; de la Bourdonnaye, Mathilde; Montemont, Chantal; Asfar, Pierre; Lacolley, Patrick; Meziani, Ferhat; Levy, Bruno

    2011-05-01

    To study the activation and expression of vascular (aorta and small mesenteric arteries) potassium channels during septic shock with or without modulation of the NO pathway. Septic shock was induced in rats by peritonitis. Selective inhibitors of vascular K(ATP) (PNU-37883A) or BK(Ca) [iberiotoxin (IbTX)] channels were used to demonstrate their involvement in vascular hyporeactivity. Vascular response to phenylephrine was measured on aorta and small mesenteric arteries mounted on a wire myograph. Vascular expression of potassium channels was studied by PCR and Western blot, in the presence or absence of 1400W, an inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor. Aortic activation of the transcriptional factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Arterial pressure as well as in vivo and ex vivo vascular reactivity were reduced by sepsis and improved by PNU-37883A but not by IbTX. Sepsis was associated with an up-regulation of mRNA and protein expression of vascular K(ATP) channels, while expression of vascular BK(Ca) channels remained unchanged. Selective iNOS inhibition blunted the sepsis-induced increase in aortic NO, decreased NF-κB activation, and down-regulated vascular K(ATP) channel expression. Vascular K(ATP) but not BK(Ca) channels are activated, over-expressed, and partially regulated by NO via NF-κB activation during septic shock. Their selective inhibition restores arterial pressure and vascular reactivity and decreases lactate concentration. The present data suggest that selective vascular K(ATP) channel inhibitors offer potential therapeutic perspectives for septic shock.

  8. BL153 Partially Prevents High-Fat Diet Induced Liver Damage Probably via Inhibition of Lipid Accumulation, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate whether a magnolia extract, named BL153, can prevent obesity-induced liver damage and identify the possible protective mechanism. To this end, obese mice were induced by feeding with high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal as fat and the age-matched control mice were fed with control diet (10% kcal as fat for 6 months. Simultaneously these mice were treated with or without BL153 daily at 3 dose levels (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg by gavage. HFD feeding significantly increased the body weight and the liver weight. Administration of BL153 significantly reduced the liver weight but without effects on body weight. As a critical step of the development of NAFLD, hepatic fibrosis was induced in the mice fed with HFD, shown by upregulating the expression of connective tissue growth factor and transforming growth factor beta 1, which were significantly attenuated by BL153 in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanism study revealed that BL153 significantly suppressed HFD induced hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress and slightly prevented liver inflammation. These results suggest that HFD induced fibrosis in the liver can be prevented partially by BL153, probably due to reduction of hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  9. Evaluation of thermodynamic and kinetic stability of P-type transparent conducting oxide, SrCu2O2 under various oxygen partial pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Takayuki; Yanagawa, Atsumi; Hashimoto, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ▶ Thermodynamic and kinetic stabilities of SrCu 2 O 2 under various P(O 2 ) was estimated. ▶ The reaction rate for decomposition decreased with decreasing temperature and P(O 2 ). ▶ The activation energy for decomposition of SrCu 2 O 2 was estimated to be 66 kJ/mol. ▶ SrCu 2 O 2 showed less stability than those of other transparent p-type semiconductors. - Abstract: Kinetic stability of transparent p-type conducting oxide, SrCu 2 O 2 , has been evaluated by using X-ray diffraction measurement and thermogravimetry. It was revealed that SrCu 2 O 2 decomposed to mixture of CuO and Sr 14 Cu 24 O 41 in air at temperatures above 300 °C. The decomposition reaction rate can be successfully explained by kinetic model assuming first-order chemical reaction. The rate constant can be suppressed with decreasing temperature and oxygen partial pressure. The activation energy for decomposition reaction of SrCu 2 O 2 calculated from Arrhenius plot was 66 kJ/mol, which was lower than those of other transparent p-type semiconductors such as CuAlO 2 and CuGaO 2 . The low decomposition temperature and activation energy for decomposition indicate that chemical stability of SrCu 2 O 2 is far lower than those of other p-type conducting oxides.

  10. Prevalence of pox-like lesions and malaria in forest bird communitites on leeward Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Samuel, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced avian pox virus and malaria have had devastating impacts on native Hawaiian forest birds, yet little has been published about their prevalence and distribution in forest bird communities outside of windward Hawaii Island. We surveyed native and non-native forest birds for these two diseases at three different elevations on leeward Mauna Loa Volcano at the Kona Forest Unit of Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. Prevalence of malaria by both serology and microscopy varied by elevation and ranged from 28% at 710 m to 13% at 1830 m. Prevalence of pox-like lesions also varied by altitude, ranging in native species from 10% at 710 m to 2% at 1830 m. Native species at all elevations had the highest prevalence of malarial antibody and pox-like lesions. By contrast, pox-like lesions were not detected in individuals of four non-native species and only 5% of Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus) was positive for malaria. A significantly high proportion of birds with pox-like lesions also had serological evidence of concurrent, chronic malarial infections, suggesting an interaction between these diseases, dual transmission of both diseases by the primary mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) or complete recovery of some pox-infected birds without loss of toes. Results from this study document high prevalence of malaria and pox at this refuge. Development of effective disease control strategies will be important for restoration of remnant populations of the endangered 'Akiapola'au (Hemignathus munroi), Hawaii Creeper (Oreomystis mana), and Hawaii 'Akepa (Loxops coccineus coccineus) that still occur on the refuge.

  11. Chicken pox infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy: A retrospective analysis from a tertiary care center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanita Noronha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: There is paucity of data on the incidence, severity and management of chicken pox in patients receiving active chemotherapy for cancer.From October 2010 to October 2011, patients were included in this study if they developed a chicken pox infection during their chemotherapy. The details of patients’ cancer diagnosis and treatment along with clinical and epidemiological data of the chicken pox infections were assessed from a prospectively maintained database.Twenty-four patients had a chicken pox infection while receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The median age of the patients was 21 years, and two-thirds of the patients had solid tumor malignancies.Overall, eight (33% patients had complications, six (25% patients had febrile neutropenia, four (17% had diarrhea/mucositis, and four (17% had pneumonia. The median time for recovery of the infection and complications in the patients was 9.5 days (5–29 days, whereas for neutropenic patients, it was 6.5 days (3–14 days. The median time for recovery from chicken pox infections in neutropenic patients was 10 days (5–21 days, compared with 8.5 days (0–29 days in non-neutropenic patients (P = 0.84. The median time for recovery from infections was 8.5 days in patients with comorbidities (N = 4, which was the same for patients with no comorbidities.The clinical presentation and complication rates of chicken pox in cancer patients, who were on active chemotherapy, are similar to the normal population. The recovery from a varicella infection and complications may be delayed in patients with neutropenia. The varicella infection causes a therapy delay in 70% of patients. Aggressive antiviral therapy, supportive care and isolation of the index cases remain the backbone of treatment. Keywords: Chicken pox, Chemotherapy, Solid tumor cancers

  12. β-Naphthoflavone enhances oxidative stress responses and the induction of preneoplastic lesions in a diethylnitrosamine-initiated hepatocarcinogenesis model in partially hepatectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewa, Yasuaki; Nishimura, Jihei; Muguruma, Masako; Jin, Meilan; Saegusa, Yukie; Okamura, Toshiya; Tasaki, Masako; Umemura, Takashi; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2008-01-01

    The tumour-promoting effects of β-naphthoflavone (BNF), a novel aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, were investigated using a medium-term hepatocarcinogenesis model in rats. Six-week-old male F344 rats received an intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight and were fed a diet containing 0% (basal diet), 0.5% or 1% BNF for 6 weeks from 2 weeks after DEN treatment. All animals were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy 1 week after the BNF treatment. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci significantly increased in the livers of rats treated with BNF with concomitantly increased cell proliferation compared to those in the livers of the DEN alone group. Global gene expression analysis and subsequent quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that BNF induced not only the 'AhR gene battery'Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1, Nqo1, Aldh3a1 and Ugt1a6 but also the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated genes such as Gstm1, Gpx2, Akr7a3 and Yc2 (and also Nqo1), presumably due to the adaptive response against BNF-triggered oxidative stress responses. Reactive oxygen species production increased in microsomes isolated from the livers of BNF-treated rats, and this enhancement was suppressed by the P450 inhibitor SKF-525A. Furthermore, BNF enhanced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, estimated by the levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. These results suggest that the administration of BNF at a high dose and over a long-term enhance oxidative stress responses which may contribute to its hepatocarcinogenic potential in rats

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of the catalytic partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas for power generation applications[Dissertation 17183

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.

    2007-07-01

    The present work addresses the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of methane to synthesis gas, with particular emphasis on power generation applications. A combined experimental and numerical investigation of methane partial oxidation to synthesis gas (H{sub 2}, CO) over rhodium-based catalysts has been carried out at pressures of up to 10 bar. The reactivity of the produced hydrogen and the suitably-low light-off temperatures of the CPO reactor, greatly facilitate operation of power generation gas turbines with reduced NO{sub x} emissions, stable operation with low calorific value fuels, and new combustion strategies for efficient CO{sub 2} capture. Those strategies utilize CPO of methane with oxygen (separated from air) and large exhaust gas recycle (H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}). An optically accessible catalytic channel-flow reactor was used to carry out Raman spectroscopy of major gas-phase species and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) of formaldehyde, in order to gain fundamental information on the catalytic and gas-phase chemical pathways. Transverse concentration profiles measured by the spontaneous Raman scattering technique determined the catalytic reactivity, while the LIF provided flame shapes and anchoring positions that, in turn, characterized the gaseous reactivity. Comparison between measurements and 2-D CFD computations, led to the validation of detailed catalytic and gas-phase reaction mechanisms. Experiments in a subscale gas-turbine honeycomb catalytic reactor have shown that the foregoing reaction mechanisms were also appropriate under gas-turbine relevant conditions with short reactant residence times. The light-off behavior of the subscale honeycomb reactor was reproduced by transient 2-D CFD computations. Ignition and extinction in CPO was studied. It was shown that, despite the chemical impact of the H{sub 2}O diluent during the transient catalytic ignition event, the light-off times themselves were largely unaffected by the exhaust gas dilution

  14. Seasonal variation and trend of chicken pox in the southern region of Saudi Arabia (2007-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Noha; Al Moghazy, Bassem

    2014-12-01

    Chicken pox is a contagious disease caused by varicella zoster virus. Children are most susceptible to infection. In 1998, the WHO recommended that routine childhood varicella vaccination be considered in countries where the disease is a relatively important public health concern. There are few data on the trends of chicken pox. We aimed to evaluate the trend of chicken pox in Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the period 2007-2012. Data were collected by retrospective review of the existing anonymous surveillance records and book registries of chicken pox cases at the preventive medicine department of Armed Forces Hospital of the Southern Region of Saudi Arabia from 2007 to 2012. The collected data included the number, age, and sex of registered cases. A seasonal pattern was clearly demonstrated, with peak in March and April. There was also a decreasing trend from 2007 to 2012. Most cases occurred in the age group 4-15 years. The number of infected male patients was a little higher compared with female patients. These results indicate success in controlling the disease in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, which may be attributed to the implementation of public health interventions targeted at reducing infectious diseases (such as the introduction of varicella zoster vaccine in 2008). We recommend that a future study be conducted on the severity of chicken pox infection in adults (hospitalization, complications, and death) and a national survey among adults for the seroprevalence of markers of infection with varicella zoster.

  15. Genetic susceptibility, colony size, and water temperature drive white-pox disease on the coral Acropora palmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Erinn M; van Woesik, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes.

  16. Genetic susceptibility, colony size, and water temperature drive white-pox disease on the coral Acropora palmata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinn M Muller

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of coral diseases are one of the greatest threats to reef corals in the Caribbean, yet the mechanisms that lead to coral diseases are still largely unknown. Here we examined the spatial-temporal dynamics of white-pox disease on Acropora palmata coral colonies of known genotypes. We took a Bayesian approach, using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation algorithms, to examine which covariates influenced the presence of white-pox disease over seven years. We showed that colony size, genetic susceptibility of the coral host, and high-water temperatures were the primary tested variables that were positively associated with the presence of white-pox disease on A. palmata colonies. Our study also showed that neither distance from previously diseased individuals, nor colony location, influenced the dynamics of white-pox disease. These results suggest that white-pox disease was most likely a consequence of anomalously high water temperatures that selectively compromised the oldest colonies and the most susceptible coral genotypes.

  17. Partial oxidation of jet fuels over Rh/Al_2O_3. Design and reaction kinetics of sulfur-containing surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Julian Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of logistic fuels via catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) on Rh/Al_2O_3 at short contact times is an efficient method for generating hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. Depending on the inlet conditions, fuel, and catalyst, high syngas yields, low by-product formation, and rates of high fuel conversion can be achieved. CPOX is relevant for mobile hydrogen generation, e.g., on board of airplanes in order to increase the fuel efficiency via fuel cell-based auxiliary power units. Jet fuels contain hundreds of different hydrocarbons and a significant amount of sulfur. The hydrocarbon composition and sulfur content of a jet fuel vary depending on distributor, origin, and refinement of the crude oil. Little is known about the influence of the various compounds on the synthesis-gas yield and the impact of sulfur on the product yield. In this work, the influence of three main chemical compounds of a jet fuel (aromatics, alkanes, and sulfur compounds) on syngas selectivity, the catalyst deactivation process, and reaction sequence is unraveled. As representative components of alkanes and aromatics, n-dodecane and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were chosen for ex-situ and in-situ investigations on the CPOX over Rh/Al_2O_3, respectively. Additionally, for a fixed paraffin-to-aromatics ratio, benzothiophene or dibenzothiophene were added as a sulfur component in three different concentrations. The knowledge gained about the catalytic partial oxidation of jet fuels and their surrogates is used to identify requirements for jet fuels in mobile applications based on CPOX and to optimize the overall system efficiency. The results show an influence of the surrogate composition on syngas selectivity. The tendency for syngas formation increases with higher paraffin contents. A growing tendency for by-product formation can be observed with increasing aromatics contents in the fuel. The impact of sulfur on the reaction system shows an immediate change in the product distribution. An

  18. Partial oxidation of jet fuels over Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Design and reaction kinetics of sulfur-containing surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, Julian Nicolaas

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of logistic fuels via catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) on Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at short contact times is an efficient method for generating hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. Depending on the inlet conditions, fuel, and catalyst, high syngas yields, low by-product formation, and rates of high fuel conversion can be achieved. CPOX is relevant for mobile hydrogen generation, e.g., on board of airplanes in order to increase the fuel efficiency via fuel cell-based auxiliary power units. Jet fuels contain hundreds of different hydrocarbons and a significant amount of sulfur. The hydrocarbon composition and sulfur content of a jet fuel vary depending on distributor, origin, and refinement of the crude oil. Little is known about the influence of the various compounds on the synthesis-gas yield and the impact of sulfur on the product yield. In this work, the influence of three main chemical compounds of a jet fuel (aromatics, alkanes, and sulfur compounds) on syngas selectivity, the catalyst deactivation process, and reaction sequence is unraveled. As representative components of alkanes and aromatics, n-dodecane and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene were chosen for ex-situ and in-situ investigations on the CPOX over Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, respectively. Additionally, for a fixed paraffin-to-aromatics ratio, benzothiophene or dibenzothiophene were added as a sulfur component in three different concentrations. The knowledge gained about the catalytic partial oxidation of jet fuels and their surrogates is used to identify requirements for jet fuels in mobile applications based on CPOX and to optimize the overall system efficiency. The results show an influence of the surrogate composition on syngas selectivity. The tendency for syngas formation increases with higher paraffin contents. A growing tendency for by-product formation can be observed with increasing aromatics contents in the fuel. The impact of sulfur on the reaction system shows an immediate change in the product

  19. Seroprevalence of fowl pox antibody in indigenous chickens in jos north and South council areas of plateau state, Nigeria: implication for vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede

    2012-01-01

    Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.

  20. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshra, Hani; Truong, Thang; Babiuk, Shawn; Hemida, Maged Gomaa

    2015-01-01

    Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  1. Seroprevalence of Sheep and Goat Pox, Peste Des Petits Ruminants and Rift Valley Fever in Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Boshra

    Full Text Available Sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever are important diseases of small ruminant livestock. Sheep and goat pox, along with peste des petits ruminants, are endemic throughout most of Africa, Asia and the Middle East. Whereas Rift Valley fever is endemic in Africa, outbreaks in the Middle East have been reported over the past decade, including the Arabian Peninsula. Saudi Arabia is a major importer of livestock, and understanding the prevalence of these viral infections would be useful for disease control. In this study, sera from sheep and goats were collected from 3 regions in Saudi Arabia. They were evaluated for antibodies specific to sheep and goat pox, peste des petits ruminants and Rift Valley fever by virus neutralization assays. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the seroprevalence of these viruses in sheep and goats.

  2. Chicken pox infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy: A retrospective analysis from a tertiary care center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Vanita; Ostwal, Vikas; Ramaswamy, Anant; Joshi, Amit; Nair, Reena; Banavali, Shripad D; Prabhash, Kumar

    There is paucity of data on the incidence, severity and management of chicken pox in patients receiving active chemotherapy for cancer. From October 2010 to October 2011, patients were included in this study if they developed a chicken pox infection during their chemotherapy. The details of patients' cancer diagnosis and treatment along with clinical and epidemiological data of the chicken pox infections were assessed from a prospectively maintained database. Twenty-four patients had a chicken pox infection while receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The median age of the patients was 21 years, and two-thirds of the patients had solid tumor malignancies. Overall, eight (33%) patients had complications, six (25%) patients had febrile neutropenia, four (17%) had diarrhea/mucositis, and four (17%) had pneumonia. The median time for recovery of the infection and complications in the patients was 9.5 days (5-29 days), whereas for neutropenic patients, it was 6.5 days (3-14 days). The median time for recovery from chicken pox infections in neutropenic patients was 10 days (5-21 days), compared with 8.5 days (0-29 days) in non-neutropenic patients (P=0.84). The median time for recovery from infections was 8.5 days in patients with comorbidities (N=4), which was the same for patients with no comorbidities. The clinical presentation and complication rates of chicken pox in cancer patients, who were on active chemotherapy, are similar to the normal population. The recovery from a varicella infection and complications may be delayed in patients with neutropenia. The varicella infection causes a therapy delay in 70% of patients. Aggressive antiviral therapy, supportive care and isolation of the index cases remain the backbone of treatment. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A theoretical study on the mechanism of hydrogen evolution on non-precious partially oxidized nickel-based heterostructures for fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinju; Zhou, Gang

    2018-03-28

    It is desirable, yet challenging, to utilize non-precious metals instead of noble-metals as efficient catalysts in the renewable energy manufacturing industry. Using first principles calculations, we study the structural characteristics of partially oxidized nickel-based nanoheterostructures (NiO/Ni NHSs), and the interfacial effects on hydrogen evolution. The origin of the enhanced hydrogen evolution performance is discussed at the microscopic level. This study identifies two types of active sites of the exposed Ni surface available for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). One is the hcp-hollow sites near the perimeter boundary that exhibit a more excellent HER performance than platinum (Pt), and the other the second nearest neighbor fcc-hollow sites away from the boundary that exhibit a similar performance to Pt. The interfacial effects result from the competitive charge transfer between NiO and Ni surfaces in NHSs, and enhance the reactivity of NiO/Ni NHSs by shifting the d-states of surface atoms down in energy. The illumination of the mechanism would be helpful for the design of more efficient and cheap transition metal-based catalysts.

  4. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Seyfert 1 Galaxy POX 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, A.; Ho, L.; Sargent, W.

    2004-06-01

    We describe new observations of POX 52, a previously known but nearly forgotten example of a dwarf galaxy with an active nucleus. While POX 52 was originally thought to be a Seyfert 2 galaxy, the new data reveal an emission-line spectrum very similar to that of the dwarf Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4395, with clear broad components to the permitted line profiles. The host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical; this is the only known case of a Seyfert nucleus in a galaxy of this type. Applying scaling relations to estimate the black hole mass from the broad Hβ linewidth and continuum luminosity, we find MBH ≈ 1.6×105 M⊙. The stellar velocity dispersion in the host galaxy is 36 km s-1, also suggestive of a black hole mass of order 105 M⊙. Further searches for AGNs in dwarf galaxies can provide crucial constraints on the demographics of black holes in the mass range below 106 M⊙.

  5. Detection of plum pox virus infection in selection plum trees using spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Liliya; Stoev, Antoniy; Borisova, Ekaterina; Avramov, Latchezar

    2016-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is among the most studied viral diseases in the world in plants. It is considered to be one of the most devastating diseases of stone fruits in terms of agronomic impact and economic importance. Noninvasive, fast and reliable techniques are required for evaluation of the pathology in selection trees with economic impact. Such advanced tools for PPV detection could be optical techniques as light-induced fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies. Specific regions in the electromagnetic spectra have been found to provide information about the physiological stress in plants, and consequently, diseased plants usually exhibit different spectral signature than non-stressed healthy plants in those specific ranges. In this study spectral reflectance and chlorophyll fluorescence were used for the identification of biotic stress caused by the pox virus on plum trees. The spectral responses of healthy and infected leaves from cultivars, which are widespread in Bulgaria were investigated. The two applied techniques revealed statistically significant differences between the spectral data of healthy plum leaves and those infected by PPV in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. Their application for biotic stress detection helps in monitoring diseases in plants using the different plant spectral properties in these spectral ranges. The strong relationship between the results indicates the applicability of diffuse reflectance and fluorescence techniques for conducting health condition assessments of vegetation and their importance for plant protection practices.

  6. Low Impact of Avian Pox on Captive-Bred Houbara Bustard Breeding Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Souley, Mam-Noury Amadou; Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Paul, Mathilde C

    2017-01-01

    Avian pox, a disease caused by avipoxviruses, is a major cause of decline of some endangered bird species. While its impact has been assessed in several species in the wild, effects of the disease in conservation breeding have never been studied. Houbara bustard species ( Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii ), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive bred for conservation purposes for more than 20 years. While mortality and morbidity induced by avipoxviruses can be controlled by appropriate management, the disease might still affect bird breeding performance and jeopardize the production objectives of conservation programs. Impacts of the disease was studied during two outbreaks in captive-bred juvenile Houbara bustards in Morocco in 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, by modeling the effect of the disease on individual breeding performance (male display and female egg production) of 2,797 birds during their first breeding season. Results showed that the impact of avian pox on the ability of birds to reproduce and on the count of displays or eggs is low and mainly non-significant. The absence of strong impact compared to what could be observed in other species in the wild may be explained by the controlled conditions provided by captivity, especially the close veterinary monitoring of each bird. Those results emphasize the importance of individual management to prevent major disease emergence and their effects in captive breeding of endangered species.

  7. Investigation of a Possible Link Between Vaccination and the 2010 Sheep Pox Epizootic in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegeman, A; Zro, K; Sammin, D; Vandenbussche, F; Ennaji, M M; De Clercq, K

    2016-12-01

    Sheep pox is endemic in most parts of Northern Africa and has the potential to cause severe economic problems. Live attenuated vaccines are used in Morocco, and in many other countries, to control the disease. Sheep pox virus (SPPV) re-appeared in 2010 causing a nodular clinical form previously not observed in Morocco. The severe clinical signs observed during the course of this outbreak and initial reports citing similarity in nucleotide sequence between the Moroccan vaccine strain and field isolates warranted a more in depth analysis of this epizootic. In this study, sequence analysis showed that isolates obtained from four provinces of eastern Morocco were identical, demonstrating that a single SPPV strain was responsible for the 2010 epizootic. In addition, the genome fragments sequenced and phylogenetic analyses undertaken as part of this study showed significant differences between field isolates and the Moroccan vaccine strain. New PCR methods were developed to differentiate between wild-type isolates and vaccine strains of SPPV. Using these methods, no trace of wild-type SPPV was found in the vaccine and no evidence was found to suggest that the vaccine strain was causing clinical disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  9. 'HoneySweet' (C5), the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus-resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ plum was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to provide U.S. growers and P. domestica plum breeders with a high fruit quality plum cultivar resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV). ‘HoneySweet’ was developed through genetic engineering utilizing the...

  10. Hydrogen Production by Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Coke Oven Gas in BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ Ceramic Membrane Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BaCo0.7Fe0.3-xZrxO3-δ (BCFZ, x = 0.04–0.12 mixed ionic–electronic conducting (MIEC membranes were synthesized with a sol–gel method and evaluated as potential membrane reactor materials for the partial oxidation of coke oven gas (COG. The effect of zirconium content on the phase structure, microstructure and performance of the BCFZ membrane under He or COG atmosphere were systemically investigated. The BaCo0.7Fe0.24Zr0.06O3-δ membrane exhibited the best oxygen permeability and good operation stability, which could be a potential candidate of the membrane materials for hydrogen production through the partial oxidation of COG.

  11. Partial baroreceptor dysfunction and low plasma nitric oxide bioavailability as determinants of salt-sensitive hypertension: a reverse translational rat study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, A.S.; López-Rodríguez, J.F.; Calvo-Turrubiartes, M.Z. [Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Saavedra-Alanís, V.M. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Llamazares-Azuara, L. [Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, Renal Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, San Luis Potosí (Mexico); Rodríguez-Martínez, M. [Integrative Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, San Luis Potosí (Mexico)

    2013-10-02

    This study determined whether clinical salt-sensitive hypertension (cSSHT) results from the interaction between partial arterial baroreceptor impairment and a high-sodium (HNa) diet. In three series (S-I, S-II, S-III), mean arterial pressure (MAP) of conscious male Wistar ChR003 rats was measured once before (pdMAP) and twice after either sham (SHM) or bilateral aortic denervation (AD), following 7 days on a low-sodium (LNa) diet (LNaMAP) and then 21 days on a HNa diet (HNaMAP). The roles of plasma nitric oxide bioavailability (pNOB), renal medullary superoxide anion production (RMSAP), and mRNA expression of NAD(P)H oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also assessed. In SHM (n=11) and AD (n=15) groups of S-I, LNaMAP-pdMAP was 10.5±2.1 vs 23±2.1 mmHg (P<0.001), and the salt-sensitivity index (SSi; HNaMAP−LNaMAP) was 6.0±1.9 vs 12.7±1.9 mmHg (P=0.03), respectively. In the SHM group, all rats were normotensive, and 36% were salt sensitive (SSi≥10 mmHg), whereas in the AD group ∼50% showed cSSHT. A 45% reduction in pNOB (P≤0.004) was observed in both groups in dietary transit. RMSAP increased in the AD group on both diets but more so on the HNa diet (S-II, P<0.03) than on the LNa diet (S-III, P<0.04). MAP modeling in rats without a renal hypertensive genotype indicated that the AD*HNa diet interaction (P=0.008) increases the likelihood of developing cSSHT. Translationally, these findings help to explain why subjects with clinical salt-sensitive normotension may transition to cSSHT.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of the Skierniewice isolate of plum pox virus (PPV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wypijewski, K.; Musial, W.; Augustyniak, J.; Malinowski, T.

    1994-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of the Skierniewice isolate of plum pox virus (PPV-S) has been amplified using the reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the gene and the deduced amino-acid sequences of PPV-S CP were compared with those of other PPV strains. The nucleotide sequence showed very high homology to most of the published sequences. The motif: Asp-Ala-Gly (DAG), important for the aphid transmissibility, was present in the amino-acid sequence. Our isolate did not react in ELISA with monoclonal antibodies MAb06 supposed to be specific for PPV-D. (author). 32 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Sugars and organic acids in plum fruit affected by Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenik, Valentina; Marn, Mojca Virscek

    2017-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes severe economic losses in stone fruit production, but little is known about its effect on plum fruit composition. In this study, the influence of PPV on sugars and organic acids was evaluated in a susceptible plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar. PPV infection significantly affected the content and composition of sugars and organic acids. The composition of necrotic tissue was modified the most. A short-time infected tree yielded fruit with similar sugar composition to fruit from a healthy tree, but the decline of organic acids was faster. Prematurely ripened symptomatic fruit had reduced fruit weight and low sugar content. Infected trees of the studied cultivar produce fruit of inferior quality. Fruits are not suitable for processing, especially when most of them exhibit visual symptoms of PPV infection. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. POX 186: the ultracompact blue compact dwarf galaxy reveals its nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doublier, V.; Kunth, D.; Courbin, F.; Magain, P.

    2000-01-01

    High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new deconvolution algorithm which allows one to resolve the innermost regions of this stellar-like object into three Super-Star Clusters (SSC). Upper limits to both masses (M ~ 105 Msun) and physical sizes (<=60pc) of the SSCs are set. In addition, and maybe most importantly, extended light emission underlying the compact star-forming region is clearly detected in both bands. The R-I color rules out nebular Hα contamination and is consistent with an old stellar population. This casts doubt on the hypothesis that Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDG) are young galaxies. based on observations carried out at NTT in La Silla, operated by the European Southern Observatory, during Director's Discretionary Time.

  15. A Multiwavelength Study of POX 52, a Dwarf Seyfert Galaxy with an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2004-09-01

    POX 52 is a Seyfert 1 galaxy with unprecedented properties: its host galaxy is a dwarf elliptical, and its stellar velocity dispersion is only 36 km/s. The stellar velocity dispersion and the broad emission-line widths both suggest a black hole mass of order 10^5 solar masses. We request HST ACS/HRC imaging to perform a definitive measurement of the host galaxy structure; STIS UV and optical spectroscopy to study the nonstellar continuum and the structure of the broad-line region; and Chandra ACIS imaging to investigate the spectral and variability properties of the X-ray emission. The results of this program will give a detailed understanding of the host galaxy and accretion properties of one of the very few known black holes in the mass range around 10^5 solar masses.

  16. [The small pox vaccine: its first century in Brazil (from the Jennerian to the animal vaccine)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, T

    1999-01-01

    Covering a period of roughly hundred years, the article looks at some of the more meaningful events during the period in which the small pox vaccine was institutionalized in Brazil. Discoveries and discussions then taking place in other countries are also examined, particularly as they influenced Brazil. The process is followed from introduction of the human vaccine to the arrival of the animal vaccine and creation of the Municipal Vaccine Institute--a private initative by physician Pedro Affonso Franco, also known as the barao de Pedro Affonso. Adoption of the animal vaccine not only represented progress in controlling the disease but also spurred discussions that saw medical and political groups in Brazil taking sides with either Oswaldo Cruz or the barao de Pedro Affonso. The debate continued within the academic and political arenas until the Vaccine Institute was made part of the Manguinhos laboratories.

  17. Pathology of avian pox in wild red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortázar, C; Millán, J; Höfle, U; Buenestado, F J; Villafuerte, R; Kaleta, E F

    2002-10-01

    The diagnosis and pathology of an avian pox outbreak in free-living red-legged partridges in Cádiz, Southern Spain, is described. Diagnosis of the disease was based on histopathology, ultrastructural examination of, and virus isolation from lesions of necropsied animals. Lesions were present mainly in juvenile partridges (41%), and were observed primarily on the dorsal part of the digits or on the hock joint. The lesions ranged from small wartlike nodules to large tumor-like lesions. The presence of acute lesions of any grade as opposed to absence of lesions or healed lesions adversely affected body condition of the partridges (P <.01). Further investigations on the epidemiology of the disease and on the relation of the isolated strains to other avian poxviruses are under way.

  18. Identification of immunogenic hot spots within plum pox potyvirus capsid protein for efficient antigen presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fernández, M Rosario; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Roncal, Fernando; Domínguez, Elvira; García, Juan Antonio

    2002-12-01

    PEPSCAN analysis has been used to characterize the immunogenic regions of the capsid protein (CP) in virions of plum pox potyvirus (PPV). In addition to the well-known highly immunogenic N- and C-terminal domains of CP, regions within the core domain of the protein have also shown high immunogenicity. Moreover, the N terminus of CP is not homogeneously immunogenic, alternatively showing regions frequently recognized by antibodies and others that are not recognized at all. These results have helped us to design efficient antigen presentation vectors based on PPV. As predicted by PEPSCAN analysis, a small displacement of the insertion site in a previously constructed vector, PPV-gamma, turned the derived chimeras into efficient immunogens. Vectors expressing foreign peptides at different positions within a highly immunogenic region (amino acids 43 to 52) in the N-terminal domain of CP were the most effective at inducing specific antibody responses against the foreign sequence.

  19. Pandora's POX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutton, Pete.

    1987-01-01

    The article continues the debate on plutonium transport to the Dounreay fast reactor site. The particular concerns are on the air transport of plutonium dioxide, the sea transport of plutonium nitrate and the potential military use of the plutonium from the fast reactor. The article criticises the UKAEA for taking safety risks and putting convenience and security before considerations of safety. The UKAEA is also criticised for not publishing safety information and the secrecy surrounding the transport of plutonium. (UK)

  20. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  1. Follow-up of pregnant women exposed to chicken pox: an audit of relationship between level of antibody and development of chicken pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, E H; Maple, P A C; Rathod, P; Smit, E

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate through natural exposure a cut-off level of varicella zoster IgG as protective against infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). Laboratory testing to determine VZV immune status of pregnant women exposed to varicella is recommended. Quantitative assays are now available which are sensitive and specific. More than 200 consecutive requests for screening in pregnant patients with recent varicella contacts were followed-up by questionnaire. DiaSorin LIAISON and VZV time resolved fluorescence immuno assay (VZV TRFIA) were used to measure VZV antibody level. One hundred fifty out of 209 (72%) questionnaires were returned; 14 patients developed varicella, 129 did not and seven were not known. Patients who had been given VZIG and developed varicella on follow-up had a mean antibody level before VZIG of 28 mIU/ml and 62 mIU/ml, by LIAISON and TRFIA, respectively. The mean IgG level of those that did not develop varicella was 885 and 866 mIU/ml by LIAISON and TRFIA, respectively. Those with levels pox than those with levels >100 mIU/ml (relative risk of 10.4 for LIAISON and 8.8 for TRFIA). On the basis of the relatively small numbers in this study, quantitative assays, using a 100mIU/ml cut-off, can differentiate between those who are susceptible and those who are protected against exposure, however follow-up studies should include sampling for VZV DNA and IgM.

  2. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  3. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  4. Characterization of sour cherry isolates of plum pox virus from the Volga Basin in Russia reveals a new cherry strain of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, Miroslav; Prikhodko, Yuri; Predajňa, Lukáš; Nagyová, Alžbeta; Shneyder, Yuri; Zhivaeva, Tatiana; Subr, Zdeno; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2013-09-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the causal agent of sharka, the most detrimental virus disease of stone fruit trees worldwide. PPV isolates have been assigned into seven distinct strains, of which PPV-C regroups the genetically distinct isolates detected in several European countries on cherry hosts. Here, three complete and several partial genomic sequences of PPV isolates from sour cherry trees in the Volga River basin of Russia have been determined. The comparison of complete genome sequences has shown that the nucleotide identity values with other PPV isolates reached only 77.5 to 83.5%. Phylogenetic analyses clearly assigned the RU-17sc, RU-18sc, and RU-30sc isolates from cherry to a distinct cluster, most closely related to PPV-C and, to a lesser extent, PPV-W. Based on their natural infection of sour cherry trees and genomic characterization, the PPV isolates reported here represent a new strain of PPV, for which the name PPV-CR (Cherry Russia) is proposed. The unique amino acids conserved among PPV-CR and PPV-C cherry-infecting isolates (75 in total) are mostly distributed within the central part of P1, NIa, and the N terminus of the coat protein (CP), making them potential candidates for genetic determinants of the ability to infect cherry species or of adaptation to these hosts. The variability observed within 14 PPV-CR isolates analyzed in this study (0 to 2.6% nucleotide divergence in partial CP sequences) and the identification of these isolates in different localities and cultivation conditions suggest the efficient establishment and competitiveness of the PPV-CR in the environment. A specific primer pair has been developed, allowing the specific reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of PPV-CR isolates.

  5. Comparison of two different synthesis methods of perovskites, SrCo0.5FeO3 type, aiming at evaluating their use as membranes for partial oxidation of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noronha F.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work two different synthesis methods of perovskites, SrCo0.5FeO3, were compared: combustion synthesis and oxides mixture aiming at evaluating their use as membranes for partial oxidation of methane. The combustion synthesis method explores an exothermic, generally very fast and self-sustaining chemical reaction between the desired metal salts and a suitable organic fuel, which is ignited at a temperature much lower than the actual phase formation temperature. The oxides mixture are based on a physical mixture of the powder oxides followed by calcination to obtain the desired phase. In order to obtain the membranes, we studied the conformation of bodies and the temperatures of sintering in the two powders synthesized. The powders were analyzed by density and grain size distribution and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. After conformation, in cylindrical form, the green bodies were analyzed by density. After sintering at 1150 °C, the membranes were analyzed by density and they were characterized by XRD and SEM. The powder obtained by combustion synthesis shows lower density and fine grains than the other obtained by oxides mixture. The membranes obtained present very different morphology depending on the precursor powder synthesis. The sintered membranes obtained by combustion method also present a very uniform morphology without segregation.

  6. A Multiwavelength Study of POX 52, a Dwarf Seyfert Galaxy with an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2004-07-01

    We propose a comprehensive optical, UV, and X-ray investigation of the unique galaxy POX 52. POX 52 is a Seyfert 1 galaxy with unprecedented properties: its host galaxy appears to be a dwarf elliptical, and its stellar velocity dispersion is only 36 km/s. The stellar velocity dispersion and the broad emission-line widths both suggest a black hole mass of order 10^5 solar masses, placing POX 52 in a region of AGN parameter space that is almost completely unexplored at present. We request ACS/HRC imaging to perform a definitive measurement of the host galaxy structure; STIS UV and optical spectroscopy to study the nonstellar continuum and the structure of the broad-line region; and Chandra ACS imaging to detect the X-ray emission from the nucleus and investigate its spectral and variability properties. The results of this program will give a detailed understanding of the host galaxy and accretion properties of one of the very few known black holes in the mass range around 10^5 solar masses.

  7. Status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antibodies were found in 293 (56.8% animals, PPR virus antibodies in 215 (41.7% and sheep pox virus antibodies in 106 (68.3%. Of the serum samples tested, 25.2% were positive for antibodies against all three viruses. These findings clearly demonstrated not only the enzootic nature of disease, but also the co-existence of antibodies to more than one of these viruses which would indicate that concurrent infections were common. Therefore, control measures should focus in combating all three diseases simultaneously by exploring the possibility of a trivalent vaccine or the use of multiple genes expressing vectored vaccine.

  8. Avian Pox Discovered in the Critically Endangered Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Huyvaert, Kathryn P

    2017-10-01

    The Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata) is a critically endangered seabird in a rapidly shrinking population in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. The introduction of novel pathogens and parasites poses a threat to population persistence. Monitoring disease prevalence and guarding against the spread of such agents in endemic taxa are conservation priorities for the Galápagos, where recent increases in the prevalence of avian pox may have contributed to population declines and range contractions in other bird species. During November 2013-January 2014, we identified 14 Waved Albatross nestlings at our study site on Española Island with avian pox-like lesions and clinical signs. Other seabirds, landbirds, and adult Waved Albatrosses were apparently unaffected. Histopathology of tissue samples from five infected nestlings revealed inclusion bodies in all samples, consistent with avipoxvirus infection. We documented higher mortality (6 of 14 nestlings) in affected nestlings than in unaffected young in this small outbreak of avian pox, the first report of its kind in the world's only tropical albatross.

  9. Differentiation of sheep pox and goat poxviruses by sequence analysis and PCR-RFLP of P32 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosamani, Madhusudan; Mondal, Bimalendu; Tembhurne, Prabhakar A; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Rasool, Thaha Jamal

    2004-08-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox are highly contagious viral diseases of small ruminants. These diseases were earlier thought to be caused by a single species of virus, as they are serologically indistinguishable. P32, one of the major immunogenic genes of Capripoxvirus, was isolated and Sequenced from two Indian isolates of goat poxvirus (GPV) and a vaccine strain of sheep poxvirus (SPV). The sequences were compared with other P32 sequences of capripoxviruses available in the database. Sequence analysis revealed that sheep pox and goat poxviruses share 97.5 and 94.7% homology at nucleotide and amino acid level, respectively. A major difference between them is the presence of an additional aspartic acid at 55th position of P32 of sheep poxvirus that is absent in both goat poxvirus and lumpy skin disease virus. Further, six unique neutral nucleotide substitutions were observed at positions 77, 275, 403, 552, 867 and 964 in the sequence of goat poxvirus, which can be taken as GPV signature residues. Similar unique nucleotide signatures could be identified in SPV and LSDV sequences also. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the Capripoxvirus could be delineated into three distinct clusters of GPV, SPV and LSDV based on the P32 genomic sequence. Using this information, a PCR-RFLP method has been developed for unequivocal genomic differentiation of SPV and GPV.

  10. Reprocessing facility for spent fuel from LWR type reactors and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication plant in the Taxoeldern Forest near Wackersdorf, Bavaria (WAA) - first partial licence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Full text of the first partial licence for the WAA, allowing erection of the following buildings or structures: External fence; guardhouse 1, i.e. the building and the ground connection system with lightning protection system, the fire alarm system and mobile fire-fighting systems; the fuel receiving station, including building and operation systems; excavation work for the main reprocessing building. (HP) [de

  11. Design of adiabatic fixed-bed reactors for the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas. Application to production of methanol and hydrogen-for-fuel-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, de C.R.H.; Croon, de M.H.J.M.; Berger, R.J.; Marin, G.B.M.M.; Schouten, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Adiabatic fixed-bed reactors for the catalytic partial oxidn. (CPO) of methane to synthesis gas were designed at conditions suitable for the prodn. of methanol and hydrogen-for-fuel-cells. A steady-state, one-dimensional heterogeneous reactor model was applied in the simulations. Intra-particle

  12. AN EPIZOOTIC OF EMERGING NOVEL AVIAN POX IN CARRION CROWS (CORVUS CORONE) AND LARGE-BILLED CROWS (CORVUS MACRORHYNCHOS) IN JAPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Daisuke; Nakamura, Makiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Takenaka, Makiko; Murakami, Mami; Yanai, Tokuma; Fukushi, Hideto; Yanagida, Kazumi; Bando, Gen; Matsuno, Keita; Nagano, Masashi; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-04-28

    In 2006-10, an epizootic of emerging avian pox occurred in Carrion Crows ( Corvus corone ) and Large-billed Crows ( Corvus macrorhynchos ), leading to mortality of juvenile crows in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. We diagnosed 27 crows with proliferative skin lesions (19 carcasses and eight biopsied cases [one in zoo captivity]) as avian pox clinically, histopathologically by detection of Avipoxvirus-specific 4b core protein (P4b) gene, and epidemiologically. The fatal cases demonstrated intensively severe infection and aggressive lesions with secondary bacterial infection. Since the first identification of avian pox in Sapporo, Japan, in 2006, the frequency of mortality events has increased, peaking in 2007-08. Mortalities have subsequently occurred in other areas, suggesting disease expansion. In Sapporo, prevalence of avian pox evaluated by field censuses during 2007-12 was 17.6% (6.6-27.2%), peaked during 2007-08 and 2008-09, and then decreased. All diseased crows were juveniles, except for one adult. The number of crows assembling in the winter roosts had been stable for >10 yr; however, it declined in 2007-08, decreased by about 50% in 2008-09, and recovered to the previous level in 2009-10, correlated with the avian pox outbreak. Thus, avian pox probably contributed to the unusual crow population decline. All P4b sequences detected in six specimens in Sapporo were identical and different from any previously reported sequences. The sequence detected in the zoo-kept crow was distinct from any reported clades, and interspecies transmission was suspected. This report demonstrates an emerging novel avian pox in the Japanese avifauna and in global populations of Carrion Crows and Large-billed Crows. Longitudinal monitoring is needed to evaluate its impact on the crow population.

  13. A Functional Link between RNA Replication and Virion Assembly in the Potyvirus Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Araiz; Valli, Adrian; Calvo, María; García, Juan Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Accurate assembly of viral particles in the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) has been shown to depend on the contribution of the multifunctional viral protein HCPro. In this study, we show that other viral factors, in addition to the capsid protein (CP) and HCPro, are necessary for the formation of stable PPV virions. The CP produced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves from a subviral RNA termed LONG, which expresses a truncated polyprotein that lacks P1 and HCPro, together with HCPro supplied in trans , was assembled into virus-like particles and remained stable after in vitro incubation. In contrast, deletions in multiple regions of the LONG coding sequence prevented the CP stabilization mediated by HCPro. In particular, we demonstrated that the first 178 amino acids of P3, but not a specific nucleotide sequence coding for them, are required for CP stability and proper assembly of PPV particles. Using a sequential coagroinfiltration assay, we observed that the subviral LONG RNA replicates and locally spreads in N. benthamiana leaves expressing an RNA silencing suppressor. The analysis of the effect of both point and deletion mutations affecting RNA replication in LONG and full-length PPV demonstrated that this process is essential for the assembly of stable viral particles. Interestingly, in spite of this requirement, the CP produced by a nonreplicating viral RNA can be stably assembled into virions as long as it is coexpressed with a replication-proficient RNA. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of coupling encapsidation to other viral processes to secure a successful infection. IMPORTANCE Viruses of the family Potyviridae are among the most dangerous threats for basically every important crop, and such socioeconomical relevance has made them a subject of many research studies. In spite of this, very little is currently known about proteins and processes controlling viral genome encapsidation by the coat protein. In the case of Plum pox virus (genus

  14. Neutral complexes as oxidants for the reduced form of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) [2Fe--2S] ferredoxin. Evidence for partial blocking by redox-inactive Cr(III) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzamli, I K; Kim, H O; Sykes, A G

    1982-01-01

    The 1 : 1 reactions of three neutral Co(III) oxidants, Co(acac)3, Co(NH3)3(NO2)3 and Co(acac)2(NH3)(NO2), with reduced parsley (Petroselinum crispum) [2Fe--2S] ferredoxin (which carries a substantial negative charge), have been studied at 25 degrees C, pH 8.0 (Tris/HCl), I0.10 (NaCl). Whereas it has previously been demonstrated that with Co(NH3)6+ as oxidant the reaction if completely blocked by redox-inactive Cr(NH3)63+, the neutral oxidants are only partially blocked by this same complex. The effects of three Cr(III) complexes, Cr(NH3)63+%, Cr(en)33+ and (en)2Cr . mu(OH,O2CCH3) . CR(en)24+ have been investigated. Kinetic data for the response of 3+, neutral, as well as 1--oxidants to the presence of 3+ (and 4+) Cr(III) complexes can now be rationalized in terms of a single functional site on the protein for electron transfer. Electrostatics have a significant influence on association at this site. PMID:7115307

  15. Importance of controlling the Tl-oxide partial pressure throughout the processing of TlBa2CaCu2O7 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegal, M.P.; Venturini, E.L.; Newcomer, P.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Dominguez, F.; Dunn, R.

    1995-01-01

    TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7 (Tl-1212) superconducting films 5000--6000 A thick have been grown on LaAlO 3 (100) substrates using oxide precursors in a closed two-zone thallination furnace. Tl-1212 films can be grown with transition temperatures ∼100 K, and critical current densities measured by magnetization of J cm (5 K)>10 7 A/cm 2 and J cm (77 K)>10 5 A/cm 2 . Processing conditions, substrate temperatures and Tl-oxide source temperatures are found which result in smooth, nearly phase-pure Tl-1212 films. Variations in the respective temperature ramps of the Tl-oxide zone and the substrate zone can greatly influence resulting film properties such as microstructure, morphology, superconducting transition temperature, and critical current density. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. Disease and intercolonial relations: small pox in the British Caribbean, 1902-1904

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pemberton, Rita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of epidemic small pox in the Caribbean at the beginning of the 20th century aggravated the problems inherited from the 19th century posing further challenges for these territories. This study discusses the bitter controversy that it stimulated between Barbados and Trinidad and examines the course of and response to, the disease in both colonies. It is argued that the underlying economic and social implications of the epidemic underscore the relationship between trade and health and demonstrate how regional cooperation was possible even in the midst of rivalry.El brote de la epidemia de viruela en el Caribe a principios del siglo XX intensificó los problemas heredados del siglo XIX, el cual conllevó nuevos retos para estos territorios antillanos. Este ensayo considera la difícil controversia que surgió entre Barbados y Trinidad en relación a dicha epidemia y aborda el transcurso y las maneras en que enfrentaron dicha enfermedad ambas colonias. Se argumenta que las consecuencias económicas y sociales subyacentes a la epidemia revela el carácter de las relaciones comerciales y sanitarias y demuestra cómo aún en medio de rivalidades entre los territorios surgió una colaboración regional entre sus autoridades.

  17. An intermediate-mass black hole in the darf galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  18. An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Dwarf Galaxy Pox 52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron

    Do dwarf elliptical and dwarf spiral galaxies contain central black holes with masses below 106 solar masses? Beyond the Local Group dynamical searches for black holes in this mass range are very difficult but the detection of accretion-powered nuclear activity could be used to infer the presence of a black hole. The nearby dwarf spiral galaxy NGC 4395 hosts a faint Seyfert 1 nucleus with a likely black hole mass in the range 104-105 solar masses and for more than a decade it has been the only known example of a Seyfert 1 nucleus in a dwarf galaxy. I will present new Keck spectra of the dwarf galaxy POX 52 which demonstrate that it has a Seyfert 1 spectrum nearly identical to that of NGC 4395. Its velocity dispersion is 37 km/s suggesting a possible black hole mass of order 105 solar masses. I will discuss the prospects for systematic searches for nuclear activity in dwarf galaxies and the implications for black hole demographics.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  20. Analysis of the epitope structure of Plum pox virus coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candresse, Thierry; Saenz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio; Boscia, Donato; Navratil, Milan; Gorris, Maria Teresa; Cambra, Mariano

    2011-05-01

    Typing of the particular Plum pox virus (PPV) strain responsible in an outbreak has important practical implications and is frequently performed using strain-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Analysis in Western blots of the reactivity of 24 MAbs to a 112-amino-acid N-terminal fragment of the PPV coat protein (CP) expressed in Escherichia coli showed that 21 of the 24 MAbs recognized linear or denaturation-insensitive epitopes. A series of eight C-truncated CP fragments allowed the mapping of the epitopes recognized by the MAbs. In all, 14 of them reacted to the N-terminal hypervariable region, defining a minimum of six epitopes, while 7 reacted to the beginning of the core region, defining a minimum of three epitopes. Sequence comparisons allowed the more precise positioning of regions recognized by several MAbs, including those recognized by the 5B-IVIA universal MAb (amino acids 94 to 100) and by the 4DG5 and 4DG11 D serogroup-specific MAbs (amino acids 43 to 64). A similar approach coupled with infectious cDNA clone mutagenesis showed that a V74T mutation in the N-terminus of the CP abolished the binding of the M serogroup-specific AL MAb. Taken together, these results provide a detailed positioning of the epitopes recognized by the most widely used PPV detection and typing MAbs.

  1. Sensitivity of field tests, serological and molecular techniques for Plum Pox Virus detection in various tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca VIRŠČEK MARN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of field tests (AgriStrip  and Immunochromato, DAS-ELISA, two step RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR for Plum pox virus (PPV detection was tested in various tissues of apricot, peach, plum and damson plum trees infected with isolates belonging to PPV-D, PPV-M or PPV-Rec, the three strains present in Slovenia. Flowers of apricot and plum in full bloom proved to be a very good source for detection of PPV. PPV could be detected with all tested techniques in symptomatic parts of leaves in May and with one exception even in the beginning of August, but it was not detected in asymptomatic leaves using field tests, DAS-ELISA and partly also molecular techniques. PPV was detected only in some of the samples of asymptomatic parts of the leaves with symptoms and of stalks by field tests and DAS-ELISA. Infections were not detected in buds in August using field tests or DAS-ELISA. Field tests are useful for confirmation of the PPV infection in symptomatic leaves, but in tissues without symptoms DAS-ELISA should be combined or replaced by molecular techniques.

  2. Differentially expressed genes in healthy and plum pox virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Žilová, M; Šubr, Z

    2015-12-01

    Viruses use both material and energy sources of their hosts and redirect the production of disposable compounds in order to make viral replication more efficient. Metabolism of infected organisms is modified by these enhanced requirements as well by their own defense response. Resulting complex story consists of many regulation events on various gene expression levels. Elucidating these processes may contribute to the knowledge on virus-host interactions and to evolving new antiviral strategies. In our work we applied a subtractive cloning technique to compare the transcriptomes of healthy and plum pox virus (PPV)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Several genes were found to be induced or repressed by the PPV infection. The induced genes were mainly related to general stress response or photosynthesis, several repressed genes could be connected with growth defects evoked by the infection. Interestingly, some genes usually up-regulated by fungal or bacterial infection were found repressed in PPV-infected plants. Potential involvement of particular differently expressed genes in the process of PPV infection is discussed.

  3. Complete genome sequence of a novel Plum pox virus strain W isolate determined by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Speranskaya, Anna; Belenikin, Maxim; Melnikova, Natalia; Chirkov, Sergei

    2013-10-01

    The near-complete (99.7 %) genome sequence of a novel Russian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate Pk, belonging to the strain Winona (W), has been determined by 454 pyrosequencing with the exception of the thirty-one 5'-terminal nucleotides. This region was amplified using 5'RACE kit and sequenced by the Sanger method. Genomic RNA released from immunocaptured PPV particles was employed for generation of cDNA library using TransPlex Whole transcriptome amplification kit (WTA2, Sigma-Aldrich). The entire Pk genome has identity level of 92.8-94.5 % when compared to the complete nucleotide sequences of other PPV-W isolates (W3174, LV-141pl, LV-145bt, and UKR 44189), confirming a high degree of variability within the PPV-W strain. The isolates Pk and LV-141pl are most closely related. The Pk has been found in a wild plum (Prunus domestica) in a new region of Russia indicating widespread dissemination of the PPV-W strain in the European part of the former USSR.

  4. Molecular, ultrastructural, and biological characterization of Pennsylvania isolates of Plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William L; Damsteegt, Vernon D; Gildow, Fred E; Stone, Andrew L; Sherman, Diana J; Levy, Laurene E; Mavrodieva, Vessela; Richwine, Nancy; Welliver, Ruth; Luster, Douglas G

    2011-05-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) was identified in Pennsylvania in 1999. The outbreak was limited to a four-county region in southern Pennsylvania. Initial serological and molecular characterization indicated that the isolates in Pennsylvania belong to the D strain of PPV. The Pennsylvania isolates were characterized by sequence analysis, electron microscopy, host range, and vector transmission to determine how these isolates related to their previously studied European counterparts. Genetically, Pennsylvania (PPV-Penn) isolates were more closely related to each other than to any other PPV-D strains, and isolates from the United States, Canada, and Chile were more closely related to each other than to European isolates. The PPV-Penn isolates exist as two clades, suggesting the possibility of multiple introductions. Electron microscopy analysis of PPV-Penn isolates, including cytopathological studies, indicated that the virions were similar to other Potyvirus spp. PPV-Penn isolates had a herbaceous host range similar to that of European D isolates. There were distinct differences in the transmission efficiencies of the two PPV-Penn isolates using Myzus persicae and Aphis spiraecola as vectors; however, both PPV-Penn isolates were transmitted by M. persicae more efficiently than a European D isolate but less efficiently than a European M isolate.

  5. Biotechnological strategies and tools for Plum pox virus resistance: trans-, intra-, cis-genesis, and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilardi, Vincenza; Tavazza, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programs. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants. PMID:26106397

  6. Tracking the potyviral P1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Z; Glasa, M; Šubr, Z W

    The P1 protein is derived from the N terminus of potyvirus-coded polyprotein. In addition to the proteolytic activity essential for its maturation, it probably participates in suppression of host defense and/or in virus replication. Clear validation of the P1 in vivo function(s), however, is not yet available. We applied an infectious cDNA clone of plum pox virus (PPV), where the P1 was N-fused with a hexahistidine tag, to trace this protein in Nicotiana benthamiana plants during the PPV infection. Immunoblot analysis with the anti-his antibody showed a diffuse band corresponding to the molecular weight about 70-80 kDa (about twice larger than expected) in the root samples from early stage of infection. This signal culminated on the sixth day post inoculation, later it rapidly disappeared. Sample denaturation by boiling in SDS before centrifugal clarification was essential, indicating strong affinity of P1-his to some plant compound sedimenting with the tissue and cell debris.

  7. New highly divergent Plum pox virus isolates infecting sour cherry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Zakubanskiy, Alexander; Osipov, Gennady

    2017-02-01

    Unusual Plum pox virus (PPV) isolates (named Tat isolates) were discovered on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) in Russia. They failed to be recognized by RT-PCR using commonly employed primers specific to the strains C or CR (the only ones that proved able to infect sour cherry) as well as to the strains M and W. Some of them can be detected by RT-PCR using the PPV-D-specific primers P1/PD or by TAS-ELISA with the PPV-C-specific monoclonal antibody AC. Phylogenetic analysis of the 3'-terminal genomic region assigned the Tat isolates into the cluster of cherry-adapted strains. However, they grouped separately from the C and CR strains and from each other as well. The sequence divergence of the Tat isolates is comparable to the differences between the known PPV strains. They may represent new group(s) of cherry-adapted isolates which do not seem to belong to any known strain of the virus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Shifting white pox aetiologies affecting Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys, 1994-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kathryn P; Berry, Brett; Park, Andrew; Kemp, Dustin W; Kemp, Keri M; Lipp, Erin K; Porter, James W

    2016-03-05

    We propose 'the moving target hypothesis' to describe the aetiology of a contemporary coral disease that differs from that of its historical disease state. Hitting the target with coral disease aetiology is a complex pursuit that requires understanding of host and environment, and may lack a single pathogen solution. White pox disease (WPX) affects the Caribbean coral Acropora palmata. Acroporid serratiosis is a form of WPX for which the bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) has been established. We used long-term (1994-2014) photographic monitoring to evaluate historical and contemporary epizootiology and aetiology of WPX affecting A. palmata at eight reefs in the Florida Keys. Ranges of WPX prevalence over time (0-71.4%) were comparable for the duration of the 20-year study. Whole colony mortality and disease severity were high in historical (1994-2004), and low in contemporary (2008-2014), outbreaks of WPX. Acroporid serratiosis was diagnosed for some historical (1999, 2003) and contemporary (2012, 2013) outbreaks, but this form of WPX was not confirmed for all WPX cases. Our results serve as a context for considering aetiology as a moving target for WPX and other coral diseases for which pathogens are established and/or candidate pathogens are identified. Coral aetiology investigations completed to date suggest that changes in pathogen, host and/or environment alter the disease state and complicate diagnosis. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Simulasi Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN Berbasis Software Defined Network (SDN Menggunakan POX Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmat Tulloh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available VLAN (Virtual LAN merupakan sebuah teknologi yang dapat mengkonfigurasi jaringan logis independen dari struktur jaringan fisik. Hasil dari penelitian sebelumnya sudah diprediksi bahwa dibutuhkan Virtual Network yang akhirnya terciptalah VLAN. Namun paradigma jaringan saat ini tidak flexible, ketergantungan terhadap vendor sangat besar karena fungsi data plane dan control plane berada dalam satu paket device. SDN (Software defined network yang merupakan salahsatu evolusi teknologi jaringan sesuai dengan tuntutan yang berkembang dimana memisahkan fungsi data plane dan control plane pada suatu perangkat. POX Controller digunakan untuk men-simulasikan dan menguji Platform SDN (Software defined network. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan Openflow versi 1.0 untuk memasang header VLAN sehingga penelitian ini difokuskan untuk mengevaluasi performa forwarding VLAN yang memanfaatkan Openflow sebagai control plane dapat berfungsi dengan baik. Hasil penelitian ini mengusulkan penerapan karakteristik teknologi VLAN pada SDN karena telah berjalan dengan benar sesuai hasil pengujian konektifitas, verifikasi dan keamanan. Kemudian hasil pengujian lanjutan untuk melihat pengaruh SDN dengan skenario penambahan jumlah VLAN ID didapatkan bahwa set-up time akan bertambah seiring meningkatnya jumlah host dan dengan menggunakan protokol OpenFlow, latency yang terjadi di jaringan dapat dipantau dengan parameter round trip time (RTT yang stabil direntang 0,2 sampai 6 second walaupun jumlah vlan_id dan background traffic bertambah.

  10. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  11. Robust RNA silencing-mediated resistance to Plum pox virus under variable abiotic and biotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Elisa; Tavazza, Mario; Lucioli, Alessandra; Salandri, Laura; Ilardi, Vincenza

    2014-10-01

    Some abiotic and biotic conditions are known to have a negative impact on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), thus representing a potential concern for the production of stable engineered virus resistance traits. However, depending on the strategy followed to achieve PTGS of the transgene, different responses to external conditions can be expected. In the present study, we utilized the Nicotiana benthamiana–Plum pox virus (PPV) pathosystem to evaluate in detail the stability of intron-hairpin(ihp)-mediated virus resistance under conditions known to adversely affect PTGS. The ihp plants grown at low or high temperatures were fully resistant to multiple PPV challenges, different PPV inoculum concentrations and even to a PPV isolate differing from the ihp construct by more than 28% at the nucleotide level. In addition, infections of ihp plants with viruses belonging to Cucumovirus, Potyvirus or Tombusvirus, all known to affect PTGS at different steps, were not able to defeat PPV resistance. Low temperatures did not affect the accumulation of transgenic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), whereas a clear increase in the amount of siRNAs was observed during infections sustained by Cucumber mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Our results show that the above stress factors do not represent an important concern for the production,through ihp-PTGS technology, of transgenic plants having robust virus resistance traits.

  12. Shifting white pox aetiologies affecting Acropora palmata in the Florida Keys, 1994–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Brett; Park, Andrew; Kemp, Dustin W.; Kemp, Keri M.; Lipp, Erin K.; Porter, James W.

    2016-01-01

    We propose ‘the moving target hypothesis’ to describe the aetiology of a contemporary coral disease that differs from that of its historical disease state. Hitting the target with coral disease aetiology is a complex pursuit that requires understanding of host and environment, and may lack a single pathogen solution. White pox disease (WPX) affects the Caribbean coral Acropora palmata. Acroporid serratiosis is a form of WPX for which the bacterial pathogen (Serratia marcescens) has been established. We used long-term (1994–2014) photographic monitoring to evaluate historical and contemporary epizootiology and aetiology of WPX affecting A. palmata at eight reefs in the Florida Keys. Ranges of WPX prevalence over time (0–71.4%) were comparable for the duration of the 20-year study. Whole colony mortality and disease severity were high in historical (1994–2004), and low in contemporary (2008–2014), outbreaks of WPX. Acroporid serratiosis was diagnosed for some historical (1999, 2003) and contemporary (2012, 2013) outbreaks, but this form of WPX was not confirmed for all WPX cases. Our results serve as a context for considering aetiology as a moving target for WPX and other coral diseases for which pathogens are established and/or candidate pathogens are identified. Coral aetiology investigations completed to date suggest that changes in pathogen, host and/or environment alter the disease state and complicate diagnosis. PMID:26880837

  13. Plum Pox Virus 6K1 Protein Is Required for Viral Replication and Targets the Viral Replication Complex at the Early Stage of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2016-05-15

    The potyviral RNA genome encodes two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed by three viral protease domains into 11 mature proteins. Extensive molecular studies have identified functions for the majority of the viral proteins. For example, 6K2, one of the two smallest potyviral proteins, is an integral membrane protein and induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originated replication vesicles that target the chloroplast for robust viral replication. However, the functional role of 6K1, the other smallest protein, remains uncharacterized. In this study, we developed a series of recombinant full-length viral cDNA clones derived from a Canadian Plum pox virus (PPV) isolate. We found that deletion of any of the short motifs of 6K1 (each of which ranged from 5 to 13 amino acids), most of the 6K1 sequence (but with the conserved sequence of the cleavage sites being retained), or all of the 6K1 sequence in the PPV infectious clone abolished viral replication. The trans expression of 6K1 or the cis expression of a dislocated 6K1 failed to rescue the loss-of-replication phenotype, suggesting the temporal and spatial requirement of 6K1 for viral replication. Disruption of the N- or C-terminal cleavage site of 6K1, which prevented the release of 6K1 from the polyprotein, either partially or completely inhibited viral replication, suggesting the functional importance of the mature 6K1. We further found that green fluorescent protein-tagged 6K1 formed punctate inclusions at the viral early infection stage and colocalized with chloroplast-bound viral replicase elements 6K2 and NIb. Taken together, our results suggest that 6K1 is required for viral replication and is an important viral element of the viral replication complex at the early infection stage. Potyviruses account for more than 30% of known plant viruses and consist of many agriculturally important viruses. The genomes of potyviruses encode two polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into 11 mature

  14. Partial genome sequence of Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans ARhD 1T, a chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium capable of complete denitrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berben, T.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Ivanova, N.; Pati, A.; Kyrpides, N.; Goodwin, L.A; Woyke, T.; Muyzer, G.

    2015-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio thiocyanodenitrificans strain ARhD 1 T is a motile, Gram-negative bacterium isolated from soda lakes that belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria. It derives energy for growth and carbon fixation from the oxidation of sulfur compounds, most notably thiocyanate, and so is a

  15. Partial oxidation of Raffinate II and other mixtures of n-Butane and n-Butenes to maleic anhydride in a fixed-bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Brandstädter, Willi Michael

    2008-01-01

    The utilisation of the C4 streams of steamcrackers by converting raffinate II to maleic anhydride was studied. The oxidation reactions were investigated in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor to determine reaction kinetics. The effects of pore diffusional resistance were investigated and explained. A two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous reactor model was used for the simulation of a production-scale fixed-bed reactor. A flow scheme of the reactor section including a recycle was proposed.

  16. Activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway by siRNA knockdown of Keap1 reduces oxidative stress and provides partial protection from MPTP-mediated neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tracy P; Johnson, Delinda A; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant response element, a cis-acting regulatory element that increases expression of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins. Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) protein is a negative regulator of Nrf2. Previous work has shown that genetic overexpression of Nrf2 is protective in vitro and in vivo. To modulate the Nrf2-ARE system without overexpressing Nrf2, we used short interfering RNA (siRNA) directed against Keap1. Keap1 siRNA administration in primary astrocytes increased the levels of Nrf2-ARE driven genes and protected against oxidative stress. Moreover, Keap1 siRNA resulted in a persistent upregulation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway and protection against oxidative stress in primary astrocytes. Keap1 siRNA injected into the striatum was also modestly protective against MPTP-induced dopaminergic terminal damage. These data indicate that activation of endogenous intracellular levels of Nrf2 is sufficient to protect in models of oxidative stress and Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nucleotide diversity of the ZmPox3 maize peroxidase gene: Relationships between a MITE insertion in exon 2 and variation in forage maize digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigau Joan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms were investigated within the ZmPox3 maize peroxidase gene, possibly involved in lignin biosynthesis because of its colocalization with a cluster of QTL related to lignin content and cell wall digestibility. The purpose of this study was to identify, on the basis of 37 maize lines chosen for their varying degrees of cell wall digestibility and representative of temperate regions germplasm, ZmPox3 haplotypes or individual polymorphisms possibly associated with digestibility. Results Numerous haplotypes with high diversity were identified. Frequency of nucleotide changes was high with on average one SNP every 57 bp. Nucleotide diversity was not equally distributed among site categories: the estimated π was on average eight times higher for silent sites than for non-synonymous sites. Numerous sites were in linkage disequilibrium that decayed with increasing physical distance. A zmPox3 mutant allele, carrying an insertion of a transposable element in the second exon, was found in lines derived from the early flint inbred line, F7. This element possesses many structural features of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITE. The mutant allele encodes a truncated protein lacking important functional sites. An ANOVA performed with a subset of 31 maize lines indicated that the transposable element was significantly associated with cell wall digestibility. This association was confirmed using an additional set of 25 flint lines related to F7. Moreover, RT-PCR experiments revealed a decreased amount of corresponding mRNA in plants with the MITE insertion. Conclusion These results showed that ZmPox3 could possibly be involved in monolignol polymerisation, and that a deficiency in ZmPox3 peroxidase activity seemingly has a negative effect on cell wall digestibility. Also, genetic diversity analyses of ZmPox3 indicated that this peroxidase could be a relevant target for grass digestibility improvement using

  18. Plum pox virus and sharka: a model potyvirus and a major disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan Antonio; Glasa, Miroslav; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry

    2014-04-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. PPV diversity is structured into at least eight monophyletic strains. First discovered in Bulgaria, PPV is nowadays present in most of continental Europe (with an endemic status in many central and southern European countries) and has progressively spread to many countries on other continents. Typical of potyviruses, the PPV genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), with a protein linked to its 5' end and a 3'-terminal poly A tail. It is encapsidated by a single type of capsid protein (CP) in flexuous rod particles and is translated into a large polyprotein which is proteolytically processed in at least 10 final products: P1, HCPro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, VPg, NIapro, NIb and CP. In addition, P3N-PIPO is predicted to be produced by a translational frameshift. PPV causes sharka, the most damaging viral disease of stone fruit trees. It also infects wild and ornamental Prunus trees and has a large experimental host range in herbaceous species. PPV spreads over long distances by uncontrolled movement of plant material, and many species of aphid transmit the virus locally in a nonpersistent manner. A few natural sources of resistance to PPV have been found so far in Prunus species, which are being used in classical breeding programmes. Different genetic engineering approaches are being used to generate resistance to PPV, and a transgenic plum, 'HoneySweet', transformed with the viral CP gene, has demonstrated high resistance to PPV in field tests in several countries and has obtained regulatory approval in the USA. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Evaluation of the genetic diversity of Plum pox virus in a single plum tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predajňa, Lukáš; Šubr, Zdeno; Candresse, Thierry; Glasa, Miroslav

    2012-07-01

    Genetic diversity of Plum pox virus (PPV) and its distribution within a single perennial woody host (plum, Prunus domestica) has been evaluated. A plum tree was triply infected by chip-budding with PPV-M, PPV-D and PPV-Rec isolates in 2003 and left to develop untreated under open field conditions. In September 2010 leaf and fruit samples were collected from different parts of the tree canopy. A 745-bp NIb-CP fragment of PPV genome, containing the hypervariable region encoding the CP N-terminal end was amplified by RT-PCR from each sample and directly sequenced to determine the dominant sequence. In parallel, the PCR products were cloned and a total of 105 individual clones were sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that after 7 years of infection, only PPV-M was still detectable in the tree and that the two other isolates (PPV-Rec and PPV-D) had been displaced. Despite the fact that the analysis targeted a relatively short portion of the genome, a substantial amount of intra-isolate variability was observed for PPV-M. A total of 51 different haplotypes could be identified from the 105 individual sequences, two of which were largely dominant. However, no clear-cut structuration of the viral population by the tree architecture could be highlighted although the results obtained suggest the possibility of intra-leaf/fruit differentiation of the viral population. Comparison of the consensus sequence with the original source isolate showed no difference, suggesting within-plant stability of this original isolate under open field conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pineapple by-product and canola oil as partial fat replacers in low-fat beef burger: Effects on oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Rasera, Mariana L; Marabesi, Amanda C; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-05-01

    The effect of freeze-dried pineapple by-product and canola oil as fat replacers on the oxidative stability, cholesterol content and fatty acid profile of low-fat beef burgers was evaluated. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple by-product (PA), canola oil (CO), and pineapple by-product and canola oil (PC). Low-fat cooked burgers showed a mean cholesterol content reduction of 9.15% compared to the CN. Canola oil addition improved the fatty acid profile of the burgers, with increase in the polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio, in the atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes. The oxidative stability of the burgers was affected by the vegetable oil addition. However, at the end of the storage time (120 days), malonaldehyde values of CO and PC were lower than the threshold for the consumer's acceptance. Canola oil, in combination with pineapple by-product, can be considered promising fat replacers in the development of healthier burgers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ni-doped (CeO{sub 2−δ})–YSZ mesoarchitectured with nanocrystalline framework: the effect of thermal treatment on structure, surface chemistry and catalytic properties in the partial oxidation of methane (CPOM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somacescu, Simona, E-mail: ssimona@icf.ro [Romanian Academy, “Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry (Romania); Florea, Mihaela [University of Bucharest, Department of Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry and Catalysis, Faculty of Chemistry (Romania); Osiceanu, Petre; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria [Romanian Academy, “Ilie Murgulescu” Institute of Physical Chemistry (Romania); Ghica, Corneliu [National Institute of Materials Physics (Romania); Serra, Jose Manuel [Universidad Politécnica de Valencia - Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto de Tecnología Química (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Ni-doped (CeO{sub 2−δ})–YSZ (5 mol% Ni oxide, 10 mol% ceria) mesoarchitectures (MA) with nanocrystalline framework have been synthesized by an original, facile and cheap approach based on Triton X100 nonionic surfactant as template and water as solvent at a strong basic pH value. Following the hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure (∼18 bars), Ni, Ce, Y, and Zr were well ordered as MA with nanocrystalline framework, assuring thermal stability. A comprehensive investigation of structure, texture, morphology, and surface chemistry was performed by means of a variety of complementary techniques (X-Ray Diffraction, XRD; Raman Spectroscopy, RS; Brunauer—Emmett—Teller, BET; Temperature—Programmed Reduction, TPR; Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM and DF-STEM; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS; Catalytic activity and selectivity). N{sub 2} sorption measurements highlighted that the mesoporous structure is formed at 600 °C and remains stable at 800 °C. At 900 °C, the MA collapses, favoring the formation of macropores. The XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of all samples showed the presence of a pure, single phase with fluorite-type structure. At 900 °C, an increased tetragonal distortion of the cubic lattice was observed. The surface chemistry probed by XPS exhibits a mixture of oxidation states (Ce{sup 3+} + Ce{sup 4+}) with high percentage of Ce{sup 3+} valence state ∼35 % and (Ni{sup 3+} and Ni{sup 2+}) oxidation states induced by the thermal treatment. These nanoparticles assembled into MA show high stability and selectivity over time in catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM). These promising performances suggest an interesting prospect for introduction as anode within IT-SOFC assemblies.Graphical Abstract.

  2. Ni-doped (CeO2−δ)–YSZ mesoarchitectured with nanocrystalline framework: the effect of thermal treatment on structure, surface chemistry and catalytic properties in the partial oxidation of methane (CPOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somacescu, Simona; Florea, Mihaela; Osiceanu, Petre; Calderon-Moreno, Jose Maria; Ghica, Corneliu; Serra, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Ni-doped (CeO 2−δ )–YSZ (5 mol% Ni oxide, 10 mol% ceria) mesoarchitectures (MA) with nanocrystalline framework have been synthesized by an original, facile and cheap approach based on Triton X100 nonionic surfactant as template and water as solvent at a strong basic pH value. Following the hydrothermal treatment under autogenous pressure (∼18 bars), Ni, Ce, Y, and Zr were well ordered as MA with nanocrystalline framework, assuring thermal stability. A comprehensive investigation of structure, texture, morphology, and surface chemistry was performed by means of a variety of complementary techniques (X-Ray Diffraction, XRD; Raman Spectroscopy, RS; Brunauer—Emmett—Teller, BET; Temperature—Programmed Reduction, TPR; Transmission Electron Microscopy, TEM and DF-STEM; X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS; Catalytic activity and selectivity). N 2 sorption measurements highlighted that the mesoporous structure is formed at 600 °C and remains stable at 800 °C. At 900 °C, the MA collapses, favoring the formation of macropores. The XRD and Raman Spectroscopy of all samples showed the presence of a pure, single phase with fluorite-type structure. At 900 °C, an increased tetragonal distortion of the cubic lattice was observed. The surface chemistry probed by XPS exhibits a mixture of oxidation states (Ce 3+  + Ce 4+ ) with high percentage of Ce 3+ valence state ∼35 % and (Ni 3+ and Ni 2+ ) oxidation states induced by the thermal treatment. These nanoparticles assembled into MA show high stability and selectivity over time in catalytic partial oxidation of methane (CPOM). These promising performances suggest an interesting prospect for introduction as anode within IT-SOFC assemblies.Graphical Abstract

  3. Selective oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Henao, Luis F.; Castro F, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    It is presented a revision and discussion about the characteristics and factors that relate activity and selectivity in the catalytic and not catalytic partial oxidation of methane and the effect of variables as the temperature, pressure and others in the methane conversion to methanol. It thinks about the zeolites use modified for the catalytic oxidation of natural gas

  4. Mathematical Modelling of Intraretinal Oxygen Partial Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    oxygen availability) is required for retinal oxidative metabolism. .... retina was described using Hill's equation and Fick's law. ... ganglion cell / nerve fiber layer and the superficial ..... parameter values producing the best. Figure 2: Partial ...

  5. Rh promoted La0.75Sr0.25(Fe0.8Co0.2)1−xGaxO3-δ perovskite catalysts: Characterization and catalytic performance for methane partial oxidation to synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcheva, R.; Olsbye, U.; Palcut, M.; Rauwel, P.; Tyuliev, G.; Velinov, N.; Fjellvåg, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Perovskites type-oxide La 0.75 Sr 0.25 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 1−x Ga x O 3-δ (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.4) prepared by the sol–gel citrate method. • Bulk and surface analysis to determine catalysts composition evolution. • Anaerobic catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas at 600 °C in a pulse apparatus over Rh promoted perovskites. • The catalysts showed high stability and selectivity. - Abstract: Synthesis gas production via selective oxidation of methane at 600 °C in a pulse reaction over La 0.75 Sr 0.25 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 1−x Ga x O 3-δ (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.4) perovskite-supported rhodium catalysts, was investigated. The perovskite oxides were prepared by sol–gel citrate method and characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR-H 2 ), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized samples were a single perovskite phase. The perovskite structure of Ga substituted samples remained stable after TPR-H 2 , as confirmed by XRD. Data of MS identified Fe 3+ ions in two distinctive coordination environments, and Fe 4+ ions. The Rh 2 O 3 thin overlayer was detected by the HRTEM for the Rh impregnated perovskite oxides. During the interaction of methane with oxidized perovskite-supported Rh (0.5 wt.%) catalysts, besides CO, H 2 , and surface carbon, CO 2 and H 2 O were formed. The Rh perovskite catalyst with x = 0.25 gallium exhibits the highest catalytic activity of 83% at 600 °C. The CO selectivity was affected by the reducibility of La 0.75 Sr 0.25 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 1−x Ga x O 3-δ perovskite materials.

  6. Oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise 2 : Assessment of the efficacy of different tocopherol antioxidant systems by discriminant partial least squares regression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Lund, Pia

    2000-01-01

    . The rheological and structural properties of the mayonnaise were also affected by the addition of extra emulsifier, but this did not influence the formation of fishy and rancid off-flavours. Addition of the A system caused the immediate formation of distinct fish; and rancid off-flavours in the fresh mayonnaises......Oxidative protection of mayonnaises with 16% fish oil was studied during cold storage (5 degrees C) after supplementation with different tocopherol systems: the ternary antioxidant system ascorbic acid, lecithin and tocopherol (A/L/T), and two commercial mixtures, an oil-soluble (Toco 70......) preparation and a water-soluble (Grindox 1032) preparation, The physical structure of the fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise was manipulated by adding extra emulsifier (Panodan TR) with the purpose of investigating whether or not this affected the antioxidative activity of the tocopherol mixtures. A number...

  7. Discovery of Nigri/nox and Panto/pox site-specific recombinase systems facilitates advanced genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimova, Madina; Splith, Victoria; Karpinski, Janet; Pisabarro, M Teresa; Buchholz, Frank

    2016-07-22

    Precise genome engineering is instrumental for biomedical research and holds great promise for future therapeutic applications. Site-specific recombinases (SSRs) are valuable tools for genome engineering due to their exceptional ability to mediate precise excision, integration and inversion of genomic DNA in living systems. The ever-increasing complexity of genome manipulations and the desire to understand the DNA-binding specificity of these enzymes are driving efforts to identify novel SSR systems with unique properties. Here, we describe two novel tyrosine site-specific recombination systems designated Nigri/nox and Panto/pox. Nigri originates from Vibrio nigripulchritudo (plasmid VIBNI_pA) and recombines its target site nox with high efficiency and high target-site selectivity, without recombining target sites of the well established SSRs Cre, Dre, Vika and VCre. Panto, derived from Pantoea sp. aB, is less specific and in addition to its native target site, pox also recombines the target site for Dre recombinase, called rox. This relaxed specificity allowed the identification of residues that are involved in target site selectivity, thereby advancing our understanding of how SSRs recognize their respective DNA targets.

  8. 'GETTING' THE POX: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia

    This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, "getting the pox" is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  9. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik

    2015-11-01

    This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu2O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu2O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu+ species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  10. Protecting trees against virus diseases in the 21st century: genetic engineering of Plum pox virus resistance - from concept to product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), was first recorded in Bulgaria during the early twentieth century. Since that first report, the disease has progressively spread throughout Europe where it has infected over 100 million stone fruit trees. From Europe, sharka disease spread to Asia, A...

  11. Pre- and post-natal melatonin administration partially regulates brain oxidative stress but does not improve cognitive or histological alterations in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Andrea; Parisotto, Eduardo B; Vidal, Verónica; García-Cerro, Susana; Lantigua, Sara; Diego, Marian; Wilhem Filho, Danilo; Sanchez-Barceló, Emilio J; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Rueda, Noemí

    2017-09-15

    Melatonin administered during adulthood induces beneficial effects on cognition and neuroprotection in the Ts65Dn (TS) mouse model of Down syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of pre- and post-natal melatonin treatment on behavioral and cognitive abnormalities and on several neuromorphological alterations (hypocellularity, neurogenesis impairment and increased oxidative stress) that appear during the early developmental stages in TS mice. Pregnant TS females were orally treated with melatonin or vehicle from the time of conception until the weaning of the offspring, and the pups continued to receive the treatment from weaning until the age of 5 months. Melatonin administered during the pre- and post-natal periods did not improve the cognitive impairment of TS mice as measured by the Morris Water maze or fear conditioning tests. Histological alterations, such as decreased proliferation (Ki67+ cells) and hippocampal hypocellularity (DAPI+ cells), which are typical in TS mice, were not prevented by melatonin. However, melatonin partially regulated brain oxidative stress by modulating the activity of the primary antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase in the cortex and catalase in the cortex and hippocampus) and slightly decreasing the levels of lipid peroxidation in the hippocampus of TS mice. These results show the inability of melatonin to prevent cognitive impairment in TS mice when it is administered at pre- and post-natal stages. Additionally, our findings suggest that to induce pro-cognitive effects in TS mice during the early stages of development, in addition to attenuating oxidative stress, therapies should aim to improve other altered processes, such as hippocampal neurogenesis and/or hypocellularity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu2O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Düzenli, Derya; Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter; Onal, Isik

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Propylene epoxidation mechanism on Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces is investigated using DFT method. • Acrolein is found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface. • The more basic property of the surface oxygen increases the probability of acrolein formation over CuO(0 0 1) surface. - Abstract: This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu 2 O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu 2 O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu + species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  13. A density functional theory study of partial oxidation of propylene on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Düzenli, Derya [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Mineral Analysis and Technology, General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Atmaca, Deniz Onay; Gezer, Miray Gülbiter [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Onal, Isik, E-mail: ional@metu.edu.tr [Chemical Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Propylene epoxidation mechanism on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces is investigated using DFT method. • Acrolein is found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface. • The more basic property of the surface oxygen increases the probability of acrolein formation over CuO(0 0 1) surface. - Abstract: This work theoretically investigates propylene epoxidation reaction on Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and CuO(0 0 1) surfaces using periodical DFT method to determine the active copper species within the reaction mechanism. The transition states and energy profiles are calculated for the formation of surface intermediates such as oxametallopropylene (OMP) over Cu{sub 2}O(0 0 1) and oxygen bridging (OB) over CuO(0 0 1) and allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS) over both surfaces as well as for formation of products. Propylene oxide (PO) and acetone are obtained through OMP and OB surface intermediates and acrolein generation is observed through allylic H-stripping reaction (AHS). The calculations revealed that the corresponding surface intermediates for epoxidation reaction need to overcome an activation barrier of 13 kcal/mol over CuO surface whereas they occur without an energy barrier over Cu{sub 2}O surface indicating the higher activity of Cu{sup +} species. Acrolein is also found to be a thermodynamically more favorable product for both surfaces especially over CuO surface due to the presence of more surface oxygen atoms on which the basicity has been evaluated by the adsorption of sulfur dioxide. This indicates that the lattice oxygen inherent in both surface types does not participate in PO production.

  14. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins upregulate proline oxidase to initiate ROS-dependent autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Zabirnyk, Olga; Liu, Wei; Khalil, Shadi; Sharma, Anit; Phang, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that high levels of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDLs) are associated with increased cancer risk. We examined the direct effect of physiologic concentrations oxLDL on cancer cells. OxLDLs were cytotoxic and activate both apoptosis and autophagy. OxLDLs have ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and upregulated proline oxidase (POX) through this nuclear receptor. We identified 7-ketocholesterol (7KC) as a main component responsible ...

  15. Metal enrichment of the neutral gas of blue compact dwarf galaxies: the compelling case of Pox 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Kunth, D.; Thuan, T. X.; Désert, J. M.

    2009-02-01

    Context: Evidence has grown over the past few years that the neutral phase of blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies may be metal-deficient as compared to the ionized gas of their H ii regions. These results have strong implications for our understanding of the chemical evolution of galaxies, and it is essential to strengthen the method, as well as to find possible explanations. Aims: We present the analysis of the interstellar spectrum of Pox 36 with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE). Pox 36 was selected because of the relatively low foreground gas content that makes it possible to detect absorption-lines weak enough that unseen components should not be saturated. Methods: Interstellar lines of H i, N i, O i, Si ii, P ii, Ar i, and Fe ii are detected. Column densities are derived directly from the observed line profiles except for H i, whose lines are contaminated by stellar absorption, thus needing the stellar continuum to be removed. We used the TLUSTY models to remove the stellar continuum and isolate the interstellar component. The best fit indicates that the dominant stellar population is B0. The observed far-UV flux agrees with an equivalent number of ~300 B0 stars. The fit of the interstellar H i line gives a column density of 1020.3±0.4 cm-2. Chemical abundances were then computed from the column densities using the dominant ionization stage in the neutral gas. Our abundances are compared to those measured from emission-line spectra in the optical, probing the ionized gas of the H ii regions. Results: Our results suggest that the neutral gas of Pox 36 is metal-deficient by a factor ~7 as compared to the ionized gas, and they agree with a metallicity of ≈1/35 Z_⊙. Elemental depletion is not problematic because of the low dust content along the selected lines of sight. In contrast, the ionized gas shows a clear depletion pattern, with iron being strongly depleted. Conclusions: The abundance discontinuity between the neutral and ionized phases

  16. The gas-phase on-line production of phosphoryl halides, Pox3 and their identification by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A.W.

    1998-01-01

    A new route has been devised, leading to the production of Pox 3 molecules where X=F, Br and I by an on-line process using phosphoryl chloride, POCL 3 as a starting material passed over heated sodium fluoride, NaF, potassium bromide, KBr and potassium iodide, K1 at 535 Centigrade, 690 Centigrade and 480 Centigrade, respectively. The low resolution gas-phase fourier transform infrared spectra reported for the first time showed strong bands centered at 1411.6, 1322.9, 1300.8 and 1285 cm - 1, assigned to Ε 1 (a 1 ), the O = P stretching fundamental of POF 3 , POCL 3 , POBR 3 and POI 3 , respectively. Attempts were made to prepare POCL 2 and POBr 2 , by an on-line process using POCL 3 again but passed over heated sodium and potassium bromide for POCL 2 and POBr 2 . (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis Diseases in Backyard Chickens with Unusual Pox Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Fusae; Yamamoto, Yu; Sato, Yasuo; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Goto, Makiko; Murakami, Ryukoh

    2016-09-01

    Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca. Interestingly, hyperplastic interfollicular epithelium with rare virus inclusions was observed in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Some bursal follicles were replaced by proliferating epithelial cells. These proliferating cells immunohistochemically stained positive for cytokeratin. PCR and subsequent genetic sequencing detected the C. albicans gene in the crop, and fowlpox virus genes in the BF. These results indicate that this outbreak was a rare presentation of fowlpox in spontaneously infected chickens, with unusual pox lesions in the BF.

  18. Susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and selected herbaceous plants to plum pox virus isolates from western Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, M; Matisová, J; Hricovský, I; Kúdela, O

    1997-12-01

    The susceptibility of peach GF 305 seedlings and herbaceous plants to five plum pox virus (PPV) isolates from orchards of western Slovakia was investigated. PPV was isolated from diseased plum, apricot and peach trees, and transmitted by chip-budding to peach GF 305. The herbaceous plants were infected by mechanical inoculation. The transmission was analysed by symptomatology and double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Infected peaches developed leaf distortion, tissue clearing along the veins and small chlorotic spots (isolate BOR-3). With exception of BOR-3, the PPV isolates transmitted from peach caused local chlorotic spots on Chenopodium foetidum. The character of symptoms changed when a sap from PPV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana was used as virus inoculum. From N. benthamiana, the PPV isolates could be transmitted to Pisum sativum, cv. Colmo (light green mosaic), N. clevelandii and N. clevelandii x N. glutinosa hybrid (latent infection or chlorotic spots).

  19. Salmonellosis in relation to chlamydiosis and pox and Salmonella infections in captive falcons in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernery, U; Wernery, R; Zachariah, R; Kinne, J

    1998-12-01

    During the spring of 1995, 1996 and 1997 following tests on six peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and two gyr falcons (Falco rusticolus), Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from liver, spleen and small intestines. Four of the falcons (two peregrines and two gyrs) had also contracted Chlamydia infection, three peregrines a pox infection and one peregrine a Herpesvirus infection. It is believed that this dual infection was fatal for these birds. The disease was marked by anorexia, dehydration and green-coloured droppings. Necropsy of all falcons revealed discolouration of the liver and enlargement of liver and spleen. Miliary necrosis was detected in all livers. A total of 12 salmonella serovars, including S. typhimurium, were cultured from faeces of 48 falcons which showed no clinical signs.

  20. Pock forming ability of fowl pox virus isolated from layer chicken and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhare, Varsha Rani; Hirpurkar, S D; Kumar, Ashish; Naik, Surendra Kumar; Sahu, Tarini

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine pock forming ability of field strain and vaccine strain of fowl pox virus (FPV) in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of embryonated chicken eggs and its adaptation in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell culture. Dry scabs were collected from 25 affected birds in glycerin-saline and preserved at 4°C until processed. Virus was isolated in 10-day-old embryonated chicken eggs by dropped CAM method. The identity of the virus is confirmed by clinical findings of affected birds, pock morphology and histopathology of infected CAM. In addition one field isolate and vaccine strain of FPV was adapted to CEF cell culture. CEF cell culture was prepared from 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. Clinical symptoms observed in affected birds include pox lesion on comb, wattle, eyelids and legs, no internal lesions were observed. All field isolates produced similar findings in CAM. Pocks produced by field isolates ranged from 3 mm to 5 mm at the third passage while initial passages edematous thickening and necrosis of CAM was observed. Pocks formed by lyophilized strain were ranges from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm in diameter scattered all over the membrane at the first passage. Intra-cytoplasmic inclusion bodies are found on histopathology of CAM. At third passage level, the CEF inoculated with FPV showed characteristic cytopathic effect (CPE) included aggregation of cells, syncytia and plaque formation. FPV field isolates and vaccine strain produced distinct pock lesions on CAMs. Infected CAM showed intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The CEF inoculated with FPV field isolate as well as a vaccine strain showed characteristic CPE at third passage level.

  1. Estudos laboratoriais de infecções humanas e de bovinos com vírus do grupo Pox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Mesquita

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem estudos laboratoriais de infecções bovinas e humanas após vacinação anti-variolica em comunidade rural, tendo sido isolada uma amostra de vírus vaccínico de um dos animais infectados. Essa amostra foi reisolada de material original mantido a-20°C e identificada pelas lesões de membranas cório-alantóicas, provas de precipitação em agar-gel e reações sorológicas, nas quais a amostra ãe antígeno. Estudos sorológicos comparados cóm sôros padrões imunes, mostraram a presença de anticorpos inibidores da hemaglutinação e fixadores de complemento, usando-se antígenos padronizados de vírus vaccínico, evidenciando-se assim uma infecção recente por vírus do grupo Pox. Os dois casos humanos, verificados em indivíduos não vacinados originaram-se muito provavelmente dos animais, pela análise dos dados disponíveis e pela localização das lesões observadas. Os autores discutem ainda a possível ação dos contaminantes presentes nos materiais sôbre os vírus do grupo Pox.

  2. Structural studies of precursor and partially oxidized conducting complexes. 19. Synthesis and crystal structure of Cs2[Pt(CN)4]Cl/sub 0.30, the first anhydrous one-dimensional tetracyanoplatinate chloride complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.K.; Williams, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation and single-crystal x-ray structural characterization of a new, partially oxidized tetracyanoplatinate (POTCP), Cs 2 [Pt(CN) 4 ]Cl/sub 0.30/, CsCP(Cl), has been carried out. This one-dimensional conducting salt crystallizes with four formula units in the tetragonal unit cell I4/mcm, with cell constants a = 13.176 (2) A, c = 5.718 (1) A, and V = 992.7 A 3 . A total of 3112 observed data were averaged to yield 427 independent reflections. The structure was solved by standard heavy-atom methods and was refined by full-matrix least squares to a final R(F 0 2 ) = 0.045 and R/sub w/(F 0 2 ) = 0.059. Pertinent structural features include perfectly linear chains of Pt atoms with Pt-Pt separations crystallographically constrained to a value of (c/2) = 2.859 (2) A and interchain Pt-Pt distances of 9.317 A. Separations between the Cs + and Cl - ions are significantly shorter than the sum of the ionic radii. A discussion of these unusually short interionic distances and the absence of hydration as determined from the structural study and themogravimetric analyses is given. 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Evolution of MoTeO x/SiO 2 and MoBiTeO x/SiO 2 catalysts in the partial oxidation of propane to acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiming; Wu, Ying

    2010-04-01

    A thorough investigation of the catalysts Mo 1Te 1O x/SiO 2 and Mo 1Bi 0.05Te 1O x/SiO 2 in the partial oxidation of propane is presented in this paper, in order to elucidate the nature and behavior of the active surface. The catalysts' structures and redox properties were investigated by means of X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, in situ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H 2-TPR techniques. The results indicate that Te-polymolybdate is the main active phase on fresh catalysts. During reaction, the catalysts underwent a progressive reduction, resulting in the reconstruction of the active surface and the formation of a MoO 3 phase. The synergistic effect between Te-polymolybdate and MoO 3 was assumed to promote catalytic performance. The different stabilities of Mo 1Te 1O x/SiO 2 and Mo 1Bi 0.05Te 1O x/SiO 2 catalysts are also discussed.

  4. Moessbauer Study of the Ni/Ca0.8Sr0.2Ti1-xFexO3-α Catalyst System for Partial Oxidation of Methane to Synthesis Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homonnay, Z.; Nomura, K.; Hamakawa, S.; Hayakawa, T.; Juhasz, G.; Kuzmann, E.; Vertes, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Ni/Ca 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 catalyst system prepared by the citrate method shows high activity in partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas. It is assumed that the interaction of Ni with the perovskite lattice may be responsible for the increased catalytic activity. 1% 57 Fe dopant substituted for Ti was used in order to see if the presence of Ni has any perturbation effect on the structure of the perovskite. One may expect systematic changes in the Moessbauer parameters of the substitutional Fe impurity as a function of the NiO content if the bulk properties of the perovskite are affected. Samples with different Ni/Ca 0.8 Sr 0.2 Ti 0.99 57 Fe 0.01 O 3-α ratios from 0:1 to 1:1, and others having Fe substitutions for Ti up to 30%, all prepared by the citrate method, have been investigated. The Moessbauer spectra contained doublets of paramagnetic Fe 3+ and Fe 4+ species as well as paramagnetically relaxed Fe 3+ . These species were assigned to the bulk perovskite, the perovskite surface and the NiO/perovskite interface. The perturbation of the perovskite structure by Ni could not be verified.

  5. A Novel Cyclic Catalytic Reformer for Hydrocarbon Fuels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I addresses development of a compact reformer system based on a cyclic partial oxidation (POx)...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY EFFECTIVITY OF EXPERIMENTAL VIRUSVACCINE AGAINST GOAT POX IN THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN Изучение эпизоотологической эффективности экспериментальной вирусвакцины против оспы коз в республике Таджикистан

    OpenAIRE

    Balyshev V. M.; Kolomycev A. A.; Mirzoev D. M.; Turaev R. A.; Abdulloev A. O.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents some results on evaluation of an experimental viral vaccine against goat pox for its efficacy in the disease-affected areas of the Republic of Tajikistan. The epizootological data on small ruminant pox in the Republic within the last 50 years are analysed. The viral vaccine against goat pox may be used for goat pox prophylaxis in Tajikistan

  7. Thin film devices used as oxygen partial pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canady, K. S.; Wortman, J. J.

    1970-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of zinc oxide films to be used in an oxygen partial pressure sensor is measured as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and other atmospheric constituents. Time response following partial pressure changes is studied as a function of temperature and environmental changes.

  8. Methanol from biomass by partial oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The advantages of methanol should grow when petroleum again becomes scarce and expensive. An active program should be continued to develop technology and resolve outstanding questions. Some of the elements of this program included in this paper are: Make design studies and more accurate cost estimates for the largest plant. The increased size of this plant over the small plant studied by S and W should result in improved methanol yield and better energy efficiency. Continue development of the SERI biomass gasifier for a better understanding of design and operating parameters, for design of larger units, for higher operating pressures, and for gasification of Hawaiian woods and agricultural wastes. An earlier gasifier test bed in Hawaii is very desirable. Develop a plan to build successfully larger methanol plants in Hawaii to provide the basis for a large plant. Develop a plan for large-scale production of biomass in the islands. Elements of the plan might include technical (types of trees, maximizing wood per acre, and harvesting processes), economic (price to be paid for the biomass), social, cultural, and political factors. Develop a plan to convert liquid fuel users to methanol and begin implementing the plan as the initial small plants supply methanol. Develop an overall plant to integrate the various parts of the program covered above

  9. Evaluation of Partial Oxidation Reformer Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnasch, Stefan; Fable, Scott; Waterland, Larry

    2006-01-06

    In this study, a gasoline fuel processor and an ethanol fuel processor were operated under conditions simulating both startup and normal operation. Emissions were measured before and after the AGB in order to quantify the effectiveness of the burner catalyst in controlling emissions. The emissions sampling system includes CEM for O2, CO2, CO, NOx, and THC. Also, integrated gas samples are collected in evacuated canisters for hydrocarbon speciation analysis via GC. This analysis yields the concentrations of the hydrocarbon species required for the California NMOG calculation. The PM concentration in the anode burner exhaust was measured through the placement of a filter in the exhaust stream. The emissions from vehicles with fully developed on board reformer systems were estimated.

  10. Theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational properties, NBO and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the POX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) series of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Jorge E.; Gil, Diego M.; Lanús, Hernán E.; Altabef, Aida Ben

    2015-02-01

    The fourth member of the series of compounds of the type POX3 with X = I was synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The geometrical parameters and vibrational properties of POX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules were investigated theoretically by means DFT and ab initio methods. Available geometrical and vibrational data were used together with theoretical calculations in order to obtain a set of scaled force constants. The observed trends in geometrical parameters are analyzed and compared with those obtained in a previous work for the VOX3 (X = F, Cl, Br, I) series of compounds. NBO analysis was performed in order to know the hyper-conjugative interactions that favor one structure over another. The molecular properties such as ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, chemical potential, chemical hardness, softness and global electrophilicity index have been deduced from HOMO-LUMO analysis.

  11. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  12. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  13. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Július Rozák; Zdenka Gálová

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen a...

  14. Pox-rättegången, Mangafallet och Tintin-gate : en diskursanalys av debatter och nyhetsrapportering i svensk media om tecknade serier och censur

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Elin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to examine how censorship and comics have been discussed in three debates. The aim is also to identify discourses and the orders and relations of power constructed in the debates, and to examine how librarians should handle debates about censorship and comics. Selected sources are articles from Swedish newspapers and tabloids about the debates on the Pox-trial, the manga case and the debate about Tintin in Kulturhuset. The results from the analysis indicates that the debates ha...

  15. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  16. Constituents of Propolis: Chrysin, Caffeic Acid, p-Coumaric Acid, and Ferulic Acid Induce PRODH/POX-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell (CAL-27).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celińska-Janowicz, Katarzyna; Zaręba, Ilona; Lazarek, Urszula; Teul, Joanna; Tomczyk, Michał; Pałka, Jerzy; Miltyk, Wojciech

    2018-01-01

    Propolis evokes several therapeutic properties, including anticancer activity. These activities are attributed to the action of polyphenols. Previously it has been demonstrated, that one of the most abundant polyphenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts of propolis are chrysin, caffeic acid, p -coumaric acid, and ferulic acid. Although their pro-apoptotic activity on human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells (CAL-27) was established previously, the detailed mechanism of this process remains unclear. Considering the crucial role of proline metabolism and proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) in the regulation of cancer cell survival/apoptosis, we studied these processes in polyphenol-treated CAL-27 cells. All studied polyphenols evoked anti-proliferative activity, accompanied by increased PRODH/POX, P53, active caspases-3 and -9 expressions and decreased collagen biosynthesis, prolidase activity and proline concentration in CAL-27 cells. These data suggest that polyphenols of propolis induce PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis through up-regulation of mitochondrial proline degradation and down-regulation of proline utilization for collagen biosynthesis.

  17. Oxidative stress induction by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus infection in apricot seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, Khalid; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Pallás, Vincente; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Hernández, José Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot rvirus (PNRSV) was able to invade the immature apricot seed including the embryo. The amount of virus was very high inside the embryo compared with that present in the cotyledons. PNRSV infection produced an oxidative stress in apricot seeds as indicated by the increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. This lipid peroxidation increase was parallelled with an imbalance in the seed antioxidant enzymes. A significant decrease in the ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes as well as in peroxidase (POX) activity took place in infected seeds, suggesting a low capability to eliminate H2O2. No changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase activity were observed. A significant decrease in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was also observed. Native PAGE revealed the presence of three different SOD activity bands in apricot seeds: a Mn-containing SOD and two CuZn-containing SODs. Only an isozyme with catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) or PPO activity was detected in both healthy and infected apricot seeds. Regarding POX staining, three bands with POX activity were detected in native gels in both healthy and infected seeds. The gel results emphasise that the drop detected in POX, GR and PPO activities in PNRSV-infected apricot seeds by kinetic analyses was also evident from the results obtained by native PAGE. The oxidative stress and the imbalance in the antioxidant systems from PNRSV-infected apricot seeds resemble the hypersensitive response observed in some virus-host interactions. This defence mechanism would inactivate PNRSV during seed formation and/or the storage period or even during seed germination. Those results can explain the decrease in seed germination and the low transmission of PNRSV by seeds in apricot trees.

  18. Differential induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes by clofibric acid and aspirin in piglet tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X X; Odle, J; Drackley, J K

    2001-11-01

    Peroxisomal beta-oxidation (POX) of fatty acids is important in lipid catabolism and thermogenesis. To investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferators on peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation in piglet tissues, newborn pigs (1-2 days old) were allowed ad libitum access to milk replacer supplemented with 0.5% clofibric acid (CA) or 1% aspirin for 14 days. CA increased ratios of liver weight to body weight (P < 0.07), kidney weight to body weight (P < 0.05), and heart weight to body weight (P < 0.001). Aspirin decreased daily food intake and final body weight but increased the ratio of heart weight to body weight (P < 0.01). In liver, activities of POX, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (FAO), total carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT), and catalase were 2.7-, 2.2-, 1.5-fold, and 33% greater, respectively, for pigs given CA than for control pigs. In heart, these variables were 2.2-, 4.1-, 1.9-, and 1.8-fold greater, respectively, for pigs given CA than for control pigs. CA did not change these variables in either kidney or muscle, except that CPT activity was increased approximately 110% (P < 0.01) in kidney. Aspirin increased only hepatic FAO and CPT activities. Northern blot analysis revealed that CA increased the abundance of catalase mRNA in heart by approximately 2.2-fold. We conclude that 1) POX and CPT in newborn pigs can be induced by peroxisomal proliferators with tissue specificity and 2) the relatively smaller induction of POX in piglets (compared with that in young or adult rodents) may be related to either age or species differences.

  19. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  20. The use of transgenic fruit trees as a resistance strategy for virus epidemics: the plum pox (sharka) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelonandro, M; Scorza, R; Callahan, A; Levy, L; Jacquet, C; Monsion, M; Damsteegt, V

    2000-11-01

    Sharka or plum pox, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV: genus Potyvirus; Family Potyviridae), is the most serious disease of Prunus. Most cultivated Prunus species are highly susceptible and conventional breeding has not produced highly resistant and commercially acceptable varieties. Success in developing virus-resistant herbaceous crops through genetic engineering led us to investigate this approach for resistance to PPV. Our programme aims to develop a biotechnological approach to PPV control that is effective and shown to be environmentally safe. The programme began with the cloning of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene and the development of a transformation system for plum (Prunus domestica). The CP construct was first tested in Nicotiana benthamiana in which it proved effective in producing transgenic plants with varying levels of CP expression. Some of these plants, particularly low PPV CP expressers, were resistant to PPV, or recovered from initial infection. Based on these results plum was transformed using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens system and both low and high PPV CP-expressing transgenic plum lines were obtained. These were inoculated with PPV by bud grafts in the greenhouse. Line C-5 proved to be highly resistant. It contained multiple copies of the insert, produced low levels of PPV CP mRNA, no detectable CP and the insert appeared to be methylated. These characteristics all suggest that the resistance of the C-5 clone is based on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Field tests of C-5 and other transgenic lines in Poland, Romania and Spain have demonstrated that such trees when inoculated by bud-grafts allow a low level of PPV multiplication, from which they rapidly recover. C-5 plants exposed to natural infection for 3 years did not become infected, whereas control trees were infected in the first year. Hybrid plums having the C-5 PPV CP insert inherited from C-5 are virus-resistant, demonstrating the usefulness of C-5 as a parent in developing

  1. Infecção por pox vírus e Aspergillus fumigatus em Bubo virginianus (Coruja jacurutu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna V.Z. Echenique

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este trabalho descreve um caso de infecção mista por pox vírus e Aspergillus fumigatus em Bubo virginianus (coruja jacurutu. A ave, um macho adulto, foi encaminhada ao Núcleo de Reabilitação da Fauna Silvestre do Instituto de Biologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (NURFS/CETAS/UFPEL. Apresentava bom estado corporal, estava ativa, porém com incapacidade de voo. Após três dias apresentou lesões crostosas e de aspecto verrucoso na superfície dorsal das patas. Havia, também, nódulos de mesmo aspecto na pálpebra esquerda e na cera. A ave morreu após 15 dias de sua chegada ao NURFS e foi necropsiada no Laboratório Regional de Diagnóstico da Faculdade de Veterinária da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (LRD/UFPel. Histologicamente, as lesões verrucosas caracterizavam-se por hiperplasia do epitélio e nas células das camadas basal, espinhosa, granular e córnea havia corpúsculos de inclusão intracitoplasmáticos do tipo Bollinger. Na microscopia eletrônica foram visualizadas partículas virais características de pox vírus, incluindo Bubo virginianus como um hospedeiro do vírus. Havia, ainda, infiltrado inflamatório de células mononucleares e focos de colônias bacterianas na derme. Nos pulmões havia congestão e presença de granulomas com hifas fúngicas, que pela técnica de Grocott, apresentaram ramificação dicotômica compatível com Aspergillus spp., identificado na cultura como A. fumigatus. O diagnóstico de infecção por avipoxvirus pode contribuir para estudos relacionados com a ocorrência desta doença nas populações de vida livre e como informação auxiliar para o manejo e conservação desta espécie. Sugere-se, ainda, a inclusão do uso de raios-X nos protocolos de centros de reabilitação como o diagnostico de aspergilose em aves rapinantes com bom estado corporal, porém incapazes de voar.

  2. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  3. Multi-state analysis of the impacts of avian pox on a population of Serins (Serinus serinus): The importance of estimating recapture rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J.C.; Conroy, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Disease is one of the evolutionary forces shaping populations. Recent studies have shown that epidemics like avian pox, malaria, or mycoplasmosis have affected passerine population dynamics, being responsible for the decline of some populations or disproportionately killing males and larger individuals and thus selecting for specific morphotypes. However, few studies have estimated the effects of an epidemic by following individual birds using the capture-recapture approach. Because avian pox can be diagnosed by direct examination of the birds, we are here able to analyze, using multistate models, the development and consequences of an avian pox epidemic affecting in 1996, a population of Serins (Serinus serinus) in northeastern Spain. The epidemics lasted from June to the end of November of 1996, with a maximum apparent prevalence rate > 30% in October. However, recapture rate of sick birds was very high (0.81, range 0.37-0.93) compared to that of healthy birds (0.21, range 0.020-32), which highly inflated apparent prevalence rate. This was additionally supported by the low predicted transition from the state of being uninfected to the state of being infected (0.03, SE 0.03). Once infected, Serin avian pox was very virulent with (15-day) survival rate of infected birds being of only 0.46 (SE 0.17) compared to that of healthy ones (0.87, SE 0.03). Probability of recovery from disease, provided that the bird survived the first two weeks, however, was very high (0.65, SE 0.25). The use of these estimates together with a simple model, allowed us to predict an asymptotic increase to prevalence of about 4% by the end of the outbreak period, followed by a sharp decline, with the only remaining infestations being infected birds that had not yet recovered. This is in contrast to the apparent prevalence of pox and stresses the need to estimate recapture rates when estimating population dynamics parameters. ?? 2004 Museu de Cie??ncies Naturals.

  4. The gas-phase on-line production of phosphoryl halides, Pox sub 3 and their identification by infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    A new route has been devised, leading to the production of Pox sub 3 molecules where X=F, Br and I by an on-line process using phosphoryl chloride, POCI sub 3 as a starting material passed over heated sodium fluoride, NaF, potassium bromide, KBr and potassium iodide, K1 at 535 Centigrade, 690 Centigrade and 480 Centigrade, respectively. The low resolution gas-phase fourier transform infrared spectra reported for the first time showed strong bands centered at 1411.6, 1322.9, 1300.8 and 1285 cm sup - 1, assigned to EPSILON sub 1 (a sub 1), the O = P stretching fundamental of POF sub 3 , POCI sub 3 , POBr sub 3 and POI sub 3 , respectively. Attempts were made to prepare POCI sub 2 and POBr sub 2 , by an on-line process using POCI sub 3 again but passed over heated sodium and potassium bromide for POCI sub 2 and POBr sub 2. (author)

  5. Family-based linkage and association mapping reveals novel genes affecting Plum pox virus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagny, Gaëlle; Paulstephenraj, Pauline S; Poque, Sylvain; Sicard, Ophélie; Cosson, Patrick; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Caballero, Mélodie; Chague, Aurélie; Gourdon, Germain; Negrel, Lise; Candresse, Thierry; Mariette, Stéphanie; Decroocq, Véronique

    2012-11-01

    Sharka is a devastating viral disease caused by the Plum pox virus (PPV) in stone fruit trees and few sources of resistance are known in its natural hosts. Since any knowledge gained from Arabidopsis on plant virus susceptibility factors is likely to be transferable to crop species, Arabidopsis's natural variation was searched for host factors essential for PPV infection. To locate regions of the genome associated with susceptibility to PPV, linkage analysis was performed on six biparental populations as well as on multiparental lines. To refine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, a genome-wide association analysis was carried out using 147 Arabidopsis accessions. Evidence was found for linkage on chromosomes 1, 3 and 5 with restriction of PPV long-distance movement. The most relevant signals occurred within a region at the bottom of chromosome 3, which comprises seven RTM3-like TRAF domain-containing genes. Since the resistance mechanism analyzed here is recessive and the rtm3 knockout mutant is susceptible to PPV infection, it suggests that other gene(s) present in the small identified region encompassing RTM3 are necessary for PPV long-distance movement. In consequence, we report here the occurrence of host factor(s) that are indispensable for virus long-distance movement. © 2012 INRA. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Genome-wide association links candidate genes to resistance to Plum Pox Virus in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Wong Jun Tai, Fabienne; Roch, Guillaume; Barre, Aurélien; Chague, Aurélie; Decroocq, Stéphane; Groppi, Alexis; Laizet, Yec'han; Lambert, Patrick; Tricon, David; Nikolski, Macha; Audergon, Jean-Marc; Abbott, Albert G; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    In fruit tree species, many important traits have been characterized genetically by using single-family descent mapping in progenies segregating for the traits. However, most mapped loci have not been sufficiently resolved to the individual genes due to insufficient progeny sizes for high resolution mapping and the previous lack of whole-genome sequence resources of the study species. To address this problem for Plum Pox Virus (PPV) candidate resistance gene identification in Prunus species, we implemented a genome-wide association (GWA) approach in apricot. This study exploited the broad genetic diversity of the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) germplasm containing resistance to PPV, next-generation sequence-based genotyping, and the high-quality peach (Prunus persica) genome reference sequence for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification. The results of this GWA study validated previously reported PPV resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) intervals, highlighted other potential resistance loci, and resolved each to a limited set of candidate genes for further study. This work substantiates the association genetics approach for resolution of QTL to candidate genes in apricot and suggests that this approach could simplify identification of other candidate genes for other marked trait intervals in this germplasm. © 2015 INRA, UMR 1332 BFP New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Heterologous RNA-silencing suppressors from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses support plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliogka, Varvara I; Calvo, María; Carbonell, Alberto; García, Juan Antonio; Valli, Adrian

    2012-07-01

    HCPro, the RNA-silencing suppressor (RSS) of viruses belonging to the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae, is a multifunctional protein presumably involved in all essential steps of the viral infection cycle. Recent studies have shown that plum pox potyvirus (PPV) HCPro can be replaced successfully by cucumber vein yellowing ipomovirus P1b, a sequence-unrelated RSS from a virus of the same family. In order to gain insight into the requirement of a particular RSS to establish a successful potyviral infection, we tested the ability of different heterologous RSSs from both plant- and animal-infecting viruses to substitute for HCPro. Making use of engineered PPV chimeras, we show that PPV HCPro can be replaced functionally by some, but not all, unrelated RSSs, including the NS1 protein of the mammal-infecting influenza A virus. Interestingly, the capacity of a particular RSS to replace HCPro does not correlate strictly with its RNA silencing-suppression strength. Altogether, our results suggest that not all suppression strategies are equally suitable for efficient escape of PPV from the RNA-silencing machinery. The approach followed here, based on using PPV chimeras in which an under-consideration RSS substitutes for HCPro, could further help to study the function of diverse RSSs in a 'highly sensitive' RNA-silencing context, such as that taking place in plant cells during the process of a viral infection.

  8. Ca. Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Salmon Gill Pox Virus transmit horizontally in Atlantic salmon held in fresh water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiik-Nielsen, J; Gjessing, M; Solheim, H T; Litlabø, A; Gjevre, A-G; Kristoffersen, A B; Powell, M D; Colquhoun, D J

    2017-10-01

    Elucidation of the role of infectious agents putatively involved in gill disease is commonly hampered by the lack of culture systems for these organisms. In this study, a farmed population of Atlantic salmon pre-smolts, displaying proliferative gill disease with associated Candidatus Branchiomonas cysticola, Ca. Piscichlamydia salmonis and Atlantic salmon gill pox virus (SGPV) infections, was identified. A subpopulation of the diseased fish was used as a source of waterborne infection towards a population of naïve Atlantic salmon pre-smolts. Ca. B. cysticola infection became established in exposed naïve fish at high prevalence within the first month of exposure and the bacterial load increased over the study period. Ca. P. salmonis and SGPV infections were identified only at low prevalence in exposed fish during the trial. Although clinically healthy, at termination of the trial the exposed, naïve fish displayed histologically visible pathological changes typified by epithelial hyperplasia and subepithelial inflammation with associated bacterial inclusions, confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization to contain Ca. B. cysticola. The results strongly suggest that Ca. B. cysticola infections transmit directly from fish to fish and that the bacterium is directly associated with the pathological changes observed in the exposed, previously naïve fish. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. O-GlcNAc modification of the coat protein of the potyvirus Plum pox virus enhances viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, José de Jesús; Udeshi, Namrata D; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Ciordia, Sergio; Juárez, Silvia; Scott, Cheryl L; Olszewski, Neil E; Hunt, Donald F; García, Juan Antonio

    2013-08-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic protein modification which has been studied mainly in metazoans. We reported previously that an Arabidopsis thaliana O-GlcNAc transferase modifies at least two threonine residues of the Plum pox virus (PPV) capsid protein (CP). Now, six additional residues were shown to be involved in O-GlcNAc modification of PPV CP. CP O-GlcNAcylation was abolished in the PPV CP7-T/A mutant, in which seven threonines were mutated. PPV CP7-T/A infected Nicotiana clevelandii, Nicotiana benthamiana, and Prunus persica without noticeable defects. However, defects in infection of A. thaliana were readily apparent. In mixed infections of wild-type arabidopsis, the CP7-T/A mutant was outcompeted by wild-type virus. These results indicate that CP O-GlcNAcylation has a major role in the infection process. O-GlcNAc modification may have a role in virion assembly and/or stability as the CP of PPV CP7-T/A was more sensitive to protease digestion than that of the wild-type virus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New insights into the history of domesticated and wild apricots and its contribution to Plum pox virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroocq, Stéphane; Cornille, Amandine; Tricon, David; Babayeva, Sevda; Chague, Aurélie; Eyquard, Jean-Philippe; Karychev, Raul; Dolgikh, Svetlana; Kostritsyna, Tatiana; Liu, Shuo; Liu, Weisheng; Geng, Wenjuan; Liao, Kang; Asma, Bayram M; Akparov, Zeynal; Giraud, Tatiana; Decroocq, Véronique

    2016-10-01

    Studying domesticated species and their wild relatives allows understanding of the mechanisms of population divergence and adaptation, and identifying valuable genetic resources. Apricot is an important fruit in the Northern hemisphere, where it is threatened by the Plum pox virus (PPV), causing the sharka disease. The histories of apricot domestication and of its resistance to sharka are however still poorly understood. We used 18 microsatellite markers to genotype a collection of 230 wild trees from Central Asia and 142 cultivated apricots as representatives of the worldwide cultivated apricot germplasm; we also performed experimental PPV inoculation tests. The genetic markers revealed highest levels of diversity in Central Asian and Chinese wild and cultivated apricots, confirming an origin in this region. In cultivated apricots, Chinese accessions were differentiated from more Western accessions, while cultivated apricots were differentiated from wild apricots. An approximate Bayesian approach indicated that apricots likely underwent two independent domestication events, with bottlenecks, from the same wild population. Central Asian native apricots exhibited genetic subdivision and high frequency of resistance to sharka. Altogether, our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of cultivated apricot and point to valuable genetic diversity in the extant genetic resources of wild apricots. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Molecular characterization of Plum pox virus Rec isolates from Russia suggests a new insight into evolution of the strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, Sergei; Ivanov, Peter; Sheveleva, Anna; Kudryavtseva, Anna; Mitrofanova, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Field isolates of Plum pox virus (PPV), belonging to the strain Rec, have been found for the first time in Russia. Full-size genomes of the isolates K28 and Kisl-1pl from myrobalan and plum, respectively, were sequenced on the 454 platform. Analysis of all known PPV-Rec complete genomes using the Recombination Detection Program (RDP4) revealed yet another recombination event in the 5'-terminal region. This event was detected by seven algorithms, implemented in the RDP4, with statistically significant P values and supported by a phylogenetic analysis with the bootstrap value of 87%. A putative PPV-M-derived segment, encompassing the C-terminus of the P1 gene and approximately two-thirds of the HcPro gene, is bordered by breakpoints at positions 760-940 and 1838-1964, depending on the recombinant isolate. The predicted 5'-distal breakpoint for the isolate Valjevka is located at position 2804. The Dideron (strain D) and SK68 (strain M) isolates were inferred as major and minor parents, respectively. Finding of another recombination event suggests more complex evolutionary history of PPV-Rec than previously assumed. Perhaps the first recombination event led to the formation of a PPV-D variant harboring the PPV-M-derived fragment within the 5'-proximal part of the genome. Subsequent recombination of its descendant with PPV-M in the 3'-proximal genomic region resulted in the emergence of the evolutionary successful strain Rec.

  12. ‘Getting’ the Pox: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  13. Partial Oxidation of n-Pentane over Vanadium Phosphorus Oxide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    the water gas shift reaction with gold and ruthenium as the ... oven set at 100 °C, followed by calcination under the flow of air at. 500 °C. In the preparation of ..... for gold and ruthenium catalysts: behaviour in the water gas shift reaction, Appl.

  14. Effect of partial oxygen pressure on physicochemical properties of Kh18N10T steel at isothermal oxidation. Vliyanie partsial'nogo davleniya kisloroda na fiziko-khimicheskie svojstva poverkhnosti stali Kh18N10T pri izotermicheskom okislenii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, V N; Oshe, E K; Fokin, M N; Bogdanova, S V; Loskutov, A I [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1990-10-01

    Auger-electron spectroscopy, photoelectric polarization, conductometry methods have been used to analyze chemical and defect composition of surface oxide layers, formed on stainless steel Kh18N10T in vacuum (10{sup -9} - 10{sup -2} torr) and at temperatures 593-673 K. The boundary conditions of manifestation of extermal behaviour of the dependence of the surface oxide growth rate at isothermal oxidation of this steel are determined. The relation between passivation properties of the surface oxide and the magnitude of the edge angle of the surface wetting with molten tin is revealed.

  15. Prevalence and distribution of pox-like lesions, avian malaria, and mosquito vectors in Kipahulu valley, Haleakala National Park, Hawai'i, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruch, Samuel; Atkinson, Carter T.; Savage, Amy F.; LaPointe, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence and altitudinal distribution of introduced avian malarial infections (Plasmodium relictum) and pox-like lesions (Avipoxvirus) in forest birds from Kīpahulu Valley, Haleakalā National Park, on the island of Maui, and we identified primary larval habitat for the mosquito vector of this disease. This intensively managed wilderness area and scientific reserve is one of the most pristine areas of native forest remaining in the state of Hawai‘i, and it will become increasingly important as a site for restoration and recovery of endangered forest birds. Overall prevalence of malarial infections in the valley was 8% (11/133) in native species and 4% (4/101) in nonnative passerines; prevalence was lower than reported for comparable elevations and habitats elsewhere in the state. Infections occurred primarily in ‘Apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) at elevations below 1,400 m. Pox-like lesions were detected in only two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (2%; 2/94) at elevations below 950 m. We did not detect malaria or pox in birds caught at 1,400 m in upper reaches of the valley. Adult mosquitoes (Culex quinquefasciatus) were captured at four sites at elevations of 640, 760, 915, and 975 m, respectively. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were found only in rock holes along intermittent tributaries of the two largest streams in the valley, but not in standing surface water, pig wallows, ground pools, tree cavities, and tree fern cavities. Mosquito populations in the valley are low, and they are probably influenced by periods of high rainfall that flush stream systems.

  16. The Ontogeny and Brain Distribution Dynamics of the Appetite Regulators NPY, CART and pOX in Larval Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hoang T M D; Angotzi, Anna Rita; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Karlsen, Ørjan; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2016-01-01

    Similar to many marine teleost species, Atlantic cod undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages with concurrent and profound changes in feeding biology and ecology. In contrast to the digestive system, very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain of fish. We examined the expression patterns of three appetite regulating factors (orexigenic: neuropeptide Y, NPY; prepro-orexin, pOX and anorexigenic: cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART) in discrete brain regions of developing Atlantic cod using chromogenic and double fluorescent in situ hybridization. Differential temporal and spatial expression patterns for each appetite regulator were found from first feeding (4 days post hatch; dph) to juvenile stage (76 dph). Neurons expressing NPY mRNA were detected in the telencephalon (highest expression), diencephalon, and optic tectum from 4 dph onward. CART mRNA expression had a wider distribution along the anterior-posterior brain axis, including both telencephalon and diencephalon from 4 dph. From 46 dph, CART transcripts were also detected in the olfactory bulb, region of the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle, optic tectum and midbrain tegmentum. At 4 and 20 dph, pOX mRNA expression was exclusively found in the preoptic region, but extended to the hypothalamus at 46 and 76 dph. Co-expression of both CART and pOX genes were also observed in several hypothalamic neurons throughout larval development. Our results show that both orexigenic and anorexigenic factors are present in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon in cod larvae. The telencephalon mostly contains key factors of hunger control (NPY), while the diencephalon, and particularly the hypothalamus may have a more complex role in modulating the multifunctional control of appetite in this species. As the larvae develop, the overall progression in temporal and

  17. Phytohormone Signaling of the Resistance to Plum pox virus (PPV, Sharka Disease) Induced by Almond (Prunus dulcis (Miller) Webb) Grafting to Peach (P. persica L. Batsch)

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Nikbakht Dehkordi; Manuel Rubio; Nadali Babaeian; Alfonso Albacete; Pedro Martínez-Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka) is a limiting factor for peach production, and no natural sources of resistance have been described. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that grafting the almond cultivar “Garrigues” onto the “GF305” peach infected with Dideron-type (PPV-D) isolates progressively reduces disease symptoms and virus accumulation. Furthermore, grafting “Garrigues” onto “GF305” prior to PPV-D inoculation has been found to completely prevent virus infection, showing that resista...

  18. The Ontogeny and Brain Distribution Dynamics of the Appetite Regulators NPY, CART and pOX in Larval Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang T M D Le

    Full Text Available Similar to many marine teleost species, Atlantic cod undergo remarkable physiological changes during the early life stages with concurrent and profound changes in feeding biology and ecology. In contrast to the digestive system, very little is known about the ontogeny and the localization of the centers that control appetite and feed ingestion in the developing brain of fish. We examined the expression patterns of three appetite regulating factors (orexigenic: neuropeptide Y, NPY; prepro-orexin, pOX and anorexigenic: cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, CART in discrete brain regions of developing Atlantic cod using chromogenic and double fluorescent in situ hybridization. Differential temporal and spatial expression patterns for each appetite regulator were found from first feeding (4 days post hatch; dph to juvenile stage (76 dph. Neurons expressing NPY mRNA were detected in the telencephalon (highest expression, diencephalon, and optic tectum from 4 dph onward. CART mRNA expression had a wider distribution along the anterior-posterior brain axis, including both telencephalon and diencephalon from 4 dph. From 46 dph, CART transcripts were also detected in the olfactory bulb, region of the nucleus of medial longitudinal fascicle, optic tectum and midbrain tegmentum. At 4 and 20 dph, pOX mRNA expression was exclusively found in the preoptic region, but extended to the hypothalamus at 46 and 76 dph. Co-expression of both CART and pOX genes were also observed in several hypothalamic neurons throughout larval development. Our results show that both orexigenic and anorexigenic factors are present in the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon in cod larvae. The telencephalon mostly contains key factors of hunger control (NPY, while the diencephalon, and particularly the hypothalamus may have a more complex role in modulating the multifunctional control of appetite in this species. As the larvae develop, the overall progression in

  19. Pox neuro control of cell lineages that give rise to larval poly-innervated external sensory organs in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanrui; Boll, Werner; Noll, Markus

    2015-01-15

    The Pox neuro (Poxn) gene of Drosophila plays a crucial role in the development of poly-innervated external sensory (p-es) organs. However, how Poxn exerts this role has remained elusive. In this study, we have analyzed the cell lineages of all larval p-es organs, namely of the kölbchen, papilla 6, and hair 3. Surprisingly, these lineages are distinct from any previously reported cell lineages of sensory organs. Unlike the well-established lineage of mono-innervated external sensory (m-es) organs and a previously proposed model of the p-es lineage, we demonstrate that all wild-type p-es lineages exhibit the following features: the secondary precursor, pIIa, gives rise to all three support cells-socket, shaft, and sheath, whereas the other secondary precursor, pIIb, is neuronal and gives rise to all neurons. We further show that in one of the p-es lineages, that of papilla 6, one cell undergoes apoptosis. By contrast in Poxn null mutants, all p-es lineages have a reduced number of cells and their pattern of cell divisions is changed to that of an m-es organ, with the exception of a lineage in a minority of mutant kölbchen that retains a second bipolar neuron. Indeed, the role of Poxn in p-es lineages is consistent with the specification of the developmental potential of secondary precursors and the regulation of cell division but not apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of different methods of RNA isolation for plum pox virus detection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioli, F; Pasquini, G; Barba, M

    1998-09-01

    The diagnosis of plum pox virus (PPV) is still considered one of the most important aspects of the "sharka" problem. In fact, different studies demonstrated an uneven distribution of the virus in infected trees due to a high variability in virus concentration. These aspects complicate the PPV diagnosis. To date, biological, serological and molecular assays have been successively developed in order to obtain sensitive and efficient PPV detection techniques. In particular, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique seems to be promising and can be considered the most sensitive and reliable one. Preparation of viral RNA is still a fundamental step in reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) technique, especially when applied to large scale testing, i.e., for certification purposes. In order to find the most rapid and efficient procedure, we have compared three different procedures of extraction of viral RNA to be processed RT-PCR. Their common characteristics is their capacity to extract the RNA from a small amount of plant tissue without organic solvents in the extraction fluid. The procedures were as follows: an immuno-capture (IC) method using a specific antiserum, a silica-capture (SC) method using a non-specific matrix, and a simple and rapid RNA extraction (RE) method. They all were followed by one-tube RT-PCR. The obtained results show that all the three techniques allowed a successful amplification and detection of PPV in tested samples except the SC-PCR method which proved less effective. In fact, the IC-PCR and RE-PCR methods amplified and detected PPV in all isolates tested, while the SC-PCR method was able to reveal the presence of the virus in apricot and infected control samples only.

  1. Differential RNAi responses of Nicotiana benthamiana individuals transformed with a hairpin-inducing construct during Plum pox virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Christian; Castro, Álvaro; Barba, Paola; Rubio, Julia; Sánchez, Evelyn; Carvajal, Denisse; Aguirre, Carlos; Tapia, Eduardo; DelÍ Orto, Paola; Decroocq, Veronique; Prieto, Humberto

    2014-10-01

    Gene silencing and large-scale small RNA analysis can be used to develop RNA interference (RNAi)-based resistance strategies for Plum pox virus (PPV), a high impact disease of Prunus spp. In this study, a pPPViRNA hairpin-inducing vector harboring two silencing motif-rich regions of the PPV coat protein (CP) gene was evaluated in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) plants. Wild-type NB plants infected with a chimeric PPV virus (PPV::GFP) exhibited affected leaves with mosaic chlorosis congruent to GFP fluorescence at 21 day post-inoculation; transgenic lines depicted a range of phenotypes from fully resistant to susceptible. ELISA values and GFP fluorescence intensities were used to select transgenic-resistant (TG-R) and transgenic-susceptible (TG-S) lines for further characterization of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by large-scale small RNA sequencing. In infected TG-S and untransformed (WT) plants, the observed siRNAs were nearly exclusively 21- and 22-nt siRNAs that targeted the whole PPV::GFP genome; 24-nt siRNAs were absent in these individuals. Challenged TG-R plants accumulated a full set of 21- to 24-nt siRNAs that were primarily associated with the selected motif-rich regions, indicating that a trans-acting siRNAs process prevented viral multiplication. BLAST analysis identified 13 common siRNA clusters targeting the CP gene. 21-nt siRNA sequences were associated with the 22-nt siRNAs and the scarce 23- and 24-nt molecules in TG-S plants and with most of the observed 22-, 23-, and 24-nt siRNAs in TG-R individuals. These results validate the use of a multi-hot spot silencing vector against PPV and elucidate the molecules by which hairpin-inducing vectors initiate RNAi in vivo.

  2. Systematic Analysis of White Pox Disease in Acropora palmata of the Florida Keys and Role of Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Jessica L; Sutherland, Kathryn P; Kemp, Dustin W; Berry, Brett; Griffin, Ashton; Porter, James W; Amador, Molly H B; Noren, Hunter K G; Lipp, Erin K

    2015-07-01

    White pox disease (WPD) affects the threatened elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata. Owing in part to the lack of a rapid and simple diagnostic test, there have been few systematic assessments of the prevalence of acroporid serratiosis (caused specifically by Serratia marcescens) versus general WPD signs. Six reefs in the Florida Keys were surveyed between 2011 and 2013 to determine the disease status of A. palmata and the prevalence of S. marcescens. WPD was noted at four of the six reefs, with WPD lesions found on 8 to 40% of the colonies surveyed. S. marcescens was detected in 26.9% (7/26) of the WPD lesions and in mucus from apparently healthy colonies both during and outside of disease events (9%; 18/201). S. marcescens was detected with greater frequency in A. palmata than in the overlying water column, regardless of disease status (P = 0.0177). S. marcescens could not be cultured from A. palmata but was isolated from healthy colonies of other coral species and was identified as pathogenic pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type PDR60. WPD lesions were frequently observed on the reef, but unlike in prior outbreaks, no whole-colony death was observed. Pathogenic S. marcescens was circulating on the reef but did not appear to be the primary pathogen in these recent WPD episodes, suggesting that other pathogens or stressors may contribute to signs of WPD. Results highlight the critical importance of diagnostics in coral disease investigations, especially given that field manifestation of disease may be similar, regardless of the etiological agent. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  4. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  5. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  6. Nature of hydrocarbon activation in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over a gallium-antimony oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, Z.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-03-01

    The nature of hydrocarbon activation in oxidative ammonolysis of propane to acrylonitrile over a gallium-antimony oxide catalyst GaSbNiPOx (1:3:1.5:1 atomic ratios of the elements) was studied by comparing the rate of this reaction at 550/sup 0/C and 5Vertical Bar3< by vol propane/6Vertical Bar3< ammonia/18.6Vertical Bar3< oxygen/70.4Vertical Bar3< helium reactant mixture with that of isobutane ammoxidation to methacrylonitrile under the same conditions, at low (Vertical Bar3; 20Vertical Bar3<) conversions that prevent secondary oxidation of the products. Both the over-all hydrocarbon conversion rate and that of nitrile formation were higher for propane, suggesting that the reactions proceed via the respective carbanions (probably primary carbanions), rather than carbocations or uncharged radicals.

  7. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  8. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  9. Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus in Prunus plants by isothermal AmplifyRP(®) using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shulu; Ravelonandro, Michel; Russell, Paul; McOwen, Nathan; Briard, Pascal; Bohannon, Seven; Vrient, Albert

    2014-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) causes the most destructive viral disease known as plum pox or Sharka disease in stone fruit trees. As an important regulated pathogen, detection of PPV is thus of critical importance to quarantine and eradication of the spreading disease. In this study, the innovative development of two AmplifyRP(®) tests is reported for a rapid isothermal detection of PPV using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. In an AmplifyRP(®) test, all specific recombination and amplification reactions occur at a constant temperature without thermal cycling and the test results are either recorded in real-time with a portable fluorescence reader or displayed using a lateral flow strip contained inside an amplicon detection chamber. The major improvement of this assay is that the entire test from sample preparation to result can be completed in as little as 20min and can be performed easily both in laboratories and in the field. The results from this study demonstrated the ability of the AmplifyRP(®) technique to detect all nine PPV strains (An, C, CR, D, EA, M, Rec, T, or W). Among the economic benefits to pathogen surveys is the higher sensitivity of the AmplifyRP(®) to detect PPV when compared to the conventional ELISA and ImmunoStrip(®) assays. This is the first report describing the use of such an innovative technique to detect rapidly plant viruses affecting perennial crops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  11. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  12. Oxygen binding to partially nitrosylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fago, Angela; Crumbliss, Alvin L; Hendrich, Michael P; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim; Henkens, Robert; Bonaventura, Celia

    2013-09-01

    Reactions of nitric oxide (NO) with hemoglobin (Hb) are important elements in protection against nitrosative damage. NO in the vasculature is depleted by the oxidative reaction with oxy Hb or by binding to deoxy Hb to generate partially nitrosylated Hb (Hb-NO). Many aspects of the formation and persistence of Hb-NO are yet to be clarified. In this study, we used a combination of EPR and visible absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions of partially nitrosylated Hb with O2. Partially nitrosylated Hb samples had predominantly hexacoordinate NO-heme geometry and resisted oxidation when exposed to O2 in the absence of anionic allosteric effectors. Faster oxidation occurred in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) or inositol hexaphosphate (IHP), where the NO-heme derivatives had higher levels of pentacoordinate heme geometry. The anion-dependence of the NO-heme geometry also affected O2 binding equilibria. O2-binding curves of partially nitrosylated Hb in the absence of anions were left-shifted at low saturations, indicating destabilization of the low O2 affinity T-state of the Hb by increasing percentages of NO-heme, much as occurs with increasing levels of CO-heme. Samples containing IHP showed small decreases in O2 affinity, indicating shifts toward the low-affinity T-state and formation of inert α-NO/β-met tetramers. Most remarkably, O2-equilibria in the presence of the physiological effector DPG were essentially unchanged by up to 30% NO-heme in the samples. As will be discussed, under physiological conditions the interactions of Hb with NO provide protection against nitrosative damage without impairing O2 transport by Hb's unoccupied heme sites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  14. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  15. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  16. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  17. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  18. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  19. Radioiodine therapy induces dose-dependent in-vivo oxidation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.; Resch, U.; Tatzber, F.; Weiss, K.

    2002-01-01

    Until now, radiation hazards as a consequence of radioiodine therapy are not examined in detail. Oxidation of lipoproteins may favour vasculopathy. We studied the influence of a single radioiodine therapy with 5 (n=8; 46-71a), 10 (n=6; 54-75a), 20 (n=11; 45-73a), 80 (n=6; 37-75a) or 200 (n=6; 43-67a) mCi on in-vivo oxidation injury in blood (plasma [P], serum [Se]), urine (U) and saliva (Sa) in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism opr thyroid cancer, respectively. The isoprostane 8-epi-prostaglandin (PG) F 2α as a marker of in-vivo oxidation injury (Sa, Se, P, U), oxidation of lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), thromboxane B2 (Sa, Se, P, U), PGE 2 , PGF 2α and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were examined before therapy, daily for 7 days and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks. Blood was also analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), baseline dienes (BD), endogenous peroxides (POX) and formation of conjugated dienes in copper-mediated oxidation (CD) expressed in lag-time and rate of propagation. There is a dose-dependent increase in 8-epi-PGF 2α being most pronounced in saliva (p 2 and HDL 3 subfractions 24 h after application, but 48 h and 72 h after application there was a significant increase in TBARS, REM, BD, POX and rate of propagation and a decrease in lag-time in HDL-subfractions independently from applied dose. Also HDL 2 showed more TBARS, REM, BD, POX and shorter lag-time than HDL 3 48 h after application, but this effect was reversed 72 h after application. HDL is the lipoprotein most prone to oxidation by radioiodine treatment. Apparently, when LDL becomes oxidized, it shifts metabolically its oxidation products to HDL. These findings show a significant temporary and dose-dependent endothelial desquamation, oxidation of lipoproteins and long-lasting in-vivo oxidation injury (saliva > urine > blood) as side effect of radioiodine therapy, altogether being potentially proatherogenic

  20. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  1. Heme-coordinated histidine residues form non-specific functional "ferritin-heme" peroxidase system: Possible and partial mechanistic relevance to oxidative stress-mediated pathology in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Sajjad; Kooshk, Mohammad Reza Ashrafi; Asghari, Seyyed Mohsen; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-10-01

    Ferritin is a giant protein composed of 24 subunits which is able to sequester up to 4500 atoms of iron. We proposed two kinds of heme binding sites in mammalian ferritins and provided direct evidence for peroxidase activity of heme-ferritin, since there is the possibility that "ferritin-heme" systems display unexpected catalytic behavior like heme-containing enzymes. In the current study, peroxidase activity of heme-bound ferritin was studied using TMB(1), l-DOPA, serotonin, and dopamine, in the presence of H2O2, as oxidant substrate. The catalytic oxidation of TMB was consistent with first-order kinetics with respect to ferritin concentration. Perturbation of the binding affinity and catalytic behavior of heme-bound His-modified ferritin were also documented. We also discuss the importance of the peroxidase-/nitrative-mediated oxidation of vital molecules as well as ferritin-induced catalase inhibition using in vitro experimental system. Uncontrollable "heme-ferritin"-based enzyme activity as well as up-regulation of heme and ferritin may inspire that some oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxic effects in AD-affected cells could be correlated to ferritin-heme interaction and/or ferritin-induced catalase inhibition and describe its contribution as an important causative pathogenesis mechanism in some neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  3. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  4. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  5. Water types and their relaxation behavior in partially rehydrated CaFe-mixed binary oxide obtained from CaFe-layered double hydroxide in the 155-298 K temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugris, Valéria; Haspel, Henrik; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán; Sipiczki, Mónika; Sipos, Pál; Pálinkó, István

    2013-10-29

    Heat-treated CaFe-layered double hydroxide samples were equilibrated under conditions of various relative humidities (11%, 43% and 75%). Measurements by FT-IR and dielectric relaxation spectroscopies revealed that partial to full reconstruction of the layered structure took place. Water types taking part in the reconstruction process were identified via dielectric relaxation measurements either at 298 K or on the flash-cooled (to 155 K) samples. The dynamics of water molecules at the various positions was also studied by this method, allowing the flash-cooled samples to warm up to 298 K.

  6. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  7. Effects of oxygen partial pressure and annealing temperature on the residual stress of hafnium oxide thin-films on silicon using synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Debaleen [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Sinha, Anil Kumar [ISU, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, BARC, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Chakraborty, Supratic, E-mail: supratic.chakraborty@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Residual stress estimation thin hafnium oxide film with thickness of <10 nm. • A mathematical expression is proposed for stress estimation of thin-film using GIXRD. • Residual stress varies with argon content in Ar/O{sub 2} plasma and annealing temperature. • Variation of stress is explained by IL swelling and enhanced structural relaxation. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) technique is employed here to estimate the residual stress of < 10 nm thin hafnium oxide film deposited on Si (100) substrate at different argon/oxygen ratios using reactive rf sputtering. A decrease in residual stress, tensile in nature, is observed at higher annealing temperature for the samples deposited with increasing argon ratio in the Ar/O{sub 2} plasma. The residual stress of the films deposited at higher p{sub Ar} (Ar:O{sub 2} = 4:1) is also found to be decreased with increasing annealing temperature. But the stress is more or less constant with annealing temperature for the films deposited at lower Ar/O{sub 2} (1:4) ratio. All the above phenomena can be explained on the basis of swelling of the interfacial layer and enhanced structural relaxation in the presence of excess Hf in hafnium oxide film during deposition.

  8. Gravity Effects Observed In Partially Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Lock, Andrew J.; Gauguly, Ranjan; Hegde, Uday

    2003-01-01

    Partially premixed flames (PPFs) contain a rich premixed fuel air mixture in a pocket or stream, and, for complete combustion to occur, they require the transport of oxidizer from an appropriately oxidizer-rich (or fuel-lean) mixture that is present in another pocket or stream. Partial oxidation reactions occur in fuel-rich portions of the mixture and any remaining unburned fuel and/or intermediate species are consumed in the oxidizer-rich portions. Partial premixing, therefore, represents that condition when the equivalence ratio (phi) in one portion of the flowfield is greater than unity, and in another section its value is less than unity. In general, for combustion to occur efficiently, the global equivalence ratio is in the range fuel-lean to stoichiometric. These flames can be established by design by placing a fuel-rich mixture in contact with a fuel-lean mixture, but they also occur otherwise in many practical systems, which include nonpremixed lifted flames, turbulent nonpremixed combustion, spray flames, and unwanted fires. Other practical applications of PPFs are reported elsewhere. Although extensive experimental studies have been conducted on premixed and nonpremixed flames under microgravity, there is a absence of previous experimental work on burner stabilized PPFs in this regard. Previous numerical studies by our group employing a detailed numerical model showed gravity effects to be significant on the PPF structure. We report on the results of microgravity experiments conducted on two-dimensional (established on a Wolfhard-Parker slot burner) and axisymmetric flames (on a coannular burner) that were investigated in a self-contained multipurpose rig. Thermocouple and radiometer data were also used to characterize the thermal transport in the flame.

  9. Small(pox) success?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2011-02-01

    The 30th anniversary of the World Health Organization's (WHO) official certification of smallpox eradication was marked by a slew of events hailing the campaign's dramatic tale of technological and organizational triumph against an ancient scourge. Yet commemorations also serve as moments of critical reflection. This article questions the acclaim showered upon smallpox eradication as the single greatest public health success in history. It examines how and why smallpox eradication and WHO's concurrent social justice-oriented primary health care approach (following from the Declaration of Alma-Ata) became competing paradigms. It synthesizes critiques of eradication's shortcomings and debunks some of the myths surrounding the global eradication campaign as a public health priority and necessity, and as a Cold War victory of cooperation. The article concludes with thoughts on integrating technical and social-political aspects of health within the context of welfare states as the means to achieving widespread and enduring global public health success.

  10. Small(pox success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Emanuelle Birn

    Full Text Available The 30th anniversary of the World Health Organization's (WHO official certification of smallpox eradication was marked by a slew of events hailing the campaign's dramatic tale of technological and organizational triumph against an ancient scourge. Yet commemorations also serve as moments of critical reflection. This article questions the acclaim showered upon smallpox eradication as the single greatest public health success in history. It examines how and why smallpox eradication and WHO's concurrent social justice-oriented primary health care approach (following from the Declaration of Alma-Ata became competing paradigms. It synthesizes critiques of eradication's shortcomings and debunks some of the myths surrounding the global eradication campaign as a public health priority and necessity, and as a Cold War victory of cooperation. The article concludes with thoughts on integrating technical and social-political aspects of health within the context of welfare states as the means to achieving widespread and enduring global public health success.

  11. Diesel soot oxidation under controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haiwen

    2003-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University, 11/12/2003. In order to improve understanding of diesel soot oxidation, an experimental rig was designed and set up, in which the soot oxidation conditions, such as temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and CO2 partial pressure, could be varied independently of each other. The oxidizing gas flow in the oxidizer was under laminar condition. This test rig comprised a naturally-aspirated single ...

  12. Oxidation of methyl heterocyclic compounds on vanadium oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanskaya, M.V.; Lejtis, L.A.; Iovel', I.G.; Gol'dberg, Yu.Sh.; Skolmejstere, R.A.; Golender, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Data on vapor-phase oxidation of methyl derivatives of thiophene, Δ 2 - thiazo line, pyridine, pyrazine and pyramidine on oxide vanadium-molybdenum catalysts to corresponding heterylaldehydes are generalized. The dependence of catalytic properties of oxide vanadium-molybdenum systems in oxidation reactions of methylheterocyclic compounds on V:Mo ratio in the catalyst is revealed. It is shown that heterocyclic compounds are coordinated by a heteroatom on Lewis centres of V-Mo-O-catalyst primarily with partially reduced vanadium ions

  13. Expression of Aluminum-Induced Genes in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Can Ameliorate Aluminum Stress and/or Oxidative Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Bunichi; Gardner, Richard C.; Ezaki, Yuka; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    To examine the biological role of Al-stress-induced genes, nine genes derived from Arabidopsis, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were expressed in Arabidopsis ecotype Landsberg. Lines containing eight of these genes were phenotypically normal and were tested in root elongation assays for their sensitivity to Al, Cd, Cu, Na, Zn, and to oxidative stresses. An Arabidopsis blue-copper-binding protein gene (AtBCB), a tobacco glutathione S-transferase gene (parB), a tobacco peroxidase gene (NtPox), and a tobacco GDP-dissociation inhibitor gene (NtGDI1) conferred a degree of resistance to Al. Two of these genes, AtBCB and parB, and a peroxidase gene from Arabidopsis (AtPox) also showed increased resistance to oxidative stress induced by diamide, while parB conferred resistance to Cu and Na. Al content of Al-treated root tips was reduced in the four Al-resistant plant lines compared with wild-type Ler-0, as judged by morin staining. All four Al-resistant lines also showed reduced staining of roots with 2′,7′-dichloro fluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA), an indicator of oxidative stress. We conclude that Al-induced genes can serve to protect against Al toxicity, and also provide genetic evidence for a link between Al stress and oxidative stress in plants. PMID:10712528

  14. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  15. Infinite partial summations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, D.W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of those aspects of the effective interaction problem that can be grouped under the heading of infinite partial summations of the perturbation series. After a brief mention of the classic examples of infinite summations, the author turns to the effective interaction problem for two extra core particles. Their direct interaction is summed to produce the G matrix, while their indirect interaction through the core is summed in a variety of ways under the heading of core polarization. (orig./WL) [de

  16. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  17. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  18. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  19. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in

  20. Elliptic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Elliptic Partial Differential Equations by Qing Han and FangHua Lin is one of the best textbooks I know. It is the perfect introduction to PDE. In 150 pages or so it covers an amazing amount of wonderful and extraordinary useful material. I have used it as a textbook at both graduate and undergraduate levels which is possible since it only requires very little background material yet it covers an enormous amount of material. In my opinion it is a must read for all interested in analysis and geometry, and for all of my own PhD students it is indeed just that. I cannot say enough good things abo

  1. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  2. The partial substitution of digestible protein with gelatinized starch as an energy source reduces susceptibility to lipid oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M J; López-Bote, C J; Diez, A; Corraze, G; Arzel, J; Dias, J; Kaushik, S J; Bautista, J M

    1999-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of dietary gelatinized starch and protein on the fatty acid composition of muscle in rainbow trout and European sea bass and on the susceptibility of flesh to lipid peroxidation. The possibility that flesh peroxidation could be accounted for by lipogenesis and the deposition of fat was also explored. The inclusion of gelatinized starch in the diet of rainbow trout improved growth with respect to that observed in fish fed crude starch (Ptrout led to a lower concentration of total (n-3) (P = .0457) and (n-6) (P = .0522) fatty acids and a higher concentration of total monounsaturated fatty acids (P = .0006). The inclusion of gelatinized starch led to a lower concentration of (n-3) fatty acids (P = .0034) and a higher concentration of saturated fatty acids (P = .0007). The polar fraction was hardly affected by the same treatment. A significantly lower susceptibility of the dorsal muscle to oxidation was observed in groups of European sea bass fed gelatinized starch (Ptrout, although differences were not significant. The findings suggest that the digestible protein concentration of nutrient-dense diets for rainbow trout and European sea bass can be reduced with a beneficial effect on tissue lipid oxidation and no negative effects on growth and muscle composition.

  3. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  4. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  5. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  6. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  7. Rh promoted La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}(Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}){sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 3-δ} perovskite catalysts: Characterization and catalytic performance for methane partial oxidation to synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palcheva, R., E-mail: radost@ic.bas.bg [InGAP Centre for Research-based Innovation, SMN, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033, Blindern, Oslo 0315 Norway (Norway); Olsbye, U.; Palcut, M. [InGAP Centre for Research-based Innovation, SMN, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033, Blindern, Oslo 0315 Norway (Norway); Rauwel, P. [Department of Physics, SMN, University of Oslo, PO Box B 1048 Blindern, Oslo 0316 (Norway); Tyuliev, G.; Velinov, N. [Institute of Catalysis, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Str., Bldg. 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Fjellvåg, H.H. [InGAP Centre for Research-based Innovation, SMN, University of Oslo, PO Box 1033, Blindern, Oslo 0315 Norway (Norway)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Perovskites type-oxide La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}(Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}){sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 3-δ} (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.4) prepared by the sol–gel citrate method. • Bulk and surface analysis to determine catalysts composition evolution. • Anaerobic catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas at 600 °C in a pulse apparatus over Rh promoted perovskites. • The catalysts showed high stability and selectivity. - Abstract: Synthesis gas production via selective oxidation of methane at 600 °C in a pulse reaction over La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}(Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}){sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 3-δ} (x = 0.1, 0.25, 0.4) perovskite-supported rhodium catalysts, was investigated. The perovskite oxides were prepared by sol–gel citrate method and characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer Spectroscopy (MS), Temperature Programmed Reduction (TPR-H{sub 2}), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). According to XRD analysis, the synthesized samples were a single perovskite phase. The perovskite structure of Ga substituted samples remained stable after TPR-H{sub 2}, as confirmed by XRD. Data of MS identified Fe{sup 3+} ions in two distinctive coordination environments, and Fe{sup 4+} ions. The Rh{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin overlayer was detected by the HRTEM for the Rh impregnated perovskite oxides. During the interaction of methane with oxidized perovskite-supported Rh (0.5 wt.%) catalysts, besides CO, H{sub 2}, and surface carbon, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O were formed. The Rh perovskite catalyst with x = 0.25 gallium exhibits the highest catalytic activity of 83% at 600 °C. The CO selectivity was affected by the reducibility of La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}(Fe{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.2}){sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}O{sub 3-δ} perovskite materials.

  8. Applied partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Logan, J David

    2004-01-01

    This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t...

  9. Inductance loop and partial

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, Clayton R

    2010-01-01

    "Inductance is an unprecedented text, thoroughly discussing "loop" inductance as well as the increasingly important "partial" inductance. These concepts and their proper calculation are crucial in designing modern high-speed digital systems. World-renowned leader in electromagnetics Clayton Paul provides the knowledge and tools necessary to understand and calculate inductance." "With the present and increasing emphasis on high-speed digital systems and high-frequency analog systems, it is imperative that system designers develop an intimate understanding of the concepts and methods in this book. Inductance is a much-needed textbook designed for senior and graduate-level engineering students, as well as a hands-on guide for working engineers and professionals engaged in the design of high-speed digital and high-frequency analog systems."--Jacket.

  10. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  11. Fundamental partial compositeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea; Vigiani, Elena

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Under certain assumptions on the dynamics of the scalars, successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough ‘square root’. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)_R-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  12. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event

  13. Partial muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, N.S.; Hoppel, C.L.

    1987-01-02

    After initiation of ibuprofen therapy, a 45-year-old woman developed muscle weakness and tenderness with rhabdomyolysis, culminating in respiratory failure. A muscle biopsy specimen showed a vacuolar myopathy, and markedly decreased muscle carnitine content and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity. Following recovery, muscle carnitine content was normal but carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity was still abnormally low. The ratio of palmitoyl-coenzyme A plus carnitine to palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by muscle mitochondria isolated from the patient was markedly decreased. The authors conclude that transiently decreased muscle carnitine content interacted with partial deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-A to produce rhabdomyolysis and respiratory failure and that ibuprofen may have precipitated the clinical event.

  14. Experts' understanding of partial derivatives using the Partial Derivative Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Roundy, David; Dorko, Allison; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.; Weber, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Partial derivatives are used in a variety of different ways within physics. Most notably, thermodynamics uses partial derivatives in ways that students often find confusing. As part of a collaboration with mathematics faculty, we are at the beginning of a study of the teaching of partial derivatives, a goal of better aligning the teaching of multivariable calculus with the needs of students in STEM disciplines. As a part of this project, we have performed a pilot study of expert understanding...

  15. Combination of targeting gene-viro therapy with recombinant Fowl-pox viruses with HN and VP3 genes on mouse osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-Y; Wang, L-Q; Fu, C-F; Li, X; Cui, Z-L; Zhang, J-Y; Xue, S-H; Sun, N; Xu, F

    2013-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive cancerous neoplasm arising from primitive transformed cells of mesenchymal origin that exhibit osteoblastic differentiation and produce malignant osteoid. With the rapid development of tumor molecular biology, gene and viral therapy, a highly promising strategy for the treatment, has shown some therapeutic effects. To study the strategy of cooperative cancer gene therapy, previously, we explored the antitumor effects of recombinant Fowl-pox viruses (FPVs) with both HN (hemagglutinin-neuramidinase) and VP3 genes on mouse osteosarcoma. We constructed vFV-HN, vFV-VP3 and vFV-HN-VP3 inserting CAV VP3 gene, NDV HN gene into fowlpox virus. S180 osteosarcoma were transfected with Recombinant Fowl-pox viruses (FPVs). These cell lines stably expressing tagged proteins were selected by culturing in medium containing puromycin (2 µg/ml) and confirmed by immunoblotting and immunostaining. S180 osteosarcoma model with BALB/c mice and nude mice were established and the vFPV viruses as control, vFV-HN, vFV-VP3, vFV-HN-VP3 were injected into the tumor directly. The rate of tumor growth, tumor suppression and the sialic acid levels in serum were examined and the tumor tissues were analyzed by the method of immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometric analysis was performed using a FACSCalibur flow cytometer. A total of 100,000 events were analyzed for each sample and the experiment was repeated at least twice. Our data indicated that vFV-HN, vFV-VP3 and vFV-HN-VP3 all had growth inhibition effects, the inhibition rate of vFV-HN-VP3 group was 51.7%, which was higher than that of vFV-HN, vFV-VP3 group and control group (p genes into mouse osteosarcoma cancer cells can cause cell a specificity anti-tumor immune activity, suppress tumor growth, and increase the survival rate of the tumor within host.

  16. Pipeline transportation of emerging partially upgraded bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhning, R.W.; Anand, A.; Blackmore, T.; Lawson, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    upgrading heavy oil, and the tank bottom recovery and remediation (TaBoRR) process, the value creation upgrading process, Genoil hydro-processor upgrading, Albian Muskeg River oil sands mining, Vapex Process for in situ upgrading, super critical partial oxidation (SUPOX), ionic liquid catalysts, biocatalyst upgrading, CAPRI in situ upgrading, the aquaconversion process, the ROSE process for partial upgrading, the Chattanooga process, the CANMET emulsion upgrading process, the UniPure sulphur removal and upgrading, and the Geotreater process. 40 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs

  17. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  18. Algorithms over partially ordered sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Robert M.; Østerby, Ole

    1969-01-01

    in partially ordered sets, answer the combinatorial question of how many maximal chains might exist in a partially ordered set withn elements, and we give an algorithm for enumerating all maximal chains. We give (in § 3) algorithms which decide whether a partially ordered set is a (lower or upper) semi......-lattice, and whether a lattice has distributive, modular, and Boolean properties. Finally (in § 4) we give Algol realizations of the various algorithms....

  19. Anatomic partial nephrectomy: technique evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Raed A; Metcalfe, Charles; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-03-01

    Partial nephrectomy provides equivalent long-term oncologic and superior functional outcomes as radical nephrectomy for T1a renal masses. Herein, we review the various vascular clamping techniques employed during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy, describe the evolution of our partial nephrectomy technique and provide an update on contemporary thinking about the impact of ischemia on renal function. Recently, partial nephrectomy surgical technique has shifted away from main artery clamping and towards minimizing/eliminating global renal ischemia during partial nephrectomy. Supported by high-fidelity three-dimensional imaging, novel anatomic-based partial nephrectomy techniques have recently been developed, wherein partial nephrectomy can now be performed with segmental, minimal or zero global ischemia to the renal remnant. Sequential innovations have included early unclamping, segmental clamping, super-selective clamping and now culminating in anatomic zero-ischemia surgery. By eliminating 'under-the-gun' time pressure of ischemia for the surgeon, these techniques allow an unhurried, tightly contoured tumour excision with point-specific sutured haemostasis. Recent data indicate that zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy may provide better functional outcomes by minimizing/eliminating global ischemia and preserving greater vascularized kidney volume. Contemporary partial nephrectomy includes a spectrum of surgical techniques ranging from conventional-clamped to novel zero-ischemia approaches. Technique selection should be tailored to each individual case on the basis of tumour characteristics, surgical feasibility, surgeon experience, patient demographics and baseline renal function.

  20. Partial order infinitary term rewriting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We study an alternative model of infinitary term rewriting. Instead of a metric on terms, a partial order on partial terms is employed to formalise convergence of reductions. We consider both a weak and a strong notion of convergence and show that the metric model of convergence coincides with th...... to the metric setting -- orthogonal systems are both infinitarily confluent and infinitarily normalising in the partial order setting. The unique infinitary normal forms that the partial order model admits are Böhm trees....