Statistical approach to partial equilibrium analysis
Wang, Yougui; Stanley, H. E.
2009-04-01
A statistical approach to market equilibrium and efficiency analysis is proposed in this paper. One factor that governs the exchange decisions of traders in a market, named willingness price, is highlighted and constitutes the whole theory. The supply and demand functions are formulated as the distributions of corresponding willing exchange over the willingness price. The laws of supply and demand can be derived directly from these distributions. The characteristics of excess demand function are analyzed and the necessary conditions for the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium point of the market are specified. The rationing rates of buyers and sellers are introduced to describe the ratio of realized exchange to willing exchange, and their dependence on the market price is studied in the cases of shortage and surplus. The realized market surplus, which is the criterion of market efficiency, can be written as a function of the distributions of willing exchange and the rationing rates. With this approach we can strictly prove that a market is efficient in the state of equilibrium.
Beutels, P; Edmunds, W J; Smith, R D
2008-11-01
We argue that traditional health economic analysis is ill-equipped to estimate the cost effectiveness and cost benefit of interventions that aim at controlling and/or preventing public health emergencies of international concern (such as pandemic influenza or severe acute respiratory syndrome). The implicit assumption of partial equilibrium within both the health sector itself and--if a wider perspective is adopted--the economy as a whole would be violated by such emergencies. We propose an alternative, with the specific aim of accounting for the behavioural changes and capacity problems that are expected to occur when such an outbreak strikes. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Value Added Tax and price stability in Nigeria: A partial equilibrium analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Ikpe
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The economic impact of Value Added Tax (VAT that was implemented in Nigeria in 1994 has generated much debate in recent times, especially with respect to its effect on the level of aggregate prices. This study empirically examines the influence of VAT on price stability in Nigeria using partial equilibrium analysis. We introduced the VAT variable in the framework of a combination of structuralist, monetarist and fiscalist approaches to inflation modelling. The analysis was carried out by applying multiple regression analysis in static form to data for the 1994-2010 period. The results reveal that VAT exerts a strong upward pressure on price levels, most likely due to the burden of VAT on intermediate outputs. The study rules out the option of VAT exemptions for intermediate outputs as a solution, due to the difficulty in distinguishing between intermediate and final outputs. Instead, it recommends a detailed post-VAT cost-benefit analysis to assess the social desirability of VAT policy in Nigeria.
Pan, Suwen; Fadiga, Mohamadou L.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark
2006-01-01
This paper analyzed the effects of trade liberalizing reforms in the world cotton market using a partial equilibrium model. The simulation results indicated that a removal of domestic subsidies and border tariffs for cotton would increase the amount of world cotton trade by an average of 4% in the next five years and world cotton prices by an average of 12% over the same time horizon. The findings indicated that under the liberalization policy, the United States would lose part of its export ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olsson, Anna
2011-07-01
The overall objective of the thesis is to analyse the procurement competition for forest resources in Sweden. The thesis consists of an introductory part and two self-contained papers. In paper I a translog cost function approach is used to analyse the factor substitution in the sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry and the heating industry in Sweden over the period 1970 to 2008. The estimated parameters are used to calculate the Allen and Morishima elasticities of substitution as well as the price elasticities of input demand. The utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector has been increasing and this increase is believed to continue. The increase is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Such policies could lead to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest industries and the energy sector. The calculated substitution elasticities indicate that it is easier for the heating industry to substitutes between by-products and logging residues than it is for the pulp and paper industry to substitute between by-products and roundwood. This suggests that the pulp and paper industry could suffer from an increase in the procurement competition. However, overall the substitutions elasticities estimated in our study are relatively low. This indicates that substitution possibilities could be rather limited due to rigidities in input prices. This result suggests that competition of forest resources also might be relatively limited. In paper II a partial equilibrium model is constructed in order to asses the effects an increasing utilisation of forest resources in the energy sector. The increasing utilisation of forest fuel is, to a large extent, caused by economic policies introduced to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. In countries where forests already are highly utilised such policies will lead to an increase in the procurement competition between the forest sector and
Lifting the US crude oil export ban: A numerical partial equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langer, Lissy; Huppmann, Daniel; Holz, Franziska
2016-01-01
The upheaval in global crude oil markets and the boom in shale oil production in North America brought scrutiny on the US export ban for crude oil from 1975. The ban was eventually lifted in early 2016. This paper examines the shifts of global trade flows and strategic refinery investments in a spatial, game-theoretic partial equilibrium model. We consider detailed oil supply chain infrastructure with multiple crude oil types, distinct oil products, as well as specific refinery configurations and modes of transport. Prices, quantities produced and consumed, as well as infrastructure and refining capacity investments are endogenous to the model. We compare two scenarios: an insulated US crude oil market, and a counter-factual with lifted export restrictions. We find a significant expansion of US sweet crude exports with the lift of the export ban. In the US refinery sector, more (imported) heavy sour crude is transformed. Countries importing US sweet crude gain from higher product output, while avoiding costly refinery investments. Producers of heavy sour crude (e.g. the Middle East) are incentivised to climb up the value chain to defend their market share and maintain their dominant position. - Highlights: • We study the impacts of lifting the US crude ban on global oil flows and investments. • We find massive expansion of US sweet crude oil exports. • We analyze the resulting welfare effects for US producers, refiners and consumers. • We indicate the changes on global trade patterns. • We conclude that lifting the ban is the right policy for the US and the global economy.
Partial chemical equilibrium in fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramshaw, J.D.
1980-01-01
An analysis is given for the flow of a multicomponent fluid in which an arbitrary number of chemical reactions may occur, some of which are in equilibrium while the others proceed kinetically. The primitive equations describing this situation are inconvenient to use because the progress rates omega-dot/sub s/ for the equilibrium reactions are determined implicitly by the associated equilibrium constraint conditions. Two alternative equivalent equation systems that are more pleasant to deal with are derived. In the first system, the omega-dot/sub s/ are eliminated by replacing the transport equations for the chemical species involved in the equilibrium reactions with transport equations for the basic components of which these species are composed. The second system retains the usual species transport equations, but eliminates the nonlinear algebraic equilibrium constraint conditions by deriving an explicit expression for the omega-dot/sub s/. Both systems are specialized to the case of an ideal gas mixture. Considerations involved in solving these equation systems numerically are discussed briefly
Jaza Folefack, Achille Jean
2009-05-01
This paper analyses the possibility of substitution between compost and mineral fertilizer in order to assess the impact on the foreign exchange savings in Cameroon of increasing the use of compost. In this regard, a partial equilibrium model was built up and used as a tool for policy simulations. The review of existing literature already suggests that, the compost commercial value i.e. value of substitution (33,740 FCFA tonne(-1)) is higher compared to the compost real price (30,000 FCFA tonne(-1)), proving that it could be profitable to substitute the mineral fertilizer by compost. Further results from the scenarios used in the modelling exercise show that, increasing the compost availability is the most favourable policy for the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost. This policy helps to save about 18.55% of the annual imported mineral fertilizer quantity and thus to avoid approximately 8.47% of the yearly total import expenditure in Cameroon. The policy of decreasing the transport rate of compost in regions that are far from the city is also favourable to the substitution. Therefore, in order to encourage the substitution of mineral fertilizer by compost, programmes of popularization of compost should be highlighted and be among the top priorities in the agricultural policy of the Cameroon government.
Numerical method for partial equilibrium flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramshaw, J.D.; Cloutman, L.D.; Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545)
1981-01-01
A numerical method is presented for chemically reactive fluid flow in which equilibrium and nonequilibrium reactions occur simultaneously. The equilibrium constraints on the species concentrations are established by a quadratic iterative procedure. If the equilibrium reactions are uncoupled and of second or lower order, the procedure converges in a single step. In general, convergence is most rapid when the reactions are weakly coupled. This can frequently be achieved by a judicious choice of the independent reactions. In typical transient calculations, satisfactory accuracy has been achieved with about five iterations per time step
Coordinating choice in partial cooperative equilibrium
Mallozzi, L.; Tijs, S.H.
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider symmetric aggregative games and investigate partial cooperation between a portion of the players that sign a cooperative agreement and the rest of the players. Existence results of partial cooperative equilibria are obtained when the players who do not sign the agreement
Explicit integration of extremely stiff reaction networks: partial equilibrium methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guidry, M W; Hix, W R; Billings, J J
2013-01-01
In two preceding papers (Guidry et al 2013 Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 015001 and Guidry and Harris 2013 Comput. Sci. Disc. 6 015002), we have shown that when reaction networks are well removed from equilibrium, explicit asymptotic and quasi-steady-state approximations can give algebraically stabilized integration schemes that rival standard implicit methods in accuracy and speed for extremely stiff systems. However, we also showed that these explicit methods remain accurate but are no longer competitive in speed as the network approaches equilibrium. In this paper, we analyze this failure and show that it is associated with the presence of fast equilibration timescales that neither asymptotic nor quasi-steady-state approximations are able to remove efficiently from the numerical integration. Based on this understanding, we develop a partial equilibrium method to deal effectively with the approach to equilibrium and show that explicit asymptotic methods, combined with the new partial equilibrium methods, give an integration scheme that can plausibly deal with the stiffest networks, even in the approach to equilibrium, with accuracy and speed competitive with that of implicit methods. Thus we demonstrate that such explicit methods may offer alternatives to implicit integration of even extremely stiff systems and that these methods may permit integration of much larger networks than have been possible before in a number of fields. (paper)
A Partial Equilibrium Theory for Drops and Capillary Liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Searcy, Alan W.; Beruto, Dario T.; Barberis, Fabrizio
2006-01-01
The two-century old theory of Young and Laplace retains a powerful influence on surface and interface studies because it quantitatively predicts the height of rise of capillary liquids from the contact angles of drops. But the classical theory does not acknowledge that equilibrium requires separate minimization of partial free energies of one-component liquids bonded to immiscible solids. We generalize a theorem of Gibbs and Curie to obtain a partial equilibrium (PE) theory that does so and that also predicts the height of capillary rise from contact angles of drops. Published observations and our own measurements of contact angles of water bonded to glass and Teflon surfaces support the conclusion of PE theory that contact angles of meniscuses and of drops are different dependent variables. PE theory provides thermodynamic and kinetic guidance to nanoscale processes that the classical theory obscures, as illustrated by examples in our concluding section
The equilibrium structures of the 900 partial dislocation in silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valladares, Alexander; Sutton, A P
2005-01-01
We consider the free energies of the single-period (SP) and double-period (DP) core reconstructions of the straight 90 0 partial dislocation in silicon. The vibrational contributions are calculated with a harmonic model. It is found that it leads to a diminishing difference between the free energies of the two core reconstructions with increasing temperature. The question of the relative populations of SP and DP reconstructions in a single straight 90 0 partial dislocation is solved by mapping the problem onto a one-dimensional Ising model in a magnetic field. The model contains only two parameters and is solved analytically. It leads to the conclusion that for the majority of the published energy differences between the SP and DP reconstructions the equilibrium core structure is dominated by the DP reconstruction at all temperatures up to the melting point. We review whether it is possible to distinguish between the SP and DP reconstructions experimentally, both in principle and in practice. We conclude that aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy should be able to distinguish between these two core reconstructions, but published high resolution micrographs do not allow the distinction to be made
Partial equilibrium in induced redox reactions of plutonium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikol' skii, B P; Posvol' skii, M V; Krylov, L I; Morozova, Z P
1975-01-01
A study was made of oxidation-reduction reactions of Pu in buffer solutions containing bichromate and a reducing agent which reacted with hexavalent chromium at pH=3.5. In most cases sodium nitrite was used. A rather slow reduction of Pu (6) with NaNO/sub 2/ in the course of which tetravalent plutonium was formed via disproportionation reaction of plutonium (5), became very rapid upon the addition of bichromate to the solution. The yield of tetravalent plutonium increased with an increase in the concentration of NaNO/sub 2/ and the bichromate but never reached 100%. This was due to a simultaneous occurrenc of the induced oxidation reaction of Pu(4), leading to a partial equilibrium between the valence forms of plutonium in the nitrite-bichromate system which on the whole was in a nonequilibrium state. It was shown that in the series of reactions leading to the reduction of plutonium the presence of bivalent chromium was a necessary link.
Development of chemical equilibrium analysis code 'CHEEQ'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagai, Shuichiro
2006-08-01
'CHEEQ' code which calculates the partial pressure and the mass of the system consisting of ideal gas and pure condensed phase compounds, was developed. Characteristics of 'CHEEQ' code are as follows. All the chemical equilibrium equations were described by the formation reactions from the mono-atomic gases in order to simplify the code structure and input preparation. Chemical equilibrium conditions, Σν i μ i =0 for the gaseous compounds and precipitated condensed phase compounds and Σν i μ i > 0 for the non-precipitated condensed phase compounds, were applied. Where, ν i and μ i are stoichiometric coefficient and chemical potential of component i. Virtual solid model was introduced to perform the calculation of constant partial pressure condition. 'CHEEQ' was consisted of following 3 parts, (1) analysis code, zc132. f. (2) thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 and (3) input data file, zindb. 'CHEEQ' code can calculate the system which consisted of elements (max.20), condensed phase compounds (max.100) and gaseous compounds. (max.200). Thermodynamic data base, zmdb01 contains about 1000 elements and compounds, and 200 of them were Actinide elements and their compounds. This report describes the basic equations, the outline of the solution procedure and instructions to prepare the input data and to evaluate the calculation results. (author)
Equilibrium calculations and mode analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrnegger, F.
1987-01-01
The STEP asymptotic stellarator expansion procedure was used to study the MHD equilibrium and stability properties of stellarator configurations without longitudinal net-current, which also apply to advanced stellarators. The effects of toroidal curvature and magnetic well, and the Shafranov shift were investigated. A classification of unstable modes in toroidal stellarators is given. For WVII-A coil-field configurations having a β value of 1% and a parabolic pressure profile, no free-boundary modes are found. This agrees with the experimental fact that unstable behavior of the plasma column is not observed for this parameter range. So a theoretical β-limit for stability against ideal MHD modes can be estimated by mode analysis for the WVII-A device
Equilibrium Analysis in Cake Cutting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Branzei, Simina; Miltersen, Peter Bro
2013-01-01
Cake cutting is a fundamental model in fair division; it represents the problem of fairly allocating a heterogeneous divisible good among agents with different preferences. The central criteria of fairness are proportionality and envy-freeness, and many of the existing protocols are designed...... to guarantee proportional or envy-free allocations, when the participating agents follow the protocol. However, typically, all agents following the protocol is not guaranteed to result in a Nash equilibrium. In this paper, we initiate the study of equilibria of classical cake cutting protocols. We consider one...... of the simplest and most elegant continuous algorithms -- the Dubins-Spanier procedure, which guarantees a proportional allocation of the cake -- and study its equilibria when the agents use simple threshold strategies. We show that given a cake cutting instance with strictly positive value density functions...
The energy balance of a plasma in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium
Kroesen, G.M.W.; Schram, D.C.; Timmermans, C.J.; de Haas, J.C.M.
1990-01-01
The energy balance for electrons and heavy particles constituting a plasma in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium is derived. The formulation of the energy balance used allows for evaluation of the source terms without knowledge of the particle and radiation transport situation, since most of
Imaging the equilibrium state and magnetization dynamics of partially built hard disk write heads
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valkass, R. A. J., E-mail: rajv202@ex.ac.uk; Yu, W.; Shelford, L. R.; Keatley, P. S.; Loughran, T. H. J.; Hicken, R. J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Cavill, S. A. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Laan, G. van der; Dhesi, S. S. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bashir, M. A.; Gubbins, M. A. [Research and Development, Seagate Technology, 1 Disc Drive, Springtown Industrial Estate, Derry BT48 0BF (United Kingdom); Czoschke, P. J.; Lopusnik, R. [Recording Heads Operation, Seagate Technology, 7801 Computer Avenue South, Bloomington, Minnesota 55435 (United States)
2015-06-08
Four different designs of partially built hard disk write heads with a yoke comprising four repeats of NiFe (1 nm)/CoFe (50 nm) were studied by both x-ray photoemission electron microscopy (XPEEM) and time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy (TRSKM). These techniques were used to investigate the static equilibrium domain configuration and the magnetodynamic response across the entire structure, respectively. Simulations and previous TRSKM studies have made proposals for the equilibrium domain configuration of similar structures, but no direct observation of the equilibrium state of the writers has yet been made. In this study, static XPEEM images of the equilibrium state of writer structures were acquired using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism as the contrast mechanism. These images suggest that the crystalline anisotropy dominates the equilibrium state domain configuration, but competition with shape anisotropy ultimately determines the stability of the equilibrium state. Dynamic TRSKM images were acquired from nominally identical devices. These images suggest that a longer confluence region may hinder flux conduction from the yoke into the pole tip: the shorter confluence region exhibits clear flux beaming along the symmetry axis, whereas the longer confluence region causes flux to conduct along one edge of the writer. The observed variations in dynamic response agree well with the differences in the equilibrium magnetization configuration visible in the XPEEM images, confirming that minor variations in the geometric design of the writer structure can have significant effects on the process of flux beaming.
Internalisation of external costs in the Polish power generation sector: A partial equilibrium model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudelko, Mariusz
2006-01-01
This paper presents a methodical framework, which is the basis for the economic analysis of the mid-term planning of development of the Polish energy system. The description of the partial equilibrium model and its results are demonstrated for different scenarios applied. The model predicts the generation, investment and pricing of mid-term decisions that refer to the Polish electricity and heat markets. The current structure of the Polish energy sector is characterised by interactions between the supply and demand sides of the energy sector. The supply side regards possibilities to deliver fuels from domestic and import sources and their conversion through transformation processes. Public power plants, public CHP plants, industry CHP plants and municipal heat plants represent the main producers of energy in Poland. Demand is characterised by the major energy consumers, i.e. industry and construction, transport, agriculture, trade and services, individual consumers and export. The relationships between the domestic electricity and heat markets are modelled taking into account external costs estimates. The volume and structure of energy production, electricity and heat prices, emissions, external costs and social welfare of different scenarios are presented. Results of the model demonstrate that the internalisation of external costs through the increase in energy prices implies significant improvement in social welfare
The equilibrium structures of the 90{sup 0} partial dislocation in silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Valladares, Alexander; Sutton, A P [Materials Modelling Laboratory, Department of Materials, University of Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)
2005-12-07
We consider the free energies of the single-period (SP) and double-period (DP) core reconstructions of the straight 90{sup 0} partial dislocation in silicon. The vibrational contributions are calculated with a harmonic model. It is found that it leads to a diminishing difference between the free energies of the two core reconstructions with increasing temperature. The question of the relative populations of SP and DP reconstructions in a single straight 90{sup 0} partial dislocation is solved by mapping the problem onto a one-dimensional Ising model in a magnetic field. The model contains only two parameters and is solved analytically. It leads to the conclusion that for the majority of the published energy differences between the SP and DP reconstructions the equilibrium core structure is dominated by the DP reconstruction at all temperatures up to the melting point. We review whether it is possible to distinguish between the SP and DP reconstructions experimentally, both in principle and in practice. We conclude that aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy should be able to distinguish between these two core reconstructions, but published high resolution micrographs do not allow the distinction to be made.
Partial local thermal equilibrium in a low-temperature hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hey, J.D.; Chu, C.C.; Rash, J.P.S.
1999-01-01
If the degree of ionisation is sufficient, competition between de-excitation by electron collisions and radiative decay determines the smallest principal quantum number (the so-called 'thermal limit') above which partial local thermodynamic equilibrium (PLTE) holds under the particular conditions of electron density and temperature. The LTE (PLTE) criteria of Wilson (JQSRT 1962;2:477-90), Griem (Phys Rev 1963;131:1170-6; Plasma Spectroscopy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964), Drawin (Z Physik 1969;228: 99-119), Hey (JQSRT 1976;16:69-75), and Fujimoto and McWhirter (Phys Rev A 1990;42:6588-601) are examined as regards their applicability to neutral atoms. For these purposes, we consider for simplicity an idealised, steady-state, homogeneous and primarily optically thin plasma, with some additional comments and numerical estimates on the roles of opacity and of atom-atom collisions. Particularly for atomic states of lower principal quantum number, the first two of the above criteria should be modified quite appreciably before application to neutral radiators in plasmas of low temperature, because of the profoundly different nature of the near-threshold collisional cross-sections for atoms and ions, while the most recent criterion should be applied with caution to PLTE of atoms in cold plasmas in ionisation balance. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaghloul, Mofreh R.
2003-01-01
Flibe (2LiF-BeF2) is a molten salt that has been chosen as the coolant and breeding material in many design studies of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) chamber. Flibe plasmas are to be generated in the ICF chamber in a wide range of temperatures and densities. These plasmas are more complex than the plasma of any single chemical species. Nevertheless, the composition and thermodynamic properties of the resulting flibe plasmas are needed for the gas dynamics calculations and the determination of other design parameters in the ICF chamber. In this paper, a simple consistent model for determining the detailed plasma composition and thermodynamic functions of high-temperature, fully dissociated and partially ionized flibe gas is presented and used to calculate different thermodynamic properties of interest to fusion applications. The computed properties include the average ionization state; kinetic pressure; internal energy; specific heats; adiabatic exponent, as well as the sound speed. The presented results are computed under the assumptions of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and electro-neutrality. A criterion for the validity of the LTE assumption is presented and applied to the computed results. Other attempts in the literature are assessed with their implied inaccuracies pointed out and discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sathaye, Jayant; Makundi, Willy; Dale, Larry; Chan, Peter; Andrasko, Kenneth
2005-03-22
This paper reports on the global potential for carbonsequestration in forest plantations, and the reduction of carbonemissions from deforestation, in response to six carbon price scenariosfrom 2000 to 2100. These carbon price scenarios cover a range typicallyseen in global integrated assessment models. The world forest sector wasdisaggregated into tenregions, four largely temperate, developedregions: the European Union, Oceania, Russia, and the United States; andsix developing, mostly tropical, regions: Africa, Central America, China,India, Rest of Asia, and South America. Three mitigation options -- long-and short-rotation forestry, and the reduction of deforestation -- wereanalyzed using a global dynamic partial equilibrium model (GCOMAP). Keyfindings of this work are that cumulative carbon gain ranges from 50.9 to113.2 Gt C by 2100, higher carbon prices early lead to earlier carbongain and vice versa, and avoided deforestation accounts for 51 to 78percent of modeled carbon gains by 2100. The estimated present value ofcumulative welfare change in the sector ranges from a decline of $158billion to a gain of $81 billion by 2100. The decline is associated witha decrease in deforestation.
Magnetic analysis of tokamak plasma with approximate MHD equilibrium solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Hiraki, Naoji
1993-01-01
A magnetic analysis method for determining equilibrium configuration parameters (plasma shape, poloidal beta and internal inductance) on a non-circular tokamak is described. The feature is to utilize an approximate MHD equilibrium solution which explicitly relates the configuration parameters with the magnetic fields picked up by magnetic sensors. So this method is suitable for the real-time analysis performed during a tokamak discharge. A least-squares fitting procedure is added to the analytical algorithm in order to reduce the errors in the magnetic analysis. The validity is investigated through the numerical calculation for a tokamak equilibrium model. (author)
Analysis of the chemical equilibrium of combustion at constant volume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius BREBENEL
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Determining the composition of a mixture of combustion gases at a given temperature is based on chemical equilibrium, when the equilibrium constants are calculated on the assumption of constant pressure and temperature. In this paper, an analysis of changes occurring when combustion takes place at constant volume is presented, deriving a specific formula of the equilibrium constant. The simple reaction of carbon combustion in pure oxygen in both cases (constant pressure and constant volume is next considered as example of application, observing the changes occurring in the composition of the combustion gases depending on temperature.
Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations
Lui, S H
2011-01-01
A balanced guide to the essential techniques for solving elliptic partial differential equations Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations provides a comprehensive, self-contained treatment of the quantitative methods used to solve elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs), with a focus on the efficiency as well as the error of the presented methods. The author utilizes coverage of theoretical PDEs, along with the nu merical solution of linear systems and various examples and exercises, to supply readers with an introduction to the essential concepts in the numerical analysis
Game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets
Joung, Manho
This dissertation examines game-theoretic equilibrium analysis applications to deregulated electricity markets. In particular, three specific applications are discussed: analyzing the competitive effects of ownership of financial transmission rights, developing a dynamic game model considering the ramp rate constraints of generators, and analyzing strategic behavior in electricity capacity markets. In the financial transmission right application, an investigation is made of how generators' ownership of financial transmission rights may influence the effects of the transmission lines on competition. In the second application, the ramp rate constraints of generators are explicitly modeled using a dynamic game framework, and the equilibrium is characterized as the Markov perfect equilibrium. Finally, the strategic behavior of market participants in electricity capacity markets is analyzed and it is shown that the market participants may exaggerate their available capacity in a Nash equilibrium. It is also shown that the more conservative the independent system operator's capacity procurement, the higher the risk of exaggerated capacity offers.
CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation
Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville
2017-10-01
For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process.: Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.
CFD analysis of laboratory scale phase equilibrium cell operation.
Jama, Mohamed Ali; Nikiforow, Kaj; Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Alopaeus, Ville
2017-10-01
For the modeling of multiphase chemical reactors or separation processes, it is essential to predict accurately chemical equilibrium data, such as vapor-liquid or liquid-liquid equilibria [M. Šoóš et al., Chem. Eng. Process Intensif. 42(4), 273-284 (2003)]. The instruments used in these experiments are typically designed based on previous experiences, and their operation verified based on known equilibria of standard components. However, mass transfer limitations with different chemical systems may be very different, potentially falsifying the measured equilibrium compositions. In this work, computational fluid dynamics is utilized to design and analyze laboratory scale experimental gas-liquid equilibrium cell for the first time to augment the traditional analysis based on plug flow assumption. Two-phase dilutor cell, used for measuring limiting activity coefficients at infinite dilution, is used as a test case for the analysis. The Lagrangian discrete model is used to track each bubble and to study the residence time distribution of the carrier gas bubbles in the dilutor cell. This analysis is necessary to assess whether the gas leaving the cell is in equilibrium with the liquid, as required in traditional analysis of such apparatus. Mass transfer for six different bio-oil compounds is calculated to determine the approach equilibrium concentration. Also, residence times assuming plug flow and ideal mixing are used as reference cases to evaluate the influence of mixing on the approach to equilibrium in the dilutor. Results show that the model can be used to predict the dilutor operating conditions for which each of the studied gas-liquid systems reaches equilibrium.
Numerical equilibrium analysis for structured consumer resource models
de Roos, A.M.; Diekmann, O.; Getto, P.; Kirkilionis, M.A.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present methods for a numerical equilibrium and stability analysis for models of a size structured population competing for an unstructured re- source. We concentrate on cases where two model parameters are free, and thus existence boundaries for equilibria and stability boundaries
Numerical equilibrium analysis for structured consumer resource models
de Roos, A.M.; Diekmann, O.; Getto, P.; Kirkilionis, M.A.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present methods for a numerical equilibrium and stability analysis for models of a size structured population competing for an unstructured resource. We concentrate on cases where two model parameters are free, and thus existence boundaries for equilibria and stability boundaries
Application of frequency spectrum analysis in the rotator moving equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Ruilan; Su Guanghui; Shang Zhi; Jia Dounan
2001-01-01
The experimental equipment is developed to simulate the rotator vibration. The running state of machine is simulated by using different running conditions. The vibration caused by non-equilibrium mass is analyzed and discussed for first order with focus load. The effective method is found out by using frequency spectrum analysis
Metabolic pathway analysis using a nash equilibrium approach
Lucia, Angelo; DiMaggio, Peter A.; Alonso-Martinez, Diego
2018-01-01
A novel approach to metabolic network analysis using a Nash Equilibrium (NE) formulation is proposed in which enzymes are considered players in a multi-player game. Each player has its own payoff function with the objective of minimizing the Gibbs free energy associated with the biochemical
Partial wave analysis using graphics processing units
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berger, Niklaus; Liu Beijiang; Wang Jike, E-mail: nberger@ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Lu, Shijingshan, 100049 Beijing (China)
2010-04-01
Partial wave analysis is an important tool for determining resonance properties in hadron spectroscopy. For large data samples however, the un-binned likelihood fits employed are computationally very expensive. At the Beijing Spectrometer (BES) III experiment, an increase in statistics compared to earlier experiments of up to two orders of magnitude is expected. In order to allow for a timely analysis of these datasets, additional computing power with short turnover times has to be made available. It turns out that graphics processing units (GPUs) originally developed for 3D computer games have an architecture of massively parallel single instruction multiple data floating point units that is almost ideally suited for the algorithms employed in partial wave analysis. We have implemented a framework for tensor manipulation and partial wave fits called GPUPWA. The user writes a program in pure C++ whilst the GPUPWA classes handle computations on the GPU, memory transfers, caching and other technical details. In conjunction with a recent graphics processor, the framework provides a speed-up of the partial wave fit by more than two orders of magnitude compared to legacy FORTRAN code.
Exploiting partial knowledge for efficient model analysis
Macedo, Nuno; Cunha, Alcino; Pessoa, Eduardo José Dias
2017-01-01
The advancement of constraint solvers and model checkers has enabled the effective analysis of high-level formal specification languages. However, these typically handle a specification in an opaque manner, amalgamating all its constraints in a single monolithic verification task, which often proves to be a performance bottleneck. This paper addresses this issue by proposing a solving strategy that exploits user-provided partial knowledge, namely by assigning symbolic bounds to the problem’s ...
Slope stability analysis using limit equilibrium method in nonlinear criterion.
Lin, Hang; Zhong, Wenwen; Xiong, Wei; Tang, Wenyu
2014-01-01
In slope stability analysis, the limit equilibrium method is usually used to calculate the safety factor of slope based on Mohr-Coulomb criterion. However, Mohr-Coulomb criterion is restricted to the description of rock mass. To overcome its shortcomings, this paper combined Hoek-Brown criterion and limit equilibrium method and proposed an equation for calculating the safety factor of slope with limit equilibrium method in Hoek-Brown criterion through equivalent cohesive strength and the friction angle. Moreover, this paper investigates the impact of Hoek-Brown parameters on the safety factor of slope, which reveals that there is linear relation between equivalent cohesive strength and weakening factor D. However, there are nonlinear relations between equivalent cohesive strength and Geological Strength Index (GSI), the uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock σ ci , and the parameter of intact rock m i . There is nonlinear relation between the friction angle and all Hoek-Brown parameters. With the increase of D, the safety factor of slope F decreases linearly; with the increase of GSI, F increases nonlinearly; when σ ci is relatively small, the relation between F and σ ci is nonlinear, but when σ ci is relatively large, the relation is linear; with the increase of m i , F decreases first and then increases.
Bouman, M.B.; Heijungs, R.; van der Voet, E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Huppes, G.
2000-01-01
The growing concern for environmental problems in the current economy has spurred the study of the way materials and substances flow through the economy, resulting in many different types of analysis. Since all of these have their merits and shortcomings, much of the present theoretical research
What are the key drivers of MAC curves? A partial-equilibrium modelling approach for the UK
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesicki, Fabian
2013-01-01
Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves are widely used for the assessment of costs related to CO 2 emissions reduction in environmental economics, as well as domestic and international climate policy. Several meta-analyses and model comparisons have previously been performed that aim to identify the causes for the wide range of MAC curves. Most of these concentrate on general equilibrium models with a focus on aspects such as specific model type and technology learning, while other important aspects remain almost unconsidered, including the availability of abatement technologies and level of discount rates. This paper addresses the influence of several key parameters on MAC curves for the United Kingdom and the year 2030. A technology-rich energy system model, UK MARKAL, is used to derive the MAC curves. The results of this study show that MAC curves are robust even to extreme fossil fuel price changes, while uncertainty around the choice of the discount rate, the availability of key abatement technologies and the demand level were singled out as the most important influencing factors. By using a different model type and studying a wider range of influencing factors, this paper contributes to the debate on the sensitivity of MAC curves. - Highlights: ► A partial-equilibrium model is employed to test key sensitivities of MAC curves. ► MAC curves are found to be robust to wide-ranging changes in fossil fuel prices. ► Most influencing factors are the discount rate, availability of key technologies. ► Further important uncertainty in MAC curves is related to demand changes
Equilibrium transuranic management scheme for diverse fuel cycle analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haas, Jason; Lee, John C.
2008-01-01
A key issue cited in the U.S. Department of Energy's report to Congress (2003) on the research path for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is an accurate estimation of life cycle costs for the construction, operation, decontamination and decommissioning of all fuel cycle facilities. In this report we discuss the methodology and validation of a fuel cycle model based on equilibrium operation. We apply our model to a diverse set of advanced reactors and fuel types in order to determine the most effective transmuting system while simultaneously minimizing fuel cycle costs. Our analysis shows that a nearly instant equilibrium modeling of fuel cycle scenarios can accurately approximate the detailed complex dynamic models developed by national laboratories. Our analysis also shows that the cost of transmuting Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from a UO 2 fueled Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is minimized by utilizing the thorium cycle in sodium cooled fast reactors and is near the cost for long term repository storage of SNF at Yucca Mountain. (authors)
Equilibrium Analysis of a Yellow Fever Dynamical Model with Vaccination
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvia Martorano Raimundo
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We propose an equilibrium analysis of a dynamical model of yellow fever transmission in the presence of a vaccine. The model considers both human and vector populations. We found thresholds parameters that affect the development of the disease and the infectious status of the human population in the presence of a vaccine whose protection may wane over time. In particular, we derived a threshold vaccination rate, above which the disease would be eradicated from the human population. We show that if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is greater than a given threshold, then the disease is naturally (without intervention eradicated from the population. In contrast, if the mortality rate of the mosquitoes is less than that threshold, then the disease is eradicated from the populations only when the growing rate of humans is less than another threshold; otherwise, the disease is eradicated only if the reproduction number of the infection after vaccination is less than 1. When this reproduction number is greater than 1, the disease will be eradicated from the human population if the vaccination rate is greater than a given threshold; otherwise, the disease will establish itself among humans, reaching a stable endemic equilibrium. The analysis presented in this paper can be useful, both to the better understanding of the disease dynamics and also for the planning of vaccination strategies.
An analysis of the concept of equilibrium in organization theory
Gazendam, H.W.M.; Simons, John L.
1998-01-01
This article analyzes how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or requisite variety. Equilibrium is related to observables dependent on the definition of organization as work
Investigations on application of multigrid method to MHD equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuno, Soichiro
2000-01-01
The potentiality of application for Multi-grid method to MHD equilibrium analysis is investigated. The nonlinear eigenvalue problem often appears when the MHD equilibria are determined by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation numerically. After linearization of the equation, the problem is solved by use of the iterative method. Although the Red-Black SOR method or Gauss-Seidel method is often used for the solution of the linearized equation, it takes much CPU time to solve the problem. The Multi-grid method is compared with the SOR method for the Poisson Problem. The results of computations show that the CPU time required for the Multi-grid method is about 1000 times as small as that for the SOR method. (author)
Vehicle technology under CO2 constraint: a general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, Andreas; Jacoby, Henry D.
2006-01-01
A study is presented of the rates of penetration of different transport technologies under policy constraints on CO 2 emissions. The response of this sector is analyzed within an overall national level of restriction, with a focus on automobiles, light trucks, and heavy freight trucks. Using the US as an example, a linked set of three models is used to carry out the analysis: a multi-sector computable general equilibrium model of the economy, a MARKAL-type model of vehicle and fuel supply technology, and a model simulating the split of personal and freight transport among modes. Results highlight the importance of incremental improvements in conventional internal combustion engine technology, and, in the absence of policies to overcome observed consumer discount rates, the very long time horizons before radical alternatives like the internal combustion engine hybrid drive train vehicle are likely to take substantial market share
Analysis of equilibrium and topology of tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milligen, B.P. van.
1991-01-01
In a tokamak, the plasma is confined by means of a magnetic field. There exists an equilibrium between outward forces due to the pressure gradient in plasma and inward forces due to the interaction between currents flowing inside the plasma and the magnetic field. The equilibrium magnetic field is characterized by helical field lines that lie on nested toroidal surfaces of constant flux. The equilibrium yields values for global and local plasma parameters (e.g. plasma position, total current, local pressure). Thus, precise knowledge of the equilibrium is essential for plasma control, for the understanding of many phenomena occurring in the plasma (in particular departures from the ideal equilibrium involving current filamentation on the flux surfaces that lead to the formation of islands, i.e. nested helical flux surfaces), and for the interpretation of many different types of measurements (e.g. the translation of line integrated electron density measurements made by laser beams probing the plasma into a local electron density on a flux surface). The problem of determining the equilibrium magnetic field from external magnetic field measurements has been studied extensively in literature. The problem is 'ill-posed', which means that the solution is unstable to small changes in the measurement data, and the solution has to be constrained in order to stabilize it. Various techniques for handling this problem have been suggested in literature. Usually ad-hoc restrictions are imposed on the equilibrium solution in order to stabilize it. More equilibrium solvers are not able to handle very dissimilar measurement data which means information on the equilibrium is lost. The generally do not allow a straightforward error estimate of the obtained results to be made, and they require large amounts of computing time. This problems are addressed in this thesis. (author). 104 refs.; 42 figs.; 6 tabs
Numerical equilibrium analysis for structured consumer resource models.
de Roos, A M; Diekmann, O; Getto, P; Kirkilionis, M A
2010-02-01
In this paper, we present methods for a numerical equilibrium and stability analysis for models of a size structured population competing for an unstructured resource. We concentrate on cases where two model parameters are free, and thus existence boundaries for equilibria and stability boundaries can be defined in the (two-parameter) plane. We numerically trace these implicitly defined curves using alternatingly tangent prediction and Newton correction. Evaluation of the maps defining the curves involves integration over individual size and individual survival probability (and their derivatives) as functions of individual age. Such ingredients are often defined as solutions of ODE, i.e., in general only implicitly. In our case, the right-hand sides of these ODE feature discontinuities that are caused by an abrupt change of behavior at the size where juveniles are assumed to turn adult. So, we combine the numerical solution of these ODE with curve tracing methods. We have implemented the algorithms for "Daphnia consuming algae" models in C-code. The results obtained by way of this implementation are shown in the form of graphs.
Barrelet zeros in partial wave analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, R.D.
1976-01-01
The formalism of Barrelet zeros is discussed. Spinless scattering is described to introduce the idea, then the more usual case of 0 - 1/2 + → 0 - 1/2 + scattering. The zeros are regarded here only as a means to an end, viz the partial waves. The extraction of these is given in detail, and ambiguities are discussed at length. (author)
Energy equation for the analysis of magnetization relaxation to equilibrium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertotti, G. [IEN Galileo Ferraris, Materials Department, Strada delle Cacce, 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy)]. E-mail: bertotti@ien.it; Bonin, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Magni, A. [IEN Galileo Ferraris, Materials Department, Strada delle Cacce, 91, I-10135 Torino (Italy); Mayergoyz, I.D. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, 20742 (United States); Serpico, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , I-80125 Naples (Italy)
2005-02-01
Magnetization relaxation starting from a generic non-equilibrium state is analytically described. An equation for the energy decay is obtained. On this basis, an approximate expression for the magnetization motion during the ringing process is obtained in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions with time-dependent parameters.
Energy equation for the analysis of magnetization relaxation to equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertotti, G.; Bonin, R.; Magni, A.; Mayergoyz, I.D.; Serpico, C.
2005-01-01
Magnetization relaxation starting from a generic non-equilibrium state is analytically described. An equation for the energy decay is obtained. On this basis, an approximate expression for the magnetization motion during the ringing process is obtained in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions with time-dependent parameters
Analysis of competitive equilibrium in an infinite dimensional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper considered the cost of allocated goods and attaining maximal utility with such price in the finite dimensional commodity space and observed that there exist an equilibrium price. It goes further to establish that in an infinite dimensional commodity space with subsets as consumption and production set there exist a ...
An applied general equilibrium model for Dutch agribusiness policy analysis
Peerlings, J.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this thesis was to develop a basic static applied general equilibrium (AGE) model to analyse the effects of agricultural policy changes on Dutch agribusiness. In particular the effects on inter-industry transactions, factor demand, income, and trade are of
Municipal solid waste management problems: an applied general equilibrium analysis
Bartelings, H.
2003-01-01
Keywords: Environmental policy; General equilibrium modeling; Negishi format; Waste management policies; Market distortions.
About 40% of the entire budget spent on environmental problems in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alberty, R.A.; Oppenheim, I.
1993-01-01
When temperature, pressure, and the partial pressure of a reactant are fixed, the criterion of chemical equilibrium can be expressed in terms of the transformed Gibbs energy G' that is obtained by using a Legendre transform involving the chemical potential of the reactant that is fixed. For reactions of ideal gases, the most natural variables to use in the fundamental equation are T, P', and P B , where P' is the partial pressure of the reactants other than the one that is fixed and P B is the partial pressure of the reactant that is fixed. The fundamental equation for G' yields the expression for the transformed entropy S', and a transformed enthalpy can be defined by the additional Legendre transform H'=G'+TS'. This leads to an additional form of the fundamental equation. The calculation of transformed thermodynamic properties and equilibrium compositions is discussed for a simple system and for a general multireaction system. The change, in a reaction, of the binding of the reactant that is at a specified pressure can be calculated using one of the six Maxwell equations of the fundamental equation in G'
World Oil Price and Biofuels : A General Equilibrium Analysis
Timilsina, Govinda R.; Mevel, Simon; Shrestha, Ashish
2011-01-01
The price of oil could play a significant role in influencing the expansion of biofuels. However, this issue has not been fully investigated yet in the literature. Using a global computable general equilibrium model, this study analyzes the impact of oil price on biofuel expansion, and subsequently, on food supply. The study shows that a 65 percent increase in oil price in 2020 from the 20...
An Equilibrium Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap
Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann
2006-01-01
This paper develops a theory of the gender wage gap. In a general equilibrium model, spouses devide their labor between a formal sector and a home sector. Due to indivisibility effects, productivity of labor in the formal sector is negatively related to labor used in the home; at the same time labor inputs are complementary in home production. We show that initial beliefs about the gender wage gap are self-fulfilling, and a central result is multiplicity of equilibria. Spouses allocate their ...
Physics analysis of the gang partial rod drive event
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boman, C.; Frost, R.L.
1992-08-01
During the routine positioning of partial-length control rods in Gang 3 on the afternoon of Monday, July 27, 1992, the partial-length rods continued to drive into the reactor even after the operator released the controlling toggle switch. In response to this occurrence, the Safety Analysis and Engineering Services Group (SAEG) requested that the Applied Physics Group (APG) analyze the gang partial rod drive event. Although similar accident scenarios were considered in analysis for Chapter 15 of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR), APG and SAEG conferred and agreed that this particular type of gang partial-length rod motion event was not included in the SAR. This report details this analysis
Nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw, partially fermented and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The nutritional and amino acid analysis of raw and fermented seeds of Parkia ... between 4.27 and 8.33 % for the fully fermented and the partially fermented seeds, respectively.
Thermodynamic Equilibria and Extrema Analysis of Attainability Regions and Partial Equilibria
Gorban, Alexander N; Kaganovich, Boris M; Keiko, Alexandre V; Shamansky, Vitaly A; Shirkalin, Igor A
2006-01-01
This book discusses mathematical models that are based on the concepts of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. They are intended for the analysis of possible results of diverse natural and production processes. Unlike the traditional models, these allow one to view the achievable set of partial equilibria with regards to constraints on kinetics, energy and mass exchange and to determine states of the studied systems of interest for the researcher. Application of the suggested models in chemical technology, energy and ecology is illustrated in the examples.
Recommended practice for process sampling for partial pressure analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blessing, James E.; Ellefson, Robert E.; Raby, Bruce A.; Brucker, Gerardo A.; Waits, Robert K.
2007-01-01
This Recommended Practice describes and recommends various procedures and types of apparatus for obtaining representative samples of process gases from >10 -2 Pa (10 -4 Torr) for partial pressure analysis using a mass spectrometer. The document was prepared by a subcommittee of the Recommended Practices Committee of the American Vacuum Society. The subcommittee was comprised of vacuum users and manufacturers of mass spectrometer partial pressure analyzers who have practical experience in the sampling of process gas atmospheres
A theoretical analysis of local thermal equilibrium in fibrous materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Mingwei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The internal heat exchange between each phase and the Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE scenarios in multi-phase fibrous materials are considered in this paper. Based on the two-phase heat transfer model, a criterion is proposed to evaluate the LTE condition, using derived characteristic parameters. Furthermore, the LTE situations in isothermal/adiabatic boundary cases with two different heat sources (constant heat flux and constant temperature are assessed as special transient cases to test the proposed criterion system, and the influence of such different cases on their LTE status are elucidated. In addition, it is demonstrated that even the convective boundary problems can be generally estimated using this approach. Finally, effects on LTE of the material properties (thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity of each phase, sample porosity and pore hydraulic radius are investigated, illustrated and discussed in our study.
An Equilibrium Analysis of the Gender Wage Gap
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Elisabeth Hermann
This paper develops a theory of the gender wage gap. In a general equilibrium model, spouses devide their labor between a formal sector and a home sector. Due to indivisibility effects, productivity of labor in the formal sector is negatively related to labor used in the home; at the same time...... labor inputs are complementary in home production. We show that initial beliefs about the gender wage gap are self-fulfilling, and a central result is multiplicity of equilibria. Spouses allocate their labor equally, if they expect to earn the same wage rates, which ex post reinforces equal wage rates......; whereas they allocate their labor differently, if they expect to earn different wage rates. The latter situation manifests itself in a gender wage gap. By use of numerical examples, we show that welfare is highest when spouses allocate labor equally. We relate this finding to policy recommendations...
Everett, Rabekah
While several theories abound that attempt to explain the obstacles to democracy in Russia, Joel Hellman's partial reform equilibrium model is an institutional theory that illustrates how weak institutions, combined with an instrumentalist cultural approach to the law and authoritarian-minded leadership, allowed the struggle over interests to craft and determine the nature of Russia's political structure. This thesis builds on the work of Hellman by using the partial reform theory to understand the evolution of interest infiltration and their impact on the formation of policies and institutions in favour of the elites or winners from 2004 to the present time period that allow them to wield law as a political weapon. The hypothesis posits that through their vested interests in state politics, the political and economic elites of the oil and gas industry have successfully stalled reform in Russia resulting in partial reform equilibrium. This is illustrated in a case study that was designed to collect the names, backgrounds, and social networks of gas and oil executives in order to determine how many of them have a history of, or are currently working as, ministers in the government or representatives in the Federation Council. The objective being to measure the degree to which gas and oil interests are present in government decision-making and conversely, the degree to which the government is present in the gas and oil industry. The thesis stresses the importance of institutional structure in determining Russia's political evolution, and uses vested interests as a primary source of structural institutional change, while also stressing on the social and international implications of this evolution.
Analysis of radioactive-matter interaction near thermodynamical equilibrium states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damamme, G.
1993-01-01
We study the absorption/emission process of photon by matter in the framework of a radiativo-collisionnal model of atom, a thermodynamical approach being used. The considered matter description is the atomic sphere one. First we give the expression of the balance equation around an equilibrium state. Then we express the atomic populations in function of the characteristics of the radiation and of the free electrons and of their time history. This permit us to interpret the photon balance as being due to true emission/absorption process of photons as well as fluorescence terms, all these processes being affected by relaxation effects. The total energy balance between matter and radiation can also be analyzed in the same way and conduct to introduce one photon effective interactions terms for each radiative proper mode, terms also affected by retardation effects. Such a taking into account of atom populations has no consequence on the radiative flux equation (i.e. the transfer opacity) but can considerably modify the energy balance between matter and radiation. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lassin, Arnault [BRGM-ISTO-UMR 7327, 3av. C. Guillemin, B.P. 36009, Orleans, 45060 (France); Marty, Nicolas; Henry, Benoit; Tremosa, Joachim; Gailhanou, Helene; Gaucher, Eric C. [BRGM, 3av. C. Guillemin, B.P. 36009, Orleans, 45060 (France); Made, Benoit; Altmann, Scott [Andra, 1-7 rue Jean Monnet,Chatenay-Malabry,92298 (France)
2013-07-01
Understanding the behavior of a clay mineral-rich rock submitted to different physical-chemical perturbations is important for assessing the safety of nuclear waste disposal facilities in the corresponding geological formations. In this work we studied the effect of rock desaturation on the CO{sub 2} partial pressure signature of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite. This integrated study, which combines experiments and geochemical modeling, points out the primary role of capillary forces on the chemical equilibria. In particular, it was possible to model, without any fitting parameters, the experimental decrease of pCO{sub 2} as a function of decreasing water content in the argillite. Moreover, this application to a complex natural system is an example of confirmation of the theoretical concepts of geochemistry in capillary contexts and is promising for dealing with other natural and industrial systems. (authors)
Price competition and equilibrium analysis in multiple hybrid channel supply chain
Kuang, Guihua; Wang, Aihu; Sha, Jin
2017-06-01
The amazing boom of Internet and logistics industry prompts more and more enterprises to sell commodity through multiple channels. Such market conditions make the participants of multiple hybrid channel supply chain compete each other in traditional and direct channel at the same time. This paper builds a two-echelon supply chain model with a single manufacturer and a single retailer who both can choose different channel or channel combination for their own sales, then, discusses the price competition and calculates the equilibrium price under different sales channel selection combinations. Our analysis shows that no matter the manufacturer and retailer choose same or different channel price to compete, the equilibrium price does not necessarily exist the equilibrium price in the multiple hybrid channel supply chain and wholesale price change is not always able to coordinate supply chain completely. We also present the sufficient and necessary conditions for the existence of equilibrium price and coordination wholesale price.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomat, Laure; Trepy, Nadia; Le Bescop, Patrick; Dauzeres, Alexandre; Monguillon, Corinne
2012-01-01
In the framework of radioactive waste geological disposal, structural concretes have to be adapted to underground chemical conditions. For concrete in water saturated medium, it is believed that carbonation will have a major impact on the interaction between concrete and the geological medium. So, to understand the complex degradation of the cement paste in that context, it is interesting to study a simplified system such as degradation in carbonated water solution. This solution must be at equilibrium with a CO 2 partial pressure 30 times higher than the atmospheric pCO 2 , to reproduce underground natural conditions of Callovo-Oxfordian clayey rock of Bure (France). In this study, the behaviour of a new low pH material (CEM I + silica fume + fly ashes) is compared with a CEM I cement paste, both of them being submitted to carbonation in aqueous solution in equilibrium with calcite and with a pCO 2 equal to 1.32 kPa (1.3 10 -2 atm). Two different temperatures, 25 and 50 C, are considered. To realize these experiments, two different original types of devices were developed
Andersen, N. H.; Lebech, B.; Poulsen, H. F.
1990-12-01
An experimental technique based on neutron powder diffraction and gas volumetry is presented and used to study the structural phase diagram of YBa 2Cu 3O 6+ x under equilibrium conditions in an extended part of ( x, T)-phase (0.15< x<0.92 and 25° C< T<725°C). Our experimental observations lend strong support to a recent two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest-neighbour Ising model calculation (the ASYNNNI model) of the basal plane oxygen ordering based of first principle interaction parameters. Simultaneous measurements of the oxygen equilibrium partial pressure show anomalies, one of which proves the thermodynamic stability of the orthorhombic OII double cell structure. Striking similarity with predictions of recent model calculations support that another anomaly may be interpreted to result from local one-dimensional fluctuations in the distribution of oxygen atoms in the basal plane of tetragonal YBCO. Our pressure data also indicate that x=0.92 is a maximum obtainable oxygen concentration for oxygen pressures below 760 Torr.
Analysis of the plasma magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium in iron core transformer Tokamak HL-1M
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Xiaoguang; Yuan Baoshan
1992-01-01
The physical and mathematical model are presented on the problem of MHD equilibrium with the self consistent in iron core transformer HL-1M. Calculation and analysis for the plasma equilibrium of the stable boundary and free boundary are shown respectively, in an axisymmetric equilibrium model of two dimensions. First, a variation formulation of the problem is written and the equations of the poloided flux ψ are solved by a finite element method; the Picard and Newton algorithms are tested for the non-linearities. The plasma boundary and the magnetic surfaces are being simulated, with the currents in the coils, the total plasma current, its current density function and the magnetic permeability of the iron being the data for the problem; a certain number of the characteristic parameter of the equilibrium configuration is calculated. Secondly, a simple method of calculation is adopted in the determination of equilibrium fields and currents in iron core HL-1M tokamak device. In the plasma equilibrium, the magnetic effect of the air gaps in the iron core and the iron magnetic shielded plate are considered in HL-1M device. Reliable data are provided for designing and constructing the poloidal field system of HL-1M device. A good computer code is constructed, which may be useful in operating on analysis for the future device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Densmore, Jeffery D.; Larsen, Edward W.
2004-01-01
The equations of nonlinear, time-dependent radiative transfer are known to yield the equilibrium diffusion equation as the leading-order solution of an asymptotic analysis when the mean-free path and mean-free time of a photon become small. We apply this same analysis to the Fleck-Cummings, Carter-Forest, and N'kaoua Monte Carlo approximations for grey (frequency-independent) radiative transfer. Although Monte Carlo simulation usually does not require the discretizations found in deterministic transport techniques, Monte Carlo methods for radiative transfer require a time discretization due to the nonlinearities of the problem. If an asymptotic analysis of the equations used by a particular Monte Carlo method yields an accurate time-discretized version of the equilibrium diffusion equation, the method should generate accurate solutions if a time discretization is chosen that resolves temperature changes, even if the time steps are much larger than the mean-free time of a photon. This analysis is of interest because in many radiative transfer problems, it is a practical necessity to use time steps that are large compared to a mean-free time. Our asymptotic analysis shows that: (i) the N'kaoua method has the equilibrium diffusion limit, (ii) the Carter-Forest method has the equilibrium diffusion limit if the material temperature change during a time step is small, and (iii) the Fleck-Cummings method does not have the equilibrium diffusion limit. We include numerical results that verify our theoretical predictions
Nonlinear analysis of shear deformable beam-columns partially ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, a boundary element method is developed for the nonlinear analysis of shear deformable beam-columns of arbitrary doubly symmetric simply or multiply connected constant cross section, partially supported on tensionless Winkler foundation, undergoing moderate large deflections under general boundary ...
SYSTEMATIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF PARTIALLY AND FULLY HOMOMORPHIC CRYPTOSYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Epishkina
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this article provides an overview of the known partially and fully homomorphic cryptosystem, such as: RSA, ElGamal, Paillier, Gentry and Halevi. Justified the homomorphic properties of the considered cryptosystems. The comparative analysis of the homomorphic encryption algorithms has been committed
Function spaces and partial differential equations volume 2 : contemporary analysis
Taheri, Ali
2015-01-01
This is a book written primarily for graduate students and early researchers in the fields of Analysis and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Coverage of the material is essentially self-contained, extensive and novel with great attention to details and rigour.
SLAC three-body partial wave analysis system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aston, D.; Lasinski, T.A.; Sinervo, P.K.
1985-10-01
We present a heuristic description of the SLAC-LBL three-meson partial wave model, and describe how we have implemented it at SLAC. The discussion details the assumptions of the model and the analysis, and emphasizes the methods we have used to prepare and fit the data. 28 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab
Towards a simple method of analysis for partially prestressed concrete
Bruggeling, A.S.G.
1983-01-01
This report examines the question whether, and to what extent, it is possible to leave the time-dependent effects out of account in the analysis of partially prestressed concrete, at least in so far as they relate to the redistribution of the stresses over the cross-section.
Analysis of the trend to equilibrium of a chemically reacting system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kremer, Gilberto M; Bianchi, Miriam Pandolfi; Soares, Ana Jacinta
2007-01-01
In this present paper, a quaternary gaseous reactive mixture, for which the chemical reaction is close to its final stage and the elastic and reactive frequencies are comparable, is modelled within the Boltzmann equation extended to reacting gases. The main objective is a detailed analysis of the non-equilibrium effects arising in the reactive system A 1 + A 2 ↔ A 3 + A 4 , in a flow regime which is considered not far away from thermal, mechanical and chemical equilibrium. A first-order perturbation solution technique is applied to the macroscopic field equations for the spatially homogeneous gas system, and the trend to equilibrium is studied in detail. Adopting elastic hard-spheres and reactive line-of-centres cross sections and an appropriate choice of the input distribution functions-which allows us to distinguish the two cases where the constituents are either at same or different temperatures-explicit computations of the linearized production terms for mass, momentum and total energy are performed for each gas species. The departures from the equilibrium states of densities, temperatures and diffusion fluxes are characterized by small perturbations of their corresponding equilibrium values. For the hydrogen-chlorine system, the perturbations are plotted as functions of time for both cases where the species are either at the same or different temperatures. Moreover, the trend to equilibrium of the reaction rates is represented for the forward and backward reaction H 2 + Cl ↔ HCl + H
THE ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL EQUILIBRIUM THROUGH THE COST OF THE INVESTED CAPITAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MELANIA ELENA MICULEAC
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The financial equilibrium of a company can be analyzed through the cost of the invested capital. It is the most pragmatic approach of the financial equilibrium analysis because it takes into account the cost of invested resources, their capacity to account return. I suggest a model to approach the analysis of the balanced average cost of the invested capital using the method of chain substitutions. I reached the conclusion that the main consequence of changes in the balanced average cost of the capital is on the company’s value.
Barsuk, Alexandr A.; Paladi, Florentin
2018-04-01
The dynamic behavior of thermodynamic system, described by one order parameter and one control parameter, in a small neighborhood of ordinary and bifurcation equilibrium values of the system parameters is studied. Using the general methods of investigating the branching (bifurcations) of solutions for nonlinear equations, we performed an exhaustive analysis of the order parameter dependences on the control parameter in a small vicinity of the equilibrium values of parameters, including the stability analysis of the equilibrium states, and the asymptotic behavior of the order parameter dependences on the control parameter (bifurcation diagrams). The peculiarities of the transition to an unstable state of the system are discussed, and the estimates of the transition time to the unstable state in the neighborhood of ordinary and bifurcation equilibrium values of parameters are given. The influence of an external field on the dynamic behavior of thermodynamic system is analyzed, and the peculiarities of the system dynamic behavior are discussed near the ordinary and bifurcation equilibrium values of parameters in the presence of external field. The dynamic process of magnetization of a ferromagnet is discussed by using the general methods of bifurcation and stability analysis presented in the paper.
Restructured electric power systems analysis of electricity markets with equilibrium models
2010-01-01
Electricity market deregulation is driving the power energy production from a monopolistic structure into a competitive market environment. The development of electricity markets has necessitated the need to analyze market behavior and power. Restructured Electric Power Systems reviews the latest developments in electricity market equilibrium models and discusses the application of such models in the practical analysis and assessment of electricity markets.
Structural phase diagram and equilibrium oxygen partial pressure of YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{6}_{+}_{x}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, N.H.; Lebech, B.; Poulsen, H.F.
1990-01-01
of the ordering of oxygen. Oxygen equilibrium partial pressure shows significant variations with temperature and concentration which indicate that x = 0.15 and x = 0.92 are minimum and maximum oxygen concentrations. Measurements of oxygen in-diffusion flow show relaxation type behaviour: View the MathML source......An experimental technique by which in-situ gas volumetric measurements are carried out on a neutron powder diffractometer, is presented and used for simultaneous studies of oxygen equilibrium partial pressure and the structural phase diagram of YBa2Cu3O6 + x. Experimental data was collected under...... near equilibrium conditions at 350 points in (x,T)-space with 0.15 gas law in connection with iodiometric titration and structural analyses. The temperature...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Tongkyu; Yang, Won Sik; Kim, Sang-Ji
2017-01-01
Highlights: • An enhanced search algorithm for charged fuel enrichment was developed for equilibrium cycle analysis with REBUS-3. • The new search algorithm is not sensitive to the user-specified initial guesses. • The new algorithm reduces the computational time by a factor of 2–3. - Abstract: This paper presents an enhanced search algorithm for the charged fuel enrichment in equilibrium cycle analysis of REBUS-3. The current enrichment search algorithm of REBUS-3 takes a large number of iterations to yield a converged solution or even terminates without a converged solution when the user-specified initial guesses are far from the solution. To resolve the convergence problem and to reduce the computational time, an enhanced search algorithm was developed. The enhanced algorithm is based on the idea of minimizing the number of enrichment estimates by allowing drastic enrichment changes and by optimizing the current search algorithm of REBUS-3. Three equilibrium cycle problems with recycling, without recycling and of high discharge burnup were defined and a series of sensitivity analyses were performed with a wide range of user-specified initial guesses. Test results showed that the enhanced search algorithm is able to produce a converged solution regardless of the initial guesses. In addition, it was able to reduce the number of flux calculations by a factor of 2.9, 1.8, and 1.7 for equilibrium cycle problems with recycling, without recycling, and of high discharge burnup, respectively, compared to the current search algorithm.
Meta-analysis of adjunctive levetiracetam in refractory partial sei
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHANG Ying
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the effects and tolerability of adjunctive levetiracetam (LEV in refractory partial seizures. Methods Relevant research articles about randomized controlled trials of adjunctive LEV in refractory partial seizures from January 1998 to December 2010 were retrieved from Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMbase, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI, VIP, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI database, China Biology Medicine (CBM. Two reviewers independently evaluated the quality of the included articles and abstracted the data. A Meta-analysis was conducted by using RevMan 5.0 software. Results According to the enrollment criteria, eleven prospective, randomized controlled clinical trials with a total of 1192 in LEV group and 789 in placebo group were finally selected. The reduction in three endpoints (a 50% or greater reduction of partial seizure frequency per week, a 75% or greater reduction of partial seizure frequency per week and seizure free was significant in LEV group than placebo group. There was no significance between LEV group and placebo group in the withdrawl rate (1000 mg/d: OR = 1.180, 95%CI: 0.690-2.010, P = 0.540; 2000 mg/d: OR = 1.530, 95%CI: 0.770-3.030, P = 0.230; 3000 mg/d: OR = 1.000, 95% CI: 0.620-1.600, P = 1.000. The following adverse events were associated with LEV: somnolence (OR = 1.720, 95%CI: 1.280-2.310, P = 0.000, dizziness (OR = 1.490, 95%CI: 1.000-2.220, P = 0.050, asthenia (OR = 1.670, 95%CI: 1.140-2.240, P = 0.008, nasopharyngitis (OR = 1.120, 95% CI: 0.710-1.760, P = 0.630, psychiatric and behavioral abnormalities (OR = 2.120, 95% CI: 1.370-3.280, P = 0.000. Conclusion LEV is effective and well tolerated when added to existing therapy in patients with refractory partial seizures compared with control drugs. Further studies are needed to identify the effects of monotherapy of LEV in partial seizures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Wang, Weile [ORNL; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Nemani, Ramakrishna R [NASA Ames Research Center
2009-01-01
The increasing complexity of ecosystem models represents a major difficulty in tuning model parameters and analyzing simulated results. To address this problem, this study develops a hierarchical scheme that simplifies the Biome-BGC model into three functionally cascaded tiers and analyzes them sequentially. The first-tier model focuses on leaf-level ecophysiological processes; it simulates evapotranspiration and photosynthesis with prescribed leaf area index (LAI). The restriction on LAI is then lifted in the following two model tiers, which analyze how carbon and nitrogen is cycled at the whole-plant level (the second tier) and in all litter/soil pools (the third tier) to dynamically support the prescribed canopy. In particular, this study analyzes the steady state of these two model tiers by a set of equilibrium equations that are derived from Biome-BGC algorithms and are based on the principle of mass balance. Instead of spinning-up the model for thousands of climate years, these equations are able to estimate carbon/nitrogen stocks and fluxes of the target (steady-state) ecosystem directly from the results obtained by the first-tier model. The model hierarchy is examined with model experiments at four AmeriFlux sites. The results indicate that the proposed scheme can effectively calibrate Biome-BGC to simulate observed fluxes of evapotranspiration and photosynthesis; and the carbon/nitrogen stocks estimated by the equilibrium analysis approach are highly consistent with the results of model simulations. Therefore, the scheme developed in this study may serve as a practical guide to calibrate/analyze Biome-BGC; it also provides an efficient way to solve the problem of model spin-up, especially for applications over large regions. The same methodology may help analyze other similar ecosystem models as well.
Seismic Response Analysis of Continuous Multispan Bridges with Partial Isolation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Tubaldi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Partially isolated bridges are a particular class of bridges in which isolation bearings are placed only between the piers top and the deck whereas seismic stoppers restrain the transverse motion of the deck at the abutments. This paper proposes an analytical formulation for the seismic analysis of these bridges, modelled as beams with intermediate viscoelastic restraints whose properties describe the pier-isolator behaviour. Different techniques are developed for solving the seismic problem. The first technique employs the complex mode superposition method and provides an exact benchmark solution to the problem at hand. The two other simplified techniques are based on an approximation of the displacement field and are useful for preliminary assessment and design purposes. A realistic bridge is considered as case study and its seismic response under a set of ground motion records is analyzed. First, the complex mode superposition method is applied to study the characteristic features of the dynamic and seismic response of the system. A parametric analysis is carried out to evaluate the influence of support stiffness and damping on the seismic performance. Then, a comparison is made between the exact solution and the approximate solutions in order to evaluate the accuracy and suitability of the simplified analysis techniques for evaluating the seismic response of partially isolated bridges.
Ignaciuk, A.; Vöhringer, F.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Ierland, van E.C.
2006-01-01
Bioenergy has several advantages over fossil fuels. For example, it delivers energy at low net CO2 emission levels and contributes to sustaining future energy supplies. The concern, however, is that an increase in biomass plantations will reduce the land available for agricultural production. The
Structural analysis of equilibrium and ohmic heating coil assemblies for the TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhyay, S.
1975-10-01
The structural adequacy of the equilibrium and ohmic heating coils and their support systems for the TFTR device has been investigated. The capability of the coils to span ribs of the support structure has been established. The support structure has been found to be effective in resisting the magnetic forces in the coils. The bands encircling the outboard coils and the band tensioning devices have been found to perform adequately. The analysis is based on October 1975 conceptual design
Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Tyner, Wallace E.
2009-01-01
In this paper, we offer a general equilibrium analysis of the impacts of US and EU biofuel mandates for the global livestock sector. Our simulation boosts biofuel production in the US and EU from 2006 levels to mandated 2015 levels. We show that mandates will encourage crop production in both biofuel and non biofuel producing regions, while reducing livestock and livestock production in most regions of the world. The non-ruminant industry curtails its production more than other livestock indu...
Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville
2011-01-01
Historically, tourism policy analysis in South Africa has posed challenges to accurate measurement. The primary reason for this is that tourism is not designated as an 'industry' in standard economic accounts. This paper therefore demonstrates the relevance and need for applied general equilibrium (AGE) models to be completed and extended through an integration with tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) as a tool for policy makers (especially tourism policy makers) in South Africa. The paper sets...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.
1997-09-01
Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy''s Hanford Site. Because of water''s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site''s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. Webb et al. identified Tank U-105 as a Conditionally Safe saltcake tank. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that is currently safe based on waste classification criteria but could, if dried, be classified as open-quotes Unsafe.close quotes To provide information on the behavior of organic-bearing wastes, the Westinghouse Hanford Company provided us with four waste samples taken from Tank 241-U-105 (U-105) to determine the effect of P H2O on their equilibrium water content
Stability Analysis of Anchored Soil Slope Based on Finite Element Limit Equilibrium Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rui Zhang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Under the condition of the plane strain, finite element limit equilibrium method is used to study some key problems of stability analysis for anchored slope. The definition of safe factor in slices method is generalized into FEM. The “true” stress field in the whole structure can be obtained by elastic-plastic finite element analysis. Then, the optimal search for the most dangerous sliding surface with Hooke-Jeeves optimized searching method is introduced. Three cases of stability analysis of natural slope, anchored slope with seepage, and excavation anchored slope are conducted. The differences in safety factor quantity, shape and location of slip surface, anchoring effect among slices method, finite element strength reduction method (SRM, and finite element limit equilibrium method are comparatively analyzed. The results show that the safety factor given by the FEM is greater and the unfavorable slip surface is deeper than that by the slice method. The finite element limit equilibrium method has high calculation accuracy, and to some extent the slice method underestimates the effect of anchor, and the effect of anchor is overrated in the SRM.
ASPECTS OF FINANCIAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN MANAGEMENT DECISIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniela Cristina Solomon
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Considering the impact of risk factors in the economic environment, this study provides to all users of financial information a possible pattern for analyzing the financial equilibrium, designed to clarify the importance of dynamic analysis of indicators characterizing the financial equilibrium of an enterprise, expressed on absolute values, especially for managers in decision-making on future work, aimed at achieving pre-established strategic and tactical objectives. Practice has shown that the management cannot be based on intuition and routine but on a scientific analysis, on a thorough knowledge of the existing situation, as well as on the identification of vulnerabilities and opportunities for development. In order to promote a rational policy concerning business growth and achieving economic and financial satisfactory results, the company’s management grants a special importance to the financial diagnosis. The support of financial analysis is the balance sheet that allows developing financial diagnosis on the financial equilibrium conditions and creditworthiness, objectives that allow the evaluation of the independence of the firm and its market value.
Equilibrium paths analysis of materials with rheological properties by using the chaos theory
Bednarek, Paweł; Rządkowski, Jan
2018-01-01
The numerical equilibrium path analysis of the material with random rheological properties by using standard procedures and specialist computer programs was not successful. The proper solution for the analysed heuristic model of the material was obtained on the base of chaos theory elements and neural networks. The paper deals with mathematical reasons of used computer programs and also are elaborated the properties of the attractor used in analysis. There are presented results of conducted numerical analysis both in a numerical and in graphical form for the used procedures.
Asymptotic analysis of discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui, Xia; Yuan, Guang-wei; Shen, Zhi-jun
2016-01-01
Motivated by providing well-behaved fully discrete schemes in practice, this paper extends the asymptotic analysis on time integration methods for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion in [2] to space discretizations. Therein studies were carried out on a two-temperature model with Larsen's flux-limited diffusion operator, both the implicitly balanced (IB) and linearly implicit (LI) methods were shown asymptotic-preserving. In this paper, we focus on asymptotic analysis for space discrete schemes in dimensions one and two. First, in construction of the schemes, in contrast to traditional first-order approximations, asymmetric second-order accurate spatial approximations are devised for flux-limiters on boundary, and discrete schemes with second-order accuracy on global spatial domain are acquired consequently. Then by employing formal asymptotic analysis, the first-order asymptotic-preserving property for these schemes and furthermore for the fully discrete schemes is shown. Finally, with the help of manufactured solutions, numerical tests are performed, which demonstrate quantitatively the fully discrete schemes with IB time evolution indeed have the accuracy and asymptotic convergence as theory predicts, hence are well qualified for both non-equilibrium and equilibrium radiation diffusion. - Highlights: • Provide AP fully discrete schemes for non-equilibrium radiation diffusion. • Propose second order accurate schemes by asymmetric approach for boundary flux-limiter. • Show first order AP property of spatially and fully discrete schemes with IB evolution. • Devise subtle artificial solutions; verify accuracy and AP property quantitatively. • Ideas can be generalized to 3-dimensional problems and higher order implicit schemes.
Economical analysis of the second partial reload for Angra 1 with partial low-leakage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mascarenhas, H.A.; Teixeira, M.C.C.; Dias, A.M.
1990-01-01
Preliminary results for the Angra 1 second reload design with partial low-leakage were assessed with NUCOST 1.0, code for nuclear power costs calculation. In the proposed scheme, some partially burned fuel assemblies (FAs) are located at the core boundary, while new FAs occupy more internal positions. The nuclear design - utilizing the code system SAV (from Siemens/KWU Group, F.R. Germany) - has been performed with detail for the 3rd cycle while simpler approach has been utilized for subsequent reloads. Results of NUCOST 1.0 show that the partial low-leakage reload in the 3rd cycle of Angra 1 offers fuel costs 1% lower when compared to the Plant's actual reload scheme, what corresponds to an savings of about US$190.000. When operation and maintenance and capital costs are also considered, economies in the order of US$2.6 million are obrained. (author) [pt
Partial correlation analysis method in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions
Olszewski, Adam; Broniowski, Wojciech
2017-11-01
We argue that statistical data analysis of two-particle longitudinal correlations in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions may be efficiently carried out with the technique of partial covariance. In this method, the spurious event-by-event fluctuations due to imprecise centrality determination are eliminated via projecting out the component of the covariance influenced by the centrality fluctuations. We bring up the relationship of the partial covariance to the conditional covariance. Importantly, in the superposition approach, where hadrons are produced independently from a collection of sources, the framework allows us to impose centrality constraints on the number of sources rather than hadrons, that way unfolding of the trivial fluctuations from statistical hadronization and focusing better on the initial-state physics. We show, using simulated data from hydrodynamics followed with statistical hadronization, that the technique is practical and very simple to use, giving insight into the correlations generated in the initial stage. We also discuss the issues related to separation of the short- and long-range components of the correlation functions and show that in our example the short-range component from the resonance decays is largely reduced by considering pions of the same sign. We demonstrate the method explicitly on the cases where centrality is determined with a single central control bin or with two peripheral control bins.
Vibration analysis of partially cracked plate submerged in fluid
Soni, Shashank; Jain, N. K.; Joshi, P. V.
2018-01-01
The present work proposes an analytical model for vibration analysis of partially cracked rectangular plates coupled with fluid medium. The governing equation of motion for the isotropic plate based on the classical plate theory is modified to accommodate a part through continuous line crack according to simplified line spring model. The influence of surrounding fluid medium is incorporated in the governing equation in the form of inertia effects based on velocity potential function and Bernoulli's equations. Both partially and totally submerged plate configurations are considered. The governing equation also considers the in-plane stretching due to lateral deflection in the form of in-plane forces which introduces geometric non-linearity into the system. The fundamental frequencies are evaluated by expressing the lateral deflection in terms of modal functions. The assessment of the present results is carried out for intact submerged plate as to the best of the author's knowledge the literature lacks in analytical results for submerged cracked plates. New results for fundamental frequencies are presented as affected by crack length, fluid level, fluid density and immersed depth of plate. By employing the method of multiple scales, the frequency response and peak amplitude of the cracked structure is analyzed. The non-linear frequency response curves show the phenomenon of bending hardening or softening and the effect of fluid dynamic pressure on the response of the cracked plate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray S. Chang
2005-01-01
The currently being developed advanced High Temperature gas-cooled Reactors (HTR) is able to achieve a simplification of safety through reliance on innovative features and passive systems. One of the innovative features in these HTRs is reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles to retain the fission products even under extreme accident conditions. Traditionally, the effect of the random fuel kernel distribution in the fuel pebble/block is addressed through the use of the Dancoff correction factor in the resonance treatment. However, the Dancoff correction factor is a function of burnup and fuel kernel packing factor, which requires that the Dancoff correction factor be updated during Equilibrium Fuel Cycle (EqFC) analysis. An advanced KbK-sph model and whole pebble super lattice model (PSLM), which can address and update the burnup dependent Dancoff effect during the EqFC analysis. The pebble homogeneous lattice model (HLM) is verified by the burnup characteristics with the double-heterogeneous KbK-sph lattice model results. This study summarizes and compares the KbK-sph lattice model and HLM burnup analyzed results. Finally, we discuss the Monte-Carlo coupling with a fuel depletion and buildup code--ORIGEN-2 as a fuel burnup analysis tool and its PSLM calculated results for the HTR EqFC burnup analysis
Poles of the Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices
Batinić, M.; Ceci, S.; Švarc, A.; Zauner, B.
2010-09-01
The Zagreb analysis partial-wave T matrices included in the Review of Particle Physics [by the Particle Data Group (PDG)] contain Breit-Wigner parameters only. As the advantages of pole over Breit-Wigner parameters in quantifying scattering matrix resonant states are becoming indisputable, we supplement the original solution with the pole parameters. Because of an already reported numeric error in the S11 analytic continuation [Batinić , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.57.1004 57, 1004(E) (1997); arXiv:nucl-th/9703023], we declare the old BATINIC 95 solution, presently included by the PDG, invalid. Instead, we offer two new solutions: (A) corrected BATINIC 95 and (B) a new solution with an improved S11 πN elastic input. We endorse solution (B).
Development of the PARVMEC Code for Rapid Analysis of 3D MHD Equilibrium
Seal, Sudip; Hirshman, Steven; Cianciosa, Mark; Wingen, Andreas; Unterberg, Ezekiel; Wilcox, Robert; ORNL Collaboration
2015-11-01
The VMEC three-dimensional (3D) MHD equilibrium has been used extensively for designing stellarator experiments and analyzing experimental data in such strongly 3D systems. Recent applications of VMEC include 2D systems such as tokamaks (in particular, the D3D experiment), where application of very small (delB/B ~ 10-3) 3D resonant magnetic field perturbations render the underlying assumption of axisymmetry invalid. In order to facilitate the rapid analysis of such equilibria (for example, for reconstruction purposes), we have undertaken the task of parallelizing the VMEC code (PARVMEC) to produce a scalable and temporally rapidly convergent equilibrium code for use on parallel distributed memory platforms. The parallelization task naturally splits into three distinct parts 1) radial surfaces in the fixed-boundary part of the calculation; 2) two 2D angular meshes needed to compute the Green's function integrals over the plasma boundary for the free-boundary part of the code; and 3) block tridiagonal matrix needed to compute the full (3D) pre-conditioner near the final equilibrium state. Preliminary results show that scalability is achieved for tasks 1 and 3, with task 2 still nearing completion. The impact of this work on the rapid reconstruction of D3D plasmas using PARVMEC in the V3FIT code will be discussed. Work supported by U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC.
Equilibrium and linear analysis of rotating plasmas: fluid and guiding center results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacono, R.
1990-06-01
This work is devoted to the equilibrium and stability of rotating plasmas. Apart from its theoretical interest, this subject has become of practical importance in fusion research, due to the use in recent tokamak experiments of auxiliary heating methods such as neutral-beam injection, which can produce large plasma flows. Flow velocities up to the ion sound speed have been measured on different machines and new phenomena associated with the flow, such as distorsions of the plasma equilibrium profiles, have been observed. As a consequence, flows must be included in the macroscopic description of plasma equilibrium, which is the basis for the analysis and the design of magnetic confinement machines, and the stability properties of equilibria with flows need to be investigated. Here, attention is centered on toroidal confinement machines and in particular on tokamaks. However, some of the results to be presented may be of interest also for other domains (strong mass flows also occur in astrophysical and geophysical contexts such as in the Jovian magnetosphere or in the Earth's magnetopause and plasmapause. It should be noted that equilibrium and, in particular, stability with flows are poorly understood at present. Therefore, many of the questions we will consider are of quite a general nature. We are not yet at the point where quantitative comparisons with specific experiments can be made. Even the choice of a convenient model to study plasma flow is far from being evident. So far most of the theoretical investigations have used the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, which is one of the simplest descriptions of a plasma. In this work, however, it will be shown that, for rotating plasmas, the 'simple' MHD model can give very complicated and physically meaningless results, while more 'complicated' models can provide a simpler and more realistic description of the plasma behaviour. 65 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs
Evaluation of remote maintenance schemes by plasma equilibrium analysis in Tokamak DEMO reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Utoh, Hiroyasu; Tobita, Kenji; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshiteru
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The remote maintenance schemes in DEMO reactor were evaluated by the plasma equilibrium analysis. • Horizontal sector transport maintenance scheme requires the largest total PF coil current. • The difference of total PF coil current for MHD equilibrium in between the large segmented divertor maintenance and the segmentalized divertor maintenance was about 10%. - Abstract: The remote maintenance schemes in a DEMO reactor are categorized by insertion direction, blanket segmentation, and divertor maintenance scheme, and are quantitatively evaluated by analysing the plasma equilibrium. The positions of the poloidal field (PF) coil are limited by the size of the toroidal field (TF) coil and the maintenance port layout of each remote maintenance scheme. Because the PF coils are located near the larger TF coil and far from the plasma surface, the horizontal sector transport maintenance scheme requires the largest part of total PF coil current, 25% larger than that required for separated sector transport using vertical maintenance ports with segmented divertor maintenance (SDM). In the unsegmented divertor maintenance (UDM) scheme, the total magnetic stored energy in the PF coils at plasma equilibrium is about 30% larger than that stored in the SDM scheme, but the time required for removal and installation of all the divertor cassettes in the UDM scheme is roughly a third of that required in the SDM scheme because the number of divertor cassettes in the UDM scheme is a third of that in the SDM scheme. From the viewpoint of simple maintenance operations, the merit of the UDM scheme has more merit than the SDM scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Kuan; Eddy, T.L.
1993-01-01
A GTME (Generalized MultiThermodynamic Equilibrium) plasma model is developed for plasmas in both Non-LThE (Non-Local Thermal Equilibrium) and Non-LChE (Non-Local Chemical Equilibrium). The model uses multitemperatures for thermal nonequilibrium and non-zero chemical affinities as a measure of the deviation from chemical equilibrium. The plasma is treated as an ideal gas with the Debye-Hueckel approximation employed for pressure correction. The proration method is used when the cutoff energy level is between two discrete levels. The composition and internal partition functions of a hydrogen plasma are presented for electron temperatures ranging from 5000 to 35000 K and pressures from 0.1 to 1000 kPa. Number densities of 7 different species of hydrogen plasma and internal partition functions of different energy modes (rotational, vibrational, and electronic excitation) are computed for three affinity values. The results differ from other plasma properties in that they 1) are not based on equilibrium properties; and 2) are expressed as a function of different energy distribution parameters (temperatures) within each energy mode of each species as appropriate. The computed number densities and partition functions are applicable to calculating the thermodynamic, transport, and radiation properties of a hydrogen plasma not in thermal and chemical equilibria. The nonequilibrium plasma model and plasma compositions presented in this paper are very useful to the diagnosis of high-speed and/or low-pressure plasma flows in which the assumptions of local thermal and chemical equilibrium are invalid. (orig.)
Estimating Equilibrium Effects of Job Search Assistance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gautier, Pieter; Muller, Paul; van der Klaauw, Bas
that the nonparticipants in the experiment regions find jobs slower after the introduction of the activation program (relative to workers in other regions). We then estimate an equilibrium search model. This model shows that a large scale role out of the activation program decreases welfare, while a standard partial...... microeconometric cost-benefit analysis would conclude the opposite....
A kinetic and equilibrium analysis of silicon carbide chemical vapor deposition on monofilaments
Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M. A.
1993-01-01
Chemical kinetics of atmospheric pressure silicon carbide (SiC) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from dilute silane and propane source gases in hydrogen is numerically analyzed in a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for CVD on monofilaments. The chemical composition of the SiC deposit is assessed both from the calculated total fluxes of carbon and silicon and from chemical equilibrium considerations for the prevailing temperatures and species concentrations at and along the filament surface. The effects of gas and surface chemistry on the evolution of major gas phase species are considered in the analysis.
Cap-and-Trade Modeling and Analysis: Congested Electricity Market Equilibrium
Limpaitoon, Tanachai
This dissertation presents an equilibrium framework for analyzing the impact of cap-and-trade regulation on transmission-constrained electricity market. The cap-and-trade regulation of greenhouse gas emissions has gained momentum in the past decade. The impact of the regulation and its efficacy in the electric power industry depend on interactions of demand elasticity, transmission network, market structure, and strategic behavior of firms. I develop an equilibrium model of an oligopoly electricity market in conjunction with a market for tradable emissions permits to study the implications of such interactions. My goal is to identify inefficiencies that may arise from policy design elements and to avoid any unintended adverse consequences on the electric power sector. I demonstrate this modeling framework with three case studies examining the impact of carbon cap-and-trade regulation. In the first case study, I study equilibrium results under various scenarios of resource ownership and emission targets using a 24-bus IEEE electric transmission system. The second and third case studies apply the equilibrium model to a realistic electricity market, Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) 225-bus system with a detailed representation of the California market. In the first and second case studies, I examine oligopoly in electricity with perfect competition in the permit market. I find that under a stringent emission cap and a high degree of concentration of non-polluting firms, the electricity market is subject to potential abuses of market power. Also, market power can occur in the procurement of non-polluting energy through the permit market when non-polluting resources are geographically concentrated in a transmission-constrained market. In the third case study, I relax the competitive market structure assumption of the permit market by allowing oligopolistic competition in the market through a conjectural variation approach. A short-term equilibrium
Growth modeling of Cryptomeria japonica by partial trunk analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vinícius Morais Coutinho
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the growth pattern of Cryptomeria japonica increment (L. F. D. Don. and to describe the probability distribution in stands stablished at the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State. Twenty trees were sampled in a 34 years-old stand, with 3 m x 2 m spacing. Wood disks were taken from each tree at 1.3 m above the ground (DBH to perform partial stem analysis. Diameter growth series without bark were used to generate the average cumulative growth curves for DBH (cm, mean annual increment (MAI and current annual increment (CAI. From the increment data, the frequency distribution was evaluated by means of probability density functions (pdfs. The mean annual increment for DBH was 0.78 cm year-1 and the age of intersection of CAI and MAI curves was between the 7th and 8th years. It was found that near 43% of the species increments are concentrated bellow 0.5 cm. The results are useful to define appropriate management strategies for the species for sites similar to the studying regions, defining for example ages of silvicultural intervention, such as thinning.
Li, Hua; Lai, Fukun; Luo, Rongmo
2009-11-17
A multiphysics model is presented in this paper for analysis of the influence of various equilibrium constants on the smart hydrogel responsive to the ionic strength of environmental solution, and termed the multieffect-coupling ionic-strength stimulus (MECis) model. The model is characterized by a set of partial differential governing equations by consideration of the mass and momentum conservations of the system and coupled chemical, electrical, and mechanical multienergy domains. The Nernst-Planck equations are derived by the mass conservation of the ionic species in both the interstitial fluid of the hydrogel and the surrounding solution. The binding reaction between the fixed charge groups of the hydrogel and the mobile ions in the solution is described by the fixed charge equation, which is based on the Langmuir monolayer theory. As an important effect for the binding reaction, the equilibrium constant is incorporated into the fixed charge equation. The kinetics of the hydrogel swelling/deswelling is illustrated by the mechanical equation, based on the law of momentum conservation for the solid polymeric networks matrix within the hydrogel. The MECis model is examined by comparison of the numerical simulations and experiments from open literature. The analysis of the influence of different equilibrium constants on the responsive characteristics of the ionic-strength-sensitive hydrogel is carried out with detailed discussion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Wei
2012-01-01
This paper examines the effectiveness of China’s indigenous R and D and technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. The mechanism of endogenous technical change (TC) is incorporated an intertemporal computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. R and D investments and knowledge creations are modeled as the endogenous behaviors of private firms. The accumulated stocks of knowledge are applied in the production process to affect the rate and bias of TC. Simulation results show that: (1) while China’s indigenous R and D efforts play a significant role to curb carbon emissions, sole dependence on R and D may be far from sufficient to achieve pledged climate target, with complementary policies being required to reinforce existing climate actions; (2) innovation policies can strengthen R and D investment and cut emissions further, but the complementary effect is relatively minor; (3) carbon taxation can generate significant carbon-saving benefits and fulfill climate target, but this achievement is at the cost of economic losses. The induced technical improvement, however, can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax distortion. - Highlights: ► We examine the effect of China’s technological innovation to curb its carbon emissions. ► A mechanism of R and D-induced technical change is incorporated into an intertemporal CGE model. ► Private R and D efforts and public R and D intervention are insufficient to achieve climate target. ► A carbon tax is indispensable to achieve climate target but at the cost of output losses. ► Induced technical change can partially mitigate the deadweight loss incurred by carbon tax.
Phase stability analysis of liquid-liquid equilibrium with stochastic methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Nagatani
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Minimization of Gibbs free energy using activity coefficient models and nonlinear equation solution techniques is commonly applied to phase stability problems. However, when conventional techniques, such as the Newton-Raphson method, are employed, serious convergence problems may arise. Due to the existence of multiple solutions, several problems can be found in modeling liquid-liquid equilibrium of multicomponent systems, which are highly dependent on the initial guess. In this work phase stability analysis of liquid-liquid equilibrium is investigated using the NRTL model. For this purpose, two distinct stochastic numerical algorithms are employed to minimize the tangent plane distance of Gibbs free energy: a subdivision algorithm that can find all roots of nonlinear equations for liquid-liquid stability analysis and the Simulated Annealing method. Results obtained in this work for the two stochastic algorithms are compared with those of the Interval Newton method from the literature. Several different binary and multicomponent systems from the literature were successfully investigated.
Buckling analysis of partially corroded steel plates with irregular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Department of Ocean Engineering, AmirKabir University of Technology, ... could yield some acceptance criteria to assist surveyors or designers in repair and .... Finite element model of a partially both-sided corroded plate (shell elements).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tingle, C.P.; Bonin, H.W.
1999-01-01
The analysis of alternate CANDU fuels along with natural uranium-based fuel was carried out from the view point of optimal in-core fuel management at approach to refuelling equilibrium. The alternate fuels considered in the present work include thorium containing oxide mixtures (MOX), plutonium-based MOX, and Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) spent fuel recycled in CANDU reactors (Direct Use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU (DUPIC)); these are compared with the usual natural UO 2 fuel. The focus of the study is on the 'Approach to Refuelling Equilibrium' period which immediately follows the initial commissioning of the reactor. The in-core fuel management problem for this period is treated as an optimization problem in which the objective function is the refuelling frequency to be minimized by adjusting the following decision variables: the channel to be refuelled next, the time of the refuelling and the number of fresh fuel bundles to be inserted in the channel. Several constraints are also included in the optimisation problem which is solved using Perturbation Theory. Both the present 37-rod CANDU fuel bundle and the proposed CANFLEX bundle designs are part of this study. The results include the time to reach refuelling equilibrium from initial start-up of the reactor, the average discharge burnup, the average refuelling frequency and the average channel and bundle powers relative to natural UO 2 . The model was initially tested and the average discharge burnup for natural UO 2 came within 2% of the industry accepted 199 MWh/kgHE. For this type of fuel, the optimization exercise predicted the savings of 43 bundles per full power year. In addition to producing average discharge burnups and other parameters for the advanced fuels investigated, the optimisation model also evidenced some problem areas like high power densities for fuels such as the DUPIC. Perturbation Theory has proven itself to be an accurate and valuable optimization tool in predicting the time between
Numerical Analysis for Stochastic Partial Differential Delay Equations with Jumps
Li, Yan; Hu, Junhao
2013-01-01
We investigate the convergence rate of Euler-Maruyama method for a class of stochastic partial differential delay equations driven by both Brownian motion and Poisson point processes. We discretize in space by a Galerkin method and in time by using a stochastic exponential integrator. We generalize some results of Bao et al. (2011) and Jacob et al. (2009) in finite dimensions to a class of stochastic partial differential delay equations with jumps in infinite dimensions.
Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q.
1995-01-01
A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships
Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)
1995-09-01
A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, N.H.; Lebech, B.; Poulsen, H.F.
1990-01-01
An experimental technique based on neutron powder diffraction and gas volumetry is presented and used to study the structural phase diagram of YBa2Cu3O6+x under equilibrium conditions in an extended part of (x, T)-phase (0.15
Comparative videostroboscopic analysis after different external partial laryngectomies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mumović Gordana M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. After external partial laryngectomias, videostroborscopy is very usefull in evaluation of postoperative phonatory mehanisms showing the “slow motion” of the vibrations of the remaining laryngeal structures. The aim of this paper was to compare the videostroboscopic characteristics of the vibration and to establish the differences in the phonation mechanisms depending on the type of external partial laryngectomy performed. Methods. This prospective study was conducted during the period 2003-2009 at the Ear, Nose and Throat Clinic, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, including 99 patients with laryngeal carcinoma, treated with open surgical approach using different types of vertical and horizontal partial laryngectomy. Videostroboscopy was used to analyse vibrations of the remaining laryngeal structures. Results. The dominant vibration structure after partial horizontal laryngectomy, chordectomy, frontolateral laryngectomy and three quarter laryngectomy was the remaining vocal fold, after hemilaryngectomy it was the false vocal fold and after subtotal and near total laryngectomy it was the arythenoid. In patients with supracricoid hemilaryngopharyngectomy performed, many different structures were involved in the vibration. After most of the partial laryngectomies, vibrations can be found in the reconstructed part of the defect. In both horizontal and vertical partial laryngectomies movements of the larynx during phonation were mostly medial, while in cricohyoidoglottopexies they were anterior-posterior. Most of the operated patients (72.7% had insufficient occlusion of the neoglottis during the phonation. Conclusion. Videostroboscopy is a useful method in examining the phonation mechanisms of reconstructed laryngeal structures after partial laryngectomy as well as in planning postoperative voice therapy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo A. da Mota Silveira
Full Text Available AbstractThis paper presents a nonlinear stability analysis of piles under bilateral contact constraints imposed by a geological medium (soil or rock. To solve this contact problem, the paper proposes a general numerical methodology, based on the finite element method (FEM. In this context, a geometrically nonlinear beam-column element is used to model the pile while the geological medium can be idealized as discrete (spring or continuum (Winkler and Pasternak foundation elements. Foundation elements are supposed to react under tension and compression, so during the deformation process the structural elements are subjected to bilateral contact constraints. The errors along the equilibrium paths are minimized and the convoluted nonlinear equilibrium paths are made traceable through the use of an updated Lagrangian formulation and a Newton-Raphson scheme working with the generalized displacement technique. The study offers stability analyses of three problems involving piles under bilateral contact constraints. The analyses show that in the evaluation of critical loads a great influence is wielded by the instability modes. Also, the structural system stiffness can be highly influenced by the representative model of the soil.
Stochastic programming and market equilibrium analysis of microgrids energy management systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Ming-Che; Lu, Su-Ying; Chen, Yen-Haw
2016-01-01
Microgrids facilitate optimum utilization of distributed renewable energy, provides better local energy supply, and reduces transmission loss and greenhouse gas emission. Because the uncertainty in energy demand affects the energy demand and supply system, the aim of this research is to develop a stochastic optimization and its market equilibrium for microgrids in the electricity market. Therefore, a two-stage stochastic programming model for microgrids and the market competition model are derived in this paper. In the stochastic model, energy demand and supply uncertainties are considered. Furthermore, a case study of the stochastic model is conducted to simulate the uncertainties on the INER microgrids in Taiwanese market. The optimal investment of the generators and batteries installation and operating strategies are determined under energy demand and supply uncertainties for the INER microgrids. The results show optimal investment and operating strategies for the current INER microgrids are also determined by the proposed two-stage stochastic model in the market. In addition, trade-off between the battery capacity and microgrids performance is investigated. Battery usage and power trading between the microgrids and main grid systems are the functions of battery capacity. - Highlights: • A two-stage stochastic programming model is developed for microgrids. • Market equilibrium analysis of microgrids is conducted. • A case study of the stochastic model is conducted for INER microgrids.
Modular reweighting software for statistical mechanical analysis of biased equilibrium data
Sindhikara, Daniel J.
2012-07-01
Here a simple, useful, modular approach and software suite designed for statistical reweighting and analysis of equilibrium ensembles is presented. Statistical reweighting is useful and sometimes necessary for analysis of equilibrium enhanced sampling methods, such as umbrella sampling or replica exchange, and also in experimental cases where biasing factors are explicitly known. Essentially, statistical reweighting allows extrapolation of data from one or more equilibrium ensembles to another. Here, the fundamental separable steps of statistical reweighting are broken up into modules - allowing for application to the general case and avoiding the black-box nature of some “all-inclusive” reweighting programs. Additionally, the programs included are, by-design, written with little dependencies. The compilers required are either pre-installed on most systems, or freely available for download with minimal trouble. Examples of the use of this suite applied to umbrella sampling and replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations will be shown along with advice on how to apply it in the general case. New version program summaryProgram title: Modular reweighting version 2 Catalogue identifier: AEJH_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJH_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 179 118 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8 518 178 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python 2.6+, Perl 5+ Computer: Any Operating system: Any RAM: 50-500 MB Supplementary material: An updated version of the original manuscript (Comput. Phys. Commun. 182 (2011) 2227) is available Classification: 4.13 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEJH_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 182 (2011) 2227 Does the new
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radović Katarina
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Various mobile devices are used in the therapy of unilateral free-end saddle. Unilateral dentures with precise connectivity elements are not used frequently. In this paper the problem of applying and functionality of unilateral freeend saddle denture without major connector was taken into consideration. Objective. The aim was to analyze and compare a unilateral RPD (removable partial denture and a classical RPD by calculating and analyzing stresses under different loads. Methods. 3D models of unilateral removable partial denture and classical removable partial denture with casted clasps were made by using computer program CATIA V5 (abutment teeth, canine and first premolar, with crowns and abutment tissues were also made. The models were built in full-scale. Stress analyses for both models were performed by applying a force of 300 N on the second premolar, a force of 500 N on the first molar and a force of 700 N on the second molar. Results. The Fault Model Extractor (FME analysis and calculation showed the complete behavior of unilateral removable partial denture and abutments (canine and first premolar, as well as the behavior of RPD under identical loading conditions. Applied forces with extreme values caused high stress levels on both models and their abutments within physiological limits. Conclusion. Having analyzed stresses under same conditions, we concluded that the unilateral RPD and classical RPD have similar physiological values.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics theory of econometric source discovery for large data analysis
van Bergem, Rutger; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Benachenhou, Dalila; Szu, Harold
2014-05-01
Almost all consumer and firm transactions are achieved using computers and as a result gives rise to increasingly large amounts of data available for analysts. The gold standard in Economic data manipulation techniques matured during a period of limited data access, and the new Large Data Analysis (LDA) paradigm we all face may quickly obfuscate most tools used by Economists. When coupled with an increased availability of numerous unstructured, multi-modal data sets, the impending 'data tsunami' could have serious detrimental effects for Economic forecasting, analysis, and research in general. Given this reality we propose a decision-aid framework for Augmented-LDA (A-LDA) - a synergistic approach to LDA which combines traditional supervised, rule-based Machine Learning (ML) strategies to iteratively uncover hidden sources in large data, the artificial neural network (ANN) Unsupervised Learning (USL) at the minimum Helmholtz free energy for isothermal dynamic equilibrium strategies, and the Economic intuitions required to handle problems encountered when interpreting large amounts of Financial or Economic data. To make the ANN USL framework applicable to economics we define the temperature, entropy, and energy concepts in Economics from non-equilibrium molecular thermodynamics of Boltzmann viewpoint, as well as defining an information geometry, on which the ANN can operate using USL to reduce information saturation. An exemplar of such a system representation is given for firm industry equilibrium. We demonstrate the traditional ML methodology in the economics context and leverage firm financial data to explore a frontier concept known as behavioral heterogeneity. Behavioral heterogeneity on the firm level can be imagined as a firm's interactions with different types of Economic entities over time. These interactions could impose varying degrees of institutional constraints on a firm's business behavior. We specifically look at behavioral heterogeneity for firms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simsek, Esra Bilgin [Yalova University, Yalova (Turkmenistan); Beker, Ulker [Yldz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)
2014-11-15
Arsenic adsorption properties of mono- (Fe or Al) and binary (Fe-Al) metal oxides supported on natural zeolite were investigated at three levels of temperature (298, 318 and 338 K). All data obtained from equilibrium experiments were analyzed by Freundlich, Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Sips, Toth and Redlich-Peterson isotherms, and error functions were used to predict the best fitting model. The error analysis demonstrated that the As(Ⅴ) adsorption processes were best described by the Dubinin-Raduskevich model with the lowest sum of normalized error values. According to results, the presence of iron and aluminum oxides in the zeolite network improved the As(Ⅴ) adsorption capacity of the raw zeolite (ZNa). The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses of ZNa-Fe and ZNa-AlFe samples suggested that the redox reactions are the postulated mechanisms for the adsorption onto them while the adsorption process is followed by surface complexation reactions for ZNa-Al.
PDASAC, Partial Differential Sensitivity Analysis of Stiff System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caracotsios, M.; Stewart, W.E.
2001-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: PDASAC solves stiff, nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems in a timelike dimension t and a space dimension x. Plane, circular cylindrical or spherical boundaries can be handled. Mixed-order systems of partial differential and algebraic equations can be analyzed with members of order or 0 or 1 in t, 0, 1 or 2 in x. Parametric sensitivities of the calculated states are computed simultaneously on request, via the Jacobian of the state equations. Initial and boundary conditions are efficiently reconciled. Local error control (in the max-norm or the 2-norm) is provided for the state vector and can include the parametric sensitivities if desired. 2 - Method of solution: The method of lines is used, with a user- selected x-grid and a minimum-bandwidth finite-difference approximations of the x-derivatives. Starting conditions are reconciled with a damped Newton algorithm adapted from Bain and Stewart (1991). Initial step selection is done by the first-order algorithms of Shampine (1987), extended here to differential- algebraic equation systems. The solution is continued with the DASSL predictor-corrector algorithm (Petzold 1983, Brenan et al. 1989) with the initial acceleration phase deleted and with row scaling of the Jacobian added. The predictor and corrector are expressed in divided-difference form, with the fixed-leading-coefficient form of corrector (Jackson and Sacks-Davis 1989; Brenan et al. 1989). Weights for the error tests are updated in each step with the user's tolerances at the predicted state. Sensitivity analysis is performed directly on the corrector equations of Caracotsios and Stewart (1985) and is extended here to the initialization when needed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: This algorithm, like DASSL, performs well on differential-algebraic equation systems of index 0 and 1 but not on higher-index systems; see Brenan et al. (1989). The user assigned the work array lengths and the output
Risk Route Choice Analysis and the Equilibrium Model under Anticipated Regret Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
pengcheng yuan
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The assumption about travellers’ route choice behaviour has major influence on the traffic flow equilibrium analysis. Previous studies about the travellers’ route choice were mainly based on the expected utility maximization theory. However, with the gradually increasing knowledge about the uncertainty of the transportation system, the researchers have realized that there is much constraint in expected utility maximization theory, because expected utility maximization requires travellers to be ‘absolutely rational’; but in fact, travellers are not truly ‘absolutely rational’. The anticipated regret theory proposes an alternative framework to the traditional risk-taking in route choice behaviour which might be more scientific and reasonable. We have applied the anticipated regret theory to the analysis of the risk route choosing process, and constructed an anticipated regret utility function. By a simple case which includes two parallel routes, the route choosing results influenced by the risk aversion degree, regret degree and the environment risk degree have been analyzed. Moreover, the user equilibrium model based on the anticipated regret theory has been established. The equivalence and the uniqueness of the model are proved; an efficacious algorithm is also proposed to solve the model. Both the model and the algorithm are demonstrated in a real network. By an experiment, the model results and the real data have been compared. It was found that the model results can be similar to the real data if a proper regret degree parameter is selected. This illustrates that the model can better explain the risk route choosing behaviour. Moreover, it was also found that the traveller’ regret degree increases when the environment becomes more and more risky.
Non-equilibrium scaling analysis of the Kondo model with voltage bias
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritsch, Peter; Kehrein, Stefan
2009-01-01
The quintessential description of Kondo physics in equilibrium is obtained within a scaling picture that shows the buildup of Kondo screening at low temperature. For the non-equilibrium Kondo model with a voltage bias, the key new feature are decoherence effects due to the current across the impurity. In the present paper, we show how one can develop a consistent framework for studying the non-equilibrium Kondo model within a scaling picture of infinitesimal unitary transformations (flow equations). Decoherence effects appear naturally in third order of the β-function and dominate the Hamiltonian flow for sufficiently large voltage bias. We work out the spin dynamics in non-equilibrium and compare it with finite temperature equilibrium results. In particular, we report on the behavior of the static spin susceptibility including leading logarithmic corrections and compare it with the celebrated equilibrium result as a function of temperature.
Radiographic analysis of partial or total vertebral body resection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitten, C.G.; Hammer, G.H.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Hugus, J.; Weinstein, J.N.
1991-01-01
Partial and total vertebrectomies are used in the treatment of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the spine. Serial radiographic studies are crucial in the follow-up of patients with vertebrectomies. This paper presents 33 cases and illustrates radiographic examples of both successful and complicated vertebrectomies, including radiographic signs of local tumor recurrence, loosening, migration or fracture of the hardware or methylmethacrylate, bone graft failure, and progressive spinal instability
An equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province, China
Luo, Jiao; Zhan, Jinyan; Lin, Yingzhi; Zhao, Chunhong
2014-09-01
Global land use structure is changing rapidly due to unceasing population growth and accelerated urbanization, which leads to fierce competition between the rigid demand for built-up area and the protection of cultivated land, forest, and grassland. It has been a great challenge to realize the sustainable development of land resources. Based on a computable general equilibrium model of land use change with a social accounting matrix dataset, this study implemented an equilibrium analysis of the land use structure in the Yunnan Province during the period of 2008-2020 under three scenarios, the baseline scenario, low TFP (total factor productivity) scenario, and high TFP scenario. The results indicated that under all three scenarios, area of cultivated land declined significantly along with a remarkable expansion of built-up area, while areas of forest, grassland, and unused land increased slightly. The growth rate of TFP had first negative and then positive effects on the expansion of built-up area and decline of cultivated land as it increased. Moreover, the simulated changes of both cultivated land and built-up area were the biggest under the low TFP scenario, and far exceeded the limit in the Overall Plan for Land Utilization in the Yunnan Province in 2020. The scenario-based simulation results are of important reference value for policy-makers in making land use decisions, balancing the fierce competition between the protection of cultivated land and the increasing demand for built-up area, and guaranteeing food security, ecological security, and the sustainable development of land resources.
Identification and Analysis of Student Conceptions Used To Solve Chemical Equilibrium Problems.
Voska, Kirk W.; Heikkinen, Henry W.
2000-01-01
Identifies and quantifies the chemistry conceptions used by students when solving chemical equilibrium problems requiring application of LeChatelier's Principle, and explores the feasibility of designing a paper and pencil test to accomplish these purposes. Eleven prevalent incorrect student conceptions about chemical equilibrium were identified…
Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Liu, Chia-Ju
2002-01-01
Investigates students' mental models of chemical equilibrium using dynamic science assessments. Reports that students at various levels have misconceptions about chemical equilibrium. Involves 10th grade students (n=30) in the study doing a series of hands-on chemical experiments. Focuses on the process of constructing mental models, dynamic…
Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis
Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.
Transition towards a low carbon economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis for Poland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Böhringer, Christoph; Rutherford, Thomas F.
2013-01-01
In the transition to sustainable economic structures the European Union assumes a leading role with its climate and energy package which sets ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets by 2020. Among EU Member States, Poland with its heavy energy system reliance on coal is particularly worried on the pending trade-offs between emission regulation and economic growth. In our computable general equilibrium analysis of the EU climate and energy package we show that economic adjustment cost for Poland hinge crucially on restrictions to where-flexibility of emission abatement, revenue recycling, and technological options in the power system. We conclude that more comprehensive flexibility provisions at the EU level and a diligent policy implementation at the national level could achieve the transition towards a low carbon economy at little cost thereby broadening societal support. - Highlights: ► Economic impact assessment of the EU climate and energy package for Poland. ► Sensitivity analysis on where-flexibility, revenue recycling and technology choice. ► Application of a hybrid bottom-up, top-down CGE model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vahid Dadashi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper is dedicated to the introduction a new class of equilibrium problems named generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problems which includes the classes of hemiequilibrium problems, equilibrium-like problems, equilibrium problems, hemivariational inequalities, and variational inequalities as special cases. By utilizing the auxiliary principle technique, some new predictor-corrector iterative algorithms for solving them are suggested and analyzed. The convergence analysis of the proposed iterative methods requires either partially relaxed monotonicity or jointly pseudomonotonicity of the bifunctions involved in generalized multivalued equilibrium-like problem. Results obtained in this paper include several new and known results as special cases.
Preliminary analysis of advanced equilibrium configuration for the fusion-driven subcritical system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu Delin; Wu Bin; Wu Yican
2003-01-01
The Fusion-Driven Subcritical System (FDS) is a subcritical nuclear energy system driven by fusion neutron source. In this paper, an advanced plasma configuration for FDS system has been proposed, which aims at high beta, high bootstrap current and good confinement. A fixed-boundary equilibrium code has been used to obtain ideal equilibrium configuration. In order to determine the feasibility of FDS operation, a two-dimensional time-dependent free boundary simulation code has been adopted to simulate time-scale evolution of plasma current profile and boundary position. By analyses, the Reversed Shear mode as the most attractive one has been recommended for the FDS equilibrium configuration design
Analysis of equilibrium in a tokamak by the finite-difference method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, K.E.; Jeun, G.D.
1983-01-01
Ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium in a Tokamak having a small radius with an elongated rectangular cross section is studied by applying the finite-difference method to the Grad-Shafranov equation to determine possible limitations for *b=8*pPsup(2)/Bsup(2). The coupled first-order differential equations resulting from the finite-difference Grad-Shafranov equation is solved by the numarical method:1)We concluded that equilibrium consideration alone gives no limitation even for *b approx.1. 2)We have obtained the equilibrium magnetic field configuration charcterized by a set of three parameters;the aspect ratio, *b,and the safety factor. (Author)
Baryon Spectroscopy Through Partial-Wave Analysis and Meson Photoproduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manley, D. Mark
2016-01-01
The principal goal of this project is the experimental and phenomenological study of baryon spectroscopy. The PI's group consists of himself and three graduate students. This final report summarizes research activities by the PI's group during the period 03/01/2015 to 08/14/2016. During this period, the PI co-authored 11 published journal papers and one proceedings article and presented three invited talks. The PI's general interest is the investigation of the baryon resonance spectrum up to masses of ~ 2 GeV. More detail is given on two research projects: Neutral Kaon Photoproduction and Partial-Wave Analyses of γp → η p, γn → η n, and γp → K"+ Λ.
Baryon Spectroscopy Through Partial-Wave Analysis and Meson Photoproduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manley, D. Mark [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States)
2016-09-08
The principal goal of this project is the experimental and phenomenological study of baryon spectroscopy. The PI's group consists of himself and three graduate students. This final report summarizes research activities by the PI's group during the period 03/01/2015 to 08/14/2016. During this period, the PI co-authored 11 published journal papers and one proceedings article and presented three invited talks. The PI's general interest is the investigation of the baryon resonance spectrum up to masses of ~ 2 GeV. More detail is given on two research projects: Neutral Kaon Photoproduction and Partial-Wave Analyses of γp → η p, γn → η n, and γp → K⁺ Λ.
Contrast analysis of the partial splenic artery embolization with splenectomy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Wusheng; He Qing; Zheng Zhiyong; Wu Shaoping; Xu Dawei
2006-01-01
Objective: To analyze the effects and the complications of partial splenic artery embolization (PSE) and splenectomy offering a feasible way to choose different therapeutic methods for hypersplenism. Methods: Forty-six patients treated with PSE and thirty-three undergone splenectomy were compared for their effectivenesses and complications in treating hypersplenism. Results: Thrombocyte and leucocyte counts increased markedly after the two kinds of treatment (P 0.05). The complication rate of the PSE was far more than that of the splenectomy (P<0.001). Conclusions Splenectomy is prior to PSE on patients with large mount of ascites, serious portal hypertension and splenomegaly. PSE is suitable for patients with poor liver function, blood coagulation disturbance, liver cancer complicated with hypersplenism and aging. (authors)
Stepwise Analysis of Differential Item Functioning Based on Multiple-Group Partial Credit Model.
Muraki, Eiji
1999-01-01
Extended an Item Response Theory (IRT) method for detection of differential item functioning to the partial credit model and applied the method to simulated data using a stepwise procedure. Then applied the stepwise DIF analysis based on the multiple-group partial credit model to writing trend data from the National Assessment of Educational…
Relaxation with high-speed plasma flows and singularity analysis in MHD equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiraishi, Junya; Ohsaki, Shuichi; Yoshida, Zensho
2004-01-01
Relaxation model that leads to plasma confinement with rigid-rotation is presented. This model applies to Jupiter's magnetosphere. It is shown that the invariance of canonical angular momentum of electron fluid, which is realized by axisymmetry through self-organization process, yields plasma confinement. including poloidal flows in equilibrium equation makes the problem rather complicated. Singularity due to the poloidal flow is focused on. It is shown that the singular equation for equilibrium has the same structure as the equation for linear Alfven wave. Since the singular solution for equilibrium equation is physically inadequate, the singularity may be removed by another physical effect. The Hall-effect is taken into account as a singular perturbation that removes the singularity of equilibrium equation for ideal magnetohydrodynamics. (author)
China’s Rare Earths Supply Forecast in 2025: A Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianping Ge
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The supply of rare earths in China has been the focus of significant attention in recent years. Due to changes in regulatory policies and the development of strategic emerging industries, it is critical to investigate the scenario of rare earth supplies in 2025. To address this question, this paper constructed a dynamic computable equilibrium (DCGE model to forecast the production, domestic supply, and export of China’s rare earths in 2025. Based on our analysis, production will increase by 10.8%–12.6% and achieve 116,335–118,260 tons of rare-earth oxide (REO in 2025, based on recent extraction control during 2011–2016. Moreover, domestic supply and export will be 75,081–76,800 tons REO and 38,797–39,400 tons REO, respectively. The technological improvements on substitution and recycling will significantly decrease the supply and mining activities of rare earths. From a policy perspective, we found that the elimination of export regulations, including export quotas and export taxes, does have a negative impact on China’s future domestic supply of rare earths. The policy conflicts between the increase in investment in strategic emerging industries, and the increase in resource and environmental taxes on rare earths will also affect China’s rare earths supply in the future.
Equilibrium Strategies in a Fiscal-Monetary Game : a Simulation Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irena Woroniecka-Leciejewicz
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The results from a simulation analysis of the policy-mix have been presented, carried out in a fiscal-monetary game, in which fiscal and monetary authorities make decisions from the point of view of realizing their own respective economic objectives. In order to represent the interrelations between, on the one hand, the instruments of fiscal policy and of monetary policy, and, on the other hand - the economic effects resulting from their application, a modified logistic function was used. The method adopted enables consideration of the specificity of the effects of these instruments on the business cycle, consisting in the limited effectiveness of applying any extremely restrictive or expansive policy, and the respective impact on the economy. The simulation study was meant to show the influence exerted both by the parameters of the function and the priorities of the fiscal and monetary authorities on the Nash equilibrium state, corresponding to the choice of a particular combination of budgetary and monetary policies. (original abstract
Essays on environmental policy analysis: Computable general equilibrium approaches applied to Sweden
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, M.
2001-01-01
This thesis consists of three essays within the field of applied environmental economics, with the common basic aim of analyzing effects of Swedish environmental policy. Starting out from Swedish environmental goals, the thesis assesses a range of policy-related questions. The objective is to quantify policy outcomes by constructing and applying numerical models especially designed for environmental policy analysis. Static and dynamic multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium models are developed in order to analyze the following issues. The costs and benefits of a domestic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) tax reform. Special attention is given to how these costs and benefits depend on the structure of the tax system and, furthermore, how they depend on policy-induced changes in 'secondary' pollutants. The effects of allowing for emission permit trading through time when the domestic long-term domestic environmental goal is specified in CO 2 stock terms. The effects on long-term projected economic growth and welfare that are due to damages from emission flow and accumulation of 'local' pollutants (nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide), as well as the outcome of environmental policy when costs and benefits are considered in an integrated environmental-economic framework
Impacts Of External Price Shocks On Malaysian Macro Economy-An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abul Quasem Al-Amin
2008-10-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of external price shocks in the Malaysian economy. There are three simulations are carried out with different degrees of external shocks using Malaysian Social Accounting Matrix (SAM and Computable General Equilibrium (CGE analysis. The model results indicate that the import price shocks, better known as external price shocks by 15% decreases the domestic production of building and construction sector by 25.87%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 12.04%, industry sector by 12.02%, agriculture sector by 11.01%, and electricity and gas sector by 9.55% from the baseline. On the import side, our simulation results illustrate that as a result of the import price shocks by 15%, imports decreases significantly in all sectors from base level. Among the scenarios, the largest negative impacts goes on industry sectors by 29.67% followed by building and construction sector by 22.42%, hotels, restaurants and entertainment sector by 19.45%, electricity and gas sector by 13.%, agriculture sector by 12.63% and other service sectors by 11.17%. However significant negative impact goes to the investment and fixed capital investment. It also causes the household income, household consumption and household savings down and increases the cost of livings in the economy results in downward social welfare.
The Equilibrium Analysis of a Closed Economy Model with Government and Money Market Sector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catalin Angelo Ioan
2011-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we first study the static equilibrium of a a closed economy model in terms of dependence on national income and interest rate from the main factors namely the marginal propensity to consume, tax rate, investment rate and the rate of currency demand. In the second part, we study the dynamic equilibrium solutions in terms of stability. We thus obtain the variation functions of national income and interest rate variation and their limit values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xijun Liu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamic behavior of rain-wind-induced vibration of inclined cable is investigated with the consideration of the equilibrium position of the moving rivulet. The partial differential governing equations of three-degree-of-freedom on the model of rain-wind-induced cable vibration are established, which are proposed for describing the nonlinear interactions among the in-plane, out-of-plane vibration of the cable and the oscillation of the moving rivulet. The Galerkin method is applied to discretize the partial differential governing equations. The approximately analytic solution is obtained by using the method of averaging. The unique correspondence between the wind and the equilibrium position of the rivulet is ascertained. The presence of rivulet at certain positions on the surface of cable is then proved to be one of the trigger for wind-rain-induced cable vibration. The nonlinear dynamic phenomena of the inclined cable subjected to wind and rain turbulence are then studied by varying the parameters including mean wind velocity, Coulomb damping force, damping ratio, the span length, and the initial tension of the inclined cable on the model. The jump phenomenon is also observed which occurs when there are multiple solutions in the system.
Partial wave analysis for folded differential cross sections
Machacek, J. R.; McEachran, R. P.
2018-03-01
The value of modified effective range theory (MERT) and the connection between differential cross sections and phase shifts in low-energy electron scattering has long been recognized. Recent experimental techniques involving magnetically confined beams have introduced the concept of folded differential cross sections (FDCS) where the forward (θ ≤ π/2) and backward scattered (θ ≥ π/2) projectiles are unresolved, that is the value measured at the angle θ is the sum of the signal for particles scattered into the angles θ and π - θ. We have developed an alternative approach to MERT in order to analyse low-energy folded differential cross sections for positrons and electrons. This results in a simplified expression for the FDCS when it is expressed in terms of partial waves and thereby enables one to extract the first few phase shifts from a fit to an experimental FDCS at low energies. Thus, this method predicts forward and backward angle scattering (0 to π) using only experimental FDCS data and can be used to determine the total elastic cross section solely from experimental results at low-energy, which are limited in angular range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muxi, Africa; Setoain, Francisco J.; Pons, Francisca; Paredes, Pilar; Duch, Joan; Fuertes, Silvia; Ortin, Jaime; Mont, Lluis; Diaz-Infante, Ernesto
2008-01-01
Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is a technique indicated in patients with moderate to severe heart failure and ventricular dyssynchrony. To evaluate left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and synchronisation changes after CRT with a biventricular pacing implant, we used an equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA). Fifty patients were studied. An ERNA was made 72 h and 6 months after the implant. Two acquisitions were performed: with the CRT device connected and after disconnecting it. In the follow-up, responders were defined as those who had improved in accordance with various clinical variables. Quantitative changes in LVEF and visual changes in synchronisation (phase analysis) were studied comparing the two studies and also comparing the connected and disconnected modes. At 6 months, 30 patients were defined as responders. LVEF increased significantly at 6 months compared with the 72-h study only in responders. At 72 h, the number of patients showing a decrease in LVEF (p < 0.05) or a synchronisation worsening after disconnecting the device was higher in responders than in nonresponders. At 6 months, 57% of responders had no synchronisation changes between the connected and disconnected modes, suggesting a resynchronisation process. ERNA permits the study of resynchronisation patients, showing a statistical LVEF improvement at 6 months. Moreover, visual phase analysis permits the study of the mechanism involved in the response, with an important number of responders with no changes between the two modes at 6 months. In the 72-h study, after disconnection of the device, LVEF and resynchronisation worsening can predict patient improvement at 6 months. (orig.)
Analysis of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma generators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, W.; Panesi, M., E-mail: mpanesi@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61822 (United States); Lani, A. [Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Rhode-Saint-Genèse (Belgium)
2016-07-15
This work addresses the modeling of non-equilibrium phenomena in inductively coupled plasma discharges. In the proposed computational model, the electromagnetic induction equation is solved together with the set of Navier-Stokes equations in order to compute the electromagnetic and flow fields, accounting for their mutual interaction. Semi-classical statistical thermodynamics is used to determine the plasma thermodynamic properties, while transport properties are obtained from kinetic principles, with the method of Chapman and Enskog. Particle ambipolar diffusive fluxes are found by solving the Stefan-Maxwell equations with a simple iterative method. Two physico-mathematical formulations are used to model the chemical reaction processes: (1) A Local Thermodynamics Equilibrium (LTE) formulation and (2) a thermo-chemical non-equilibrium (TCNEQ) formulation. In the TCNEQ model, thermal non-equilibrium between the translational energy mode of the gas and the vibrational energy mode of individual molecules is accounted for. The electronic states of the chemical species are assumed in equilibrium with the vibrational temperature, whereas the rotational energy mode is assumed to be equilibrated with translation. Three different physical models are used to account for the coupling of chemistry and energy transfer processes. Numerical simulations obtained with the LTE and TCNEQ formulations are used to characterize the extent of non-equilibrium of the flow inside the Plasmatron facility at the von Karman Institute. Each model was tested using different kinetic mechanisms to assess the sensitivity of the results to variations in the reaction parameters. A comparison of temperatures and composition profiles at the outlet of the torch demonstrates that the flow is in non-equilibrium for operating conditions characterized by pressures below 30 000 Pa, frequency 0.37 MHz, input power 80 kW, and mass flow 8 g/s.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, Won-Jun; Jeong, Dae-Woon; Shim, Jae-Oh; Kim, Hak-Min; Roh, Hyun-Seog; Son, In Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Selected variables have a significant influence on yields of synthesis gas. • (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 affects the temperature which can achieve the maximum conversion. • Coke is formed at low temperatures even with excess oxidizing agent. • The occurrence of RWGS becomes critical in real chemical reactions. • Equilibrium conversions are maintained for 500 h without detectable deactivation. - Abstract: Thermodynamic equilibrium analysis of the combined steam and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CSCRM) and side reactions was performed using total Gibbs free energy minimization. The effects of (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 ratio (0.9–2.9), CO_2:H_2O ratio (3:1–1:3), and temperature (500–1000 °C) on the equilibrium conversions, yields, coke yield, and H_2/CO ratio were investigated. A (CO_2 + H_2O)/CH_4 ratio greater than 1.2, a CO_2:H_2O ratio of 1:2.1, and a temperature of at least 850 °C are preferable reaction conditions for the synthesis gas preparation in the gas to liquid process. Simulated conditions were applied to the CSCRM reaction and the experimental data were compared with the thermodynamic equilibrium results. The thermodynamic equilibrium results were mostly consistent with the experimental data, but the reverse water gas shift reaction rapidly occurred in the real chemical reaction and under excess oxidizing agent conditions. In addition, a long-term stability test (under simulated conditions) showed that the equilibrium conversion was maintained for 500 h and that the coke formation on the used catalyst was not observed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sklute, Elizabeth [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Dyare, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE
2008-01-01
Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.
Analysis of partial and total inelasticities obtained from inclusive reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellandi, J.; Covolan, R.; Costa, C.G.; Montanha, J.; Mundim, L.M.
1994-01-01
An independent analysis of model for energetic dependence on inelasticity is presented, from experimental data of pp → c X (c = π +- , Κ +- , p +- ) type inclusive reactions. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
The mineral sector and economic development in Ghana: A computable general equilibrium analysis
Addy, Samuel N.
A computable general equilibrium model (CGE) model is formulated for conducting mineral policy analysis in the context of national economic development for Ghana. The model, called GHANAMIN, places strong emphasis on production, trade, and investment. It can be used to examine both micro and macro economic impacts of policies associated with mineral investment, taxation, and terms of trade changes, as well as mineral sector performance impacts due to technological change or the discovery of new deposits. Its economywide structure enables the study of broader development policy with a focus on individual or multiple sectors, simultaneously. After going through a period of contraction for about two decades, mining in Ghana has rebounded significantly and is currently the main foreign exchange earner. Gold alone contributed 44.7 percent of 1994 total export earnings. GHANAMIN is used to investigate the economywide impacts of mineral tax policies, world market mineral prices changes, mining investment, and increased mineral exports. It is also used for identifying key sectors for economic development. Various simulations were undertaken with the following results: Recently implemented mineral tax policies are welfare increasing, but have an accompanying decrease in the output of other export sectors. World mineral price rises stimulate an increase in real GDP; however, this increase is less than real GDP decreases associated with price declines. Investment in the non-gold mining sector increases real GDP more than investment in gold mining, because of the former's stronger linkages to the rest of the economy. Increased mineral exports are very beneficial to the overall economy. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in mining increases welfare more so than domestic capital, which is very limited. Mining investment and the increased mineral exports since 1986 have contributed significantly to the country's economic recovery, with gold mining accounting for 95 percent of the
Transient Analysis of Monopile Foundations Partially Embedded in Liquefied Soil
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin; Bayat, Mehdi; Meysam, Saadati
2015-01-01
Lagrangian Analysis of Continua (FLAC), which captured the fundamental mechanisms of the monopiles in saturated granular soil. The effects of inertia and the kinematic flow of soil are investigated separately, to highlight the importance of considering the combined effect of these phenomena on the seismic...
Partial Derivative Games in Thermodynamics: A Cognitive Task Analysis
Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.
2014-01-01
Several studies in recent years have demonstrated that upper-division students struggle with the mathematics of thermodynamics. This paper presents a task analysis based on several expert attempts to solve a challenging mathematics problem in thermodynamics. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we highlight the importance of cognitive task…
Stability analysis of the endemic equilibrium state of an infection age ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this work we present an infection-age-structured mathematical model of AIDS disease dynamics and examine the endemic equilibrium state for stability. An explicit formula for the basic reproduction number R0 was obtained in terms of the demographic and epidemiological parameters of the model. The endemic ...
English, Niall J; Clarke, Elaine T
2013-09-07
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of planar CO2 hydrate interfaces in liquid water at 300-320 K. Different guest compositions, at 85%, 95%, and 100% of maximum theoretical occupation, led to statistically-significant differences in the observed initial dissociation rates. The melting temperatures of each interface were estimated, and dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher dissociation rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. A simple coupled mass and heat transfer model developed previously was applied to fit the observed dissociation profiles, and this helps to identify clearly two distinct régimes of break-up; a second well-defined region is essentially independent of composition and temperature, in which the remaining nanoscale, de facto two-dimensional system's lattice framework is intrinsically unstable. From equilibrium MD of the two-phase systems at their melting point, the relaxation times of the auto-correlation functions of fluctuations in number of enclathrated guest molecules were used as a basis for comparison of the variation in the underlying, non-equilibrium, thermal-driven dissociation rates via Onsager's hypothesis, and statistically significant differences were found, confirming the value of a fluctuation-dissipation approach in this case.
The Equilibrium Analysis of a Closed Economy Model with Government and Money Market Sector - II
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Catalin Angelo Ioan
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper,we will continue the study of the dynamic equilibrium solutions in thepurpose of investigating the dependence limits (potential output and interest rate limit.We find alsoan interesting linearrelation between the potential output and interest rate limit
Regional disaster impact analysis: comparing Input-Output and Computable General Equilibrium models
Koks, E.E.; Carrera, L.; Jonkeren, O.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Husby, T.G.; Thissen, M.; Standardi, G.; Mysiak, J.
2016-01-01
A variety of models have been applied to assess the economic losses of disasters, of which the most common ones are input-output (IO) and computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. In addition, an increasing number of scholars have developed hybrid approaches: one that combines both or either of
Analogies in the Teaching of Chemical Equilibrium: A Synthesis/Analysis of the Literature
Raviolo, Andres; Garritz, Andoni
2009-01-01
This paper presents a thorough literature review of the analogies used to teach chemical equilibrium. The main objective is to compile all the analogies that have been found to be of service to the teacher and the student. Additionally, we categorize and analyze analogies in relation to the following aspects: representation of the dynamic nature…
Gordon, Sanford; Mcbride, Bonnie J.
1994-01-01
This report presents the latest in a number of versions of chemical equilibrium and applications programs developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center over more than 40 years. These programs have changed over the years to include additional features and improved calculation techniques and to take advantage of constantly improving computer capabilities. The minimization-of-free-energy approach to chemical equilibrium calculations has been used in all versions of the program since 1967. The two principal purposes of this report are presented in two parts. The first purpose, which is accomplished here in part 1, is to present in detail a number of topics of general interest in complex equilibrium calculations. These topics include mathematical analyses and techniques for obtaining chemical equilibrium; formulas for obtaining thermodynamic and transport mixture properties and thermodynamic derivatives; criteria for inclusion of condensed phases; calculations at a triple point; inclusion of ionized species; and various applications, such as constant-pressure or constant-volume combustion, rocket performance based on either a finite- or infinite-chamber-area model, shock wave calculations, and Chapman-Jouguet detonations. The second purpose of this report, to facilitate the use of the computer code, is accomplished in part 2, entitled 'Users Manual and Program Description'. Various aspects of the computer code are discussed, and a number of examples are given to illustrate its versatility.
A global equilibrium analysis of co-firing coal and solid recovered fuel
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming
Global equilibrium calculations have been performed to study the behavior of ash forming species in cocombustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF). It revealed that co-combustion of coal and 25% SRF (weight basis) could significantly reduce the formation of NaCl (g) and KCl (g...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.
1997-02-01
Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P H2O ) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P H2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes
Ghaani, Mohammad Reza; English, Niall J
2018-03-21
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to investigate thermal-driven break-up of planar propane-hydrate interfaces in contact with liquid water over the 260-320 K range. Two types of hydrate-surface water-lattice molecular termination were adopted, at the hydrate edge with water, for comparison: a 001-direct surface cleavage and one with completed cages. Statistically significant differences in melting temperatures and initial break-up rates were observed between both interface types. Dissociation rates were observed to be strongly dependent on temperature, with higher rates at larger over-temperatures vis-à-vis melting. A simple coupled mass and heat transfer model, developed previously, was applied to fit the observed dissociation profiles, and this helps us to identify clearly two distinct hydrate-decomposition régimes; following a highly temperature-dependent break-up phase, a second well-defined stage is essentially independent of temperature, in which the remaining nanoscale, de facto two-dimensional system's lattice framework is intrinsically unstable. Further equilibrium MD-analysis of the two-phase systems at their melting point, with consideration of the relaxation times gleaned from the auto-correlation functions of fluctuations in a number of enclathrated guest molecules, led to statistically significant differences between the two surface-termination cases; a consistent correlation emerged in both cases between the underlying, non-equilibrium, thermal-driven dissociation rates sampled directly from melting with that from an equilibrium-MD fluctuation-dissipation approach.
Partial differential equations with variable exponents variational methods and qualitative analysis
Radulescu, Vicentiu D
2015-01-01
Partial Differential Equations with Variable Exponents: Variational Methods and Qualitative Analysis provides researchers and graduate students with a thorough introduction to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) with a variable exponent, particularly those of elliptic type. The book presents the most important variational methods for elliptic PDEs described by nonhomogeneous differential operators and containing one or more power-type nonlinearities with a variable exponent. The authors give a systematic treatment of the basic mathematical theory and constructive meth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allan, Grant; Hanley, Nick; McGregor, Peter; Swales, Kim; Turner, Karen
2007-01-01
The conventional wisdom is that improving energy efficiency will lower energy use. However, there is an extensive debate in the energy economics/policy literature concerning 'rebound' effects. These occur because an improvement in energy efficiency produces a fall in the effective price of energy services. The response of the economic system to this price fall at least partially offsets the expected beneficial impact of the energy efficiency gain. In this paper we use an economy-energy-environment computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for the UK to measure the impact of a 5% across the board improvement in the efficiency of energy use in all production sectors. We identify rebound effects of the order of 30-50%, but no backfire (no increase in energy use). However, these results are sensitive to the assumed structure of the labour market, key production elasticities, the time period under consideration and the mechanism through which increased government revenues are recycled back to the economy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joaquim Bento de Souza Ferreira Filho
1999-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the effects of trade liberalization and Mercosur integration process upon the Brazilian economy, with emphasis on the agricultural and agroindustrial production sectors, under the hypothesis that those phenomena could be another step in the rural-urban transfer process in Brazil. The analysis is conducted through an applied general equilibrium model. Results suggest that trade liberalization would hardly generate a widespread process of rural-urban transfers, although Brazilian agriculture shows up as a loser in the process. Notwithstanding that fact, there are transfers inside the agricultural sectors, where, besides the losses in the value added of the grain production sectors, there would be gains for the livestock and for the ''other crops" sectors. The agroindustry, in contrast, seems to gain both in Brazil and Argentina. Model results suggest yet that the Brazilian society would be benefitted as a whole by the integration, despite the losses in the agricultural sector.Este artigo analisa os efeitos do processo de liberalização comercial e de constituição do Mercosul sobre a economia brasileira, com ênfase nos setores produtivos da agricultura e da agroindústria, sob a hipótese de que aqueles fenômenos seriam mais uma etapa no processo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil. Para tanto, a análise é conduzida através do uso de um modelo de equilíbrio geral aplicado. Os resultados sugerem que a integração comercial não irá gerar um processo amplo de transferências rurais-urbanas no Brasil, embora a agricultura brasileira apareça, no agregado, como o setor perdedor na integração, em benefício da agricultura argentina. Há, entretanto, transferências dentro dos setores da agropecuária brasileira, onde, ao lado das perdas no valor adicionado do setor produtor de grãos, haveria ganhos para a pecuária e para o setor ''outras culturas". A agroindústria, em contraste, parece ganhar tanto no Brasil
Bindel, Thomas H.
2010-01-01
Entropy analyses as a function of the extent of reaction are presented for a number of physicochemical processes, including vaporization of a liquid, dimerization of nitrogen dioxide, and the autoionization of water. Graphs of the total entropy change versus the extent of reaction give a visual representation of chemical equilibrium and the second…
Impact of a carbon tax on the Chilean economy: A computable general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
García Benavente, José Miguel
2016-01-01
In 2009, the government of Chile announced their official commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below a business-as-usual projection by 2020. Due to the fact that an effective way to reduce emissions is to implement a national carbon tax, the goal of this article is to quantify the value of a carbon tax that will allow the achievement of the emission reduction target and to assess its impact on the economy. The approach used in this work is to compare the economy before and after the implementation of the carbon tax by creating a static computable general equilibrium model of the Chilean economy. The model developed here disaggregates the economy in 23 industries and 23 commodities, and it uses four consumer agents (households, government, investment, and the rest of the world). By setting specific production and consumptions functions, the model can assess the variation in commodity prices, industrial production, and agent consumption, allowing a cross-sectoral analysis of the impact of the carbon tax. The benchmark of the economy, upon which the analysis is based, came from a social accounting matrix specially constructed for this model, based on the year 2010. The carbon tax was modeled as an ad valorem tax under two scenarios: tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned only by producers and tax on emissions from fossil fuels burned by producers and households. The abatement cost curve has shown that it is more cost-effective to tax only producers, rather than to tax both producers and households. This is due to the fact that when compared to the emission level observed in 2010, a 20% emission reduction will cause a loss in GDP of 2% and 2.3% respectively. Under the two scenarios, the tax value that could lead to that emission reduction is around 26 US dollars per ton of CO_2-equivalent. The most affected productive sectors are oil refinery, transport, and electricity — having a contraction between 7% and 9%. Analyzing the electricity
Analysis of equilibrium about bidding strategy of suppliers with future contracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Zhiqiang; Liu, Dong; Jiang, Chuanwen
2007-01-01
In this paper, the supply function model is employed to simulate the bidding strategy of suppliers in the power pool, and models of the supply function with future contracts are presented. It is proved that only one of the parameters between slope and intercept of the bidding curve is an independent variable in order to achieve definite equilibrium. In the meantime, the equilibria of the bidding strategy about suppliers are studied when different intercepts of the bidding curve are chosen. Some examples are employed to study the Nash equilibrium strategies of suppliers with different future contracts in various bidding strategy models. The results show that the equilibria are different in different bidding strategy models, but the future contracts can effectively make spot prices decrease in all the models
Analysis of kinematically redundant reaching movements using the equilibrium-point hypothesis.
Cesari, P; Shiratori, T; Olivato, P; Duarte, M
2001-03-01
Six subjects performed a planar reaching arm movement to a target while unpredictable perturbations were applied to the endpoint; the perturbations consisted of pulling springs having different stiffness. Two conditions were applied; in the first, subjects had to reach for the target despite the perturbation, in the second condition, the subjects were asked to not correct the motion as a perturbation was applied. We analyzed the kinematics profiles of the three arm segments and, by means of inverse dynamics, calculated the joint torques. The framework of the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, the lambda model, allowed the reconstruction of the control variables, the "equilibrium trajectories", in the "do not correct" condition for the wrist and the elbow joints as well as for the end point final position, while for the other condition, the reconstruction was less reliable. The findings support and extend to a multiple-joint planar movement, the paradigm of the EP hypothesis along with the "do not correct" instruction.
Calculation of partial derivatives of thermophysical properties of sodium for safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shan Jianqiang; Qiu Suizhang; Zhu Jizhou; Zhang Guiqin
1997-01-01
According to the characters of safety analysis of LMFBR, the partial derivatives formula of some special thermophysical properties of sodium, including single-and two-phase properties, are calculated based on the basic Maxwell equations, and on the formulae of basic thermophysical properties of sodium which were verified abroad. The present study can provide theoretical base for safety analysis of LMFBR
Reforming the Canadian Sales Tax System: A Regional General Equilibrium Analysis
CHUN-YAN KUO; BOB HAMILTON
1991-01-01
The paper develops a regional general equilibrium model of the Canadian economy to analyze the sectoral and regional impacts of the major changes to the Canadian sales tax system. The results indicate that replacing the federal sales tax with the goods and service tax increases real output in Canada in the long run by 1.4 percent. If the provincial sales taxes are also integrated, real output increases by a further 0.8 percent.
Impacts of climate change for Swiss winter and summer tourism: a general equilibrium analysis
Thurm, Boris; Vielle, Marc; Vöhringer, Frank
2017-01-01
Tourism could be greatly affected by climate change due to its strong dependence on weather. In Switzerland, the sector represents an appreciable share of the economy. Thus, studying climate effects on tourism is necessary for developing adequate adaptation strategies. While most of the studies focused on winter tourism, we investigate the climate change impacts on both winter and summer tourism in Switzerland. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, we simulate the impacts of tem...
Guohua Fang; Ting Wang; Xinyi Si; Xin Wen; Yu Liu
2016-01-01
To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and out...
Domestic Environmental Policy and International Factor Mobility: A General Equilibrium Analysis
Stefan Felder; Reto Schleiniger
1995-01-01
This paper studies the conditions under which a green tax reform not only benefits the environment but also enhances the efficiency of the tax system. The focus is on the consequences of international factor mobility for the scope of a double dividend. The investigation of the double-dividend claim is based on a general equilibrium model of a stylised small open economy. The simulations of equal-yield tax reform scenarios indicate that an environmental tax on consumption yields a double divid...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others
2016-11-01
Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katrin Rehdanz
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Based on predicted changes in the magnitude and distribution of global precipitation, temperature and river flow under the A1B and A2 scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC SRES, this study assesses the potential impacts of climate change and CO2 fertilization on global agriculture, and its interactions with trade liberalization, as proposed for the Doha Development Round. The analysis uses the new version of the GTAP-W model, which distinguishes between rainfed and irrigated agriculture and implements water as an explicit factor of production for irrigated agriculture. Significant reductions in agricultural tariffs lead to modest changes in regional water use. Patterns are non-linear. On the regional level, water use may go up for partial liberalization, and down for more complete liberalization. This is because different crops respond differently to tariff reductions, and because trade and competition matter too. Moreover, trade liberalization tends to reduce water use in water scarce regions, and increase water use in water abundant regions, even though water markets do not exist in most countries. Considering impacts of climate change, the results show that global food production, welfare and GDP fall over time while food prices increase. Larger changes are observed under the SRES A2 scenario for the medium term (2020 and under the SRES A1B scenario for the long term (2050. Combining scenarios of future climate change with trade liberalization, countries are affected differently. However, the overall effect on welfare does not change much.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodrigo F Ramos
2011-12-01
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Although the high incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD in the population, there is much controversy in this topic, especially in the surgical treatment. The decision to use of a total or partial fundoplication in the treatment of GERD is still a challenge to many surgeons because the few evidence found in the literature. OBJECTIVE: To bring more clear evidence in the comparison between total and partial fundoplication. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of the literature and metaanalysis with randomized controlled trials accessed from MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane Controlled Trials Database was done. The outcomes remarked were: dysphagia, inability to belch, bloating, recurrence of acid reflux, heartburn and esophagitis. For data analysis the odds ratio was used with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Statistical heterogeneity in the results of the metaanalysis was assessed by calculating a test of heterogeneity. The software Review Manager 5 (Cochrane Collaboration was utilized for the data gathered and the statistical analysis. Sensitive analysis was applied using only trials that included follow-up over 2 years. RESULTS: Ten trials were included with 1003 patients: 502 to total fundoplication group and 501 to partial fundoplication group. The outcomes dysphagia and inability to belch had statistical significant difference (P = 0.00001 in favor of partial fundoplication. There was not statistical difference in outcomes related with treatment failure. There were no heterogeneity in the outcomes dysphagia and recurrence of the acid reflux. CONCLUSION: The partial fundoplication has lower incidence of obstructive side effects.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mc Carthy, P.J.; Sengupta, A.; Geiger, J.; Werner, A.
2005-01-01
The W7-X stellarator, under construction at IPP-Greifswald, is being designed to demonstrate the steady state capability of fusion devices. Due to the pulse length involved, real time monitoring and control of the discharges is a crucial issue in steady state operations. For W7-X, we have planned a sequence of in-depth analyses of the magnetic configurations which, ultimately, will lead to a proper understanding of plasma equilibrium, stability and transport. It should also provide insight into the parameterization of the various plasma-related quantities which is important from the point of view of real time study. The first step in our sequence of analyses involved a study of the vacuum configuration, including the detectable magnetic islands, of W7-X. We now proceed to the scenario at finite beta considering full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibria based on vmec2000 calculations. A database of order 10000 equilibria was calculated on the same parameter space for the coil current ratios. The parameters which were varied randomly and independently consist of the external coil current ratios (6), the parameters of the profiles (as functions of normalised toroidal flux) of plasma pressure and toroidal current (4+4) and the plasma size (a eff ) which is required to vary the plasma volume. A statistical analysis, using Function Parametrization (FP), was performed on a sample of well-converged equilibria. The plasma parameters were varied to allow a good FP for the expected values in W7-X, i.e. volume-averaged up to 5% and toroidal net-current of up to ±50 kA for a mean field strength of about 2 T throughout the database. The profiles were chosen as a sequence of polynomials with the property that the addition of a higher order polynomial would not change the lower order volume-averaged moments of the resulting profile. The aim of this was to try to avoid cross correlations in the independent input parameters for the database generation. However, some restrictions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denenberg, B.S.; Makler, P.T.; Bove, A.A.; Spann, J.F.
1981-01-01
The volume ejected early in systole has been proposed as an indicator of abnormal left ventricular function that is present at rest in patients with coronary artery disease with a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion. The volume ejected in systole was examined by calculating the percent change in ventricular volume using both computer-assisted analysis of biplane radiographic ventriculograms at 60 frames/s and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculograms. Ventricular emptying was examined with radiographic ventriculography in 33 normal patients and 23 patients with coronary artery disease and normal ejection fraction. Eight normal subjects and six patients with coronary artery disease had both radiographic ventriculography and equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. In all patients, there was excellent correlation between the radiographic and radionuclide ventricular emptying curves (r . 0.971). There were no difference in the ventricular emptying curves of normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease whether volumes were measured by radiographic or equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography. It is concluded that the resting ventricular emptying curves are identical in normal subjects and patients with coronary artery disease who have a normal ejection fraction and normal wall motion
Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions
Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford
1995-01-01
Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.
Development of a Chemical Equilibrium Model for a Molten Core-Concrete Interaction Analysis Module
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Jae Uk; Lee, Dae Young; Park, Chang Hwan [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
This molten core could interact with the reactor cavity region which consists of concrete. In this process, components of molten core react with components of concrete through a lot of chemical reactions. As a result, many kinds of gas species are generated and those move up forming rising bubbles into the reactor containment atmosphere. These rising bubbles are the carrier of the many kinds of the aerosols coming from the MCCI (Molten Core Concrete Interaction) layers. To evaluate the amount of the aerosols released from the MCCI layers, the amount of the gas species generated from those layers should be calculated. The chemical equilibrium state originally implies the final state of the multiple chemical reactions; therefore, investigating the equilibrium composition of molten core can be applicable to predict the gas generation status. The most common way for finding the chemical equilibrium state is a minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system. In this paper, the method to make good guess of initial state is suggested and chemical reaction results are compared with results of CSSI report No 164. Total mass of system and the number of atoms of each element are conserved. The tendency of calculation results is similar with results presented in CSNI Report except a few species. These differences may be caused by absence of Gibbs energy data of the species such as Fe{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, U(OH){sub 3}, UO(OH), UO{sub 2}(OH), U{sub 3}O{sub 7}, La, Ce.
Disk in a groove with friction: An analysis of static equilibrium and indeterminacy
Donolato, Cesare
2018-05-01
This note studies the statics of a rigid disk placed in a V-shaped groove with frictional walls and subjected to gravity and a torque. The two-dimensional equilibrium problem is formulated in terms of the angles that contact forces form with the normal to the walls. This approach leads to a single trigonometric equation in two variables whose domain is determined by Coulomb's law of friction. The properties of solutions (existence, uniqueness, or indeterminacy) as functions of groove angle, friction coefficient and applied torque are derived by a simple geometric representation. The results modify some of the conclusions by other authors on the same problem.
Hubeny, Ivan
2015-01-01
This book provides an in-depth and self-contained treatment of the latest advances achieved in quantitative spectroscopic analyses of the observable outer layers of stars and similar objects. Written by two leading researchers in the field, it presents a comprehensive account of both the physical foundations and numerical methods of such analyses. The book is ideal for astronomers who want to acquire deeper insight into the physical foundations of the theory of stellar atmospheres, or who want to learn about modern computational techniques for treating radiative transfer in non-equilibrium situations. It can also serve as a rigorous yet accessible introduction to the discipline for graduate students.
An Empirical Analysis of China's Equilibrium Exchange Rate and Misalignment of the RMB
Zhu, Lin
2012-01-01
As economic globalization develops in depth, the exchange rate as an important means of macroeconomic control and economic leverage has played a critical role in the economic development in China. Moreover, the real exchange rate can affect the competitiveness of a country’s economy. In fact, a large number of scholars claim that a country should maintain the real exchange rate at its “equilibrium level” in order to keep a steady growth of the economy. Thus, many studies have emphasized on e...
Equilibrium state analysis of a nonneutral plasma under a uniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, J.E.; Molinari, V.G.; Sumini, M.A.
1990-01-01
By recourse to the Boltzmann H-theorem, the existence of a thermodynamic equilibrium state has been proved for a nonneutral plasma under an external magnetic field. The equation describing the density profile of ions or electrons has been found. The density equation has been numerically solved for a generic magnetic field and plasma frequency, giving a parametric limit for the confinement region. An appropriate change of variable allows to approximate the density equation whose analytical solution has been found. The approximated density closely fits the numerical solution of the original equation. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1984-12-15
From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
context of antimicrobial therapy in malnutrition. Dialysis has in the past presented technical problems, being complicated and time-consuming. A new dialysis system based on the equilibrium technique has now become available, and it is the principles and practical application of this apparatus (Kontron Diapack; Kontron.
van Damme, E.E.C.
2000-01-01
An outcome in a noncooperative game is said to be self-enforcing, or a strategic equilibrium, if, whenever it is recommended to the players, no player has an incentive to deviate from it.This paper gives an overview of the concepts that have been proposed as formalizations of this requirement and of
Ismail, M.S.
2014-01-01
We introduce a new concept which extends von Neumann and Morgenstern's maximin strategy solution by incorporating `individual rationality' of the players. Maximin equilibrium, extending Nash's value approach, is based on the evaluation of the strategic uncertainty of the whole game. We show that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polzer, W.L.; Fuentes, H.R.; Essington, E.H.; Roensch, F.R.
1985-01-01
Sorption isotherms are derived from batch equilibrium data for cobalt, cesium and strontium on Bandelier Tuff. Experiments were conducted at an average temperature of 23 0 C and equilibrium was defined at 48 hours. The solute concentrations ranged from 0 to 500 mg/L. The radioactive isotopes 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 85 Sr were used to trace the sorption of the stable solutes. The Linear, Langmuir, Freundlich and a Modified Freundlich isotherm equations are evaluated. The Modified Freundlich isotherm equation is validated as a preferred general mathematical tool for representing the sorption of the three solutes. The empirical constants derived from the Modified Freundlich isotherm equation indicate that under dynamic flow conditions strontium will move most rapidly and cobalt least rapidly. On the other hand, chemical dispersion will be greatest for cesium and least for strontium. Hill Plots of the sorption data suggest that in the region of low saturation sorption of all three solutes is impeded by interactions among sorption sites; cobalt exhibits the greatest effect of interactions and strontium shows only a minimal effect. In the saturation region of 50% or more, sorption of cobalt is enhanced slightly by interactions among sorption sites whereas sorption of cesium and strontium appears to be independent of site interactions. 9 references, 4 figures, 2 tables
Numerical analysis of a non equilibrium two-component two-compressible flow in porous media
Saad, Bilal Mohammed
2013-09-01
We propose and analyze a finite volume scheme to simulate a non equilibrium two components (water and hydrogen) two phase flow (liquid and gas) model. In this model, the assumption of local mass non equilibrium is ensured and thus the velocity of the mass exchange between dissolved hydrogen and hydrogen in the gas phase is supposed finite. The proposed finite volume scheme is fully implicit in time together with a phase-by-phase upwind approach in space and it is discretize the equations in their general form with gravity and capillary terms We show that the proposed scheme satisfies the maximum principle for the saturation and the concentration of the dissolved hydrogen. We establish stability results on the velocity of each phase and on the discrete gradient of the concentration. We show the convergence of a subsequence to a weak solution of the continuous equations as the size of the discretization tends to zero. At our knowledge, this is the first convergence result of finite volume scheme in the case of two component two phase compressible flow in several space dimensions.
A dynamic general equilibrium analysis on fostering a hydrogen economy in Korea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Jeong Hwan; Cho, Gyeong-Lyeob
2010-01-01
Hydrogen is anticipated to become one of the major alternative energy technologies for a sustainable energy system. This study analyzes the dynamic economic impacts of building a hydrogen economy in Korea employing a dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. As a frontier technology, hydrogen is featured as having a slow diffusion rate due to option value, positive externality, resistance of old technology, and complementary vintages. Without government intervention, hydrogen-derived energy will supply up to 6.5% of final energy demand by 2040. Simulation outcomes show that as price subsidy rates increase by 10%, 20%, and 30%, hydrogen demand will increase by 9.2%, 15.2%, and 37.7%, respectively, of final energy demand by 2040. The output of the transportation sector will increase significantly, while demands for oil and electricity will decline. Demands for coal and LNG will experience little change. Household consumption will decline because of the increase of income taxes. Overall GDP will increase because of the increase in exports and investments. CO 2 emission will decline for medium and high subsidy rate cases, but increase for low subsidy cases. Ultimately, subsidy policy on hydrogen will not be an effective measure for mitigating CO 2 emission in Korea when considering dynamic general equilibrium effects. (author)
The analysis of linear partial differential operators I distribution theory and Fourier analysis
Hörmander, Lars
2003-01-01
The main change in this edition is the inclusion of exercises with answers and hints. This is meant to emphasize that this volume has been written as a general course in modern analysis on a graduate student level and not only as the beginning of a specialized course in partial differen tial equations. In particular, it could also serve as an introduction to harmonic analysis. Exercises are given primarily to the sections of gen eral interest; there are none to the last two chapters. Most of the exercises are just routine problems meant to give some familiarity with standard use of the tools introduced in the text. Others are extensions of the theory presented there. As a rule rather complete though brief solutions are then given in the answers and hints. To a large extent the exercises have been taken over from courses or examinations given by Anders Melin or myself at the University of Lund. I am grateful to Anders Melin for letting me use the problems originating from him and for numerous valuable comm...
Functional analytic methods in complex analysis and applications to partial differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mshimba, A.S.A.; Tutschke, W.
1990-01-01
The volume contains 24 lectures given at the Workshop on Functional Analytic Methods in Complex Analysis and Applications to Partial Differential Equations held in Trieste, Italy, between 8-19 February 1988, at the ICTP. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these lectures. Refs and figs
Logical Specification and Analysis of Fault Tolerant Systems through Partial Model Checking
Gnesi, S.; Etalle, Sandro; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Lenzini, Gabriele; Lenzini, G.; Martinelli, F.; Roychoudhury, A.
2003-01-01
This paper presents a framework for a logical characterisation of fault tolerance and its formal analysis based on partial model checking techniques. The framework requires a fault tolerant system to be modelled using a formal calculus, here the CCS process algebra. To this aim we propose a uniform
Comparative study of various normal mode analysis techniques based on partial Hessians.
Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Pauwels, Ewald; Catak, Saron; Brooks, Bernard R; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel
2010-04-15
Standard normal mode analysis becomes problematic for complex molecular systems, as a result of both the high computational cost and the excessive amount of information when the full Hessian matrix is used. Several partial Hessian methods have been proposed in the literature, yielding approximate normal modes. These methods aim at reducing the computational load and/or calculating only the relevant normal modes of interest in a specific application. Each method has its own (dis)advantages and application field but guidelines for the most suitable choice are lacking. We have investigated several partial Hessian methods, including the Partial Hessian Vibrational Analysis (PHVA), the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH), and the Vibrational Subsystem Analysis (VSA). In this article, we focus on the benefits and drawbacks of these methods, in terms of the reproduction of localized modes, collective modes, and the performance in partially optimized structures. We find that the PHVA is suitable for describing localized modes, that the MBH not only reproduces localized and global modes but also serves as an analysis tool of the spectrum, and that the VSA is mostly useful for the reproduction of the low frequency spectrum. These guidelines are illustrated with the reproduction of the localized amine-stretch, the spectrum of quinine and a bis-cinchona derivative, and the low frequency modes of the LAO binding protein. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inoue, O.; Ito, S.; Azakami, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-09-20
Phase relations and the equilibrium oxygen partial pressures in the Fe-Ti-O ternary system at 1373 K have been studied using a thermogravimetric technique in various atmospheres buffered by a CO-CO2 gas mixture and X-ray diffraction technique. The results indicate that at 1373 K ilmenite (FeTiO3) can be reduced and decomposed to iron and rutile (TiO2). Consequently upgrading ilmenite to a rutile substitute is possible in principle. From the present results, the standard Gibbs energy of the following reactions was calculated to be -184.7, -196.0 kJ{center_dot}mol{sup -1} at 1373 K, respectively. Fe(s)+FeTiO3(s)+1/2O{sub 2}(g)=Fe2TiO4(s), Fe(s)+TiO{sub 2}(s)+1/2O{sub 2}(g)=`FeTiO3`(s). Both the activities of magnetite and ulv6spinel in the Fe2TiO4-Fe3O4 spinel solid solutions coexisting with metallic iron at 1373 K obtained exhibit negative deviations from Raoult`s law. 19 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.
DIAGNOSIS OF FINANCIAL EQUILIBRIUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SUCIU GHEORGHE
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The analysis based on the balance sheet tries to identify the state of equilibrium (disequilibrium that exists in a company. The easiest way to determine the state of equilibrium is by looking at the balance sheet and at the information it offers. Because in the balance sheet there are elements that do not reflect their real value, the one established on the market, they must be readjusted, and those elements which are not related to the ordinary operating activities must be eliminated. The diagnosis of financial equilibrium takes into account 2 components: financing sources (ownership equity, loaned, temporarily attracted. An efficient financial equilibrium must respect 2 fundamental requirements: permanent sources represented by ownership equity and loans for more than 1 year should finance permanent needs, and temporary resources should finance the operating cycle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Welsch, H.
1996-01-01
A quantitative assessment of a cost shift from labor to energy by means of a carbon/energy tax is provided. In the analysis a general equilibrium model for the European Community is utilized, focusing on the modelling of labor supply. The importance of the feedback from an induced increase in labor demand to wage formation is highlighted. (It is shown that the goals of C) 2 reduction and improved employment are complementary, provided that the reduction in labor costs, financed by the carbon/energy tax, is not offset by increased wage claims. Under this condition reduced CO 2 is consistent with an increase in GDP. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 17 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strickler, D.J.; Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.
1989-03-01
Two versions of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) free-boundary equilibrium code designed to computer the poloidal field (PF) coil current distribution of elongated, magnetically limited tokamak plasmas are demonstrated and applied to the systems analysis of the impact of plasma elongation on the design point of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These notes were presented at the ITER Specialists' Meeting on the PF Coil System and Operational Scenario, held at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching, Federal Republic of Germany, May 24--27, 1988. 8 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs
Identification and analysis of student conceptions used to solve chemical equilibrium problems
Voska, Kirk William
This study identified and quantified chemistry conceptions students use when solving chemical equilibrium problems requiring the application of Le Chatelier's principle, and explored the feasibility of designing a paper and pencil test for this purpose. It also demonstrated the utility of conditional probabilities to assess test quality. A 10-item pencil-and-paper, two-tier diagnostic instrument, the Test to Identify Student Conceptualizations (TISC) was developed and administered to 95 second-semester university general chemistry students after they received regular course instruction concerning equilibrium in homogeneous aqueous, heterogeneous aqueous, and homogeneous gaseous systems. The content validity of TISC was established through a review of TISC by a panel of experts; construct validity was established through semi-structured interviews and conditional probabilities. Nine students were then selected from a stratified random sample for interviews to validate TISC. The probability that TISC correctly identified an answer given by a student in an interview was p = .64, while the probability that TISC correctly identified a reason given by a student in an interview was p=.49. Each TISC item contained two parts. In the first part the student selected the correct answer to a problem from a set of four choices. In the second part students wrote reasons for their answer to the first part. TISC questions were designed to identify students' conceptions concerning the application of Le Chatelier's principle, the constancy of the equilibrium constant, K, and the effect of a catalyst. Eleven prevalent incorrect conceptions were identified. This study found students consistently selected correct answers more frequently (53% of the time) than they provided correct reasons (33% of the time). The association between student answers and respective reasons on each TISC item was quantified using conditional probabilities calculated from logistic regression coefficients. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLoughlin, R.F.; Ryan, M.V.; Heuston, P.M.; McCoy, C.T.; Masterson, J.B.
1992-01-01
The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a statistical model for the quantitative analysis of computed tomographic brain images. Data were derived from standard sections in 34 normal studies. A model representing the intercranial pure tissue and partial volume areas, with allowance for beam hardening, was developed. The average percentage error in estimation of areas, derived from phantom tests using the model, was 28.47%. We conclude that our model is not sufficiently accurate to be of clinical use, even though allowance was made for partial volume and beam hardening effects. (author)
Reliability Analysis and Calibration of Partial Safety Factors for Redundant Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
1998-01-01
Redundancy is important to include in the design and analysis of structural systems. In most codes of practice redundancy is not directly taken into account. In the paper various definitions of a deterministic and reliability based redundancy measure are reviewed. It is described how reundancy can...... be included in the safety system and how partial safety factors can be calibrated. An example is presented illustrating how redundancy is taken into account in the safety system in e.g. the Danish codes. The example shows how partial safety factors can be calibrated to comply with the safety level...
Schiesser, William E
2014-01-01
Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world PDE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Partial Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-world PDE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce and extend the com
Njoya, Eric Tchouamou; Seetaram, Neelu
2017-01-01
The aim of this article is to investigate the claim that tourism development can be the engine for poverty reduction in Kenya using a dynamic, microsimulation computable general equilibrium model. The article improves on the common practice in the literature by using the more comprehensive Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index to measure poverty instead of headcount ratios only. Simulations results from previous studies confirm that expansion of the tourism industry will benefit different sectors unevenly and will only marginally improve poverty headcount. This is mainly due to the contraction of the agricultural sector caused the appreciation of the real exchange rates. This article demonstrates that the effect on poverty gap and poverty severity is, nevertheless, significant for both rural and urban areas with higher impact in the urban areas. Tourism expansion enables poorer households to move closer to the poverty line. It is concluded that the tourism industry is pro-poor. PMID:29595836
Davis, S. H.; Kissinger, L. D.
1976-01-01
In Shuttle orbiter cabins, lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canisters are currently planned to be used for CO2 adsorption and condensing heat exchangers for humidity control. In this paper a more effective CO2 and humidity removal method is proposed by replacing the LiOH component with HS-C adsorbent (a polyethylenimine coated acrylic ester), thus eliminating the low temperature constraints on the active thermal control system. Since the adsorption of CO2 and H2O are reversible, a double bed configuration operating cyclicly is planned to provide continuous atmospheric control. Apparatus and the experimental procedure to test the adsorption equilibrium are described and some of the indicative results, tabulated by computers, are presented with the help of exponential expressions and differential equations. By using a computer model of the Shuttle HS-C system, performance predictions are made.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stephan, G.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.; Wiedmer, T. (Institute for Applied Microeconomics, Univ. of Bern (Switzerland))
1992-01-01
Both distributional and allocational effects of limiting carbon dioxide emissions in a small and open economy are discussed. It starts from the assumption that Switzerland attempts to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions over the next 25 years, and evaluates costs and benefits of the respective reduction programme. From a methodological viewpoint, it is illustrated how a computable general equilibrium approach can be adopted for identifying economic effects of cutting greenhouse gas emissions on the national level. From a political economy point of view it considers the social incidence of a greenhouse policy. It shows in particular that public acceptance can be increased and economic costs of greenhouse policies can be reduced, if carbon taxes are accompanied by revenue redistribution. 8 tabs., 1 app., 17 refs.
Zero-rating food in South Africa: A computable general equilibrium analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Kearney
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Zero-rating food is considered to alleviate poverty of poor households who spend the largest proportion of their income on food. However, this will result in a loss of revenue for government. A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model is used to analyze the combined effects on zero-rating food and using alternative revenue sources to compensate for the loss in revenue. To prohibit excessively high increases in the statutory VAT rates of business and financial services, increasing direct taxes or increasing VAT to 16 per cent, is investigated. Increasing direct taxes is the most successful option when creating a more progressive tax structure, and still generating a positive impact on GDP. The results indicate that zero-rating food combined with a proportional percentage increase in direct taxes can improve the welfare of poor households.
Analysis of a decision model in the context of equilibrium pricing and order book pricing
Wagner, D. C.; Schmitt, T. A.; Schäfer, R.; Guhr, T.; Wolf, D. E.
2014-12-01
An agent-based model for financial markets has to incorporate two aspects: decision making and price formation. We introduce a simple decision model and consider its implications in two different pricing schemes. First, we study its parameter dependence within a supply-demand balance setting. We find realistic behavior in a wide parameter range. Second, we embed our decision model in an order book setting. Here, we observe interesting features which are not present in the equilibrium pricing scheme. In particular, we find a nontrivial behavior of the order book volumes which reminds of a trend switching phenomenon. Thus, the decision making model alone does not realistically represent the trading and the stylized facts. The order book mechanism is crucial.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Changbo; Jia Yangwen; Wang Hao; Bressers, Hans T A; Su, Z
2011-01-01
In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.
Static equilibrium analysis for pipeline protection design in Iran LNG port
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdollahi, A.S.; Vakili, R. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran, (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alielahi, H. [Islamic Azad Univ., Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2010-07-01
This paper discussed the protection design for an intake seawater pipeline that will be built for a liquefied natural gas (LNG) project. The limit equilibrium approach was used to estimate the geometry of the protection layer with respect to the holding capacity of the drag anchors in cohesionless soil, incorporating a more realistic 3-dimensional failure pattern in the soil as well as the force acting on the back of the fluke. The study addressed all technical and executive points related to the pipeline construction, including anchor type, ship load, geotechnical properties of the protected zone and the underlying seabed, and the procedure to calculate the geometry of the protection layer. The protection layer must account for the complexity of interactions among anchor, anchor chain, sea bed, and rock armour. This analytical method provided logical results more quickly and at a lower cost than model testing. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.
General Equilibrium Analysis of Electricity Market Liberalization in Singapore: A Comparative Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fenglong XIAO
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The liberalization in electricity market in Singapore has being undertaken for more than 15 years. This paper evaluates the influence of competition policies by computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Instead of the direct measurement of the impact of competition policy, the benefit of liberalization is reflected by the simulation of a hypothetical regulatory condition. Comparing to the regulatory scenario, simulation result implies the current liberalization raises GDP and exchange rate significantly, but also leaves the tradeoff between higher national income and lower consumer welfare to government. If such choice of economic policy is necessary for political demand, a formal legal framework is required to enforce the restoration of the economy from regulatory restrictions.
Njoya, Eric Tchouamou; Seetaram, Neelu
2018-04-01
The aim of this article is to investigate the claim that tourism development can be the engine for poverty reduction in Kenya using a dynamic, microsimulation computable general equilibrium model. The article improves on the common practice in the literature by using the more comprehensive Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index to measure poverty instead of headcount ratios only. Simulations results from previous studies confirm that expansion of the tourism industry will benefit different sectors unevenly and will only marginally improve poverty headcount. This is mainly due to the contraction of the agricultural sector caused the appreciation of the real exchange rates. This article demonstrates that the effect on poverty gap and poverty severity is, nevertheless, significant for both rural and urban areas with higher impact in the urban areas. Tourism expansion enables poorer households to move closer to the poverty line. It is concluded that the tourism industry is pro-poor.
Stability Analysis of Landslide on the R1 Expressway by Limit Equilibrium and Finite Element Methods
Janták, Viktor
2017-12-01
The most difficult problem by designing the superior infrastructure is tracing the expressways and higways in an environment of Quaternary and Neogene complexes of finegrained cohesive and non-cohesive soils. At the last time the typical examples are stability problems on the R1 Nitra - Tekovské Nemce Expressway. The article is focused on the description of reasons of stability loss in the deep earth cut in the 79,000 km of expressway R1, the course of the landslide, slide correction and especially slope-stability assessment before and after the occurrence of slope failures by limit equilibrium and finite elements methods by comparing the behaviour of the slope in the various model situations.
Schu, Kathryn L.
Economy-energy-environment models are the mainstay of economic assessments of policies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, yet their empirical basis is often criticized as being weak. This thesis addresses these limitations by constructing econometrically calibrated models in two policy areas. The first is a 35-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy which analyzes the uncertain impacts of CO2 emission abatement. Econometric modeling of sectors' nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost functions based on a 45-year price-quantity dataset yields estimates of capital-labor-energy-material input substitution elasticities and biases of technical change that are incorporated into the CGE model. I use the estimated standard errors and variance-covariance matrices to construct the joint distribution of the parameters of the economy's supply side, which I sample to perform Monte Carlo baseline and counterfactual runs of the model. The resulting probabilistic abatement cost estimates highlight the importance of the uncertainty in baseline emissions growth. The second model is an equilibrium simulation of the market for new vehicles which I use to assess the response of vehicle prices, sales and mileage to CO2 taxes and increased corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. I specify an econometric model of a representative consumer's vehicle preferences using a nested CES expenditure function which incorporates mileage and other characteristics in addition to prices, and develop a novel calibration algorithm to link this structure to vehicle model supplies by manufacturers engaged in Bertrand competition. CO2 taxes' effects on gasoline prices reduce vehicle sales and manufacturers' profits if vehicles' mileage is fixed, but these losses shrink once mileage can be adjusted. Accelerated CAFE standards induce manufacturers to pay fines for noncompliance rather than incur the higher costs of radical mileage improvements
Chau, Nancy H.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a capability-augmented model of on the job search, in which sweatshop conditions stifle the capability of the working poor to search for a job while on the job. The augmented setting unveils a sweatshop equilibrium in an otherwise archetypal Burdett-Mortensen economy, and reconciles a number of oft noted yet perplexing features of sweatshop economies. We demonstrate existence of multiple rational expectation equilibria, graduation pathways out of sweatshops in complete abs...
An analysis of the nucleon spectrum from lattice partially-quenched QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armour, W. [Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.; Allton, C. R. [Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP, Wales, U.K.; Leinweber, Derek B. [Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Thomas, Anthony W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Young, Ross D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
2010-09-01
The chiral extrapolation of the nucleon mass, Mn, is investigated using data coming from 2-flavour partially-quenched lattice simulations. The leading one-loop corrections to the nucleon mass are derived for partially-quenched QCD. A large sample of lattice results from the CP-PACS Collaboration is analysed, with explicit corrections for finite lattice spacing artifacts. The extrapolation is studied using finite range regularised chiral perturbation theory. The analysis also provides a quantitative estimate of the leading finite volume corrections. It is found that the discretisation, finite-volume and partial quenching effects can all be very well described in this framework, producing an extrapolated value of Mn in agreement with experiment. This procedure is also compared with extrapolations based on polynomial forms, where the results are less encouraging.
Helical axis stellarator equilibrium model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koniges, A.E.; Johnson, J.L.
1985-02-01
An asymptotic model is developed to study MHD equilibria in toroidal systems with a helical magnetic axis. Using a characteristic coordinate system based on the vacuum field lines, the equilibrium problem is reduced to a two-dimensional generalized partial differential equation of the Grad-Shafranov type. A stellarator-expansion free-boundary equilibrium code is modified to solve the helical-axis equations. The expansion model is used to predict the equilibrium properties of Asperators NP-3 and NP-4. Numerically determined flux surfaces, magnetic well, transform, and shear are presented. The equilibria show a toroidal Shafranov shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbarelli, Silvio; Amelio, Mario; Castiglione, Teresa; Florio, Gaetano; Scornaienchi, Nino M.; Cutrupi, Antonino; Lo Zupone, Giacomo
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A design a new self-balancing turbine collecting energy from tidal currents has been presented. • The equilibrium in the sea is guaranteed by a central deflector inserted in the blades disc. • The sizing procedure of the turbine needs the knowledge of lift and drag coefficients of the deflector. • A CDF analysis has been carried out for estimating these parameters. • The feasibility of a first pilot plant in the Calabrian site of Punta Pezzo (Italy) has been evaluated. - Abstract: For several years the Department of Mechanical, Energy and Management Engineering (DIMEG), in collaboration with SintEnergy Srl, has been performing researches for the exploitation of tidal currents. An innovative turbine has been developed, anchored to the coast, which does not require the supporting structures on the seabed and should reduces installation costs and environmental impact. This machine, in its latest version, proposes the use of two concentric and contra-rotating rotors, in order to require a small, or non-existent, stabilizing torque. In the present work the machine equilibrium conditions have been defined and, by a CFD analysis, the lift and drag coefficients of the central deflector have been calculated, together with a final machine design procedure. As a case study, applying the above procedure for a machine installed on the Messina strait, the energy output and the payback period have been estimated
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ilic, C; Chadwick, A; Helm-Petersen, Jacob
2000-01-01
, non-phased locked methods are more appropriate. In this paper, the accuracy of two non-phased locked methods of directional analysis, the maximum likelihood method (MLM) and the Bayesian directional method (BDM) have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical simulations for the case...... of multidirectional waves with partial reflections. It is shown that the results are influenced by the ratio of distance from the reflector (L) to the length of the time series (S) used in the spectral analysis. Both methods are found to be capable of determining the incident and reflective wave fields when US > 0......Recent studies of advanced directional analysis techniques have mainly centred on incident wave fields. In the study of coastal structures, however, partially reflective wave fields are commonly present. In the near structure field, phase locked methods can be successfully applied. In the far field...
Kenett, Dror Y; Tumminello, Michele; Madi, Asaf; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Mantegna, Rosario N; Ben-Jacob, Eshel
2010-12-20
What are the dominant stocks which drive the correlations present among stocks traded in a stock market? Can a correlation analysis provide an answer to this question? In the past, correlation based networks have been proposed as a tool to uncover the underlying backbone of the market. Correlation based networks represent the stocks and their relationships, which are then investigated using different network theory methodologies. Here we introduce a new concept to tackle the above question--the partial correlation network. Partial correlation is a measure of how the correlation between two variables, e.g., stock returns, is affected by a third variable. By using it we define a proxy of stock influence, which is then used to construct partial correlation networks. The empirical part of this study is performed on a specific financial system, namely the set of 300 highly capitalized stocks traded at the New York Stock Exchange, in the time period 2001-2003. By constructing the partial correlation network, unlike the case of standard correlation based networks, we find that stocks belonging to the financial sector and, in particular, to the investment services sub-sector, are the most influential stocks affecting the correlation profile of the system. Using a moving window analysis, we find that the strong influence of the financial stocks is conserved across time for the investigated trading period. Our findings shed a new light on the underlying mechanisms and driving forces controlling the correlation profile observed in a financial market.
A NON-LOCAL THERMODYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF BORON ABUNDANCES IN METAL-POOR STARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan Kefeng; Shi Jianrong; Zhao Gang
2010-01-01
The non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation of neutral boron in the atmospheres of cool stars are investigated. Our results confirm that NLTE effects for the B I resonance lines, which are due to a combination of overionization and optical pumping effects, are most important for hot, metal-poor, and low-gravity stars; however, the amplitude of departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) found by this work is smaller than that of previous studies. In addition, our calculation shows that the line formation of B I will get closer to LTE if the strength of collisions with neutral hydrogen increases, which is contrary to the result of previous studies. The NLTE line formation results are applied to the determination of boron abundances for a sample of 16 metal-poor stars with the method of spectrum synthesis of the B I 2497 A resonance lines using the archived HST/GHRS spectra. Beryllium and oxygen abundances are also determined for these stars with the published equivalent widths of the Be II 3131 A resonance and O I 7774 A triplet lines, respectively. The abundances of the nine stars which are not depleted in Be or B show that, no matter what the strength of collisions with neutral hydrogen may be, both Be and B increase with O quasilinearly in the logarithmic plane, which confirms the conclusions that Be and B are mainly produced by the primary process in the early Galaxy. The most noteworthy result of this work is that B increases with Fe or O at a very similar speed as, or a bit faster than, Be does, which is in accord with the theoretical models. The B/Be ratios remain almost constant over the metallicity range investigated here. Our average B/Be ratio falls in the interval [13 ± 4, 17 ± 4], which is consistent with the predictions of the spallation process. The contribution of B from the ν-process may be required if the 11 B/ 10 B isotopic ratios in metal-poor stars are the same as the meteoric value. An accurate measurement of the
Strategic forward contracting in electricity markets: modelling and analysis by equilibrium method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, T.S.; Zhang, S.H.; Wong, K.P.; Yu, C.W.; Chung, C.Y.
2004-01-01
Contractual arrangement plays an important role in mitigating market power in electricity markets. The issue of whether rational generators would voluntarily enter contract markets through a strategic incentive is examined, and the factors which could affect this strategic contracting behaviour. A two-stage game model is presented to formulate the competition of generators in bid-based pool spot markets and contract markets, as well as the interaction between these two markets. The affine supply function equilibrium (SFE) method is used to model competitive bidding for the spot market, while the contract market is modelled with the general conjectural variation method. The proposed methodology allows asymmetric, multiple strategic generators having capacity constraints and affine marginal costs with non-zero intercepts to be taken into account. It is shown that the presence of forward contract markets will complicate the solution to the affine SFE, and a new methodology is developed in this regard. Strategic contracting behaviours are analysed in the context of asymmetric, multiple strategic generators. A numerical example is used to verify theoretical results. It is shown that the observability of contract markets plays an important role in fostering generators' strategic contracting incentive, and that this contracting behaviour could also be affected by generators' cost parameters and demand elasticity. (author)
Statistical analysis of the equilibrium configurations of the W7-X stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sengupta, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Greifswald (Germany); Geiger, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Greifswald (Germany); Mc Carthy, P J [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Association EURATOM-DCU, Cork (Ireland)
2007-05-15
Equilibrium magnetic configurations of W7-X stellarator plasma were analysed in this study. The statistical method of function parametrization was used to recover the physical properties of the magnetic configurations, such as the flux surface geometry, the magnetic field and the iota profile from simulated experimental data. The study was carried out with a net toroidal current. Idealized 'measurements' were first used to recover the configuration. These ' measurements' were then perturbed with noise and the effect of this perturbation on the recovered configuration parameters was estimated. The noise was scanned over a range large enough to encompass that expected in the actual experiment. In the process, it was possible to ascertain the limit of tolerable noise that can be allowed in the inputs so as not to significantly perturb the outputs recovered with noiseless 'measurements'. Generally, a cubic polynomial model was found to be necessary for noise levels below 10%. For higher noise levels, a quadratic polynomial performed as well as the cubic. The noise level of 10% was also the approximate limit up to which the recovery with ideal measurements was generally reproduced. For the flux geometry recovery, however, the quadratic model performed similarly to the cubic for any value of noise, with the latter model proving to be significantly better only for the noiseless case. Also, with noisy predictors the recovery error for the flux surfaces increases linearly with effective radius from the plasma core up to the edge.
Environmental impacts of coal subsidies in Turkey: A general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acar, Sevil; Yeldan, A. Erinc
2016-01-01
In this study we aim at providing an analytical framework for Turkey to study the macroeconomics and environmental impacts of the existing coal subsidization scheme. To this end we develop a regionally differentiated applied general equilibrium model spanning over 2015–2030. Our analytical apparatus focuses exclusively on the fiscal implications as well as the environmental repercussions of the removal of the subsidies on greenhouse gas emissions. With the aid of a set of alternative policy scenarios against a “business as usual” path, we study the regional and sectorial performances of growth, employment, investment and capital accumulation, consumption/welfare and trade balance. Our results indicate that by simple elimination of the coal subsidization scheme, Turkey can reduce its aggregate gaseous emissions by as much as 5% without a significant loss in its GDP. - Highlights: • Turkey supports the coal sector providing both production and investment subsidies. • Eliminating production subsidies leads to a 2.5% decline in total CO2(eq) by 2030. • Additionally, removal of regional investment subsidies reduces CO2(eq) by 5.4%. • The macro-effects of both scenarios are found to be quite small. • Coal subsidies could be transferred to the financing of green policy alternatives.
A study of equilibrium and FTIR, SEM/EDS analysis of trimethoprim adsorption onto K10
Bekçi, Zehra; Seki, Yoldaş; Kadir Yurdakoç, M.
2007-02-01
The sorption behavior of K10, a type of montmorillonite for trimethoprim (TMP) drug, was studied by using batch technique under different pH and temperature. The interaction between K10 and TMP was investigated using SEM, and FTIR. It was observed that adsorption was increased between pH 2.5 and 6.3. By performing kinetic experiments, the pseudo-second-order kinetic model provides the best fit for TMP adsorption onto K10 montmorillonite. The sorption of TMP reached the equilibrium state after 6 h sorption time and has been described by using Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich equations to obtain adsorption capacity values. The results indicate that the relative adsorption capacity values ( Kf) are decreasing with the increase of temperature in the range of 298-318 K. The sorption energy values obtained from DR isotherm show that sorption of TMP onto K10 can be explained by ion exchange mechanism at 298, 308 and 318 K. The thermodynamic studies were conducted to find the thermodynamic parameters Δ H°, Δ S° and Δ G°. It was determined that adsorption process is spontaneous and exothermic in nature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guohua Fang
2016-09-01
Full Text Available To alleviate increasingly serious water pollution and shortages in developing countries, various kinds of policies have been implemented by local governments. It is vital to quantify and evaluate the performance and potential economic impacts of these policies. This study develops a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model to simulate the regional economic and environmental effects of discharge fees. Firstly, water resources and water environment factors are separated from the input and output sources of the National Economic Production Department. Secondly, an extended Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of Jiangsu province is developed to simulate various scenarios. By changing values of the discharge fees (increased by 50%, 100% and 150%, three scenarios are simulated to examine their influence on the overall economy and each industry. The simulation results show that an increased fee will have a negative impact on Gross Domestic Product (GDP. However, waste water may be effectively controlled. Also, this study demonstrates that along with the economic costs, the increase of the discharge fee will lead to the upgrading of industrial structures from a situation of heavy pollution to one of light pollution which is beneficial to the sustainable development of the economy and the protection of the environment.
Analysis and adaptive control of a novel 3-D conservative no-equilibrium chaotic system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vaidyanathan Sundarapandian
2015-09-01
Full Text Available First, this paper announces a seven-term novel 3-D conservative chaotic system with four quadratic nonlinearities. The conservative chaotic systems are characterized by the important property that they are volume conserving. The phase portraits of the novel conservative chaotic system are displayed and the mathematical properties are discussed. An important property of the proposed novel chaotic system is that it has no equilibrium point. Hence, it displays hidden chaotic attractors. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel conservative chaotic system are obtained as L1 = 0.0395,L2 = 0 and L3 = −0.0395. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel conservative chaotic system is DKY =3. Next, an adaptive controller is designed to globally stabilize the novel conservative chaotic system with unknown parameters. Moreover, an adaptive controller is also designed to achieve global chaos synchronization of the identical conservative chaotic systems with unknown parameters. MATLAB simulations have been depicted to illustrate the phase portraits of the novel conservative chaotic system and also the adaptive control results.
CO2, GDP and RET: An aggregate economic equilibrium analysis for Turkey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumbaroglu, Guerkan; Karali, Nihan; Arikan, Yildiz
2008-01-01
There is a worldwide interest in renewable electricity technologies (RETs) due to growing concerns about global warming and climate change. As an EU candidate country whose energy demand increases exponentially, Turkey inevitably shares this common interest on RET. This study, using an aggregate economic equilibrium model, explores the economic costs of different policy measures to mitigate CO 2 emissions in Turkey. The model combines energy demands, capital requirements and labor inputs at a constant elasticity of substitution under an economy-wide nested production function. Growing energy demand, triggered by economic growth, is met by increased supply and initiates new capacity additions. Investment into RET is encouraged via the incorporation of (a) endogenous technological learning through which the RET cost declines as a function of cumulative capacity, and (b) a willingness to pay (WTP) function which imposes the WTP of consumers as a lower bound on RET installation. The WTP equation is obtained as a function of consumer income categories, based on data gathered from a pilot survey in which the contingent valuation methodology was employed. The impacts of various emission reduction scenarios on GDP growth and RET diffusion are explored. As expected, RET penetration is accelerated under faster technological learning and higher WTP conditions. It is found that stabilizing CO 2 emissions to year 2005 levels causes economic losses amounting to 17% and 23% of GDP in the years 2020 and 2030, respectively
Economic impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico: A general equilibrium analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizondo, Alejandra; Boyd, Roy
2017-01-01
In this paper we analyze the economic impact of a decision to produce ethanol in Mexico, comparing the effect of a subsidy to initiate ethanol production with that of alternative public policies. Public support of biofuels has been a public policy goal since 2008, and the promotion of ethanol remains an active part of the government agenda. The evidence used to encourage or alter the policy is (by necessity) chiefly based on international experience. In this study we use a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) to estimate the impact of ethanol production on the Mexican economy. Using cost data from Brazil we introduce ethanol into a Mexican social accounting matrix, and insert a latent sector into the model to analyze ethanol promotion. Our results show that subsidies to ethanol would increase agriculture production but at the expense of aggregate welfare. By contrast, alternative 'clean energy' policies appear to advance economic growth to a greater extent. - Highlights: • A CGE model is used to estimate the impact of ethanol promotion in Mexico. • The benefits of a policy designed to promote the use of ethanol are rather small. • The rural sector benefits modestly, but production in other sectors decrease. • Alternative policies advance economic growth and welfare to a greater extent.
Luca Anderlini; Daniele Terlizzese
2009-01-01
We build a simple model of trust as an equilibrium phenomenon, departing from standard "selfish" preferences in a minimal way. Agents who are on the receiving end of an other to transact can choose whether to cheat and take away the entire surplus, taking into account a "cost of cheating." The latter has an idiosyncratic component (an agent's type), and a socially determined one. The smaller the mass of agents who cheat, the larger the cost of cheating suffered by those who cheat. Depending o...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Faucett, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haskin, Troy Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luxat, Dave [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Geiger, Garrett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Codella, Brittany [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-10-01
Following the conclusion of the first phase of the crosswalk analysis, one of the key unanswered questions was whether or not the deviations found would persist during a partially recovered accident scenario, similar to the one that occurred in TMI - 2. In particular this analysis aims to compare the impact of core degradation morphology on quenching models inherent within the two codes and the coolability of debris during partially recovered accidents. A primary motivation for this study is the development of insights into how uncertainties in core damage progression models impact the ability to assess the potential for recovery of a degraded core. These quench and core recovery models are of the most interest when there is a significant amount of core damage, but intact and degraded fuel still remain in the cor e region or the lower plenum. Accordingly this analysis presents a spectrum of partially recovered accident scenarios by varying both water injection timing and rate to highlight the impact of core degradation phenomena on recovered accident scenarios. This analysis uses the newly released MELCOR 2.2 rev. 966 5 and MAAP5, Version 5.04. These code versions, which incorporate a significant number of modifications that have been driven by analyses and forensic evidence obtained from the Fukushima - Daiichi reactor site.
Tang, Kwong-Tin
2007-01-01
Pedagogical insights gained through 30 years of teaching applied mathematics led the author to write this set of student oriented books. Topics such as complex analysis, matrix theory, vector and tensor analysis, Fourier analysis, integral transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations are presented in a discursive style that is readable and easy to follow. Numerous clearly stated, completely worked out examples together with carefully selected problem sets with answers are used to enhance students' understanding and manipulative skill. The goal is to make students comfortable and confident in using advanced mathematical tools in junior, senior, and beginning graduate courses.
Neutronics/Thermo-fluid Coupled Analysis of PMR-200 Equilibrium Cycle by CAPP/GAMMA+ Code System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hyun Chul; Tak, Nam-il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
The equilibrium core was obtained by performing CAPP stand-alone multi-cycle depletion calculation with critical rod position search. In this work, a code system for coupled neutronics and thermo-fluids simulation was developed using CAPP and GAMMA+ codes. A server program, INTCA, controls the two codes for coupled calculations and performs the mapping between the variables of the two codes based on the nodalization of the two codes. In order to extend the knowledge about the coupled behavior of a prismatic VHTR, the CAPP/GAMMA+ code system was applied to steady state performance analysis of PMR-200. The coupled calculation was carried out for the equilibrium core of PMR-200 from BOC to EOC. The peak fuel temperature was predicted to be 1372 .deg. C near MOC. However, the cycle-average fuel temperature was calculated as 1230 .deg. C, which is slightly below the design target of 1250 .deg. C. In addition, significant impact of the bypass flow on the central reflector temperature was found. Without bypass flow, the temperature of the active core region was slightly decreased while the temperature of the central and side reflector region was increased much. The both changes in the temperature increase the multiplication factor and the total change of the multiplication factor was more than 300 pcm. On the other hand, the effect of the bypass flow on the power density profile was not significant.
Quasi-equilibrium analysis of the ion-pair mediated membrane transport of low-permeability drugs.
Miller, Jonathan M; Dahan, Arik; Gupta, Deepak; Varghese, Sheeba; Amidon, Gordon L
2009-07-01
The aim of this research was to gain a mechanistic understanding of ion-pair mediated membrane transport of low-permeability drugs. Quasi-equilibrium mass transport analyses were developed to describe the ion-pair mediated octanol-buffer partitioning and hydrophobic membrane permeation of the model basic drug phenformin. Three lipophilic counterions were employed: p-toluenesulfonic acid, 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid, and 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNAP). Association constants and intrinsic octanol-buffer partition coefficients (Log P(AB)) of the ion-pairs were obtained by fitting a transport model to double reciprocal plots of apparent octanol-buffer distribution coefficients versus counterion concentration. All three counterions enhanced the lipophilicity of phenformin, with HNAP providing the greatest increase in Log P(AB), 3.7 units over phenformin alone. HNAP also enhanced the apparent membrane permeability of phenformin, 27-fold in the PAMPA model, and 4.9-fold across Caco-2 cell monolayers. As predicted from a quasi-equilibrium analysis of ion-pair mediated membrane transport, an order of magnitude increase in phenformin flux was observed per log increase in counterion concentration, such that log-log plots of phenformin flux versus HNAP concentration gave linear relationships. These results provide increased understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ion-pair mediated membrane transport, emphasizing the potential of this approach to enable oral delivery of low-permeability drugs.
Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.
2014-04-01
Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Yingying; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Meifang
2017-01-01
This paper explores the rebound effect of different energy types in China based on a static computable general equilibrium model. A one-off 5% energy efficiency improvement is imposed on five different types of energy, respectively, in all the 135 production sectors in China. The rebound effect is measured both on the production level and on the economy-wide level for each type of energy. The results show that improving energy efficiency of using electricity has the largest positive impact on GDP among the five energy types. Inter-fuel substitutability does not affect the macroeconomic results significantly, but long-run impact is usually greater than the short-run impact. For the exports-oriented sectors, those that are capital-intensive get big negative shock in the short run while those that are labour-intensive get hurt in the long run. There is no “backfire” effect; however, improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound, which implies that improving the energy efficiency of using electricity might be a good policy choice under China's current energy structure. In general, macro-level rebound is larger than production-level rebound. Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. In addition, the paper points out that the policy makers in China should look at the rebound effect in the long term rather than in the short term. The energy efficiency policy would be a good and effective policy choice for energy conservation in China when it still has small inter-fuel substitution. - Highlights: • Primary energy goods show larger rebound effect than secondary energy goods. • Improving efficiency of using electricity can cause negative rebound. • The energy efficiency policy would be an effective policy choice for China. • Policy-makers should consider the rebound effect in the longer term.
Modeling and numerical analysis of non-equilibrium two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rascle, P.; El Amine, K.
1997-01-01
We are interested in the numerical approximation of two-fluid models of nonequilibrium two-phase flows described by six balance equations. We introduce an original splitting technique of the system of equations. This technique is derived in a way such that single phase Riemann solvers may be used: moreover, it allows a straightforward extension to various and detailed exchange source terms. The properties of the fluids are first approached by state equations of ideal gas type and then extended to real fluids. For the construction of numerical schemes , the hyperbolicity of the full system is not necessary. When based on suitable kinetic unwind schemes, the algorithm can compute flow regimes evolving from mixture to single phase flows and vice versa. The whole scheme preserves the physical features of all the variables which remain in the set of physical states. Several stiff numerical tests, such as phase separation and phase transition are displayed in order to highlight the efficiency of the proposed method. The document is a PhD thesis divided in 6 chapters and two annexes. They are entitled: 1. - Introduction (in French), 2. - Two-phase flow, modelling and hyperbolicity (in French), 3. - A numerical method using upwind schemes for the resolution of two-phase flows without exchange terms (in English), 4. - A numerical scheme for one-phase flow of real fluids (in English), 5. - An upwind numerical for non-equilibrium two-phase flows (in English), 6. - The treatment of boundary conditions (in English), A.1. The Perthame scheme (in English) and A.2. The Roe scheme (in English)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Ming-Che; Lu, Su-Ying; Chen, Yen-Haw
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Analyze the impact of a demand response program under uncertainty. • Stochastic Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated. • Case study of the Taiwanese electric power market is conducted. • Demand response decreases power price, generation, and emissions. • Demand uncertainty increases energy price and supply risk in the results. - Abstract: In the electricity market, demand response programs are designed to shift peak demand and enhance system reliability. A demand response program can reduce peak energy demand, power transmission congestion, or high energy-price conditions by changing consumption patterns. The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of a demand response program in the energy market, under demand uncertainty. A stochastic–multiobjective Nash–Cournot competition model is formulated to simulate demand response in an uncertain energy market. Then, Karush–Kuhn–Tucker optimality conditions and a linear complementarity problem are derived for the stochastic Nash–Cournot model. Accordingly, the linear complementarity problem is solved and its stochastic market equilibrium solution is determined by using a general algebraic modeling system. Additionally, the case of the Taiwanese electric power market is taken up here, and the results show that a demand response program is capable of reducing peak energy consumption, energy price, and carbon dioxide emissions. The results show that demand response program decreases electricity price by 2–10%, total electricity generation by 0.5–2%, and carbon dioxide emissions by 0.5–2.5% in the Taiwanese power market. In the simulation, demand uncertainty leads to an 2–7% increase in energy price and supply risk in the market. Additionally, tradeoffs between cost and carbon dioxide emissions are presented.
Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.
2010-04-01
SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.
Carbon Taxes and Joint Implementation. An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis for Germany and India
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boehringer, C.; Loeschel, A. [Centre for European Economic Research ZEW, Mannheim (Germany); Conrad, K. [Department of Economics, Mannheim University, Mannheim (Germany)
2003-01-01
Germany has committed itself to reducing its carbon emissions by 25% in 2005 as compared to 1990 emission levels. To achieve this goal, the government has recently launched an environmental tax reform which entails a continuous increase in energy taxes in conjunction with a revenue-neutral cut in non-wage labor costs. This policy is supposed to yield a double dividend, reducing both, the problem of global warming and high unemployment rates. In addition to domestic actions, international treaties on climate protection allow for the supplementary use of flexible instruments to exploit cheaper emission reduction possibilities elsewhere. One concrete option for Germany would be to enter joint implementation (JI) with developing countries such as India where Germany pays emission reduction abroad rather than meeting its reduction target solely by domestic action. In this paper, we investigate whether an environmental tax reform cum JI provides employment and overall efficiency gains as compared to an environmental tax reform stand-alone. We address this question in the framework of a large-scale general equilibrium model for Germany and India where Germany may undertake JI with the Indian electricity sector. Our main finding is that JI offsets largely the adverse effects of carbon emission constraints on the German economy. JI significantly lowers the level of carbon taxes and thus reduces the total costs of abatement as well as negative effects on labor demand. In addition, JI triggers direct investment demand for energy efficient power plants produced in Germany. This provides positive employment effects and additional income for Germany. For India, joint implementation equips its electricity industry with scarce capital goods leading to a more efficient power production with lower electricity prices for the economy and substantial welfare gains.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ko, Jong-Hwan.
1993-01-01
Firstly, this study investigaties the causes of sectoral growth and structural changes in the Korean economy. Secondly, it develops the borders of a consistent economic model in order to investigate simultaneously the different impacts of changes in energy and in the domestic economy. This is done any both the Input-Output-Decomposition analysis and a Computable General Equilibrium model (CGE Model). The CGE Model eliminates the disadvantages of the IO Model and allows the investigation of the interdegenerative of the various energy sectors with the economy. The Social Accounting Matrix serves as the data basis of the GCE Model. Simulated experiments have been comet out with the help of the GCE Model, indicating the likely impact of an oil price shock in the economy-sectorally and generally. (orig.) [de
Analysis of boundary layer flow over a porous nonlinearly stretching sheet with partial slip at
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Swati Mukhopadhyay
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The boundary layer flow of a viscous incompressible fluid toward a porous nonlinearly stretching sheet is considered in this analysis. Velocity slip is considered instead of no-slip condition at the boundary. Similarity transformations are used to convert the partial differential equation corresponding to the momentum equation into nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Numerical solution of this equation is obtained by shooting method. It is found that the horizontal velocity decreases with increasing slip parameter.
Use of correspondence analysis partial least squares on linear and unimodal data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frisvad, Jens Christian; Norsker, Merete
1996-01-01
Correspondence analysis partial least squares (CA-PLS) has been compared with PLS conceming classification and prediction of unimodal growth temperature data and an example using infrared (IR) spectroscopy for predicting amounts of chemicals in mixtures. CA-PLS was very effective for ordinating...... that could only be seen in two-dimensional plots, and also less effective predictions. PLS was the best method in the linear case treated, with fewer components and a better prediction than CA-PLS....
Comparative Study of Various Normal Mode Analysis Techniques Based on Partial Hessians
GHYSELS, AN; VAN SPEYBROECK, VERONIQUE; PAUWELS, EWALD; CATAK, SARON; BROOKS, BERNARD R.; VAN NECK, DIMITRI; WAROQUIER, MICHEL
2010-01-01
Standard normal mode analysis becomes problematic for complex molecular systems, as a result of both the high computational cost and the excessive amount of information when the full Hessian matrix is used. Several partial Hessian methods have been proposed in the literature, yielding approximate normal modes. These methods aim at reducing the computational load and/or calculating only the relevant normal modes of interest in a specific application. Each method has its own (dis)advantages and...
de Oliveira, Mário J
2017-01-01
This textbook provides an exposition of equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to several areas of physics with particular attention to phase transitions and critical phenomena. The applications include several areas of condensed matter physics and include also a chapter on thermochemistry. Phase transitions and critical phenomena are treated according to the modern development of the field, based on the ideas of universality and on the Widom scaling theory. For each topic, a mean-field or Landau theory is presented to describe qualitatively the phase transitions. These theories include the van der Waals theory of the liquid-vapor transition, the Hildebrand-Heitler theory of regular mixtures, the Griffiths-Landau theory for multicritical points in multicomponent systems, the Bragg-Williams theory of order-disorder in alloys, the Weiss theory of ferromagnetism, the Néel theory of antiferromagnetism, the Devonshire theory for ferroelectrics and Landau-de Gennes theory of liquid crystals. This new edit...
Differential Equation of Equilibrium
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
ABSTRACT. Analysis of underground circular cylindrical shell is carried out in this work. The forth order differential equation of equilibrium, comparable to that of beam on elastic foundation, was derived from static principles on the assumptions of P. L Pasternak. Laplace transformation was used to solve the governing ...
Partial wave analysis of the 18O(p,α0)15N reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wild, L.W.J.; Spicer, B.M.
1979-01-01
A partial wave analysis of the differential cross sections for the 18 O(p,α 0 ) 15 N reaction has been carried out applying the formalism of Blatt and Biedenharn (1952), made specific for this reaction. The differential cross sections, measured at 200 keV intervals from 6.6 to 10.4 MeV bombarding energy, were subjected to least-squares fitting to this specific analytic expression. Two resonances were given by the analysis, the 19 F states being at 14.71+-0.07 MeV (1/2 - ) and 14.80 + 0.07 MeV (1/2) +
Weingarten, Toby N; Del Mundo, Serena B; Yeoh, Tze Yeng; Scavonetto, Federica; Leibovich, Bradley C; Sprung, Juraj
2014-10-01
The aim of this retrospective study is to test the hypothesis that the use of spinal analgesia shortens the length of hospital stay after partial nephrectomy. We reviewed all patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for malignancy through flank incision between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2011. We excluded patients who underwent tumor thrombectomy, used sustained-release opioids, or had general anesthesia supplemented by epidural analgesia. Patients were grouped into "spinal" (intrathecal opioid injection for postoperative analgesia) versus "general anesthetic" group, and "early" discharge group (within 3 postoperative days) versus "late" group. Association between demographics, patient physical status, anesthetic techniques, and surgical complexity and hospital stay were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 380 patients, 158 (41.6%) were discharged "early" and 151 (39.7%) were "spinal" cases. Both spinal and early discharge groups had better postoperative pain control and used less postoperative systemic opioids. Spinal analgesia was associated with early hospital discharge, odds ratio 1.52, (95% confidence interval 1.00-2.30), P = 0.05, but in adjusted analysis was no longer associated with early discharge, 1.16 (0.73-1.86), P = 0.52. Early discharge was associated with calendar year, with more recent years being associated with early discharge. Spinal analgesia combined with general anesthesia was associated with improved postoperative pain control during the 1(st) postoperative day, but not with shorter hospital stay following partial nephrectomy. Therefore, unaccounted practice changes that occurred during more recent times affected hospital stay.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steer, C.J.; Osborne, J.C. Jr.; Kempner, E.S.
1990-01-01
Radiation inactivation and sedimentation equilibrium analysis were used to determine the functional and physical size of the chicken hepatic membrane receptor that binds N-acetylglucosamine-terminated glycoproteins. Purified plasma membranes from chicken liver were irradiated with high energy electrons and assayed for 125I-agalactoorosomucoid binding. Increasing the dose of ionizing radiation resulted in a monoexponential decay in binding activity due to a progressive loss of binding sites. The molecular mass of the chicken lectin, determined in situ by target analysis, was 69,000 +/- 9,000 Da. When the same irradiated membranes were solubilized in Brij 58 and assayed, the binding protein exhibited a target size of 62,000 +/- 4,000 Da; in Triton X-100, the functional size of the receptor was 85,000 +/- 10,000 Da. Sedimentation equilibrium measurements of the purified binding protein yielded a lower limit molecular weight of 79,000 +/- 7,000. However, the solubilized lectin was detected as a heterogeneous population of oligomers with molecular weights as high as 450,000. Addition of calcium or calcium plus N-acetylglucosamine decreased the higher molecular weight species, but the lower limit molecular weights remained invariant. Similar results were determined when the chicken lectin was solubilized in Brij 58, C12E9, or 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonic acid (CHAPS). Results from the present study suggest that in the plasma membrane, the functional species of the chicken hepatic lectin exists as a trimer. However, in detergent solution, the purified receptor forms a heterogeneous population of irreversible oligomers that exhibit binding activity proportional to size
An analysis of the nucleon spectrum from lattice partially-quenched QCD.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armour, W.; Allton, C. R.; Leinweber, D. B.; Thomas, A. W.; Young, R. D.; Physics; Swansea Univ.; Univ. of Adelaide; Coll. of William and Mary
2010-09-01
The chiral extrapolation of the nucleon mass, M{sub n}, is investigated using data coming from 2-flavour partially-quenched lattice simulations. A large sample of lattice results from the CP-PACS Collaboration is analysed using the leading one-loop corrections, with explicit corrections for finite lattice spacing artifacts. The extrapolation is studied using finite-range regularised chiral perturbation theory. The analysis also provides a quantitative estimate of the leading finite volume corrections. It is found that the discretisation, finite volume and partial quenching effects can all be very well described in this framework, producing an extrapolated value of Mn in agreement with experiment. Furthermore, determinations of the low energy constants of the nucleon mass's chiral expansion are in agreement with previous methods, but with significantly reduced errors. This procedure is also compared with extrapolations based on polynomial forms, where the results are less encouraging.
Partial wave analysis of anti pp → anti ΛΛ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugg, D.V.
2004-01-01
A partial wave analysis of PS185 data for anti pp → anti ΛΛ is presented. A 3 S 1 cusp is identified in the inverse process anti ΛΛ→ anti p p at threshold, using detailed balance to deduce cross sections from anti pp → anti ΛΛ. Partial wave amplitudes for anti pp 3 P 0 , 3 F 3 , 3 D 3 and 3 G 3 exhibit a behaviour very similar to resonances observed in Crystal Barrel data. With this identification, the anti pp → anti ΛΛ data then provide evidence for a new I=0, J PC =1 - resonance with mass M = 2290 ±20 MeV, Γ= 275 ±35 MeV, coupling to both 3 S 1 and 3 D 1 . (orig.)
An analysis of the nucleon spectrum from lattice partially-quenched QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armour, W. [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Allton, C.R., E-mail: c.allton@swan.ac.u [Department of Physics, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, Wales (United Kingdom); Leinweber, D.B. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM), School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, 5005 (Australia); Thomas, A.W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Young, R.D. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2010-09-01
The chiral extrapolation of the nucleon mass, M{sub n}, is investigated using data coming from 2-flavour partially-quenched lattice simulations. A large sample of lattice results from the CP-PACS Collaboration is analysed using the leading one-loop corrections, with explicit corrections for finite lattice spacing artifacts. The extrapolation is studied using finite-range regularised chiral perturbation theory. The analysis also provides a quantitative estimate of the leading finite volume corrections. It is found that the discretisation, finite volume and partial quenching effects can all be very well described in this framework, producing an extrapolated value of M{sub n} in agreement with experiment. Furthermore, determinations of the low energy constants of the nucleon mass's chiral expansion are in agreement with previous methods, but with significantly reduced errors. This procedure is also compared with extrapolations based on polynomial forms, where the results are less encouraging.
Patterns of Failure After MammoSite Brachytherapy Partial Breast Irradiation: A Detailed Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Sea; Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael; Shah, Anand; Jokich, Peter; Solmos, Gene; Strauss, Jonathan; Dowlatshahi, Kambiz; Nguyen, Cam; Griem, Katherine
2007-01-01
Purpose: To report the results of a detailed analysis of treatment failures after MammoSite breast brachytherapy for partial breast irradiation from our single-institution experience. Methods and Materials: Between October 14, 2002 and October 23, 2006, 78 patients with early-stage breast cancer were treated with breast-conserving surgery and accelerated partial breast irradiation using the MammoSite brachytherapy applicator. We identified five treatment failures in the 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up. Pathologic data, breast imaging, and radiation treatment plans were reviewed. For in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, the doses delivered to the areas of recurrence by partial breast irradiation were calculated. Results: At a median follow-up time of 26.1 months, five treatment failures were identified. There were three in-breast failures more than 2 cm away from the original surgical bed, one failure directly adjacent to the original surgical bed, and one failure in the axilla with synchronous distant metastases. The crude failure rate was 7.1% (5 of 70), and the crude local failure rate was 5.7% (4 of 70). Estimated progression-free survival at 48 months was 89.8% (standard error 4.5%). Conclusions: Our case series of 70 patients with >6 months' follow-up and a median follow-up of 26 months is the largest single-institution report to date with detailed failure analysis associated with MammoSite brachytherapy. Our failure data emphasize the importance of patient selection when offering partial breast irradiation
Equilibrium and non equilibrium in fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorso, C.O.; Chernomoretz, A.; Lopez, J.A.
2001-01-01
Full text: In this communication we present recent results regarding the interplay of equilibrium and non equilibrium in the process of fragmentation of excited finite Lennard Jones drops. Because the general features of such a potential resemble the ones of the nuclear interaction (fact that is reinforced by the similarity between the EOS of both systems) these studies are not only relevant from a fundamental point of view but also shed light on the problem of nuclear multifragmentation. We focus on the microscopic analysis of the state of the fragmenting system at fragmentation time. We show that the Caloric Curve (i e. the functional relationship between the temperature of the system and the excitation energy) is of the type rise plateau with no vapor branch. The usual rise plateau rise pattern is only recovered when equilibrium is artificially imposed. This result puts a serious question on the validity of the freeze out hypothesis. This feature is independent of the dimensionality or excitation mechanism. Moreover we explore the behavior of magnitudes which can help us determine the degree of the assumed phase transition. It is found that no clear cut criteria is presently available. (Author)
From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffmann, T.
2006-05-04
The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.
Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene
2015-06-01
When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails.
Analysis of the impacts of the J-TEXT TBM mock-up on the equilibrium magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Zhengqing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, and College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Rao, Bo, E-mail: borao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, and College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, and College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Weihua [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); New Star Institute of Applied Technology, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, Sumei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); School of Engineering,Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • J-TEXT TBM mock-up was designed and fabricated to test and study the distribution of eddy current, electromagnetic and thermal load on the TBM during plasma disruption. • This paper focuses on evaluating the influence of the TBM structural material (RAMF steel) to tokamak discharge and security. The simulation data presents a relatively complete assessment of impacts of the J-TEXT TBM mock-up on the equilibrium magnetic field. • The conclusion of the simulation will offer the guidance for installation interface design of the TBM mock-up. - Abstract: The Test Blanket Module (TBM) will be used in the test port of ITER to demonstrate tritium self-sufficiency and the extraction of high grade heat for electricity production. J-TEXT TBM mock-up using reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel as structural material was designed and fabricated to perform and validate relevant electromagnetic and thermal technologies of the China Helium-Cooled Ceramic Breeder Test Blanket Module (CN HCCB-TBM) on the J-TEXT. Its size is one third of the CN HCCB-TBM. By using the finite element analysis technology, this paper analyzed the impacts on the equilibrium magnetic field over the plasma region after introducing the structure material RAFM steel. The distribution of toroidal field (TF) ripple and the magnitude of the error field with the mock-up at different positions were given. Simulation shows the distribution of the null field region formed by poloidal field (PF). The influence to tokamak discharge has been evaluated by drawing the magnetic field lines. Based on the results above, we have optimized and finished the installation of the mock-up to J-TEXT which meets the needs of the experiments and to ensure the normal discharge.
Hirabayashi, Kazuhisa; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Takayanagi, Toshio; Toki, Yuko; Egawa, Takahiro; Kamiya, Mako; Komatsu, Toru; Ueno, Tasuku; Terai, Takuya; Yoshida, Kengo; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru
2015-09-01
Fluorescein is a representative green fluorophore that has been widely used as a scaffold of practically useful green fluorescent probes. Here, we report synthesis and characterization of a silicon-substituted fluorescein, i.e., 2-COOH TokyoMagenta (2-COOH TM), which is a fluorescein analogue in which the O atom at the 10' position of the xanthene moiety of fluorescein is replaced with a Si atom. This fluorescein analogue forms a spirolactone ring via intramolecular nucleophilic attack of the carboxylic group in a pH-dependent manner. Consequently, 2-COOH TM exhibits characteristic large pH-dependent absorption and fluorescence spectral changes: (1) 2-COOH TM is colorless at acidic pH, whereas fluorescein retains observable absorption and fluorescence even at acidic pH, and the absorption maximum is also shifted; (2) the absorption spectral change occurs above pH 7.0 for 2-COOH TM and below pH 7.0 for fluorescein; (3) 2-COOH TM shows a much sharper pH response than fluorescein because of its pKa inversion, i.e., pKa1 > pKa2. These features are also different from those of a compound without the carboxylic group, 2-Me TokyoMagenta (2-Me TM). Analysis of the chemical equilibrium between pH 3.0 and 11.0 disclosed that 2-COOH TM favors the colorless and nonfluorescent lactone form, compared with fluorescein. Substitution of Cl atoms at the 4' and 5' positions of the xanthene moiety of 2-COOH TM to obtain 2-COOH DCTM shifted the equilibrium so that the new derivative exists predominantly in the strongly fluorescent open form at physiological pH (pH 7.4). To demonstrate the practical utility of 2-COOH DCTM as a novel scaffold for red fluorescent probes, we employed it to develop a probe for β-galactosidase.
Genetic analysis of partial resistance to basal stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amouzadeh Masoumeh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Basal stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, is one of the major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in the world. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs implicated in partial resistance to basal stem rot disease were identified using 99 recombinant inbred lines (RILs from the cross between sunflower parental lines PAC2 and RHA266. The study was undertaken in a completely randomized design with three replications under controlled conditions. The RILs and their parental lines were inoculated with a moderately aggressive isolate of S. sclerotiorum (SSKH41. Resistance to disease was evaluated by measuring the percentage of necrosis area three days after inoculation. QTLs were mapped using an updated high-density SSR and SNP linkage map. ANOVA showed significant differences among sunflower lines for resistance to basal stem rot (P≤0.05. The frequency distribution of lines for susceptibility to disease showed a continuous pattern. Composite interval mapping analysis revealed 5 QTLs for percentage of necrotic area, localized on linkage groups 1, 3, 8, 10 and 17. The sign of additive effect was positive in 5 QTLs, suggesting that the additive allele for partial resistance to basal stem rot came from the paternal line (RHA266. The phenotypic variance explained by QTLs (R2 ranged from 0.5 to 3.16%. Identified genes (HUCL02246_1, GST and POD, and SSR markers (ORS338, and SSL3 encompassing the QTLs for partial resistance to basal stem rot could be good candidates for marker assisted selection.
Nucleon-nucleon partial-wave analysis to 1100 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arndt, R.A.; Hyslop, J.S. III; Roper, L.D.
1987-01-01
Comprehensive analyses of nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering data below 1100 MeV laboratory kinetic energy are presented. The data base from which an energy-dependent solution and 22 single-energy solutions are obtained consists of 7223 pp and 5474 np data. A resonancelike structure is found to occur in the 1 D 2 , 3 F 3 , 3 P 2 - 3 F 2 , and 3 F 4 - 3 H 4 partial waves; this behavior is associated with poles in the complex energy plane. The pole positions and residues are obtained by analytic continuation of the ''production'' piece of the T matrix obtained in the energy-dependent solution. The new phases differ somewhat from previously published VPIandSU solutions, especially in I = 0 waves above 500 MeV, where np data are very sparse. The partial waves are, however, based upon a significantly larger data base and reflect correspondingly smaller errors. The full data base and solution files can be obtained through a computer scattering analysis interactive dial-in (SAID) system at VPIandSU, which also exists at many institutions around the world and which can be transferred to any site with a suitable computer system. The SAID system can be used to modify solutions, plan experiments, and obtain any of the multitude of predictions which derive from partial-wave analyses of the world data base
Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad
2017-11-06
A relatively high level of stratification (qualitatively: lack of homogeneity) is one of the main advantages of partially premixed combustion over the homogeneous charge compression ignition concept. Stratification can smooth the heat release rate and improve the controllability of combustion. In order to compare stratification levels of different partially premixed combustion strategies or other combustion concepts, an objective and meaningful definition of “stratification level” is required. Such a definition is currently lacking; qualitative/quantitative definitions in the literature cannot properly distinguish various levels of stratification. The main purpose of this study is to objectively define combustion stratification (not to be confused with fuel stratification) based on high-speed OH* chemiluminescence imaging, which is assumed to provide spatial information regarding heat release. Stratification essentially being equivalent to spatial structure, we base our definition on two-dimensional Fourier transforms of photographs of OH* chemiluminescence. A light-duty optical diesel engine has been used to perform the OH* bandpass imaging on. Four experimental points are evaluated, with injection timings in the homogeneous regime as well as in the stratified partially premixed combustion regime. Two-dimensional Fourier transforms translate these chemiluminescence images into a range of spatial frequencies. The frequency information is used to define combustion stratification, using a novel normalization procedure. The results indicate that this new definition, based on Fourier analysis of OH* bandpass images, overcomes the drawbacks of previous definitions used in the literature and is a promising method to compare the level of combustion stratification between different experiments.
The Impact of Productivity Increasing in Indonesian Maritim Sector: General Equilibrium Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Widyastutik Widyastutik
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The increase in productivity in the maritime sector will realize the maritime sector as a prime mover. This study aims to analyze the impact of the maritime sector productivity improvement on the performance of the economy. This research simulates increased productivity in the maritime sector (consisting of the fisheries, oil, gas sub-sector and marine transport services sector using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP version 8. Simulation analysis showed an increase in productivity in the maritime sector has a positive impact on welfare, real GDP, and trade balance of Indonesia. However, the impact of the increase in productivity is not followed by an increase in output in all sectors. This indicates that if the increase in productivity occurs only in the maritime sector alone without being followed by an increase in productivity in other sectors, the sectoral performance is not optimal.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v5i2.3403
Three-dimensional finite element analysis of implant-assisted removable partial dentures.
Eom, Ju-Won; Lim, Young-Jun; Kim, Myung-Joo; Kwon, Ho-Beom
2017-06-01
Whether the implant abutment in implant-assisted removable partial dentures (IARPDs) functions as a natural removable partial denture (RPD) tooth abutment is unknown. The purpose of this 3-dimensional finite element study was to analyze the biomechanical behavior of implant crown, bone, RPD, and IARPD. Finite element models of the partial maxilla, teeth, and prostheses were generated on the basis of a patient's computed tomographic data. The teeth, surveyed crowns, and RPDs were created in the model. With the generated components, four 3-dimensional finite element models of the partial maxilla were constructed: tooth-supported RPD (TB), implant-supported RPD (IB), tooth-tissue-supported RPD (TT), and implant-tissue-supported RPD (IT) models. Oblique loading of 300 N was applied on the crowns and denture teeth. The von Mises stress and displacement of the denture abutment tooth and implant system were identified. The highest von Mises stress values of both IARPDs occurred on the implants, while those of both natural tooth RPDs occurred on the frameworks of the RPDs. The highest von Mises stress of model IT was about twice that of model IB, while the value of model TT was similar to that of model TB. The maximum displacement was greater in models TB and TT than in models IB and IT. Among the 4 models, the highest maximum displacement value was observed in the model TT and the lowest value was in the model IB. Finite element analysis revealed that the stress distribution pattern of the IARPDs was different from that of the natural tooth RPDs and the stress distribution of implant-supported RPD was different from that of implant-tissue-supported RPD. When implants are used for RPD abutments, more consideration concerning the RPD design and the number or location of the implant is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL COMPANY BASED ON INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THE BALANCE SHEET
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ștefăniță ȘUȘU
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This article highlights the importance of indicators (as net working capital, working capital requirements and net cash by means of which it is considered in the context of financial balances capitalization information released by the balance sheet of an entity tourist profile. Theoretical concepts presented in a logical sequence are combined with the practical example transposed Turism Covasna company. The results of the analysis are interpreted while trying to formulate solutions to the economic and financial viability of the entity.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, Emanuel; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Amigo Rubio, Jose Manuel
2014-01-01
Lameness is prevalent in dairy herds. It causes decreased animal welfare and leads to higher production costs. This study explored data from an automatic milking system (AMS) to model on-farm gait scoring from a commercial farm. A total of 88 cows were gait scored once per week, for 2 5-wk periods......). The reference gait scoring error was estimated in the first week of the study and was, on average, 15%. Two partial least squares discriminant analysis models were fitted to parity 1 and parity 2 groups, respectively, to assign the lameness class according to the predicted probability of being lame (score 3...
On continuous ambiguities in model-independent partial wave analysis - 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikitin, I.N.
1995-01-01
A problem of amplitude reconstruction in terms of the given angular distribution is considered. Solution of this problem is not unique. A class of amplitudes, correspondent to one and the same angular distribution, forms a region in projection onto a finite set of spherical harmonics. An explicit parametrization of a boundary of the region is obtained. A shape of the region of ambiguities is studied in particular example. A scheme of partial-wave analysis, which describes all solutions in the limits of the region, is proposed. 5 refs., 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milde, T; Schwab, K; Walther, M; Eiselt, M; Witte, H; Schelenz, C; Voss, A
2011-01-01
Time-variant partial directed coherence (tvPDC) is used for the first time in a multivariate analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory movements (RMs) and (systolic) arterial blood pressure. It is shown that respiration-related HRV components which also occur at other frequencies besides the RM frequency (= respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) can be identified. These additional components are known to be an effect of the 'half-the-mean-heart-rate-dilemma' ('cardiac aliasing' CA). These CA components may contaminate the entire frequency range of HRV and can lead to misinterpretation of the RSA analysis. TvPDC analysis of simulated and clinical data (full-term neonates and sedated patients) reveals these contamination effects and, in addition, the respiration-related CA components can be separated from the RSA component and the Traube–Hering–Mayer wave. It can be concluded that tvPDC can be beneficially applied to avoid misinterpretations in HRV analyses as well as to quantify partial correlative interaction properties between RM and RSA
Ma, W; Zhang, T-F; Lu, P; Lu, S H
2014-01-01
Breast cancer is categorized into two broad groups: estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and ER negative (ER-) groups. Previous study proposed that under trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, tumor initiating cell (TIC) featured ER- tumors response better than ER+ tumors. Exploration of the molecular difference of these two groups may help developing new therapeutic strategies, especially for ER- patients. With gene expression profile from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we performed partial least squares (PLS) based analysis, which is more sensitive than common variance/regression analysis. We acquired 512 differentially expressed genes. Four pathways were found to be enriched with differentially expressed genes, involving immune system, metabolism and genetic information processing process. Network analysis identified five hub genes with degrees higher than 10, including APP, ESR1, SMAD3, HDAC2, and PRKAA1. Our findings provide new understanding for the molecular difference between TIC featured ER- and ER+ breast tumors with the hope offer supports for therapeutic studies.
Partial wave analysis of KKPI system in D and E/IOTA region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, S.U.; Fernow, R.; Kirk, H.
1985-01-01
A partial wave analysis and a Dalitz plot analysis of high-statistics data from reaction π - p → K + K/sub S/π - n at 8.0 GeV/c show that the D(1285) is a J/sup PG/ = 1 ++ state and the E(1420) a J/sup PG/ = 0 -+ state both with a substantial deltaπ decay mode. The 1 ++ K*anti K wave exhibits a rapid rise near threshold but no evidence of a resonance in the E region. The assignment of J/sup PG/ = O -+ to the E is confirmed from a Dalitz-plot analysis of the reaction pp → K + K/sub S/π - X 0 . 11 refs., 5 figs
Survival analysis with functional covariates for partial follow-up studies.
Fang, Hong-Bin; Wu, Tong Tong; Rapoport, Aaron P; Tan, Ming
2016-12-01
Predictive or prognostic analysis plays an increasingly important role in the era of personalized medicine to identify subsets of patients whom the treatment may benefit the most. Although various time-dependent covariate models are available, such models require that covariates be followed in the whole follow-up period. This article studies a new class of functional survival models where the covariates are only monitored in a time interval that is shorter than the whole follow-up period. This paper is motivated by the analysis of a longitudinal study on advanced myeloma patients who received stem cell transplants and T cell infusions after the transplants. The absolute lymphocyte cell counts were collected serially during hospitalization. Those patients are still followed up if they are alive after hospitalization, while their absolute lymphocyte cell counts cannot be measured after that. Another complication is that absolute lymphocyte cell counts are sparsely and irregularly measured. The conventional method using Cox model with time-varying covariates is not applicable because of the different lengths of observation periods. Analysis based on each single observation obviously underutilizes available information and, more seriously, may yield misleading results. This so-called partial follow-up study design represents increasingly common predictive modeling problem where we have serial multiple biomarkers up to a certain time point, which is shorter than the total length of follow-up. We therefore propose a solution to the partial follow-up design. The new method combines functional principal components analysis and survival analysis with selection of those functional covariates. It also has the advantage of handling sparse and irregularly measured longitudinal observations of covariates and measurement errors. Our analysis based on functional principal components reveals that it is the patterns of the trajectories of absolute lymphocyte cell counts, instead of
Flood Frequency Analysis For Partial Duration Series In Ganjiang River Basin
zhangli, Sun; xiufang, Zhu; yaozhong, Pan
2016-04-01
Accurate estimation of flood frequency is key to effective, nationwide flood damage abatement programs. The partial duration series (PDS) method is widely used in hydrologic studies because it considers all events above a certain threshold level as compared to the annual maximum series (AMS) method, which considers only the annual maximum value. However, the PDS has a drawback in that it is difficult to define the thresholds and maintain an independent and identical distribution of the partial duration time series; this drawback is discussed in this paper. The Ganjiang River is the seventh largest tributary of the Yangtze River, the longest river in China. The Ganjiang River covers a drainage area of 81,258 km2 at the Wanzhou hydrologic station as the basin outlet. In this work, 56 years of daily flow data (1954-2009) from the Wanzhou station were used to analyze flood frequency, and the Pearson-III model was employed as the hydrologic probability distribution. Generally, three tasks were accomplished: (1) the threshold of PDS by percentile rank of daily runoff was obtained; (2) trend analysis of the flow series was conducted using PDS; and (3) flood frequency analysis was conducted for partial duration flow series. The results showed a slight upward trend of the annual runoff in the Ganjiang River basin. The maximum flow with a 0.01 exceedance probability (corresponding to a 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) was 20,000 m3/s, while that with a 0.1 exceedance probability was 15,000 m3/s. These results will serve as a guide to hydrological engineering planning, design, and management for policymakers and decision makers associated with hydrology.
DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.
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Andreas Lamkowski
Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis by Integrated AHP and TOPSIS Method Using an Equilibrium Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, S. R.; Choi, S. Y.; Koc, W. I.
2015-01-01
Determining whether to break away from domestic conflict surrounding nuclear power and step forward for public consensus can be identified by transparent policy making considering public acceptability. In this context, deriving the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle for Korea is the key task in current situation. Assessing nuclear fuel cycle is a multicriteria decision making problem dealing with multiple interconnected issues on efficiently using natural uranium resources, securing an environment friendliness to deal with waste, obtaining the public acceptance, ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy, maintaining economic competitiveness compared to other electricity sources, and assessing technical feasibility of advanced nuclear energy systems. This paper performed the integrated AHP and TOPSIS analysis on three nuclear fuel cycle options against 5 different criteria including U utilization, waste management, material attractiveness, economics, and technical feasibility. The fuel cycle options analyzed in this paper are three different fuel cycle options as follows: PWR-Once through cycle(PWR-OT), PWR-MOX cycle, Pyro- SFR cycle. These fuel cycles are most likely to be adopted in the foreseeable future. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The analyzed nuclear fuel cycle options include the once-through cycle, the PWR-MOX recycle, and the Pyro-SFR recycle
Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis by Integrated AHP and TOPSIS Method Using an Equilibrium Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, S. R. [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S. Y. [UNIST, Ulju (Korea, Republic of); Koc, W. I. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Determining whether to break away from domestic conflict surrounding nuclear power and step forward for public consensus can be identified by transparent policy making considering public acceptability. In this context, deriving the best suitable nuclear fuel cycle for Korea is the key task in current situation. Assessing nuclear fuel cycle is a multicriteria decision making problem dealing with multiple interconnected issues on efficiently using natural uranium resources, securing an environment friendliness to deal with waste, obtaining the public acceptance, ensuring peaceful uses of nuclear energy, maintaining economic competitiveness compared to other electricity sources, and assessing technical feasibility of advanced nuclear energy systems. This paper performed the integrated AHP and TOPSIS analysis on three nuclear fuel cycle options against 5 different criteria including U utilization, waste management, material attractiveness, economics, and technical feasibility. The fuel cycle options analyzed in this paper are three different fuel cycle options as follows: PWR-Once through cycle(PWR-OT), PWR-MOX cycle, Pyro- SFR cycle. These fuel cycles are most likely to be adopted in the foreseeable future. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS (Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The analyzed nuclear fuel cycle options include the once-through cycle, the PWR-MOX recycle, and the Pyro-SFR recycle.
Yuhara, Daisuke; Brumby, Paul E.; Wu, David T.; Sum, Amadeu K.; Yasuoka, Kenji
2018-05-01
To develop prediction methods of three-phase equilibrium (coexistence) conditions of methane hydrate by molecular simulations, we examined the use of NVT (isometric-isothermal) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. NVT MD simulations of coexisting solid hydrate, liquid water, and vapor methane phases were performed at four different temperatures, namely, 285, 290, 295, and 300 K. NVT simulations do not require complex pressure control schemes in multi-phase systems, and the growth or dissociation of the hydrate phase can lead to significant pressure changes in the approach toward equilibrium conditions. We found that the calculated equilibrium pressures tended to be higher than those reported by previous NPT (isobaric-isothermal) simulation studies using the same water model. The deviations of equilibrium conditions from previous simulation studies are mainly attributable to the employed calculation methods of pressure and Lennard-Jones interactions. We monitored the pressure in the methane phase, far from the interfaces with other phases, and confirmed that it was higher than the total pressure of the system calculated by previous studies. This fact clearly highlights the difficulties associated with the pressure calculation and control for multi-phase systems. The treatment of Lennard-Jones interactions without tail corrections in MD simulations also contributes to the overestimation of equilibrium pressure. Although improvements are still required to obtain accurate equilibrium conditions, NVT MD simulations exhibit potential for the prediction of equilibrium conditions of multi-phase systems.
Yuhara, Daisuke; Brumby, Paul E; Wu, David T; Sum, Amadeu K; Yasuoka, Kenji
2018-05-14
To develop prediction methods of three-phase equilibrium (coexistence) conditions of methane hydrate by molecular simulations, we examined the use of NVT (isometric-isothermal) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. NVT MD simulations of coexisting solid hydrate, liquid water, and vapor methane phases were performed at four different temperatures, namely, 285, 290, 295, and 300 K. NVT simulations do not require complex pressure control schemes in multi-phase systems, and the growth or dissociation of the hydrate phase can lead to significant pressure changes in the approach toward equilibrium conditions. We found that the calculated equilibrium pressures tended to be higher than those reported by previous NPT (isobaric-isothermal) simulation studies using the same water model. The deviations of equilibrium conditions from previous simulation studies are mainly attributable to the employed calculation methods of pressure and Lennard-Jones interactions. We monitored the pressure in the methane phase, far from the interfaces with other phases, and confirmed that it was higher than the total pressure of the system calculated by previous studies. This fact clearly highlights the difficulties associated with the pressure calculation and control for multi-phase systems. The treatment of Lennard-Jones interactions without tail corrections in MD simulations also contributes to the overestimation of equilibrium pressure. Although improvements are still required to obtain accurate equilibrium conditions, NVT MD simulations exhibit potential for the prediction of equilibrium conditions of multi-phase systems.
Conformational stability and self-association equilibrium in biologics.
Clarkson, Benjamin R; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto
2016-02-01
Biologics exist in equilibrium between native, partially denatured, and denatured conformational states. The population of any of these states is dictated by their Gibbs energy and can be altered by changes in physical and solution conditions. Some conformations have a tendency to self-associate and aggregate, an undesirable phenomenon in protein therapeutics. Conformational equilibrium and self-association are linked thermodynamic functions. Given that any associative reaction is concentration dependent, conformational stability studies performed at different protein concentrations can provide early clues to future aggregation problems. This analysis can be applied to the selection of protein variants or the identification of better formulation solutions. In this review, we discuss three different aggregation situations and their manifestation in the observed conformational equilibrium of a protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kovács, Endre R; Benko, Mária
2009-03-01
Partial genome characterisation of a novel adenovirus, found recently in organ samples of multiple species of dead birds of prey, was carried out by sequence analysis of PCR-amplified DNA fragments. The virus, named as raptor adenovirus 1 (RAdV-1), has originally been detected by a nested PCR method with consensus primers targeting the adenoviral DNA polymerase gene. Phylogenetic analysis with the deduced amino acid sequence of the small PCR product has implied a new siadenovirus type present in the samples. Since virus isolation attempts remained unsuccessful, further characterisation of this putative novel siadenovirus was carried out with the use of PCR on the infected organ samples. The DNA sequence of the central genome part of RAdV-1, encompassing nine full (pTP, 52K, pIIIa, III, pVII, pX, pVI, hexon, protease) and two partial (DNA polymerase and DBP) genes and exceeding 12 kb pairs in size, was determined. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, based on several genes, unambiguously confirmed the preliminary classification of RAdV-1 as a new species within the genus Siadenovirus. Further study of RAdV-1 is of interest since it represents a rare adenovirus genus of yet undetermined host origin.
Through-flow analysis of steam turbines operating under partial admission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delabriere, H.; Werthe, J.M.
1993-05-01
In order to produce electric energy with improved efficiency, Electricite de France has to check the performances of equipment proposed by manufacturers. In the specific field of steam turbines, one of the main tools of analysis is the quasi 3D through flow computer code CAPTUR, which enables the calculation of all the aerothermodynamic parameters in a steam turbine. The last development that has been performed on CAPTUR is the extension to a calculation of a flow within a turbine operating under partial admission. For such turbines, it is now possible to calculate an internal flow field, and determine the efficiency, in a much more accurate way than with previous methods, which consist in an arbitrary efficiency correction on an averaged 1D flow calculation. From the aerodynamic point of view, partial admission involves specific losses in the first stage, then expansion and turbulent mixing just downstream of the first stage. Losses in the first stage are of very different types: windage, pumping and expansion at the ends of an admission sector. Their values have been estimated, with help of experimental results, and then expressed as a slow down coefficient applied to the relative velocity at the blade outlet. As for the flow downstream the first stage, a computational analysis has been made with specific 2D and 3D codes. It has led to define the numerical treatment established in the CAPTUR code. Some problems had to be solved to make compatible a quasi 3D formulation, making an average in the azimutal direction and using a streamline curvature method, with an absolute 3D phenomenon. Certain limitations of the working conditions were first adopted, but a generalization is on hand. The calculation of a nuclear HP steam turbine operating under partial admission has been performed. Calculation results are in good accordance with tests results, especially as regards the expansion line along the stages. The code CAPTUR will be particularly useful for the calculation
Chiu-Irion, Vicky
Developed as part of a 37.5-hour microeconomics course, this lesson plan focuses on the concepts of supply and demand analysis used to determine market equilibrium. The objectives of the 50-minute lesson are to enable the student to: (1) explain how a demand schedule is derived from raw data; (2) graph a demand curve from the demand schedule; (3)…
Hvilshøj, S.; Jensen, K. H.; Barlebo, H. C.; Madsen, B.
1999-08-01
Inverse numerical modeling was applied to analyze pumping tests of partially penetrating wells carried out in three wells established in an unconfined aquifer in Vejen, Denmark, where extensive field investigations had previously been carried out, including tracer tests, mini-slug tests, and other hydraulic tests. Drawdown data from multiple piezometers located at various horizontal and vertical distances from the pumping well were included in the optimization. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, specific storage, and specific yield were estimated, assuming that the aquifer was either a homogeneous system with vertical anisotropy or composed of two or three layers of different hydraulic properties. In two out of three cases, a more accurate interpretation was obtained for a multi-layer model defined on the basis of lithostratigraphic information obtained from geological descriptions of sediment samples, gammalogs, and flow-meter tests. Analysis of the pumping tests resulted in values for horizontal hydraulic conductivities that are in good accordance with those obtained from slug tests and mini-slug tests. Besides the horizontal hydraulic conductivity, it is possible to determine the vertical hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, and specific storage based on a pumping test of a partially penetrating well. The study demonstrates that pumping tests of partially penetrating wells can be analyzed using inverse numerical models. The model used in the study was a finite-element flow model combined with a non-linear regression model. Such a model can accommodate more geological information and complex boundary conditions, and the parameter-estimation procedure can be formalized to obtain optimum estimates of hydraulic parameters and their standard deviations.
Analysis of pumping tests: Significance of well diameter, partial penetration, and noise
Heidari, M.; Ghiassi, K.; Mehnert, E.
1999-01-01
The nonlinear least squares (NLS) method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in confined and unconfined aquifers with finite diameter and partially penetrating pumping wells, and with partially penetrating piezometers or observation wells. It was demonstrated that noiseless and moderately noisy drawdown data from observation points located less than two saturated thicknesses of the aquifer from the pumping well produced an exact or acceptable set of parameters when the diameter of the pumping well was included in the analysis. The accuracy of the estimated parameters, particularly that of specific storage, decreased with increases in the noise level in the observed drawdown data. With consideration of the well radii, the noiseless drawdown data from the pumping well in an unconfined aquifer produced good estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and specific yield, but the estimated specific storage was unacceptable. When noisy data from the pumping well were used, an acceptable set of parameters was not obtained. Further experiments with noisy drawdown data in an unconfined aquifer revealed that when the well diameter was included in the analysis, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and vertical hydraulic conductivity may be estimated rather effectively from piezometers located over a range of distances from the pumping well. Estimation of specific storage became less reliable for piezemeters located at distances greater than the initial saturated thickness of the aquifer. Application of the NLS to field pumping and recovery data from a confined aquifer showed that the estimated parameters from the two tests were in good agreement only when the well diameter was included in the analysis. Without consideration of well radii, the estimated values of hydraulic conductivity from the pumping and recovery tests were off by a factor of four.The nonlinear least squares method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Achim Ionita
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The oscillation susceptibility of the ADMIRE aircraft along the path of longitudinal flight equilibriums is analyzed numerically in the general and in a simplified flight model. More precisely, the longitudinal flight equilibriums, the stability of these equilibriums, and the existence of bifurcations along the path of these equilibriums are researched in both models. Maneuvers and appropriate piloting tasks for the touch-down moment are simulated in both models. The computed results obtained in the models are compared in order to see if the movement concerning the landing phase computed in the simplified model is similar to that computed in the general model. The similarity we find is not a proof of the structural stability of the simplified system, what as far we know never been made, but can increase the confidence that the simplified system correctly describes the real phenomenon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavel, D.; Byrom, E.; Swiryn, S.; Meyer-Pavel, C.; Rosen, K.
1981-01-01
By using a temporal Fourier analysis of gated equilibrium cardiac studies, phase images were obtained. These functional images were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to determine if specific patterns can be found for normal versus abnormal electrical activation of the heart. The study included eight subjects with normal cardiac function and 24 patients with abnormal electrical activation: eight with left bundle branch block (LBBB), two with right bundle branch block (RBBB), six with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), one with junctional rhythm, one with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (all with normal wall motion), two with chronic transvenous pacemakers, and four with induced sustained VT (all with regional wall motion abnormalities). The results show that the two ventricals have the same mean phase (within +-9 0 ) in normals, but significantly different mean phases in all patients with bundle branch blocks. Of the six WPW patients, three had a distinctive abnormal pattern. The patient with junctional rhythm, those with transvenous pacemakers, and those with VT all had abnormal patterns on the phase image. The phase image is capable of showing differences between patients with electrical activation and a variety of electrical abnormalities. Within the latter category distinct patterns can be associated with each type of abnormality. (author)
Lee, Won Chan; Hoffmann, Marc S; Arcona, Steve; D'Souza, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Pashos, Chris L
2005-10-01
department visit during the period after the failure of initial monotherapy compared with the OXC monotherapy cohort (odds ratio = 1.52; P < 0.05). Despite limitations, the results of retrospective analysis of claims data suggest that the care of patients with treatment-refractory partial seizure disorder is costly and may vary significantly based on the pattern of care.
Yan, Zhengbing; Kuang, Te-Hui; Yao, Yuan
2017-09-01
In recent years, multivariate statistical monitoring of batch processes has become a popular research topic, wherein multivariate fault isolation is an important step aiming at the identification of the faulty variables contributing most to the detected process abnormality. Although contribution plots have been commonly used in statistical fault isolation, such methods suffer from the smearing effect between correlated variables. In particular, in batch process monitoring, the high autocorrelations and cross-correlations that exist in variable trajectories make the smearing effect unavoidable. To address such a problem, a variable selection-based fault isolation method is proposed in this research, which transforms the fault isolation problem into a variable selection problem in partial least squares discriminant analysis and solves it by calculating a sparse partial least squares model. As different from the traditional methods, the proposed method emphasizes the relative importance of each process variable. Such information may help process engineers in conducting root-cause diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dual stacked partial least squares for analysis of near-infrared spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bi, Yiming [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Xie, Qiong, E-mail: yimbi@163.com [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Peng, Silong; Tang, Liang; Hu, Yong; Tan, Jie [Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Zhao, Yuhui [School of Economics and Business, Northeastern University at Qinhuangdao, 066000 Qinhuangdao City (China); Li, Changwen [Food Research Institute of Tianjin Tasly Group, 300410 Tianjin (China)
2013-08-20
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dual stacking steps are used for multivariate calibration of near-infrared spectra. •A selective weighting strategy is introduced that only a subset of all available sub-models is used for model fusion. •Using two public near-infrared datasets, the proposed method achieved competitive results. •The method can be widely applied in many fields, such as Mid-infrared spectra data and Raman spectra data. -- Abstract: A new ensemble learning algorithm is presented for quantitative analysis of near-infrared spectra. The algorithm contains two steps of stacked regression and Partial Least Squares (PLS), termed Dual Stacked Partial Least Squares (DSPLS) algorithm. First, several sub-models were generated from the whole calibration set. The inner-stack step was implemented on sub-intervals of the spectrum. Then the outer-stack step was used to combine these sub-models. Several combination rules of the outer-stack step were analyzed for the proposed DSPLS algorithm. In addition, a novel selective weighting rule was also involved to select a subset of all available sub-models. Experiments on two public near-infrared datasets demonstrate that the proposed DSPLS with selective weighting rule provided superior prediction performance and outperformed the conventional PLS algorithm. Compared with the single model, the new ensemble model can provide more robust prediction result and can be considered an alternative choice for quantitative analytical applications.
Dual stacked partial least squares for analysis of near-infrared spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bi, Yiming; Xie, Qiong; Peng, Silong; Tang, Liang; Hu, Yong; Tan, Jie; Zhao, Yuhui; Li, Changwen
2013-01-01
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Dual stacking steps are used for multivariate calibration of near-infrared spectra. •A selective weighting strategy is introduced that only a subset of all available sub-models is used for model fusion. •Using two public near-infrared datasets, the proposed method achieved competitive results. •The method can be widely applied in many fields, such as Mid-infrared spectra data and Raman spectra data. -- Abstract: A new ensemble learning algorithm is presented for quantitative analysis of near-infrared spectra. The algorithm contains two steps of stacked regression and Partial Least Squares (PLS), termed Dual Stacked Partial Least Squares (DSPLS) algorithm. First, several sub-models were generated from the whole calibration set. The inner-stack step was implemented on sub-intervals of the spectrum. Then the outer-stack step was used to combine these sub-models. Several combination rules of the outer-stack step were analyzed for the proposed DSPLS algorithm. In addition, a novel selective weighting rule was also involved to select a subset of all available sub-models. Experiments on two public near-infrared datasets demonstrate that the proposed DSPLS with selective weighting rule provided superior prediction performance and outperformed the conventional PLS algorithm. Compared with the single model, the new ensemble model can provide more robust prediction result and can be considered an alternative choice for quantitative analytical applications
Thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based polygeneration system with partial gasification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guoqiang; Yang, Yongping; Zhai, Dailong; Zhang, Kai; Xu, Gang
2014-01-01
This study proposed a polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification, in which methanol and power were generated. This proposed system, comprising chemical and power islands, was designed and its characteristics are analyzed. The commercial software Aspen Plus was used to perform the system analysis. In the case study, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed polygeneration system were 51.16% and 50.58%, which are 2.34% and 2.10%, respectively, higher than that of the reference system. Energy-Utilization Diagram analysis showed that removing composition adjustment and recycling 72.7% of the unreacted gas could reduce the exergy destruction during methanol synthesis by 46.85% and that the char utilized to preheat the compressed air could reduce the exergy destruction during combustion by 10.28%. Sensitivity analysis was also performed. At the same capacity ratio, the energy and exergy efficiency values of the proposed system were 1.30%–2.48% and 1.21%–2.30% higher than that of the reference system, respectively. The range of chemical-to-power capacity ratio in the proposed system was 0.41–1.40, which was narrower than that in the reference system. But the range of 1.04–1.4 was not recommended for the disappearance of energy saving potential in methanol synthesis. - Highlights: • A novel polygeneration system based on coal partial gasification is proposed. • The efficient conversion method for methanol and power is explored. • The exergy destruction in chemical energy conversion processes is decreased. • Thermodynamic performance and system characteristics are analyzed
Pregabalin versus gabapentin in partial epilepsy: a meta-analysis of dose-response relationships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thompson Sally
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the efficacy of pregabalin and gabapentin at comparable effective dose levels in patients with refractory partial epilepsy. Methods Eight randomized placebo controlled trials investigating the efficacy of pregabalin (4 studies and gabapentin (4 studies over 12 weeks were identified with a systematic literature search. The endpoints of interest were "responder rate" (where response was defined as at least a 50% reduction from baseline in the number of seizures and "change from baseline in seizure-free days over the last 28 days (SFD". Results of all trials were analyzed using an indirect comparison approach with placebo as the common comparator. The base-case analysis used the intention-to-treat last observation carried forward method. Two sensitivity analyses were conducted among completer and responder populations. Results The base-case analysis revealed statistically significant differences in response rate in favor of pregabalin 300 mg versus gabapentin 1200 mg (odds ratio, 1.82; 95% confidence interval, 1.02, 3.25 and pregabalin 600 mg versus gabapentin 1800 mg (odds ratio, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.21, 5.27. Both sensitivity analyses supported the findings of the base-case analysis, although statistical significance was not demonstrated. All dose levels of pregabalin (150 mg to 600 mg were more efficacious than corresponding dosages of gabapentin (900 mg to 2400 mg in terms of SFD over the last 28 days. Conclusion In patients with refractory partial epilepsy, pregabalin is likely to be more effective than gabapentin at comparable effective doses, based on clinical response and the number of SFD.
Reactor modeling and process analysis for partial oxidation of natural gas
Albrecht, B.A.
2004-01-01
This thesis analyses a novel process of partial oxidation of natural gas and develops a numerical tool for the partial oxidation reactor modeling. The proposed process generates syngas in an integrated plant of a partial oxidation reactor, a syngas turbine and an air separation unit. This is called
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L.; Harish, B.; Sunil, H.V.; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi Kishore, A.G.; Nair, Gopinathan
2011-01-01
To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (author)
Regional frequency analysis of extreme rainfalls using partial L moments method
Zakaria, Zahrahtul Amani; Shabri, Ani
2013-07-01
An approach based on regional frequency analysis using L moments and LH moments are revisited in this study. Subsequently, an alternative regional frequency analysis using the partial L moments (PL moments) method is employed, and a new relationship for homogeneity analysis is developed. The results were then compared with those obtained using the method of L moments and LH moments of order two. The Selangor catchment, consisting of 37 sites and located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, is chosen as a case study. PL moments for the generalized extreme value (GEV), generalized logistic (GLO), and generalized Pareto distributions were derived and used to develop the regional frequency analysis procedure. PL moment ratio diagram and Z test were employed in determining the best-fit distribution. Comparison between the three approaches showed that GLO and GEV distributions were identified as the suitable distributions for representing the statistical properties of extreme rainfall in Selangor. Monte Carlo simulation used for performance evaluation shows that the method of PL moments would outperform L and LH moments methods for estimation of large return period events.
PyPWA: A partial-wave/amplitude analysis software framework
Salgado, Carlos
2016-05-01
The PyPWA project aims to develop a software framework for Partial Wave and Amplitude Analysis of data; providing the user with software tools to identify resonances from multi-particle final states in photoproduction. Most of the code is written in Python. The software is divided into two main branches: one general-shell where amplitude's parameters (or any parametric model) are to be estimated from the data. This branch also includes software to produce simulated data-sets using the fitted amplitudes. A second branch contains a specific realization of the isobar model (with room to include Deck-type and other isobar model extensions) to perform PWA with an interface into the computer resources at Jefferson Lab. We are currently implementing parallelism and vectorization using the Intel's Xeon Phi family of coprocessors.
Structural studies of formic acid using partial form-factor analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swan, G.; Dore, J.C.; Bellissent-Funel, M.C.
1993-01-01
Neutron diffraction measurements have been made of liquid formic acid using H/D isotopic substitution. Data are recorded for samples of DCOOD, HCOOD and a (H/D)COOD mixture (α D =0.36). A first-order difference method is used to determine the intra-molecular contribution through the introduction of a partial form-factor analysis technique incorporating a hydrogen-bond term. The method improves the sensitivity of the parameters defining the molecular geometry and avoids some of the ambiguities arising from terms involving spatial overlap of inter- and intra-molecular features. The possible application to other systems is briefly reviewed. (authors). 8 figs., 2 tabs., 8 refs
Stress analysis of partial sphere used for bottom shell of off-shore structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishimaki, Ko; Matsumoto, Kohei; Hori, Tohru; Takeshita, Haruyuki; Iwata, Setsuo
1976-01-01
In the near future, various huge off-shore structures will be constructed. Concrete shall become a leading material in the structures, owing to its versatile properties. One of the limitations of concrete is its low tensile strength. The problem of low tensile strength of concrete is dealt with in main by two different methods: by applying prestressing and by designing the structural configuration so that no tensile stresses appear. In the paper, the authors discuss the application of partially spherical shell to huge off-shore structures. Structural analysis by using the finite element method were done in order to investigate the feasibility of the structure. The results were arranged as to certain parameters to derive design charts by which the stresses of check points can be presumed. Optimum shape is also discussed. (auth.)
Partial wave analysis of ι/η(1430) from DM2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augustin, J.E.; Cosme, G.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F.; Grosdidier, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Lepeltier, V.; Mane, M.; Szklarz, G.; Jousset, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Falvard, A.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.C.
1989-12-01
A Partial Wave Analysis of the ι/η (1430) region from the study of the radiative decays J/Ψ → γ K S 0 K ± π -+ and J/Ψ → γ K ± K -+ π 0 is presented. Pseudoscalar dominance appears clearly with two dynamical components. The main one which proceeds via δ/a 0 (980) π is centered at 1460 MeV/c 2 , while the second one with K*(892) K dynamics is peaked at a lower mass (1420 MeV/c 2 ) close to its kinematical threshold. In addition, the higher part of the mass spectrum contains a significant contribution from the 1 ++ K*(892)K wave
Partial wave analysis of DM2 data in the η(1430) energy range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augustin, J.E.; Cosme, G.; Couchot, F.; Fulda, F.; Grosdidier, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Lepeltier, V.; Szklarz, G.; Bisello, D.; Busetto, G.; Castro, A.; Pescara, L.; Sartori, P.; Stanco, L.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Falvard, A.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.C.
1990-10-01
Partial Wave Analysis of the J/ψ → γK S 0 K ± π -+ , γK ± K -+ π 0 decays in the ι/η(1430) mass range shows a clear pseudoscalar dominance, with two dynamical components. The main one, centered at ∼ 1460 MeV/c 2 , proceeds via a 0 (980)π dynamics, while the second one with K*(892)K dynamics is peaked at ∼ 1420 MeV/c 2 , close to its threshold. In addition, the higher part of the mass spectrum contains a significant contribution from the 1 ++ K*(892)K wave. In the PWA of the J/ψ → γηπ + π - channel a resonant a 0 π production is observed slightly below 1400 MeV/c 2
Fit Analysis of Different Framework Fabrication Techniques for Implant-Supported Partial Prostheses.
Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; Bacchi, Atais; Trevisani, Alexandre; Farina, Ana Paula; Dos Santos, Mateus Bertolini
2016-01-01
This study evaluated the vertical misfit of implant-supported frameworks made using different techniques to obtain passive fit. Thirty three-unit fixed partial dentures were fabricated in cobalt-chromium alloy (n = 10) using three fabrication methods: one-piece casting, framework cemented on prepared abutments, and laser welding. The vertical misfit between the frameworks and the abutments was evaluated with an optical microscope using the single-screw test. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α = .05). The one-piece casted frameworks presented significantly higher vertical misfit values than those found for framework cemented on prepared abutments and laser welding techniques (P Laser welding and framework cemented on prepared abutments are effective techniques to improve the adaptation of three-unit implant-supported prostheses. These techniques presented similar fit.
Alfriend, K. T.
1973-01-01
A ring partially filled with a viscous fluid has been analyzed as a nutation damper for a spinning satellite. The fluid has been modelled as a rigid slug of finite length moving in a tube and resisted by a linear viscous force. It is shown that there are two distinct modes of motion, called the spin synchronous mode and the nutation synchronous mode. Time constants for each mode are obtained for both the symmetric and asymmetric satellite. The effects of a stop in the tube and an offset of the ring from the spin axis are also investigated. An analysis of test results is also given including a determination of the effect of gravity on the time constants in the two modes.
Analysis of the flamelet concept in the numerical simulation of laminar partially premixed flames
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Consul, R.; Oliva, A.; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Carbonell, D. [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Colom 11, E-08222, Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); de Goey, L.P.H. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2008-04-15
The aim of this work is to analyze the application of flamelet models based on the mixture fraction variable and its dissipation rate to the numerical simulation of partially premixed flames. Although the main application of these models is the computation of turbulent flames, this work focuses on the performance of flamelet concept in laminar flame simulations removing, in this way, turbulence closure interactions. A well-known coflow methane/air laminar flame is selected. Five levels of premixing are taken into account from an equivalence ratio {phi}={infinity} (nonpremixed) to {phi}=2.464. Results obtained using the flamelet approaches are compared to data obtained from the detailed solution of the complete transport equations using primitive variables. Numerical simulations of a counterflow flame are also presented to support the discussion of the results. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of the scalar dissipation rate modeling. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, Anand P.; Dickler, Adam; Kirk, Michael C.; Chen, Sea S.; Strauss, Jonathan B.; Coon, Alan B.; Turian, Julius V.; Siziopikou, Kalliopi; Dowlat, Kambiz; Griem, Katherine L.
2008-01-01
Partial breast irradiation (PBI) was designed in part to decrease overall treatment times associated with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). WBRT treats the entire breast and usually portions of the axilla. The goal of PBI is to treat a smaller volume of breast tissue in less time, focusing the dose around the lumpectomy cavity. The following is a case of a 64-year-old woman with early-stage breast cancer treated with PBI who failed regionally in the ipsilateral axilla. With our dosimetric analysis, we found that the entire area of this axillary failure would have likely received at least 45 Gy if WBRT had been used, enough to sterilize microscopic disease. With PBI, this area received a mean dose of only 2.8 Gy, which raises the possibility that this regional failure may have been prevented had WBRT been used instead of PBI
Xu, Yue; Wu, Yining; Deng, Shimin; Wei, Shirang
2004-02-01
The partial coal gasification air pre-heating coal-fired combined cycle (PGACC) is a cleaning coal power system, which integrates the coal gasification technology, circulating fluidized bed technology, and combined cycle technology. It has high efficiency and simple construction, and is a new selection of the cleaning coal power systems. A thermodynamic analysis of the PGACC is carried out. The effects of coal gasifying rate, pre-heating air temperature, and coal gas temperature on the performances of the power system are studied. In order to repower the power plant rated 100 MW by using the PGACC, a conceptual design is suggested. The computational results show that the PGACC is feasible for modernizing the old steam power plants and building the new cleaning power plants.
3-D fracture analysis using a partial-reduced integration scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leitch, B.W.
1987-01-01
This paper presents details of 3-D elastic-plastic analyses of axially orientated external surface flaw in an internally pressurized thin-walled cylinder and discusses the variation of the J-integral values around the crack tip. A partial-reduced-integration-penalty method is introduced to minimize this variation of the J-integral near the crack tip. Utilizing 3-D symmetry, an eighth segment of a tube containing an elliptically shaped external surface flaw is modelled using 20-noded isoparametric elements. The crack-tip elements are collapsed to form a 1/r stress singularity about the curved crack front. The finite element model is subjected to internal pressure and axial pressure-generated loads. The virtual crack extension method is used to determine linear elastic stress intensity factors from the J-integral results at various points around the crack front. Despite the different material constants and the thinner wall thickness in this analysis, the elastic results compare favourably with those obtained by other researchers. The nonlinear stress-strain behaviour of the tube material is modelled using an incremental theory of plasticity. Variations of the J-integral values around the curved crack front of the 3-D flaw were seen. These variations could not be resolved by neglecting the immediate crack-tip elements J-integral results in favour of the more remote contour paths or else smoothed out when all the path results are averaged. Numerical incompatabilities in the 20-noded 3-D finite elements used to model the surface flaw were found. A partial-reduced integration scheme, using a combination of full and reduced integration elements, is proposed to determine J-integral results for 3-D fracture analyses. This procedure is applied to the analysis of an external semicircular surface flaw projecting halfway into the tube wall thickness. Examples of the J-integral values, before and after the partial-reduced integration method is employed, are given around the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rajkhowa, Kavita Rani; Bujarbarua, S.; Dwivedi, C.B.
1999-01-01
The present contribution tries to find a scientific answer to the question of stability of an equilibrium plasma sheath in a colloidal plasma system under external gravity effect. A model equilibrium of hydrodynamical character has been discussed on the basis of quasi-hydrostatic approximation of levitational condition. It is found that such an equilibrium is highly unstable to a modified-ion acoustic wave with a conditional likelihood of linear driving of the so-called acoustic mode too. Thus, it is reported (within fluid treatment) that a plasma-sheath edge in a colloidal plasma under external gravity effect could be highly sensitive to the acoustic turbulence. Its consequential role on possible physical mechanism of Coulomb phase transition has been conjectured. However, more rigorous calculations as future course of work are required to corroborate our phenomenological suggestions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lue Kunhan; Lin Hsinhon; Chuang Kehshih; Kao Chihhao, K.; Hsieh Hungjen; Liu Shuhsin
2014-01-01
In positron emission tomography (PET) of the dopaminergic system, quantitative measurements of nigrostriatal dopamine function are useful for differential diagnosis. A subregional analysis of striatal uptake enables the diagnostic performance to be more powerful. However, the partial volume effect (PVE) induces an underestimation of the true radioactivity concentration in small structures. This work proposes a simple algorithm for subregional analysis of striatal uptake with partial volume correction (PVC) in dopaminergic PET imaging. The PVC algorithm analyzes the separate striatal subregions and takes into account the PVE based on the recovery coefficient (RC). The RC is defined as the ratio of the PVE-uncorrected to PVE-corrected radioactivity concentration, and is derived from a combination of the traditional volume of interest (VOI) analysis and the large VOI technique. The clinical studies, comprising 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 6 healthy subjects, were used to assess the impact of PVC on the quantitative measurements. Simulations on a numerical phantom that mimicked realistic healthy and neurodegenerative situations were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed PVC algorithm. In both the clinical and the simulation studies, the striatal-to-occipital ratio (SOR) values for the entire striatum and its subregions were calculated with and without PVC. In the clinical studies, the SOR values in each structure (caudate, anterior putamen, posterior putamen, putamen, and striatum) were significantly higher by using PVC in contrast to those without. Among the PD patients, the SOR values in each structure and quantitative disease severity ratings were shown to be significantly related only when PVC was used. For the simulation studies, the average absolute percentage error of the SOR estimates before and after PVC were 22.74% and 1.54% in the healthy situation, respectively; those in the neurodegenerative situation were 20.69% and 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igos, Elorri; Rugani, Benedetto; Rege, Sameer; Benetto, Enrico; Drouet, Laurent; Zachary, Daniel S.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The environmental impacts of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg are assessed. • Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and Partial Equilibrium (PE) models are used. • Results from coupling of CGE and PE are integrated in hybrid Life Cycle Assessment. • Impacts due to energy related production and imports are likely to grow over time. • Carbon mitigation policies seem to not substantially decrease the impacts’ trend. - Abstract: Nowadays, many countries adopt an active agenda to mitigate the impact of greenhouse gas emissions by moving towards less polluting energy generation technologies. The environmental costs, directly or indirectly generated to achieve such a challenging objective, remain however largely underexplored. Until now, research has focused either on pure economic approaches such as Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) and partial equilibrium (PE) models, or on (physical) energy supply scenarios. These latter could be used to evaluate the environmental impacts of various energy saving or cleaner technologies via Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These modelling efforts have, however, been pursued in isolation, without exploring the possible complementarities and synergies. In this study, we have undertaken a practical combination of these approaches into a common framework: on the one hand, by coupling a CGE with a PE model, and, on the other hand, by linking the outcomes from the coupling with a hybrid input–output−process based life cycle inventory. The methodological framework aimed at assessing the environmental consequences of two energy policy scenarios in Luxembourg between 2010 and 2025. The study highlights the potential of coupling CGE and PE models but also the related methodological difficulties (e.g. small number of available technologies in Luxembourg, intrinsic limitations of the two approaches, etc.). The assessment shows both environmental synergies and trade-offs due to the implementation of
HUBBLE-BUBBLE 1. A computer program for the analysis of non-equilibrium flows of water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mather, D.J.
1978-02-01
A description is given of the computer program HUBBLE-BUBBLE I which simulates the non-equilibrium flow of water and steam in a pipe. The code is designed to examine the transient flow developing in a pipe containing hot compressed water following the rupture of a retaining diaphragm. Allowance is made for an area change in the pipe. Particular attention is paid to the non-equilibrium development of vapour bubbles and to the transition from a bubble-liquid regime to a droplet-vapour regime. The mathematical and computational model is described together with a summary of the FORTRAN subroutines and listing of data input. (UK)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Dornelles Morgental
2012-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The presence of periapical radiolucency has been used as a criterion for endodontic treatment failure. However, in addition to the inherent limitations of radiographic examinations, radiographic interpretations are extremely subjective. Thus, this study investigated the effect of partial analysis of root filling quality and periapical status on retreatment decisions by general dentists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twelve digitalized periapical radiographs were analyzed by 10 observers. The study was conducted at three time points at 1-week intervals. Radiographs edited with the Adobe Photoshop CS4 software were analyzed at three time points: first, only root filling quality was analyzed; second, only the periapical areas of the teeth under study were visualized; finally, observers analyzed the unedited radiographic image. Spearman ’s coefficient was used to analyze the correlations between the scores assigned when the periapical area was not visible and when the unedited radiograph was analyzed, as well as between the scores assigned when root fillings where not visible and when the unedited radiograph was analyzed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values between partial images and unedited radiographs were also used to analyze retreatment decisions. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The visualization of the root filling on the unedited radiograph affected the interpretation of the periapical status and the technical quality of the fillings has a greater influence on the general dentist’s decision to prescribe endodontic retreatment than the periapical condition. CONCLUSION: In order to make endodontic diagnosis, radiographic interpretation process should not only emphasize technical aspects, but also consider biological factors.
On solutions to equilibrium problems for systems of stiffened gases
Flåtten, Tore; Morin, Alexandre; Munkejord, Svend Tollak
2011-01-01
We consider an isolated system of N immiscible fluids, each following a stiffened-gas equation of state. We consider the problem of calculating equilibrium states from the conserved fluid-mechanical properties, i.e., the partial densities and internal energies. We consider two cases; in each case mechanical equilibrium is assumed, but the fluids may or may not be in thermal equilibrium. For both cases, we address the issues of existence, uniqueness, and physical validity of equilibrium soluti...
Duning, Thomas; Kellinghaus, Christoph; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Schiffbauer, Hagen; Keller, Simon; Ringelstein, E Bernd; Knecht, Stefan; Deppe, Michael
2010-02-01
Conventional structural MRI fails to identify a cerebral lesion in 25% of patients with cryptogenic partial epilepsy (CPE). Diffusion tensor imaging is an MRI technique sensitive to microstructural abnormalities of cerebral white matter (WM) by quantification of fractional anisotropy (FA). The objectives of the present study were to identify focal FA abnormalities in patients with CPE who were deemed MRI negative during routine presurgical evaluation. Diffusion tensor imaging at 3 T was performed in 12 patients with CPE and normal conventional MRI and in 67 age matched healthy volunteers. WM integrity was compared between groups on the basis of automated voxel-wise statistics of FA maps using an analysis of covariance. Volumetric measurements from high resolution T1-weighted images were also performed. Significant FA reductions in WM regions encompassing diffuse areas of the brain were observed when all patients as a group were compared with controls. On an individual basis, voxel based analyses revealed widespread symmetrical FA reduction in CPE patients. Furthermore, asymmetrical temporal lobe FA reduction was consistently ipsilateral to the electroclinical focus. No significant correlations were found between FA alterations and clinical data. There were no differences in brain volumes of CPE patients compared with controls. Despite normal conventional MRI, WM integrity abnormalities in CPE patients extend far beyond the epileptogenic zone. Given that unilateral temporal lobe FA abnormalities were consistently observed ipsilateral to the seizure focus, analysis of temporal FA may provide an informative in vivo investigation into the localisation of the epileptogenic zone in MRI negative patients.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.O.Baba Sheikh
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV remains the most significant viral cause of haemorrhagic enteritis and bloody diarrhoea in puppies over the age of 12 weeks. The objective of the present study was to detect and genotype CPV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and to perform phylogenetic analysis using partial VP2 gene sequences. We analysed eight faecal samples of unvaccinated dogs with signs of vomiting and bloody diarrhoea during the period from December 2013 to May 2014 in different locations in Sulaimani, Kurdistan, Iraq. After PCR detection, we found that all viral sequences in our study were CPV-2b variants, which differed genetically by 0.8% to 3.6% from five commercially available vaccines. Alignment between eight nucleotides of field virus sequences showed 95% to 99.5% similarity. The phylogenetic analysis for the 8 field sequences formed two distinct clusters with two sequences belonging to strains from China and Thailand and the other six – with a strain from Egypt. Molecular characterisation and CPV typing are crucial in epidemiological studies for future prevention and control of the disease.
Pretreatment of wastewater: Optimal coagulant selection using Partial Order Scaling Analysis (POSA)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzfati, Eran; Sein, Maya; Rubinov, Angelika; Raveh, Adi; Bick, Amos
2011-01-01
Jar-test is a well-known tool for chemical selection for physical-chemical wastewater treatment. Jar test results show the treatment efficiency in terms of suspended matter and organic matter removal. However, in spite of having all these results, coagulant selection is not an easy task because one coagulant can remove efficiently the suspended solids but at the same time increase the conductivity. This makes the final selection of coagulants very dependent on the relative importance assigned to each measured parameter. In this paper, the use of Partial Order Scaling Analysis (POSA) and multi-criteria decision analysis is proposed to help the selection of the coagulant and its concentration in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Therefore, starting from the parameters fixed by the jar-test results, these techniques will allow to weight these parameters, according to the judgments of wastewater experts, and to establish priorities among coagulants. An evaluation of two commonly used coagulation/flocculation aids (Alum and Ferric Chloride) was conducted and based on jar tests and POSA model, Ferric Chloride (100 ppm) was the best choice. The results obtained show that POSA and multi-criteria techniques are useful tools to select the optimal chemicals for the physical-technical treatment.
Yang, J-J; Yoon, U; Yun, H J; Im, K; Choi, Y Y; Lee, K H; Park, H; Hough, M G; Lee, J-M
2013-08-29
A number of imaging studies have reported neuroanatomical correlates of human intelligence with various morphological characteristics of the cerebral cortex. However, it is not yet clear whether these morphological properties of the cerebral cortex account for human intelligence. We assumed that the complex structure of the cerebral cortex could be explained effectively considering cortical thickness, surface area, sulcal depth and absolute mean curvature together. In 78 young healthy adults (age range: 17-27, male/female: 39/39), we used the full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) and the cortical measurements calculated in native space from each subject to determine how much combining various cortical measures explained human intelligence. Since each cortical measure is thought to be not independent but highly inter-related, we applied partial least square (PLS) regression, which is one of the most promising multivariate analysis approaches, to overcome multicollinearity among cortical measures. Our results showed that 30% of FSIQ was explained by the first latent variable extracted from PLS regression analysis. Although it is difficult to relate the first derived latent variable with specific anatomy, we found that cortical thickness measures had a substantial impact on the PLS model supporting the most significant factor accounting for FSIQ. Our results presented here strongly suggest that the new predictor combining different morphometric properties of complex cortical structure is well suited for predicting human intelligence. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[MEG]PLS: A pipeline for MEG data analysis and partial least squares statistics.
Cheung, Michael J; Kovačević, Natasa; Fatima, Zainab; Mišić, Bratislav; McIntosh, Anthony R
2016-01-01
The emphasis of modern neurobiological theories has recently shifted from the independent function of brain areas to their interactions in the context of whole-brain networks. As a result, neuroimaging methods and analyses have also increasingly focused on network discovery. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a neuroimaging modality that captures neural activity with a high degree of temporal specificity, providing detailed, time varying maps of neural activity. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis is a multivariate framework that can be used to isolate distributed spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity that differentiate groups or cognitive tasks, to relate neural activity to behavior, and to capture large-scale network interactions. Here we introduce [MEG]PLS, a MATLAB-based platform that streamlines MEG data preprocessing, source reconstruction and PLS analysis in a single unified framework. [MEG]PLS facilitates MRI preprocessing, including segmentation and coregistration, MEG preprocessing, including filtering, epoching, and artifact correction, MEG sensor analysis, in both time and frequency domains, MEG source analysis, including multiple head models and beamforming algorithms, and combines these with a suite of PLS analyses. The pipeline is open-source and modular, utilizing functions from FieldTrip (Donders, NL), AFNI (NIMH, USA), SPM8 (UCL, UK) and PLScmd (Baycrest, CAN), which are extensively supported and continually developed by their respective communities. [MEG]PLS is flexible, providing both a graphical user interface and command-line options, depending on the needs of the user. A visualization suite allows multiple types of data and analyses to be displayed and includes 4-D montage functionality. [MEG]PLS is freely available under the GNU public license (http://meg-pls.weebly.com). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baltussen, H.A.; David, F.; Sandra, P.J.F.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.
1999-01-01
A novel approach for sample enrichment, namely, equilibrium sorptive enrichment (ESE), is presented. A packed bed of sorption (or partitioning) material is used to enrich volatiles from gaseous samples. Normally, air sampling is stopped before breakthrough occurs, but this approach is not very
Kahsay, T.N.; Kuik, O.J.; Brouwer, R.; van der Zaag, P.
2015-01-01
Employing a multi-region multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling framework, this study estimates the direct and indirect economic impacts of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Eastern Nile economies. The study contributes to the existing literature by evaluating the
Ding, Weili; Lu, Ming
2007-01-01
Lacking guidance of general equilibrium (GE) theories in public economics and the corresponding proper mechanisms, China has not surprisingly witnessed an inequality in educational expenditures across regions as well as insufficiency of funds for education in poor areas. It is wrongly thought that what happens is due to the decentralized financing…
Ardiansah; Masykuri, M.; Rahardjo, S. B.
2018-05-01
Students’ conceptual understanding is the most important comprehension to obtain related comprehension. However, they held their own conception. With this need analysis, we will elicit student need of 3TMC diagnostic test to measure students’ conception about acid-base and solubility equilibrium. The research done by a mixed method using questionnaire analysis based on descriptive of quantitative and qualitative. The research subject was 96 students from 4 senior high schools and 4 chemistry teachers chosen by random sampling technique. Data gathering used a questionnaire with 10 questions for student and 28 questions for teachers. The results showed that 97% of students stated that the development this instrument is needed. In addition, there were several problems obtained in this questionnaire include learning activity, teacher’s test and guessing. In conclusion, this is necessary to develop the 3TMC instrument that can diagnose and measure the student’s conception in acid-base and solubility equilibrium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genreith, Christoph
2015-01-01
Nuclear waste needs to be characterized for its safe handling and storage. In particular long-lived actinides render the waste characterization challenging. The results described in this thesis demonstrate that Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA) with cold neutrons is a reliable tool for the non-destructive analysis of actinides. Nuclear data required for an accurate identification and quantification of actinides was acquired. Therefore, a sample design suitable for accurate and precise measurements of prompt γ-ray energies and partial cross sections of long-lived actinides at existing PGAA facilities was presented. Using the developed sample design the fundamental prompt γ-ray data on 237 Np, 241 Am and 242 Pu were measured. The data were validated by repetitive analysis of different samples at two individual irradiation and counting facilities - the BRR in Budapest and the FRM II in Garching near Munich. Employing cold neutrons, resonance neutron capture by low energetic resonances was avoided during the experiments. This is an improvement over older neutron activation based works at thermal reactor neutron energies. 152 prompt γ-rays of 237 Np were identified, as well as 19 of 241 Am, and 127 prompt γ-rays of 242 Pu. In all cases, both high and lower energetic prompt γ-rays were identified. The most intense line of 237 Np was observed at an energy of E γ =182.82(10) keV associated with a partial capture cross section of σ γ =22.06(39) b. The most intense prompt γ-ray lines of 241 Am and of 242 Pu were observed at E γ =154.72(7) keV with σ γ =72.80(252) b and E γ =287.69(8) keV with σ γ =7.07(12) b, respectively. The measurements described in this thesis provide the first reported quantifications on partial radiative capture cross sections for 237 Np, 241 Am and 242 Pu measured simultaneously over the large energy range from 45 keV to 12 MeV. Detailed uncertainty assessments were performed and the validity of the given uncertainties was
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiqiang Shen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Deformation of partially composite beams under distributed loading and free vibrations of partially composite beams under various boundary conditions are examined in this paper. The weak-form quadrature element method, which is characterized by direct evaluation of the integrals involved in the variational description of a problem, is used. One quadrature element is normally sufficient for a partially composite beam regardless of the magnitude of the shear connection stiffness. The number of integration points in a quadrature element is adjustable in accordance with convergence requirement. Results are compared with those of various finite element formulations. It is shown that the weak form quadrature element solution for partially composite beams is free of slip locking, and high computational accuracy is achieved with smaller number of degrees of freedom. Besides, it is found that longitudinal inertia of motion cannot be simply neglected in assessment of dynamic behavior of partially composite beams.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Giacomo, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dell' Aglio, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gaudiuso, R., E-mail: rosalba.gaudiuso@ba.imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Santagata, A. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Potenza, Via S. Loja, Zona Ind., 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Senesi, G.S. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Rossi, M.; Ghiara, M.R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Capitelli, F. [Institute of Crystallography - CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy); De Pascale, O. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)
2012-04-04
Graphical abstract: Self-calibrated analytical techniques based on the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) have been employed for the analysis of gemstones and copper-based alloys by LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), with a special focus on LTE conditions in laser induced plasmas. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in laser-induced plasmas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS enables elemental analysis with self-calibrated LTE-based methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Be detection in alexandrite gemstone is made possible by LIBS. - Abstract: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.
Ramakrishaniah, Ravikumar; Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz A; Elsharawy, Mohamed A; Alsaleh, Ayman K; Ismail Mohamed, Karem M; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur
2015-05-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the load distribution and displacement of cantilever prostheses with and without glass abutment by three dimensional finite element analysis. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the relationship between the glass abutment and the ridge. The external surface of the maxilla was scanned, and a simplified finite element model was constructed. The ZX-27 glass abutment and the maxillary first and second premolars were created and modified. The solid model of the three-unit cantilever fixed partial denture was scanned, and the fitting surface was modified with reference to the created abutments using the 3D CAD system. The finite element analysis was completed in ANSYS. The fit and total gap volume between the glass abutment and dental model were determined by Skyscan 1173 high-energy spiral micro-CT scan. The results of the finite element analysis in this study showed that the cantilever prosthesis supported by the glass abutment demonstrated significantly less stress on the terminal abutment and overall deformation of the prosthesis under vertical and oblique load. Micro-computed tomography determined a gap volume of 6.74162 mm(3). By contacting the mucosa, glass abutments transfer some amount of masticatory load to the residual alveolar ridge, thereby preventing damage to the periodontal microstructures of the terminal abutment. The passive contact of the glass abutment with the mucosa not only preserves the health of the mucosa covering the ridge but also permits easy cleaning. It is possible to increase the success rate of cantilever FPDs by supporting the cantilevered pontic with glass abutments. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Study of NΣ cusp in p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ with partial wave analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, S.; Muenzer, R.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L. [Excellenz Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Ritman, J.; Roderburg, E.; Hauenstein, F. [FZ Juelich (Germany); Collaboration: Hades and FOPI Collaboration
2016-07-01
In the last years, an analysis of exclusive reaction of p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ has been carried out using Bonn-Gatchina Partial Wave Analysis. In a combined analysis of data from Hades, Fopi, Disto and Cosy-TOF, an energy dependent production process is determined. This analysis has shown that a sufficient description of the p+p → p+K{sup +}+Λ is quite challenging due to the presence of resonances N* and interference, which requires Partial Wave Analysis. A pronounced narrow structure is observed in its projection on the pΛ-invariant mass. This peak structure, which appears around the NΣ threshold, has a strongly asymmetric structure and is interpreted a NΣ cusp effect. In this talk, the results from a combined analysis will be shown, with a special focus on the NΣ cusp structure and a description using Flatte parametrization.
Growth and proteomic analysis of tomato fruit under partial root-zone drying.
Marjanović, Milena; Stikić, Radmila; Vucelić-Radović, Biljana; Savić, Sladjana; Jovanović, Zorica; Bertin, Nadia; Faurobert, Mireille
2012-06-01
The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) on tomato fruit growth and proteome in the pericarp of cultivar Ailsa Craig were investigated. The PRD treatment was 70% of water applied to fully irrigated (FI) plants. PRD reduced the fruit number and slightly increased the fruit diameter, whereas the total fruit fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) per plant did not change. Although the growth rate was higher in FI than in PRD fruits, the longer period of cell expansion resulted in bigger PRD fruits. Proteins were extracted from pericarp tissue at two fruit growth stages (15 and 30 days post-anthesis [dpa]), and submitted to proteomic analysis including two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry for identification. Proteins related to carbon and amino acid metabolism indicated that slower metabolic flux in PRD fruits may be the cause of a slower growth rate compared to FI fruits. The increase in expression of the proteins related to cell wall, energy, and stress defense could allow PRD fruits to increase the duration of fruit growth compared to FI fruits. Upregulation of some of the antioxidative enzymes during the cell expansion phase of PRD fruits appears to be related to their role in protecting fruits against the mild stress induced by PRD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jong-Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Jung, Sung-Hee
2009-01-01
Neutron spectrometry, based on the scattering of high energy fast neutrons from a radioisotope and slowing-down by the light hydrogen atoms, is a useful technique for non-destructive, quantitative measurement of hydrogen content because it has a large measuring volume, and is not affected by temperature, pressure, pH value and color. The most common choice for radioisotope neutron source is 252 Cf or 241 Am-Be. In this study, 252 Cf with a neutron flux of 6.3x10 6 n/s has been used as an attractive neutron source because of its high flux neutron and weak radioactivity. Pulse-height neutron spectra have been obtained by using in-house built radioisotopic neutron spectrometric system equipped with 3 He detector and multi-channel analyzer, including a neutron shield. As a preliminary study, polyethylene block (density of ∼0.947 g/cc and area of 40 cmx25 cm) was used for the determination of hydrogen content by using multivariate calibration models, depending on the thickness of the block. Compared with the results obtained from a simple linear calibration model, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method offered a better performance in a quantitative data analysis. It also revealed that the PLSR method in a neutron spectrometric system can be promising in the real-time, online monitoring of the powder process to determine the content of any type of molecules containing hydrogen nuclei.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, X.H.; Chen, Y.B.; Li, J.S.; Tasawar, H.; Alsaedi, A.; Chen, G.Q.
2014-01-01
To cope with the excessive growth of energy consumption, the Chinese government has been trying to strengthen the energy regulation system by introducing new initiatives that aim at controlling the total amount of energy consumption. A partial frontier analysis is performed in this paper to make a comparative assessment of the combinations of possible energy conservation objectives, new constraints and regulation strategies. According to the characteristics of the coordination of existing regulation structure and the optimality of regulation strategy, four scenarios are constructed and regional responsibilities are reasonably divided by fully considering the production technology in the economy. The relative importance of output objectives and the total amount controlling is compared and the impacts on the regional economy caused by the changes of regulation strategy are also evaluated for updating regulation policy. - Highlights: • New initiatives to control the total amount of energy consumption are evaluated. • Twenty-four regulation strategies and four scenarios are designed and compared. • Crucial regions for each sector and regional potential are identified. • The national goals of energy abatement are decomposed into regional responsibilities. • The changes of regulation strategy are evaluated for updating regulation policy
Lo, Yen-Li; Pan, Wen-Harn; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chen, Jen-Yang; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen
2016-01-01
Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case-control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with multiple conditional logistic regression models, linking pattern scores and NPC risk. A high score of the PLS-DA derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruits, milk, fresh fish, vegetables, tea, and eggs ordered by loading values. We observed that one unit increase in the scores was associated with a significantly lower risk of NPC (ORadj = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60-0.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Similar results were observed among Epstein-Barr virus seropositive subjects. An NPC protective diet is indicated with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables), milk, other protein-rich foods (in particular fresh fish and eggs), and tea. This information may be used to design potential dietary regimen for NPC prevention.
General partial wave analysis of the decay of a hyperon of spin 1/2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T.D.; Yang, C.N.
1983-01-01
This note is to consider the general problem of the decay of a hyperon of spin 1/2 into a pion and a nucleon under the general assumption of possible violations of parity conservation, charge-conjugation invariance, and time-reversal invariance. The discussion is in essence a partial wave analysis of the decay phenomena and is independent of the dynamics of the decay. Nonrelativistic approximations are not made on either of the decay products. In the reference system in which the hyperon is at rest there are two possible final states of the pion-nucleon system:s/sub 1/2/ and p/sub 1/2/. Denoting the amplitudes of these two states by A and B, one observes that the decay is physically characterized by three real constants specifying the magnitudes and the relative phase between these amplitudes. One of these constants can be taken to be absolute value a 2 + absolute value B 2 , and is evidently proportional to the decay probability per unit time. The other two constants are best defined in terms of experimentally measurable quantities. They discuss three types of experiments: (a) The angular distribution of the decay pion from a completely polarized hyperon at rest. (b) The longitudinal polarization of the nucleon emitted in the decay of unpolarized hyperons at rest. (c) Transverse polarization of the nucleon emitted in a given direction in the decay of a polarized hyperon
Niang, Oumar; Thioune, Abdoulaye; El Gueirea, Mouhamed Cheikh; Deléchelle, Eric; Lemoine, Jacques
2012-09-01
The major problem with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) algorithm is its lack of a theoretical framework. So, it is difficult to characterize and evaluate this approach. In this paper, we propose, in the 2-D case, the use of an alternative implementation to the algorithmic definition of the so-called "sifting process" used in the original Huang's EMD method. This approach, especially based on partial differential equations (PDEs), was presented by Niang in previous works, in 2005 and 2007, and relies on a nonlinear diffusion-based filtering process to solve the mean envelope estimation problem. In the 1-D case, the efficiency of the PDE-based method, compared to the original EMD algorithmic version, was also illustrated in a recent paper. Recently, several 2-D extensions of the EMD method have been proposed. Despite some effort, 2-D versions for EMD appear poorly performing and are very time consuming. So in this paper, an extension to the 2-D space of the PDE-based approach is extensively described. This approach has been applied in cases of both signal and image decomposition. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the new PDE-based sifting process for the decomposition of various kinds of data. Some results have been provided in the case of image decomposition. The effectiveness of the approach encourages its use in a number of signal and image applications such as denoising, detrending, or texture analysis.
Equilibrium Droplets on Deformable Substrates: Equilibrium Conditions.
Koursari, Nektaria; Ahmed, Gulraiz; Starov, Victor M
2018-05-15
Equilibrium conditions of droplets on deformable substrates are investigated, and it is proven using Jacobi's sufficient condition that the obtained solutions really provide equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformed support. At the equilibrium, the excess free energy of the system should have a minimum value, which means that both necessary and sufficient conditions of the minimum should be fulfilled. Only in this case, the obtained profiles provide the minimum of the excess free energy. The necessary condition of the equilibrium means that the first variation of the excess free energy should vanish, and the second variation should be positive. Unfortunately, the mentioned two conditions are not the proof that the obtained profiles correspond to the minimum of the excess free energy and they could not be. It is necessary to check whether the sufficient condition of the equilibrium (Jacobi's condition) is satisfied. To the best of our knowledge Jacobi's condition has never been verified for any already published equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate. A simple model of the equilibrium droplet on the deformable substrate is considered, and it is shown that the deduced profiles of the equilibrium droplet and deformable substrate satisfy the Jacobi's condition, that is, really provide the minimum to the excess free energy of the system. To simplify calculations, a simplified linear disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm is adopted for the calculations. It is shown that both necessary and sufficient conditions for equilibrium are satisfied. For the first time, validity of the Jacobi's condition is verified. The latter proves that the developed model really provides (i) the minimum of the excess free energy of the system droplet/deformable substrate and (ii) equilibrium profiles of both the droplet and the deformable substrate.
Predictors of Local Recurrence Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation: A Pooled Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, John Ben; Lyden, Maureen; Beitsch, Peter; Vicini, Frank A.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To analyze a pooled set of nearly 2,000 patients treated on the American Society of Breast Surgeons (ASBS) Mammosite Registry Trial and at William Beaumont Hospital (WBH) to identify factors associated with local recurrence following accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,961 women underwent partial breast irradiation between April 1993 and November 2010 as part of the ASBS Registry Trial or at WBH. Rates of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), regional recurrence (RR), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for each group and for the pooled cohort. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related variables were analyzed including age, tumor stage/size, estrogen receptor status, surgical margins, and lymph node status to determine their association with IBTR. Results: The two groups weres similar, but WBH patients were more frequently node positive, had positive margins, and were less likely to be within the American Society for Radiation Oncology-unsuitable group. At 5 years, the rates of IBTR, RR, DM, DFS, CSS, and OS for the pooled group of patients were 2.9%, 0.5%, 2.4%, 89.1%, 98.5%, and 91.8%, respectively. The 5-year rate of true recurrence/marginal miss was 0.8%. Univariate analysis of IBTR found that negative estrogen receptor status (odds ratio [OR], 2.83, 95% confidence interval 1.55–5.13, p = 0.0007) was the only factor significantly associated with IBTR, while a trend was seen for age less than 50 (OR 1.80, 95% confidence interval 0.90–3.58, p = 0.10). Conclusions: Excellent 5-year outcomes were seen following APBI in over 1,900 patients. Estrogen receptor negativity was the only factor associated with IBTR, while a trend for age less than 50 was noted. Significant differences in factors associated with IBTR were noted between cohorts, suggesting that factors driving IBTR may be predicated based on the risk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiraishi, Hiroyuki
2008-01-01
Numerical Analyses on Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP) have been performed for researching the mechanism of laser absorption occurring in the laser propulsion system. Above all, Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), categorized as one type of LSP, is considered as one of the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for performing highly effective propulsion. For simulating generation and propagation of LSD wave, I have performed thermal non-equilibrium analyses by Navier-stokes equations, using a CO 2 gasdynamic laser into an inert gas, where the most important laser absorption mechanism for LSD propagation is Inverse Bremsstrahlung. As a numerical method, TVD scheme taken into account of real gas effects and thermal non-equilibrium effects by using a 2-temperature model, is applied. In this study, I analyze a LSD wave propagating through a conical nozzle, where an inner space of an actual laser propulsion system is simplified
Tsivian, Matvey; Ulusoy, Said; Abern, Michael; Wandel, Ayelet; Sidi, A Ami; Tsivian, Alexander
2012-10-01
Anatomic parameters determining renal mass complexity have been used in a number of proposed scoring systems despite lack of a critical analysis of their independent contributions. We sought to assess the independent contribution of anatomic parameters on perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Preoperative imaging studies were reviewed for 147 consecutive patients undergoing LPN for a single renal mass. Renal mass anatomy was recorded: Size, growth pattern (endo-/meso-/exophytic), centrality (central/hilar/peripheral), anterior/posterior, lateral/medial, polar location. Multivariable models were used to determine associations of anatomic parameters with warm ischemia time (WIT), operative time (OT), estimated blood loss (EBL), intra- and postoperative complications, as well as renal function. All models were adjusted for the learning curve and relevant confounders. Median (range) tumor size was 3.3 cm (1.5-11 cm); 52% were central and 14% hilar. While 44% were exophytic, 23% and 33% were mesophytic and endophytic, respectively. Anatomic parameters did not uniformly predict perioperative outcomes. WIT was associated with tumor size (P=0.068), centrality (central, P=0.016; hilar, P=0.073), and endophytic growth pattern (P=0.017). OT was only associated with tumor size (Panatomic parameter predicted EBL. Tumor centrality increased the odds of overall and intraoperative complications, without reaching statistical significance. Postoperative renal function was not associated with any of the anatomic parameters considered after adjustment for baseline function and WIT. Learning curve, considered as a confounder, was independently associated with reduced WIT and OT as well as reduced odds of intraoperative complications. This study provides a detailed analysis of the independent impact of renal mass anatomic parameters on perioperative outcomes. Our findings suggest diverse independent contributions of the anatomic parameters to the
Simoens, Steven
2011-01-01
This study aims to compute the budget impact of lacosamide, a new adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in epilepsy patients from 16 years of age who are uncontrolled and having previously used at least three anti-epileptic drugs from a Belgian healthcare payer perspective. The budget impact analysis compared the 'world with lacosamide' to the 'world without lacosamide' and calculated how a change in the mix of anti-epileptic drugs used to treat uncontrolled epilepsy would impact drug spending from 2008 to 2013. Data on the number of patients and on the market shares of anti-epileptic drugs were taken from Belgian sources and from the literature. Unit costs of anti-epileptic drugs originated from Belgian sources. The budget impact was calculated from two scenarios about the market uptake of lacosamide. The Belgian target population is expected to increase from 5333 patients in 2008 to 5522 patients in 2013. Assuming that the market share of lacosamide increases linearly over time and is taken evenly from all other anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), the budget impact of adopting adjunctive therapy with lacosamide increases from €5249 (0.1% of reference drug budget) in 2008 to €242,700 (4.7% of reference drug budget) in 2013. Assuming that 10% of patients use standard AED therapy plus lacosamide, the budget impact of adopting adjunctive therapy with lacosamide is around €800,000-900,000 per year (or 16.7% of the reference drug budget). Adjunctive therapy with lacosamide would raise drug spending for this patient population by as much as 16.7% per year. However, this budget impact analysis did not consider the fact that lacosamide reduces costs of seizure management and withdrawal. The literature suggests that, if savings in other healthcare costs are taken into account, adjunctive therapy with lacosamide may be cost saving.
Shuen, Jian-Shun; Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram
1989-01-01
The extension of the known flux-vector and flux-difference splittings to real gases via rigorous mathematical procedures is demonstrated. Formulations of both equilibrium and finite-rate chemistry for real-gas flows are described, with emphasis on derivations of finite-rate chemistry. Split-flux formulas from other authors are examined. A second-order upwind-based TVD scheme is adopted to eliminate oscillations and to obtain a sharp representation of discontinuities.
Sronsri, Chuchai; Boonchom, Banjong
2018-04-01
A simple precipitating method was used to synthesize effectively a partially metal-doped phosphate hydrate (Mn0.9Mg0.1HPO4·3H2O), whereas the thermal decomposition process of the above hydrate precursor was used to obtain Mn1.8Mg0.2P2O7 and LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 compounds under different conditions. To separate the overlapping thermal decomposition peak, a deconvolution technique was used, and the separated peak was applied to calculate the water content. The factor group splitting analysis was used to exemplify their vibrational spectra obtained from normal vibrations of HPO42-, H2O, P2O74- and PO43- functional groups. Further, the deconvoluted bending mode of water was clearly observed. Mn0.9Mg0.1HPO4·3H2O was observed in the orthorhombic crystal system with the space group of Pbca (D2h15). The formula units per unit cell were found to be eight (Z = 8), and the site symmetric type of HPO42- was observed as Cs. For the HPO42- unit, the correlation filed splitting analysis of type C3v - Cs - D2h15 was calculated and had 96 internal modes, whereas H2O in the above hydrate was symbolized as C2v - Cs - D2h15 and had 24 modes. The symbol C2v - Cs - C2h3 was used for the correlation filed splitting analysis of P2O74- in Mn1.8Mg0.2P2O7 (monoclinic, C2/m (C2h3), Z = 2, and 42 modes). Finally, the symbol Td - Cs - D2h16 was used for the correlation filed splitting analysis of PO43- in LiMn0.9Mg0.1PO4 (orthorhombic, Pnma (D2h16), Z = 4, and 36 modes).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boccard, Julien; Rudaz, Serge
2016-01-01
Many experimental factors may have an impact on chemical or biological systems. A thorough investigation of the potential effects and interactions between the factors is made possible by rationally planning the trials using systematic procedures, i.e. design of experiments. However, assessing factors' influences remains often a challenging task when dealing with hundreds to thousands of correlated variables, whereas only a limited number of samples is available. In that context, most of the existing strategies involve the ANOVA-based partitioning of sources of variation and the separate analysis of ANOVA submatrices using multivariate methods, to account for both the intrinsic characteristics of the data and the study design. However, these approaches lack the ability to summarise the data using a single model and remain somewhat limited for detecting and interpreting subtle perturbations hidden in complex Omics datasets. In the present work, a supervised multiblock algorithm based on the Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (OPLS) framework, is proposed for the joint analysis of ANOVA submatrices. This strategy has several advantages: (i) the evaluation of a unique multiblock model accounting for all sources of variation; (ii) the computation of a robust estimator (goodness of fit) for assessing the ANOVA decomposition reliability; (iii) the investigation of an effect-to-residuals ratio to quickly evaluate the relative importance of each effect and (iv) an easy interpretation of the model with appropriate outputs. Case studies from metabolomics and transcriptomics, highlighting the ability of the method to handle Omics data obtained from fixed-effects full factorial designs, are proposed for illustration purposes. Signal variations are easily related to main effects or interaction terms, while relevant biochemical information can be derived from the models. - Highlights: • A new method is proposed for the analysis of Omics data generated using design of experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boccard, Julien, E-mail: julien.boccard@unige.ch; Rudaz, Serge
2016-05-12
Many experimental factors may have an impact on chemical or biological systems. A thorough investigation of the potential effects and interactions between the factors is made possible by rationally planning the trials using systematic procedures, i.e. design of experiments. However, assessing factors' influences remains often a challenging task when dealing with hundreds to thousands of correlated variables, whereas only a limited number of samples is available. In that context, most of the existing strategies involve the ANOVA-based partitioning of sources of variation and the separate analysis of ANOVA submatrices using multivariate methods, to account for both the intrinsic characteristics of the data and the study design. However, these approaches lack the ability to summarise the data using a single model and remain somewhat limited for detecting and interpreting subtle perturbations hidden in complex Omics datasets. In the present work, a supervised multiblock algorithm based on the Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (OPLS) framework, is proposed for the joint analysis of ANOVA submatrices. This strategy has several advantages: (i) the evaluation of a unique multiblock model accounting for all sources of variation; (ii) the computation of a robust estimator (goodness of fit) for assessing the ANOVA decomposition reliability; (iii) the investigation of an effect-to-residuals ratio to quickly evaluate the relative importance of each effect and (iv) an easy interpretation of the model with appropriate outputs. Case studies from metabolomics and transcriptomics, highlighting the ability of the method to handle Omics data obtained from fixed-effects full factorial designs, are proposed for illustration purposes. Signal variations are easily related to main effects or interaction terms, while relevant biochemical information can be derived from the models. - Highlights: • A new method is proposed for the analysis of Omics data generated using design of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Ramaprabha
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Mismatching effects due to partial shaded conditions are the major drawbacks existing in today’s photovoltaic (PV systems. These mismatch effects are greatly reduced in distributed PV system architecture where each panel is effectively decoupled from its neighboring panel. To obtain the optimal operation of the PV panels, maximum power point tracking (MPPT techniques are used. In partial shaded conditions, detecting the maximum operating point is difficult as the characteristic curves are complex with multiple peaks. In this paper, a neural network control technique is employed for MPPT. Detailed analyses were carried out on MPPT controllers in centralized and distributed architecture under partial shaded environments. The efficiency of the MPPT controllers and the effectiveness of the proposed control technique under partial shaded environments was examined using MATLAB software. The results were validated through experimentation.
Izadi Najafabadi, Mohammad; Somers, Bart; Johansson, Bengt; Dam, Nico
2017-01-01
A relatively high level of stratification (qualitatively: lack of homogeneity) is one of the main advantages of partially premixed combustion over the homogeneous charge compression ignition concept. Stratification can smooth the heat release rate
Henseler, Jorg; Chin, Wynne W.
2010-01-01
In social and business sciences, the importance of the analysis of interaction effects between manifest as well as latent variables steadily increases. Researchers using partial least squares (PLS) to analyze interaction effects between latent variables need an overview of the available approaches as well as their suitability. This article…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz Sanchidrian, C.
1989-01-01
The present paper applies dimensional analysis with spatial discrimination to transform the differential equations in partial derivatives developed in the theory of heat transmission into ordinary ones. The effectivity of the method is comparable to that methods based in transformations of uni or multiparametric groups, with the advantage of being more direct and simple. (Author)
Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Vos, J.E.; Mooibroek, J.; Rotterdam, A. van
1980-01-01
The thalamo-cortical relationships of alpha rhythms have been analysed in dogs using partial coherence function analysis. The objective was to clarify how far the large intracortical coherence commonly recorded between different cortical sites could depend on a common thalamic site. It was found
Partial Cooperative Equilibria: Existence and Characterization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amandine Ghintran
2010-09-01
Full Text Available We study the solution concepts of partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria. The partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibrium is axiomatically characterized by using notions of rationality, consistency and converse consistency with regard to reduced games. We also establish sufficient conditions for which partial cooperative Cournot-Nash equilibria and partial cooperative Stackelberg equilibria exist in supermodular games. Finally, we provide an application to strategic network formation where such solution concepts may be useful.
Ion exchange equilibrium constants
Marcus, Y
2013-01-01
Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and
Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium
Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.
2006-01-01
In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2001-01-01
) and non-negative least squares (NNLS), and the partial unmixing methods orthogonal subspace projection (OSP), constrained energy minimization (CEM) and an eigenvalue formulation alternative are dealt with. The solution to the eigenvalue formulation alternative proves to be identical to the CEM solution....... The matrix inversion involved in CEM can be avoided by working on (a subset of) orthogonally transformed data such as signal maximum autocorrelation factors, MAFs, or signal minimum noise fractions, MNFs. This will also cause the partial unmixing result to be independent of the noise isolated in the MAF....../MNFs not included in the analysis. CEM and the eigenvalue formulation alternative enable us to perform partial unmixing when we know one desired end-member spectrum only and not the full set of end-member spectra. This is an advantage over full unmixing and OSP. The eigenvalue formulation of CEM inspires us...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufournaud, C.M.; Quinn, J.T.; Harrington, J.J.
1994-01-01
The Sudan, along with all Sahelian countries, faces urgent environmental problems caused, in part, by the clear-cutting of scrub for firewood. Analyzes the economic consequences of a policy often proposed to reduce the consumption of firewood. Specifically, the authors simulate the policy of introducing more efficient wood burning stoves into households by using an Applied General Equilibrium (AGE) model. The results indicate that the anticipated reduction in the economy-wide demand for wood, based on the increase in the technical efficiency of the stoves, is not fully realized. 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs
Consideration on the partial moderation in criticality safety analysis of LWR fresh fuel storage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, S.; Tanimoto, R.; Suzuki, K.; Ishitobi, M.
1987-01-01
In criticality safety analyses of fuel fabrication facilities, neutron effective multiplication factor (k eff ) of a storage vault has been calculated assuming ''partial moderation'' in whole space (hereafter reffered to as unlimited partial moderation). Where the enrichment of fuels to be stored is about 3.5 % or less, calculated k eff is usually low enough to show subcriticality even in unlimited partial moderation. However, it is scheduled to elevate LWR fuels enrichment for economical higher burnup and the unlimited partial moderation would require to introduce neutron absorbers to maintain subcriticality. It is clear that this causes economical disadvantages, and hence we reconsidered this assumption to avoid such a condition. Reconsideration of the unlimited partial moderation was carried out in following steps. (1) Water quantity to be assumed in atmosphere to obtain criticality was revealed too much to realize. (2) Typical realistic water quantity in atmosphere was estimated to apply as an alternative assumption. (3) A fresh fuel assembly storage was chosen as a model array and calculations with lattice code WIMS-D 1 and Monte Calro code KENO-IV 2 were performed to compare new alternative assumption with the unlimited one. As results of the above calculations, maximum k eff of the array under the new assumption was remarkably reduced to the value less than 0.95 though the maximum k eff under the unlimited one was higher than 1.0. (author)
Experimental and simulation analysis of hydrogen production by partial oxidation of methanol
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sikander, U. [National Univ. of Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2014-10-15
Partial oxidation of methanol is the only self-sustaining process for onboard production of hydrogen. For this a fixed bed catalytic reactor is designed, based on heterogeneous catalytic reaction. To develop an optimized process, simulation is carried out using ASPEN HYSYS v 7.1. Reaction kinetics is developed on the basis of Langmuir Hinshel wood model. 45:55:5 of CuO: ZnO: Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is used as a catalyst. Simulation results are studied in detail to understand the phenomenon of partial oxidation of methanol inside the reactor. An experimental rig is developed for hydrogen production through partial oxidation of methanol. Results obtained from process simulation and experimental work; are compared with each other. (author)
Ebert, Marcelo R
2018-01-01
This book provides an overview of different topics related to the theory of partial differential equations. Selected exercises are included at the end of each chapter to prepare readers for the “research project for beginners” proposed at the end of the book. It is a valuable resource for advanced graduates and undergraduate students who are interested in specializing in this area. The book is organized in five parts: In Part 1 the authors review the basics and the mathematical prerequisites, presenting two of the most fundamental results in the theory of partial differential equations: the Cauchy-Kovalevskaja theorem and Holmgren's uniqueness theorem in its classical and abstract form. It also introduces the method of characteristics in detail and applies this method to the study of Burger's equation. Part 2 focuses on qualitative properties of solutions to basic partial differential equations, explaining the usual properties of solutions to elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic equations for the archetypes...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Pedersen, Michael
2009-01-01
of an AIF voxel including the relaxation properties of blood and tissue. Artery orientations parallel and perpendicular to the main magnetic field were investigated and AIF voxels were modeled to either include or be situated close to a large artery. The impact of partial volume effects on quantitative...... perfusion metrics was investigated for the gradient echo pulse sequence at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. It is shown that the tissue contribution broadens and introduces fluctuations in the AIF. Furthermore, partial volume effects bias perfusion metrics in a nonlinear fashion, compromising quantitative perfusion...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo
2015-01-01
The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics
2015-05-15
The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genc, T.S.; Suvrajeet Sen
2008-01-01
This paper studies investments in the Ontario Electricity Market which is currently being restructured. Our methodology is based on the concept of S-adapted open-loop Nash equilibrium. We examine the evolution of capital investments and pricing behavior of suppliers as uncertain electricity demand evolves over time (in Ontario). This study is particularly interesting since we compare the implications of two policies: (i) the current setting in which Ontario Power Generation (OPG) retains its generation units; (ii) the policy (set up in 2003) that required the divestiture of the largest supplier, OPG, and aimed to increase the number of independent suppliers in Ontario. We mainly focus on the independent generators like Bruce Nuclear. We use the tools of Stochastic Programming to compute the S-adapted open-loop Nash equilibrium market outcomes. We find that in the three-player market total capacity installation and market prices are higher than the ones in the five-player market. That is higher capacity may not necessarily alleviate exercise of market power. We also confirm the prediction by the National Energy Board that in a market with five major players, OPG's market share may reduce to a percentage between 35% and 40%. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demirbas, E.; Kobya, M.; Konukman, A.E.S.
2008-01-01
In this study, the preparation of activated carbon from almond shell with H 2 SO 4 activation and its ability to remove toxic hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions are reported. The influences of several operating parameters such as pH, particle size and temperature on the adsorption capacity were investigated. Adsorption of Cr(VI) is found to be highly pH, particle size and temperature dependent. Four adsorption isotherm models namely, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich were used to analyze the equilibrium data. The Langmuir isotherm provided the best correlation for Cr(VI) onto the almond shell activated carbon (ASC). Adsorption capacity was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm as 190.3 mg/g at 323 K. Thermodynamic parameters were evaluated and the adsorption was endothermic showing monolayer adsorption of Cr(VI). Five error functions were used to treat the equilibrium data using non-linear optimization techniques for evaluating the fit of the isotherm equations. The highest correlation for the isotherm equations in this system was obtained for the Freundlich isotherm. ASC is found to be inexpensive and effective adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meirui Zhong
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper combines intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium with Cournot equilibrium solving the technological problem of intergenerational equity and strategic value compensation confirmation, achieving the effective combination between sustainable development concept and value evaluation, thinking and expanding the theoretical framework for the lack of pricing power of mineral resources. The conclusion of the theoretical model and the numerical simulation shows that intergenerational equity equilibrium and social preferences equilibrium enhance international trade market power of preponderant metal mineral resources owing to the production of intergenerational equity compensation value and strategic value. However, the impact exerted on Cournot market power by social preferences is inconsistent: that is, changes of altruistic Cournot equilibrium and reciprocal inequity Cournot equilibrium are consistent, while inequity aversion Cournot equilibrium has the characteristic of loss aversion, namely, under the consideration of inequity aversion Cournot competition, Counot-Nash equilibrium transforms monotonically with sympathy and jealousy of inequity aversion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hicks, D.L.; Walsh, R.T.
1976-06-01
Discrete methods for the solution of the partial differential equations arising in hydrocodes and wavecodes are presented in a tutorial fashion. By discrete methods is meant, for example, the methods of finite differences, finite elements, discretized characteristics, etc. The concepts of stability, consistency, convergence, order of accuracy, true accuracy, etc., and their relevance to the hydrocodes and wavecodes are discussed
Gomez, Rapson
2012-01-01
Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korobeynikov S.M.
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the problems related to measuring and analyzing the characteristics of partial discharges which are the main instrument for oil-filled high-voltage electrical equipment diagnosing. The experiments on recording of partial discharges in transformer oil have been carried out in the “point-plane” electrode system at alternating current. The instantaneous voltage and the apparent charge have been measured depending on the root-mean-square voltage and the phase angle of partial discharges. This paper aimes at carrying out a statistical analysis of the obtained experimental results, in particular, the construction of a parametric probabilistic model of the dependence of the partial discharge inception voltage distribution on the value of the root-mean-square voltage. It differs from usual discharges which occur in liquid dielectric materials in case of sharp inhomogeneous electrode system. It has been suggested that discharges of a different type are the discharges in gas bubbles that occur when partial discharges in a liquid emerge. This assumption is confirmed by the fact that the number of such discharges increases with increasing the root-mean-square voltage value. It is the main novelty of this paper. This corresponds to the nature of the occurrence of such discharges. After rejecting the observations corresponding to discharges in gas bubbles, a parametric probabilistic model has been constructed. The model obtained makes it possible to determine the probability of partial discharge occurrence in a liquid at a given value of the instantaneous voltage depending on the root-mean-square voltage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-08-01
This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO 2 emission legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The paper presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO 2 emissions, which effects on the economy in general (BIP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. In particular, a dynamic, single-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed
Zhao, Fa-Ming; Wang, Jiang-Feng; Li, Long-Fei
2018-05-01
The air chemical non-equilibrium effect (ACNEE) on hydrogen-air combustion flow fields at Mach number of 10 is numerically analyzed for a semi-sphere with a sonic opposing-hydrogen jet. The 2D axisymmetric multi-components N-S equations are solved by using the central scheme with artificial dissipation and the S-A turbulence model. Numerical results show that as compared to the result without ACNEE, the ACNEE has little influence on the structure of flow field, but has a considerable impact on fluid characteristics which reduces the maximum value of mass fraction of water in the flow field and increases the maximum value of mass fraction of water on solid surface, as well as the maximum surface temperature.
Li, Chuan-Yao; Huang, Hai-Jun; Tang, Tie-Qiao
2017-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the effects of staggered shifts on the user equilibrium (UE) state in a single-entry traffic corridor with no late arrivals from the analytical and numerical perspective. The LWR (Lighthill-Whitham-Richards) model and the Greenshields' velocity-density function are used to describe the dynamic properties of traffic flow. Propositions for the properties of flow patterns in UE, and the quasi-analytic solutions for three possible situations in UE are deduced. Numerical tests are carried out to testify the analytical results, where the three-dimensional evolution diagram of traffic flow illustrates that shock and rarefaction wave exist in UE and the space-time diagram indicates that UE solutions satisfy the propagation properties of traffic flow. In addition, the cost curves show that the UE solutions satisfy the UE trip-timing condition.
Blasco, H; Błaszczyński, J; Billaut, J C; Nadal-Desbarats, L; Pradat, P F; Devos, D; Moreau, C; Andres, C R; Emond, P; Corcia, P; Słowiński, R
2015-02-01
Metabolomics is an emerging field that includes ascertaining a metabolic profile from a combination of small molecules, and which has health applications. Metabolomic methods are currently applied to discover diagnostic biomarkers and to identify pathophysiological pathways involved in pathology. However, metabolomic data are complex and are usually analyzed by statistical methods. Although the methods have been widely described, most have not been either standardized or validated. Data analysis is the foundation of a robust methodology, so new mathematical methods need to be developed to assess and complement current methods. We therefore applied, for the first time, the dominance-based rough set approach (DRSA) to metabolomics data; we also assessed the complementarity of this method with standard statistical methods. Some attributes were transformed in a way allowing us to discover global and local monotonic relationships between condition and decision attributes. We used previously published metabolomics data (18 variables) for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and non-ALS patients. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) allowed satisfactory discrimination (72.7%) between ALS and non-ALS patients. Some discriminant metabolites were identified: acetate, acetone, pyruvate and glutamine. The concentrations of acetate and pyruvate were also identified by univariate analysis as significantly different between ALS and non-ALS patients. DRSA correctly classified 68.7% of the cases and established rules involving some of the metabolites highlighted by OPLS-DA (acetate and acetone). Some rules identified potential biomarkers not revealed by OPLS-DA (beta-hydroxybutyrate). We also found a large number of common discriminating metabolites after Bayesian confirmation measures, particularly acetate, pyruvate, acetone and ascorbate, consistent with the pathophysiological pathways involved in ALS. DRSA provides
Partial-wave analysis of π-π0π0 events at 18 GeV/c
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, D.S.
1998-01-01
A partial-wave analysis has been performed on 170 K π - π 0 π 0 events produced in the reaction π - p→pπ - π 0 π 0 , and the results of the mass-independent fits are presented. The objective was to confirm the existence of the π(1800) and the exotic J PC =1 -+ object, reported by VES. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dumitrescu Sorin
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The paper shows the importance of trending of partial discharge activity in assessing the insulation condition. It is presented the principle of the measurement method and the quantities that characterize partial discharges and also the criteria utilized for the assessement of the insulation condition of the hydrogenerators. Results of the measurements made on several hydrogenerators are presented, like the variation with time of the two main quantities that characterize the partial discharges, maximum magnitude, Qm and the normalized quantity, NQN over a period of about 10 years. Further, a classification of the insulation condition by 3 main and 2 intermediary categories and the definition of these categories are given. The criteria used for the assessment of the insulation condition are presented in the form of a table: quantitative criteria by the ± NQN and ± Qm values and qualitative criteria for the analysis of the 2D and 3D diagrams. At the end of each set of measurements, an analyze of the insulation condition annual evaluation is made, also a verdict is put, and of course, the recommendations made relating to the maintenance and the decisions that have been taken. The paper ends with several considerations on the method of on-line partial discharges and especially, on the conditions for valid trending activity in time.
Brignole, Esteban Alberto
2013-01-01
Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balter, H.S.
1994-01-01
This work studies the behaviour of radionuclides when it produce a desintegration activity,decay and the isotopes stable creation. It gives definitions about the equilibrium between activity of parent and activity of the daughter, radioactive decay,isotope stable and transient equilibrium and maxim activity time. Some considerations had been given to generators that permit a disgregation of two radioisotopes in equilibrium and its good performance. Tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jun Shin; Lee, Wook Ryun; Oh, Ki Yong; Kim, Bong Ki
2010-01-01
Understanding water hammer is very important to the prevention of excessive pressure build-up in pipelines. Many researchers have studied this phenomenon, drawing effective solutions through the time- and frequency-domain approaches. For the purposes of enhancing the advantages of the frequency-domain approach and, thereby, rendering investigations of the dynamic characteristics of pipelines more effective, we propose partial fraction expansion of the transfer function between the unsteady flow source and a given section. We simulate the proposed approach using a vibration element inserted into a simple pipeline, deducing much useful physical information pertaining to pipeline design. We conclude that locating the resonance of the vibration element between the first and second resonances of the pipeline can mitigate the excessive pressure build-up attendant on the occurrence of water hammer. Our method of partial fraction expansion is expected to be useful and effective in analyses of unsteady flows in pipelines
Analysis of Insulating Material of XLPE Cables considering Innovative Patterns of Partial Discharges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fernando Figueroa Godoy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the quality of insulation in high voltage underground cables XLPE using a prototype which classifies the following usual types of patterns of partial discharge (PD: (1 internal PD, (2 superficial PD, (3 corona discharge in air, and (4 corona discharge in oil, in addition to considering two new PD patterns: (1 false contact and (2 floating ground. The tests and measurements to obtain the patterns and study cases of partial discharges were performed at the Testing Laboratory Equipment and Materials (LEPEM of the Federal Electricity Commission of Mexico (CFE using a measuring equipment LDIC and norm IEC60270. To classify the six patterns of partial discharges mentioned above a Probabilistic Neural Network Bayesian Modified (PNNBM method having the feature of using a large amount of data will be used and it is not saturated. In addition, PNN converges, always finding a solution in a short period of time with low computational cost. The insulation of two high voltage cables with different characteristics was analyzed. The test results allow us to conclude which wire has better insulation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.; You, S. R.; Gao, R. X.
2015-01-01
This paper examines the difference in the value of the nuclear fuel cycle cost calculated by the deterministic and probabilistic methods on the basis of an equilibrium model. Calculating using the deterministic method, the direct disposal cost and Pyro-SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor) nuclear fuel cycle cost, including the reactor cost, were found to be 66.41 mills/kWh and 77.82 mills/kWh, respectively (1 mill = one thousand of a dollar, i.e., 10-3 $). This is because the cost of SFR is considerably expensive. Calculating again using the probabilistic method, however, the direct disposal cost and Pyro-SFR nuclear fuel cycle cost, excluding the reactor cost, were found be 7.47 mills/kWh and 6.40 mills/kWh, respectively, on the basis of the most likely value. This is because the nuclear fuel cycle cost is significantly affected by the standard deviation and the mean of the unit cost that includes uncertainty. Thus, it is judged that not only the deterministic method, but also the probabilistic method, would also be necessary to evaluate the nuclear fuel cycle cost. By analyzing the sensitivity of the unit cost in each phase of the nuclear fuel cycle, it was found that the uranium unit price is the most influential factor in determining nuclear fuel cycle costs.
Deng, Na; Zhang, Awen; Zhang, Qiang; He, Guansong; Cui, Wenqian; Chen, Guanyi; Song, Chengcai
2017-07-01
A self-sustained municipal solid waste (MSW) pyrolysis-gasification process with self-produced syngas as heat source was proposed and an equilibrium model was established to predict the syngas reuse rate considering variable MSW components. Simulation results indicated that for constant moisture (ash) content, with the increase of ash (moisture) content, syngas reuse rate gradually increased, and reached the maximum 100% when ash (moisture) content was 73.9% (60.4%). Novel ternary diagrams with moisture, ash and combustible as axes were proposed to predict the adaptability of the self-sustained process and syngas reuse rate for waste. For wastes of given components, its position in the ternary diagram can be determined and the syngas reuse rate can be obtained, which will provide guidance for system design. Assuming that the MSW was composed of 100% combustible content, ternary diagram shows that there was a minimum limiting value of 43.8% for the syngas reuse rate in the process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Lilian Govone
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical investigation of the second law performance of double diffusive forced convection in microreactors with the inclusion of nanofluid and radiation effects. The investigated microreactors consist of a single microchannel, fully filled by a porous medium. The transport of heat and mass are analysed by including the thick walls and a first order, catalytic chemical reaction on the internal surfaces of the microchannel. Two sets of thermal boundary conditions are considered on the external surfaces of the microchannel; (1 constant temperature and (2 constant heat flux boundary condition on the lower wall and convective boundary condition on the upper wall. The local thermal non-equilibrium approach is taken to thermally analyse the porous section of the system. The mass dispersion equation is coupled with the transport of heat in the nanofluid flow through consideration of Soret effect. The problem is analytically solved and illustrations of the temperature fields, Nusselt number, total entropy generation rate and performance evaluation criterion (PEC are provided. It is shown that the radiation effect tends to modify the thermal behaviour within the porous section of the system. The radiation parameter also reduces the overall temperature of the system. It is further demonstrated that, expectedly, the nanoparticles reduce the temperature of the system and increase the Nusselt number. The total entropy generation rate and consequently PEC shows a strong relation with radiation parameter and volumetric concentration of nanoparticles.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moranchel y Rodriguez, M.; Alvarez R, J.T.
2007-01-01
The definition of the spectral fluence of the electrons used in the Spencer deduction for the Bragg-Gray cavity theory (BG) it assumes the additional condition of electronic equilibrium (EE). Such condition leaves to that the absorbed doses ratio of the means regarding that of the cavity is expressed in function of the total mass stopping power of the means. In this work it is shown that, more that the total mass stopping power should be in function of the collisional mass stopping power of the means, in accordance with the assumed EE condition. As consequence, an expression is obtained for this absorbed dose ratio that it depends exclusively on the collisional mass stopping powers of both means, being a more representative expression of the physical phenomena that happen. Also, an expression for the primary electrons spectral fluence is obtained reflecting thoroughly the physical processes that will give origin to the absorbed dose in the means. Finally, an additional condition for the existence of the EE in function of the fraction of the energy lost by the electrons in the stopping radiation. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kandelaars, P.A.A.H.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M. [Department of Spatial Economics, Faculty of Economics and Econometrics, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
1997-12-31
Optimal environmental taxation and subsidies in a materials-product (M-P) chain are examined. This incorporates the main economic activities extraction, production, consumption, recycling and waste treatment. A static general equilibrium model of this M-P chain is constructed, with environmental impacts represented as negative externalities generated by natural resource extraction and final dumping of waste. The model includes various environmental taxes and subsidies on products and materials to pay for these externalities. The originality of this analytical exercise is twofold: in all stages of the M-P chain materials balance conditions are satisfied; furthermore, recycling is explicitly included as a separate activity with inputs, outputs and objectives. Thus, the paper combines physical-environmental and welfare economic perspectives on materials flows. The results show that the externalities generated by extraction and harmful waste can only be optimized by imposing a direct tax on the new materials. In a second-best world the externalities may be sub-optimized by taxing the generation of harmful waste or by subsidizing the use of recycled materials. Changes in some variables causes a shift between the optimal taxes on new materials at the beginning and harmful waste at the end of the M-P chain. This linkage is interesting because it shows that the whole M-P chain needs to be considered instead of parts of this chain. 16 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
El-Khamsa Guechi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Potato peel (PP was used as a biosorbent to remove malachite green (MG from aqueous solution under various operating conditions. The effect of the experimental parameters such as initial dye concentration, biosorbent dose, initial pH, stirring speed, temperature, ionic strength and biosorbent particle size was investigated through a number of batch sorption experiments. The sorption kinetic uptake for MG by PP at various initial dye concentrations was analyzed by non-linear method using pseudo-first, pseudo-second and pseudo-nth order models. It was found that the pseudo-nth order kinetic model was the best applicable model to describe the sorption kinetic data and the order n of sorption reaction was calculated in the range from 0.71 to 2.71. Three sorption isotherms namely the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherms in their non-linear forms were applied to the biosorption equilibrium data. Both the Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson models were found to fit the sorption isotherm data well, but the Redlich–Peterson model was better. Thermodynamic parameters show that the sorption process of MG is endothermic and more effective process at high temperatures. The results revealed that PP is very effective for the biosorption of MG from aqueous solutions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Wu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the projection of Chinese vehicle stocks and road vehicle energy demand through 2050 based on low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios. To derive a gross-domestic product (GDP-dependent Gompertz function, Chinese GDP is estimated using a recursive dynamic Computable General Equilibrium (CGE model. The Gompertz function is estimated using historical data on vehicle development trends in North America, Pacific Rim and Europe to overcome the problem of insufficient long-running data on Chinese vehicle ownership. Results indicate that the number of projected vehicle stocks for 2050 is 300, 455 and 463 million for low-, medium-, and high-growth scenarios respectively. Furthermore, the growth in China’s vehicle stock will increase beyond the inflection point of Gompertz curve by 2020, but will not reach saturation point during the period 2014–2050. Of major road vehicle categories, cars are the largest energy consumers, followed by trucks and buses. Growth in Chinese vehicle demand is primarily determined by per capita GDP. Vehicle saturation levels solely influence the shape of the Gompertz curve and population growth weakly affects vehicle demand. Projected total energy consumption of road vehicles in 2050 is 380, 575 and 586 million tonnes of oil equivalent for each scenario.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL; Rose, Adam [University of Southern California, Los Angeles; Bumsoo, Lee [University of Illinois
2013-01-01
The foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus has high agro-terrorism potential because it is contagious, can be easily transmitted via inanimate objects and can be spread by wind. An outbreak of FMD in developed countries results in massive slaughtering of animals (for disease control) and disruptions in meat supply chains and trade, with potentially large economic losses. Although the United States has been FMD-free since 1929, the potential of FMD as a deliberate terrorist weapon calls for estimates of the physical and economic damage that could result from an outbreak. This paper estimates the economic impacts of three alternative scenarios of potential FMD attacks using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the US economy. The three scenarios range from a small outbreak successfully contained within a state to a large multi-state attack resulting in slaughtering of 30 percent of the national livestock. Overall, the value of total output losses in our simulations range between $37 billion (0.15% of 2006 baseline economic output) and $228 billion (0.92%). Major impacts stem from the supply constraint on livestock due to massive animal slaughtering. As expected, the economic losses are heavily concentrated in agriculture and food manufacturing sectors, with losses ranging from $23 billion to $61 billion in the two industries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Glen
Full Text Available There is no consensus as to what extent of "wrap" is required in a fundoplication for correction of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD.To evaluate if a complete (360 degree or partial fundoplication gives better control of GERD.A systematic search of MEDLINE and Scopus identified interventional and observational studies of fundoplication in children. Screening identified those comparing techniques. The primary outcome was recurrence of GERD following surgery. Dysphagia and complications were secondary outcomes of interest. Meta-analysis was performed when appropriate. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.2289 abstracts were screened, yielding 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and 12 retrospective cohort studies. The RCTs were pooled. There was no difference in surgical success between partial and complete fundoplication, OR 1.33 [0.67,2.66]. In the 12 cohort studies, 3 (25% used an objective assessment of the surgery, one of which showed improved outcomes with complete fundoplication. Twenty-five different complications were reported; common were dysphagia and gas-bloat syndrome. Overall study quality was poor.The comparison of partial fundoplication with complete fundoplication warrants further study. The evidence does not demonstrate superiority of one technique. The lack of high quality RCTs and the methodological heterogeneity of observational studies limits a powerful meta-analysis.
Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities: a study of partial exposure to X-rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrade, Aida M.G. de; Mendes, Mariana E.; Mendonça, Julyanne C.G.; Melo, Laís; Hwang, Suy; Santos, Neide; Lima, Fabiana F. de; Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco
2017-01-01
Biological dosimetry is used in case of supposed accidental overexposure. The most commonly used biomarkers for assessing the absorbed dose are unstable chromosomal abnormalities. In a case of a partial body exposure, the frequencies of those abnormalities varies according to the area of the exposed body and may be substantially different from a total exposure of the body with an identical dose. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal changes simulating, with blood samples, partial (25%, 50%) and full body irradiation (100%) in X-ray beam. The irradiation was performed at Metrology Service (CRCN-NE / CNEN) with a bundle of 250kVp X-rays, resulting in the absorbed dose of 1.0 Gy. Prior to obtain the metaphases, irradiated blood was mixed with non-irradiated blood, and then the mitotic metaphases for the chromosomal analyzes were obtained by culturing lymphocytes and the slides were stained with 5% Giemsa. It was observed that there was an increase in dicentric frequency when the dose percentage increases in both subjects (0.024 and 0.049 in subject 1 and 0.016 and 0.038 in subject 2) after irradiation. The cellular distribution was 'contaminated' only at dose 25% of the first individual who had a prolongation of the distribution. The Qdr and Dolphin methods were used to estimate partial absorbed dose, but the Qdr method was not efficient and whereas the Dolphin method was efficient when the individual had a prolonged cell distribution. It is necessary to increase the number of observations to be sure of the observed behaviors. (author)
Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities: a study of partial exposure to X-rays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrade, Aida M.G. de; Mendes, Mariana E.; Mendonça, Julyanne C.G.; Melo, Laís; Hwang, Suy; Santos, Neide; Lima, Fabiana F. de, E-mail: aidamgandrade@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil); Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE),Recife (Brazil). Centro de Biociências. Departamento de Genética
2017-11-01
Biological dosimetry is used in case of supposed accidental overexposure. The most commonly used biomarkers for assessing the absorbed dose are unstable chromosomal abnormalities. In a case of a partial body exposure, the frequencies of those abnormalities varies according to the area of the exposed body and may be substantially different from a total exposure of the body with an identical dose. The present study aimed to evaluate the frequency of chromosomal changes simulating, with blood samples, partial (25%, 50%) and full body irradiation (100%) in X-ray beam. The irradiation was performed at Metrology Service (CRCN-NE / CNEN) with a bundle of 250kVp X-rays, resulting in the absorbed dose of 1.0 Gy. Prior to obtain the metaphases, irradiated blood was mixed with non-irradiated blood, and then the mitotic metaphases for the chromosomal analyzes were obtained by culturing lymphocytes and the slides were stained with 5% Giemsa. It was observed that there was an increase in dicentric frequency when the dose percentage increases in both subjects (0.024 and 0.049 in subject 1 and 0.016 and 0.038 in subject 2) after irradiation. The cellular distribution was 'contaminated' only at dose 25% of the first individual who had a prolongation of the distribution. The Qdr and Dolphin methods were used to estimate partial absorbed dose, but the Qdr method was not efficient and whereas the Dolphin method was efficient when the individual had a prolonged cell distribution. It is necessary to increase the number of observations to be sure of the observed behaviors. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tan Yiqing; Wang Yase; Dai Hongxiu; Li Haitao; Deng Yi; Xiong Liqin
2011-01-01
Objective: To evaluate selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy in treating partial fallopian tube obstruction through comparing its clinical effectiveness with that of non-interventional radiology methods. Methods: During the period from January 2008 to October 2010, a total of 186 infertility women with partial fallopian tube obstruction, which was confirmed with hysterosalpingography, were encountered in authors' hospital. This study protocol was approved by our hospital ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. According of different treatment methods, 186 patients were divided into two groups. Patients (n=78) in group A received non-interventional radiology methods, including hydrotubation, enema, laparoscopy, physical therapy and traditional Chinese medication, while patients (n=108) in group B received selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy. All 186 patients were followed up for more than six months. Close observation on the pregnancy incidence after different treatments and fallopian tube patency was carried out. The clinical findings were documented. The results were statistically analyzed by using paired 'x2' test. Results: Half a year after different procedures, in group A the pregnancy rate was 12.82% (n=10), and different degrees of fallopian tube obstruction were found in 31.58% patients. Whereas in group B, during the same period of observation, the pregnancy rate was 58.33% (n=63), and partial occlusion in cornual region was seen in one patient (0.47%). Significant difference in both pregnancy rate and fallopian tube occlusion rate existed between two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Because of its minimal invasiveness, high effectiveness and safety, the selective salpingography together with fallopian tube recanalization procedures are well accepted by the patients. The selective salpingo-catheterization recanalization therapy is superior to non-interventional radiology methods in
Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.
2008-01-01
Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up
Zirari, M.; Abdellah El-Hadj, A.; Bacha, N.
2010-03-01
A finite element method is used to simulate the deposition of the thermal spray coating process. A set of governing equations is solving by a volume of fluid method. For the solidification phenomenon, we use the specific heat method (SHM). We begin by comparing the present model with experimental and numerical model available in the literature. In this study, completely molten or semi-molten aluminum particle impacts a H13 tool steel substrate is considered. Next we investigate the effect of inclination of impact of a partially molten particle on flat substrate. It was found that the melting state of the particle has great effects on the morphologies of the splat.
Water pollution and income relationships: A seemingly unrelated partially linear analysis
Pandit, Mahesh; Paudel, Krishna P.
2016-10-01
We used a seemingly unrelated partially linear model (SUPLM) to address a potential correlation between pollutants (nitrogen, phosphorous, dissolved oxygen and mercury) in an environmental Kuznets curve study. Simulation studies show that the SUPLM performs well to address potential correlation among pollutants. We find that the relationship between income and pollution follows an inverted U-shaped curve for nitrogen and dissolved oxygen and a cubic shaped curve for mercury. Model specification tests suggest that a SUPLM is better specified compared to a parametric model to study the income-pollution relationship. Results suggest a need to continually assess policy effectiveness of pollution reduction as income increases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bilčík Matúš
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Due to expansion of utilisation of photovoltaics in ordinary households, the question arises how this phenomenon affects the electric power of photovoltaic modules. The article deals with the electric power analysis of photovoltaic modules as a function of two very important factors. The first examined factor was partial shading, and the second factor was the intensity of reflected radiation. In order to determine the dependence of module power on the aforementioned parameters, a measurement system under laboratory conditions has been prepared. For identification of the reflected radiation effect on the power of the photovoltaic module, a series of measurements was performed on 7 different surfaces with the same radiation source. It is evident from obtained experimental result that the ratio of reflected irradiation on the solar module power is 1.29%. By simulation of partial shading of photovoltaic module, the decrease of 86.15% in its output power was identified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hussain, A.K.; Hussain, T.A.; Shahad, Haroun A.K. [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)
2003-05-01
The problem of non-equilibrium heat conduction in a semi-infinite medium subjected to a step change in temperature is analyzed thermodynamically using the extended irreversible thermodynamic approach. The results show clearly the wave nature of the dimensionless temperature distribution, Stanton number and the dimensionless entropy change profiles. The non-equilibrium profiles approach the equilibrium profiles as the speed of wave propagation is increased. The results also show that the non-equilibrium temperature is higher than the equilibrium temperature but the difference decreases as the wave propagation speed increases. (Author)
Mudgil, Deepak; Barak, Sheweta; Khatkar, B S
2017-11-01
Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) level (1-5%), culture level (1.5-3.5%) and incubation time (4-8 h) on texture profile of yogurt was studied using response surface methodology. The fortification of partially hydrolyzed guar gum in yogurt decreased the firmness and gumminess while it increased the adhesiveness, cohesiveness and springiness of yogurt significantly at p < 0.01. The culture level did not affect the textural properties of yogurt significantly except gumminess whereas textural properties of yogurt were negatively correlated with incubation time. The coefficient of determination for hardness/hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, springiness and gumminess were 0.9216, 0.9397, 0.8914, 0.8971 and 0.9156, respectively, which revealed that the models obtained were significant as coefficient of determination value was close to one. The optimum conditions obtained were PHGG level 3.37%, culture level 1.96% and incubation time 5.96 h which leads to preparation of yogurt with desired textural characteristics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landoni, J.A.
1979-07-01
This program describes the analytical models for the CNTB computer program, which is permanently filed in the archive library of the General Atomic (GA) San Diego Data Center under reference number THSD-2699. Developed during the last four years, this computer program has been successfully applied in its presented form to the type of containment atmosphere transients illustrated in this report. For example, the CNTB computer program is applicable (1) to the design basis depressurization accident (DBDA) to determine the effect of the partial mixing on the containment atmospheric peak pressure (known as nonmixing penalty) and (2) for Class 9 accidents, such as the loss of forced circulation (LOFC), for the AIPA Phase I studies. The capability of the CNTB computer program has been substantially improved over its precursor, the CONTEMPT-G computer program, to predict the thermodynamic behavior of the containment atmosphere during helium releases, assuming partial mixing of the original air with the effluent and to predict the amount of the environmental leaks under closed and open containment conditions. In addition, the CNTB computer program running times are considerably below the ones required for the CONTEMPT-G computer program. Computational solution of the variable parameters in the containment atmosphere is effected by an iterative technique, while the temperatures for its boundaries are obtained by finite differences. The CNTB computer program, written in FORTRAN V, has been implemented at GA on the UNIVAC 1110 computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muthuramalingam, M.; Manoharan, P.S.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Analyzes the performance of ANN and ANFIS MPPT algorithms by stand alone PV system. • ISSBC with ANFIS can provide the overall efficiency higher than ANN. • CHBMLI integrate with SHE ANN modulation technique improve output voltage quality. • Simulation and hardware results show the ANFIS algorithm efficient than ANN algorithm. - Abstract: This paper presents a unique combination of an interleaved soft switched boost converter (ISSBC) run by a set of two photovoltaic panel (PV) with a distributed MPPT, suitable to guarantee MPPT even under partial shadowed conditions, managed by an adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system trained by the training data derived from a particle swarm optimization (PSO–ANFIS) unit. The ISSBC is followed by a, single phase cascaded H bridge five-level inverter (CHI) driven by the individual DC outputs of the ISSBC, with selective harmonic elimination scheme to eliminate typically the seventh order harmonics. A comparison of different intelligent distributed maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms for photovoltaic (PV) system under partial shadow conditions is carried out. The use of the ISSBC guarantees mitigation of ripple and it is meant to handle higher currents with minimal switching losses. Simulation was carried out in the Matlab Simulink environment and an experimental verification with a scaled down model validated the proposed scheme. It has been thus established, by both simulation and experimental verification, that the PSO–ANFIS model of distributed MPPT scheme of control outperforms other schemes of control for MPPT
Analysis and Modeling of Parallel Photovoltaic Systems under Partial Shading Conditions
Buddala, Santhoshi Snigdha
Since the industrial revolution, fossil fuels like petroleum, coal, oil, natural gas and other non-renewable energy sources have been used as the primary energy source. The consumption of fossil fuels releases various harmful gases into the atmosphere as byproducts which are hazardous in nature and they tend to deplete the protective layers and affect the overall environmental balance. Also the fossil fuels are bounded resources of energy and rapid depletion of these sources of energy, have prompted the need to investigate alternate sources of energy called renewable energy. One such promising source of renewable energy is the solar/photovoltaic energy. This work focuses on investigating a new solar array architecture with solar cells connected in parallel configuration. By retaining the structural simplicity of the parallel architecture, a theoretical small signal model of the solar cell is proposed and modeled to analyze the variations in the module parameters when subjected to partial shading conditions. Simulations were run in SPICE to validate the model implemented in Matlab. The voltage limitations of the proposed architecture are addressed by adopting a simple dc-dc boost converter and evaluating the performance of the architecture in terms of efficiencies by comparing it with the traditional architectures. SPICE simulations are used to compare the architectures and identify the best one in terms of power conversion efficiency under partial shading conditions.
Ye, Mei-na; Yang, Ming; Cheng, Yi-qin; Wang, Bing; Zhu, Ying; Xia, Ya-ru; Meng, Tian; Chen, Hao; Chen, Li-ying; Cheng, Hong-feng
2015-04-01
To evaluate the safety and the clinical value of external use of jiuyi Powder (JP) in treating plasma cell mastitis using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). Totally 50 patients with plasma cell mastitis treated by external use of JP were observed and biochemical examinations of blood and urine detected before application, at day 4 after application, at day 1 and 14 after discontinuation. Blood mercury and urinary mercury were detected before application, at day 1, 4, and 7 after application, at day 1 and 14 after discontinuation. Urinary mercury was also detected at 28 after discontinuation and 3 months after discontinuation. The information of wound, days of external application and the total dosage of external application were recorded before application, at day 1, 4, and 7 after application, as well as at day 1 after discontinuation. Then a discriminant model covering potential safety factors was set up by PLSDA after screening safety indices with important effects. The applicability of the model was assessed using area under ROC curve. Potential safety factors were assessed using variable importance in the projection (VIP). Urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG), urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), 24 h urinary protein, and urinary α1-microglobulin (α1-MG) were greatly affected by external use of JP in treating plasma cell mastitis. The accuracy rate of PLSDA discriminate model was 74. 00%. The sensitivity, specificity, and the area under ROC curve was 0. 7826, 0. 7037, and 0. 8084, respectively. Three factors with greater effect on the potential safety were screened as follows: pre-application volume of the sore cavity, days of external application, and the total dosage of external application. PLSDA method could be used in analyzing bioinformation of clinical Chinese medicine. Urinary β2-MG and urinary NAG were two main safety monitoring indices. Days of external application and the total dosage of external application were main
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goujard, Valentin; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Yuzawa, Shuhei; Okazaki, Ken [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, 1528552, Tokyo (Japan); Agiral, Anil, E-mail: tnozaki@mech.titech.ac.jp [Mesoscale Chemical Systems, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)
2011-07-13
Methane partial oxidation was investigated using a plasma microreactor. The experiments were performed at 5 and 300 deg. C. Microreactor configuration allows an efficient evacuation of the heat generated by methane partial oxidation and dielectric barrier discharges, allowing at the same time a better temperature control. At 5 deg. C, liquid condensation of low vapour pressure compounds, such as formaldehyde and methanol, occurs. {sup 1}H-NMR analysis allowed us to demonstrate significant CH{sub 3}OOH formation during plasma-assisted partial oxidation of methane. Conversion and product selectivity were discussed for both temperatures. In the second part of this work, a numerical simulation was performed and a gas-phase chemical mechanism was proposed and discussed. From the comparison between the experimental results and the simulation it was found that CH{sub 3}OO{center_dot} formation has a determinant role in oxygenated compound production, since its fast formation disfavoured radical recombination. At 5 deg. C the oxidation leads mainly towards oxygenated compound formation, and plasma dissociation was the major phenomenon responsible for CH{sub 4} conversion. At 300 deg. C, higher CH{sub 4} conversion resulted from oxidative reactions induced by {center_dot}OH radicals with a chemistry predominantly oxidative, producing CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.
Analysis on the Role of RSG-GAS Pool Cooling System during Partial Loss of Heat Sink Accident
Susyadi; Endiah, P. H.; Sukmanto, D.; Andi, S. E.; Syaiful, B.; Hendro, T.; Geni, R. S.
2018-02-01
RSG-GAS is a 30 MW reactor that is mostly used for radioisotope production and experimental activities. Recently, it is regularly operated at half of its capacity for efficiency reason. During an accident, especially loss of heat sink, the role of its pool cooling system is very important to dump decay heat. An analysis using single failure approach and partial modeling of RELAP5 performed by S. Dibyo, 2010 shows that there is no significant increase in the coolant temperature if this system is properly functioned. However lessons learned from the Fukushima accident revealed that an accident can happen due to multiple failures. Considering ageing of the reactor, in this research the role of pool cooling system is to be investigated for a partial loss of heat sink accident which is at the same time the protection system fails to scram the reactor when being operated at 15 MW. The purpose is to clarify the transient characteristics and the final state of the coolant temperature. The method used is by simulating the system in RELAP5 code. Calculation results shows the pool cooling systems reduce coolant temperature for about 1 K as compared without activating them. The result alsoreveals that when the reactor is being operated at half of its rated power, it is still in safe condition for a partial loss of heat sink accident without scram.
Calibration of a neutron log in partially saturated media. Part II. Error analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hearst, J.R.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Dreiling, L.A.
1981-01-01
Four sources or error (uncertainty) are studied in water content obtained from neutron logs calibrated in partially saturated media for holes up to 3 m. For this calibration a special facility was built and an algorithm for a commercial epithermal neutron log was developed that obtains water content from count rate, bulk density, and gap between the neutron sonde and the borehole wall. The algorithm contained errors due to the calibration and lack of fit, while the field measurements included uncertainties in the count rate (caused by statistics and a short time constant), gap, and density. There can be inhomogeneity in the material surrounding the borehole. Under normal field conditions the hole-size-corrected water content obtained from such neutron logs can have an uncertainty as large as 15% of its value
Critical analysis of partial discharge dynamics in air filled spherical voids
Callender, G.; Golosnoy, I. O.; Rapisarda, P.; Lewin, P. L.
2018-03-01
In this paper partial discharge (PD) is investigated inside a spherical air filled void at atmospheric pressure using a drift diffusion model. Discharge dynamics consisted of an electron avalanche transitioning into positive streamer, in agreement with earlier work on dielectric barrier discharges. Different model configurations were utilised to test many of the concepts employed in semi-analytical PD activity models, which use simplistic descriptions of the discharge dynamics. The results showed that many of these concepts may be erroneous, with significant discrepancies between the canonical reasoning and the simulation results. For example, the residual electric field, the electric field after a discharge, is significantly lower than the estimates used by classical PD activity models in the literature.
CFD analysis of blockage length on a partially blocked fuel rod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scuro, Nikolas Lymberis; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Angelo, Gabriel; Angelo, Edvaldo
2017-01-01
In LOCA accidents, fuel rods may balloon by the increasing of pressure difference between fuel rod and core vessel. With the balloon effect, the swelling can partially block the flow channel, affecting the coolability during reflood phase. In order to analyze the influence of blockage length after LOCA events, many numerical simulations using Ansys-CFX code have been done in steady state condition, characterizing the final phase of reflood. Peaks of temperature are observed in the middle of the fuel rod, followed by a temperature drop. This effect is justified by the increasing of heat transfer coefficient, originated from the high turbulence effects. Therefore, this paper considers a radial blockage of 90%, varying just the blockage length. This study observed that, for the same boundary conditions, the longer the blockage length originated after LOCA events, the higher are the central temperatures in the fuel rod. (author)
Harmonic analysis, partial differential equations and applications in honor of Richard L. Wheeden
Franchi, Bruno; Lu, Guozhen; Perez, Carlos; Sawyer, Eric
2017-01-01
This is a collection of contributed papers by many eminent Harmonic Analysts and specialists of Partial Differential equations. The papers focus on weighted norm equalities for singular integrals, focusing wave equations, degenerate elliptic equations, Navier-Stokes flow in two dimensions and Poincare-Sobolev inequalities in the setting of metric spaces equipped with measures among others. Many topics considered in this volume stem from the interests of Richard L. Wheeden whose contributions to Potential Theory, singular integral theory and degenerate elliptic PDE theory this volume honors. Luis Caffarelli, Sagun Chanillo, Bruno Franchi, Cristian Guttierez, Xiaojun Huang, Carlos Kenig, Ermanno Lanconelli, Eric Sawyer and Alexander Volberg, are some of the many contributors to this volume. .
Calculation of Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Analysis. II; Inclusion of Exchange
Temkin, Aaron; Shertzer, J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
There was a method for calculating the whole scattering amplitude, f(Omega(sub k)), directly. The idea was to calculate the complete wave function Psi numerically, and use it in an integral expression for f, which can be reduced to a 2 dimensional quadrature. The original application was for e-H scattering without exchange. There the Schrodinger reduces a 2-d partial differential equation (pde), which was solved using the finite element method (FEM). Here we extend the method to the exchange approximation. The S.E. can be reduced to a pair of coupled pde's, which are again solved by the FEM. The formal expression for f(Omega(sub k)) consists two integrals, f+/- = f(sub d) +/- f(sub e); f(sub d) is formally the same integral as the no-exchange f. We have also succeeded in reducing f(sub e) to a 2-d integral. Results will be presented at the meeting.
CFD analysis of blockage length on a partially blocked fuel rod
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scuro, Nikolas Lymberis; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear; Angelo, Gabriel [Centro Universitário FEI (UNIFEI), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecânica; Angelo, Edvaldo, E-mail: nikolas.scuro@gmail.com, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br, E-mail: gangelo@fei.edu.br, E-mail: eangelo@mackenzie.br [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola da Engenharia. Grupo de Simulação Numérica
2017-07-01
In LOCA accidents, fuel rods may balloon by the increasing of pressure difference between fuel rod and core vessel. With the balloon effect, the swelling can partially block the flow channel, affecting the coolability during reflood phase. In order to analyze the influence of blockage length after LOCA events, many numerical simulations using Ansys-CFX code have been done in steady state condition, characterizing the final phase of reflood. Peaks of temperature are observed in the middle of the fuel rod, followed by a temperature drop. This effect is justified by the increasing of heat transfer coefficient, originated from the high turbulence effects. Therefore, this paper considers a radial blockage of 90%, varying just the blockage length. This study observed that, for the same boundary conditions, the longer the blockage length originated after LOCA events, the higher are the central temperatures in the fuel rod. (author)
Partially Loaded Cavity Analysis by Using the 2-D FDTD Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Bin; Zheng Qin-Hong; Peng Jin-Hui; Zhong Ru-Neng; Xiang Tai; Xu Wan-Song
2011-01-01
A compact two-dimensional (2-D) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is proposed to calculate the resonant frequencies and quality factors of a partially loaded cavity that is uniform in the z-direction and has an arbitrary cross section in the x—y plane. With the description of z dependence by k z , the three-dimensional (3-D) problem can be transformed into a 2-D problem. Therefore, less memory and CPU time are required as compared to the conventional 3-D FDTD method. Three representative examples, a half-loaded rectangular cavity, an inhomogeneous cylindrical cavity and a cubic cavity loaded with dielectric post, are presented to validate the utility and efficiency of the proposed method. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Stability analysis of whirling composite shells partially filled with two liquid phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahebnasagh, Mohammad [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikkhah-Bahrami, Mansour; Firouz-Abadi, Roohollah [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Sharif University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-05-15
In this paper, the stability of whirling composite cylindrical shells partially filled with two liquid phases is studied. Using the first-order shear shell theory, the structural dynamics of the shell is modeled and based on the Navier-Stokes equations for ideal liquid, a 2D model is developed for liquid motion at each section of the cylinder. In steady state condition, liquids are supposed to locate according to mass density. In this study, the thick shells are investigated. Using boundary conditions between liquids, the model of coupled fluid-structure system is obtained. This coupled fluid-structure model is employed to determine the critical speed of the system. The effects of the main variables on the stability of the shell are studied and the results are investigated.
A New Approach for Deep Gray Matter Analysis Using Partial-Volume Estimation.
Bonnier, Guillaume; Kober, Tobias; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Krueger, Gunnar; Meuli, Reto; Granziera, Cristina; Roche, Alexis
2016-01-01
The existence of partial volume effects in brain MR images makes it challenging to understand physio-pathological alterations underlying signal changes due to pathology across groups of healthy subjects and patients. In this study, we implement a new approach to disentangle gray and white matter alterations in the thalamus and the basal ganglia. The proposed method was applied to a cohort of early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy subjects to evaluate tissue-specific alterations related to diffuse inflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. Forty-three relapsing-remitting MS patients and nineteen healthy controls underwent 3T MRI including: (i) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, double inversion recovery, magnetization-prepared gradient echo for lesion count, and (ii) T1 relaxometry. We applied a partial volume estimation algorithm to T1 relaxometry maps to gray and white matter local concentrations as well as T1 values characteristic of gray and white matter in the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Statistical tests were performed to compare groups in terms of both global T1 values, tissue characteristic T1 values, and tissue concentrations. Significant increases in global T1 values were observed in the thalamus (p = 0.038) and the putamen (p = 0.026) in RRMS patients compared to HC. In the Thalamus, the T1 increase was associated with a significant increase in gray matter characteristic T1 (p = 0.0016) with no significant effect in white matter. The presented methodology provides additional information to standard MR signal averaging approaches that holds promise to identify the presence and nature of diffuse pathology in neuro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.
Biomechanical analysis of suture locations of the distal plantar fascia in partial foot.
Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yu-Bo
2015-12-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the rationality of the suture locations of distal plantar fascia (DPF) after foot amputation to avoid the risk factors of re-amputation or plantar fasciitis. The tensile strain of plantar fascia (PF) in the different regions was measured by uni-axial tensile experiment. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model was also developed to simulate tensile behaviour of PF in weight bearing conditions. The model includes 12 bones, ligaments, PF, cartilage and soft tissues. Four suture location models for the DPF were considered: the fourth and fifth DPF were sutured on the third metatarsal, the cuboid, and both the third metatarsal and the cuboid, and one un-sutured model. The peak tensile strain of the first, second and third PF was 0.134, 0.128 and 0.138 based on the mechanical test, respectively. The fourth and fifth DPF sutured at the cuboid and the third metatarsal could offer more favourable outcomes. The peak strain of 4.859 × 10(-2), 2.347 × 10(-2) and 1.364 × 10(-2) in the first, second and third PF showed the least outcomes in stance phase. Also, peak strain and stress of the residual PF reduced to 4.859 × 10(-2) and 1.834 MPa, respectively. The stress region was redistributed on the mid-shaft of the first and third PF and the peak stress of medial cuneiform bone evidently decreased. The fourth and fifth DPF suture at the third metatarsal and cuboid was appropriate for the partial foot. The findings are expected to suggest optimal surgical plan of the DPF suture and guide further therapeutic planning of partial foot patients.
Falk, Ulrike; López, Damián A.; Silva-Busso, Adrián
2018-04-01
The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). This region was subject to strong warming trends in the atmospheric surface layer. Surface air temperature increased about 3 K in 50 years, concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The positive trend in surface air temperature has currently come to a halt. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K (100 m)-1) and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the wintertime over the past decades in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. Its impact on winter accumulation results in the observed negative mass balance estimates. Six years of continuous glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects as well as 5 years of climatological data time series are presented and a spatially distributed glacier energy balance melt model adapted and run based on these multi-year data sets. The glaciological surface mass balance model is generally in good agreement with observations, except for atmospheric conditions promoting snow drift by high wind speeds, turbulence-driven snow deposition and snow layer erosion by rain. No drift in the difference between simulated mass balance and mass balance measurements can be seen over the course of the 5-year model run period. The winter accumulation does not suffice to compensate for the high variability in summer ablation. The results are analysed to assess changes in meltwater input to the coastal waters, specific glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The Fourcade Glacier catchment drains
Chemical Principles Revisited: Chemical Equilibrium.
Mickey, Charles D.
1980-01-01
Describes: (1) Law of Mass Action; (2) equilibrium constant and ideal behavior; (3) general form of the equilibrium constant; (4) forward and reverse reactions; (5) factors influencing equilibrium; (6) Le Chatelier's principle; (7) effects of temperature, changing concentration, and pressure on equilibrium; and (8) catalysts and equilibrium. (JN)
Equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in arcs and torches
Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.
2000-01-01
A general treatment of non-equilibrium plasma aspects is obtained by relating transport fluxes to equilibrium restoring processes in so-called disturbed Bilateral Relations. The (non) equilibrium stage of a small microwave induced plasma serves as case study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wisniak, Jaime; Ortega, Juan; Fernández, Luis
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A critical analysis on the published data in JCT 102 (2016) 155–163, is carried out. • Different consistency tests are applied to the data used in this work for their thermodynamic evaluation. • It concludes by questioning the quality of the published data. - Abstract: The vapour-liquid equilibrium results reported by Zhang et al. [1] for the binary systems {methanol (1) + 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-1-pentanol (2)} and {2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-1-propanol (1) + 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoro-1-pentanol (2)} have been analysed using the data evaluation methodology published recently [2] and found to be unreliable.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salgado, Carlos W. [Norfolk State University, Norfolk, VA (United States) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weygand, Dennis P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-04-01
Meson spectroscopy is going through a revival with the advent of high statistics experiments and new advances in the theoretical predictions. The Constituent Quark Model (CQM) is finally being expanded considering more basic principles of field theory and using discrete calculations of Quantum Chromodynamics (lattice QCD). These new calculations are approaching predictive power for the spectrum of hadronic resonances and decay modes. It will be the task of the new experiments to extract the meson spectrum from the data and compare with those predictions. The goal of this report is to describe one particular technique for extracting resonance information from multiparticle final states. The technique described here, partial wave analysis based on the helicity formalism, has been used at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) using pion beams, and Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab) using photon beams. In particular this report broaden this technique to include production experiments using linearly polarized real photons or quasi-real photons. This article is of a didactical nature. We describe the process of analysis, detailing assumptions and formalisms, and is directed towards people interested in starting partial wave analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jongguk Lim
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use near-infrared reflectance (NIR spectroscopy equipment to nondestructively and rapidly discriminate Fusarium-infected hulled barley. Both normal hulled barley and Fusarium-infected hulled barley were scanned by using a NIR spectrometer with a wavelength range of 1175 to 2170 nm. Multiple mathematical pretreatments were applied to the reflectance spectra obtained for Fusarium discrimination and the multivariate analysis method of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA was used for discriminant prediction. The PLS-DA prediction model developed by applying the second-order derivative pretreatment to the reflectance spectra obtained from the side of hulled barley without crease achieved 100% accuracy in discriminating the normal hulled barley and the Fusarium-infected hulled barley. These results demonstrated the feasibility of rapid discrimination of the Fusarium-infected hulled barley by combining multivariate analysis with the NIR spectroscopic technique, which is utilized as a nondestructive detection method.
Equilibrium and stability properties of relativistic electron rings and E-layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhm, H.
1976-01-01
Equilibrium and stability properties of magnetically confined partially-neutralized thin electron ring and E-layer are investigated using the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The analysis is carried out within the context of the assumption that the minor dimensions (a,b) of the system are much less than the collisionless skin depth (c/antiω/sub p/). The equilibrium configuration of the E-layer is assumed to be an infinitely long, azimuthally symmetric hollow electron beam which is aligned parallel to a uniform axial magnetic field. On the other hand, the electron ring is located at the midplane of an externally imposed mirror field which acts to confine the ring both axially and radially. The equilibrium properties of the E-layer and electron ring are obtained self-consistently for several choices of equilibrium electron distribution function. The negative-mass instability analysis is carried out for the relativistic E-layer equilibrium in which all of the electrons have the same transverse energy and a spread in canonical angular momentum, assuming a fixed ion background. The ion resonance instability properties are investigated for a relativistic nonneutral E-layer aligned parallel to a uniform magnetic field and located between two ground coaxial cylindrical conductors. The stability properties of a nonrelativistic electron ring is investigated within the framework of the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The dispersion relation is obtained for the self-consistent electron distribution function in which all electrons have the same value of energy an the same value of canonical angular momentum. The positive ions in the electron ring are assumed to form an immobile partially neutralizing background. The stability criteria as well as the instability growth rates are derived and discussed including the effect of geometrical configuration of the system. Equilibrium space-charge effects play a significant role in stability behavior
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katalin Martinás
2007-02-01
Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
U. Falk
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The South Shetland Islands are located at the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP. This region was subject to strong warming trends in the atmospheric surface layer. Surface air temperature increased about 3 K in 50 years, concurrent with retreating glacier fronts, an increase in melt areas, ice surface lowering and rapid break-up and disintegration of ice shelves. The positive trend in surface air temperature has currently come to a halt. Observed surface air temperature lapse rates show a high variability during winter months (standard deviations up to ±1.0 K (100 m−1 and a distinct spatial heterogeneity reflecting the impact of synoptic weather patterns. The increased mesocyclonic activity during the wintertime over the past decades in the study area results in intensified advection of warm, moist air with high temperatures and rain and leads to melt conditions on the ice cap, fixating surface air temperatures to the melting point. Its impact on winter accumulation results in the observed negative mass balance estimates. Six years of continuous glaciological measurements on mass balance stake transects as well as 5 years of climatological data time series are presented and a spatially distributed glacier energy balance melt model adapted and run based on these multi-year data sets. The glaciological surface mass balance model is generally in good agreement with observations, except for atmospheric conditions promoting snow drift by high wind speeds, turbulence-driven snow deposition and snow layer erosion by rain. No drift in the difference between simulated mass balance and mass balance measurements can be seen over the course of the 5-year model run period. The winter accumulation does not suffice to compensate for the high variability in summer ablation. The results are analysed to assess changes in meltwater input to the coastal waters, specific glacier mass balance and the equilibrium line altitude (ELA. The
Eelsalu, Maris; Soomere, Tarmo; Männikus, Rain
2016-04-01
The management of beaches that suffer from sediment deficit and construction of nearshore infrastructure in locations with intense sediment transit require adequate predictions of the future of the relevant sedimentary systems. To a large extent, this task can be accomplished by using jointly the information about sediment texture and long-term changes in the dry beach volume and the location of the waterline. It is straightforward to evaluate relative changes in the dry beach volume from a succession of airborne laser scanning (ALS) surveys. We use in addition terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technique to reduce ALS surveys performed with different devices and from different height to the same absolute height. This is accomplished using a TLS survey of a large horizontal surface of constant elevation within ALS snapshots. The most complicated, time-consuming and expensive task in beach management and planning of nearshore infrastructure is to get an adequate picture of the intensity and direction of underwater sediment transport processes. We demonstrate how a simple application of so-called inverse Bruun Rule makes it possible to evaluate the underwater volumetric changes for almost equilibrium beaches. The approach requires three data sets: wave statistics, sediment texture and changes in the average position of the waterline. The main properties of the wave climate, closure depths, magnitude and direction of wave-driven alongshore transport near the test areas are established using a triple nested high-resolution version of the wave model WAM that is forced for 34 years by high-quality marine winds. The relocation of the waterline is extracted from the ALS scanning of elevation isolines of 0.4-0.7 m on the subaerial beach. The technique has been applied to two basically different sections of Tallinn Bay, the Baltic Sea. Pirita Beach is gradually losing sand and requires beach refill while a moderate reclamation action is planned in the vicinity of gradually
Equilibrium statistical mechanics
Mayer, J E
1968-01-01
The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t
Analysis of partially pulsating fatigue process on carbon steel with microstructural observation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimano, Hiroyuki; Faiz, M. Khairi; Hara, Asato; Yoshizumi, Kyoko; Yoshida, Makoto; Horibe, Susumu
2016-01-01
Pulsating low-cycle fatigue processes, up to the present, have been divided into three states: the transient state, steady state, and accelerating state of ratcheting. In our previous work, we suggested that fatigue behavior of pulsating fatigue process should be classified into five stages in which the plastic strain amplitude and the ratcheting strain rate are plotted on the X and Y axis, respectively. In this study, at the condition of R=−0.3 (partially pulsating fatigue), the change in the plastic strain amplitude and ratcheting strain rate for each cycle to failure was examined on AISI 1025 carbon steel. The dislocation substructure was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for each stage, except for stage I. It was also demonstrated that the fatigue process can be divided into five stages: stage I corresponds to the un-pinning of dislocations from the Cottrell atmosphere and propagation of the Luders band. Stage II corresponds to the restriction of dislocation movement by dislocation tangles. Stage III corresponds to the formation of dislocation cells. Stage IV corresponds to the promotion of the to-and-fro (back-and-forth) motion of dislocations by a re-arrangement of the dislocations in the cells. Stage V corresponds to the release of dislocation movement by the collapse of dislocation cells.
Choi, Won-Young; Hoh, Jeong-Kyu
2015-12-01
We analyzed fetal heart rate (FHR) parameters, dynamics, and outcomes in pregnancies with asymptomatic partial placental abruption (PPA) compared with those in normal pregnancies. We examined nonstress test (NST) data acquired from 2003 to 2012 at our institution. Normal pregnancies (N = 170) and PPA cases (N = 17) were matched for gestational age, fetal sex, and mean FHR. NSTs were performed at 33-42 weeks of gestation. FHR parameters obtained from the NST and perinatal outcomes were analyzed using linear methods. Nonlinear indices, including approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), short-term and long-term scaling exponents (α1 and α2), and correlation dimension (CD), were used to interpret FHR dynamics and system complexity. The area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the nonlinear indices. There were no significant differences in general characteristics and FHR parameters between the PPA and control groups. However, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, 5-min Apgar scores, ApEn, SampEn, and CD were significantly lower in the PPA group than in the control group (P Nonlinear dynamic indices of FHR in asymptomatic PPA were qualitatively different from those in normal pregnancies, whereas the conventional FHR parameters were not significantly different. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis of partially pulsating fatigue process on carbon steel with microstructural observation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shimano, Hiroyuki, E-mail: tales-of-destiny@akane.waseda.jp [Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Shinjyuku-ku Okubo, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Faiz, M. Khairi; Hara, Asato; Yoshizumi, Kyoko [Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Shinjyuku-ku Okubo, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Makoto [Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Shinjyuku-ku Okubo, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Kagami Memorial Research Institute for Materials Science and Technology, Waseda University, 2-8-26, Nishi-Waseda, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-0051 (Japan); Horibe, Susumu [Department of Modern Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Shinjyuku-ku Okubo, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)
2016-01-10
Pulsating low-cycle fatigue processes, up to the present, have been divided into three states: the transient state, steady state, and accelerating state of ratcheting. In our previous work, we suggested that fatigue behavior of pulsating fatigue process should be classified into five stages in which the plastic strain amplitude and the ratcheting strain rate are plotted on the X and Y axis, respectively. In this study, at the condition of R=−0.3 (partially pulsating fatigue), the change in the plastic strain amplitude and ratcheting strain rate for each cycle to failure was examined on AISI 1025 carbon steel. The dislocation substructure was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for each stage, except for stage I. It was also demonstrated that the fatigue process can be divided into five stages: stage I corresponds to the un-pinning of dislocations from the Cottrell atmosphere and propagation of the Luders band. Stage II corresponds to the restriction of dislocation movement by dislocation tangles. Stage III corresponds to the formation of dislocation cells. Stage IV corresponds to the promotion of the to-and-fro (back-and-forth) motion of dislocations by a re-arrangement of the dislocations in the cells. Stage V corresponds to the release of dislocation movement by the collapse of dislocation cells.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Newson, E; Mizsey, P; Hottinger, P; Truong, T B; Roth, F von; Schucan, Th H [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1999-08-01
Methanol partial oxidation (pox) to produce hydrogen for mobile fuel cell applications has proved initially more successful than hydrocarbon pox. Recent results of catalyst screening and kinetic studies with methanol show that hydrogen production rates have reached 7000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for the dry pox route and 12,000 litres/hour/(litre reactor volume) for wet pox. These rates are equivalent to 21 and 35 kW{sub th}/(litre reactor volume) respectively. The reaction engineering problems remain to be solved for dry pox due to the significant exotherm of the reaction (hot spots of 100-200{sup o}C), but wet pox is essentially isothermal in operation. Analyses of the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell systems show that two routes are available to satisfy the sensitivity of the fuel cell catalysts to carbon monoxide, i.e. a preferential oxidation reactor or a membrane separator. Targets for individual system components are evaluated for the base and best case systems for both routes to reach the combined 40% efficiency required for the integrated fuel processor - fuel cell system. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.
Becker, Roland; Vexler, Boris
2005-06-01
We consider the calibration of parameters in physical models described by partial differential equations. This task is formulated as a constrained optimization problem with a cost functional of least squares type using information obtained from measurements. An important issue in the numerical solution of this type of problem is the control of the errors introduced, first, by discretization of the equations describing the physical model, and second, by measurement errors or other perturbations. Our strategy is as follows: we suppose that the user defines an interest functional I, which might depend on both the state variable and the parameters and which represents the goal of the computation. First, we propose an a posteriori error estimator which measures the error with respect to this functional. This error estimator is used in an adaptive algorithm to construct economic meshes by local mesh refinement. The proposed estimator requires the solution of an auxiliary linear equation. Second, we address the question of sensitivity. Applying similar techniques as before, we derive quantities which describe the influence of small changes in the measurements on the value of the interest functional. These numbers, which we call relative condition numbers, give additional information on the problem under consideration. They can be computed by means of the solution of the auxiliary problem determined before. Finally, we demonstrate our approach at hand of a parameter calibration problem for a model flow problem.
Expression analysis on 14-3-3 proteins in regenerative liver following partial hepatectomy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deming Xue
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract 14-3-3 proteins play a vital part in the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis as signaling integration points. During liver regeneration, the quiescent hepatocytes go through hypertrophy and proliferation to restore liver weight. Therefore, we speculated that 14-3-3 proteins regulate the progression of liver regeneration. In this study, we analyzed the expression patterns of 14-3-3 proteins during liver regeneration of rat to provide an insight into the regenerative mechanism using western blotting. Only four isoforms (γ, ε, σ and τ/θ of the 14-3-3 proteins were expressed in regenerative liver after partial hepatectomy (PH. The dual effects, the significant down-regulation of 14-3-3ε and the significant up-regulation of 14-3-3τ/θ at 2 h after PH, might play particularly important roles in S-phase entry. The significant peaks of 14-3-3σ at 30 h and of ε and τ/θ at 24 h might be closely related not only to the G2/M transition but also to the size of hepatocytes. Possibly, the peak of 14-3-3ε expression seen at 168 h plays critical roles in the termination of liver regeneration by inhibiting cellular proliferation.
Almabadi, Huda; Sahay, Peeyush; Nagesh, Prashanth K. B.; Yallapu, Murali M.; Jaggi, Meena; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Pradhan, Prabhakar
Mesoscopic physics based partial wave spectroscopy (PWS) was recently introduced to quantify nanoscale structural disorder in weakly disordered optical media such as biological cells. The degree of structural disorder (Ld) , defined as Ld = 〈 dn2 〉 ×lc is quantified in terms of strength of refractive index fluctuation (〈 dn2 〉) in the system and its correlation length (lc) .With nanoscale sensitivity,Ldhas been shown to have potential to be used in cancer diagnostics. In this work, we analyze the hierarchy of different stages of prostate cancer cells by quantifying their intracellular refractive index fluctuations in terms of Ld parameter. We observe that the increase in tumorigenicity levels inside these prostate cancer cells results in proportionally higherLdvalues. For a weakly disordered optical media like biological cells, this result suggests that the progression of carcinogenesis or the increase in the tumorigenicity level is associated with increased 〈 dn2 〉 and/or lcvalues for the samples. Furthermore, we also examined the applicability of Ld parameter in analyzing the effect of drug on these prostate cancer cells. In accordance with the hypothesis that the cancer cells which survives the drug, becomes more aggressive, we found increased Ldvalues for all the drug resistant prostate cells studied.
Comparative analysis of partial imaging performance parameters of home and imported X-ray machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Yunxi; Wang Xianyun; Liu Huiqin; Guo Yongxin
2002-01-01
Objective: To compare and analyze the performance indexes and the imaging quality of the home and imported X-ray machines through testing their partial imaging performance parameters. Methods: By separate sampling from 10 home and 10 imported X-ray machines, the parameters including tube current, time of exposure, machine total exposure, and repeatability were tested, and the imaging performance was evaluated according to the national standard. Results: All the performance indexes met the standard of GB4505-84. The first sampling tests showed the maximum changing coefficient of imaging performance repeatability of the home X-ray machines was Δmax1 = 0.025, while that of the imported X-ray machine was Δmax1 = 0.016. In the second sampling tests, the maximum changing coefficients of the two were Δmax2 = 0.048 and Δmax2 = 0.022, respectively. Conclusion: The 2 years' follow-up tests indicate that there is no significant difference between the above-mentioned parameters of the elaborately adjusted home X-ray machines and imported ones, but the home X-ray machines are no better than the imported X-ray machines in stability and consistency
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gifty E. Acquah
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared reflectance (FTIR spectroscopy has been used to predict properties of forest logging residue, a very heterogeneous feedstock material. Properties studied included the chemical composition, thermal reactivity, and energy content. The ability to rapidly determine these properties is vital in the optimization of conversion technologies for the successful commercialization of biobased products. Partial least squares regression of first derivative treated FTIR spectra had good correlations with the conventionally measured properties. For the chemical composition, constructed models generally did a better job of predicting the extractives and lignin content than the carbohydrates. In predicting the thermochemical properties, models for volatile matter and fixed carbon performed very well (i.e., R2 > 0.80, RPD > 2.0. The effect of reducing the wavenumber range to the fingerprint region for PLS modeling and the relationship between the chemical composition and higher heating value of logging residue were also explored. This study is new and different in that it is the first to use FTIR spectroscopy to quantitatively analyze forest logging residue, an abundant resource that can be used as a feedstock in the emerging low carbon economy. Furthermore, it provides a complete and systematic characterization of this heterogeneous raw material.
Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi
2017-10-05
The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pK a '. The determination of pK a ' is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pK a =7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of -1 and the blue form that of -2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi
2017-10-01
The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pKa‧. The determination of pKa‧ is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pKa = 7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of - 1 and the blue form that of - 2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed.
Non-equilibrium blunt body flows in ionized gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishida, Michio
1981-01-01
The behaviors of electrons and electronically excited atoms in non-equilibrium and partially ionized blunt-body-flows are described. Formulation has been made separately in a shock layer and in a free stream, and then the free stream solution has been connected with the shock layer solution by matching the two solutions at the shock layer edge. The method of this matching is described here. The partially ionized gas is considered to be composed of neutral atoms, ions and electrons. Furthermore, the neutral atoms are divided into atoms in excited levels. Therefore, it is considered that electron energy released due to excitation, and that gained due to de-excitation, contribute to electron energy. Thus, the electron energy equation including these contributions is solved, coupled with the continuity equations of the excited atoms and the electrons. An electron temperature distribution from a free stream to a blunt body wall has been investigated for a case when the electrons are in thermal non-equilibrium with heavy particles in the free stream. In addition, the distributions of the excited atom density are discussed in the present analysis. (author)
Miura, Shoko; Kasahara, Shin; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Egusa, Hiroshi
2017-06-01
The purpose of this study were: to perform stress analyses using three-dimensional finite element analysis methods; to analyze the mechanical stress of different framework designs; and to investigate framework designs that will provide for the long-term stability of both cantilevered fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and abutment teeth. An analysis model was prepared for three units of cantilevered FPDs that assume a missing mandibular first molar. Four types of framework design (Design 1, basic type; Design 2, framework width expanded buccolingually by 2 mm; Design 3, framework height expanded by 0.5 mm to the occlusal surface side from the end abutment to the connector area; and Design 4, a combination of Designs 2 and 3) were created. Two types of framework material (yttrium-oxide partially stabilized zirconia and a high precious noble metal gold alloy) and two types of abutment material (dentin and brass) were used. In the framework designs, Design 1 exhibited the highest maximum principal stress value for both zirconia and gold alloy. In the abutment tooth, Design 3 exhibited the highest maximum principal stress value for all abutment teeth. In the present study, Design 4 (the design with expanded framework height and framework width) could contribute to preventing the concentration of stress and protecting abutment teeth. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.
Regret Theory and Equilibrium Asset Prices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiliang Sheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Regret theory is a behavioral approach to decision making under uncertainty. In this paper we assume that there are two representative investors in a frictionless market, a representative active investor who selects his optimal portfolio based on regret theory and a representative passive investor who invests only in the benchmark portfolio. In a partial equilibrium setting, the objective of the representative active investor is modeled as minimization of the regret about final wealth relative to the benchmark portfolio. In equilibrium this optimal strategy gives rise to a behavioral asset priciting model. We show that the market beta and the benchmark beta that is related to the investor’s regret are the determinants of equilibrium asset prices. We also extend our model to a market with multibenchmark portfolios. Empirical tests using stock price data from Shanghai Stock Exchange show strong support to the asset pricing model based on regret theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sher, David J.; Wittenberg, Eve; Taghian, Alphonse G.; Bellon, Jennifer R.; Punglia, Rinaa S.
2008-01-01
Purpose: To compare the quality-adjusted life expectancy between women treated with partial breast irradiation (PBI) vs. whole breast radiotherapy (WBRT) for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We developed a Markov model to describe health states in the 15 years after radiotherapy for estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. Breast cancer recurrences were separated into local recurrences and elsewhere failures. Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) risk was extracted from the Oxford overview, and rates and utilities were adapted from the literature. We studied two cohorts of women (aged 40 and 55 years), both of whom received adjuvant tamoxifen. Results: Assuming a no evidence of disease (NED)-PBI utility of 0.93, quality-adusted life expectancy after PBI (and WBRT) was 12.61 (12.57) and 12.10 (12.06) years for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively. The NED-PBI utility thresholds for preferring PBI over WBRT were 0.923 and 0.921 for 40-year-old and 55-year-old women, respectively, both slightly greater than the NED-WBRT utility. Outcomes were sensitive to the utility of NED-PBI, the PBI hazard ratio for local recurrence, the baseline IBTR risk, and the percentage of IBTRs that were local. Overall the degree of superiority of PBI over WBRT was greater for 55-year-old women than for 40-year-old women. Conclusions: For most utility values of the NED-PBI health state, PBI was the preferred treatment modality. This result was highly sensitive to patient preferences and was also dependent on patient age, PBI efficacy, IBTR risk, and the fraction of IBTRs that were local
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vasileios A. Tzanakakis
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR can integrate a great number of variables and overcome collinearity problems, a fact that makes it suitable for intensive agronomical practices such as land application. In the present study a PLSR model was developed to predict important management goals, including biomass production and nutrient recovery (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus, associated with treatment potential, environmental impacts, and economic benefits. Effluent loading and a considerable number of soil parameters commonly monitored in effluent irrigated lands were considered as potential predictor variables during the model development. All data were derived from a three year field trial including plantations of four different plant species (Acacia cyanophylla, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Populus nigra, and Arundo donax, irrigated with pre-treated domestic effluent. PLSR method was very effective despite the small sample size and the wide nature of data set (with many highly correlated inputs and several highly correlated responses. Through PLSR method the number of initial predictor variables was reduced and only several variables were remained and included in the final PLSR model. The important input variables maintained were: Effluent loading, electrical conductivity (EC, available phosphorus (Olsen-P, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K2+, SAR, and NO3−-N. Among these variables, effluent loading, EC, and nitrates had the greater contribution to the final PLSR model. PLSR is highly compatible with intensive agronomical practices such as land application, in which a large number of highly collinear and noisy input variables is monitored to assess plant species performance and to detect impacts on the environment.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dokhane, A.; Henning, D.; Chawla, R.; Rizwan-Uddin
2003-01-01
BWR stability analysis at PSI, as at other research centres, is usually carried out employing complex system codes. However, these do not allow a detailed investigation of the complete manifold of all possible solutions of the associated nonlinear differential equation set. A novel analytical, reduced order model for BWR stability has been developed at PSI, in several successive steps. In the first step, the thermal-hydraulic model was used for studying the thermal-hydraulic instabilities. A study was then conducted of the one-channel nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic dynamics in a BWR by adding a simple point kinetic model for neutron kinetics and a model for the fuel heat conduction dynamics. In this paper, a two-channel nuclear-coupled thermal-hydraulic model is introduced to simulate the out-of phase oscillations in a BWR. This model comprises three parts: spatial mode neutron kinetics with the fundamental and fist azimuthal modes; fuel heat conduction dynamics; and thermal-hydraulics model. This present model is an extension of the Karve et al. model i.e., a drift flux model is used instead of the homogeneous equilibrium model for two-phase flow, and lambda modes are used instead of the omega modes for the neutron kinetics. This two-channel model is employed in stability and bifurcation analyses, carried out using the bifurcation code BIFDD. The stability boundary (SB) and the nature of the Poincare-Andronov-Hopf bifurcation (PAF-B) are determined and visualized in a suitable two-dimensional parameter/state space. A comparative study of the homogeneous equilibrium model (HEM) and the drift flux model (DFM) is carried out to investigate the effects of the DFM parameters the void distribution parameter C 0 and the drift velocity V gi -on the SB, the nature of PAH bifurcation, and on the type of oscillation mode (in-phase or out-of-phase). (author)
Peng, Jiangtao; Peng, Silong; Xie, Qiong; Wei, Jiping
2011-04-01
In order to eliminate the lower order polynomial interferences, a new quantitative calibration algorithm "Baseline Correction Combined Partial Least Squares (BCC-PLS)", which combines baseline correction and conventional PLS, is proposed. By embedding baseline correction constraints into PLS weights selection, the proposed calibration algorithm overcomes the uncertainty in baseline correction and can meet the requirement of on-line attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) quantitative analysis. The effectiveness of the algorithm is evaluated by the analysis of glucose and marzipan ATR-FTIR spectra. BCC-PLS algorithm shows improved prediction performance over PLS. The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) on marzipan spectra for the prediction of the moisture is found to be 0.53%, w/w (range 7-19%). The sugar content is predicted with a RMSECV of 2.04%, w/w (range 33-68%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roger P. Pawlowski
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A template-based generic programming approach was presented in Part I of this series of papers [Sci. Program. 20 (2012, 197–219] that separates the development effort of programming a physical model from that of computing additional quantities, such as derivatives, needed for embedded analysis algorithms. In this paper, we describe the implementation details for using the template-based generic programming approach for simulation and analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs. We detail several of the hurdles that we have encountered, and some of the software infrastructure developed to overcome them. We end with a demonstration where we present shape optimization and uncertainty quantification results for a 3D PDE application.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, Oliver J.; Lotter, Michael; Fietkau, Rainer; Strnad, Vratislav
2009-01-01
Purpose: To analyze patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors for their impact on cosmetic outcome (CO) after interstitial multicatheter accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI). Patients and Methods: Between April 2001 and January 2005, 171 patients with early breast cancer were recruited in Erlangen for this subanalysis of the German-Austrian APBI phase II-trial. 58% (99/171) of the patients received pulsed-dose-rate (PDR), and 42% (72/171) high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Prescribed reference dose for HDR brachytherapy was 32 Gy in eight fractions of 4 Gy, twice daily. Prescribed reference dose in PDR brachytherapy was 49.8 Gy in 83 consecutive fractions of 0.6 Gy each hour. Total treatment time was 3-4 days. Endpoint of this evaluation was the CO, graded as excellent, good, fair, or poor. Patients were divided in two groups with an excellent (n = 102) or nonexcellent (n = 69) cosmetic result. Various factors were analyzed for their impact on excellent CO. Results: The median follow-up time was 52 months (range: 21-91 months). Cosmetic results were rated as excellent in 59.6% (102/171), good in 29.8% (51/171), fair in 9.9% (17/171), and poor in 0.6% (1/171). The initial cosmetic status was significantly worse for the nonexcellent CO group (p = 0.000). The percentage of patients who received PDR brachytherapy APBI was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (68.1% vs. 51%; p = 0.026). Acute toxicity was higher in the nonexcellent CO group (24.6% vs. 12.7%; p = 0.045). Furthermore, the presence of any late toxicity was found to be associated with a worse cosmetic result (65.2% vs. 18.6%; p = 0.000). In detail, the appearance of skin hyperpigmentation (p 0.034), breast tissue fibrosis (p = 0.000), and telangiectasia (p = 0.000) had a negative impact on CO. Conclusion: The initial, surgery-associated cosmetic status, brachytherapy modality, and the presence of acute and late toxicities were found to have an impact on overall CO. Our data have proven that
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Homayoun Zargar
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Purpose To investigate risk factors for urine leak in patients undergoing minimally invasive partial nephrectomy (MIPN and to determine the role of intraoperative ureteral catheterization in preventing this postoperative complication. Materials and Methods MIPN procedures done from September 1999 to July 2012 at our Center were reviewed from our IRB-approved database. Patient and tumor characteristics, operative techniques and outcomes were analyzed. Patients with evidence of urine leak were identified. Outcomes were compared between patients with preoperative ureteral catheterization (C-group and those without (NC-group. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors predicting postoperative urine leak. Results A total of 1,019 cases were included (452 robotic partial nephrectomy cases and 567 laparoscopic partial nephrectomy cases. Five hundred twenty eight patients (51.8% were in the C-group, whereas 491 of them (48.2% in the NC-group. Urine leak occurred in 31(3% cases, 4.6% in the C-group and 1.4% in the NC-group (p<0.001. Tumors in NC-group had significantly higher RENAL score, shorter operative and warm ischemic times. On multivariable analysis, tumor proximity to collecting system (OR=9.2; p<0.01, surgeon’s early operative experience (OR=7.8; p<0.01 and preoperative moderate to severe CKD (OR=3.1; p<0.01 significantly increased the odds of the occurrence of a postoperative urine leak. Conclusion Clinically significant urine leak after MIPN in a high volume institution setting is uncommon. This event is more likely to occur in cases of renal masses that are close to the collecting system, in patients with preoperative CKD and when operating surgeon is still in the learning curve for the procedure. Our findings suggest that routine intraoperative ureteral catheterization during MIPN does not reduce the probability of postoperative urine leak. In addition, it adds to the overall operative time.
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Yu Zhang
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Rice blast disease is one of the most destructive rice diseases worldwide. The pi21 gene confers partial and durable resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms of resistance mediated by the loss-of-function of Pi21. In this study, comparative transcriptome profiling of the Pi21-RNAi transgenic rice line and Nipponbare with M. oryzae infection at different time points (0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hpi were investigated using RNA sequencing. The results generated 43,222 unique genes mapped to the rice genome. In total, 1,109 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified between the Pi21-RNAi line and Nipponbare with M. oryzae infection, with 103, 281, 209, 69, and 678 DEGs at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hpi, respectively. Functional analysis showed that most of the DEGs were involved in metabolism, transport, signaling, and defense. Among the genes assigned to plant–pathogen interaction, we identified 43 receptor kinase genes associated with pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition and calcium ion influx. The expression levels of brassinolide-insensitive 1, flagellin sensitive 2 and elongation factor Tu receptor, ethylene (ET biosynthesis and signaling genes, were higher in the Pi21-RNAi line than Nipponbare. This suggested that there was a more robust PTI response in Pi21-RNAi plants and that ET signaling was important to rice blast resistance. We also identified 53 transcription factor genes, including WRKY, NAC, DOF, and ERF families that show differential expression between the two genotypes. This study highlights possible candidate genes that may serve a function in the partial rice blast resistance mediated by the loss-of-function of Pi21 and increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in partial resistance against M. oryzae.
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Carlos Marcelo Archangelo
2012-06-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The non-homogenous aspect of periodontal ligament (PDL has been examined using finite element analysis (FEA to better simulate PDL behavior. The aim of this study was to assess, by 2-D FEA, the influence of non-homogenous PDL on the stress distribution when the free-end saddle removable partial denture (RPD is partially supported by an osseointegrated implant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six finite element (FE models of a partially edentulous mandible were created to represent two types of PDL (non-homogenous and homogenous and two types of RPD (conventional RPD, supported by tooth and fibromucosa; and modified RPD, supported by tooth and implant [10.00x3.75 mm]. Two additional Fe models without RPD were used as control models. The non-homogenous PDL was modeled using beam elements to simulate the crest, horizontal, oblique and apical fibers. The load (50 N was applied in each cusp simultaneously. Regarding boundary conditions the border of alveolar ridge was fixed along the x axis. The FE software (Ansys 10.0 was used to compute the stress fields, and the von Mises stress criterion (svM was applied to analyze the results. RESULTS: The peak of svM in non-homogenous PDL was higher than that for the homogenous condition. The benefits of implants were enhanced for the non-homogenous PDL condition, with drastic svM reduction on the posterior half of the alveolar ridge. The implant did not reduce the stress on the support tooth for both PDL conditions. Conclusion: The PDL modeled in the non-homogeneous form increased the benefits of the osseointegrated implant in comparison with the homogeneous condition. Using the non-homogenous PDL, the presence of osseointegrated implant did not reduce the stress on the supporting tooth.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cysouw, Matthijs C.F.; Kramer, Gerbrand M.; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schoonmade, Linda J. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Library, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boellaard, Ronald [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Vet, Henrica C.W. de [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2017-11-15
Positron-emission tomography can be useful in oncology for diagnosis, (re)staging, determining prognosis, and response assessment. However, partial-volume effects hamper accurate quantification of lesions <2-3 x the PET system's spatial resolution, and the clinical impact of this is not evident. This systematic review provides an up-to-date overview of studies investigating the impact of partial-volume correction (PVC) in oncological PET studies. We searched in PubMed and Embase databases according to the PRISMA statement, including studies from inception till May 9, 2016. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and eligible full-text articles and performed quality assessment according to QUADAS-2 and QUIPS criteria. For a set of similar diagnostic studies, we statistically pooled the results using bivariate meta-regression. Thirty-one studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall, study quality was good. For diagnosis and nodal staging, PVC yielded a strong trend of increased sensitivity at expense of specificity. Meta-analysis of six studies investigating diagnosis of pulmonary nodules (679 lesions) showed no significant change in diagnostic accuracy after PVC (p = 0.222). Prognostication was not improved for non-small cell lung cancer and esophageal cancer, whereas it did improve for head and neck cancer. Response assessment was not improved by PVC for (locally advanced) breast cancer or rectal cancer, and it worsened in metastatic colorectal cancer. The accumulated evidence to date does not support routine application of PVC in standard clinical PET practice. Consensus on the preferred PVC methodology in oncological PET should be reached. Partial-volume-corrected data should be used as adjuncts to, but not yet replacement for, uncorrected data. (orig.)
Students’ misconceptions on solubility equilibrium
Setiowati, H.; Utomo, S. B.; Ashadi
2018-05-01
This study investigated the students’ misconceptions of the solubility equilibrium. The participants of the study consisted of 164 students who were in the science class of second year high school. Instrument used is two-tier diagnostic test consisting of 15 items. Responses were marked and coded into four categories: understanding, misconception, understand little without misconception, and not understanding. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 45 students according to their written responses which reflected different perspectives, to obtain a more elaborated source of data. Data collected from multiple methods were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Based on the data analysis showed that the students misconceptions in all areas in solubility equilibrium. They had more misconceptions such as in the relation of solubility and solubility product, common-ion effect and pH in solubility, and precipitation concept.
A Partial Swot Analysis of the Turkish Bank Call Centers: The Actual and the Assumed Weaknesses
ÖZKAN, Ahmet Hakan
2014-01-01
The bank call centers of Turkey are seen as a tool of perceiving the threats and evaluating opportunities in the SWOT analysis. By the way they are evaluated as a factor of strength. However, the weaknesses of the call centers which must be taken into account in a SWOT analysis, are so various that they cannot be ignored. The weaknesses of the call centers are elaborated with this research. The ways the call centers harm the corporations or the ways they might harm are revised.
A note on existence of mixed solutions to equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Červinka, Michal
2007-01-01
Roč. 2007, č. 24 (2007), s. 27-44 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : equilibrium problems with equilibrium constraints * variational analysis * mixed strategy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Stafeev, A A; Chesnokova, M G; Chesnokov, V A
2015-01-01
Microbiological analysis of biomaterial surface in dental prosthesis showed the most common colonizing gram-positive species to be S. aureus, Micrococcus spp., S. haemolyticus, E. faecalis, mainly massive colonization with S. aureus was seen. The highest concentration of C. albicans colonization was found in removable dentures and may have a destructive effect on prosthetic material.
Zawadowicz, M. A.; Del Negro, L. A.
2010-12-01
Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are usually present in the atmosphere at pptv-level, requiring measurements with high sensitivity and minimal contamination. Commonly used evacuated canister methods require an overhead in space, money and time that often is prohibitive to primarily-undergraduate institutions. This study optimized an analytical method based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of ambient gaseous matrix, which is a cost-effective technique of selective VOC extraction, accessible to an unskilled undergraduate. Several approaches to SPME extraction and sample analysis were characterized and several extraction parameters optimized. Extraction time, temperature and laminar air flow velocity around the fiber were optimized to give highest signal and efficiency. Direct, dynamic extraction of benzene from a moving air stream produced better precision (±10%) than sampling of stagnant air collected in a polymeric bag (±24%). Using a low-polarity chromatographic column in place of a standard (5%-Phenyl)-methylpolysiloxane phase decreased the benzene detection limit from 2 ppbv to 100 pptv. The developed method is simple and fast, requiring 15-20 minutes per extraction and analysis. It will be field-validated and used as a field laboratory component of various undergraduate Chemistry and Environmental Studies courses.
King, Jonathan M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine
2016-01-01
A multireaction chemical equilibria geothermometry (MEG) model applicable to high-temperature geothermal systems has been developed over the past three decades. Given sufficient data, this model provides more constraint on calculated reservoir temperatures than classical chemical geothermometers that are based on either the concentration of silica (SiO2), or the ratios of cation concentrations. A set of 23 chemical analyses from Ojo Caliente Spring and 22 analyses from other thermal features in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park are used to examine the sensitivity of calculated reservoir temperatures using the GeoT MEG code (Spycher et al. 2013, 2014) to quantify the effects of solute concentrations, degassing, and mineral assemblages on calculated reservoir temperatures. Results of our analysis demonstrate that the MEG model can resolve reservoir temperatures within approximately ±15°C, and that natural variation in fluid compositions represents a greater source of variance in calculated reservoir temperatures than variations caused by analytical uncertainty (assuming ~5% for major elements). The analysis also suggests that MEG calculations are particularly sensitive to variations in silica concentration, the concentrations of the redox species Fe(II) and H2S, and that the parameters defining steam separation and CO2 degassing from the liquid may be adequately determined by numerical optimization. Results from this study can provide guidance for future applications of MEG models, and thus provide more reliable information on geothermal energy resources during exploration.
Wu, Sa; Zhang, Xin; Li, Zhi-Ming; Shi, Yan-Xia; Huang, Jia-Jia; Xia, Yi; Yang, Hang; Jiang, Wen-Qi
2013-01-01
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a common complication of therapeutic immunosuppression after organ transplantation. Gene expression profile facilitates the identification of biological difference between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive and negative PTLDs. Previous studies mainly implemented variance/regression analysis without considering unaccounted array specific factors. The aim of this study is to investigate the gene expression difference between EBV positive and negative PTLDs through partial least squares (PLS) based analysis. With a microarray data set from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we performed PLS based analysis. We acquired 1188 differentially expressed genes. Pathway and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis identified significantly over-representation of dysregulated genes in immune response and cancer related biological processes. Network analysis identified three hub genes with degrees higher than 15, including CREBBP, ATXN1, and PML. Proteins encoded by CREBBP and PML have been reported to be interact with EBV before. Our findings shed light on expression distinction of EBV positive and negative PTLDs with the hope to offer theoretical support for future therapeutic study.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fırat Ozan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of greater trochanteric fixation using a multifilament cable to ensure abductor lever arm continuity in patients with a proximal femoral fracture undergoing partial hip arthroplasty. Mean age of the patients (12 men, 20 women was 84.12 years. Mean follow-up was 13.06 months. Fixation of the dislocated greater trochanter with or without a cable following load application was assessed by finite element analysis (FEA. Radiological evaluation was based on the distance between the fracture and the union site. Harris hip score was used to evaluate final results: outcomes were excellent in 7 patients (21.8%, good in 17 patients (53.1%, average in 5 patients (15.6%, and poor in 1 patient (9.3%. Mean abduction angle was 20.21°. Union was achieved in 14 patients (43.7%, fibrous union in 12 (37.5%, and no union in 6 (18.7%. FEA showed that the maximum total displacement of the greater trochanter decreased when the fractured bone was fixed with a cable. As the force applied to the cable increased, the displacement of the fractured trochanter decreased. This technique ensures continuity of the abductor lever arm in patients with a proximal femoral fracture who are undergoing partial hip arthroplasty surgery.
Ozan, Fırat; Koyuncu, Şemmi; Pekedis, Mahmut; Altay, Taşkın; Yıldız, Hasan; Toker, Gökhan
2014-01-01
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of greater trochanteric fixation using a multifilament cable to ensure abductor lever arm continuity in patients with a proximal femoral fracture undergoing partial hip arthroplasty. Mean age of the patients (12 men, 20 women) was 84.12 years. Mean follow-up was 13.06 months. Fixation of the dislocated greater trochanter with or without a cable following load application was assessed by finite element analysis (FEA). Radiological evaluation was based on the distance between the fracture and the union site. Harris hip score was used to evaluate final results: outcomes were excellent in 7 patients (21.8%), good in 17 patients (53.1%), average in 5 patients (15.6%), and poor in 1 patient (9.3%). Mean abduction angle was 20.21°. Union was achieved in 14 patients (43.7%), fibrous union in 12 (37.5%), and no union in 6 (18.7%). FEA showed that the maximum total displacement of the greater trochanter decreased when the fractured bone was fixed with a cable. As the force applied to the cable increased, the displacement of the fractured trochanter decreased. This technique ensures continuity of the abductor lever arm in patients with a proximal femoral fracture who are undergoing partial hip arthroplasty surgery. PMID:25177703
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Mirhendi
2008-12-01
Full Text Available Background: Approximately 85-90% of malaria infections in Iran are attributed to Plasmodium vivax, while little is known about the genetic of the parasite and its strain types in this region. This study was designed and performed for describing genetic characteristics of Plasmodium vivax population of Iran based on the merozoite surface protein-3α gene sequence. Methods: Through a descriptive study we analyzed partial P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3α gene sequences from 17 clinical P. vivax isolates collected from malarious areas of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted by Q1Aamp® DNA blood mini kit, amplified through nested PCR for a partial nucleotide sequence of PvMSP-3 gene in P. vivax. PCR-amplified products were sequenced with an ABI Prism Perkin-Elmer 310 sequencer machine and the data were analyzed with clustal W software. Results: Analysis of PvMSP-3 gene sequences demonstrated extensive polymorphisms, but the sequence identity between isolates of same types was relatively high. We identified specific insertions and deletions for the types A, B and C variants of P. vivax in our isolates. In phylogenetic comparison of geographically separated isolates, there was not a significant geographical branching of the parasite populations. Conclusion: The highly polymorphic nature of isolates suggests that more investigations of the PvMSP-3 gene are needed to explore its vaccine potential.
MHD equilibrium identification on ASDEX-Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, P.J.; Schneider, W.; Lakner, K.; Zehrfeld, H.P.; Buechl, K.; Gernhardt, J.; Gruber, O.; Kallenbach, A.; Lieder, G.; Wunderlich, R.
1992-01-01
A central activity accompanying the ASDEX-Upgrade experiment is the analysis of MHD equilibria. There are two different numerical methods available, both using magnetic measurements which reflect equilibrium states of the plasma. The first method proceeds via a function parameterization (FP) technique, which uses in-vessel magnetic measurements to calculate up to 66 equilibrium parameters. The second method applies an interpretative equilibrium code (DIVA) for a best fit to a different set of magnetic measurements. Cross-checks with the measured particle influxes from the inner heat shield and the divertor region and with visible camera images of the scrape-off layer are made. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs
Partial analysis of wind power limit in an electric micro system using continuation power flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiallo Guerrero, Jandry; Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Castro Fernández, Miguel
2013-01-01
The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit that can insert in an electric grid without losing stability is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit, some of them are based in static constrains, an example is a method based in a continuation power flow analysis. In the present work the method is applied in an electric micro system formed when the system is disconnected of the man grid, the main goal was prove the method in a weak and island network. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT). (author)
Al-Gburi, A.; Freeman, C. T.; French, M. C.
2018-06-01
This paper uses gap metric analysis to derive robustness and performance margins for feedback linearising controllers. Distinct from previous robustness analysis, it incorporates the case of output unstructured uncertainties, and is shown to yield general stability conditions which can be applied to both stable and unstable plants. It then expands on existing feedback linearising control schemes by introducing a more general robust feedback linearising control design which classifies the system nonlinearity into stable and unstable components and cancels only the unstable plant nonlinearities. This is done in order to preserve the stabilising action of the inherently stabilising nonlinearities. Robustness and performance margins are derived for this control scheme, and are expressed in terms of bounds on the plant nonlinearities and the accuracy of the cancellation of the unstable plant nonlinearity by the controller. Case studies then confirm reduced conservatism compared with standard methods.
Tanner, Stephen P.
1997-01-01
One of the goals of the original proposal was to study how cross-linking affects the properties of an ion exchange material(IEM) developed at Lewis Research Center. However, prior to the start of this work, other workers at LERC investigated the effect of cross-linking on the properties of this material. Other than variation in the ion exchange capacity, the chemical characteristics were shown to be independent of the cross-linking agent, and the degree of cross-linking. New physical forms of the film were developed (film, supported film, various sizes of beads, and powder). All showed similar properties with respect to ion exchange equilibria but the kinetics of ion exchange depended on the surface area per unit mass; the powder form of the IEM exchanging much more rapidly than the other forms. The research performed under this grant was directed towards the application of the IEM to the analysis of metal ions at environmental concentrations.
Cortes, Adriano Mauricio; Vignal, Philippe; Sarmiento, Adel; Garcí a, Daniel O.; Collier, Nathan; Dalcin, Lisandro; Calo, Victor M.
2014-01-01
In this paper we present PetIGA, a high-performance implementation of Isogeometric Analysis built on top of PETSc. We show its use in solving nonlinear and time-dependent problems, such as phase-field models, by taking advantage of the high-continuity of the basis functions granted by the isogeometric framework. In this work, we focus on the Cahn-Hilliard equation and the phase-field crystal equation.
Mahmoudpour, Sanaz; Attarnejad, Reza; Behnia, Cambyse
2011-01-01
Analysis and design of structures subjected to arbitrary dynamic loadings especially earthquakes have been studied during past decades. In practice, the effects of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures are usually neglected. In this study, the effect of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures has been examined. The substructure method using dynamic stiffness of soil is used to analyze soil-structure system. A coupled model based on finite el...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanaz Mahmoudpour
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis and design of structures subjected to arbitrary dynamic loadings especially earthquakes have been studied during past decades. In practice, the effects of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures are usually neglected. In this study, the effect of soil-structure interaction on the dynamic response of structures has been examined. The substructure method using dynamic stiffness of soil is used to analyze soil-structure system. A coupled model based on finite element method and scaled boundary finite element method is applied. Finite element method is used to analyze the structure, and scaled boundary finite element method is applied in the analysis of unbounded soil region. Due to analytical solution in the radial direction, the radiation condition is satisfied exactly. The material behavior of soil and structure is assumed to be linear. The soil region is considered as a homogeneous half-space. The analysis is performed in time domain. A computer program is prepared to analyze the soil-structure system. Comparing the results with those in literature shows the exactness and competency of the proposed method.
Eberl, Gérard
2016-08-01
The classical model of immunity posits that the immune system reacts to pathogens and injury and restores homeostasis. Indeed, a century of research has uncovered the means and mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes danger and regulates its own activity. However, this classical model does not fully explain complex phenomena, such as tolerance, allergy, the increased prevalence of inflammatory pathologies in industrialized nations and immunity to multiple infections. In this Essay, I propose a model of immunity that is based on equilibrium, in which the healthy immune system is always active and in a state of dynamic equilibrium between antagonistic types of response. This equilibrium is regulated both by the internal milieu and by the microbial environment. As a result, alteration of the internal milieu or microbial environment leads to immune disequilibrium, which determines tolerance, protective immunity and inflammatory pathology.
Development of a Thermal Equilibrium Prediction Algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aviles-Ramos, Cuauhtemoc
2002-01-01
A thermal equilibrium prediction algorithm is developed and tested using a heat conduction model and data sets from calorimetric measurements. The physical model used in this study is the exact solution of a system of two partial differential equations that govern the heat conduction in the calorimeter. A multi-parameter estimation technique is developed and implemented to estimate the effective volumetric heat generation and thermal diffusivity in the calorimeter measurement chamber, and the effective thermal diffusivity of the heat flux sensor. These effective properties and the exact solution are used to predict the heat flux sensor voltage readings at thermal equilibrium. Thermal equilibrium predictions are carried out considering only 20% of the total measurement time required for thermal equilibrium. A comparison of the predicted and experimental thermal equilibrium voltages shows that the average percentage error from 330 data sets is only 0.1%. The data sets used in this study come from calorimeters of different sizes that use different kinds of heat flux sensors. Furthermore, different nuclear material matrices were assayed in the process of generating these data sets. This study shows that the integration of this algorithm into the calorimeter data acquisition software will result in an 80% reduction of measurement time. This reduction results in a significant cutback in operational costs for the calorimetric assay of nuclear materials. (authors)
Cacciamani, Giovanni E; Medina, Luis G; Gill, Tania S; Mendelsohn, Alec; Husain, Fatima; Bhardwaj, Lokesh; Artibani, Walter; Sotelo, Renè; Gill, Inderbir S
2018-02-05
During robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN), various techniques of hilar control have been described, including on-clamp, early unclamping, selective/super-selective clamping, and completely-unclamped RPN. To evaluate the impact of various hilar control techniques on perioperative, functional, and oncological outcomes of RPN for tumors. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis of all comparative studies on various hilar control techniques during RPN using PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis statement, and Methods and Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Review of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Cumulative meta-analysis of comparative studies was conducted using Review Manager 5.3. Of 987 RPN publications in the literature, 19 qualified for this analysis. Comparison of off-clamp versus on-clamp RPN (n=9), selective clamping versus on-clamp RPN (n=3), super selective clamping versus on-clamp RPN (n=5), and early unclamped versus on-clamp (n=3) were reported. Patients undergoing RPN using off-clamp, selective/super selective, or early unclamp techniques had higher estimated blood loss compared with on-clamp RPN (weight mean difference [WMD]: 47.83, p=0.000, WMD: 41.06, p=0.02, and WMD: 37.50, p=0.47); however, this did not seem clinically relevant, since transfusion rates were similar (odds ratio [OR]: 0.98, p=0.95, OR: 0.72, p=0.7, and OR: 1.36, p=0.33, respectively). All groups appeared similar with regards to hospital stay, transfusions, overall and major complications, and positive cancer margin rates. Short- and long-term renal functional outcomes appeared superior in the off-clamp and super selective clamp groups compared with the on-clamp RPN cohort. Off-clamp, selective/super selective clamp, and early unclamp hilar control techniques are safe and feasible approaches for RPN surgery, with similar perioperative and oncological
Equilibrium shoreface profiles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagaard, Troels; Hughes, Michael G
2017-01-01
Large-scale coastal behaviour models use the shoreface profile of equilibrium as a fundamental morphological unit that is translated in space to simulate coastal response to, for example, sea level oscillations and variability in sediment supply. Despite a longstanding focus on the shoreface...... profile and its relevance to predicting coastal response to changing environmental conditions, the processes and dynamics involved in shoreface equilibrium are still not fully understood. Here, we apply a process-based empirical sediment transport model, combined with morphodynamic principles to provide......; there is no tuning or calibration and computation times are short. It is therefore easily implemented with repeated iterations to manage uncertainty....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haakonsen, L.; Mathiesen, L.
1997-01-01
Restricting CO 2 emissions requires changing today's consumption pattern away from energy and emission intensive commodities towards cleaner goods. The cost of stabilizing CO 2 emissions at the 1990 level by the year 2000, say, as compared to a business-as-usual trend, is estimated by several researchers to be on the order of 1% of GNP. We will argue that the cost may be overestimated because of a too simple model describing the working of the economic system and the evaluation of welfare. We demonstrate that by expanding a model to include the actual tax system and negative externalities, the cost to present generations from restricting emissions by a CO 2 tax may be negative. That is, some reduction may actually correspond to a 'no-regrets' policy. The reasons are inefficiencies in today's tax system and non-optimal handling of negative externalities. Our analysis suggests that a CO 2 tax and reduced emissions will lessen such inefficiencies. 8 figs., 2 appendices, 22 refs
Computer-aided analysis of difference schemes for partial differential equations
Ganzha, Victor G
2011-01-01
VICTOR G. GANZHA is Visiting Professor of Mathematics with the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics at the University of Kassel, Germany, where he presents lecture courses on advanced computer algebra systems and their applications to higher mathematics and numerical analysis. He is coauthor of Differentialgleichungen mit Mathematica. E. V. VOROZHTSOV is a research scientist at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk, Russia, and Professor of Mathematics with the Faculty of Flying Vehicles at the Novosibirsk State Technical University. He is coauthor of Methods for the Localization o
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaheed N. Huseen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A modified q-homotopy analysis method (mq-HAM was proposed for solving nth-order nonlinear differential equations. This method improves the convergence of the series solution in the nHAM which was proposed in (see Hassan and El-Tawil 2011, 2012. The proposed method provides an approximate solution by rewriting the nth-order nonlinear differential equation in the form of n first-order differential equations. The solution of these n differential equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme is tested on two nonlinear exactly solvable differential equations. The results demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.
Analysis of matches and partial-matches in a Danish STR data set
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Curan, James Michael
2012-01-01
Over the recent years, the national databases of STR profiles have grown in size due to the success of forensic DNA analysis in solving crimes. The accumulation of DNA profiles implies that the probability of a random match or near match of two randomly selected DNA profiles in the database...... increases. We analysed 53,295 STR profiles from individuals investigated in relation to crime case investigations at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Incomplete STR profiles (437 circa 0.8% of the total), 48 redundant STR profiles from...
Partial analysis of wind power limit for large disturbance using fixed speed wind turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos Fuentefria, Ariel; Cairo Rodriguez, Daniel; Boza Valerino, Juan Gualberto
2014-01-01
The amount of wind power that allow an electric network without losing his stability as known as wind power limit. The wind power limit fundamentally depends on the wind turbine technology and the weakness level of the system. To know the system behaviors in dynamic performance having into account the worst disturbance is a very important matter, a short circuit in one of the most power transference line or the loss of a large generation unit was a large disturbance that can affect system stability. The wind power limit may change with the nature of the disturbance. To know the wind power limit considering this conditions allow use the wind at maximum level. In the present paper the behavior of fixed speed wind turbine for different fault types is analyzed, at those conditions, the wind power is increasing until the system become voltage unstable. For the analysis the IEEE 14 Bus Test Case is used. The Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT) package is used for the simulation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leli, D.A.; Katholi, C.R.; Hazelrig, J.B.; Falgout, J.C.; Hannay, H.J.; Wilson, E.M.; Wills, E.L.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.
1985-01-01
An initial assessment of the differential sensitivity of total versus partial curve analysis in estimating task related focal changes in cortical blood flow measured by the 133 Xe inhalation technique was accomplished by comparing the patterns during the performance of two sensorimotor tasks by normal subjects. The validity of these patterns was evaluated by comparing them to the activation patterns expected from activation studies with the intra-arterial technique and the patterns expected from neuropsychological research literature. Subjects were 10 young adult nonsmoking healthy male volunteers. They were administered two tasks having identical sensory and cognitive components but different response requirements (oral versus manual). The regional activation patterns produced by the tasks varied with the method of curve analysis. The activation produced by the two tasks was very similar to that predicted from the research literature only for total curve analysis. To the extent that the predictions are correct, these data suggest that the 133 Xe inhalation technique is more sensitive to regional flow changes when flow parameters are estimated from the total head curve. The utility of the total head curve analysis will be strengthened if similar sensitivity is demonstrated in future studies assessing normal subjects and patients with neurological and psychiatric disorders
An energy dependent partial wave analysis of π+ p→ K+ σ+ between threshold and 2.35 GeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candlin, D.J.; Lowe, D.C.; Peach, K.J.
1983-11-01
An energy dependent partial wave analysis of the reaction π + p → K + Σ + has been carried out between threshold and 2.35 GeV centre of mass energy using recently published, high statistical precision data. A single solution giving a satisfactory fit to the data has been found. In the region below 2 GeV the resonant features of the solution are compared with the QCD based model of Koniuk and Isgur. Above 2 GeV the states listed in the Particle Data group tables with two or more stars are observed but none of the dubious one star states is confirmed Significant SU(3) breaking is observed in some amplitudes. (author)
Partial-Wave Analysis of Centrally Produced Two-Pseudoscalar Final States in pp Reactions at COMPASS
Austregesilo, Alexander
2014-01-01
COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS which focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the data taking periods in 2008 and 2009. A world-leading data set was collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target in order to study, inter alia, the central exclusive production of glueball candidates in the light-meson sector. Especially the double-Pomeron exchange mechanism is well suited for the production of mesons without valence quark content. We select centrally produced systems with two pseudo-scalar mesons in the final state from the COMPASS data set recorded with an incoming proton. The decay of this system is decomposed in terms of partial waves, where particular attention is paid to the inherent mathematical ambiguities of the amplitude analysis. Furthermore, we show that simple parametrisations are able to describe the mass dependence of the fit results with sensible Breit-Wigner parameters.
The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: analysis and partial validation of a modified adult form.
Myhill, J; Lorr, M
1978-01-01
Determined the factor structure of an adult form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI), tested several hypotheses related to its content, and assessed the utility of the five derived scores for differentiating psychiatric outpatients from normals. The modified Self-Esteem Inventory and six other scales were completed by 200 local-government employees. A principal components analysis of correlations among 58 SEI items and two marker variables revealed five factors. The rotated dimensions were labelled (1) anxiety; (2) defensiveness; (3) negative social attitude; (4) rejection of self; and (5) inadequacy of self. Fifty psychiatric outpatients were compared with 100 normals with respect to the five derived factor scores. Tests of significance indicated that the two groups differed significantly on all measures except the defensiveness or lie scale factor. It is concluded that the Coopersmith Inventory is complex and measures several characteristics in addition to self-esteem.
Model-independent partial wave analysis using a massively-parallel fitting framework
Sun, L.; Aoude, R.; dos Reis, A. C.; Sokoloff, M.
2017-10-01
The functionality of GooFit, a GPU-friendly framework for doing maximum-likelihood fits, has been extended to extract model-independent {\\mathscr{S}}-wave amplitudes in three-body decays such as D + → h + h + h -. A full amplitude analysis is done where the magnitudes and phases of the {\\mathscr{S}}-wave amplitudes are anchored at a finite number of m 2(h + h -) control points, and a cubic spline is used to interpolate between these points. The amplitudes for {\\mathscr{P}}-wave and {\\mathscr{D}}-wave intermediate states are modeled as spin-dependent Breit-Wigner resonances. GooFit uses the Thrust library, with a CUDA backend for NVIDIA GPUs and an OpenMP backend for threads with conventional CPUs. Performance on a variety of platforms is compared. Executing on systems with GPUs is typically a few hundred times faster than executing the same algorithm on a single CPU.
Analysis of the radial distribution curves of partially ordered condensed carbon films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palatnik, L.S.; Derevyanchenko, A.S.; Nechitajlo, A.A.; Stetsenko, A.N.; Gorbenko, N.I.
1977-01-01
The Fourier analysis of the electron scattering curves has been carried out to determine the short-range order structure of carbon condensates. The intensity curves for carbon films condensed in a approximately 10 -6 Torr vacuum upon a substrate heated up to 600 deg C were obtained by diffraction techniques with filtration of the inelastic scattered electron background. The radial distribution curve errors were analyzed and quantified with the aid of a computer to determine the short-range order of the condensed carbon. It has been shown that carbon films consist of regions measuring approximately 20 A formed by parallelly packed graphite nets with azimuthal orientation different from that in ideal graphite crystals
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...
Physics of partially ionized plasmas
Krishan, Vinod
2016-01-01
Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toyama, Hiroshi; Maeda, Hisato; Takeuchi, Akira; Koga, Sukehiko; Matsumura, Kaname; Nakashima, Hiromichi; Ichise, Masanori; Kurami, Miki; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi.
1994-01-01
To establish a basis for semiquantitative SPECT measurements of the D 2 dopamine receptor density using equilibrium analysis, we evaluated in vivo kinetic properties of 125 I-IBZM in rat brains. We measured percent uptakes (% dose/g) of 125 I-IBZM in the striatum, frontal cortex, and cerebellum. We made these regional measurements at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after injection, respectively. The specific striatal uptake, which is the uptake difference between striatum and frontal cortex or cerebellum, showed a transient equilibrium phase at 60 min. Theoretically, with these 'reversible' D 2 receptor binding ligands, the tracer-uptake ratio of the striatum-to-frontal cortex or cerebellum during the equilibrium phase provides an estimate of binding potential (Bound/Free=B max /K d ). Our experiment showed that these ratio increased with time after bolus injection of the tracer. Striatum to frontal cortex or cerebellum ratios which were calculated with pooled data (n=12) at 60 minutes in equilibrium phase showed nearly constant values (C.V.=12.3% and 13.5%, respectively). Although measuring the striatum to frontal cortex or cerebellum ratios near equilibrium phase by bolus injection of the tracer which are widely used in human SPECT study could not exactly signify the binding potential, those ratios at fixed time after injection would be reliable for semiquantitative index. (author)
Microeconomics : Equilibrium and Efficiency
Ten Raa, T.
2013-01-01
Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency teaches how to apply microeconomic theory in an innovative, intuitive and concise way. Using real-world, empirical examples, this book not only covers the building blocks of the subject, but helps gain a broad understanding of microeconomic theory and
Genetic Analysis Using Partial Sequencing of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R Gene in Bligon Goat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Latifah Latifah
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Melanocortin 4 Receptor gene is involved in sympathetic nerve activity, adrenal and thyroid functions, and media for leptin in regulating energy balance and homeostasis. The aim of this research was to perform genetic analysis of MC4R gene sequences from Bligon goats. Fourty blood samples of Bligon does were used for DNA extraction. The primers were designed after alignment of 12 DNA sequences of MC4R gene from goat, sheep, and cattle. The primers were constructed on the Capra hircus MC4R gene sequence from GenBank (accession No. NM_001285591. Two DNA polymorphisms of MC4R were revealed in exon region (g.998 A/G and g.1079 C/T. The SNP g.998 A/G was a non-synonymous polymorphism i.e., changing of amino acid from methionine (Met to isoleucine (Ile. The SNP g.1079 C/T was a synonymous polymorphism. Restriction enzyme mapping on Bligon goat MC4R gene revealed three restriction enzymes (RsaI (GT’AC, Acc651 (G’GTAC_C, and KpnI (G_GTAC’C, which can recognize the SNP at g.1079 C/T. The restriction enzymes may be used for genotyping of the gene target using PCR-RFLP method in the future research.
Partial analysis of the environmental costs generated by hotels in Hong Kong
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chan, W.W. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom (China). School of Hotel and Tourism Management
2005-12-15
This paper investigates the environmental costs attributable to the various activities involved in operating a hotel such as energy usage, water consumption, and solid waste disposal. A control cost approach and a pro-rated model were used in environmental costing. A holistic analysis of the environmental costs was then made. It was found that, in the early 1990s, the environmental costs incurred in controlling air pollution was higher than for other types of pollution. However, the situation changed during the late 1990s as the government invested more in building large-scale sewage treatment systems and landfills. At present, the environmental costs attributable to water protection and solid waste management have been larger than the environmental costs of air pollution. This implies that hotel operators should place a greater focus on mitigating the pressure on the environment from the consumption of water and disposal of solid waste. Also based on the methodologies, recommendations on environmental accounting on three levels are made. (Author)
Comments on equilibrium, transient equilibrium, and secular equilibrium in serial radioactive decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prince, J.R.
1979-01-01
Equations describing serial radioactive decay are reviewed along with published descriptions or transient and secular equilibrium. It is shown that terms describing equilibrium are not used in the same way by various authors. Specific definitions are proposed; they suggest that secular equilibrium is a subset of transient equilibrium
Genetic analysis of partial egg production records in Japanese quail using random regression models.
Abou Khadiga, G; Mahmoud, B Y F; Farahat, G S; Emam, A M; El-Full, E A
2017-08-01
The main objectives of this study were to detect the most appropriate random regression model (RRM) to fit the data of monthly egg production in 2 lines (selected and control) of Japanese quail and to test the consistency of different criteria of model choice. Data from 1,200 female Japanese quails for the first 5 months of egg production from 4 consecutive generations of an egg line selected for egg production in the first month (EP1) was analyzed. Eight RRMs with different orders of Legendre polynomials were compared to determine the proper model for analysis. All criteria of model choice suggested that the adequate model included the second-order Legendre polynomials for fixed effects, and the third-order for additive genetic effects and permanent environmental effects. Predictive ability of the best model was the highest among all models (ρ = 0.987). According to the best model fitted to the data, estimates of heritability were relatively low to moderate (0.10 to 0.17) showed a descending pattern from the first to the fifth month of production. A similar pattern was observed for permanent environmental effects with greater estimates in the first (0.36) and second (0.23) months of production than heritability estimates. Genetic correlations between separate production periods were higher (0.18 to 0.93) than their phenotypic counterparts (0.15 to 0.87). The superiority of the selected line over the control was observed through significant (P egg production in earlier ages (first and second months) than later ones. A methodology based on random regression animal models can be recommended for genetic evaluation of egg production in Japanese quail. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Lerche, Dorte; Brüggemann, Rainer; Sørensen, Peter; Carlsen, Lars; Nielsen, Ole John
2002-01-01
An alternative to the often cumbersome and time-consuming risk assessments of chemical substances could be more reliable and advanced priority setting methods. An elaboration of the simple scoring methods is provided by Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT) and/or Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA). The present study provides an in depth evaluation of HDT relative to three MCA techniques. The new and main methodological step in the comparison is the use of probability concepts based on mathematical tools such as linear extensions of partially ordered sets and Monte Carlo simulations. A data set consisting of 12 High Production Volume Chemicals (HPVCs) is used for illustration. It is a paradigm in this investigation to claim that the need of external input (often subjective weightings of criteria) should be minimized and that the transparency should be maximized in any multicriteria prioritisation. The study illustrates that the Hasse diagram technique (HDT) needs least external input, is most transparent and is least subjective. However, HDT has some weaknesses if there are criteria which exclude each other. Then weighting is needed. Multi-Criteria Analysis (i.e. Utility Function approach, PROMETHEE and concordance analysis) can deal with such mutual exclusions because their formalisms to quantify preferences allow participation e.g. weighting of criteria. Consequently MCA include more subjectivity and loose transparency. The recommendation which arises from this study is that the first step in decision making is to run HDT and as the second step possibly is to run one of the MCA algorithms.
Skarpeli-Liati, Marita; Turgeon, Aurora; Garr, Ashley N; Arnold, William A; Cramer, Christopher J; Hofstetter, Thomas B
2011-03-01
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) was used to elucidate the effects of N-atom protonation on the analysis of N and C isotope signatures of selected aromatic amines. Precise and accurate isotope ratios were measured using polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) as the SPME fiber material at solution pH-values that exceeded the pK(a) of the substituted aniline's conjugate acid by two pH-units. Deviations of δ(15)N and δ(13)C-values from reference measurements by elemental analyzer IRMS were small (IRMS. Under these conditions, the detection limits for accurate isotope ratio measurements were between 0.64 and 2.1 mg L(-1) for δ(15)N and between 0.13 and 0.54 mg L(-1) for δ(13)C, respectively. Substantial inverse N isotope fractionation was observed by SPME-GC/IRMS as the fraction of protonated species increased with decreasing pH leading to deviations of -20‰ while the corresponding δ(13)C-values were largely invariant. From isotope ratio analysis at different solution pHs and theoretical calculations by density functional theory, we derived equilibrium isotope effects, EIEs, pertinent to aromatic amine protonation of 0.980 and 1.001 for N and C, respectively, which were very similar for all compounds investigated. Our work shows that N-atom protonation can compromise accurate compound-specific N isotope analysis of aromatic amines.
Smith, Richard D; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R
2013-11-01
Previous research has demonstrated the value of macroeconomic analysis of the impact of influenza pandemics. However, previous modelling applications focus on high-income countries and there is a lack of evidence concerning the potential impact of an influenza pandemic on lower- and middle-income countries. To estimate the macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza in Thailand, South Africa and Uganda with particular reference to pandemic (H1N1) 2009. A single-country whole-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was set up for each of the three countries in question and used to estimate the economic impact of declines in labour attributable to morbidity, mortality and school closure. Overall GDP impacts were less than 1% of GDP for all countries and scenarios. Uganda's losses were proportionally larger than those of Thailand and South Africa. Labour-intensive sectors suffer the largest losses. The economic cost of unavoidable absence in the event of an influenza pandemic could be proportionally larger for low-income countries. The cost of mild pandemics, such as pandemic (H1N1) 2009, appears to be small, but could increase for more severe pandemics and/or pandemics with greater behavioural change and avoidable absence. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Ke; Cao, Ping; Ma, Guowei; Fan, Wenchen; Meng, Jingjing; Li, Kaihui
2016-07-01
Using the Chengmenshan Copper Mine as a case study, a new methodology for open pit slope design in karst-prone ground conditions is presented based on integrated stochastic-limit equilibrium analysis. The numerical modeling and optimization design procedure contain a collection of drill core data, karst cave stochastic model generation, SLIDE simulation and bisection method optimization. Borehole investigations are performed, and the statistical result shows that the length of the karst cave fits a negative exponential distribution model, but the length of carbonatite does not exactly follow any standard distribution. The inverse transform method and acceptance-rejection method are used to reproduce the length of the karst cave and carbonatite, respectively. A code for karst cave stochastic model generation, named KCSMG, is developed. The stability of the rock slope with the karst cave stochastic model is analyzed by combining the KCSMG code and the SLIDE program. This approach is then applied to study the effect of the karst cave on the stability of the open pit slope, and a procedure to optimize the open pit slope angle is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Takaya; Kitamura, Masashi; Ohi, Tadashi; Akagi, Katsumi
1999-01-01
As advanced monitoring and controlling systems, such as the advanced main control console and the operator support system have been developed, real-time simulators' simulation accuracy must be improved and simulation limits must be extended. Therefore the authors have developed a distributed simulation system to achieve high processing performance using low cost hardware. Moreover, the authors have developed a thermal-hydraulic computer code, using drift-flux non-equilibrium model, which can realize a high precision two-phase flow analysis, which is considered to have the same prediction capability as two-fluid models, while achieving high speed and stability for real-time simulators. The distributed plant simulator for PWR plants was realized as a result. The distributed simulator consists of multi-processors connected to each other by an optical fiber network. Controlling software for synchronized scheduling and memory transfer was also developed. The simulation results of the four loop PWR simulator are compared with experimental data and real plant data; the agreement is satisfactory for a plant simulator. The simulation speed is also satisfactory being twice as fast as real-time. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Cheng, E-mail: 510395453@qq.com [State Nuclear Power Technology Research & Development Center, 102209 Beijing (China); Li, Le [Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, 100084 Beijing (China); Li, Junming [Tsinghua University, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Thermal Engineering, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Yajun [Tsinghua University, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, 100084 Beijing (China); Li, Zhihui [State Nuclear Power Technology Research & Development Center, 102209 Beijing (China)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • Heat removal by steam condensation, thermal conduction and evaporation is the most important scheme for AP1000 PCCS. Traditionally, studies on containment wall condensation and evaporation have been widely made, while it lacks studies on the shell two-dimension (2-D) thermal conduction. Currently, based on the known heat and mass transfer correlations and the phenomenon from water wetted coverage test, the physical model for 2-D thermal conduction is given and numerical simulation is then made. By discussions, it forms the following highlights. • The partially wetted surface can enhance the whole heat transfer process (including inner condensation, wall thermal conduction and outside cooling) and the maximum enhancement factor can be as large as 63%. There is an enhancement peak at around dry strip fraction a = 90%. When L is less than 0.03 m, its influence on heat transfer is small and the enhancement is mainly affected by dry coverage. However, for larger L, both α and L contribute much to larger enhancement. • Location at the spring line is often used for safety analysis and the dry strip fraction there for AP1000 is mainly at 10%–80%. Accordingly, further analysis is made on L (0.03 < L < 0.3) and a fitting expression is given for α = 10%–80%. It could be used to improve the corresponding software and it could also be used for containment scaling-down criteria analysis. - Abstract: AP1000 containment uses the water film evaporation, coupled with containment inner condensation, to remove the core decay heat. However, water film cannot fully cover heat transfer surface and dry-wetted strips appear. As a result, heat transfer within the containment shell is a two-dimension thermal conduction. Current work numerically studied the AP1000 heat removal enhancement due to the partially wetted coverage phenomenon. It used the evaporation and condensation boundary conditions and Fluent software to calculate the local heat fluxes and their
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Cheng; Li, Le; Li, Junming; Zhang, Yajun; Li, Zhihui
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Heat removal by steam condensation, thermal conduction and evaporation is the most important scheme for AP1000 PCCS. Traditionally, studies on containment wall condensation and evaporation have been widely made, while it lacks studies on the shell two-dimension (2-D) thermal conduction. Currently, based on the known heat and mass transfer correlations and the phenomenon from water wetted coverage test, the physical model for 2-D thermal conduction is given and numerical simulation is then made. By discussions, it forms the following highlights. • The partially wetted surface can enhance the whole heat transfer process (including inner condensation, wall thermal conduction and outside cooling) and the maximum enhancement factor can be as large as 63%. There is an enhancement peak at around dry strip fraction a = 90%. When L is less than 0.03 m, its influence on heat transfer is small and the enhancement is mainly affected by dry coverage. However, for larger L, both α and L contribute much to larger enhancement. • Location at the spring line is often used for safety analysis and the dry strip fraction there for AP1000 is mainly at 10%–80%. Accordingly, further analysis is made on L (0.03 < L < 0.3) and a fitting expression is given for α = 10%–80%. It could be used to improve the corresponding software and it could also be used for containment scaling-down criteria analysis. - Abstract: AP1000 containment uses the water film evaporation, coupled with containment inner condensation, to remove the core decay heat. However, water film cannot fully cover heat transfer surface and dry-wetted strips appear. As a result, heat transfer within the containment shell is a two-dimension thermal conduction. Current work numerically studied the AP1000 heat removal enhancement due to the partially wetted coverage phenomenon. It used the evaporation and condensation boundary conditions and Fluent software to calculate the local heat fluxes and their
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forozani, G.
2004-01-01
The magnitude of four independent amplitudes are obtained pion photoproduction in the energy range of 1300 to 2100 MeV incident photon. Different cross section and three polarization parameters are required for such amplitudes reconstruction at different pion scattering angles. Results of the direct amplitudes reconstruction have been compared with the solution of partial wave analysis SM95 and SM00K at all energies. This analysis indicates that we have a fair agreement between the present work and the results of partial wave analysis at many angles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forozani, G.
2004-01-01
The magnitude of four independent amplitudes are obtained in neutral pion photoproduction in the energy range of 1300 to 2100 MeV incident photon. Differential gross section and three polarization parameters are required for such amplitudes reconstruction at different pion scattering angles. Results of the direct amplitudes reconstruction have been compared with the solution of partial wave analysis SM95 and SM00K at all energies. This analysis indicates that we have a fair agreement between the present work and the results of partial wave analysis at meny angles (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Hehe
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Phytophthora sojae is the primary pathogen of soybeans that are grown on poorly drained soils. Race-specific resistance to P. sojae in soybean is gene-for-gene, although in many areas of the US and worldwide there are populations that have adapted to the most commonly deployed resistance to P. sojae ( Rps genes. Hence, this system has received increased attention towards identifying mechanisms and molecular markers associated with partial resistance to this pathogen. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified in the soybean cultivar ‘Conrad’ that contributes to the expression of partial resistance to multiple P. sojae isolates. Results In this study, two of the Conrad QTL on chromosome 19 were dissected through sequence and expression analysis of genes in both resistant (Conrad and susceptible (‘Sloan’ genotypes. There were 1025 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 87 of 153 genes sequenced from Conrad and Sloan. There were 304 SNPs in 54 genes sequenced from Conrad compared to those from both Sloan and Williams 82, of which 11 genes had SNPs unique to Conrad. Eleven of 19 genes in these regions analyzed with qRT-PCR had significant differences in fold change of transcript abundance in response to infection with P. sojae in lines with QTL haplotype from the resistant parent compared to those with the susceptible parent haplotype. From these, 8 of the 11 genes had SNPs in the upstream, untranslated region, exon, intron, and/or downstream region. These 11 candidate genes encode proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, hormone-mediated pathways, plant cell structural modification, ubiquitination, and basal resistance. Conclusions These findings may indicate a complex defense network with multiple mechanisms underlying these two soybean QTL conferring resistance to P. sojae. SNP markers derived from these candidate genes can contribute to fine mapping of QTL and marker assisted breeding for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1978-11-01
This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
М.М. Karimova
2017-05-01
Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.
Study of PrP - I heterogeneous equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'eva, I.G.; Mironov, K.E.; Tarasenko, A.D.
1976-01-01
Using static methods the authors have measured the equilibrium vapor pressure in the system PrP+I 2 at different temperatures and different initial iodine concentrations. The equilibrium reactions in the system have been determined. The reaction of PrP with iodine is irreversible. The content of PrI 3 and I 2 in the gas phase is negligible. The pressure in the system is determined by the partial pressure of phosphorus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldschmidt, R.H.; Kiminami, A.
1987-01-01
The dissociation of iron oxide in the ZrO 2 -FeO-Fe 2 O 3 system was investigated in function of the temperature and the constant partial pressure of oxygen by thermal gravimetric analysis. The equilibrium diagram was constructed where the equilibrium relation between the solid phase of zirconium oxide, hematite and magnetite in 1437 0 C and PO 2 = 0.21 atm/m, as well as the equilibrium relation between the solid phase of zirconium oxide and hematite in lower temperatures than 1437 0 C were determined [pt
Zhou, Yun; Sojkova, Jitka; Resnick, Susan M; Wong, Dean F
2012-04-01
Both the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and the Logan plot result in biased distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in ligand-receptor dynamic PET studies. The objective of this study was to use a recently developed relative equilibrium-based graphical (RE) plot method to improve and simplify the 2 commonly used methods for quantification of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET. The overestimation of DVR in SUVR was analyzed theoretically using the Logan and the RE plots. A bias-corrected SUVR (bcSUVR) was derived from the RE plot. Seventy-eight (11)C-PiB dynamic PET scans (66 from controls and 12 from participants with mild cognitive impaired [MCI] from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging) were acquired over 90 min. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on coregistered MR images. Both the ROI and the pixelwise time-activity curves were used to evaluate the estimates of DVR. DVRs obtained using the Logan plot applied to ROI time-activity curves were used as a reference for comparison of DVR estimates. Results from the theoretic analysis were confirmed by human studies. ROI estimates from the RE plot and the bcSUVR were nearly identical to those from the Logan plot with ROI time-activity curves. In contrast, ROI estimates from DVR images in frontal, temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions and the striatum were underestimated by the Logan plot (controls, 4%-12%; MCI, 9%-16%) and overestimated by the SUVR (controls, 8%-16%; MCI, 16%-24%). This bias was higher in the MCI group than in controls (P bias and higher consistency of DVR estimates than of SUVR. The RE plot and the bcSUVR are practical quantitative approaches that improve the analysis of (11)C-PiB studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenchao Yang
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Cryogenic CO2 capture is considered as a promising CO2 capture method due to its energy saving and environmental friendliness. The phase equilibrium analysis of CO2-mixtures at low temperature is crucial for the design and operation of a cryogenic system because it plays an important role in analysis of recovery and purity of the captured CO2. After removal of water and toxic gas, the main components in typical boiler gases are N2/CO2. Therefore, this paper evaluates the reliabilities of different cubic equations of state (EOS and mixing rules for N2/CO2. The results show that Peng-Robinson (PR and Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK fit the experimental data well, PR combined with the van der Waals (vdW mixing rule is more accurate than the other models. With temperature decrease, the accuracy of the model improves and the deviation of the N2 vapor fraction is 0.43% at 220 K. Based on the selected calculation model, the thermodynamic properties of N2/CO2 at low temperature are analyzed. According to the results, a new liquefaction combined with a desublimation system is proposed. The total recovery and purity of CO2 production of the new system are satisfactory enough for engineering applications. Additionally, the total energy required by the new system to capture the CO2 is about 3.108 MJ·kg−1 CO2, which appears to be at least 9% lower than desublimation separation when the initial concentration of CO2 is 40%.
Module description of TOKAMAK equilibrium code MEUDAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Masaei; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Ozeki, Takahisa [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment
2002-01-01
The analysis of an axisymmetric MHD equilibrium serves as a foundation of TOKAMAK researches, such as a design of devices and theoretical research, the analysis of experiment result. For this reason, also in JAERI, an efficient MHD analysis code has been developed from start of TOKAMAK research. The free boundary equilibrium code ''MEUDAS'' which uses both the DCR method (Double-Cyclic-Reduction Method) and a Green's function can specify the pressure and the current distribution arbitrarily, and has been applied to the analysis of a broad physical subject as a code having rapidity and high precision. Also the MHD convergence calculation technique in ''MEUDAS'' has been built into various newly developed codes. This report explains in detail each module in ''MEUDAS'' for performing convergence calculation in solving the MHD equilibrium. (author)
Module description of TOKAMAK equilibrium code MEUDAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Masaei; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Ozeki, Takahisa
2002-01-01
The analysis of an axisymmetric MHD equilibrium serves as a foundation of TOKAMAK researches, such as a design of devices and theoretical research, the analysis of experiment result. For this reason, also in JAERI, an efficient MHD analysis code has been developed from start of TOKAMAK research. The free boundary equilibrium code ''MEUDAS'' which uses both the DCR method (Double-Cyclic-Reduction Method) and a Green's function can specify the pressure and the current distribution arbitrarily, and has been applied to the analysis of a broad physical subject as a code having rapidity and high precision. Also the MHD convergence calculation technique in ''MEUDAS'' has been built into various newly developed codes. This report explains in detail each module in ''MEUDAS'' for performing convergence calculation in solving the MHD equilibrium. (author)
Sharaf, M. A.; Saad, A. S.
2017-10-01
In this paper, a novel analysis was established to prove how Hansen's inferior and superior partial anomalies k and k_1 can divide the elliptic orbit into two segments. The analysis depends on the departures of r (for k) and 1/r (for k1) from their minima. By these departures, we can find: (i) Transformations relating the eccentric anomaly to k and the true anomaly to k1. (ii) Expressions for k and k_1 in terms of the orbital elements. (iii) The interpretation and the intervals of definition of two moduli (X, S) related to k and k_1. (iv) The extreme values of r and the elliptic equations in terms of k and k1. (v) For r' and r'', the modulus X as a measure of the asymmetry of r' (or r'') from r'' (or r'), and the modulus S12 as a measure of the asymmetry of r' and r'' from the minimum value of r. (vi) A description of the segments represented by k and k1. (vii) The relative position of the radius vector at k0° and k1=180°.