WorldWideScience

Sample records for partial direct contact

  1. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML...

  2. Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation uses a normalization function to achieve partial evaluation. These lecture notes review its background, foundations, practice, and applications. Of specific interest is the modular technique of offline and online type-directed partial evaluation in Standard ML of ...

  3. Partial direct contact transmission in ferrets of a mallard H7N3 influenza virus with typical avian-like receptor specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Yonas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza viruses of the H7 subtype have caused multiple outbreaks in domestic poultry and represent a significant threat to public health due to their propensity to occasionally transmit directly from birds to humans. In order to better understand the cross species transmission potential of H7 viruses in nature, we performed biological and molecular characterizations of an H7N3 virus isolated from mallards in Canada in 2001. Results Sequence analysis that the HA gene of the mallard H7N3 virus shares 97% identity with the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H7N3 virus isolated from a human case in British Columbia, Canada in 2004. The mallard H7N3 virus was able to replicate in quail and chickens, and transmitted efficiently in quail but not in chickens. Interestingly, although this virus showed preferential binding to analogs of avian-like receptors with sialic acid (SA linked to galactose in an α2–3 linkage (SAα2–3Gal, it replicated to high titers in cultures of primary human airway epithelial (HAE cells, comparable to an avian H9N2 influenza virus with human-like α2–6 linkage receptors (SAα2–6Gal. In addition, the virus replicated in mice and ferrets without prior adaptation and was able to transmit partially among ferrets. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance and need for systematic in vitro and in vivo analysis of avian influenza viruses isolated from the natural reservoir in order to define their zoonotic potential.

  4. Memoization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    the functions and type-directed partial evaluation provides a convenient setting to obtain the normal form of their composition. However, off-the-shelf type-directed partial evaluation turns out to yield gigantic normal forms. We identify that this gigantism is due to redundancies, and that these redundancies...

  5. Method and apparatus for high-efficiency direct contact condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathan, Desikan; Parent, Yves; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1999-01-01

    A direct contact condenser having a downward vapor flow chamber and an upward vapor flow chamber, wherein each of the vapor flow chambers includes a plurality of cooling liquid supplying pipes and a vapor-liquid contact medium disposed thereunder to facilitate contact and direct heat exchange between the vapor and cooling liquid. The contact medium includes a plurality of sheets arranged to form vertical interleaved channels or passageways for the vapor and cooling liquid streams. The upward vapor flow chamber also includes a second set of cooling liquid supplying pipes disposed beneath the vapor-liquid contact medium which operate intermittently in response to a pressure differential within the upward vapor flow chamber. The condenser further includes separate wells for collecting condensate and cooling liquid from each of the vapor flow chambers. In alternate embodiments, the condenser includes a cross-current flow chamber and an upward flow chamber, a plurality of upward flow chambers, or a single upward flow chamber. The method of use of the direct contact condenser of this invention includes passing a vapor stream sequentially through the downward and upward vapor flow chambers, where the vapor is condensed as a result of heat exchange with the cooling liquid in the contact medium. The concentration of noncondensable gases in the resulting condensate-liquid mixtures can be minimized by controlling the partial pressure of the vapor, which depends in part upon the geometry of the vapor-liquid contact medium. In another aspect of this invention, the physical and chemical performance of a direct contact condenser can be predicted based on the vapor and coolant compositions, the condensation conditions. and the geometric properties of the contact medium.

  6. Memorization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express the funct...

  7. Pragmatics of type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1996-01-01

    Type-directed partial evaluation stems from the residualization of static values in dynamic contexts, given their type and the type of their free variables. Its algorithm coincides with the algorithm for coercing a subtype value into a supertype value, which itself coincides with Berger and Schwi...

  8. Water hammers in direct contact heater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uffer, R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the causes and mitigation or prevention of water hammers occurring in direct contact heaters and their attached lines. These water hammers are generally caused by rapid pressure reductions in the heaters or by water lines not flowing full. Proper design and operating measures can prevent or mitigate water hammer occurrence. Water hammers often do not originate at the areas where damage is noted

  9. Memoization in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    2002-01-01

    We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express the funct......We use a code generator—type-directed partial evaluation— to verify conversions between isomorphic types, or more precisely to verify that a composite function is the identity function at some complicated type. A typed functional language such as ML provides a natural support to express...... originate in the handling of sums, which uses delimited continuations. We successfully eliminate these redundancies by extending type-directed partial evaluation with memoization capabilities. The result only works for pure functional programs, but it provides an unexpected use of code generation...... and it yields orders-of-magnitude improvements both in time and in space for type isomorphisms. Basic Research in Computer Science (www. brics. dk), funded by the Danish National Research Foundation....

  10. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  11. Geysers advanced direct contact condenser research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, J.; Bahning, T.; Bharathan, D.

    1997-12-31

    The first geothermal application of the Advanced Direct Contact Condenser (ADCC) technology developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is now operational and is being tested at The Geysers Power Plant Unit 11. This major research effort is being supported through the combined efforts of NREL, The Department of Energy (DOE), and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). NREL and PG&E have entered into a Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA) for a project to improve the direct-contact condenser performance at The Geysers Power Plant. This project is the first geothermal adaptation of an advanced condenser design developed for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems. PG&E expects this technology to improve power plant performance and to help extend the life of the steam field by using steam more efficiently. In accordance with the CRADA, no money is transferred between the contracting parties. In this case the Department of Energy is funding NREL for their efforts in this project and PG&E is contributing funds in kind. Successful application of this technology at The Geysers will provide a basis for NREL to continue to develop this technology for other geothermal and fossil power plant systems.

  12. Heat transfer characteristics of a direct contact heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, I.; Nishi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    As a first step for development of a direct contact steam generator for FBRs, fundamental heat transfer characteristics of a liquid-liquid contact heat exchanger were evaluated by heat transfer experiment with low melting point alloy and water. Distinctive characteristics of direct contact heat transfer with liquid metal and water was obtained. (author)

  13. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.; Smith, Casey; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Yu, Qingkai; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Direct measurement of graphene contact resistivity to pre-deposited metal in buried contact test structure

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate a buried contact based novel test structure for direct contact resistivity measurement of graphene-metal interfaces. We also observe excellent contact resistivity 1 μO-cm2 without any additional surface modification suggesting that the intrinsic Au-graphene contact is sufficient for achieving devices with low contact resistance. The chemical mechanical polishing less test structure and data described herein highlights an ideal methodology for systematic screening and engineering of graphene-metal contact resistivity to enable low power high speed carbon electronics. © 2013 IEEE.

  15. Control of polyaniline conductivity and contact angles by partial protonation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blinova, Natalia V.; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 1 (2008), s. 66-69 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 847; GA ČR GA202/06/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * conductivity * contact angle Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.029, year: 2008

  16. [Measurements of tibio-femoral contact area after experimental partial and subtotal meniscectomie (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehne, H J; Riede, U N; Hauschild, G; Schlageter, M

    1981-02-01

    By means of section material, 24 partial and 58 subtotal meniscectomies were performed and the loss of tibio-femoral contact was evaluated by the Touchier-method planimetrically. In cases of partial resection this loss was 12% only, where as in subtotal resection 46%, where by the remaining contact zones lay in the central-, anyway meniscusfree area. The diagram of the chondral splitting lines showed a maximum of compression here, consecutively the remaining contact zone is reduced to the in earlier times most affected cartilage areas. The result correlates to the appearance of chondromalacies of the central tibial plateau in our own section cases and of postoperative osteoarthritis after subtotal meniscectomies in literature. Subtotal meniscectomies lead to incongruence and increased pressure. a pseudo-regeneration seems not to compensate the meniscus function sufficiently. A result for the clinic one should, when possible, resect menisci only partially.

  17. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children, ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect with the outgroup that young people experience a directly or b indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact, as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact; b that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995 and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups.

  18. Sibling Relation, Ethnic Prejudice, Direct and Indirect Contact: There is a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Sara; Marta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The literature on the socialisation of prejudice has concentrated on “vertical” processes (from parents to children), ignoring siblings’ contribution. This work aims to investigate the effect of contact (direct or indirect) with the outgroup that young people experience a) directly or b) indirectly through older or younger siblings’ friendships. Our hypotheses are a) that young people with friends in the outgroup will report lower prejudice levels (direct contact), as will young people who have older or younger siblings with friends in the outgroup (indirect contact); b) that other forms of contact such as having classmates/coworkers, neighbours, or employees are not effective in reducing either direct or indirect prejudice. 88 sibling dyads were administered the blatant and subtle prejudice questionnaire (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) and some ad hoc items aimed at investigating the typology of the contact experienced. The analysis of mixed ANOVA reveals that the first hypothesis was partially confirmed in that prejudice (subtle for the younger sibling and blatant for the older one) decreases in a statistically significant way only when there is the co-presence of direct and indirect contact. The second hypothesis is fully confirmed as no statistically significant differences emerged between the groups. PMID:27247684

  19. Apparent-contact-angle model at partial wetting and evaporation: impact of surface forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeček, V; Nikolayev, V S

    2013-01-01

    This theoretical and numerical study deals with evaporation of a fluid wedge in contact with its pure vapor. The model describes a regime where the continuous wetting film is absent and the actual line of the triple gas-liquid-solid contact appears. A constant temperature higher than the saturation temperature is imposed at the solid substrate. The fluid flow is solved in the lubrication approximation. The introduction of the surface forces in the case of the partial wetting is discussed. The apparent contact angle (the gas-liquid interface slope far from the contact line) is studied numerically as a function of the substrate superheating, contact line velocity, and parameters related to the solid-fluid interaction (Young and microscopic contact angles, Hamaker constant, etc.). The dependence of the apparent contact angle on the substrate temperature is in agreement with existing approaches. For water, the apparent contact angle may be 20° larger than the Young contact angle for 1 K superheating. The effect of the surface forces on the apparent contact angle is found to be weak.

  20. The Second Futamura Projection for Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grobauer, Bernd; Yang, Zhe

    2001-01-01

    ', syntax-directed partial evaluation and TDPE, this derivation involves several conceptual and technical steps. These include a suitable formulation of the second Futamura projection and techniques for using TDPE to specialize type-indexed programs. In the context of the second Futamura projection, we also...... compare and relate TDPE with conventional offline partial evaluation. We demonstrate our technique with several examples, including compiler generation for Tiny, a prototypical imperative language....

  1. 37 CFR 10.33 - Direct contact with prospective clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct contact with prospective clients. 10.33 Section 10.33 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... clients. A practitioner may not solicit professional employment from a prospective client with whom the...

  2. A direct bonded fixed partial dental prosthesis: A clinical report

    OpenAIRE

    Tanoue, Naomi; Tanaka, Takuo

    2015-01-01

    A direct bonded fixed partial dental prosthesis, with a composite resin denture tooth as a pontic, a tri-n-butylborane initiated adhesive resin, and screw posts for reinforcement, was still functioning after an observation period of 20 years. The prosthesis was found to be reliable for long-term clinical use when chemically and mechanically reinforced.

  3. Plasmonic direct writing lithography with a macroscopical contact probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuerong; Liu, Ling; Wang, Changtao; Chen, Weidong; Liu, Yunyue; Li, Ling

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we design a plasmonic direct writing lithography system with a macroscopical contact probe to achieve nanometer scale spots. The probe with bowtie-shaped aperture array adopts spring hinge and beam deflection method (BDM) to realize near-field lithography. Lithography results show that a macroscopical plasmonic contact probe can achieve a patterning resolution of around 75 nm at 365 nm wavelength, and demonstrate that the lithography system is promising for practical applications due to beyond the diffraction limit, low cost, and simplification of system configuration. CST calculations provide a guide for the design of recording structure and the arrangement of placing polarizer.

  4. Asynchronous partial contact motion due to internal resonance in multiple degree-of-freedom rotordynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A D; Champneys, A R; Friswell, M I

    2016-08-01

    Sudden onset of violent chattering or whirling rotor-stator contact motion in rotational machines can cause significant damage in many industrial applications. It is shown that internal resonance can lead to the onset of bouncing-type partial contact motion away from primary resonances. These partial contact limit cycles can involve any two modes of an arbitrarily high degree-of-freedom system, and can be seen as an extension of a synchronization condition previously reported for a single disc system. The synchronization formula predicts multiple drivespeeds, corresponding to different forms of mode-locked bouncing orbits. These results are backed up by a brute-force bifurcation analysis which reveals numerical existence of the corresponding family of bouncing orbits at supercritical drivespeeds, provided the damping is sufficiently low. The numerics reveal many overlapping families of solutions, which leads to significant multi-stability of the response at given drive speeds. Further, secondary bifurcations can also occur within each family, altering the nature of the response and ultimately leading to chaos. It is illustrated how stiffness and damping of the stator have a large effect on the number and nature of the partial contact solutions, illustrating the extreme sensitivity that would be observed in practice.

  5. Direct measurement of friction of a fluctuating contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuo; Gao, Min; Xiong, Xiaomin; Wang, Yong Jian; Wang, Xiaoping; Sheng, Ping; Tong, Penger

    2013-07-12

    We report a direct measurement of the friction coefficient of a fluctuating (and slipping) contact line using a thin vertical glass fiber of diameter d with one end glued onto a cantilever beam and the other end touching a liquid-air interface. By measuring the broadening of the resonant peak of the cantilever system with varying liquid viscosity η, we find the friction coefficient of the contact line has a universal form, ξ(c)≃0.8πdη, independent of the liquid-solid contact angle. The obtained scaling law is further supported by the numerical simulation based on the phase field model under the generalized Navier boundary conditions.

  6. Direct contact heat transfer characteristics between melting alloy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    As a candidate for an innovative steam generator for fast breeder reactors, a heat exchanger with direct contact heat transfer between melting alloy and water was proposed. The evaluation of heat transfer characteristics of this heat exchanger is one of the research subjects for the design and development of the steam generator. In this study, the effect of the pressure on heat transfer characteristics and the required degree of superheating of melting alloy above water saturation temperature are evaluated during the direct contact heat transfer experiment by injecting water into Wood's alloy. In the experiment, the pressure, the temperature of the Wood's alloy, the flow rate of feed water, and the depth of the feed water injection point are varied as parameters. As a result of the experiment, the product of the degree of Wood's alloy superheating above water saturation temperature and the depth of the feed water injection point is constant for each pressure. This constant increases as the pressure rises. (author)

  7. Transport phenomena and fouling in vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation: Experimental and modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri

    2016-08-27

    The application of vacuum to direct contact membrane distillation (vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation, V-DCMD) removed condensable gasses and reduced partial pressure in the membrane pores, achieving 37.6% higher flux than DCMD at the same feed temperature. Transfer mechanism and temperature distribution profile in V-DCMD were studied. The empirical flux decline (EFD) model represented fouling profiles of V-DCMD. In a continuous V-DCMD operation with moderate temperature (55 degrees C) and permeate pressure (300 mbar) for treating wastewater ROC, a flux of 16.0 +/- 0.3 L/m(2) h and high quality distillate were achieved with water flushing, showing the suitability of V-DCMD for ROC treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transport phenomena and fouling in vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation: Experimental and modelling

    KAUST Repository

    Naidu, Gayathri; Shim, Wang Geun; Jeong, Sanghyun; Choi, YoungKwon; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-01-01

    The application of vacuum to direct contact membrane distillation (vacuum enhanced direct contact membrane distillation, V-DCMD) removed condensable gasses and reduced partial pressure in the membrane pores, achieving 37.6% higher flux than DCMD at the same feed temperature. Transfer mechanism and temperature distribution profile in V-DCMD were studied. The empirical flux decline (EFD) model represented fouling profiles of V-DCMD. In a continuous V-DCMD operation with moderate temperature (55 degrees C) and permeate pressure (300 mbar) for treating wastewater ROC, a flux of 16.0 +/- 0.3 L/m(2) h and high quality distillate were achieved with water flushing, showing the suitability of V-DCMD for ROC treatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental investigation of direct contact three phase boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    The system which was studied in the present work consisted of one liquid undergoing vaporization by contact with a hotter immiscible liquid. The liquids and vapor were contacted in a counterflow spray column with only differential increases in vapor quality. Experiments yielded vertical temperature profiles, flow rates of the phases, liquid holdups, pressure drops, and a characterization of flow patterns. A micro-computer was utilized for measuring temperatures in the column at the rate of 1500 to 1600 times per second at several depths. Analysis of the experimental data indicate that the maximum temperature difference between the phases is 0.5F 0 , and that a temperature crossover occurs at the lower end of the column. The heat transfer fluid undergoes flash vaporization at its inlet at the top of the column, and much of its sensible heat is tranferred to the dispersed phase near the top of the column. Temperature profiles along the length of the boiler are nearly flat, and very little heat transfer occurs in the lower part of the boiler. A chemical method was developed for measuring effective interfacial area in a direct contact boiler. The theoretical basis of the method is discussed, and physico-chemical data necessary for application of the technique are reported. Water solubility of methyl salicylate was measured as a function of temperature, and the second order reaction rate coefficient for saponification of methyl salicylate by sodium hydroxide was determined from sodium hydroxide concentration versus time data and a computer model of a well-mixed semibatch reactor. The activation energy for the reaction was found to be 9.58 kilocalories per gram mole

  10. Frequency and direction of competitive anger in contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robazza, B; Bertollo, M; Bortoli, L

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether athletes involved in physical contact sports may interpret their feelings of anger as facilitative of performance, and to examine differences in the interpretation of anger as a function of the type of sport (team vs individual) or the competitive skill level (high vs low). A modified version of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory was administered to 100 Italian adult male athletes practicing rugby or individual combat sports (judo, freestyle wrestling, or Greco-Roman wrestling). The questionnaire was intended to measure the frequency and the direction (i.e., the facilitative-debilitative interpretation) of competitive anger. Many athletes engaged in contact sports tended interpret their competitive anger as facilitative of performance rather than debilitative. The type of sport and the athlete's standard level can mediate the individual's interpretation of the effects of anger symptoms upon performance. Competitors can interpret their anger as helpful to energize behavior and channel physical and mental resources for skill execution. Practitioners should assist athletes in gaining control over anger rather than attempting to suppress it.

  11. The effects of indirect intergroup contact on willingness to engage in direct contact with former adversary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Voca, S.; Graf, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2018), s. 47-57 ISSN 2309-3455 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-14387S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : positive intergroup contact * negative intergroup contact * extended intergroup contact * mass-mediated intergroup contact * willingness to engage in intergroup contact * empathy * outgroup trust Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  12. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo; Livazovic, Sara; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Transient direct-contact condensation on liquid droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, direct-contact condensation on subcooled liquid droplets is studied in two parts. In the first part, simple design correlations for the condensation in a steady environment are developed based upon a conduction model. These correlations include the convective heat-transfer coefficient, condensation rate, total condensation, and the droplet-thermalization time. In the second part of the paper, the effect of a time-dependent saturation temperature on the condensation process is investigated. A rapid decrease in saturation temperature is typical of condensation environments in which the steam-supply rate is limited and condensation-induced depressurization becomes important. Design correlations are developed for condensation in an environment in which the saturation temperature decreases linearly with time. These correlations are graphically compared to the design correlations of the first part through a quasi-steady approach. The error associated with this approach is quantified as a function of the rate of change of the saturation temperature

  14. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  15. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Weeks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer.

  16. Renewable water: Direct contact membrane distillation coupled with solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, Francisco; Ruskowitz, Jeffrey A.; Tyler, Scott W.; Childress, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of direct contact membrane distillation driven by solar ponds. • The DCMD/SGSP system treats ∼6 times the water flow treated by an AGMD/SGSP system. • Half of the energy extracted from the SGSP was used to transport water across the membrane. • Reducing heat losses through the DCMD/SGSP system would yield higher water fluxes. - Abstract: Desalination powered by renewable energy sources is an attractive solution to address the worldwide water-shortage problem without contributing significant to greenhouse gas emissions. A promising system for renewable energy desalination is the utilization of low-temperature direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) driven by a thermal solar energy system, such as a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP). This investigation presents the first experimental study of fresh water production in a coupled DCMD/SGSP system. The objectives of this work are to determine the experimental fresh water production rates and the energetic requirements of the different components of the system. From the laboratory results, it was found that the coupled DCMD/SGSP system treats approximately six times the water flow treated by a similar system that consisted of an air–gap membrane distillation unit driven by an SGSP. In terms of the energetic requirements, approximately 70% of the heat extracted from the SGSP was utilized to drive thermal desalination and the rest was lost in different locations of the system. In the membrane module, only half of the useful heat was actually used to transport water across the membrane and the remainder was lost by conduction in the membrane. It was also found that by reducing heat losses throughout the system would yield higher water fluxes, pointing out the need to improve the efficiency throughout the DCMD/SGSP coupled system. Therefore, further investigation of membrane properties, insulation of the system, or optimal design of the solar pond must be addressed in

  17. Cluster synchronization for directed community networks via pinning partial schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Cheng; Jiang Haijun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cluster synchronization for directed community networks is proposed by pinning partial schemes. ► Each community is considered as a whole. ► Several novel pinning criteria are derived based on the information of communities. ► A numerical example with simulation is provided. - Abstract: In this paper, we focus on driving a class of directed networks to achieve cluster synchronization by pinning schemes. The desired cluster synchronization states are no longer decoupled orbits but a set of un-decoupled trajectories. Each community is considered as a whole and the synchronization criteria are derived based on the information of communities. Several pinning schemes including feedback control and adaptive strategy are proposed to select controlled communities by analyzing the information of each community such as indegrees and outdegrees. In all, this paper answers several challenging problems in pinning control of directed community networks: (1) What communities should be chosen as controlled candidates? (2) How many communities are needed to be controlled? (3) How large should the control gains be used in a given community network to achieve cluster synchronization? Finally, an example with numerical simulations is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  18. Type Directed Partial Evaluation for Level-1 Shift and Reset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Ilik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an implementation in the Coq proof assistant of type directed partial evaluation (TDPE algorithms for call-by-name and call-by-value versions of shift and reset delimited control operators, and in presence of strong sum types. We prove that the algorithm transforms well-typed programs to ones in normal form. These normal forms can not always be arrived at using the so far known equational theories. The typing system does not allow answer-type modification for function types and allows delimiters to be set on at most one atomic type. The semantic domain for evaluation is expressed in Constructive Type Theory as a dependently typed monadic structure combining Kripke models and continuation passing style translations.

  19. A review of micro-contact physics, materials, and failure mechanisms in direct-contact RF MEMS switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A; Adams, G G; McGruer, N E

    2016-01-01

    Direct contact, ohmic MEMS switches for RF applications have several advantages over other conventional switching devices. Advantages include lower insertion loss, higher isolation, and better switching figure-of-merit (cut-off frequency). The most important aspect of a direct-contact RF MEMS switch is the metal microcontact which can dictate the lifetime and reliability of the switch. Therefore, an understanding of contact reliability is essential for developing robust MEMS switches. This paper discusses and reviews the most important work done over the past couple of decades toward understanding ohmic micro-contacts. We initially discuss the contact mechanics and multi-physics models for studying Hertzian and multi-asperity contacts. We follow this with a discussion on models and experiments for studying adhesion. We then discuss experimental setups and the development of contact test stations by various groups for accelerated testing of microcontacts, as well as for analysis of contact reliability issues. Subsequently, we analyze a number of material transfer mechanisms in microcontacts under hot and cold switching conditions. We finally review the material properties that can help determine the selection of contact materials. A trade-off between contact resistance and high reliability is almost always necessary during selection of contact material; this paper discusses how the choice of materials can help address such trade-offs. (paper)

  20. A Mathematical Method to Calculate Tumor Contact Surface Area: An Effective Parameter to Predict Renal Function after Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Po-Fan; Wang, Yu-De; Huang, Chi-Ping; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Yang, Che-Rei; Chen, Guang-Heng; Chang, Chao-Hsiang

    2016-07-01

    We proposed a mathematical formula to calculate contact surface area between a tumor and renal parenchyma. We examined the applicability of using contact surface area to predict renal function after partial nephrectomy. We performed this retrospective study in patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between January 2012 and December 2014. Based on abdominopelvic computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, we calculated the contact surface area using the formula (2*π*radius*depth) developed by integral calculus. We then evaluated the correlation between contact surface area and perioperative parameters, and compared contact surface area and R.E.N.A.L. (Radius/Exophytic/endophytic/Nearness to collecting system/Anterior/Location) score in predicting a reduction in renal function. Overall 35, 26 and 45 patients underwent partial nephrectomy with open, laparoscopic and robotic approaches, respectively. Mean ± SD contact surface area was 30.7±26.1 cm(2) and median (IQR) R.E.N.A.L. score was 7 (2.25). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area was significantly associated with estimated blood loss (p=0.04), operative time (p=0.04) and percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (p contact surface area and R.E.N.A.L. score independently affected percent change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (p contact surface area was a better independent predictor of a greater than 10% change in estimated glomerular filtration rate compared to R.E.N.A.L. score (AUC 0.86 vs 0.69). Using this simple mathematical method, contact surface area was associated with surgical outcomes. Compared to R.E.N.A.L. score, contact surface area was a better predictor of functional change after partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. External Validation of Contact Surface Area as a Predictor of Postoperative Renal Function in Patients Undergoing Partial Nephrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifler, Miki; Ristau, Benjamin T; Higgins, Andrew M; Smaldone, Marc C; Kutikov, Alexander; Zisman, Amnon; Uzzo, Robert G

    2017-09-20

    We sought to externally validate a mathematical formula for tumor contact surface area as a predictor of postoperative renal function in patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. We queried a prospectively maintained kidney cancer database for patients who underwent partial nephrectomy between 2014 and 2016. Contact surface area was calculated using data obtained from preoperative cross-sectional imaging. The correlation between contact surface area and perioperative variables was examined. The correlation between postoperative renal functional outcomes, contact surface area and the R.E.N.A.L. (radius, exophytic/endophytic properties, nearness of tumor to collecting system or sinus, anterior/posterior, location relative to polar lines and tumor touches main renal artery or vein) nephrometry score was also assessed. A total of 257 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy had sufficient data to enter the study. Median contact surface area was 14.5 cm 2 (IQR 6.2-36) and the median nephrometry score was 9 (IQR 7-10). Spearman correlation analysis showed that contact surface area correlated with estimated blood loss (r s = 0.42, p contact surface area and nephrometry score were independent predictors of the absolute change in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (each p contact surface area was a better predictor of a greater than 20% postoperative decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate compared with the nephrometry score (AUC 0.94 vs 0.80). Contact surface area correlated with the change in postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy. It can be used in conjunction with the nephrometry score to counsel patients about the risk of renal functional decline after partial nephrectomy. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Moving contact lines in partial wetting: bridging the gap across the scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavan, Amir; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; McKinley, Gareth; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-11-01

    The spreading and dewetting of liquid films on solid substrates is a common phenomenon in nature and industry from a snail secreting a mucosal film to printing and coating processes. A quantitative description of these phenomena, however, requires a detailed understanding of the flow physics at the nanoscale as the intermolecular interactions become important close to the contact line. Classical hydrodynamic theory describes wetting as an interplay between viscous and interfacial forces, neglecting the intermolecular interactions, leading to a paradox known as the moving contact line singularity. By contrast, molecular kinetic theory describes wetting as an activated process, neglecting the bulk hydrodynamics in the spreading viscous fluid film altogether. Here, we show that our recently developed model for thin liquid films in partial wetting, which properly incorporates the role of van der Waals interactions in a thin spreading fluid layer into a height-dependent surface tension, bridges the gap between these two approaches and leads to a unified framework for the description of wetting phenomena. We further use our model to investigate the instability and dewetting of nanometric liquid films, and show that it brings theoretical predictions closer to experimental observations.

  3. Numerical investigations on unstable direct contact condensation of cryogenic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, K. N.; Arnab, Roy; Parthasarathi, Ghosh

    2017-02-01

    A typical problem of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) occurs at the liquid oxygen (LOX) booster turbopump exit of oxidiser rich staged combustion cycle based semi-cryogenic rocket engines, where the hot gas mixture (predominantly oxygen and small amounts of combustion products) that runs the turbine mixes with LOX from the pump exit. This complex multiphase phenomena leads to the formation of solid CO2 & H2O, which is undesirable for the functioning of the main LOX turbopump. As a starting point for solving this complex problem, in this study, the hot gas mixture is taken as pure oxygen and hence, DCC of pure oxygen vapour jets in subcooled liquid oxygen is simulated using the commercial CFD package ANSYS CFX®. A two fluid model along with the thermal phase change model is employed for capturing the heat and mass transfer effects. The study mainly focuses on the subsonic DCC bubbling regime, which is reported as unstable with bubble formation, elongation, necking and collapsing effects. The heat transfer coefficients over a period of time have been computed and the various stages of bubbling have been analysed with the help of vapour volume fraction and pressure profiles. The results obtained for DCC of oxygen vapour-liquid mixtures is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results on DCC of steam-water mixtures.

  4. State of technology of direct contact heat exchanging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, R.W.; DeBellis, D.E.

    1984-05-01

    Specific objectives of this study were to assess the state of technology development and to identify and evaluate the constraints to wider use of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHE) technology in the U.S. The scope of this study is relatively broad; it includes many types of generic systems and end-use applications, both current and future. Domestic and foreign experience with DCHE technology are compared, although the primary focus is on domestic experience. Twenty-two distinct applications of DCHE technology were identified in this study and are examined in this report. The general format is to describe each system, explore its potential applications, discuss current and past research activities and identify major implementation barriers. Finally, as a result of discussions with principal users of DCHE systems and with other knowledgeable sources, generic and specific R and D needs to overcome specific implementation barriers have been identified. The following list of DCHE systems/concepts has been classified into four major end-uses; there is also a category for specialized (other) applications.

  5. Direct contact membrane distillation: Capability to desalt raw water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Boubakri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potentialities of membrane distillation to desalt raw waters were investigated. The experiments were performed on a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD unit using a flat sheet polypropylene (PP membrane with a low pore size of 0.064 μm. The effect of relevant operating parameters such as transmembrane temperature difference, hydrodynamic conditions and ionic strength on permeate flux and conductivity was studied. The results indicated that a permeate flux increases with increasing transmembrane temperature difference and Reynolds number, and slightly decreases with increasing ionic strength. The permeate flux reached 4.24 L/m2 h at a temperature difference of 60 °C and Reynolds number of 3740 and ionic strength of 8.56 × 10−2 M. DCMD process using PP with low pore size membrane present a very low salt passage through the membrane which was not affected by feed concentration. DCMD process has been applied during a long period to desalt raw water without any pretreatment. For brackish water, the variation of permeate flux and conductivity were slightly changed as function of operating time. For seawater, the permeate flux decreased slightly and the permeate conductivity increased sharply in which a simple pretreatment step is recommended to ameliorate the performance of DCMD process.

  6. Direct Laser Writing of Nanophotonic Structures on Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQattan, Bader; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-04-24

    Contact lenses are ubiquitous biomedical devices used for vision correction and cosmetic purposes. Their application as quantitative analytical devices is highly promising for point-of-care diagnostics. However, it is a challenge to integrate nanoscale features into commercial contact lenses for application in low-cost biosensors. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm, 3 ns pulse, 240 mJ) in holographic interference patterning mode was utilized to produce optical nanostructures over the surface of a hydrogel contact lens. One-dimensional (925 nm) and two-dimensional (925 nm × 925 nm) nanostructures were produced on contact lenses and analyzed by spectroscopy and angle-resolve measurements. The holographic properties of these nanostructures were tested in ambient moisture, fully hydrated, and artificial tear conditions. The measurements showed a rapid tuning of optical diffraction from these nanostructures from 41 to 48°. The nanostructures were patterned near the edges of the contact lens to avoid any interference and obstruction to the human vision. The formation of 2D nanostructures on lenses increased the diffraction efficiency by more than 10%. The versatility of the holographic laser ablation method was demonstrated by producing four different 2D nanopattern geometries on contact lenses. Hydrophobicity of the contact lens was characterized by contact angle measurements, which increased from 59.0° at pristine condition to 62.5° at post-nanofabrication. The holographic nanostructures on the contact lens were used to sense the concentration of Na + ions. Artificial tear solution was used to simulate the conditions in dry eye syndrome, and nanostructures on the contact lenses were used to detect the electrolyte concentration changes (±47 mmol L -1 ). Nanopatterns on a contact lens may be used to sense other ocular diseases in early stages at point-of-care settings.

  7. Rapakivi texture formation via disequilibrium melting in a contact partial melt zone, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, a Jurassic aged dolerite sill induced partial melting of granite in the shallow crust. The melt zone can be traced in full, from high degrees of melting (>60%) along the dolerite contact, to no apparent signs of melting, 10s of meters above the contact. Within this melt zone, the well-known rapakivi texture is found, arrested in various stages of development. High above the contact, and at low degrees of melting, K-feldspar crystals are slightly rounded and unmantled. In the lower half of the melt zone, mantles of cellular textured plagioclase appear on K-feldspar, and thicken towards the contact heat source. At the highest degrees of melting, cellular-textured plagioclase completely replaces restitic K-feldspar. Because of the complete exposure and intact context, the leading models of rapakivi texture formation can be tested against this system. The previously proposed mechanisms of subisothermal decompression, magma-mixing, and hydrothermal exsolution all fail to adequately describe rapakivi generation in this melt zone. Preferred here is a closed system model that invokes the production of a heterogeneous, disequilibrium melt through rapid heating, followed by calcium and sodium rich melt reacting in a peritectic fashion with restitic K-feldspar crystals. This peritectic reaction results in the production of plagioclase of andesine-oligoclase composition—which is consistent with not just mantles in the melt zone, but globally as well. The thickness of the mantle is diffusion limited, and thus a measure of the diffusive length scale of sodium and calcium over the time scale of melting. Thermal modeling provides a time scale of melting that is consistent with the thickness of observed mantles. Lastly, the distribution of mantled feldspars is highly ordered in this melt zone, but if it were mobilized and homogenized—mixing together cellular plagioclase, mantled feldspars, and unmantled feldspars—the result would be

  8. Evaluating the impact of direct and indirect contact on the mental health stigma of pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Elizabeth; Chen, Timothy F; O'Reilly, Claire L

    2012-07-01

    Contact with mental health consumers has shown to be a promising strategy to address mental health stigma, particularly in the context of pharmacy education. This research aimed to compare the effectiveness of a direct (face-to-face) contact intervention with an indirect (film based) contact intervention in reducing the mental health stigma of pharmacy students. A two-group, non-randomized, comparative study was conducted with third year pharmacy students (n = 198) allocated to the direct contact arm and fourth year pharmacy students (n = 278) allocated to the indirect contact arm. Baseline and immediate post-intervention data were collected using a validated 39 item survey instrument to assess the impact of the interventions on mental health stigma as well as attitudes towards providing mental health pharmaceutical services. Participants in the direct contact group showed a significant improvement in 37 out of 39 survey items and participants in the indirect contact group showed a significant improvement in 27 out of 39 items (P direct contact had a stronger impact than indirect contact for 22 items (P interventions was equivalent. Both indirect and direct contact may positively impact mental health stigma. While the strength of the stigma-change process may be heightened by face-to-face interactions, the largely positive impact of indirect contact suggests that stigma reduction may depend less on the medium of contact but more on the transcendent messages contributed by the consumers facilitating the contact experience.

  9. Partial Discharge Monitoring on Metal-Enclosed Switchgear with Distributed Non-Contact Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongxing Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Metal-enclosed switchgear, which are widely used in the distribution of electrical energy, play an important role in power distribution networks. Their safe operation is directly related to the reliability of power system as well as the power quality on the consumer side. Partial discharge detection is an effective way to identify potential faults and can be utilized for insulation diagnosis of metal-enclosed switchgear. The transient earth voltage method, an effective non-intrusive method, has substantial engineering application value for estimating the insulation condition of switchgear. However, the practical application effectiveness of TEV detection is not satisfactory because of the lack of a TEV detection application method, i.e., a method with sufficient technical cognition and analysis. This paper proposes an innovative online PD detection system and a corresponding application strategy based on an intelligent feedback distributed TEV wireless sensor network, consisting of sensing, communication, and diagnosis layers. In the proposed system, the TEV signal or status data are wirelessly transmitted to the terminal following low-energy signal preprocessing and acquisition by TEV sensors. Then, a central server analyzes the correlation of the uploaded data and gives a fault warning level according to the quantity, trend, parallel analysis, and phase resolved partial discharge pattern recognition. In this way, a TEV detection system and strategy with distributed acquisition, unitized fault warning, and centralized diagnosis is realized. The proposed system has positive significance for reducing the fault rate of medium voltage switchgear and improving its operation and maintenance level.

  10. Partial Discharge Monitoring on Metal-Enclosed Switchgear with Distributed Non-Contact Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongxing; Dong, Ming; Ren, Ming; Huang, Wenguang; Zhou, Jierui; Gao, Xuze; Albarracín, Ricardo

    2018-02-11

    Metal-enclosed switchgear, which are widely used in the distribution of electrical energy, play an important role in power distribution networks. Their safe operation is directly related to the reliability of power system as well as the power quality on the consumer side. Partial discharge detection is an effective way to identify potential faults and can be utilized for insulation diagnosis of metal-enclosed switchgear. The transient earth voltage method, an effective non-intrusive method, has substantial engineering application value for estimating the insulation condition of switchgear. However, the practical application effectiveness of TEV detection is not satisfactory because of the lack of a TEV detection application method, i.e., a method with sufficient technical cognition and analysis. This paper proposes an innovative online PD detection system and a corresponding application strategy based on an intelligent feedback distributed TEV wireless sensor network, consisting of sensing, communication, and diagnosis layers. In the proposed system, the TEV signal or status data are wirelessly transmitted to the terminal following low-energy signal preprocessing and acquisition by TEV sensors. Then, a central server analyzes the correlation of the uploaded data and gives a fault warning level according to the quantity, trend, parallel analysis, and phase resolved partial discharge pattern recognition. In this way, a TEV detection system and strategy with distributed acquisition, unitized fault warning, and centralized diagnosis is realized. The proposed system has positive significance for reducing the fault rate of medium voltage switchgear and improving its operation and maintenance level.

  11. Directly assessing interpersonal RSA influences in the frequency domain: An illustration with generalized partial directed coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Gates, Kathleen M; Blandon, Alysia Y

    2018-06-01

    Despite recent research indicating that interpersonal linkage in physiology is a common phenomenon during social interactions, and the well-established role of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in socially facilitative physiological regulation, little research has directly examined interpersonal influences in RSA, perhaps due to methodological challenges in analyzing multivariate RSA data. In this article, we aim to bridge this methodological gap by introducing a new method for quantifying interpersonal RSA influences. Specifically, we show that a frequency-domain statistic, generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC), can be used to capture lagged relations in RSA between social partners without first estimating RSA for each person. We illustrate its utility by examining the relation between gPDC and marital conflict in a sample of married couples. Finally, we discuss how gPDC complements existing methods in the time domain and provide guidelines for choosing among these different statistical techniques. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Whither papillon? Future directions for contact radiotherapy in rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, J; Gerard, J P; Sun Myint, A

    2007-01-01

    of rectal cancer. As a result of these efforts, a European company is starting production of the new Papillon RT-50 machine, which will be available shortly. In addition, the ICONE group is planning an observational study on contact X-ray and transanal endoscopic microsurgery (CONTEM) for curative treatment...... of rectal cancer. This protocol will ensure standardised diagnostic procedures, patient selection and treatment in centres across the world and the data will be collected prospectively for analysis and audit. It is hoped that the CONTEM trial will provide the scientific evidence that is needed to obtain...

  13. Micro-lubrication of Directionally Oriented Contact Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Maršálek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of the set of software tools for detailed computational modelling of thin lubrication layers behaviour is presented in this paper. Individual chapters outline reasons for realization of its each part, explain the functionality of each software tool and the given mathematical definition or digital implementation of all important equations or formulae. The following are examples of partial results of the analysis carried out and the resulting flow factors databases for some kinds of rough surfaces, together with an example of the analysis result of the connecting rod sliding bearing of supercharged internal combustion engine.

  14. Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, J.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Two new developments in scattering theory are reported. We show, in a practical way, how one can calculate the full scattering amplitude without invoking a partial wave expansion. First, the integral expression for the scattering amplitude f(theta) is simplified by an analytic integration over the azimuthal angle. Second, the full scattering wavefunction which appears in the integral expression for f(theta) is obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation with the finite element method (FEM). As an example, we calculate electron scattering from the Hartree potential. With minimal computational effort, we obtain accurate and stable results for the scattering amplitude.

  15. Electrical equivalent thermal network for direct contact membrane distillation modeling and analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-09-19

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging water desalination technology that offers several advantages compared to conventional desalination methods. Although progress has been made to model the physics of the process, there are two common limitations of existing models. Firstly, many of the models are based on the steady-state analysis of the process and secondly, some of the models are based on partial differential equations, which when discretized introduce many states which are not accessible in practice. This paper presents the derivation of a novel dynamic model, based on the analogy between electrical and thermal systems, for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). An analogous electrical thermal network is constructed and its elements are parameterized such that the response of the network models the DCMD process. The proposed model captures the spatial and temporal responses of the temperature distribution along the flow direction and is able to accurately predict the distilled water flux output. To demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed model, validation with time varying and steady-state experimental data is presented. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Potential Role of Direct and Indirect Contacts on Infection Spread in Dairy Farm Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Rossi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals' exchanges are considered the most effective route of between-farm infectious disease transmission. However, despite being often overlooked, the infection spread due to contaminated equipment, vehicles, or personnel proved to be important for several livestock epidemics. This study investigated the role of indirect contacts in a potential infection spread in the dairy farm network of the Province of Parma (Northern Italy. We built between-farm contact networks using data on cattle exchange (direct contacts, and on-farm visits by veterinarians (indirect contacts. We compared the features of the contact structures by using measures on static and temporal networks. We assessed the disease spreading potential of the direct and indirect network structures in the farm system by using data on the infection state of farms by paratuberculosis. Direct and indirect networks showed non-trivial differences with respect to connectivity, contact distribution, and super-spreaders identification. Furthermore, our analyses on paratuberculosis data suggested that the contributions of direct and indirect contacts on diseases spread are apparent at different spatial scales. Our results highlighted the potential role of indirect contacts in between-farm disease spread and underlined the need for a deeper understanding of these contacts to develop better strategies for prevention of livestock epidemics.

  17. Polyoxadiazole hollow fibers for produced water treatment by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli; Srivatsa Bettahalli, N.M.; Chisca, Stefan; Khalid, Mohammed Khalil; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Vilagines, Ré gis; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Treatment of produced water in the petroleum industry has been a challenge worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for this purpose, removing oil and dissolved elements and supplying clean water

  18. Visualization of direct contact heat transfer between water and molten alloy by neutron radiography. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1997-01-01

    Design of an innovative Steam Generator (SG) for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) using liquid-liquid direct contact heat transfer has been developing. In this concept, the SG shell is filled with a molten alloy, which is heated by primary sodium. Water is fed into the high-temperature, molten alloy, and evaporates by direct contact heating. In order to obtain the fundamental information needed to discuss the heat transfer mechanisms of direct contact between the water and molten alloy, this phenomenon was observed by neutron radiography. JRR-3M thermal neutron radiography at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. This paper deals with the results of visualization of direct contact heat exchange in the molten alloy. (author)

  19. Direct Partial Oxidations Using Molecular Oxygen - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, Richard [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    In 2006, Richard A. Kemp (University of New Mexico) and Karen I. Goldberg (University of Washington) formed a team and began to investigate new strategies to accomplish direct selective aerobic oxidations, with a particular emphasis on the epoxidation of propylene and higher olefins. This DOE-BES funded project was renewed twice and concluded after a no-cost extension earlier this year. Multiple novel strategies involving homogeneous catalyst systems were initiated and investigated during the award. Important fundamental understanding and insight concerning requirements for promotion of aerobic olefin epoxidation was generated. During the tenure of this project, new knowledge was generated concerning the synthesis, characterization and aerobic reactivity of metal hydrides and hydroxides. Key results describing synthetic strategies and optimization of the preparation of mononuclear late metal hydrides were published. The team reported the first example of O2 insertion into a Pd-H bond, a reaction which had been proposed in the literature but never previously observed. Our experimental investigation of the mechanism was later followed by computational work, and a description of what is now referred to as the Hydrogen Atom Abstraction (HAA) pathway for this reaction has been widely accepted in the community. After investigation of many other late metal hydrides, both experimentally and computationally, the team put together a chapter that included a description of key contributing factors that allow reaction by the HAA mechanism. A brief sampling of other classic papers from our project include hydrogenolysis reactions of late metal hydroxide and alkoxide complexes, the synthesis of nickel-hydrides, and the involvement of hemilabile ligands in promoting new reaction pathways.

  20. Consistency of direct integral estimator for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujačić, Ivan; Dattner, Itai

    In this paper we use the sieve framework to prove consistency of the ‘direct integral estimator’ of parameters for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations, which are commonly used for modeling dynamic processes.

  1. Direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG): A concept for removing the contact resistance between thermoelectric modules and heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Young; Negash, Assmelash; Cho, Gyubaek

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A design concept of a direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG) is proposed. • Power generation characteristics of the DCTEG on a diesel engine are examined. • Maximum power output of ∼45 W and conversion efficiency of ∼2.0% are obtained. • Effect of clearance on energy conversion of the DCTEG is numerically investigated. • A 132% increase in output power with a flush mounted configuration is obtained. - Abstract: This paper proposes the concept of a direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG) to enhance the practicality and widen the application areas of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). In the DCTEG, one thermoelectric module (TEM) surface is directly exposed to a heat source, and the other surface is in direct contact with a coolant flow. The current direct-contact configuration is beneficial for system fabrication, maintenance, long-term reliability, and maximizing energy usage in cooperation with other energy systems because of its simple configuration and lack of interfaces between the TEMs and heat sources. In order to validate the proposed concept experimentally, a DCTEG was constructed by fabricating customized TEMs and exhaust gas and coolant channels with openings to mount the TEMs. A diesel engine served as a heat source by providing hot exhaust gas into the DCTEG, while the coolant (water–ethylene glycol mixture) was pumped into the coolant channels to remove heat. Based on the experimental results obtained under various engine operating conditions, the power generation of the DCTEG was characterized in the form of current–voltage and power–voltage curves. The maximum output power of 43 W and conversion efficiency of 2.0% were obtained under the highest engine load and rotation speed conditions. A series of numerical simulations was carried out to investigate the effect of the system configuration on the DCTEG power generation performance with the clearance between the TEM surfaces and exhaust gas

  2. Effect of direct and indirect contact with mental illness on dangerousness and social distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Mikyung

    2018-03-01

    This study is based on the contact hypothesis that contact with mental illness is the most effective anti-stigma strategy. This study aims to analyze which form of contact can most effectively decrease the dangerousness and social distance associated with schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. In total, 573 Korean adults ( M age  = 43.71 years, standard deviation ( SD) = 13.41; 54.1% male, 45.9% female) were surveyed about randomly assigned vignettes of schizophrenia, depression and alcoholism. The participants were questioned on the dangerousness and social distance associated with the assigned vignette, as well as direct and indirect contact experience with the mental illness. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the main effect and interaction effect that the type of mental illness and contact experience have on the two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). The findings show that the type of mental illness has a significant main effect on dangerousness and social distance, but contact type only has a significant main effect on social distance. Moreover, the two independent variables (mental illness subtype and contact experience) have an interaction effect on two dependent variables (dangerousness and social distance). Therefore, the anti-stigma effect of contact varies according to the type of mental illness. Our findings suggest that appropriate anti-stigma strategies are required for each type of mental illness. Considering that opportunities for direct contact with persons with mental illness are highly limited, it is necessary to actively utilize indirect contact.

  3. Investigation of the Dynamic Contact Angle Using a Direct Numerical Simulation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangpu; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai; Li, Aifen; Shams, Bilal

    2016-11-15

    A large amount of residual oil, which exists as isolated oil slugs, remains trapped in reservoirs after water flooding. Numerous numerical studies are performed to investigate the fundamental flow mechanism of oil slugs to improve flooding efficiency. Dynamic contact angle models are usually introduced to simulate an accurate contact angle and meniscus displacement of oil slugs under a high capillary number. Nevertheless, in the oil slug flow simulation process, it is unnecessary to introduce the dynamic contact angle model because of a negligible change in the meniscus displacement after using the dynamic contact angle model when the capillary number is small. Therefore, a critical capillary number should be introduced to judge whether the dynamic contact model should be incorporated into simulations. In this study, a direct numerical simulation method is employed to simulate the oil slug flow in a capillary tube at the pore scale. The position of the interface between water and the oil slug is determined using the phase-field method. The capacity and accuracy of the model are validated using a classical benchmark: a dynamic capillary filling process. Then, different dynamic contact angle models and the factors that affect the dynamic contact angle are analyzed. The meniscus displacements of oil slugs with a dynamic contact angle and a static contact angle (SCA) are obtained during simulations, and the relative error between them is calculated automatically. The relative error limit has been defined to be 5%, beyond which the dynamic contact angle model needs to be incorporated into the simulation to approach the realistic displacement. Thus, the desired critical capillary number can be determined. A three-dimensional universal chart of critical capillary number, which functions as static contact angle and viscosity ratio, is given to provide a guideline for oil slug simulation. Also, a fitting formula is presented for ease of use.

  4. Feasibility study on applicability of direct contact heat transfer SGs or FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Izumi; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro

    1997-01-01

    As a candidate of an innovative steam generator for fast breeder reactors, heat exchanger with direct contact heat transfer between melting alloy and water was proposed. The objectives of this study are to obtain the technical feasibility of this concept, to evaluate the heat transfer characteristics of direct contact heat transfer and to estimate the size and volume of this SG. Followings are main results. (1) In the case of sodium tube failure, it is considered that steam and water will not enter into the primary sodium under appropriate countermeasures. (2) Under the condition of temperature and pressure of SG for FBRs, the phenomenon such as vapor explosion is not take place in this SG concept. (3) as a result of material compatibility test and analysis, it is considered that 9Cr-1Mo steel and 21/4cr-1Mo steel will be a candidate structural material. (4) It is considered that the production of oxides by the chemical reaction between melting alloy and water is mitigated by dissolving hydrogen gas in feed water. (5) The fundamental direct contact heat transfer characteristics between a melting alloy and water is obtained in following two regions. One is the evaporating region and the other is the superheating region. The effect of the system pressure on the heat transfer characteristics and the required degree of superheat of a melting alloy above the water saturation temperature are evaluated during direct contact heat transfer experiments by injecting water into a high temperature melting alloy. (6) Due to the high heat transfer performance of direct contact heat transfer, it is found that compact steam generation section will be expected. However, because of the characteristics of direct contact heat exchanger, achievement of high efficiency was difficult. In order to make a good use of this SG concept, improvement of efficiency is necessary. (author)

  5. Evidence for transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 through direct contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Batten

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms of transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 26 (BTV-26 in goats. A previous study, which investigated the pathogenicity and infection kinetics of BTV-26 in goats, unexpectedly revealed that one control goat may have been infected through a direct contact transmission route. To investigate the transmission mechanisms of BTV-26 in more detail an experimental infection study was carried out in which three goats were infected with BTV-26, three goats were kept uninfected, but were housed in direct contact with the infected goats, and an additional four goats were kept in indirect contact separated from infected goats by metal gates. This barrier allowed the goats to have occasional face-to-face contact in the same airspace, but feeding, watering, sampling and environmental cleaning was carried out separately. The three experimentally infected goats did not show clinical signs of BTV, however high levels of viral RNA were detected and virus was isolated from their blood. At 21 dpi viral RNA was detected in, and virus was isolated from the blood of the three direct contact goats, which also seroconverted. The four indirect barrier contact goats remained uninfected throughout the duration of the experiment. In order to assess replication in a laboratory model species of Culicoides biting midge, more than 300 Culicoides sonorensis were fed a BTV-26 spiked blood meal and incubated for 7 days. The dissemination of BTV-26 in individual C. sonorensis was inferred from the quantity of virus RNA and indicated that none of the insects processed at day 7 possessed transmissible infections. This study shows that BTV-26 is easily transmitted through direct contact transmission between goats, and the strain does not seem to replicate in C. sonorensis midges using standard incubation conditions.

  6. Partial and complete tear of the anterior cruciate ligament. Direct and indirect MR signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.T.; Tu, H.Y.; Chen, R.C.; Shih, T.T.F.; Shau, W.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze MR direct and indirect signs for knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) partial or complete tear. Material and Methods: According to documented MR direct and indirect signs for ACL tear, we retrospectively reviewed the incidence of those signs in 15 partial ACL tear and 17 complete ACL tear patients. The findings were also compared with duration of injury (less or more than 6 weeks, as acute or chronic stages). Results: A residual straight and tight ACL fiber in at least one pulse sequence was more frequently detected in partial ACL tears. The empty notch sign, a wavy contour of ACL, bone contusion at lateral compartment and lateral meniscus posterior horn tear were significantly more frequently seen in complete tear cases. The posterior cruciate ligament angle in chronic complete ACL tear cases (109 deg ±20 deg) had a tendency to be less than in chronic partial ACL tear cases (119 deg ±18 deg). Conclusion: The empty notch sign, a wavy ACL, bone contusion, and posterior horn of lateral meniscus tears are suggestive of a complete ACL tear. A residual straight and tight ACL fiber seen in at least one image section is a helpful sign to diagnosis of partial ACL tear. In the acute ACL injury stage, a focal increase of the ACL signal intensity is more suggestive of a partial ACL tear

  7. Transmission of African swine fever virus from infected pigs by direct contact and aerosol routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Ann Sofie; Lohse, Louise; Boklund, Anette

    2017-01-01

    from Poland (designated here POL/2015/Podlaskie/Lindholm). In both studies, pigs were inoculated intranasally with the virus and contact pigs were exposed to the experimentally infected pigs, either directly (contact within and between pens) or by air. Pigs exposed to the virus by intranasal...... and occasionally infectious virus was found in nasal-, oral-, and rectal swabs obtained from the pigs, and ASFV DNA was detected in air samples. No anti-ASFV antibodies were detected in sera.In conclusion, the study shows that the currently circulating strain of ASFV can be efficiently transmitted via direct...... contact and by aerosols. Also, the results provide quantitative transmission parameters and knowledge of infection stages in pigs infected with this ASFV....

  8. Direct-Current Forced Interruption and Breaking Performance of Spiral-Type Contacts in Aero Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenlei Huo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the transient characteristics and breaking performance of direct-current (DC forced-interruption vacuum interrupters in 270 V power-supply systems. Three stages are identified in forced interruption: the DC-arcing stage, current-commutation stage, and voltage-recovery stage. During the current-commutation stage, the reverse peak-current coefficient k, which is a key design factor, is used to calculate the rate of current at zero-crossing (di/dt. MATLAB/Simulink simulation models are established to obtain the transient characteristics influenced by the forced-commutation branch parameters and the coefficient k. To study the breaking performance of spiral-type contacts, experiments are conducted for different contact materials and arcing times for currents less than 3.5 kA. During the DC-arcing stage, a locally intensive burning arc is observed in the CuW80 contact; however, it is not observed in the CuCr50 contact. On examining the re-ignition interruption results of the CuW80 contact, the intensive burning arc is found to be positioned within a possible re-ignition region. When the arcing time is longer than 1 ms, the intensive burning arc occurs and affects the breaking performance of the spiral-type contacts. If the DC-arcing stage is prolonged, the total arcing energy increases, which leads to a lower breaking capacity.

  9. A direct algebraic method applied to obtain complex solutions of some nonlinear partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using some exact solutions of an auxiliary ordinary differential equation, a direct algebraic method is described to construct the exact complex solutions for nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is implemented for the NLS equation, a new Hamiltonian amplitude equation, the coupled Schrodinger-KdV equations and the Hirota-Maccari equations. New exact complex solutions are obtained.

  10. An evaluation of directional analysis techniques for multidirectional, partially reflected waves .1. numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, C; Chadwick, A; Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    , non-phased locked methods are more appropriate. In this paper, the accuracy of two non-phased locked methods of directional analysis, the maximum likelihood method (MLM) and the Bayesian directional method (BDM) have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical simulations for the case...... of multidirectional waves with partial reflections. It is shown that the results are influenced by the ratio of distance from the reflector (L) to the length of the time series (S) used in the spectral analysis. Both methods are found to be capable of determining the incident and reflective wave fields when US > 0......Recent studies of advanced directional analysis techniques have mainly centred on incident wave fields. In the study of coastal structures, however, partially reflective wave fields are commonly present. In the near structure field, phase locked methods can be successfully applied. In the far field...

  11. Three-dimensional direct laser written graphitic electrical contacts to randomly distributed components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Bryce; Parkinson, Patrick; Scully, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    The development of cost-effective electrical packaging for randomly distributed micro/nano-scale devices is a widely recognized challenge for fabrication technologies. Three-dimensional direct laser writing (DLW) has been proposed as a solution to this challenge, and has enabled the creation of rapid and low resistance graphitic wires within commercial polyimide substrates. In this work, we utilize the DLW technique to electrically contact three fully encapsulated and randomly positioned light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in a one-step process. The resolution of the contacts is in the order of 20 μ m, with an average circuit resistance of 29 ± 18 kΩ per LED contacted. The speed and simplicity of this technique is promising to meet the needs of future microelectronics and device packaging.

  12. Effect of direct contact with iron on gas evolution behavior of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1998-01-01

    Dry Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW), incombustible solid LLW, generated from nuclear power stations is planed to be solidified with cement backfill in drums. The solidified dry LLW will be buried to shallow underground at Rokkasyo LLW Disposal Center. It is well known that corrosion of aluminum and hydrogen gas evolution occur in high pH environments such as mortar. Gas evolution from aluminum is likely to effect the leachability of solidified dry LLW with mortar. Though aluminum removal from dry LLW is planed, a small amount of aluminum will be actually included in dry LLW. Large effects of pH and temperature on corrosion rate of aluminum and gas evolution were recognized in our previous study. It was also found that 1.5 mole hydrogen gas evolves while 1 mole aluminum corrodes under 60degC. Actually aluminum in drums is likely to contact with carbon steel of which main element is iron. The gas evolution behavior of aluminum is expected to be affected by its direct contact with iron. Therefore, effect of direct contact with iron on gas evolution behavior of aluminum was studied. The corrosion rate of aluminum increased by contacting it with iron in simulating mortar environments. The amount of gas evolution from aluminum was reduced by contacting with iron. The reduction in gas evolution was considered to result from the change of cathode reaction from hydrogen evolution to oxygen reduction. When aluminum contacts with iron, the corrosion and gas evolution behavior of aluminum is significantly affected oxygen in environment. (author)

  13. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    in the style of denotational semantics; – the output of the generated compiler is effectively three-address code, in the fashion and efficiency of the Dragon Book; – the generated compiler processes several hundred lines of source code per second. The source language considered in this case study is imperative......, block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs...... by specializing a definitional interpreter with respect to the program. Specialization is carried out using type-directed partial evaluation, which is a mild version of partial evaluation akin to lambda-calculus normalization. Our definitional interpreter follows the format of denotational semantics, with a clear...

  14. Electrokinetic desalination of protruded areas of stone avoiding the direct contact with electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feijoo, J.; Matyscák, O.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    of the sandstone highly contaminated with salts. Therefore, these results confirmed that it was possible to desalinate the sandstone using electrokinetic methods without the need to put in contact the affected areas with the equipment, reducing the possibility of altering it by manipulation.......Soluble salts are considered one of the main deterioration factors of porous building materials such as rocks, bricks or granites. The desalination treatments currently used in order to mitigate this alteration process are usually applied directly on the affected areas, which have often a low...... degree of cohesion precisely due to the deteriorating effect of the salts. The present study aimed to investigate the evaluation of a new approach based on electrokinetic techniques to desalinate rocks in monuments, specifically to desalinate carved reliefs. The procedure avoids the direct contact...

  15. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tremsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods. The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (∼739 ± 98 kPa and ∼751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ∼758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ∼ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. The ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.

  16. Directly Printable Flexible Strain Sensors for Bending and Contact Feedback of Soft Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Elgeneidy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully printable sensorized bending actuator that can be calibrated to provide reliable bending feedback and simple contact detection. A soft bending actuator following a pleated morphology, as well as a flexible resistive strain sensor, were directly 3D printed using easily accessible FDM printer hardware with a dual-extrusion tool head. The flexible sensor was directly welded to the bending actuator’s body and systematically tested to characterize and evaluate its response under variable input pressure. A signal conditioning circuit was developed to enhance the quality of the sensory feedback, and flexible conductive threads were used for wiring. The sensorized actuator’s response was then calibrated using a vision system to convert the sensory readings to real bending angle values. The empirical relationship was derived using linear regression and validated at untrained input conditions to evaluate its accuracy. Furthermore, the sensorized actuator was tested in a constrained setup that prevents bending, to evaluate the potential of using the same sensor for simple contact detection by comparing the constrained and free-bending responses at the same input pressures. The results of this work demonstrated how a dual-extrusion FDM printing process can be tuned to directly print highly customizable flexible strain sensors that were able to provide reliable bending feedback and basic contact detection. The addition of such sensing capability to bending actuators enhances their functionality and reliability for applications such as controlled soft grasping, flexible wearables, and haptic devices.

  17. Visualization of direct contact heat transfer between water and molten alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1996-01-01

    We have been developing an innovative Steam Generator concept of Fast Breeder Reactors by using liquid-liquid direct contact heat transfer. In this concept, the SG shell is filled with a molten alloys, which is heated by primary sodium. Water is fed into the high temperature molten alloy, and evaporates by direct contact heating. In order to obtain the fundamental information to discuss the heat transfer mechanisms of the direct contact between the water and the alloy, this phenomenon was visualized by real-time neutron radiography. JRR-3M real-time thermal neutron radiography in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. Followings are main results. (1) The vigorous evaporation occurs in the molten alloy. This phenomena is different from the known phenomenon such as the evaporation of refrigerant R-113 in the water. (2) The evaporation in the bubble has finished in a moment due to high heat transfer performance between the liquid and molten alloy. (3) It is confirmed that the velocity of bubble with the rapid evaporation and growth is about 50 cm/s. (author)

  18. Strong normalization by type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  19. Strong Normalization by Type-Directed Partial Evaluation and Run-Time Code Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balat, Vincent; Danvy, Olivier

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the synergy between type-directed partial evaluation and run-time code generation for the Caml dialect of ML. Type-directed partial evaluation maps simply typed, closed Caml values to a representation of their long βη-normal form. Caml uses a virtual machine and has the capability...... to load byte code at run time. Representing the long βη-normal forms as byte code gives us the ability to strongly normalize higher-order values (i.e., weak head normal forms in ML), to compile the resulting strong normal forms into byte code, and to load this byte code all in one go, at run time. We...... conclude this note with a preview of our current work on scaling up strong normalization by run-time code generation to the Caml module language....

  20. Semantics-Based Compiling: A Case Study in Type-Directed Partial Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs......-directed compilation, in the spirit of Scott and Strachey. Our conclusion is that lambda-calculus normalization suffices for compiling by specializing an interpreter....

  1. Semantics-based compiling: A case study in type-directed partial evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Vestergaard, René

    1996-01-01

    , block-structured, higher-order, call-by-value, allows subtyping, and obeys stack discipline. It is bigger than what is usually reported in the literature on semantics-based compiling and partial evaluation. Our compiling technique uses the first Futamura projection, i.e., we compile programs......-directed compilation, in the spirit of Scott and Strachey. Our conclusion is that lambda-calculus normalization suffices for compiling by specializing an interpreter....

  2. Participant observation of time allocation, direct patient contact and simultaneous activities in hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupanc Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital physicians' time is a critical resource in medical care. Two aspects are of interest. First, the time spent in direct patient contact – a key principle of effective medical care. Second, simultaneous task performance ('multitasking' which may contribute to medical error, impaired safety behaviour, and stress. There is a call for instruments to assess these aspects. A preliminary study to gain insight into activity patterns, time allocation and simultaneous activities of hospital physicians was carried out. Therefore an observation instrument for time-motion-studies in hospital settings was developed and tested. Methods 35 participant observations of internists and surgeons of a German municipal 300-bed hospital were conducted. Complete day shifts of hospital physicians on wards, emergency ward, intensive care unit, and operating room were continuously observed. Assessed variables of interest were time allocation, share of direct patient contact, and simultaneous activities. Inter-rater agreement of Kappa = .71 points to good reliability of the instrument. Results Hospital physicians spent 25.5% of their time at work in direct contact with patients. Most time was allocated to documentation and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff. Physicians performed parallel simultaneous activities for 17–20% of their work time. Communication with patients, documentation, and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff were the most frequently observed simultaneous activities. Applying logit-linear analyses, specific primary activities increase the probability of particular simultaneous activities. Conclusion Patient-related working time in hospitals is limited. The potential detrimental effects of frequently observed simultaneous activities on performance outcomes need further consideration.

  3. Electrical Thermal Network for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation Modeling and Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2015-02-04

    Membrane distillation is an emerging water distillation technology that offers several advantages compared to conventional water desalination processes. Although progress has been made to model and understand the physics of the process, many studies are based on steady-state assumptions or are computationally not appropriate for real time control. This paper presents the derivation of a novel dynamical model, based on analogy between electrical and thermal systems, for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The proposed model captures the dynamics of temperature distribution and distilled water flux. To demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed model, validation with transient and steady-state experimental data is presented.

  4. Feedback control for distributed heat transfer mechanisms in direct-contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi; N'Doye, Ibrahima; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  5. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J.; Bonilla, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  6. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J; Bonilla, O [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  7. An analysis direct-contact condensation in horizontal cocurrent stratified flow of steam and cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk Ho; Kim, Hho Jung

    1992-01-01

    The physical benchmark problem on the direct-contact condensation under the horizontal cocurrent stratified flow was analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD2 and /MOD3 one-dimensional model. Analysis was performed for the Northwestern experiments, which involved condensing steam/water flow in a rectangular channel. The study showed that the RELAP5 interfacial heat transfer model, under the horizontal stratified flow regime, predicted the condensation rate well though the interfacial heat transfer area was underpredicted. However, some discrepancies in water layer thickness and local heat transfer coefficient with experimental results were found especially when there is a wavy interface, and those were satisfied only within the range. (Author)

  8. A Model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Black Currant Juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; Christensen, Knud Villy; Andrésen, René

    2011-01-01

    A numerical model to describe a direct contact membrane distillation proces has been developed. Said model is based on the Dusty Gas model and shell mass and energy balances over a tubular membrane module.  "The solution is applicable to laminar, incompressible and continuous flow in shell......-side spacing of tubular-type unit."  Turtuosity and porosity are characteristics of the membrane in use and have been estimated base don eksperimental studies on destillation of pure water. The fitted model shows a good fit to experimental data obtained by destillation of black currant juice....

  9. Feedback control for distributed heat transfer mechanisms in direct-contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2015-09-21

    In this paper, the problem of stabilization and production rate reference tracking for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) system is addressed. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotic and exponential stabilization for DCMD system are presented using the Gronwall-Bellman lemma and Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs) approaches, respectively. A nonlinear observer is then proposed to estimate the temperature distribution among the DCMD domain. This contributes to propose a reference production rate control design for the DCMD process via observer-based output control approach. Finally, numerical simulations are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  10. Sun-Direction Estimation Using a Partially Underdetermined Set of Coarse Sun Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2015-09-01

    A comparison of different methods to estimate the sun-direction vector using a partially underdetermined set of cosine-type coarse sun sensors (CSS), while simultaneously controlling the attitude towards a power-positive orientation, is presented. CSS are commonly used in performing power-positive sun-pointing and are attractive due to their relative inexpensiveness, small size, and reduced power consumption. For this study only CSS and rate gyro measurements are available, and the sensor configuration does not provide global triple coverage required for a unique sun-direction calculation. The methods investigated include a vector average method, a combination of least squares and minimum norm criteria, and an extended Kalman filter approach. All cases are formulated such that precise ground calibration of the CSS is not required. Despite significant biases in the state dynamics and measurement models, Monte Carlo simulations show that an extended Kalman filter approach, despite the underdetermined sensor coverage, can provide degree-level accuracy of the sun-direction vector both with and without a control algorithm running simultaneously. If no rate gyro measurements are available, and rates are partially estimated from CSS, the EKF performance degrades as expected, but is still able to achieve better than 10∘ accuracy using only CSS measurements.

  11. Highly directive Fabry-Perot leaky-wave nanoantennas based on optical partially reflective surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorente-Crespo, M.; Mateo-Segura, C., E-mail: C.Mateo-Segura@hw.ac.uk [Institute of Sensors, Signals and Systems, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-04

    Nanoantennas enhance the conversion between highly localized electromagnetic fields and far-field radiation. Here, we investigate the response of a nano-patch partially reflective surface backed with a silver mirror to an optical source embedded at the centre of the structure. Using full wave simulations, we demonstrate a two orders of magnitude increased directivity compared to the isotropic radiator, 50% power confinement to a 13.8° width beam and a ±16 nm bandwidth. Our antenna does not rely on plasmonic phenomena thus reducing non-radiative losses and conserving source coherence.

  12. Stability analysis of direct contact heat exchangers subject to system perturbations. Final report, Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    This report includes a project summary, copies of two papers resulting from the work and the Ph.D. Dissertation of Dr. Mehdi Golafshani entitled, ''Stability of a Direct Contact Heat Exchanger''. Specifically, the work deals with the operational stability of a spray column type heat exchanger subject to disturbances typical of those which can occur for geothermal applications. A computer program was developed to solve the one-dimensional transient two-phase flow problem and it was applied to the design of a spray column. The operation and design of the East Mesa 500kW/sub e/ direct contactor was assessed. It is shown that the heat transfer is governed by the internal resistance of the dispersed phase. In fact, the performance is well-represented by diffusion of heat within the drops. 5 refs.

  13. Analysis and hazard evaluation of heat-transfer fluids for the direct contact cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Joo Hi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Shin, You Hwan; Karng, Sarng Woo; Kim, Seo Young; Kim, Young Gil

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses several low-temperature heat-transfer fluids, including water-based inorganic salt, organic salt, alcohol/glycol mixtures, silicones, and halogenated hydrocarbons in order to choose the best heat-transfer fluid for the newly designed direct contact refrigeration system. So, it contains a survey on commercial products such as propylene glycol and potassium formate as newly used in super market and food processing refrigeration. The stability of commercial fluids at the working temperature of -20 .deg. C was monitored as a function of time up to two months. And organic and inorganic compositions of candidate fluids were obtained by analytical instruments such as ES, XRF, AAS, ICP-AES, GC, and GC-MS. Analysis results indicate that commercial propylene glycol is very efficient and safe heat transfer fluids for the direct cooling system with liquid phase

  14. Safety design of Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water fast reactor (PBWFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Minoru; Uchida, Shoji; Yamada, Yumi; Koyama, Kazuya

    2008-01-01

    In Pb-Bi-cooled direct contact boiling water small fast reactor (PBWFR), steam is generated by direct contact of feedwater with primary Pb-Bi coolant above the core, and Pb-Bi coolant is circulated by steam lift pump in chimneys. Safety design has been developed to show safety features of PBWFR. Negative void reactivity is inserted even if whole of the core and upper plenum are voided hypothetically by steam intrusion from above. The control rod ejection due to coolant pressure is prevented using in-vessel type control rod driving mechanism. At coolant leak from reactor vessel and feedwater pipes, Pb-Bi coolant level in the reactor vessel required for decay heat removal is kept using closed guard vessel. Dual pipes for feedwater are employed to avoid leak of water. Although there is no concern of loss of flow accident due to primary pump trip, feedwater pump trip initiates loss of coolant flow (LOF). Injection of high pressure water slows down the flow coast down of feedwater at the LOF event. The unprotected loss of flow and heat sink (ATWS) has been evaluated, which shows that the fuel temperatures are kept lower than the safety limits. (author)

  15. Direct soil contact values for ecological receptors exposed to weathered petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) fraction 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, Robin A; Kullman, Steve; Shrive, Emma; Stephenson, Gladys L; Tindal, Miles

    2012-11-01

    Ecological tier 1 Canada-wide standards (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) fraction 2 (F2; >nC10-C16) in soil were derived using ecotoxicological assessment endpoints (effective concentrations [ECs]/lethal concentrations [LCs]/inhibitory concentrations, 25% [IC25s]) with freshly spiked (fresh) fine- and coarse-grained soils. These soil standards might be needlessly conservative when applied to field samples with weathered hydrocarbons. The purpose of the present study was to assess the degradation and toxicity of weathered PHC F2 in a fine-grained soil and to derive direct soil contact values for ecological receptors. Fine-grained reference soils were spiked with distilled F2 and weathered for 183 d. Toxicity tests using plants and invertebrates were conducted with the weathered F2-spiked soils. Endpoint EC/IC25s were calculated and used to derive soil standards for weathered F2 in fine-grained soil protective of ecological receptors exposed via direct soil contact. The values derived for weathered F2 were less restrictive than current ecological tier 1 CWS for F2 in soil. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  16. Heat transfer modelling of two-phase bubbles swarm condensing in three - phase direct - contact condenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahood Hameed B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for the convective heat transfer coefficient and the two-phase bubble size of a three-phase direct contact heat exchanger was developed. Until the present, there has only been a theoretical model available that deals with a single two-phase bubble and a bubble train condensation in an immiscible liquid. However, to understand the actual heat transfer process within the three-phase direct contact condenser, characteristic models are required. A quasi - steady energy equation in a spherical coordinate system with a potential flow assumption and a cell model configuration has been simplified and solved analytically. The convective heat transfer in terms of Nu number has been derived, and it was found to be a function to Pe number and a system void fraction. In addition, the two-phase bubble size relates to the system void fraction and has been developed by solving a simple energy balance equation and using the derived convective heat transfer coefficient expression. Furthermore, the model correlates well with previous experimental data and theoretical results.

  17. The effect of non-condensable gas on direct contact condensation of steam/air mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. C.; Park, S. K.; Kim, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the effects of noncondensable gas on the direct contact film condensation of vapor mixture, a series of experiments has been carried out. The rectangular duct inclined 87.deg. to the horizontal plane was used for this experiment. The average heat transfer coefficient of the steam-air mixture was obtained at the atmospheric pressure with four main parameters, air-mass fraction, vapor velocity, film Reynolds number,and the degree of water film subcooling having an influence on the condensation heat transfer coefficient. With the analysis on 88 cases of experiments, a correlation of the average Nusselt number for direct contact film condensation of steam-air mixture at a vertical wall proposed as functions of film Reynolds number, mixture Reynolds number, air mass fraction, and Jacob number. The average heat transfer coefficient for steam-air mixture condensation decreased significantly while air mass fraction increases with the same inlet mixture velocity and inlet film temperature. The average heat transfer coefficients also decreased with the degree of film subcooling increasing and were scarcely affected by film Reynolds number below the mixture Reynolds number about 30,000

  18. Humidification-Dehumidification (HDH) Spray Column Direct Contact Condenser Part I: Countercurrent Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karameldin, A.; Shouman, L.; Fadel, D.

    2016-01-01

    Humidification-De humidification (HDH) is a low grade energy desalination technology. Hot humid air and cooling spray water in counter current flow with direct contact is theoretically analyzed in the present work. Direct contact spray condenser is studied to obtain the effect of various parameters on its performance. A computer program describing the theoretical model is designed to solve one-dimensional differential equations by using Rung-Kutta method. The results show that the column length has a great effect on the performance of the spray condenser. At a column height of 2, 5,10, and 20 m the humidity of the outlet air decreases by 72, 89, 97, and 99% respectively. The humid air temperature has a great influence on the productivity; me an while the temperature difference between the humid air and sprayed water has less effect. A case study of a contiguous co-generation electricity and water in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) shows that the optimal productivity by HDH is feasible and can reach more than 15 m"3 /day.m"2, enabling a total productivity that varied from 120,000 to 300,000 m"3 /day. The design curves describing the process are obtained together in addition to a formula for the optimal productivity in terms of humid air and sprayed water fluxes at different humid air temperatures is derived

  19. Workshop on Direct Contact Heat Transfer at the Solar Energy Research Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Boehm, R

    1988-01-01

    to increase the use of direct contact processes, the National Science Foundation sup­ ported a workshop on direct contact heat transfer at the Solar Energy Research Insti­ tute in the summer of 1985. We served as organizers for this workshop, which em­ phasized an area of thermal engineering that, in our opinion, has great promise for the future, but has not yet reached the point of wide-spread commercial application. Hence, a summary of the state of knowledge at this point is timely. The workshop had a dual objective: 1. To summarize the current state of knowledge in such a form that industrial practi­ tioners can make use of the available information. 2. To indicate the research and development needed to advance the state-of-the-art, indicating not only what kind of research is needed, but also the industrial poten­ tial that could be realized if the information to be obtained through the proposed research activities were available.

  20. Potential of Partially Superconducting Generators for Large Direct-Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at assessing the potential of partially superconducting generators for 10 MW direct-drive wind turbines by investigating their performance for a very wide range of excitation currents. Performance indicators such as shear stress and efficiency and other generator characteristics...... are compared for 12 different generator topologies. To be sufficiently attractive, superconducting generators must have significant advantages over permanent magnet direct-drive generators, which typically have shear stresses of the order of 53 kPa and efficiencies of 96%. Therefore, we investigate what...... they achieve this performance. By examining the maximum magnetic flux density at the location of the superconducting field winding, feasible superconductors can be chosen according to their engineering current density capabilities. It is found that high- and low-temperature superconductors can meet...

  1. On Direct Transformation Approach to Asymptotical Analytical Solutions of Perturbed Partial Differential Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongzhun; Pan Zuliang; Li Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we will derive an equality, where the Taylor series expansion around ε = 0 for any asymptotical analytical solution of the perturbed partial differential equation (PDE) with perturbing parameter ε must be admitted. By making use of the equality, we may obtain a transformation, which directly map the analytical solutions of a given unperturbed PDE to the asymptotical analytical solutions of the corresponding perturbed one. The notion of Lie-Baecklund symmetries is introduced in order to obtain more transformations. Hence, we can directly create more transformations in virtue of known Lie-Baecklund symmetries and recursion operators of corresponding unperturbed equation. The perturbed Burgers equation and the perturbed Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation are used as examples.

  2. 77 FR 14022 - Guidance for Industry: Testing for Salmonella Species in Human Foods and Direct-Human-Contact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ...-contact animal foods, and the interpretation of test results, when the presence of Salmonella spp. in the... eggs) and direct-human-contact animal foods, and the interpretation of test results, when the presence... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-D-0091...

  3. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid

  4. Effect of feed flow pattern on the distribution of permeate fluxes in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane; Naceur, Mohamed W.; Francis, Lijo; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2017-01-01

    The current study aims to highlight the effect of flow pattern on the variations of permeate fluxes over the membrane surface during desalination in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) flat module. To do so, a three dimensional (3D

  5. Binding Direction-Based Two-Dimensional Flattened Contact Area Computing Algorithm for Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Beom Sik; Pugalendhi, GaneshKumar; Kim, Ku-Jin

    2017-10-13

    Interactions between protein molecules are essential for the assembly, function, and regulation of proteins. The contact region between two protein molecules in a protein complex is usually complementary in shape for both molecules and the area of the contact region can be used to estimate the binding strength between two molecules. Although the area is a value calculated from the three-dimensional surface, it cannot represent the three-dimensional shape of the surface. Therefore, we propose an original concept of two-dimensional contact area which provides further information such as the ruggedness of the contact region. We present a novel algorithm for calculating the binding direction between two molecules in a protein complex, and then suggest a method to compute the two-dimensional flattened area of the contact region between two molecules based on the binding direction.

  6. Binding Direction-Based Two-Dimensional Flattened Contact Area Computing Algorithm for Protein–Protein Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Sik Kang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between protein molecules are essential for the assembly, function, and regulation of proteins. The contact region between two protein molecules in a protein complex is usually complementary in shape for both molecules and the area of the contact region can be used to estimate the binding strength between two molecules. Although the area is a value calculated from the three-dimensional surface, it cannot represent the three-dimensional shape of the surface. Therefore, we propose an original concept of two-dimensional contact area which provides further information such as the ruggedness of the contact region. We present a novel algorithm for calculating the binding direction between two molecules in a protein complex, and then suggest a method to compute the two-dimensional flattened area of the contact region between two molecules based on the binding direction.

  7. Fabrication of bioinspired composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity for direct contact membrane distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yuan; Wang, Rong; Fane, Anthony G

    2014-06-03

    The practical application of membrane distillation (MD) for water purification is hindered by the absence of desirable membranes that can fulfill the special requirements of the MD process. Compared to the membranes fabricated by other methods, nanofiber membranes produced by electrospinning are of great interest due to their high porosity, low tortuosity, large surface pore size, and high surface hydrophobicity. However, the stable performance of the nanofiber membranes in the MD process is still unsatisfactory. Inspired by the unique structure of the lotus leaf, this study aimed to develop a strategy to construct superhydrophobic composite nanofiber membranes with robust superhydrophobicity and high porosity suitable for use in MD. The newly developed membrane consists of a superhydrophobic silica-PVDF composite selective skin formed on a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous nanofiber scaffold via electrospinning. This fabrication method could be easily scaled up due to its simple preparation procedures. The effects of silica diameter and concentration on membrane contact angle, sliding angle, and MD performance were investigated thoroughly. For the first time, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) tests demonstrate that the newly developed membranes are able to present stable high performance over 50 h of testing time, and the superhydrophobic selective layer exhibits excellent durability in ultrasonic treatment and a continuous DCMD test. It is believed that this novel design strategy has great potential for MD membrane fabrication.

  8. Direct Laser Interference Patterning: Tailoring of Contact Area for Frictional and Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Rosenkranz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface functionalization by topographic micro- and nano-structures in order to achieve unique properties, like super-hydrophobicity or ultrahigh light absorption, is a common strategy in nature. In this paper, direct laser interference patterning (DLIP is presented as a promising tool allowing for the generation of such surface patterns on technical surfaces in order to mimic these biological surfaces and effects. Friction optimization and antibacterial effects by DLIP are exemplarily described. Topographic surface patterns on the micro- and nano-scale demonstrated a significant reduction in the coefficient of friction and bacterial adhesion. It was shown that in both cases, the control of the contact area between surfaces or between surface and bacteria is of utmost importance.

  9. Effect of pool turbulence on direct contact condensation at a steam/water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.D.; Zhao, C.L.; Doerffer, S.; Byrne, J.E.; Falaki, H.

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of direct contact condensation beat transfer have been made for the case where the process takes place at the horizontal interface between saturated steam and a pool of water in a vertical cylindrical test section. A submerged vertical jet of subcooled water was injected upwards on the axis to promote the condensation and water was withdrawn at the same rate from the bottom of the pool. In conjunction with the above study, measurements of the turbulent velocity fluctuations just below a free surface produced by the injection of a vertical submerged jet have been measured using hot film anemometry on an isothermal air-water test facility of similar geometry for similar flow conditions at ambient temperature. A correlation is proposed in terms of a Stanton number based on turbulent velocity fluctuation near the interface on the liquid-side. Our results are in good agreement with those of others for similar configurations when compared in terms of condensation Stanton number. (author)

  10. Real time optimization of solar powered direct contact membrane distillation based on multivariable extremum seeking

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a real time optimization scheme for a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) water desalination system. The sun and weather conditions vary and are inconsistent throughout the day. Therefore, the solar powered DCMD feed inlet temperature is never constant, which influences the distilled water flux. The problem of DCMD process optimization has not been studied enough. In this work, the response of the process under various feed inlet temperatures is investigated, which demonstrates the need for an optimal controller. To address this issue, we propose a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking controller which optimizes the inlet feed and permeate mass flow rates as the feed inlet temperature varies. Results are presented and discussed for a realistic temperature profile.

  11. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  12. Real time optimization of solar powered direct contact membrane distillation based on multivariable extremum seeking

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents a real time optimization scheme for a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) water desalination system. The sun and weather conditions vary and are inconsistent throughout the day. Therefore, the solar powered DCMD feed inlet temperature is never constant, which influences the distilled water flux. The problem of DCMD process optimization has not been studied enough. In this work, the response of the process under various feed inlet temperatures is investigated, which demonstrates the need for an optimal controller. To address this issue, we propose a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking controller which optimizes the inlet feed and permeate mass flow rates as the feed inlet temperature varies. Results are presented and discussed for a realistic temperature profile.

  13. Epidemic spreading in annealed directed networks: susceptible-infected-susceptible model and contact process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungchul; Kim, Yup

    2013-01-01

    We investigate epidemic spreading in annealed directed scale-free networks with the in-degree (k) distribution P(in)(k)~k(-γ(in)) and the out-degree (ℓ) distribution, P(out)(ℓ)~ℓ(-γ(out)). The correlation of each node on the networks is controlled by the probability r(0≤r≤1) in two different algorithms, the so-called k and ℓ algorithms. For r=1, the k algorithm gives =, whereas the ℓ algorithm gives =. For r=0, = for both algorithms. As the prototype of epidemic spreading, the susceptible-infected-susceptible model and contact process on the networks are analyzed using the heterogeneous mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The directedness of links and the correlation of the network are found to play important roles in the spreading, so that critical behaviors of both models are distinct from those on undirected scale-free networks.

  14. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-04-27

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  15. Analysis of direct contact membrane distillation based on a lumped-parameter dynamic predictive model

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-10-03

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology that has a great potential for sustainable water desalination. In order to pave the way for successful commercialization of MD-based water desalination techniques, adequate and accurate dynamical models of the process are essential. This paper presents the predictive capabilities of a lumped-parameter dynamic model for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and discusses the results under wide range of steady-state and dynamic conditions. Unlike previous studies, the proposed model captures the time response of the spacial temperature distribution along the flow direction. It also directly solves for the local temperatures at the membrane interfaces, which allows to accurately model and calculate local flux values along with other intrinsic variables of great influence on the process, like the temperature polarization coefficient (TPC). The proposed model is based on energy and mass conservation principles and analogy between thermal and electrical systems. Experimental data was collected to validated the steady-state and dynamic responses of the model. The obtained results shows great agreement with the experimental data. The paper discusses the results of several simulations under various conditions to optimize the DCMD process efficiency and analyze its response. This demonstrates some potential applications of the proposed model to carry out scale up and design studies. © 2016

  16. Analysis of direct contact membrane distillation based on a lumped-parameter dynamic predictive model

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology that has a great potential for sustainable water desalination. In order to pave the way for successful commercialization of MD-based water desalination techniques, adequate and accurate dynamical models of the process are essential. This paper presents the predictive capabilities of a lumped-parameter dynamic model for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and discusses the results under wide range of steady-state and dynamic conditions. Unlike previous studies, the proposed model captures the time response of the spacial temperature distribution along the flow direction. It also directly solves for the local temperatures at the membrane interfaces, which allows to accurately model and calculate local flux values along with other intrinsic variables of great influence on the process, like the temperature polarization coefficient (TPC). The proposed model is based on energy and mass conservation principles and analogy between thermal and electrical systems. Experimental data was collected to validated the steady-state and dynamic responses of the model. The obtained results shows great agreement with the experimental data. The paper discusses the results of several simulations under various conditions to optimize the DCMD process efficiency and analyze its response. This demonstrates some potential applications of the proposed model to carry out scale up and design studies. © 2016

  17. Humidification Dehumidification Spray Column Direct Contact Condenser Part I: Countercurrent Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shouman, L.; Karameldin, A.; Fadel, D.

    2015-01-01

    Humidification-dehumidification (HDH) is a low grade energy desalination technology. The waste heat from power plant (such NPP) can be used as heat source to preheat water (in evaporator) and air (in condenser) . Hot humid air and cooled spray water in counter current flow with direct contact is theoretically analyzing in the present work. Direct contact spray condenser is studied to provide the effect of various parameters on its performance. A computer programme describing the theoretical model is designed to solve a one-dimensional differential equations by using Rung–Kutta method. The programme predicts the droplet radius, velocity and temperature, besides, the humidity and temperature of air. The results show that, the length of column has great effect on the performance of spray condenser. At column height of 0.762, 2, 5, 10, and 20 m the humidity of the output air decreases by 50%, 72%, 89%, 97%, and 99% respectively. The condensate increases about 35% when the length increase from 5 to 10 m at ΔT = 25°C while increase only 18% at ΔT = 30°C. Also, it is found that, at ΔT = 25°C the condensate decrease from H = 10 to 5 m about 31% and increases from 10 to 20 m about 32%. While these results for ΔT = 25°C are 32% from H = 10 to 5 m and 36% from 10 to 20 m.The increase of both water and air mass fluxes increases the condensate mass flow rate. (author)

  18. Time-variant partial directed coherence in analysis of the cardiovascular system. A methodological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milde, T; Schwab, K; Walther, M; Eiselt, M; Witte, H; Schelenz, C; Voss, A

    2011-01-01

    Time-variant partial directed coherence (tvPDC) is used for the first time in a multivariate analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory movements (RMs) and (systolic) arterial blood pressure. It is shown that respiration-related HRV components which also occur at other frequencies besides the RM frequency (= respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) can be identified. These additional components are known to be an effect of the 'half-the-mean-heart-rate-dilemma' ('cardiac aliasing' CA). These CA components may contaminate the entire frequency range of HRV and can lead to misinterpretation of the RSA analysis. TvPDC analysis of simulated and clinical data (full-term neonates and sedated patients) reveals these contamination effects and, in addition, the respiration-related CA components can be separated from the RSA component and the Traube–Hering–Mayer wave. It can be concluded that tvPDC can be beneficially applied to avoid misinterpretations in HRV analyses as well as to quantify partial correlative interaction properties between RM and RSA

  19. Directed partial correlation: inferring large-scale gene regulatory network through induced topology disruptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinyin Yuan

    Full Text Available Inferring regulatory relationships among many genes based on their temporal variation in transcript abundance has been a popular research topic. Due to the nature of microarray experiments, classical tools for time series analysis lose power since the number of variables far exceeds the number of the samples. In this paper, we describe some of the existing multivariate inference techniques that are applicable to hundreds of variables and show the potential challenges for small-sample, large-scale data. We propose a directed partial correlation (DPC method as an efficient and effective solution to regulatory network inference using these data. Specifically for genomic data, the proposed method is designed to deal with large-scale datasets. It combines the efficiency of partial correlation for setting up network topology by testing conditional independence, and the concept of Granger causality to assess topology change with induced interruptions. The idea is that when a transcription factor is induced artificially within a gene network, the disruption of the network by the induction signifies a genes role in transcriptional regulation. The benchmarking results using GeneNetWeaver, the simulator for the DREAM challenges, provide strong evidence of the outstanding performance of the proposed DPC method. When applied to real biological data, the inferred starch metabolism network in Arabidopsis reveals many biologically meaningful network modules worthy of further investigation. These results collectively suggest DPC is a versatile tool for genomics research. The R package DPC is available for download (http://code.google.com/p/dpcnet/.

  20. Improving the efficiency of single and multiple teleportation protocols based on the direct use of partially entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, Raphael; Rigolin, Gustavo, E-mail: rigolin@ifi.unicamp.br

    2013-09-15

    We push the limits of the direct use of partially pure entangled states to perform quantum teleportation by presenting several protocols in many different scenarios that achieve the optimal efficiency possible. We review and put in a single formalism the three major strategies known to date that allow one to use partially entangled states for direct quantum teleportation (no distillation strategies permitted) and compare their efficiencies in real world implementations. We show how one can improve the efficiency of many direct teleportation protocols by combining these techniques. We then develop new teleportation protocols employing multipartite partially entangled states. The three techniques are also used here in order to achieve the highest efficiency possible. Finally, we prove the upper bound for the optimal success rate for protocols based on partially entangled Bell states and show that some of the protocols here developed achieve such a bound. -- Highlights: •Optimal direct teleportation protocols using directly partially entangled states. •We put in a single formalism all strategies of direct teleportation. •We extend these techniques for multipartite partially entangle states. •We give upper bounds for the optimal efficiency of these protocols.

  1. Convective heat transfer measurements in a vapour-liquid-liquid three-phase direct contact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Hameed B.; Campbell, A. N.; Baqir, Ali Sh.; Sharif, A. O.; Thorpe, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Energy usage is increasing around the world due to the continued development of technology, and population growth. Solar energy is a promising low-grade energy resource that can be harvested and utilised in different applications, such solar heater systems, which are used in both domestic and industrial settings. However, the implementation of an efficient energy conversion system or heat exchanger would enhance such low-grade energy processes. The direct contact heat exchanger could be the right choice due to its ability to efficiently transfer significant amounts of heat, simple design, and low cost. In this work, the heat transfer associated with the direct contact condensation of pentane vapour bubbles in a three-phase direct contact condenser is investigated experimentally. Such a condenser could be used in a cycle with a solar water heater and heat recovery systems. The experiments on the steady state operation of the three-phase direct contact condenser were carried out using a short Perspex tube of 70 cm in total height and an internal diameter of 4 cm. Only a height of 48 cm was active as the direct contact condenser. Pentane vapour, (the dispersed phase) with three different initial temperatures (40° C, 43.5° C and 47.5° C) was directly contacted with water (the continuous phase) at 19° C. The experimental results showed that the total heat transfer rate per unit volume along the direct contact condenser gradually decreased upon moving higher up the condenser. Additionally, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing mass flow rate ratio, but no significant effect on the heat transfer rate of varying the initial temperature of the dispersed phase was seen. Furthermore, both the outlet temperature of the continuous phase and the void fraction were positively correlated with the total heat transfer rate per unit volume, with no considerable effect of the initial temperature difference between the dispersed and continuous phases.

  2. Convective heat transfer measurements in a vapour-liquid-liquid three-phase direct contact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahood, Hameed B.; Campbell, A. N.; Baqir, Ali Sh.; Sharif, A. O.; Thorpe, R. B.

    2018-06-01

    Energy usage is increasing around the world due to the continued development of technology, and population growth. Solar energy is a promising low-grade energy resource that can be harvested and utilised in different applications, such solar heater systems, which are used in both domestic and industrial settings. However, the implementation of an efficient energy conversion system or heat exchanger would enhance such low-grade energy processes. The direct contact heat exchanger could be the right choice due to its ability to efficiently transfer significant amounts of heat, simple design, and low cost. In this work, the heat transfer associated with the direct contact condensation of pentane vapour bubbles in a three-phase direct contact condenser is investigated experimentally. Such a condenser could be used in a cycle with a solar water heater and heat recovery systems. The experiments on the steady state operation of the three-phase direct contact condenser were carried out using a short Perspex tube of 70 cm in total height and an internal diameter of 4 cm. Only a height of 48 cm was active as the direct contact condenser. Pentane vapour, (the dispersed phase) with three different initial temperatures (40° C, 43.5° C and 47.5° C) was directly contacted with water (the continuous phase) at 19° C. The experimental results showed that the total heat transfer rate per unit volume along the direct contact condenser gradually decreased upon moving higher up the condenser. Additionally, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing mass flow rate ratio, but no significant effect on the heat transfer rate of varying the initial temperature of the dispersed phase was seen. Furthermore, both the outlet temperature of the continuous phase and the void fraction were positively correlated with the total heat transfer rate per unit volume, with no considerable effect of the initial temperature difference between the dispersed and continuous phases.

  3. State-of-the-art and needs for jet instability and direct contact condensation model improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousbia-Salah, A.; Moretti, F.; D'auria, F.; Bousbia-Salah, A.)

    2007-01-01

    There is a common understanding among thermal-hydraulic experts that the system analysis codes have currently reached an acceptable degree of maturity. Reliable application, however, is still limited to the validated domain. There is a growing need for qualified codes in assessing the safety of the existing reactors and for developing advanced reactor systems. Under conditions involving multi-phase flow simulations, the use of classical methods, mainly based upon the one dimensional approach, is not appropriate at all. The use of new computational models, such as the direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation or other advanced computational fluid dynamics methods, seems to be more suitable for more complex events. For this purpose, the European Commission financed NURESIM Integrated Project (as a part of the FP6 programme), was adopted to provide the initial step towards a Common European Standard Software Platform for modelling, recording and recovering computer data for nuclear reactor simulations. Some of the studies carried out at the University of Pisa within the framework of the NURESIM project are presented in this paper. They mainly concern the investigation of two critical phenomena connected with jet instabilities and direct contact condensation that occur during emergency core cooling. Through these examples, the state-of-the-art and the need for model improvements and validation against new experimental data for the sake of getting a better understanding and more accurate predictions are discussed. (author)

  4. Development of gas-solid direct contact heat exchanger by use of axial flow cyclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Akihiko; Yokomine, Takehiko [Kyushu University (Japan). Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences; Nagafuchi, Tatsuro [Miura Co. Ltd., Matsuyamashi (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    A heat exchanger between particulate or granular materials and gas is developed. It makes use of a swirling gas flow similar to the usual cyclone separators but the difference from them is that the swirl making gas is issued into the cyclone chamber with downward axial velocity component. After it turns the flow direction near the bottom of the chamber, the low temperature gas receives heat from high temperature particles supplied from above at the chamber's center. Through this configuration, a direct contact and quasi counter-flow heat exchange pattern is realized so that the effective recovery of heat carried by particles is achieved. A model heat exchanger was manufactured via several numerical experiments and its performances of heat exchange as well as particle recovery were examined. Attaching a small particle diffuser below the particle-feeding nozzle brought about a drastic improvement of the heat exchange performance without deteriorating the particle recovery efficiency. The outlet gas temperature much higher than the particle outlet temperature was finally obtained, which is never realized in the parallel flow heat exchanger. (author)

  5. Abstract structure of partial function $*$-algebras over semi-direct product of locally compact groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ghaani Farashahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a unified approach to the abstract notions of partial convolution and involution in $L^p$-function spaces over semi-direct product of locally compact groups. Let $H$ and $K$ be locally compact groups and $tau:Hto Aut(K$ be a continuous homomorphism.  Let $G_tau=Hltimes_tau K$ be the semi-direct product of $H$ and $K$ with respect to $tau$. We define left and right $tau$-convolution on $L^1(G_tau$ and we show that, with respect to each of them, the function space $L^1(G_tau$ is a Banach algebra. We define $tau$-convolution as a linear combination of the left and right $tau$-convolution and we show that the $tau$-convolution is commutative if and only if $K$ is abelian. We prove that there is a $tau$-involution on $L^1(G_tau$ such that with respect to the $tau$-involution and $tau$-convolution, $L^1(G_tau$ is a non-associative Banach $*$-algebra. It is also shown that when $K$ is abelian, the $tau$-involution and $tau$-convolution make $L^1(G_tau$ into a Jordan Banach $*$-algebra. Finally, we also present the generalized notation of $tau$-convolution for other $L^p$-spaces with $p>1$.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of waste heat recovery characteristics of direct contact thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Young; Negash, Assmelash; Cho, Gyubaek

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy harvesting performance of direct contact thermoelectric generator was studied. • Power-current and voltage-current curves were given for various operating conditions. • Output power prediction using numerical results and empirical correlation was verified. • A 1.0–2.0% conversion efficiency and 5.7–11.1% heat recovery efficiency were obtained. • A 0.25% increase in efficiency was found with a 10 K decrease in coolant temperature. - Abstract: In this study, waste heat recovery performance of a direct contact thermoelectric generator (DCTEG) is experimentally investigated on a diesel engine. In order to conduct an insightful analysis of the DCTEG characteristics, three experimental parameters—engine load, rotation speed, and coolant temperature—are chosen to vary over ranges during the experiments. Experimental results show that higher temperature differences across thermoelectric modules (TEM), larger engine loads, and rotation speeds lead to an improved energy conversion efficiency of the DCTEG, which lies in the range of approximately 1.0–2.0%, while the output power ranges approximately 12–45 W. The increase in the conversion efficiency for an increased engine load becomes more noticeable with a higher engine rotation speed. A 10 K decrease in the coolant temperature yields an approximately 0.25% increase in the conversion efficiency for the engine operating conditions tested. In addition, 3D numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the heat transfer and pressure characteristics of the DCTEG. Numerically obtained exhaust gas temperatures exiting the DCTEG were in good agreement with experimental results. It is also revealed that incorporation of the temperature fields from the numerical simulation and an empirical correlation for a temperature-power relationship provides a good predictor for output power from the DCTEG, especially at low engine load conditions, which deviates from experimental results as the

  7. Explosive Evaporating Phenomena of Cryogenic Fluids by Direct Contacting Normal Temperature Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Watanabe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryogenic fluids have characteristics such as thermal stratification and flashing by pressure release in storage vessel. The mixture of the extreme low temperature fluid and the normal temperature fluid becomes the cause which causes pressure vessel and piping system crush due to explosive boiling and rapid freezing. In recent years in Japan, the demand of cryogenic fluids like a LH2, LNG is increasing because of the advance of fuel cell device technology, hydrogen of engine, and stream of consciousness for environmental agreement. These fuel liquids are cryogenic fluids. On the other hand, as for fisheries as well, the use of a source of energy that environment load is small has been being a pressing need. And, the need of the ice is high, as before, for keeping freshness of marine products in fisheries. Therefore, we carried out the experiments related to promotion of evaporating cryogenic fluids and generation of ice, in the contact directly of the water and liquid nitrogen. From the results of visualization, phenomena of explosive evaporating and ice forming were observed by using video camera.

  8. Performance modeling of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) seawater desalination process using a commercial composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Junggil

    2015-01-10

    This paper presents the development of a rigorous theoretical model to predict the transmembrane flux of a flat sheet hydrophobic composite membrane, comprising both an active layer of polytetrafluoroethylene and a scrim-backing support layer of polypropylene, in the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. An integrated model includes the mass, momentum, species and energy balances for both retentate and permeate flows, coupled with the mass transfer of water vapor through the composite membrane and the heat transfer across the membrane and through the boundary layers adjacent to the membrane surfaces. Experimental results and model predictions for permeate flux and performance ratio are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The permeate flux through the composite layer can be ignored in the consideration of mass transfer pathways at the composite membrane. The effect of the surface porosity and the thickness of active and support layers on the process performance of composite membrane has also been studied. Among these parameters, surface porosity is identified to be the main factor significantly influencing the permeate flux and performance ratio, while the relative influence of the surface porosity on the performance ratio is less than that on flux.

  9. Fouling development in direct contact membrane distillation: Non-invasive monitoring and destructive analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Fortunato, Luca

    2017-12-26

    Fouling development in direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for seawater desalination was evaluated combining in-situ monitoring performed using optical coherence tomography (OCT) together with destructive techniques. The non-invasive monitoring with OCT provided a better understanding of the fouling mechanism by giving an appropriate sampling timing for the membrane autopsy. The on-line monitoring system allowed linking the flux trend with the structure of fouling deposited on the membrane surface. The water vapor flux trend was divided in three phases based on the deposition and formation of different foulants over time. The initial flux decline was due to the deposition of a 50–70 nm porous fouling layer consisting of a mixture of organic compounds and salts. Liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis revealed the abundance of biopolymer in the fouling layer formed at the initial phase. In the second phase, formation of carbonate crystals on the membrane surface was observed but did not affect the flux significantly. In the last phase, the water vapor flux dropped to almost zero due to the deposition of a dense thick layer of sulfate crystals on the membrane surface.

  10. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2016-10-24

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m2 at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg.

  11. A novel multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation module: Design, experimental and theoretical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, Noreddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2016-12-15

    An economic desalination system with a small scale and footprint for remote areas, which have a limited and inadequate water supply, insufficient water treatment and low infrastructure, is strongly demanded in the desalination markets. Here, a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process has the simplest configuration and potentially the highest permeate flux among all of the possible MD processes. This process can also be easily instituted in a multi-stage manner for enhanced compactness, productivity, versatility and cost-effectiveness. In this study, an innovative, multi-stage, DCMD module under countercurrent-flow configuration is first designed and then investigate both theoretically and experimentally to identify its feasibility and operability for desalination application. Model predictions and measured data for mean permeate flux are compared and shown to be in good agreement. The effect of the number of module stages on the mean permeate flux, performance ratio and daily water production of the MDCMD system has been theoretically identified at inlet feed and permeate flow rates of 1.5 l/min and inlet feed and permeate temperatures of 70 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The daily water production of a three-stage DCMD module with a membrane area of 0.01 m 2  at each stage is found to be 21.5 kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of Direct-Contact HfO2/Si Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Miyata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Controlling monolayer Si oxide at the HfO2/Si interface is a challenging issue in scaling the equivalent oxide thickness of HfO2/Si gate stack structures. A concept that the author proposes to control the Si oxide interface by using ultra-high vacuum electron-beam HfO2 deposition is described in this review paper, which enables the so-called direct-contact HfO2/Si structures to be prepared. The electrical characteristics of the HfO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are reviewed, which suggest a sufficiently low interface state density for the operation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs but reveal the formation of an unexpected strong interface dipole. Kelvin probe measurements of the HfO2/Si structures provide obvious evidence for the formation of dipoles at the HfO2/Si interfaces. The author proposes that one-monolayer Si-O bonds at the HfO2/Si interface naturally lead to a large potential difference, mainly due to the large dielectric constant of the HfO2. Dipole scattering is demonstrated to not be a major concern in the channel mobility of MOSFETs.

  13. Dynamic modeling and experimental validation for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2016-02-01

    This work proposes a mathematical dynamic model for the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The model is based on a 2D Advection–Diffusion Equation (ADE), which describes the heat and mass transfer mechanisms that take place inside the DCMD module. The model studies the behavior of the process in the time varying and the steady state phases, contributing to understanding the process performance, especially when it is driven by intermittent energy supply, such as the solar energy. The model is experimentally validated in the steady state phase, where the permeate flux is measured for different feed inlet temperatures and the maximum absolute error recorded is 2.78 °C. Moreover, experimental validation includes the time variation phase, where the feed inlet temperature ranges from 30 °C to 75 °C with 0.1 °C increment every 2min. The validation marks relative error to be less than 5%, which leads to a strong correlation between the model predictions and the experiments.

  14. Polyoxadiazole hollow fibers for produced water treatment by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2018-01-08

    Treatment of produced water in the petroleum industry has been a challenge worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for this purpose, removing oil and dissolved elements and supplying clean water from waste. We synthesized fluorinated polyoxadiazole, a highly hydrophobic polymer, to fabricate hollow fiber membranes, which were optimized and tested for simulated produced water and real produced water treatment. The process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperature, feed flow velocity and length of the membrane module for 4 days. The results indicate that by increasing feed temperature and feed flow rate the vapor flux increases. The flux decreased with increasing the length of the module due to the decrease of the driving force along the module. The fouling behavior, which corresponds to flux decline and cleaning efficiency of the membrane, was studied. The performance of the fabricated hollow fiber membranes was demonstrated for the treatment of produced water, complying with the industrial reuse and discharge limits.

  15. Experimental and Analytical Study of Lead-Bismuth-Water Direct Contact Boiling Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitrian; Dostal, Vaclav; Takahashi, Minoru

    The characteristics of lead-bismuth(Pb-Bi)-water boiling two-phase flow were investigated experimentally and analytically using a Pb-Bi-water direct contact boiling two-phase flow loop. Pb-Bi flow rates and void fraction were measured in a vertical circular tube at conditions of system pressure 7MPa, liquid metal temperature 460°C and injected water temperature 220°C. The drift-flux model with the assumption that bubble sizes were dependent on the fluid surface tension and the density ratio of Pb-Bi to steam-water mixture was chosen and modified by the best fit to the measured void fraction. Pb-Bi flow rates were analytically estimated using balance condition between buoyancy force and pressure losses, where the buoyancy force was calculated from void fraction estimated using the modified drift-flux model. The deviation of the analytical results of the flow rates from the experimental ones was less than 10%.

  16. Dynamic modeling and experimental validation for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Francis, Lijo; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes a mathematical dynamic model for the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The model is based on a 2D Advection–Diffusion Equation (ADE), which describes the heat and mass transfer mechanisms that take place inside the DCMD module. The model studies the behavior of the process in the time varying and the steady state phases, contributing to understanding the process performance, especially when it is driven by intermittent energy supply, such as the solar energy. The model is experimentally validated in the steady state phase, where the permeate flux is measured for different feed inlet temperatures and the maximum absolute error recorded is 2.78 °C. Moreover, experimental validation includes the time variation phase, where the feed inlet temperature ranges from 30 °C to 75 °C with 0.1 °C increment every 2min. The validation marks relative error to be less than 5%, which leads to a strong correlation between the model predictions and the experiments.

  17. Experimental and numerical investigations on the direct contact condensation phenomenon in horizontal flow channels and its implications in nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin Cristian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany); Laurinavicius, Darius [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2016-11-15

    The complex direct contact condensation phenomenon is investigated in horizontal flow channels both experimentally and numerically with special emphasis on its implications on safety assessment studies. Under certain conditions direct contact condensation can act as the driving force for the water hammer phenomenon with potentially local devastating results, thus posing a threat to the integrity of the affected NPP components. New experimental results of in-depth analysis of the direct contact condensation phenomena obtained in Kaunas at the Lithuanian Energy Institute will be presented. The German system code ATHLET employing for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient a mechanistic model accounting for two different eddy length scales, combined with the interfacial area transport equation will be assessed against condensation induced water hammer experimental data from the integral thermal-hydraulic experimental facility PMK-2, located at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute in Budapest Hungary.

  18. Direct physical contact between intercalated cells in the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent arteriole in mouse kidneys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ren

    Full Text Available Recent physiological studies in the kidney proposed the existence of a secondary feedback mechanism termed 'crosstalk' localized after the macula densa. This newly discovered crosstalk contact between the nephron tubule and its own afferent arteriole may potentially revolutionize our understanding of renal vascular resistance and electrolyte regulation. However, the nature of such a crosstalk mechanism is still debated due to a lack of direct and comprehensive morphological evidence. Its exact location along the nephron, its prevalence among the different types of nephrons, and the type of cells involved are yet unknown. To address these issues, computer assisted 3-dimensional nephron tracing was applied in combination with direct immunohistochemistry on plastic sections and electron microscopy. 'Random' contacts in the cortex were identified by the tracing and excluded. We investigated a total of 168 nephrons from all cortical regions. The results demonstrated that the crosstalk contact existed, and that it was only present in certain nephrons (90% of the short-looped and 75% of the long-looped nephrons. The crosstalk contacts always occurred at a specific position--the last 10% of the distal convoluted tubule. Importantly, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the cells found in the tubule wall at the contact site were always type nonA-nonB intercalated cells. In conclusion, the present work confirmed the existence of a post macula densa physical crosstalk contact.

  19. Direct physical contact between intercalated cells in the distal convoluted tubule and the afferent arteriole in mouse kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; Liu, Ning-Yu; Andreasen, Arne; Thomsen, Jesper S; Cao, Liu; Christensen, Erik I; Zhai, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    Recent physiological studies in the kidney proposed the existence of a secondary feedback mechanism termed 'crosstalk' localized after the macula densa. This newly discovered crosstalk contact between the nephron tubule and its own afferent arteriole may potentially revolutionize our understanding of renal vascular resistance and electrolyte regulation. However, the nature of such a crosstalk mechanism is still debated due to a lack of direct and comprehensive morphological evidence. Its exact location along the nephron, its prevalence among the different types of nephrons, and the type of cells involved are yet unknown. To address these issues, computer assisted 3-dimensional nephron tracing was applied in combination with direct immunohistochemistry on plastic sections and electron microscopy. 'Random' contacts in the cortex were identified by the tracing and excluded. We investigated a total of 168 nephrons from all cortical regions. The results demonstrated that the crosstalk contact existed, and that it was only present in certain nephrons (90% of the short-looped and 75% of the long-looped nephrons). The crosstalk contacts always occurred at a specific position--the last 10% of the distal convoluted tubule. Importantly, we demonstrated, for the first time, that the cells found in the tubule wall at the contact site were always type nonA-nonB intercalated cells. In conclusion, the present work confirmed the existence of a post macula densa physical crosstalk contact.

  20. Autonomous Sun-Direction Estimation Using Partially Underdetermined Coarse Sun Sensor Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Stephen A.

    In recent years there has been a significant increase in interest in smaller satellites as lower cost alternatives to traditional satellites, particularly with the rise in popularity of the CubeSat. Due to stringent mass, size, and often budget constraints, these small satellites rely on making the most of inexpensive hardware components and sensors, such as coarse sun sensors (CSS) and magnetometers. More expensive high-accuracy sun sensors often combine multiple measurements, and use specialized electronics, to deterministically solve for the direction of the Sun. Alternatively, cosine-type CSS output a voltage relative to the input light and are attractive due to their very low cost, simplicity to manufacture, small size, and minimal power consumption. This research investigates using coarse sun sensors for performing robust attitude estimation in order to point a spacecraft at the Sun after deployment from a launch vehicle, or following a system fault. As an alternative to using a large number of sensors, this thesis explores sun-direction estimation techniques with low computational costs that function well with underdetermined sets of CSS. Single-point estimators are coupled with simultaneous nonlinear control to achieve sun-pointing within a small percentage of a single orbit despite the partially underdetermined nature of the sensor suite. Leveraging an extensive analysis of the sensor models involved, sequential filtering techniques are shown to be capable of estimating the sun-direction to within a few degrees, with no a priori attitude information and using only CSS, despite the significant noise and biases present in the system. Detailed numerical simulations are used to compare and contrast the performance of the five different estimation techniques, with and without rate gyro measurements, their sensitivity to rate gyro accuracy, and their computation time. One of the key concerns with reducing the number of CSS is sensor degradation and failure. In

  1. Use of contact Nd:YAG sapphire-laser system for performing partial hepatectomy and splenectomy in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chibing; Jing, Shujuan; Cai, Huimin; Shao, Lanxing; Zou, Hegui

    1993-03-01

    An Nd:YAG Sapphire laser blade was used for performing hepatectomy and splenectomy in dogs. The results suggest that a laser blade provides a new way to reduce intraoperative bleeding and to minimize tissue damage. In recent years, there have been some reports on performing surgical procedures using a contact Nd:YAG Sapphire laser system. The current animal study was conducted in order to explore the capability of incision and excision of the laser tip, the damage to the tissue, and the recovery course.

  2. Performance investigation of a solar-assisted direct contact membrane distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a solar-assisted direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) system with novel energy recovery concepts for a continuous 24-h-a-day operation. A temperature modulating scheme is introduced to the solar-thermal system that supplies feed seawater to the DCMD modules. This scheme attenuates extreme temperature fluctuations of the feed water by storing the collected energy during solar-peak hours and reutilizing it throughout the day. Thus, the energy savings is realized yet the feed seawater temperature is maintained within the desired range. Additionally, the system employs heat recovery from the permeate and brine streams to the feed seawater. The simulations for such a system with a shell-and-tube type DCMD modules are carried out to examine the spatial property variations and the sensitivity of system performance (i.e., transmembrane pressure, permeate flux and performance ratio) to the operating conditions (inlet temperature and flow rate) and the fiber dimensions (fiber length and packing density). It is found that there are trade-offs between mean permeate flux and performance ratio with respect to permeate inlet temperature and flow rate and between total distillate production and performance ratio with respect to packing density. For the solar-assisted DCMD system having evacuated-tube collectors of 3360m2 with 160m3 seawater storage tanks and 50 DCMD modules, the annual solar fraction and the collector efficiency are found to be 77% and 53%, respectively, whilst the overall permeate production capacity is 31m3/day. The overall specific thermal energy consumption of the DCMD system with heat recovery is found to be 436kWh/m3 and it is about 43% lower as compared to the system without heat recovery. It is observed that the specific thermal energy consumption decreases significantly by 55% with increased collector area from 1983m2 to 3360m2 whereas the specific electrical energy consumption increases slightly by 16%. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Treatment of Simulated Coalbed Methane Produced Water Using Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wan Cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Expolitation of coalbed methane (CBM involves production of a massive amount saline water that needs to be properly managed for environmental protection. In this study, direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD was utilized for treatment of CBM-produced water to remove saline components in the water. Simulated CBM waters containing varying concentrations of NaCl (1, 20, and 500 mM and NaHCO3 (1 and 25 mM were used as feed solutions under two transmembrane temperatures (Δ40 and 60 °C. In short-term distillation (~360 min, DCMD systems showed good performance with nearly 100% removal of salts for all solutes concentrations at both temperatures. The permeate flux increased with the feed temperature, but at a given temperature, it remained fairly stable throughout the whole operation. A gradual decline in permeate flux was observed at Δ60 °C at high NaHCO3 concentration (25 mM. In long-term distillation (5400 min, the presence of 25 mM NaHCO3 further decreased the flux to 25%–35% of the initial value toward the end of the operation, likely due to membrane fouling by deposition of Ca-carbonate minerals on the pore openings. Furthermore, pore wetting by the scalants occurred at the end of the experiment, and it increased the distillate conducitivity to 110 µS·cm−1. The precipitates formed on the surface were dominantly CaCO3 crystals, identified as aragonite.

  4. Extended causal modeling to assess Partial Directed Coherence in multiple time series with significant instantaneous interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, Luca; Nollo, Giandomenico

    2010-11-01

    The Partial Directed Coherence (PDC) and its generalized formulation (gPDC) are popular tools for investigating, in the frequency domain, the concept of Granger causality among multivariate (MV) time series. PDC and gPDC are formalized in terms of the coefficients of an MV autoregressive (MVAR) model which describes only the lagged effects among the time series and forsakes instantaneous effects. However, instantaneous effects are known to affect linear parametric modeling, and are likely to occur in experimental time series. In this study, we investigate the impact on the assessment of frequency domain causality of excluding instantaneous effects from the model underlying PDC evaluation. Moreover, we propose the utilization of an extended MVAR model including both instantaneous and lagged effects. This model is used to assess PDC either in accordance with the definition of Granger causality when considering only lagged effects (iPDC), or with an extended form of causality, when we consider both instantaneous and lagged effects (ePDC). The approach is first evaluated on three theoretical examples of MVAR processes, which show that the presence of instantaneous correlations may produce misleading profiles of PDC and gPDC, while ePDC and iPDC derived from the extended model provide here a correct interpretation of extended and lagged causality. It is then applied to representative examples of cardiorespiratory and EEG MV time series. They suggest that ePDC and iPDC are better interpretable than PDC and gPDC in terms of the known cardiovascular and neural physiologies.

  5. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...

  6. Pseudophakodonesis and corneal endothelial contact: direct observations by high-speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P M; Cheng, H; Price, N C

    1983-10-01

    High-speed cinematography was used to observe the movement of Federov type I lens implants within the anterior chamber. Our measurements suggest that in most patients contact between the lens implant and corneal endothelium does not occur.

  7. New directions in point-contact spectroscopy based on scanning tunneling microscopy techniques (Review Article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglini, E.; Verhagen, T.G.A.; Galli, F.; Trouwborst, M.L.; Aarts, J.; Van-Ruitebbeek, J.M.; Muller, R.; Shiota, T.

    2013-01-01

    Igor Yanson showed 38 years ago for the first time a point-contact measurement where he probed the energy resolved spectroscopy of the electronic scattering inside the metal. Since this first measurement, the pointcontact spectroscopy (PCS) technique improved enormously. The application of the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques in the late 1980s allowed achieving contacts with a diameter of a single atom. With the introduction of the mechanically controlled break junction technique, even spectroscopy on freely suspended chains of atoms could be performed. In this paper, we briefly review the current developments of PCS and show recent experiments in advanced scanning PCS based on SPM techniques. We describe some results obtained with both needle-anvil type of point contacts and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We also show our first attempt to lift up with a STM a chain of single gold atoms from a Au(110) surface.

  8. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10{sup −6}) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10{sup −6}). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes.

  9. Human exposure to trace elements through the skin by direct contact with clothing: Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Metals in textile products and clothing are used for many purposes, such as metal complex dyes, pigments, mordant, catalyst in synthetic fabrics manufacture, synergists of flame retardants, antimicrobials, or as water repellents and odour-preventive agents. When present in textile materials, heavy metals may mean a potential danger to human health. In the present study, the concentrations of a number of elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) were determined in skin-contact clothes. Analysed clothes were made of different materials, colours, and brands. Interestingly, we found high levels of Cr in polyamide dark clothes (605 mg/kg), high Sb concentrations in polyester clothes (141 mg/kg), and great Cu levels in some green cotton fabrics (around 280 mg/kg). Dermal contact exposure and human health risks for adult males, adult females, and for <1-year-old children were assessed. Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks were below safe (HQ<1) and acceptable (<10 −6 ) limits, respectively, according to international standards. However, for Sb, non-carcinogenic risk was above 10% of the safety limit (HQ>0.1) for dermal contact with clothes. - Highlights: • We determined in skin-contact clothes the concentrations of a number of metals. • Dermal contact exposure and health risks for adults and for 1-year-old children were assessed. • Carcinogenic risks were considered as acceptable (<10 −6 ). • For non-carcinogenic risks, only Sb exceeded a 10% of the HQ for dermal contact with clothes

  10. Pseudophakodonesis and corneal endothelial contact: direct observations by high-speed cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P M; Cheng, H; Price, N C

    1983-01-01

    High-speed cinematography was used to observe the movement of Federov type I lens implants within the anterior chamber. Our measurements suggest that in most patients contact between the lens implant and corneal endothelium does not occur. Images PMID:6615750

  11. Clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samoszuk, Michael; Tan, Jenny; Chorn, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that fibroblasts play a pivotal role in promoting the growth of breast cancer cells. The objective of the present study was to characterize and validate an in vitro model of the interaction between small numbers of human breast cancer cells and human fibroblasts. We measured the clonogenic growth of small numbers of human breast cancer cells co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated, normal human fibroblasts. Using DNA microarrays, we also characterized the gene expression profile of the serum-activated fibroblasts. In order to validate the in vivo relevance of our experiments, we then analyzed clinical samples of metastatic breast cancer for the presence of myofibroblasts expressing α-smooth muscle actin. Clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells obtained directly from in situ and invasive tumors was dramatically and consistently enhanced when the tumor cells were co-cultured in direct contact with serum-activated fibroblasts. This effect was abolished when the cells were co-cultured in transwells separated by permeable inserts. The fibroblasts in our experimental model exhibited a gene expression signature characteristic of 'serum response' (i.e. myofibroblasts). Immunostaining of human samples of metastatic breast cancer tissue confirmed that myofibroblasts are in direct contact with breast cancer cells. Serum-activated fibroblasts promote the clonogenic growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro through a mechanism that involves direct physical contact between the cells. This model shares many important molecular and phenotypic similarities with the fibroblasts that are naturally found in breast cancers

  12. A new technique for direct traceability of contact thermometry Co-C eutectic cells to the ITS-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failleau, G.; Deuzé, T.; Bourson, F.; Briaudeau, S.; Sadli, M. [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam, 61 rue du Landy 93210 La Plaine Saint Denis (France)

    2013-09-11

    The eutectic Co-C melting point is a promising system to serve as a thermometric fixed-point in the temperature range above 1084.62 °C (copper freezing point). During the last decade, LNE-Cnam has developed and characterized some fixed-point devices, based on eutectic Co-C alloy, for applications to contact and radiation thermometry. Above 962 °C, the ITS-90 is realized by radiation thermometry by the extrapolation from a Ag, Au or Cu fixed point using the Planck law for radiation. So the only way for assigning a temperature in the scale to a Co-C cell (∼1324 °C) is by radiation thermometry. An indirect method is commonly used to assign a temperature to a high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) cell designed for contact thermometry is to fill a pyrometric cell with the same mixture as the contact thermometry cell. In this case, the temperature assigned to the pyrometric cell is attributed to the contact cell. This paper describes a direct method allowing the determination of the melting temperature realized by a 'contact thermometry' Co-C cell by comparison to a 'radiation thermometry' Co-C cell whose melting temperature was assigned in accordance to the scale by extrapolation from the Cu point. In addition, the same Co-C cell is studied with a standard Pt/Pd thermocouple.

  13. Charge transfer and partial pinning at the contacts as the origin of a double dip in the transfer characteristics of graphene-based field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bartolomeo, Antonio; Giubileo, Filippo; Santandrea, Salvatore; Romeo, Francesco; Citro, Roberta; Schroeder, Thomas; Lupina, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the origin of an additional dip other than the charge neutrality point observed in the transfer characteristics of graphene-based field-effect transistors with a Si/SiO 2 substrate used as the back-gate. The double dip is proved to arise from charge transfer between the graphene and the metal electrodes, while charge storage at the graphene/SiO 2 interface can make it more evident. Considering a different Fermi energy from the neutrality point along the channel and partial charge pinning at the contacts, we propose a model which explains all the features observed in the gate voltage loops. We finally show that the double dip enhanced hysteresis in the transfer characteristics can be exploited to realize graphene-based memory devices.

  14. Assessment of MARS for Direct Contact Condensation in the Core Make-up Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Keun Tae; Park, Ik Kyu; Lee, Seung Wook

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve safety features under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions, in many advanced light water reactors, gravity driven passive safety injection systems (PSISs) replace active pump driven emergency core cooling systems. Among various PSISs, the core make-up tank (CMT) with the pressure balancing line (PBL) and the coolant injection line (IL) represents an effective means of providing core cooling. Because the fluid is always sensing the reactor coolant system (RCS) through the PBL connecting the inlet of the CMT to the pressurizer in the case of CP1300 or to the cold legs in the case of AP600/1000, the CMT can provide cold water at any RCS pressure by gravity force. However, after the initiation of LOCAs, if the injection (or isolation) valve is opened, and the steam from the RCS is jetting into the highly subcooled liquid in the CMT and the enhanced interfacial area results in rapid condensation, which in turn, causes a rapid pressure drop in the CMT. As a result, the CMT pressure becomes less than the RCS pressure, and the injection of the CMT can be delayed until the CMT pressure builds up due to greatly reduced condensation in the CMT by the thermal stratification. In order to identify the parameters having significant effects on the gravity-driven injection and the major condensation modes, Lee and No (1998) conducted the separated effect tests of CMT with a small-scale facility. MARS has been developed as a multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic (TH) system analysis code for the realistic simulation of two-phase TH transients for pressurized water reactor plants. As the backbones for the MARS code, the RELAP5/MOD3.2 and the COB-RA-TF codes were adopted. Recently, Chun et al. (2013) evaluated performance of the SMART passive safety system for SBLOCA using MARS code. However, it is not clarified that MARS can simulate properly the direct contact condensation in the CMT. Thus, in this study, we assess the analysis capability of the MARS code for

  15. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Colon Cancer Cells through Direct Cell-to-Cell Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko Takigawa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that in an orthotopic nude mouse model of human colon cancer, bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs migrated to the tumor stroma and promoted tumor growth and metastasis. Here, we evaluated the proliferation and migration ability of cancer cells cocultured with MSCs to elucidate the mechanism of interaction between cancer cells and MSCs. Proliferation and migration of cancer cells increased following direct coculture with MSCs but not following indirect coculture. Thus, we hypothesized that direct contact between cancer cells and MSCs was important. We performed a microarray analysis of gene expression in KM12SM colon cancer cells directly cocultured with MSCs. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT–related genes such as fibronectin (FN, SPARC, and galectin 1 was increased by direct coculture with MSCs. We also confirmed the upregulation of these genes with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene expression was not elevated in cancer cells indirectly cocultured with MSCs. Among the EMT-related genes upregulated by direct coculture with MSCs, we examined the immune localization of FN, a well-known EMT marker. In coculture assay in chamber slides, expression of FN was seen only at the edges of cancer clusters where cancer cells directly contacted MSCs. FN expression in cancer cells increased at the tumor periphery and invasive edge in orthotopic nude mouse tumors and human colon cancer tissues. These results suggest that MSCs induce EMT in colon cancer cells via direct cell-to-cell contact and may play an important role in colon cancer metastasis.

  16. Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, G.F.; Minkov, V.; Petrick, M.

    1981-11-02

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system is described in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

  17. Water in contact with extended hydrophobic surfaces: Direct evidence of weak dewetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Torben R.; Kjaer, Kristian; Oestergaard Jensen, Morten; Peters, Guenther H.; Reitzel, Niels; Balashev, Konstantin; Bjoernholm, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity measurements reveal a significant dewetting of a large hydrophobic paraffin surface floating on water. The dewetting phenomenon extends less than 15 A into the bulk water phase and results in an integrated density deficit of about one water molecule per 25-30 A 2 of water in contact with the paraffin surface. The results are supported by molecular dynamics simulations and related to the hydrophobic effect

  18. CFD simulation of direct contact condensation with ANSYS CFX using surface renewal theory based heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Ceuca, Sabin Cristian; Macian-Juan, Rafael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)

  19. Direct measurement of the partial decay energy of 7Be inner bremstrahlung spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjeeviah, H.; Sanjeeviah, B.

    1978-01-01

    The inner bremsstrahlung spectrum accompanying orbital electron capture decay of 7 Be to the first excited state of 7 Li was measured in coincidence with 477 keV gamma rays. From the Jauch plot of the spectrum the partial decay energy was found to be 394 +- 16 keV. The shape factor of the inner bremsstrahlung spectrum close to the end point was accurately determined. It was found to be a constant X(1.001 +- 0.002) (author)

  20. Evidence of multiband superconductivity in the quaternary borocarbide superconductor YNi2B2C using directional point-contact spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, Pratap; Sheet, Goutam; Mukhopadhyay, Sourin; Takeya, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we review our recent investigations on the gap anisotropy of the quaternary borocarbide superconductor YNi 2 B 2 C using directional point-contact spectroscopy. Through a detailed study of the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the superconducting energy gaps we show that the gap anisotropy in this material originates from electrons on different Fermi sheets having very different Fermi velocities. The gap anisotropy in this material is therefore well explained through a multiband scenario where electrons in different k-directions have very different electron-phonon coupling strength

  1. Direct contact with endoderm-like cells efficiently induces cardiac progenitors from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uosaki

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs have emerged as a powerful tool to study cardiogenesis in vitro and a potential cell source for cardiac regenerative medicine. However, available methods to induce CPCs are not efficient or require high-cost cytokines with extensive optimization due to cell line variations. OBJECTIVE: Based on our in-vivo observation that early endodermal cells maintain contact with nascent pre-cardiac mesoderm, we hypothesized that direct physical contact with endoderm promotes induction of CPCs from pluripotent cells. METHOD AND RESULT: To test the hypothesis, we cocultured mouse embryonic stem (ES cells with the endodermal cell line End2 by co-aggregation or End2-conditioned medium. Co-aggregation resulted in strong induction of Flk1(+ PDGFRa(+ CPCs in a dose-dependent manner, but the conditioned medium did not, indicating that direct contact is necessary for this process. To determine if direct contact with End2 cells also promotes the induction of committed cardiac progenitors, we utilized several mouse ES and induced pluripotent (iPS cell lines expressing fluorescent proteins under regulation of the CPC lineage markers Nkx2.5 or Isl1. In agreement with earlier data, co-aggregation with End2 cells potently induces both Nkx2.5(+ and Isl1(+ CPCs, leading to a sheet of beating cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, co-aggregation with End2 cells greatly promotes the induction of KDR(+ PDGFRa(+ CPCs from human ES cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our co-aggregation method provides an efficient, simple and cost-effective way to induce CPCs from mouse and human pluripotent cells.

  2. The Role of Indocyanine Green for Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: Early Results, Limitations and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Klaassen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of small renal masses has continued to evolve, particularly with the advent of the robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Recent studies at high volume institutions utilizing near infrared imaging with indocyanine green (ICG fluorescent dye to delineate renal tumor anatomy has generated interest among robotic surgeons for improving warm ischemia times and positive margin rate for RPN. To date, early studies suggest positive margin rate using ICG is comparable to traditional RPN, however this technology improves visualization of the renal vasculature allowing selective clamping or zero ischemia. The precise combination of fluorescent compound, dose, and optimal tumor anatomy for ICG RPN has yet to be elucidated.

  3. 47 CFR 73.154 - AM directional antenna partial proof of performance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... available to the FCC upon request. Maps showing new measurement points, i.e., points not measured in the...) Measurement points shall be selected from the points measured in latest full proof of performance provided..., the licensee shall measure directional field strength for comparison to either the directional or the...

  4. Hierarchical micro- and nanofabrication by pattern-directed contact instabilities of thin viscoelastic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abir; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sarkar, Jayati; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2017-12-01

    A surface of a thin viscoelastic film forms spinodal patterns when brought in contact proximity of another surface due to the dominance of destabilizing intermolecular interaction over the stabilizing elastic and surface tension forces. In this study, we theoretically explore such contact instabilities of a thin viscoelastic film, wherein the patterns generated on the surface of the film is developed with the help of a contactor decorated with periodic physical, chemical, and physicochemical features on the surface. The nonlinear analysis shown here considers the movement of the patterned contactor during the adhesion and debonding processes, which is unlike most of the previous works where the contactor is considered to be stationary. The simulations reveal that the amplitude and periodicity of the patterns decorated on the contactor together with the contactor speed can be the key parameters to stimulate pattern formation on the film surface alongside causing changeover of the various modes of debonding of the surfaces. In particular, the ratio of the elastic to viscous compliances of the film is found to play a critical role to stimulate the changeover of the modes from catastrophic to peeling or coalescence. The study uncovers that a higher wettability contrast across the patterned contactor leads to the catastrophic collapse of the patterns decorated on the film surface when the contactor debonds at a moderate speed. In comparison, a moderately high wettability contrast alongside a faster withdrawal speed of the contactor results in the gradual peeling of columns during the debonding cycle. Remarkably, a higher withdrawal speed of the contactor from the film-proximity can increase the aspect ratio of the patterns fabricated on the film surface to about fourfold during the peeling mode of debonding. The results show the importance of the usage of patterned contactors, their controlled movement, and extent of elastic to viscous compliance ratio of the film for

  5. An effect-directed strategy for characterizing emerging chemicals in food contact materials made from paper and board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Bengtström, Linda; Taxvig, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are any type of item intended to come into contact with foods and thus represent a potential source for human exposure to chemicals. Regarding FCMs made of paper and board, information pertaining to their chemical constituents and the potential impacts on human health...... FCMs exhibited activities in at least one assay. As proof-of-principle, FCM samples obtained from a sandwich wrapper and a pizza box were carried through a complete step-by-step multi-tiered approach. The pizza box exhibited ER activity, likely caused by the presence of bisphenol A, dibutyl phthalate......, and benzylbutyl phthalate. The sandwich wrapper exhibited AR antagonism, likely caused by abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid. Migration studies confirmed that the active chemicals can transfer from FCMs to food simulants. In conclusion, we report an effect-directed strategy that can identify hazards posed...

  6. Organic light-emitting diodes with direct contact-printed red, green, blue, and white light-emitting layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sun-Zen; Peng, Shiang-Hau; Ting, Tzu-Yu; Wu, Po-Shien; Lin, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chin-Yeh; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Jou, Jwo-Huei

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using direct contact-printing in the fabrication of monochromatic and polychromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Bright devices with red, green, blue, and white contact-printed light-emitting layers with a respective maximum luminance of 29 000, 29 000, 4000, and 18 000 cd/m2 were obtained with sound film integrity by blending a polymeric host into a molecular host. For the red OLED as example, the maximum luminance was decreased from 29 000 to 5000 cd/m2 as only the polymeric host was used, or decreased to 7000 cd/m2 as only the molecular host was used. The markedly improved device performance achieved in the devices with blended hosts may be attributed to the employed polymeric host that contributed a good film-forming character, and the molecular host that contributed a good electroluminescence character.

  7. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezha Ahmad Agha

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  8. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Agha, Nezha; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity.

  9. A self-interacting partially directed walk subject to a force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brak, R; Owczarek, A L [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Dyke, P; Lee, J; Whittington, S G [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3H6 (Canada); Prellberg, T [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Rechnitzer, A [Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6K 1ZT (Canada)

    2009-02-27

    We consider a directed walk model of a homopolymer (in two dimensions) which is self-interacting and can undergo a collapse transition, subject to an applied tensile force. We review and interpret all the results already in the literature concerning the case where this force is in the preferred direction of the walk. We consider the force extension curves at different temperatures as well as the critical-force temperature curve. We demonstrate that this model can be analysed rigorously for all key quantities of interest even when there may not be explicit expressions for these quantities available. We show which of the techniques available can be extended to the full model, where the force has components in the preferred direction and the direction perpendicular to this. Whilst the solution of the generating function is available, its analysis is far more complicated and not all the rigorous techniques are available. However, many results can be extracted including the location of the critical point which gives the general critical-force temperature curve. Lastly, we generalize the model to a three-dimensional analogue and show that several key properties can be analysed if the force is restricted to the plane of preferred directions.

  10. Importance of the Direct Contact of Amorphous Solid Particles with the Surface of Monolayers for the Transepithelial Permeation of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Kasatani, Sachiha; Tanaka, Megumi; Araki, Kaeko; Enomura, Masakazu; Moriyama, Kei; Inoue, Daisuke; Furubayashi, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Akiko; Kusamori, Kosuke; Katsumi, Hidemasa; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2016-02-01

    The amorphization has been generally known to improve the absorption and permeation of poorly water-soluble drugs through the enhancement of the solubility. The present study focused on the direct contact of amorphous solid particles with the surface of the membrane using curcumin as a model for water-insoluble drugs. Amorphous nanoparticles of curcumin (ANC) were prepared with antisolvent crystallization method using a microreactor. The solubility of curcumin from ANC was two orders of magnitude higher than that of crystalline curcumin (CC). However, the permeation of curcumin from the saturated solution of ANC was negligible. The transepithelial permeation of curcumin from ANC suspension was significantly increased as compared to CC suspension, while the permeation was unlikely correlated with the solubility, and the increase in the permeation was dependent on the total concentration of curcumin in ANC suspension. The absorptive transport of curcumin (from apical to basal, A to B) from ANC suspension was much higher than the secretory transport (from basal to apical, B to A). In vitro transport of curcumin through air-interface monolayers is large from ANC but negligible from CC particles. These findings suggest that the direct contact of ANC with the absorptive membrane can play an important role in the transport of curcumin from ANC suspension. The results of the study suggest that amorphous particles may be directly involved in the transepithlial permeation of curcumin.

  11. Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, B.W.

    1983-05-01

    As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Dual-Bioinspired Design for Constructing Membranes with Superhydrophobicity for Direct Contact Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhigao; Liu, Yuanren; Hou, Haoqing; Shi, Wenxin; Qu, Fangshu; Cui, Fuyi; Wang, Wei

    2018-03-06

    Water flux and durability are the two critical parameters that are closely associated with the practical application of membrane distillation (MD). Herein, we report a facile approach to fabricate superhydrophobic polyimide nanofibrous membranes (PI NFMs) with hierarchical structures, interconnected pores, and high porosity, which was derived from the electrospinning, dual-bioinspired design, and fluorination processes. Bioinspired adhesive based on polydopamine /polyethylenimine (PDA/PEI) composite was first linked onto membrane substrates and then assembled lotus leaf hierarchical structure by binding the negatively charged silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs) via electrostatic attraction. The resultant superhydrophobic PI NFMs exhibit a water contact angle of 152°, robust hot water resistance of 85 °C, and high water entry pressure of 42 kPa. Moreover, the membrane with omniphobicity presents high water flux over 31 L m -2 h -1 and high salts rejection of ∼100% as well as robust durability for treating high salinity wastewater containing typical low surface tension and dissolved contaminants (Δ T = 40 °C). Significantly, the novel dual-bioinspired method can be used as a universal tool to modify various materials with hierarchical structures, which is expected to provide more effective alternative membranes for MD and even for other selective wetting separation fields.

  13. Improvement of direct contact condensation model of relap5/mod3.1 for passive high-pressure injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sang, Il Lee; Hee, Cheon No

    1998-01-01

    A simple set of the transition criterion of the condensation regimes and the heat transfer coefficients on the direct contact condensation in the core makeup tank was developed, and implemented in RELAP5/MOD3.1. The condensation regimes were divided into two ones: supply limit and condensation limit. In modeling the transition criterion between two regimes, a large-eddy model developed by Theofanous was used. The modified code better predicted the experiments on the core makeup tank using small scale test facility than the original code did

  14. Direct experience and the course of eating disorders in patients on partial hospitalization: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Joaquim; Soriano, José; Ferraz, Liliana; Grasa, Eva; Carmona, Cristina; Portella, Maria J; Seto, Victoria; Alvarez, Enric; Pérez, Víctor

    2013-09-01

    Awareness of sensory experience in the present moment is central to mindfulness practice. This type of information processing, in contrast to an analytical evaluative style of processing, could be more beneficial for the course of those psychiatric disorders characterized by ruminative and content-centred processing, such as eating disorders (EDs). We performed a pilot study to assess the relation between patients' approach to information processing and the duration and severity of EDs. Fifty-seven patients with a diagnosed ED were included in the study and participated in a self-guided eating activity to asses the primary information processing mode based on mindfulness concepts of 'Direct Experience' and 'Thinking About'. Additionally, dispositional mindfulness was assessed by the Five Factors Mindfulness Questionnaire, and anxiety during the experiment was determined by means of a 10-point visual analogue scale. We found that a higher level of self-reported Direct Experience was inversely associated with several severity variables and with anxiety levels. Direct Experience was predicted by a low anxiety level, less severe illness, and higher scores on one mindfulness facet (Observing). Our results suggest that a Direct Experience processing approach is associated with better ED outcomes. Future studies should be carried out to clarify the repercussion of mindfulness training on EDs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. A direct method for trajectory optimization of rigid bodies through contact

    OpenAIRE

    Posa, Michael Antonio; Cantu, Cecilia; Tedrake, Russell Louis

    2013-01-01

    Direct methods for trajectory optimization are widely used for planning locally optimal trajectories of robotic systems. Many critical tasks, such as locomotion and manipulation, often involve impacting the ground or objects in the environment. Most state-of-the-art techniques treat the discontinuous dynamics that result from impacts as discrete modes and restrict the search for a complete path to a specified sequence through these modes. Here we present a novel method for trajectory planning...

  16. Light-addressable amperometric electrodes for enzyme sensors based on direct quantum dot-electrode contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, M.; Göbel, G.; Parak, W. J.; Lisdat, F.

    2014-03-01

    Quantum dots allow the generation of charge carriers upon illumination. When these particles are attached to an electrode a photocurrent can be generated. This allows their use as a light-switchable layer on the surface. The QDs can not only exchange electronics with the electrode, but can also interact with donor or acceptor compounds in solution providing access to the construction of signal chains starting from an analytic molecule. The magnitude and the direction of the photocurrent depend on several factors such as electrode polarization, solution pH and composition. These defined dependencies have been evaluated with respect to the combination of QD-electrodes with enzyme reactions for sensorial purpose. CdSe/ZnS-QD-modified electrodes can be used to follow enzymatic reactions in solution based on the oxygen sensitivity. In order to develop a photoelectrochemical biosensor, e.g. glucose oxidase is immobilized on the CdSe/ZnS-electrode. One immobilization strategy applies the layer-by-layer-technique of GOD and a polyelectrolyte. Photocurrent measurements of such a sensor show a clear concentration dependent behavior. The principle of combing QD oxidase. The sensitivity of quantum dot electrodes can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be influenced by additional nanoparticles, but also by multiple layers of the QDs. In another direction of research it can be demonstrated that direct electron transfer from excited quantum dots can be achieved with the redox protein cytochrome c. This allows the detection of the protein, but also interaction partners such as a enzymes or superoxide.

  17. Ce-Fe-O mixed oxide as oxygen carrier for the direct partial oxidation of methane to syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏永刚; 王华; 李孔斋

    2010-01-01

    The Ce-Fe-O mixed oxide with a ratio of Ce/Fe=7:3, which was prepared by coprecipitation method and employed as oxygen carrier, for direct partial oxidation of methane to syngas in the absence of gaseous oxygen was explored. The mixed oxide was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the catalytic performances were studied in a fixed-bed quartz reactor and a thermogravimetric reactor, respectively. Approximately 99.4% H2 se...

  18. A Virtual Reality System for PTCD Simulation Using Direct Visuo-Haptic Rendering of Partially Segmented Image Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortmeier, Dirk; Mastmeyer, Andre; Schröder, Julian; Handels, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new visuo-haptic virtual reality (VR) training and planning system for percutaneous transhepatic cholangio-drainage (PTCD) based on partially segmented virtual patient models. We only use partially segmented image data instead of a full segmentation and circumvent the necessity of surface or volume mesh models. Haptic interaction with the virtual patient during virtual palpation, ultrasound probing and needle insertion is provided. Furthermore, the VR simulator includes X-ray and ultrasound simulation for image-guided training. The visualization techniques are GPU-accelerated by implementation in Cuda and include real-time volume deformations computed on the grid of the image data. Computation on the image grid enables straightforward integration of the deformed image data into the visualization components. To provide shorter rendering times, the performance of the volume deformation algorithm is improved by a multigrid approach. To evaluate the VR training system, a user evaluation has been performed and deformation algorithms are analyzed in terms of convergence speed with respect to a fully converged solution. The user evaluation shows positive results with increased user confidence after a training session. It is shown that using partially segmented patient data and direct volume rendering is suitable for the simulation of needle insertion procedures such as PTCD.

  19. Artificial Neural Network Application for Partial Discharge Recognition: Survey and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Abubakar Mas’ud

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate how artificial neural networks (ANNs have been applied for partial discharge (PD pattern recognition, this paper reviews recent progress made on ANN development for PD classification by a literature survey. Contributions from several authors have been presented and discussed. High recognition rate has been recorded for several PD faults, but there are still many factors that hinder correct recognition of PD by the ANN, such as high-amplitude noise or wide spectral content typical from industrial environments, trial and error approaches in determining an optimum ANN, multiple PD sources acting simultaneously, lack of comprehensive and up to date databank of PD faults, and the appropriate selection of the characteristics that allow a correct recognition of the type of source which are currently being addressed by researchers. Several suggestions for improvement are proposed by the authors include: (1 determining the optimum weights in training the ANN; (2 using PD data captured over long stressing period in training the ANN; (3 ANN recognizing different PD degradation levels; (4 using the same resolution sizes of the PD patterns when training and testing the ANN with different PD dataset; (5 understanding the characteristics of multiple concurrent PD faults and effectively recognizing them; and (6 developing techniques in order to shorten the training time for the ANN as applied for PD recognition Finally, this paper critically assesses the suitability of ANNs for both online and offline PD detections outlining the advantages to the practitioners in the field. It is possible for the ANNs to determine the stage of degradation of the PD, thereby giving an indication of the seriousness of the fault.

  20. Dancoff factors with partial neutrons absorption in cluster geometry by the direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch

    2007-01-01

    Accurate analysis of resonance absorption in heterogeneous systems is essential in problems like criticality, breeding ratios and fuel depletion calculations. In compact arrays of fuel rods, resonance absorption is strongly affected by the Dancoff factor, defined in mis study as the probability that a neutron emitted from the surface of a fuel element, enters another fuel element without any collusion in the moderator or cladding. In fact, in the most practical cases of irregular cells, it is observed that inaccuracies in computing both Grey and Black Dancoff factors, i.e. for partially and perfectly absorbing fuel rods, can lead to considerable errors in the calculated values of such integral quantities. For this reason, much effort has been made in the past decades to further improve the models for calculating Dancoff factors, a task that has been accomplished in connection with the development of faster computers. In the WIMS code, Black Dancoff factors based on the above mentioned collusion probability definition are computed in cluster geometry, for each one of the symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions in the cell. Sets of equally-spaced parallel lines are drawn in subroutine PIJ, at a number of discrete equally-incremented azimuthal angles, covering the whole system and forming a mesh over which the in-plane integrations of the Bickley functions are carried out by simple trapezoidal rule, leading to the first-flight collusion matrices. Although fast, the method in PIJ is inefficient, since the constructed mesh does not depended on the system details, so that regions of small relative volumes are crossed out by relatively few lines, which affects the convergence of the calculated probabilities. A new routine (PIJM) was then created to incorporate a more efficient integration scheme considering each system region individually, minimizing convergence problems and reducing the number of neutron track lines required in the in-plane integrations for any given

  1. Direct healthcare costs of selected diseases primarily or partially transmitted by water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, S A; Stockman, L J; Hicks, L A; Garrison, L E; Zhou, F J; Beach, M J

    2012-11-01

    Despite US sanitation advancements, millions of waterborne disease cases occur annually, although the precise burden of disease is not well quantified. Estimating the direct healthcare cost of specific infections would be useful in prioritizing waterborne disease prevention activities. Hospitalization and outpatient visit costs per case and total US hospitalization costs for ten waterborne diseases were calculated using large healthcare claims and hospital discharge databases. The five primarily waterborne diseases in this analysis (giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, Legionnaires' disease, otitis externa, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection) were responsible for over 40 000 hospitalizations at a cost of $970 million per year, including at least $430 million in hospitalization costs for Medicaid and Medicare patients. An additional 50 000 hospitalizations for campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, shigellosis, haemolytic uraemic syndrome, and toxoplasmosis cost $860 million annually ($390 million in payments for Medicaid and Medicare patients), a portion of which can be assumed to be due to waterborne transmission.

  2. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  3. Numerical Investigation on the Performance of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator with Exhaust-Module-Coolant Direct Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Tang, Yulin; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2018-06-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection have typically been a concern of research. Researchers have confirmed that in automotive engines, just 12-25% of the fuel energy converts into effective work and 30-40% gets wasted in the form of exhaust. Saidur et al. (Energy Policy 37:3650, 2009) and Hasanuzzaman et al. (Energy 36:233, 2011). It will be significant to enhance fuel availability and decrease environmental pollution if the waste heat in the exhaust could be recovered. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs), which can translate heat into electricity, have become a topic of interest for vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery. In conventional automotive TEGs, the thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are arranged between the exhaust tank and the coolant tank. The TEMs do not contact the hot exhaust and coolant, which leads to low heat transfer efficiency. Moreover, to provide enough packing force to keep good contact with the exhaust tank and the coolant tank, the framework required is so robust that the TEGs become too heavy. Therefore, in current study, an automotive TEG was designed which included one exhaust channel, one coolant channel and several TEMs. In the TEG, the TEMs which contacted the exhaust and coolant directly were inserted into the walls of each coolant channel. To evaluate the performance of the automotive TEG, the flow field and temperature field were computed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Based on the temperature distribution obtained by CFD and the performance parameters of the modules, the total power generation was obtained by some proved empirical formulas. Compared with conventional automotive TEGs, the power generation per unit volume exhaust was boosted.

  4. Numerical Investigation on the Performance of an Automotive Thermoelectric Generator with Exhaust-Module-Coolant Direct Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Tang, Yulin; Deng, Yadong; Su, Chuqi

    2017-12-01

    Energy conservation and environmental protection have typically been a concern of research. Researchers have confirmed that in automotive engines, just 12-25% of the fuel energy converts into effective work and 30-40% gets wasted in the form of exhaust. Saidur et al. (Energy Policy 37:3650, 2009) and Hasanuzzaman et al. (Energy 36:233, 2011). It will be significant to enhance fuel availability and decrease environmental pollution if the waste heat in the exhaust could be recovered. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs), which can translate heat into electricity, have become a topic of interest for vehicle exhaust waste heat recovery. In conventional automotive TEGs, the thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are arranged between the exhaust tank and the coolant tank. The TEMs do not contact the hot exhaust and coolant, which leads to low heat transfer efficiency. Moreover, to provide enough packing force to keep good contact with the exhaust tank and the coolant tank, the framework required is so robust that the TEGs become too heavy. Therefore, in current study, an automotive TEG was designed which included one exhaust channel, one coolant channel and several TEMs. In the TEG, the TEMs which contacted the exhaust and coolant directly were inserted into the walls of each coolant channel. To evaluate the performance of the automotive TEG, the flow field and temperature field were computed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Based on the temperature distribution obtained by CFD and the performance parameters of the modules, the total power generation was obtained by some proved empirical formulas. Compared with conventional automotive TEGs, the power generation per unit volume exhaust was boosted.

  5. Preparation of novel poly(vinylidene fluoride)/TiO2 photocatalysis membranes for use in direct contact membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yukun; Dong, Shuying; Zhu, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Immobilization of TiO2 is a potential approach to obtain photocatalytic membranes that could eliminate concentration polarization in sewage disposal for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. A simple non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method was proposed to prepare poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane, and the double-coating technology was further used to prepare the self-cleaning membranes with different TiO2 content. The effects of TiO2 nano-particles on membrane crystal form, morphology, porosity, pore size, pore size distribution, hydrophobicity, permeation, and photocatalytic efficiency were investigated, respectively. The flux of the prepared membranes is higher than the membrane (MS) provided by Membrane Solutions, LLC, in DCMD process. The contact angle between water and membrane could be increased 22° by introducing photocatalytic layer containing TiO2. During the photocatalytic test, 65.78-96.31% degrading rate of 15 mg/L Rhodamine B (RhB) was achieved. The relative flux of the membrane T-3 can be recovered to 0.96 in photocatalysis-membrane reactor for 8 h UV radiation. The fabricated membrane has great potential in high-salty dyeing wastewater treatment due to its high hydrophobicity and photocatalytic capability. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Wagtmann, Valery R; Hansen, Soren

    2015-01-01

    (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass, and birch pollen. Conclusions: Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation...... production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon re-challenge. The inhibitory effects of AECs' contact with DCs were absent when allergen extract-loaded DCs had only been exposed to AECs supernatants, but present after direct contact with AECs. We conclude that direct contact between DCs and AECs inhibits T...

  7. Fast Track Open Partial Nephrectomy: Reduced Postoperative Length of Stay with a Goal-Directed Pathway Does Not Compromise Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Chughtai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of reducing postoperative hospital stay following open partial nephrectomy through the implementation of a goal directed clinical management pathway. Materials and Methods. A fast track clinical pathway for open partial nephrectomy was introduced in July 2006 at our institution. The pathway has daily goals and targets discharge for all patients on the 3rd postoperative day (POD. Defined goals are (1 ambulation and liquid diet on the evening of the operative day; (2 out of bed (OOB at least 4 times on POD 1; (3 removal of Foley catheter on the morning of POD 2; (4 removal of Jackson Pratt drain on the afternoon of POD 2; (4 discharge to home on POD 3. Patients and family are instructed in the fast track protocol preoperatively. Demographic data, tumor size, length of stay, and complications were captured in a prospective database, and compared to a control group managed consecutively immediately preceding the institution of the fast track clinical pathway. Results. Data on 33 consecutive patients managed on the fast track clinical pathway was compared to that of 25 control patients. Twenty two (61% out of 36 fast track patients and 4 (16% out of 25 control patients achieved discharge on POD 3. Overall, fast track patients had a shorter hospital stay than controls (median, 3 versus 4 days; P = .012. Age (median, 55 versus 57 years, tumor size (median, 2.5 versus 2.5 cm, readmission within 30 days (5.5% versus 5.1%, and complications (10.2% versus 13.8% were similar in the fast track patients and control, respectively. Conclusions. In the present series, a fast track clinical pathway after open partial nephrectomy reduced the postoperative length of hospital stay and did not appear to increase the postoperative complication rate.

  8. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  9. Analysis of the thermal response of a BWR Mark-I containment shell to direct contact by molten core materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.; Cleveland, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the thermal response of a BWR Mark-I containment shell in the event of an accident severe enough for molten core materials to fall into the cavity beneath the rector vessel and eventually come into direct contact with the shell. An existing ORNL three-dimensional transient heat transport computer code, HEATING-6, was used for a specific 2-D case (and variations) for which representative melt/shell boundary conditions required as input were available from other studies. In addition to the use of HEATING-6, a simplified analytical steady-state correlation was developed and given the name BWR Liner Analysis Program (BWRLAP). BWRLAP was ''benchmarked'' by comparison with HEATING-6 and was then used to make a number of parametric calculations to investigate the sensitivities of the results to the inputs. 5 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Direct-contact condensers for open-cycle OTEC applications: Model validation with fresh water experiments for structured packings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharathan, D.; Parsons, B.K.; Althof, J.A.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the reported work was to develop analytical methods for evaluating the design and performance of advanced high-performance heat exchangers for use in open-cycle thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. This report describes the progress made on validating a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical computer of fresh water experiments. The condenser model represents the state of the art in direct-contact heat exchange for condensation for OC-OTEC applications. This is expected to provide a basis for optimizing OC-OTEC plant configurations. Using the model, we examined two condenser geometries, a cocurrent and a countercurrent configuration. This report provides detailed validation results for important condenser parameters for cocurrent and countercurrent flows. Based on the comparisons and uncertainty overlap between the experimental data and predictions, the model is shown to predict critical condenser performance parameters with an uncertainty acceptable for general engineering design and performance evaluations. 33 refs., 69 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Effect of feed flow pattern on the distribution of permeate fluxes in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Soukane, Sofiane

    2017-05-31

    The current study aims to highlight the effect of flow pattern on the variations of permeate fluxes over the membrane surface during desalination in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) flat module. To do so, a three dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model with embedded pore scale calculations is implemented to predict flow, heat and mass transfer in the DCMD module. Model validation is carried out in terms of average permeate fluxes with experimental data of seawater desalination using two commercially available PTFE membranes. Average permeate fluxes agree within 6% and less with experimental values without fitting parameters. Simulation results show that the distribution of permeate fluxes and seawater salinity over the membrane surface are strongly dependent on momentum and heat transport and that temperature and concentration polarization follow closely the flow distribution. The analysis reveals a drastic effect of recirculation loops and dead zones on module performance and recommendations to improve MD flat module design are drawn consequently.

  12. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza 1 viruses transmits efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fobian, Kristina; P. Fabrizio, Thomas; Yoon, Sun-Woo

    2015-01-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs...... with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2 and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1...... and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titers in nasal wash- and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics...

  13. Experimental study on direct-contact liquid film cooling simulated dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Xusheng; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Kang, Xue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact liquid film cooling dense-array solar cells was first proposed. • Average temperature was controlled well below 80 °C. • The maximum temperature difference was less than 10 °C. • The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m"2·K) under 589X. - Abstract: This paper presented a new method of cooling dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system by direct-contact liquid film, and water was used as working fluid. An electric heating plate was designed to simulate the dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. The input power of electric heating plate simulated the concentration ratios. By heat transfer experiments, the effect of water temperatures and flow rates on heat transfer performance was investigated. The results indicated that: the average temperature of simulated solar cells was controlled well below 80 °C under water temperature of 30 °C and flow rate of 300 L/h when concentration ratio ranged between 300X and 600X. The maximum temperature difference among temperature measurement points was less than 10 °C, which showed the temperature distribution was well uniform. The heat transfer coefficient reached up to 11.91 kW/(m"2·K) under concentration ratio of 589X. To improve heat transfer performance and obtain low average temperature of dense-array solar cells, lower water temperature and suitable water flow rate are preferred.

  14. [Skull vibratory test in partial vestibular lesions--influence of the stimulus frequency on the nystagmus direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, G; Perrin, P; Morel, N; N'Guyen, D Q; Schmerber, S

    2005-01-01

    Results of the skull vibratory test (SVT) in partial unilateral vestibular peripheral lesions (PUVL) are different from the results in total vestibular lesions (TUVL). To reveal a correlation between the results of the analysis of the skull vibratory nystagmus (SVN) horizontal component and the side of the lesion; to correlate these results with the stimulus frequency. To find out a predictive correlation between the SVN horizontal and vertical components and the topography of a vestibular lesion. To appreciate the degree of vestibular deafferentation (extended to high frequencies) provoked by gentamicin labyrinthectomy and its efficiency in Meniere's disease. 53 patients with a SVN and a PUVL were included and compared with 10 TUVL and 10 normal subjects. Protocol included a HST (2 Hz), a SVT at 30, 60 and 100 Hz and a caloric test. Recordings were performed with a 2D and 3D VNG device. In PUVL, SVN at 30, 60 and 100 Hz was obtained in 80, 90 and 90% of cases respectively. SVN is correlated with the side of the lesion at 30, 60 and 100 Hz respectively in 65%, 63%, 80% of cases. SVN is not correlated with the side of the lesion in 20% of Meniere's disease, in 8% of vestibular neuritis and in 6% of vestibular schwannoma. In PUVL HSN is correlated with the side of the lesion in 69% of cases. The direction of the HSN and of the SVN was different in 23% when the nystagmus attended at the same time for both tests. In PUVL the direction of the SVN is different at 100 Hz and 30 Hz in 16% of cases when they are concomittant on the same patient. After Gentamicine labyrinthectomy, the coherence of the results in caloric test, HSN and SVN (areflexy and lesional nystagmus beating toward the safe side) was correlated with the efficiency of the therapy. A SVN vertical component was met in 10% of PUVL (essentially in anterior canal dehiscence and few cases of partial labyrinthitis). The horizontal SVN SPV is significantly slower in PUVL than in TUVL patients (p=0.0004). The SVT

  15. Detailed partial load investigation of a thermal energy storage concept for solar thermal power plants with direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, M.; Hübner, S.; Johnson, M.

    2016-05-01

    Direct steam generation enables the implementation of a higher steam temperature for parabolic trough concentrated solar power plants. This leads to much better cycle efficiencies and lower electricity generating costs. For a flexible and more economic operation of such a power plant, it is necessary to develop thermal energy storage systems for the extension of the production time of the power plant. In the case of steam as the heat transfer fluid, it is important to use a storage material that uses latent heat for the storage process. This leads to a minimum of exergy losses during the storage process. In the case of a concentrating solar power plant, superheated steam is needed during the discharging process. This steam cannot be superheated by the latent heat storage system. Therefore, a sensible molten salt storage system is used for this task. In contrast to the state-of-the-art thermal energy storages within the concentrating solar power area of application, a storage system for a direct steam generation plant consists of a latent and a sensible storage part. Thus far, no partial load behaviors of sensible and latent heat storage systems have been analyzed in detail. In this work, an optimized fin structure was developed in order to minimize the costs of the latent heat storage. A complete system simulation of the power plant process, including the solar field, power block and sensible and latent heat energy storage calculates the interaction between the solar field, the power block and the thermal energy storage system.

  16. Direct observation of contact and channel resistance in pentacene four-terminal thin-film transistor patterned by laser ablation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Iwao; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Aoyagi, Yoshinobu

    2004-01-01

    We established a dry-etching patterning process for the channel formation of pentacene thin-film transistor, and fabricated a four-terminal device equipped with a gate electrode. The four-terminal device enabled us to divide two-terminal source-drain resistance into two components of contact resistance and pentacene channel resistance. We obtained direct evidence of a gate-voltagedependent contact resistance change: the gate-induced charge significantly reduced the contact resistance and increased source-drain current. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the device clearly indicated that the contact resistance was much higher than the channel resistance and was dominated in the two-terminal total resistance of the device below 120 K. An observed activation energy of 80 meV for contact resistance was higher than that of 42 meV for pentacene channel resistance

  17. A general design strategy for block copolymer directed self-assembly patterning of integrated circuits contact holes using an alphabet approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, He; Bao, Xin-Yu; Tiberio, Richard; Wong, H-S Philip

    2015-02-11

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a promising lithography candidate for technology nodes beyond 14 nm. Researchers have shown contact hole patterning for random logic circuits using DSA with small physical templates. This paper introduces an alphabet approach that uses a minimal set of small physical templates to pattern all contacts configurations on integrated circuits. We illustrate, through experiments, a general and scalable template design strategy that links the DSA material properties to the technology node requirements.

  18. Direct Observation of 2D Electrostatics and Ohmic Contacts in Template-Grown Graphene/WS2 Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Changxi; Zhang, Qianhui; Weber, Bent; Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Chen, Fan; Sahasrabudhe, Harshad; Rahman, Rajib; Li, Shiqiang; Chen, Zhen; Hellerstedt, Jack; Zhang, Yupeng; Duan, Wen Hui; Bao, Qiaoliang; Fuhrer, Michael S

    2017-03-28

    Large-area two-dimensional (2D) heterojunctions are promising building blocks of 2D circuits. Understanding their intriguing electrostatics is pivotal but largely hindered by the lack of direct observations. Here graphene-WS 2 heterojunctions are prepared over large areas using a seedless ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. Kelvin probe force microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy characterize the doping in graphene-WS 2 heterojunctions as-grown on sapphire and transferred to SiO 2 with and without thermal annealing. Both p-n and n-n junctions are observed, and a flat-band condition (zero Schottky barrier height) is found for lightly n-doped WS 2 , promising low-resistance ohmic contacts. This indicates a more favorable band alignment for graphene-WS 2 than has been predicted, likely explaining the low barriers observed in transport experiments on similar heterojunctions. Electrostatic modeling demonstrates that the large depletion width of the graphene-WS 2 junction reflects the electrostatics of the one-dimensional junction between two-dimensional materials.

  19. New reassortant and enzootic European swine influenza viruses transmit efficiently through direct contact in the ferret model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobian, Kristina; Fabrizio, Thomas P; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Hansen, Mette Sif; Webby, Richard J; Larsen, Lars E

    2015-07-01

    The reverse zoonotic events that introduced the 2009 pandemic influenza virus into pigs have drastically increased the diversity of swine influenza viruses in Europe. The pandemic potential of these novel reassortments is still unclear, necessitating enhanced surveillance of European pigs with additional focus on risk assessment of these new viruses. In this study, four European swine influenza viruses were assessed for their zoonotic potential. Two of the four viruses were enzootic viruses of subtype H1N2 (with avian-like H1) and H3N2, and two were new reassortants, one with avian-like H1 and human-like N2 and one with 2009 pandemic H1 and swine-like N2. All viruses replicated to high titres in nasal wash and nasal turbinate samples from inoculated ferrets and transmitted efficiently by direct contact. Only the H3N2 virus transmitted to naïve ferrets via the airborne route. Growth kinetics using a differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell line showed that all four viruses were able to replicate to high titres. Further, the viruses revealed preferential binding to the 2,6-α-silalylated glycans and investigation of the antiviral susceptibility of the viruses revealed that all were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors. These findings suggested that these viruses have the potential to infect humans and further underline the need for continued surveillance as well as biological characterization of new influenza A viruses.

  20. Observer-Based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control with Input Constraints for Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation Process

    KAUST Repository

    Eleiwi, Fadi

    2017-05-08

    An Observer-based Perturbation Extremum Seeking Control (PESC) is proposed for a Direct-Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) process. The process is described with a dynamic model that is based on a 2D Advection-Diffusion Equation (ADE) model which has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimize the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered through the use of only the feed pump flow rate or both the feed and the permeate pump flow rates. A nonlinear Lyapunov-based observer is designed to provide an estimation for the temperature distribution all over the designated domain of the DCMD process. Moreover, control inputs are constrained with an anti-windup technique to be within feasible and physical ranges. Performance of the proposed structure is analyzed, and simulations based on real DCMD process parameters for each control input are provided.

  1. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-04-26

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid-latitude meteorological data from Busan, Korea is employed, featuring large climate variation over the course of one year. The number of module stages used by the dynamic operating scheme changes dynamically based on the inlet feed temperature of the successive modules, which results in an improvement of the water production and thermal efficiency. The simulations of the SMDCMD system are carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal variations in the feed and permeate temperatures and permeate flux. The monthly average daily water production increases from 0.37m3/day to 0.4m3/day and thermal efficiency increases from 31% to 45% when comparing systems both without and with dynamic operation in December. The water production with respect to collector area ranged from 350m2 to 550m2 and the seawater storage tank volume ranged from 16m3 to 28.8m3, and the solar fraction at various desired feed temperatures from 50°C to 80°C have been investigated in October and December.

  2. Influence of high range of mass transfer coefficient and convection heat transfer on direct contact membrane distillation performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-11-03

    In order to improve water production of membrane distillation (MD), the development of high performance membrane having better mass transfer and enhancement of convection heat transfer in MD module have been continuously investigated. This paper presents the relationship between the heat and mass transfer resistance across the membrane and the performance improvement. Various ranges of mass transfer coefficient (MTC) from normal (0.3×10−6 to 2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: currently available membranes) to high (>2.1×10−6kg/m2sPa: membranes under development) were simulated using an experimentally validated model at different ranges of convection heat transfer by varying the inlet flow rates and spacer enhancement factor. The effect of mass transfer and convection heat transfer on the MD performance parameters including temperature polarization coefficient (TPC), mean permeate flux, and specific energy consumption were investigated in a direct contact MD (DCMD) configuration. Results showed that improving the MTC at the low ranges is more important than that at the high ranges where the heat transfer resistance becomes dominant and hence the convection heat transfer coefficient must be increased. Therefore, an effort on designing MD modules using feed and permeate spacers and controlling the membrane surface roughness to increase the convection heat transfer and TPC in the channel aiming to enhance the flux is required because the currently developed mass transfer has almost reached the critical point.

  3. Observer-based perturbation extremum seeking control with input constraints for direct-contact membrane distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleiwi, Fadi; Laleg-Kirati, Taous Meriem

    2018-06-01

    An observer-based perturbation extremum seeking control is proposed for a direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The process is described with a dynamic model that is based on a 2D advection-diffusion equation model which has pump flow rates as process inputs. The objective of the controller is to optimise the trade-off between the permeate mass flux and the energy consumption by the pumps inside the process. Cases of single and multiple control inputs are considered through the use of only the feed pump flow rate or both the feed and the permeate pump flow rates. A nonlinear Lyapunov-based observer is designed to provide an estimation for the temperature distribution all over the designated domain of the DCMD process. Moreover, control inputs are constrained with an anti-windup technique to be within feasible and physical ranges. Performance of the proposed structure is analysed, and simulations based on real DCMD process parameters for each control input are provided.

  4. Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanisami, Nallasamy; He, Ke; Moon, Il Shik

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 µm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 .deg. C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 .deg. C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m 2 hr, indicating system feasibility

  5. Utilization of solar energy for direct contact membrane distillation process: An experimental study for desalination of real seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanisami, Nallasamy; He, Ke; Moon, Il Shik [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Membrane distillation (MD), a non-isothermal membrane separation process, is based on the phenomenon that pure water in its vapor state can be extracted from aqueous solutions by passing vapor through a hydrophobic microporous membrane when a temperature difference is established across it. We used three commercially available hydrophobic microporous membranes (C02, C07 and C12; based on the pore size 0.2, 0.7 and 1.2 µm respectively) for desalination via direct contact MD (DCMD). The effects of operating parameters on permeation flux were studied. In addition, the desalination of seawater by solar assisted DCMD process was experimentally investigated. First, using solar power only short-term (one day), successful desalination of real seawater was achieved without temperature control under the following conditions: feed inlet temperature 65.0 .deg. C, permeate inlet temperature 25.0 .deg. C, and a flow rate of 2.5 L/min. The developed system also worked well in the long-term (150 days) for seawater desalination using both solar and electric power. Long-term test flux was reduced from 28.48 to only 26.50 L/m{sup 2}hr, indicating system feasibility.

  6. Study on direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling dense-array solar cells under high concentration ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Xue; Wang, Yiping; Huang, Qunwu; Cui, Yong; Shi, Xusheng; Sun, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct-contact phase-change liquid immersion cooling for solar cells was proposed. • A self-regulating system investigated the feasibility in temperature control. • Temperature was well controlled between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C. • Surface heat transfer coefficient was up to 23.49 kW/(m"2·K) under 398.4×. • A model illustrated the interface function was the main reason to affect light. - Abstract: A new cooling method by directly immersing the solar cells into phase-change liquid was put forward to cool dense-array solar cells in high concentrating photovoltaic system. A self-running system was built to study the feasibility of temperature control and the effect of bubbles generated by ethanol phase change under concentration ratio ranged between 219.8× and 398.4×. The results show that the cooling system is self-regulating without consuming extra energy and ethanol flow rate reaches up to 180.6 kg/(s·m"2) under 398.4×. The temperature of solar cells distributes in the range between 87.3 °C and 88.5 °C, the surface heat transfer coefficient of electric heating plate is up to 23.49 kW/(m"2·K) under 398.4×. The bubble effect on electrical performance of triple-junction solar cells is reported and the results show that I_s_c and P_m_a_x decline 10.2% and 7.3%, respectively. A model based on bubble images illustrates that light loss at the interface between ethanol and bubble is the main reason to cut down the electrical performance.

  7. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  8. Direct Measurement of Static and Dynamic Contact Angles Using a Random Micromodel Considering Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The pore-level two-phase fluids flow mechanism needs to be understood for geological CO2 sequestration as a solution to mitigate anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide. Capillary pressure at the interface of water–CO2 influences CO2 injectability, capacity, and safety of the storage system. Wettability usually measured by contact angle is always a major uncertainty source among important parameters affecting capillary pressure. The contact angle is mostly determined on a flat surface as a representative of the rock surface. However, a simple and precise method for determining in situ contact angle at pore-scale is needed to simulate fluids flow in porous media. Recent progresses in X-ray tomography technique has provided a robust way to measure in situ contact angle of rocks. However, slow imaging and complicated image processing make it impossible to measure dynamic contact angle. In the present paper, a series of static and dynamic contact angles as well as contact angles on flat surface were measured inside a micromodel with random pattern of channels under high pressure condition. Our results showed a wide range of pore-scale contact angles, implying complexity of the pore-scale contact angle even in a highly smooth and chemically homogenous glass micromodel. Receding contact angle (RCA showed more reproducibility compared to advancing contact angle (ACA and static contact angle (SCA for repeating tests and during both drainage and imbibition. With decreasing pore size, RCA was increased. The hysteresis of the dynamic contact angle (ACA–RCA was higher at pressure of one megapascal in comparison with that at eight megapascals. The CO2 bubble had higher mobility at higher depths due to lower hysteresis which is unfavorable. CO2 bubbles resting on the flat surface of the micromodel channel showed a wide range of contact angles. They were much higher than reported contact angle values observed with sessile drop or captive bubble tests on a

  9. Two gap superconductivity in Ba0.55K0.45Fe2As2 single crystals studied by the directional point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, P.; Pribulova, Z.; Pristas, G.; Bud'ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C.; Samuely, P.

    2009-01-01

    First directional point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy on the Ba 0.55 K 0.45 Fe 2 As 2 single crystals is presented. The spectra show significant differences when measured in the ab plane in comparison with those measured in the c direction. In the latter case no traces of superconducting energy gap could be found, just a reduced point-contact conductance persisting up to about 100 K and indicating reduced density of states. On the other hand within the ab plane two nodeless superconducting energy gaps Δ S ∼2-5 meV and Δ L ∼9-11 meV are detected.

  10. Consistency of the directionality of partially coherent beams in turbulence expressed in terms of the angular spread and the far-field average intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Wen, Chen; Xiao-Ling, Ji

    2010-01-01

    Under the quadratic approximation of the Rytov's phase structure function, this paper derives the general closed-form expressions for the mean-squared width and the angular spread of partially coherent beams in turbulence. It finds that under a certain condition different types of partially coherent beams may have the same directionality as a fully coherent Gaussian beam in free space and also in atmospheric turbulence if the angular spread is chosen as the characteristic parameter of beam directionality. On the other hand, it shows that generally, the directionality of partially coherent beams expressed in terms of the angular spread is not consistent with that in terms of the normalized far-field average intensity distribution in free space, but the consistency can be achieved due to turbulence. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  11. Total water production capacity inversion phenomenon in multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation: A theoretical study

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil

    2017-09-09

    The low thermal efficiency and low water production are among the major challenges that prevent membrane distillation (MD) process from being commercialized. In an effort to design an efficient multi-stage direct contact MD (DCMD) unit through mathematical simulation, a new phenomenon that we refer to as total water production capacity inversion (WPI) has been detected. It is represented by a decrease in the total water production beyond a number of stages or a certain module length. WPI phenomenon, which was confirmed by using two different mathematical models validated experimentally, was found to take place due to the decrease in water vapor flux across the membrane as well as the increase in heat loss by conduction as the membrane length increases. Therefore, WPI should be considered as a critical MD design-criterion, especially for large scale units. Investigations conducted for a simulated multi-stage DCMD process showed that inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, feed and permeate flow rates, and feed salinity have different effects on WPI. The number of stages (or module length at constant width) that leads to a maximum water production has been determined for different operating parameters. Decreasing inlet feed and permeate temperatures difference, or inlet feed and permeate flow rates and increasing inlet feed temperature at constant temperature difference or inlet feed salinity cause the WPI to take place at lower number of stages. Even though the feed salinity affects negligibly the mean permeate flux, it was clearly shown that it can affect WPI. The results presented herein unveil a hidden phenomenon that is likely to occur during process scale-up procedures and should be considered by process engineers for a proper choice of system design and operating conditions.

  12. Field test of two high-pressure direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume II. Oxygen/diesel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, J.B.

    1983-07-01

    A field test of an oxygen/diesel fuel, direct contact steam generator has been completed. The field test, which was a part of Project DEEP STEAM and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, involved the thermal stimulation of a well pattern in the Tar Zone of the Wilmington Oil Field. The activity was carried out in cooperation with the City of Long Beach and the Long Beach Oil Development Company. The steam generator was operated at ground level, with the steam and combustion products delivered to the reservoir through 2022 feet of calcium-silicate insulated tubing. The objectives of the test included demonstrations of safety, operational ease, reliability and lifetime; investigations of reservoir response, environmental impact, and economics; and comparison of those points with a second generator that used air rather than oxygen. The test was extensively instrumented to provide the required data. Excluding interruptions not attributable to the oxygen/diesel system, steam was injected 78% of the time. System lifetime was limited by the combustor, which required some parts replacement every 2 to 3 weeks. For the conditions of this particular test, the use of trucked-in LOX resulted in liess expense than did the production of the equivalent amount of high pressure air using on site compressors. No statistically significant production change in the eight-acre oxygen system well pattern occurred during the test, nor were any adverse effects on the reservoir character detected. Gas analyses during the field test showed very low levels of SOX (less than or equal to 1 ppM) in the generator gaseous effluent. The SOX and NOX data did not permit any conclusion to be drawn regarding reservoir scrubbing. Appreciable levels of CO (less than or equal to 5%) were measured at the generator, and in this case produced-gas analyses showed evidence of significant gas scrubbing. 64 figures, 10 tables.

  13. Effect of Virtual Reality Exposure and Aural Stimuli on Eye Contact, Directional Focus, and Focus of Attention of Novice Wind Band Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Evelyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of virtual reality immersion with audio on eye contact, directional focus and focus of attention for novice wind band conductors. Participants (N = 34) included a control group (n = 12) and two virtual reality groups with (n = 10) and without (n = 12) head tracking. Participants completed conducting/score study…

  14. Effect of direct eye contact in PTSD related to interpersonal trauma: an fMRI study of activation of an innate alarm system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuwe, Carolin; Daniels, Judith K; Frewen, Paul A; Densmore, Maria; Pannasch, Sebastian; Beblo, Thomas; Reiss, Jeffrey; Lanius, Ruth A

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, direct eye contact initially leads to activation of a fast subcortical pathway, which then modulates a cortical route eliciting social cognitive processes. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the neurobiological effects of direct eye-to-eye contact using a virtual reality paradigm in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to prolonged childhood abuse. We examined 16 healthy comparison subjects and 16 patients with a primary diagnosis of PTSD using a virtual reality functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm involving direct vs averted gaze (happy, sad, neutral) as developed by Schrammel et al. in 2009. Irrespective of the displayed emotion, controls exhibited an increased blood oxygenation level-dependent response during direct vs averted gaze within the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left temporoparietal junction and right temporal pole. Under the same conditions, individuals with PTSD showed increased activation within the superior colliculus (SC)/periaqueductal gray (PAG) and locus coeruleus. Our findings suggest that healthy controls react to the exposure of direct gaze with an activation of a cortical route that enhances evaluative 'top-down' processes underlying social interactions. In individuals with PTSD, however, direct gaze leads to sustained activation of a subcortical route of eye-contact processing, an innate alarm system involving the SC and the underlying circuits of the PAG.

  15. Reduced-Order Dynamic Modeling, Fouling Detection, and Optimal Control of Solar-Powered Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-12-01

    Membrane Distillation (MD) is an emerging sustainable desalination technique. While MD has many advantages and can be powered by solar thermal energy, its main drawback is the low water production rate. However, the MD process has not been fully optimized in terms of its manipulated and controlled variables. This is largely due to the lack of adequate dynamic models to study and simulate the process. In addition, MD is prone to membrane fouling, which is a fault that degrades the performance of the MD process. This work has three contributions to address these challenges. First, we derive a mathematical model of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), which is the building block for the next parts. Then, the proposed model is extended to account for membrane fouling and an observer-based fouling detection method is developed. Finally, various control strategies are implemented to optimize the performance of the DCMD solar-powered process. In part one, a reduced-order dynamic model of DCMD is developed based on lumped capacitance method and electrical analogy to thermal systems. The result is an electrical equivalent thermal network to the DCMD process, which is modeled by a system of nonlinear differential algebraic equations (DAEs). This model predicts the water-vapor flux and the temperature distribution along the module length. Experimental data is collected to validate the steady-state and dynamic responses of the proposed model, with great agreement demonstrated in both. The second part proposes an extension of the model to account for membrane fouling. An adaptive observer for DAE systems is developed and convergence proof is presented. A method for membrane fouling detection is then proposed based on adaptive observers. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the membrane fouling detection method. Finally, an optimization problem is formulated to maximize the process efficiency of a solar-powered DCMD. The adapted method is known as Extremum

  16. The regeneration of a liquid desiccant using direct contact membrane distillation to unlock the potential of coastal desert agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Cribbs, Kimberly

    2018-04-01

    In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, a lack of freshwater, poor soil quality, and ambient temperatures unsuitable for cultivation for parts of the year hinders domestic agriculture. The result is a reliance on a fluctuating supply of imported fresh produce which may have high costs and compromised quality. There are agricultural technologies available such as hydroponics and controlled environment agriculture (CEA) that can allow GCC countries to overcome poor soil quality and ambient temperatures unsuitable for cultivation, respectively. Evaporative cooling is the most common form of cooling for CEA and requires a significant amount of water. In water-scarce regions, it is desirable for sea or brackish water to be used for evaporative cooling. Unfortunately, in many coastal desert regions, evaporative cooling does not provide enough cooling due to the high wet-bulb temperature of the ambient air during hot and humid months of the year. A liquid desiccant dehumidification system has been proven to lower the wet-bulb temperature of ambient air in the coastal city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to a level that allows for evaporative cooling to meet the needs of heat-sensitive crops. Much of the past research on the regeneration of the liquid desiccant solution has been on configurations that release water vapor back to the atmosphere. Studies have shown that the amount of water captured by the liquid desiccant when used to dehumidify a greenhouse can supply a significant amount of the water needed for irrigation. This thesis studied the regeneration of a magnesium chloride (MgCl2) liquid desiccant solution from approximately 20 to 31wt% by direct contact membrane distillation and explored the possibility of using the recovered water for irrigation. Two microporous hydrophobic PTFE membranes were experimentally tested and modeled when the bulk feed and coolant temperature difference was between 10 and 60°C. In eight experiments, the salt rejection was higher than 99

  17. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-01-01

    Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...... frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. Method. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch...

  18. Adaptation of H9N2 AIV in guinea pigs enables efficient transmission by direct contact and inefficient transmission by respiratory droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Airong; Ding, Jie; Kong, Huihui; Gao, Xiaolong; Li, Lin; Chai, Tongjie; Li, Yuanguo; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Chengyu; Wan, Zhonghai; Huang, Geng; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Zheng, Xuexing; Wang, Hualei; Zhao, Yongkun; Yang, Songtao; Qian, Jun; Hu, Guixue; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2015-01-01

    H9N2 avian influenza viruses circulate worldwide in poultry and have sporadically infected humans, raising concern whether H9N2 viruses have pandemic potential. Here, we use a guinea pig model to examine whether serial passage results in adaptive viral changes that confer a transmissible phenotype to a wild-type H9N2 virus. After nine serial passages of an H9N2 virus through guinea pigs, productive transmission by direct contact occurred in 2/3 guinea pig pairs. The efficiency of transmission by direct contact increased following the fifteenth passage and occurred in 3/3 guinea pig pairs. In contrast, airborne transmission of the passaged virus was less efficient and occurred in 1/6 guinea pig pairs and 0/6 ferret pairs after the fifteenth passage. Three amino acid substitutions, HA1-Q227P, HA2-D46E, and NP-E434K, were sufficient for contact transmission in guinea pigs (2/3 pairs). The two HA amino acid substitutions enhanced receptor binding to α2,3-linked sialic acid receptors. Additionally, the HA2-D46E substitution increased virus thermostability whereas the NP-E434K mutation enhanced viral RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that adaptive changes that enhance viral receptor binding, thermostability, and replicative capacity in mammalian cells can collectively enhance the transmissibility of H9N2 AIVs by direct contact in the guinea pig model. PMID:26552719

  19. Who is the Usual Suspect? Evidence of a Selection Bias Toward Faces That Make Direct Eye Contact in a Lineup Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Golde, Celine; Verstraten, Frans A. J.

    2017-01-01

    The speed and ease with which we recognize the faces of our friends and family members belies the difficulty we have recognizing less familiar individuals. Nonetheless, overconfidence in our ability to recognize faces has carried over into various aspects of our legal system; for instance, eyewitness identification serves a critical role in criminal proceedings. For this reason, understanding the perceptual and psychological processes that underlie false identification is of the utmost importance. Gaze direction is a salient social signal and direct eye contact, in particular, is thought to capture attention. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences in gaze direction may influence difficult decisions in a lineup context. In a series of experiments, we show that when a group of faces differed in their gaze direction, the faces that were making eye contact with the participants were more likely to be misidentified. Interestingly, this bias disappeared when the faces are presented with their eyes closed. These findings open a critical conversation between social neuroscience and forensic psychology, and imply that direct eye contact may (wrongly) increase the perceived familiarity of a face. PMID:28203355

  20. Who is the Usual Suspect? Evidence of a Selection Bias Toward Faces That Make Direct Eye Contact in a Lineup Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Taubert

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The speed and ease with which we recognize the faces of our friends and family members belies the difficulty we have recognizing less familiar individuals. Nonetheless, overconfidence in our ability to recognize faces has carried over into various aspects of our legal system; for instance, eyewitness identification serves a critical role in criminal proceedings. For this reason, understanding the perceptual and psychological processes that underlie false identification is of the utmost importance. Gaze direction is a salient social signal and direct eye contact, in particular, is thought to capture attention. Here, we tested the hypothesis that differences in gaze direction may influence difficult decisions in a lineup context. In a series of experiments, we show that when a group of faces differed in their gaze direction, the faces that were making eye contact with the participants were more likely to be misidentified. Interestingly, this bias disappeared when the faces are presented with their eyes closed. These findings open a critical conversation between social neuroscience and forensic psychology, and imply that direct eye contact may (wrongly increase the perceived familiarity of a face.

  1. Clinical acceptability of metal-ceramic fixed partial dental prosthesis fabricated with direct metal laser sintering technique-5 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Radhakrishnan; Prabhu, Geetha; Baskaran, Eswaran; Arumugam, Eswaran M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) metal-ceramic-based fixed partial denture prostheses have been used as an alternative to conventional metal-ceramic fixed partial denture prostheses. However, clinical studies for evaluating their long-term clinical survivability and acceptability are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis fabricated with DMLS technique, and its clinical acceptance on long-term clinical use. The study group consisted of 45 patients who were restored with posterior three-unit fixed partial denture prosthesis made using direct laser sintered metal-ceramic restorations. Patient recall and clinical examination of the restorations were done after 6months and every 12 months thereafter for the period of 60 months. Clinical examination for evaluation of longevity of restorations was done using modified Ryge criteria which included chipping of the veneered ceramic, connector failure occurring in the fixed partial denture prosthesis, discoloration at the marginal areas of the veneered ceramic, and marginal adaptation of the metal and ceramic of the fixed denture prosthesis. Periapical status was assessed using periodical radiographs during the study period. Survival analysis was made using the Kaplan-Meier method. None of the patients had failure of the connector of the fixed partial denture prostheses during the study period. Two exhibited biological changes which included periapical changes and proximal caries adjacent to the abutments. DMLS metal-ceramic fixed partial denture prosthesis had a survival rate of 95.5% and yielded promising results during the 5-year clinical study.

  2. Direct current electric potential in an anisotropic half-space with vertical contact containing a conductive 3D body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of anomalous conductors in otherwise homogeneous media have been modelled. Vertical contacts form common geometries in galvanic studies when describing geological formations with different electrical conductivities on either side. However, previous studies of vertical discontinuities have been mainly concerned with isotropic environments. In this paper, we deal with the effect on the electric potentials, such as mise-à-la-masse anomalies, due to a conductor near a vertical contact between two anisotropic regions. We also demonstrate the interactive effects when the conductive body is placed across the vertical contact. This problem is normally very difficult to solve by the traditional numerical methods. The integral equations for the electric potential in anisotropic half-spaces are established. Green's function is obtained using the reflection and transmission image method in which five images are needed to fit the boundary conditions on the vertical interface and the air-earth surface. The effects of the anisotropy of the environments and the conductive body on the electric potential are illustrated with the aid of several numerical examples.

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  4. Experimental studies of direct contact heat transfer in a slurry bubble column at high gas temperature of a helium–water–alumina system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the direct contact heat transfer is investigated experimentally for a helium gas at 90 °C injected through a slurry of water at 22 °C and alumina solid particles in a slurry bubble column reactor. This work examines the effects of superficial gas velocity, static liquid height, solid particles concentration and solid particle size, on the volumetric heat transfer coefficient and slurry temperature of the slurry bubble column reactor. These effects are formulated in forms of empirical equations. From the experimental work, it is found that the volumetric heat transfer coefficient and the slurry temperature increase by increasing the superficial gas velocity with a higher rate of increase at lower superficial gas velocity. In addition, the volumetric heat transfer coefficient and the slurry temperature decrease by increasing the static liquid height and/or the solid concentration at any given superficial gas velocity. Furthermore, it is found that the rate of decrease of the volumetric heat transfer coefficient with the solid concentration is approximately the same for different superficial gas velocities, and the decrease of the slurry temperature with the solid concentration is negligible. - Highlights: • Direct contact heat transfer is investigated experimentally in a slurry bubble column. • Empirical equation of direct contact heat transfer Nusselt number is formulated. • The volumetric heat transfer coefficient increases with superficial gas velocity. • The volumetric heat transfer coefficient decreases with the static liquid height. • The volumetric heat transfer coefficient decreases with the solid concentration.

  5. Direct Synthesis of Methanol by Partial Oxidation of Methane with Oxygen over Cobalt Modified Mesoporous H-ZSM-5 Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Krisyuningsih Krisnandi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Partial oxidation of methane over mesoporous catalyst cobalt modified H-ZSM-5 has been carried out. Mesoporous Na-ZSM-5 (Si/Al = 35.4 was successfully synthesized using double template method which has high surface area (450 m2/g and average pore diameter distribution of 1.9 nm. The as-synthesized Na-ZSM-5 was converted to H-ZSM-5 through multi-exchange treatment with ammonium ion solution, causing decreased crystallinity and surface area, but increased porous diameter, due to dealumination during treatment process. Moreover, H-ZSM-5 was loaded with cobalt (Co = 2.5% w by the incipient impregnation method and calcined at 550 °C. Partial oxidation of methane was performed in the batch reactor with 0.75 bar methane and 2 bar of nitrogen (with impurities of 0.5% oxygen as the input at various reaction time (30, 60 and 120 min. The reaction results show that cobalt species in catalyst has an important role, because H-ZSM-5 cannot produce methanol in partial oxidation of methane. The presence of molecular oxygen increased the percentage of methanol yield. The reaction is time-dependent with the highest methanol yield (79% was acquired using Co/H-ZSM-5 catalyst for 60 min.

  6. Leukotriene B₄-leukotriene B₄ receptor axis promotes oxazolone-induced contact dermatitis by directing skin homing of neutrophils and CD8⁺ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiaoyan; Zou, Linlin; Zhao, Lina; Yang, Wei; Xiong, Yingluo; Li, Bingji; He, Rui

    2015-09-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4 ) is a lipid mediator that is rapidly generated in inflammatory sites, and its functional receptor, BLT1, is mostly expressed on immune cells. Contact dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin oedema and abundant inflammatory infiltrates, primarily including neutrophils and CD8(+) T cells. The role of the LTB4 -BLT1 axis in contact dermatitis remains largely unknown. In this study, we found up-regulated gene expression of 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene A4 hydrolase, two critical enzymes for LTB4 synthesis, BLT1 and elevated LTB4 levels in skin lesions of oxazolone (OXA)-induced contact dermatitis. BLT1 deficiency or blockade of LTB4 and BLT1 by the antagonists, bestatin and U-75302, respectively, in the elicitation phase caused significant decreases in ear swelling and skin-infiltrating neutrophils and CD8(+) T cells, which was accompanied by significantly reduced skin expression of CXCL1, CXCL2, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β. Furthermore, neutrophil depletion during the elicitation phase of OXA-induced contact dermatitis also caused significant decreases in ear swelling and CD8(+) T-cell infiltration accompanied by significantly decreased LTB4 synthesis and gene expression of CXCL2, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β. Importantly, subcutaneous injection of exogenous LTB4 restored the skin infiltration of CD8(+) T cells in neutrophil-depleted mice following OXA challenge. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the LTB4 -BLT1 axis contributes to OXA-induced contact dermatitis by mediating skin recruitment of neutrophils, which are a major source of LTB4 that sequentially direct CD8(+) T-cell homing to OXA-challenged skin. Hence, LTB4 and BLT1 could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of contact dermatitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Leukotriene B4—leukotriene B4 receptor axis promotes oxazolone-induced contact dermatitis by directing skin homing of neutrophils and CD8+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiaoyan; Zou, Linlin; Zhao, Lina; Yang, Wei; Xiong, Yingluo; Li, Bingji; He, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a lipid mediator that is rapidly generated in inflammatory sites, and its functional receptor, BLT1, is mostly expressed on immune cells. Contact dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by skin oedema and abundant inflammatory infiltrates, primarily including neutrophils and CD8+ T cells. The role of the LTB4–BLT1 axis in contact dermatitis remains largely unknown. In this study, we found up-regulated gene expression of 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene A4 hydrolase, two critical enzymes for LTB4 synthesis, BLT1 and elevated LTB4 levels in skin lesions of oxazolone (OXA)-induced contact dermatitis. BLT1 deficiency or blockade of LTB4 and BLT1 by the antagonists, bestatin and U-75302, respectively, in the elicitation phase caused significant decreases in ear swelling and skin-infiltrating neutrophils and CD8+ T cells, which was accompanied by significantly reduced skin expression of CXCL1, CXCL2, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β. Furthermore, neutrophil depletion during the elicitation phase of OXA-induced contact dermatitis also caused significant decreases in ear swelling and CD8+ T-cell infiltration accompanied by significantly decreased LTB4 synthesis and gene expression of CXCL2, interferon-γ and interleukin-1β. Importantly, subcutaneous injection of exogenous LTB4 restored the skin infiltration of CD8+ T cells in neutrophil-depleted mice following OXA challenge. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the LTB4–BLT1 axis contributes to OXA-induced contact dermatitis by mediating skin recruitment of neutrophils, which are a major source of LTB4 that sequentially direct CD8+ T-cell homing to OXA-challenged skin. Hence, LTB4 and BLT1 could be potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of contact dermatitis. PMID:25959240

  8. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. In response to partial plant shading, the lack of phytochrome A does not directly induce leaf senescence but alters the fine-tuning of chlorophyll biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Bastiaan; Gardeström, Per; Keech, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Phytochrome is thought to control the induction of leaf senescence directly, however, the signalling and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, an ecophysiological approach was used to establish a functional connection between phytochrome signalling and the physiological processes underlying the induction of leaf senescence in response to shade. With shade it is important to distinguish between complete and partial shading, during which either the whole or only a part of the plant is shaded, respectively. It is first shown here that, while PHYB is required to maintain chlorophyll content in a completely shaded plant, only PHYA is involved in maintaining the leaf chlorophyll content in response to partial plant shading. Second, it is shown that leaf yellowing associated with strong partial shading in phyA-mutant plants actually correlates to a decreased biosynthesis of chlorophyll rather than to an increase of its degradation. Third, it is shown that the physiological impact of this decreased biosynthesis of chlorophyll in strongly shaded phyA-mutant leaves is accompanied by a decreased capacity to adjust the Light Compensation Point. However, the increased leaf yellowing in phyA-mutant plants is not accompanied by an increase of senescence-specific molecular markers, which argues against a direct role of PHYA in inducing leaf senescence in response to partial shade. In conclusion, it is proposed that PHYA, but not PHYB, is essential for fine-tuning the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway in response to partial shading. In turn, this mechanism allows the shaded leaf to adjust its photosynthetic machinery to very low irradiances, thus maintaining a positive carbon balance and repressing the induction of leaf senescence, which can occur under prolonged periods of shade. PMID:24604733

  10. A fluorescence-based method for direct measurement of submicrosecond intramolecular contact formation in biopolymers: an exploratory study with polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R; Huang, Fang; Gramlich, Gabriela; Nau, Werner M

    2002-01-30

    A fluorescent amino acid derivative (Fmoc-DBO) has been synthesized, which contains 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) as a small, hydrophilic fluorophore with an extremely long fluorescence lifetime (325 ns in H2O and 505 ns in D2O under air). Polypeptides containing both the DBO residue and an efficient fluorescence quencher allow the measurement of rate constants for intramolecular end-to-end contact formation. Bimolecular quenching experiments indicated that Trp, Cys, Met, and Tyr are efficient quenchers of DBO (k(q) = 20, 5.1, 4.5, and 3.6 x 10(8) M(-1) x s(-1) in D2O), while the other amino acids are inefficient. The quenching by Trp, which was selected as an intrinsic quencher, is presumed to involve exciplex-induced deactivation. Flexible, structureless polypeptides, Trp-(Gly-Ser)n-DBO-NH2, were prepared by standard solid-phase synthesis, and the rates of contact formation were measured through the intramolecular fluorescence quenching of DBO by Trp with time-correlated single-photon counting, laser flash photolysis, and steady-state fluorometry. Rate constants of 4.1, 6.8, 4.9, 3.1, 2.0, and 1.1 x 10(7) s(-1) for n = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 were obtained. Noteworthy was the relatively slow quenching for the shortest peptide (n = 0). The kinetic data are in agreement with recent transient absorption studies of triplet probes for related peptides, but the rate constants are significantly larger. In contrast to the flexible structureless Gly-Ser polypeptides, the polyproline Trp-Pro4-DBO-NH2 showed insignificant fluorescence quenching, suggesting that a high polypeptide flexibility and the possibility of probe-quencher contact is essential to induce quenching. Advantages of the new fluorescence-based method for measuring contact formation rates in biopolymers include high accuracy, fast time range (100 ps-1 micros), and the possibility to perform measurements in water under air.

  11. Survival of Salmonella during Production of Partially Sprouted Pumpkin, Sunflower, and Chia Seeds Dried for Direct Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; Anderson, Nathan M; Wang, Can; Burbick, Stephen J; Hildebrandt, Ian M; Gonsalves, Lauren J; Suehr, Quincy J; Farakos, Sofia M Santillana

    2018-04-01

    Ready-to-eat foods based on dried partially sprouted seeds have been associated with foodborne salmonellosis. Whereas research has focused on the potential for Salmonella initially present in or on seeds to grow and survive during fresh sprout production, little is known about the potential for growth and survival of Salmonella associated with seeds that have been partially sprouted and dried. The goal of this study was to determine the growth of Salmonella during soaking for partial germination of pumpkin, sunflower, and chia seeds and subsequent survival during drying and storage. Pumpkin, sunflower, and chia seeds were inoculated with a four-serotype Salmonella cocktail by the dry transfer method and were soaked in sterile water at 25 or 37°C for 24 h. During the soaking period, Salmonella exhibited growth rates of 0.37 ± 0.26, 0.27 ± 0.12, and 0.45 ± 0.19 log CFU/h at 25°C and 0.94 ± 0.44, 1.04 ± 0.84, and 0.73 ± 0.36 log CFU/h at 37°C for chia, pumpkin, and sunflower seeds, respectively. Soaked seeds were drained and dried at 25, 51, and 60°C. Drying resulted in >5 log CFU/g loss at both 51 and 60°C and ∼3 log CFU/g loss at 25°C on partially sprouted pumpkin and sunflower seeds. There was no decrease in Salmonella during drying of chia seeds at 25°C, and only drying at 60°C provided losses >5 log CFU/g. Dried seeds were stored at 37 and 45°C at 15 and 76% relative humidity (RH) levels. The combination of temperature and RH exerted a stronger effect than either factor alone, such that rates at which Salmonella decreased generally followed this order: 37°C at 15% RH < 45°C at 15% RH < 37°C at 76% RH < 45°C at 76% RH for all seeds tested. Rates differed based on seed type, with chia seeds and chia seed powder having the smallest rate of Salmonella decrease, followed by sunflower and pumpkin seeds. Drying at higher temperatures (50 and 61°C) or storing at elevated temperature and humidity (45°C and 76% RH) resulted in significantly different

  12. Liquid-Metal/Water Direct Contact Heat Exchange: Flow Visualization, Flow Stability, and Heat Transfer Using Real-Time X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, Sherif H.; Liu Xin; Anderson, Mark H.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Corradini, Michael L.; Cho, Dae; Page, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Advanced reactor system designs are being considered with liquid-metal cooling connected to a steam power cycle. In addition, current reactor safety systems are considering auxiliary cooling schemes that assure ex-vessel debris coolability utilizing direct water injection into molten material pools to achieve core quenching and eventual coolability. The phenomenon common in both applications is direct contact heat exchange. The current study focuses on detailed measurements of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange that is directly applicable to improvements in effective heat transfer in devices that are being considered for both of these purposes.In this study, a test facility was designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to map the operating range of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange. The test section (184-cm height, 45.75-cm width, and 10-cm depth) is a rectangular slice of a larger heat exchange device. This apparatus was used not only to provide measurements of integral thermal performance (i.e., volumetric heat transfer coefficient), but also local heat transfer coefficients in a bubbly flow regime with X-ray imaging based on measured parameters such as bubble formation time, bubble rise velocity, and bubble diameters.To determine these local heat transfer coefficients, a complete methodology of the X-ray radiography for two-phase flow measurement has been developed. With this methodology, a high-energy X-ray imaging system is optimized for our heat exchange experiments. With this real-time, large-area, high-energy X-ray imaging system, the two-phase flow was quantitatively visualized. An efficient image processing strategy was developed by combining several optimal digital image-processing algorithms into a software computational tool written in MATLAB called T-XIP. Time-dependent heat transfer-related variables such as bubble volumes and velocities, were determined. Finally, an error analysis associated with these measurements

  13. Physical characterization of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors with direct-contact asymmetric graphene electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jeong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available High performance a-IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs are fabricated using an asymmetric graphene drain electrode structure. A-IGZO TFTs (channel length = 3 μm were successfully demonstrated with a saturation field-effect mobility of 6.6 cm2/Vs without additional processes between the graphene and a-IGZO layer. The graphene/a-IGZO junction exhibits Schottky characteristics and the contact property is affected not only by the Schottky barrier but also by the parasitic resistance from the depletion region under the graphene electrode. Therefore, to utilize the graphene layer as S/D electrodes for a-IGZO TFTs, an asymmetric electrode is essential, which can be easily applied to the conventional pixel electrode structure.

  14. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is a risk of eye infection from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage case every 3 months or as directed by your eye care professional. Other Risks of Contact Lenses Other risks of contact lenses include pink eye ( ...

  15. State of the art and challenges in development of electrical contact materials in the light of the RoHS directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosović V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys current state of the art and challenges in the development of the electrical contact materials in the light of the EU Directive on Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS. The focus was placed on widely used silver-cadmium alloys. According to this directive, as of July 1, 2006, use of six hazardous materials, including cadmium, are restricted for applicable electrical and electronic products intended for the EU market. In contrast, traditionally preferred material for production of electrical contacts is Ag-CdO, due to its outstanding functional properties. These conflicting interests result in present state where RoHS directive has not yet been implemented in its original form and has undergone numerous amendments and exceptions regarding the use of cadmium. Main reason for this seems to be the unrealistic time frame imposed by legislation. Although, significant effort has been put into research and development of alternative materials, there are still cases where adequate replacement materials had not been found. Therefore, importance of synchronicity between legislation and technological progress i.e. communication between legislative administration and industry and academia is brought to light as well as some common issues that may arise with an introduction of new replacement materials or product modification. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike SRbije, br. OI 172037 and TR 34023

  16. Treatment of deep caries lesions in adults: randomized clinical trials comparing stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, and direct pulp capping vs. partial pulpotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars; Reit, Claes; Bruun, Gitte Hoffmann

    2010-01-01

    Less invasive excavation methods have been suggested for deep caries lesions. We tested the effects of stepwise vs. direct complete excavation, 1 yr after the procedure had been carried out, in 314 adults (from six centres) who had received treatment of a tooth with deep caries. The teeth had car...

  17. Modélisation d'une détente quasi-isotherme d'un gaz par contact direct avec un fluide caloporteur

    OpenAIRE

    Blaise , Mathilde; Maillet , Denis; Feidt , Michel; Alemany , Antoine; Forcinetti , Renato

    2015-01-01

    National audience; Les besoins en électricité sont croissants, cependant, les rejets thermiques industriels sont peu valorisés. La reconsidération des moteurs à apport de chaleur externe est un enjeu d'actualité pour la valorisation des rejets thermiques. Dans ces derniers, la phase de détente motrice offre des possibilités d'amélioration. L'idée ici est d'accompagner cette étape par un apport de chaleur par contact direct avec un fluide caloporteur. En effet, la détente d'un gaz entre une ha...

  18. Long Spin-Relaxation Times in a Transition-Metal Atom in Direct Contact to a Metal Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Jan; Ternes, Markus; Steinbrecher, Manuel; Wiesendanger, Roland; Wiebe, Jens

    2018-03-14

    Long spin-relaxation times are a prerequisite for the use of spins in data storage or nanospintronics technologies. An atomic-scale solid-state realization of such a system is the spin of a transition-metal atom adsorbed on a suitable substrate. For the case of a metallic substrate, which enables the direct addressing of the spin by conduction electrons, the experimentally measured lifetimes reported to date are on the order of only hundreds of femtoseconds. Here, we show that the spin states of iron atoms adsorbed directly on a conductive platinum substrate have a surprisingly long spin-relaxation time in the nanosecond regime, which is comparable to that of a transition metal atom decoupled from the substrate electrons by a thin decoupling layer. The combination of long spin-relaxation times and strong coupling to conduction electrons implies the possibility to use flexible coupling schemes to process the spin information.

  19. Investigating the Dendritic Growth during Full Cell Cycling of Garnet Electrolyte in Direct Contact with Li Metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguesse, Frederic; Manalastas, William; Buannic, Lucienne; Lopez Del Amo, Juan Miguel; Singh, Gurpreet; Llordés, Anna; Kilner, John

    2017-02-01

    All-solid-state batteries including a garnet ceramic as electrolyte are potential candidates to replace the currently used Li-ion technology, as they offer safer operation and higher energy storage performances. However, the development of ceramic electrolyte batteries faces several challenges at the electrode/electrolyte interfaces, which need to withstand high current densities to enable competing C-rates. In this work, we investigate the limits of the anode/electrolyte interface in a full cell that includes a Li-metal anode, LiFePO 4 cathode, and garnet ceramic electrolyte. The addition of a liquid interfacial layer between the cathode and the ceramic electrolyte is found to be a prerequisite to achieve low interfacial resistance and to enable full use of the active material contained in the porous electrode. Reproducible and constant discharge capacities are extracted from the cathode active material during the first 20 cycles, revealing high efficiency of the garnet as electrolyte and the interfaces, but prolonged cycling leads to abrupt cell failure. By using a combination of structural and chemical characterization techniques, such as SEM and solid-state NMR, as well as electrochemical and impedance spectroscopy, it is demonstrated that a sudden impedance drop occurs in the cell due to the formation of metallic Li and its propagation within the ceramic electrolyte. This degradation process is originated at the interface between the Li-metal anode and the ceramic electrolyte layer and leads to electromechanical failure and cell short-circuit. Improvement of the performances is observed when cycling the full cell at 55 °C, as the Li-metal softening favors the interfacial contact. Various degradation mechanisms are proposed to explain this behavior.

  20. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  1. Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsikadze, G; Moliadze, V; Paulus, W; Kuo, M-F; Nitsche, M A

    2013-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical excitability. In clinical and cognitive studies, stronger stimulation intensities are used frequently, but their physiological effects on cortical excitability have not yet been explored. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the effects of 2 mA tDCS on cortical excitability. We applied 2 mA anodal or cathodal tDCS for 20 min on the left primary motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cathodal tDCS at 1 mA and sham tDCS for 20 min was administered as control session in nine and eight healthy subjects, respectively. Motor cortical excitability was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Global corticospinal excitability was explored via single TMS pulse-elicited MEP amplitudes, and motor thresholds. Intracortical effects of stimulation were obtained by cortical silent period (CSP), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), and I wave facilitation. The above-mentioned protocols were recorded both before and immediately after tDCS in randomized order. Additionally, single-pulse MEPs, motor thresholds, SICI and ICF were recorded every 30 min up to 2 h after stimulation end, evening of the same day, next morning, next noon and next evening. Anodal as well as cathodal tDCS at 2 mA resulted in a significant increase of MEP amplitudes, whereas 1 mA cathodal tDCS decreased corticospinal excitability. A significant shift of SICI and ICF towards excitability enhancement after both 2 mA cathodal and anodal tDCS was observed. At 1 mA, cathodal tDCS reduced single-pulse TMS-elicited MEP amplitudes and shifted SICI

  2. Partial sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP: A preliminary study and characterization for application in direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Suparna; Kumar, Piyush; Dutta, Kingshuk; Kundu, Patit Paban

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of sulfonated PVdF-co-HFP by reacting with chlorosulfonic acid. • Maximum degree of sulfonation and best properties were obtained for 7 h reaction. • A maximum water uptake value of 20% was obtained. • A maximum IEC value of 0.42 meq g −1 was obtained. • A methanol permeability of 2.44 × 10 −7 cm 2 s −1 was obtained. - Abstract: Sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP was conducted by treating the copolymer with chlorosulfonic acid. The efficiency of this sulfonated copolymer towards application as a polymer electrolyte membrane in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) was evaluated. For this purpose, we determined the thermal stability, water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), methanol crossover, and proton conductivity of the prepared membranes as functions of duration and degree of sulfonation. The characteristic aromatic peaks obtained in the FT-IR spectra confirmed the successful sulfonation of PVdF-co-HFP. The effect of sulfonation on the semi-crystalline nature of pure PVdF-co-HFP was determined from XRD analysis. Water uptake results indicated that a sulfonation time of 7 h produced maximum water uptake value of about 20%, with a corresponding IEC and proton conductivity values of about 0.42 meq g −1 and 0.00375 S cm −1 respectively. The maximum current density was recorded to be 30 mA cm −2 at 0.2 V potential

  3. Small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene as highly efficient anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruihong; Xie, Ying; Shi, Keying; Wang, Jianqiang; Tian, Chungui; Shen, Peikang; Fu, Honggang

    2012-06-11

    The synergistic effect between Pt and WC is beneficial for methanol electro-oxidation, and makes Pt-WC catalyst a promising anode candidate for the direct methanol fuel cell. This paper reports on the design and synthesis of small-sized and contacting Pt-WC nanostructures on graphene that bring the synergistic effect into full play. Firstly, DFT calculations show the existence of a strong covalent interaction between WC and graphene, which suggests great potential for anchoring WC on graphene with formation of small-sized, well-dispersed WC particles. The calculations also reveal that, when Pt attaches to the pre-existing WC/graphene hybrid, Pt particles preferentially grow on WC rather than graphene. Our experiments confirmed that highly disperse WC nanoparticles (ca. 5 nm) can indeed be anchored on graphene. Also, Pt particles 2-3 nm in size are well dispersed on WC/graphene hybrid and preferentially grow on WC grains, forming contacting Pt-WC nanostructures. These results are consistent with the theoretical findings. X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy further confirms the intimate contact between Pt and WC, and demonstrates that the presence of WC can facilitate the crystallinity of Pt particles. This new Pt-WC/graphene catalyst exhibits a high catalytic efficiency toward methanol oxidation, with a mass activity 1.98 and 4.52 times those of commercial PtRu/C and Pt/C catalysts, respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Contact allergy to the 26 specific fragrance ingredients to be declared on cosmetic products in accordance with the EU cosmetics directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2011-11-01

    Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. To investigate frequencies of sensitization to the 26 individual fragrances and evaluate their importance as screening markers of fragrance allergy. This was a retrospective study based on data from the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte. Eczema patients (n = 1508) were patch tested (January 2008 to July 2010) with the 26 fragrance ingredients. Sensitization to the 26 fragrances was identified in 115 (7.6%) subjects. The most frequent allergens were Evernia furfuracea (n = 50), Evernia prunastri (n = 31), and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (n = 24). Including fragrance mix I, fragrance mix II and Myroxylon pereirae, 196 (13.0%) had a fragrance allergy. Testing with the 26 fragrances additionally identified 23 subjects who would otherwise have gone undetected. The majority (75.7%) of positive reactions to the 26 fragrances were of clinical relevance. Sensitization to the 26 individual fragrance ingredients was identified in 7.6% of the subjects patch tested. Most reactions were of clinical relevance. Fragrance-allergic subjects would be missed if testing with the individual fragrance ingredients was not performed. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Toxicological evaluation of liquids proposed for use in direct contact liquid--liquid heat exchangers for solar heated and cooled buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchan, R.M.; Majestic, J.R.; Billau, R.

    1976-09-01

    This report contains the results of the toxicological evaluation part of the project entitled, ''Direct Contact Liquid-Liquid Heat Exchangers for Solar Heated and Cooled Buildings.'' Obviously any liquid otherwise suitable for use in such a device should be subjected to a toxicological evaluation. 34 liquids (24 denser than water, 10 less dense) have physical and chemical properties that would make them suitable for use in such a device. In addition to the complexity involved in selecting the most promising liquids from the standpoint of their chemical and physical properties is added the additional difficulty of also considering their toxicological properties. Some of the physical and chemical properties of these liquids are listed. The liquids are listed in alphabetical order within groups, the denser than water liquids are listed first followed by those liquids less dense than water.

  6. Direct observation of both contact and remote oxygen scavenging of GeO2 in a metal-oxide-semiconductor stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadida, S.; Shekhter, P.; Eizenberg, M.; Cvetko, D.; Floreano, L.; Verdini, A.; Nyns, L.; Van Elshocht, S.; Kymissis, I.

    2014-01-01

    In the path to incorporating Ge based metal-oxide-semiconductor into modern nano-electronics, one of the main issues is the oxide-semiconductor interface quality. Here, the reactivity of Ti on Ge stacks and the scavenging effect of Ti were studied using synchrotron X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, with an in-situ metal deposition and high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging. Oxygen removal from the Ge surface was observed both in direct contact as well as remotely through an Al 2 O 3 layer. The scavenging effect was studied in situ at room temperature and after annealing. We find that the reactivity of Ti can be utilized for improved scaling of Ge based devices.

  7. High performance anode based on a partially fluorinated sulfonated polyether for direct methanol fuel cells operating at 130 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Florian; Gogel, Viktor; Jörissen, Ludwig; Kerres, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Due to the disadvantages of the Nafion polymer for the application in the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) especial at temperatures above 100 °C several polymers of the hydrocarbon type have already been investigated as membranes and ionomers in the DMFC. Among them were nonfluorinated and partially fluorinated arylene main-chain hydrocarbon polymers. In previous work, sulfonated polysulfone (sPSU) has been applied as the proton-conductive binder in the anode of a DMFC, ending up in good and stable performance. In continuation of this work, in the study presented here a polymer was prepared by polycondensation of decafluorobiphenyl and bisphenol AF. The formed polymer was sulfonated after polycondensation by oleum and the obtained partially fluorinated sulfonated polyether (SFS) was used as the binder and proton conductor in a DMFC anode operating at a temperature of 130 °C. The SFS based anode with 5% as ionomer showed comparable performance for the methanol oxidation to Nafion based anodes and significant reduced performance degradation versus Nafion and sPSU based anodes on the Nafion 115 membrane. Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) with the SFS based anode showed drastically improved performance compared to MEAs with Nafion based anodes during operation with lower air pressure at the cathode.

  8. A fast direct method for block triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal block systems from time-fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Rihuan; Ng, Michael K.; Sun, Hai-Wei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the block lower triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal blocks system which arises from the time-fractional partial differential equation. Existing fast numerical solver (e.g., fast approximate inversion method) cannot handle such linear system as the main diagonal blocks are different. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a fast direct method for solving this linear system, and to illustrate that the proposed method is much faster than the classical block forward substitution method for solving this linear system. Our idea is based on the divide-and-conquer strategy and together with the fast Fourier transforms for calculating Toeplitz matrix-vector multiplication. The complexity needs O (MNlog2 ⁡ M) arithmetic operations, where M is the number of blocks (the number of time steps) in the system and N is the size (number of spatial grid points) of each block. Numerical examples from the finite difference discretization of time-fractional partial differential equations are also given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. πN → πN and KN → KN low energy data and partial wave analyses recent results and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.L.

    1975-07-01

    This review deals with πN → πN and KN → KN physics below about 3 GeV/c. An attempt is made to convey the state of the art, and to point out what appear to be promising directions for future research. The situation as of about one year ago is summarized in the 1974 Review of Particle Properties and in London conference talks so more recent developments are considered. A comprehensive survey of πN → πN data between the Δ region and 3 GeV/c is given. Problems associated with spin-rotation experiments are discussed, and the current πN → πN partial wave analyses. I = 1 and I = 0 KN → KN analyses, respectively, are considered

  10. Lifetime differences, direct CP violation, and partial widths in D0 meson decays to K+K- and π+π-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csorna, S.E.; Danko, I.; McLean, K.W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe several measurements using the decays D 0 →K + K - and π + π - . We find the ratio of partial widths, Γ(D 0 →K + K - )/Γ(D 0 →π + π - ), to be 2.96±0.16±0.15, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. We observe no evidence for direct CP violation, obtaining A CP (KK)=(0.0±2.2±0.8)% and A CP (ππ)=(1.9±3.2±0.8)%. In the limit of no CP violation we measure the mixing parameter y CP =-0.012±0.025±0.014 by measuring the lifetime difference between D 0 →K + K - or π + π - and the CP neutral state, D 0 →K - π + . We see no evidence for mixing

  11. Molecular dynamics study of the nanosized droplet spreading: The effect of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hong Min; Kondaraju, Sasidhar; Lee, Jung Shin; Suh, Youngho; Lee, Joonho H.; Lee, Joon Sang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Contact line forces, including friction and spreading forces are directly calculated. • Overall trends of variations in contact line forces during droplet spreading process show characteristics of contact line forces. • Detail relations of contact line forces and atomic kinetics in the contact line provide a clear evidence of the possible energy dissipation mechanism in droplet spreading process. - Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that contact line forces play an important role in the droplet spreading process. Despite their significance, the physics related to them has been studied only indirectly and the effect of contact line forces is still being disputed. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and mimicked the droplet spreading process at the nanoscale. Based on the results of the simulation, the contact line forces were directly calculated. We found that the forces acting on the bulk and the contact line region showed different trends. Distinct positive and negative forces, contact line spreading, and friction forces were observed near the contact line. We also observed a strong dependency of the atomic kinetics in the contact line region on the variations in the contact line forces. The atoms of the liquid in the contact line region lost their kinetic energy due to the contact line friction force and became partially immobile on the solid surface. The results of the current study will be useful for understanding the role of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation in the contact line region.

  12. Molecular dynamics study of the nanosized droplet spreading: The effect of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong Min [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kondaraju, Sasidhar [Department of Mechanical Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751013 (India); Lee, Jung Shin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Youngho; Lee, Joonho H. [Samsung Electronics, Mechatronics R& D Center, Hwaseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 445-330 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon Sang, E-mail: joonlee@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Contact line forces, including friction and spreading forces are directly calculated. • Overall trends of variations in contact line forces during droplet spreading process show characteristics of contact line forces. • Detail relations of contact line forces and atomic kinetics in the contact line provide a clear evidence of the possible energy dissipation mechanism in droplet spreading process. - Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that contact line forces play an important role in the droplet spreading process. Despite their significance, the physics related to them has been studied only indirectly and the effect of contact line forces is still being disputed. We performed a molecular dynamics simulation and mimicked the droplet spreading process at the nanoscale. Based on the results of the simulation, the contact line forces were directly calculated. We found that the forces acting on the bulk and the contact line region showed different trends. Distinct positive and negative forces, contact line spreading, and friction forces were observed near the contact line. We also observed a strong dependency of the atomic kinetics in the contact line region on the variations in the contact line forces. The atoms of the liquid in the contact line region lost their kinetic energy due to the contact line friction force and became partially immobile on the solid surface. The results of the current study will be useful for understanding the role of the contact line forces on the kinetic energy dissipation in the contact line region.

  13. Monte Carlo assessment of the finger shallow dose from direct contact with a microcentrifuge tube containing common biotechnology isotopes in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Dan; Medich, David; Ring, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    Eppendorf tubes often are used in biomedical research labs and contain radioactive tracers. Although the associated direct contact finger doses are typically small, it is suggested (and in line with the principle of ALARA) to handle these tubes from the cap of the tube. When containing radioactive material, handling a tube near the bottom conical section would unnecessarily increase the skin dose to the fingers. This investigation modeled a 2.0-mL Eppendorf tube containing various individual beta emitting isotopes commonly used in a biomedical research environment (i.e., (14)C, (3)H, (131)I, (32)P, and (35)S) to determine the skin dose when directly handling the tube at the cap end and when handling it at the bottom conical section. The primary goal of this paper is to assess how significantly this dose is altered by handling geometry. The skin dose to a single finger was calculated with Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 and determined at a depth of 0.007 cm(2) in water averaged over 10 cm as described in 10CFR20. Results show that the dose rate may vary by as much as a factor of 700 depending on handling geometry.

  14. Direct Cell-Cell Contact between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells Induces a Pericyte-Like Phenotype In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Loibl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering techniques for the regeneration of large bone defects require sufficient vascularisation of the applied constructs to ensure a sufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. In our previous work, prevascularised 3D scaffolds have been successfully established by coculture of bone marrow derived stem cells (MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. We identified stabilising pericytes (PCs as part of newly formed capillary-like structures. In the present study, we report preliminary data on the interactions between MSCs and EPCs, leading to the differentiation of pericyte-like cells. MSCs and EPCs were seeded in transwell cultures, direct cocultures, and single cultures. Cells were cultured for 10 days in IMDM 10% FCS or IMDM 5% FCS 5% platelet lysate medium. Gene expression of PC markers, CD146, NG2, αSMA, and PDGFR-β, was analysed using RT-PCR at days 0, 3, 7, and 10. The upregulation of CD146, NG2, and αSMA in MSCs in direct coculture with EPCs advocates the MSCs’ differentiation towards a pericyte-like phenotype in vitro. These results suggest that pericyte-like cells derive from MSCs and that cell-cell contact with EPCs is an important factor for this differentiation process. These findings emphasise the concept of coculture strategies to promote angiogenesis for cell-based tissue engineered bone grafts.

  15. Technologies for hydrogen production based on direct contact of gaseous hydrocarbons and evaporated water with Molten Pb or Pb-Bi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, A. V.; Martynov, P. N.; Gulevsky, V. A.; Ulyanov, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    Results of studies intended for the substantiation of a new energy-saving and safe technology for low cost hydrogen production have been presented. The technology's basis is direct mixing of water and (or) gaseous hydrocarbons with heavy liquid metal coolants (HLMC) Pb or Pb-Bi. Preliminary research has been done on thermal dynamics and kinetics of the processes taking place in the interaction of HLMC with hydrocarbon-containing gases. It has been shown as a result that water and gaseous hydrocarbons interact with molten Pb and Pb-Bi relatively quietly in chemical aspect (without ignition and explosions). Therefore, (and taking into account the thermal physics, physical and chemical properties of HLMC such as low pressure of saturated vapor of Pb and Pb- Bi in enhanced temperatures, their good heat conductivity and heat capacity, low viscosity, etc.) heat transfer is possible from the molten metal to water and hydrocarbons without heat transferring partitions (that is, by direct contact of the working media). Devices to implement this method of heating liquid and gaseous media provide essential advantages: - A simple design; - None heat-transferring surfaces subject to corrosion, contamination, thermal fatigue, vibration impacts; - A high effectiveness owing to a larger heat exchanging surface per volume unit; - A small hydraulic resistance. The possibility and effectiveness of heating various gaseous and liquid media in their direct contact with molten Pb and Pb-Bi has been substantiated convincingly by experimental results at IPPE. Besides, the following processes of hydrogen-containing media conversion have been proved feasible thereby. 1. Water decomposition into hydrogen and oxygen. The process can develop at temperatures of 400-1000 degree C. It is necessary to provide constant removal of oxygen from the reaction zone and maintain a minimum possible content of chemically active oxygen in the melt. 2. Pyrolytic decomposition of hydrocarbons into carbon and

  16. Enhanced visible light activity on direct contact Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Zhang, Min [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Li, Qiuye, E-mail: qiuyeli@henu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Yang, Jianjun, E-mail: yangjianjun@henu.edu.cn [National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center for Applied Technology of Hybrid Nanomaterials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Nano Functional Materials and Applications of Henan Province, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} composites were obtained by simple solid state sintering. • The composites were direct contact Z-scheme without an electron mediator. • TiO{sub 2} with large amount of SETOV was obtained by dehydration of NTA. - Abstract: Direct contact Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites without an electron mediator are prepared via simple annealing the mixture of bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and nanotube titanic acid (NTA) in air at 600 °C for 2 h. In the process of annealing, the bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} transformed to ultra-thin g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets, and NTA converted to a novel anatase TiO{sub 2}, then the two components formed a close interaction. The XPS result reveals that some amount of nitrogen is doped into this novel-TiO{sub 2}, and g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets exist in the composites. The results of XRD, TEM and TG indicate that the thickness of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanosheets is very thin. The ESR spectrum shows the existence of Ti{sup 3+} and single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancy in the 30%g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} composites. In photocatalytic activity test, the 30%g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed an excellent photo-oxidation activity of propylene under visible light irradiation (λ≥ 420 nm), and the removal efficiency of propylene reached as high as 56.6%, and the activity kept nearly 82% after four consecutive recycles. Photoluminescence (PL) result using terephthalic acid (TA) as a probe molecule indicated that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites displayed a Z-sheme photocatalytic reaction system and this should be the main reason for the high photocatalytic activity. A possible photocatalytic mechanism was proposed on the basis of PL result and transient photocurrent-time curves.

  17. Proanthocyanidins from the bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides ameliorate allergic contact dermatitis through directly inhibiting T cells activation and Th1/Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengyang; Ye, Xiaodi; Yang, Yadong; Teng, Tianli; Li, Xiaoyu; Xu, Shifang; Ye, Yiping

    2015-04-15

    The leaves and bark of Metasequoia glyptostroboides are used as anti-microbic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug for dermatic diseases in Chinese folk medicine. However, the pharmacological effects and material basis responsible for the therapeutic use of this herb have not yet been well studied. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of the proanthocyanidin fraction from the bark of M. glyptostroboides (MGEB) and to elucidate its immunological mechanisms. The anti-inflammatory activity of MGEB was evaluated using 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in mice. Its potential mechanisms were further investigated by determining its effects on Con A-induced T cell activation and Th1/Th17 responses in vitro. Both intraperitoneal injection and oral administration of MGEB significantly reduced the ear swelling in DNFB-induced ACD mice. MGEB inhibited Con A-induced proliferation and the expression levels of cell surface molecules CD69 and CD25 of T cells in vitro. MGEB also significantly decreased the production of Th1/Th17 specific cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17) and down-regulated their mRNA expression levels in activated T-cells. MGEB could ameliorate ACD, at least in part, through directly inhibiting T cells activation and Th1/Th17 responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. A direct contact between astrocyte and vitreous body is possible in the rabbit eye due to discontinuities in the basement membrane of the retinal inner limiting membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haddad

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Different from most mammalian species, the optic nerve of the rabbit eye is initially formed inside the retina where myelination of the axons of the ganglion cells starts and vascularization occurs. Astrocytes are confined to these regions. The aforementioned nerve fibers known as medullated nerve fibers form two bundles that may be identified with the naked eye. The blood vessels run on the inner surface of these nerve fiber bundles (epivascularization and, accordingly, the accompanying astrocytes lie mostly facing the vitreous body from which they are separated only by the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The arrangement of the astrocytes around blood vessels leads to the formation of structures known as glial tufts. Fragments (N = 3 or whole pieces (N = 3 of the medullated nerve fiber region of three-month-old male rabbits (Orictolagus cuniculus were fixed in glutaraldehyde followed by osmium tetroxide, and their thin sections were examined with a transmission electron microscope. Randomly located discontinuities (up to a few micrometers long of the basement membrane of the inner limiting membrane of the retina were observed in the glial tufts. As a consequence, a direct contact between the astrocyte plasma membrane and vitreous elements was demonstrated, making possible functional interactions such as macromolecular exchanges between this glial cell type and the components of the vitreous body.

  19. Performance and Fouling Study of Asymmetric PVDF Membrane Applied in the Concentration of Organic Fertilizer by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using membrane distillation (MD as an alternative to the conventional multi-stage flushing (MSF process to concentrate a semi-product of organic fertilizer. By applying a unique asymmetric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF membrane, which was specifically designed for MD applications using a nonsolvent thermally induced phase separation (NTIPS method, the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD performance was investigated in terms of its sustainability in permeation flux, fouling resistance, and anti-wetting properties. It was found that the permeation flux increased with increasing flow rate, while the top-surface facing feed mode was the preferred orientation to achieve 25% higher flux than the bottom-surface facing feed mode. Compared to the commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE membrane, the asymmetric PVDF membrane exhibited excellent anti-fouling and sustainable flux, with less than 8% flux decline in a 15 h continuous operation, i.e., flux decreased slightly and was maintained as high as 74 kg·m−2·h−1 at 70 °C. Meanwhile, the lost flux was easily recovered by clean water rinsing. Overall 2.6 times concentration factor was achieved in 15 h MD operation, with 63.4% water being removed from the fertilizer sample. Further concentration could be achieved to reach the desired industrial standard of 5x concentration factor.

  20. A Framework for Better Understanding and Enhancing Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) in Terms of Module Design, Cost Analysis and Energy Required

    KAUST Repository

    AbuHannoud, Ali

    2011-07-01

    Water is becoming scarcer and several authors have highlighted the upcoming problem of higher water salinity and the difficulty of treating and discharging water. Moreover, current discoveries of problems with chemicals that have been used for pretreating or post-treating water alerted scientists to research better solutions to treat water. Membrane distillation (MD) is a promising technology that might replace current processes as it has lower pretreatment requirements combined with a tremendous ability to treat a wide range of feed sources while producing very high product quality. If it enters the market, it will have a big influence on all products, from food industry to spaceflight. However, there are several problems which make MD a hot topic for research. One of them is the question about the real cost of MD in terms of heating feed and cooling distillate over time with respect to product quantity and quality. In this work, extensive heating and cooling analyses are covered to answer this question in order to enhance the MD process. Results show energy cost to produce water and the main source of energy loss for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD), and several suggestions are made in order to better understand and hence enhance the process.

  1. Measurement of Near-Surface Salinity, Temperature and Directional Wave Spectra using a Novel Wave-Following, Lagrangian Surface Contact Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    Results from a surface contact drifter buoy which measures near-surface conductivity ( 10 cm depth), sea state characteristics and near-surface water temperature ( 2 cm depth) are described. This light (righting. It has a small above-surface profile and low windage, resulting in near-Lagrangian drift characteristics. It is autonomous, with low power requirements and solar panel battery recharging. Onboard sensors include an inductive toroidal conductivity probe for salinity measurement, a nine-degrees-of-freedom motion package for derivation of directional wave spectra and a thermocouple for water temperature measurement. Data retrieval for expendable, ocean-going operation uses an onboard Argos transmitter. Scientific results as well as data processing algorithms are presented from laboratory and field experiments which support qualification of buoy platform measurements. These include sensor calibration experiments, longer-term dock-side biofouling experiments during 2013-2014 and a series of short-duration ocean deployments in the Gulf Stream in 2014. In addition, a treatment method will be described which appears to minimize the effects of biofouling on the inductive conductivity probe when in coastal surface waters. Due to its low cost and ease of deployment, scores, perhaps hundreds of these novel instruments could be deployed from ships or aircraft during process studies or to provide surface validation for satellite-based measurements, particularly in high precipitation regions.

  2. The antagonistic regulation of abscisic acid-inhibited root growth by brassinosteroids is partially mediated via direct suppression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 expression by BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorui; Bai, Yang; Shang, Jianxiu; Xin, Ruijiao; Tang, Wenqiang

    2016-09-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) and abscisic acid (ABA) are plant hormones that antagonistically regulate many aspects of plant growth and development; however, the mechanisms that regulate the crosstalk of these two hormones are still not well understood. BRs regulate plant growth and development by activating BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT 1 (BZR1) family transcription factors. Here we show that the crosstalk between BRs and ABA signalling is partially mediated by BZR1 regulated gene expression. bzr1-1D is a dominant mutant with enhanced BR signalling; our results showed that bzr1-1D mutant is less sensitive to ABA-inhibited primary root growth. By RNA sequencing, a subset of BZR1 regulated ABA-responsive root genes were identified. Of these genes, the expression of a major ABA signalling component ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) was found to be suppressed by BR and by BZR1. Additional evidences showed that BZR1 could bind strongly with several G-box cis-elements in the promoter of ABI5, suppress the expression of ABI5 and make plants less sensitive to ABA. Our study demonstrated that ABI5 is a direct target gene of BZR1, and modulating the expression of ABI5 by BZR1 plays important roles in regulating the crosstalk between the BR and ABA signalling pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Measurement of partial widths and search for direct CP violation in D0 meson decays to K-K+ and pi-pi+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, D; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Arguin, J-F; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barker, G J; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Booth, P S L; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canepa, A; Casarsa, M; Carlsmith, D; Carron, S; Carosi, R; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Cerri, C; Cerrito, L; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chu, M L; Chuang, S; Chung, J Y; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A G; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cranshaw, J; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Currat, C; Cyr, D; Dagenhart, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'agnello, S; Dell'orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J R; Doksus, P; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Donini, J; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Drollinger, V; Ebina, K; Eddy, N; Ely, R; Erbacher, R; Erdmann, M; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H-C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flanagan, G; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Frisch, H; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallas, A; Galyardt, J; Gallinaro, M; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D W; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, D; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heider, E; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M A; Huffman, B T; Huang, Y; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Issever, C; Ivanov, A; Iwata, Y; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jarrell, J; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S; Junk, T; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kartal, S; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, T H; Kim, Y K; King, B T; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Koehn, P; Kong, D J; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kotelnikov, K; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuznetsova, N; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lazzizzera, I; Le, Y; Lecci, C; Lecompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Manca, G; Marginean, R; Martin, M; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P M; McNamara, P; Ncnulty, R; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, L; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, T; Mumford, R; Munar, A; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakamura, I; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Napora, R; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Niell, F; Nielsen, J; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Newman-Holmes, C; Nicollerat, A-S; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Oesterberg, K; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohsugi, T; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Plager, C; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Poukhov, O; Prakoshyn, F; Pratt, T; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rakitine, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Ray, H; Reichold, A; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Russ, J; Ruiz, A; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schemitz, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Siket, M; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Somalwar, S V; Spalding, J; Spezziga, M; Spiegel, L; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Squillacioti, P; Stadie, H; Stefanini, A; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takach, S F; Takano, H; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanimoto, N; Tapprogge, S; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Trischuk, W; Tseng, J; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Turini, N; Turner, M; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vejcik, S; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Volobouev, I; von der Mey, M; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Yamashita, T; Yamamoto, K; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolter, M; Worcester, M; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Wyatt, A; Yagil, A; Yang, U K; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yoon, P; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhou, J; Zsenei, A; Zucchelli, S

    2005-04-01

    We present a measurement of relative partial widths and decay rate CP asymmetries in K-K+ and pi(-)pi(+) decays of D0 mesons produced in pp collisions at sqrt[s]=1.96 TeV. We use a sample of 2x10(5) D(*+)-->D0pi(+) (and charge conjugate) decays with the D0 decaying to K-pi(+), K-K+, and pi(-)pi(+), corresponding to 123 pb(-1) of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. No significant direct CP violation is observed. We measure Gamma(D0-->K-K+)/Gamma(D0-->K-pi(+))=0.0992+/-0.0011+/-0.0012, Gamma(D0-->pi(-)pi(+))/Gamma(D0-->K-pi(+))=0.035 94+/-0.000 54+/-0.000 40, A(CP)(K-K+)=(2.0+/-1.2+/-0.6)%, and A(CP)(pi(-)pi(+))=(1.0+/-1.3+/-0.6)%, where, in all cases, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  4. Direct evidence for the origin of low-18O silicic magmas: Quenched samples of a magma chamber's partially-fused granitoid walls, Crater Lake, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, C.R.; Adami, L.H.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Partially fused granitoid blocks were ejected in the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama, which was accompanied by collapse of Crater Lake caldera. Quartz, plagioclase, and glass in the granitoids have much lower δ 18 O values (-3.4 to +4.9per mille) than any fresh lavas of Mount Mazama and the surrounding region (+5.8 to +7.0per mille). Oxygen isotope fractionation between phases in granitoids is consistent with equilibrium at T≥900deg C following subsolidus exchange with hydrothermal fluids of meteoric origin. Assimilation of ≅ 10-20% of material similar to these granitoids can account for the O and Sr isotopic compositions of lavas and juvenile pyroclasts derived from the climactic magma chamber, many of which have δ 18 O values ≅ 0.5per mille or more lower than comparable lavas of Mount Mazama. The O isotope data provide the only clear evidence for such assimilation because the mineralogy and chemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions of the granitoids (dominantly granodiorite) are similar to those of erupted juvenile magmas. The granitoid blocks from Crater Lake serve as direct evidence for the origin of 18 O depletion in large, shallow silicic magma bodies. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of partial widths and search for direct cp violation in D0 meson decays to K-K+ and π-π+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, D.; The CDF Collaboration

    2005-01-01

    We present a measurement of relative partial widths and decay rate CP asymmetries in K - K + and π - π + decays of D 0 mesons produced in p(bar p) collisions at √s = 1.96TeV. We use a sample of 2 x 10 5 D* + → D 0 π + (and charge conjugate) decays with the D 0 decaying to K - π + , K - K + , and π - π + , corresponding to 123 pb -1 of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab II experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. No significant direct CP violation is observed. We measure Λ(D 0 → K - K + )/Λ(D 0 → K - π + ) = 0.0992 ± 0.0011 ± 0.0012, Λ(D 0 → π - π + )/Λ(D 0 → K - π + ) = 0.03594 ± 0.00054 ± 0.00040, A CP (K - K + ) = (2.0 ± 1.2 ± 0.6)%, and A CP (π - π + ) = (1.0 ± 1.3 ± 0.6) %, where, in all cases, the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic

  6. Robust and scalable hierarchical matrix-based fast direct solver and preconditioner for the numerical solution of elliptic partial differential equations

    KAUST Repository

    Chavez, Gustavo Ivan

    2017-07-10

    This dissertation introduces a novel fast direct solver and preconditioner for the solution of block tridiagonal linear systems that arise from the discretization of elliptic partial differential equations on a Cartesian product mesh, such as the variable-coefficient Poisson equation, the convection-diffusion equation, and the wave Helmholtz equation in heterogeneous media. The algorithm extends the traditional cyclic reduction method with hierarchical matrix techniques. The resulting method exposes substantial concurrency, and its arithmetic operations and memory consumption grow only log-linearly with problem size, assuming bounded rank of off-diagonal matrix blocks, even for problems with arbitrary coefficient structure. The method can be used as a standalone direct solver with tunable accuracy, or as a black-box preconditioner in conjunction with Krylov methods. The challenges that distinguish this work from other thrusts in this active field are the hybrid distributed-shared parallelism that can demonstrate the algorithm at large-scale, full three-dimensionality, and the three stressors of the current state-of-the-art multigrid technology: high wavenumber Helmholtz (indefiniteness), high Reynolds convection (nonsymmetry), and high contrast diffusion (inhomogeneity). Numerical experiments corroborate the robustness, accuracy, and complexity claims and provide a baseline of the performance and memory footprint by comparisons with competing approaches such as the multigrid solver hypre, and the STRUMPACK implementation of the multifrontal factorization with hierarchically semi-separable matrices. The companion implementation can utilize many thousands of cores of Shaheen, KAUST\\'s Haswell-based Cray XC-40 supercomputer, and compares favorably with other implementations of hierarchical solvers in terms of time-to-solution and memory consumption.

  7. Induction of mucosal immune responses and protection of cattle against direct-contact challenge by intranasal delivery with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen mediated by nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Pan,1,2 Zhongwang Zhang,1,2 Jianliang Lv,1,2 Peng Zhou,1,2 Wenfa Hu,1,2 Yuzhen Fang,1,2 Haotai Chen,1,2 Xinsheng Liu,1,2 Junjun Shao,1,2 Furong Zhao,1,2 Yaozhong Ding,1,2 Tong Lin,1,2 Huiyun Chang,1,2 Jie Zhang,1,2 Yongguang Zhang,1,2 Yonglu Wang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS, Lanzhou, Gansu, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The aim of this study was to enhance specific mucosal, systemic, and cell-mediated immunity and to induce earlier onset of protection against direct-contact challenge in cattle by intranasal delivery of a nanoparticle-based nasal vaccine against type A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD. In this study, two kinds of nanoparticle-based nasal vaccines against type A FMD were designed: (1 chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA loaded with plasmid DNA (Chi-PLGA-DNA and (2 chitosan-trehalose and inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV (Chi-Tre-Inactivated. Cattle were immunized by an intranasal route with nanoparticles and then challenged for 48 hours by direct contact with two infected donor cattle per pen. Donors were inoculated intradermally in the tongue 48 hours before challenge, with 0.2 mL cattle-passaged FMDV. Serological and mucosal antibody responses were evaluated, and virus excretion and the number of contact infections were quantified. FMDV-specific secretory immunoglobulin (IgA (sIgA antibodies in nasal washes were initially detected at 4 days postvaccination (dpv with two kinds of nanoparticles. The highest levels of sIgA expression were observed in nasal washes, at 10 dpv, from animals with Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticles, followed by animals immunized once by intranasal route with

  8. Optimal contact definition for reconstruction of Contact Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehr Henning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact maps have been extensively used as a simplified representation of protein structures. They capture most important features of a protein's fold, being preferred by a number of researchers for the description and study of protein structures. Inspired by the model's simplicity many groups have dedicated a considerable amount of effort towards contact prediction as a proxy for protein structure prediction. However a contact map's biological interest is subject to the availability of reliable methods for the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the structure. Results We use an implementation of the well-known distance geometry protocol to build realistic protein 3-dimensional models from contact maps, performing an extensive exploration of many of the parameters involved in the reconstruction process. We try to address the questions: a to what accuracy does a contact map represent its corresponding 3D structure, b what is the best contact map representation with regard to reconstructability and c what is the effect of partial or inaccurate contact information on the 3D structure recovery. Our results suggest that contact maps derived from the application of a distance cutoff of 9 to 11Å around the Cβ atoms constitute the most accurate representation of the 3D structure. The reconstruction process does not provide a single solution to the problem but rather an ensemble of conformations that are within 2Å RMSD of the crystal structure and with lower values for the pairwise average ensemble RMSD. Interestingly it is still possible to recover a structure with partial contact information, although wrong contacts can lead to dramatic loss in reconstruction fidelity. Conclusions Thus contact maps represent a valid approximation to the structures with an accuracy comparable to that of experimental methods. The optimal contact definitions constitute key guidelines for methods based on contact maps such as structure prediction through

  9. Déshumidification de l'air d'une serre par contact direct à courants croisés avec une solution hygroscopique organique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chraibi, A.; Jaffrin, A.; Makhlouf, S.; Bentounes, N.

    1995-07-01

    Greenhouse air can be dehumidified by direct contact with a desicant fluid on a trickle exchanger. The water vapour extraction rate depends on the hygroscopicity of the fluid and on the exchanger efficiency. An organic fluid, the triethylene glycol (TEG) at 90% concentration, has been tested. Cross corrugated cellulosic pads, of the type used in cooling, irrigated with TEG, were placed in a wind channel to dehumidify air at various speeds and temperatures. A semi-analytical model, based on energy and mass conservation, correctly reproduces the water vapor extraction rate and the enthalpy change of both fluids. It is shown that TEG trickling through a ventilated pad of 1 m^2 area and 0.1 m thickness can be used to extract 3 to 5 kg of water vapor per hour in greenhouse climate control applications. Several pads arranged in series can be used to decrease more efficiently the absolute humidity of the air, for other applications like food drying or industrial compressed air. Une technique de déshumidification de l'air des serres consiste à le soumettre au contact d'une solution hygroscopique au sein d'un échangeur ruisselant. Le taux d'extraction de vapeur d'eau dépend à la fois du pouvoir hygroscopique de la solution et de l'efficacité de l'échangeur. Une solution hygroscopique organique, le triéthylène glycol à 90% de concentration, a été expérimentée. Un échangeur ruisselant constitué de parois de cellulose ondulées à corrugations croisées, du type “cooling pad” pour serres agricoles, a été testé pour déshumidifier de l'air dans une soufflerie expérimentale. Un modèle semi-analytique, basé sur les équations de conservation de l'énergie et de masse, permet de rendre compte des échanges et de déduire les paramètres de sortie des deux fluides en contact, à partir des caractéristiques d'entrée. Cette étude permet de chiffrer à environ 3 à 5kg/h la capacité de déshumidification d'un panneau d'un mètre carré et de 10cm d

  10. A theoretical study of a direct contact membrane distillation system coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond for terminal lakes reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Francisco; Tyler, Scott W; Childress, Amy E

    2010-08-01

    Terminal lakes are water bodies that are located in closed watersheds with the only output of water occurring through evaporation or infiltration. The majority of these lakes, which are commonly located in the desert and influenced by human activities, are increasing in salinity. Treatment options are limited, due to energy costs, and many of these lakes provide an excellent opportunity to test solar-powered desalination systems. This paper theoretically investigates utilization of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) coupled to a salt-gradient solar pond (SGSP) for sustainable freshwater production at terminal lakes. A model for heat and mass transport in the DCMD module and a thermal model for an SGSP were developed and coupled to evaluate the feasibility of freshwater production. The construction of an SGSP outside and inside of a terminal lake was studied. As results showed that freshwater flows are on the same order of magnitude as evaporation, these systems will only be successful if the SGSP is constructed inside the terminal lake so that there is little or no net increase in surface area. For the study site of this investigation, water production on the order of 2.7 x 10(-3) m(3) d(-1) per m(2) of SGSP is possible. The major advantages of this system are that renewable thermal energy is used so that little electrical energy is required, the coupled system requires low maintenance, and the terminal lake provides a source of salts to create the stratification in the SGSP. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Subjective hardship and training by female staff working in direct contact with the elderly in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier, Carole; Fontana, Luc; Fort, Emmanuel; Charbotel, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    To describe training given and training desired and to assess the relation between training and perceived hard working conditions as experienced by female staff working in direct contact with the elderly in nursing homes. A transverse descriptive study was conducted with the involvement of 78 occupational physicians, and included staff in 105 nursing homes in the Rhône-Alpes Region of France. Data on training received during the previous 5 years and on training needs were collected from staff by self-administered questionnaire. 1,446 nursing assistants, 667 housekeepers and 348 nurses were included. The most frequent form of training during the previous 5 years was in handling. Staff most frequently desired training in palliative care and psychological approaches to residents. Part-time workers had less frequently had training during the previous 5 years. Staff with daytime hours significantly more often had training in the reception of and activities for the elderly and in hygiene than did night-staff. Almost half of respondents reported very hard working conditions related to physical handling of residents or to the physical deterioration of elderly persons. More than two-thirds reported very hard working conditions related to death. In all occupational categories, respondents who had had training in palliative care less often reported experiencing very hard working conditions related to death. Better adaptation of the training offer to the needs expressed by employees could improve the experience of working conditions in nursing homes. A longitudinal study could assess the impact of training in palliative care on reported hard working conditions related to death.

  12. Quaternionic contact Einstein structures and the quaternionic contact Yamabe problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Stefan; Vassilev, Dimiter

    2014-01-01

    A partial solution of the quaternionic contact Yamabe problem on the quaternionic sphere is given. It is shown that the torsion of the Biquard connection vanishes exactly when the trace-free part of the horizontal Ricci tensor of the Biquard connection is zero and this occurs precisely on 3-Sasakian manifolds. All conformal transformations sending the standard flat torsion-free quaternionic contact structure on the quaternionic Heisenberg group to a quaternionic contact structure with vanishing torsion of the Biquard connection are explicitly described. A "3-Hamiltonian form" of infinitesimal conformal automorphisms of quaternionic contact structures is presented.

  13. Principal component directed partial least squares analysis for combining nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data in metabolomics: Application to the detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Haiwei; Pan Zhengzheng; Xi Bowei; Asiago, Vincent; Musselman, Brian; Raftery, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) are the two most commonly used analytical tools in metabolomics, and their complementary nature makes the combination particularly attractive. A combined analytical approach can improve the potential for providing reliable methods to detect metabolic profile alterations in biofluids or tissues caused by disease, toxicity, etc. In this paper, 1 H NMR spectroscopy and direct analysis in real time (DART)-MS were used for the metabolomics analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR data showed that the first principal component (PC1) scores could be used to separate cancer from normal samples. However, no such obvious clustering could be observed in the PCA score plot of DART-MS data, even though DART-MS can provide a rich and informative metabolic profile. Using a modified multivariate statistical approach, the DART-MS data were then reevaluated by orthogonal signal correction (OSC) pretreated partial least squares (PLS), in which the Y matrix in the regression was set to the PC1 score values from the NMR data analysis. This approach, and a similar one using the first latent variable from PLS-DA of the NMR data resulted in a significant improvement of the separation between the disease samples and normals, and a metabolic profile related to breast cancer could be extracted from DART-MS. The new approach allows the disease classification to be expressed on a continuum as opposed to a binary scale and thus better represents the disease and healthy classifications. An improved metabolic profile obtained by combining MS and NMR by this approach may be useful to achieve more accurate disease detection and gain more insight regarding disease mechanisms and biology.

  14. Principal component directed partial least squares analysis for combining nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data in metabolomics: application to the detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haiwei; Pan, Zhengzheng; Xi, Bowei; Asiago, Vincent; Musselman, Brian; Raftery, Daniel

    2011-02-07

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) are the two most commonly used analytical tools in metabolomics, and their complementary nature makes the combination particularly attractive. A combined analytical approach can improve the potential for providing reliable methods to detect metabolic profile alterations in biofluids or tissues caused by disease, toxicity, etc. In this paper, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and direct analysis in real time (DART)-MS were used for the metabolomics analysis of serum samples from breast cancer patients and healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR data showed that the first principal component (PC1) scores could be used to separate cancer from normal samples. However, no such obvious clustering could be observed in the PCA score plot of DART-MS data, even though DART-MS can provide a rich and informative metabolic profile. Using a modified multivariate statistical approach, the DART-MS data were then reevaluated by orthogonal signal correction (OSC) pretreated partial least squares (PLS), in which the Y matrix in the regression was set to the PC1 score values from the NMR data analysis. This approach, and a similar one using the first latent variable from PLS-DA of the NMR data resulted in a significant improvement of the separation between the disease samples and normals, and a metabolic profile related to breast cancer could be extracted from DART-MS. The new approach allows the disease classification to be expressed on a continuum as opposed to a binary scale and thus better represents the disease and healthy classifications. An improved metabolic profile obtained by combining MS and NMR by this approach may be useful to achieve more accurate disease detection and gain more insight regarding disease mechanisms and biology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  16. Direct-on-Filter α-Quartz Estimation in Respirable Coal Mine Dust Using Transmission Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry and Partial Least Squares Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur L; Weakley, Andrew Todd; Griffiths, Peter R; Cauda, Emanuele G; Bayman, Sean

    2017-05-01

    In order to help reduce silicosis in miners, the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) is developing field-portable methods for measuring airborne respirable crystalline silica (RCS), specifically the polymorph α-quartz, in mine dusts. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of end-of-shift measurement of α-quartz using a direct-on-filter (DoF) method to analyze coal mine dust samples deposited onto polyvinyl chloride filters. The DoF method is potentially amenable for on-site analyses, but deviates from the current regulatory determination of RCS for coal mines by eliminating two sample preparation steps: ashing the sampling filter and redepositing the ash prior to quantification by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. In this study, the FT-IR spectra of 66 coal dust samples from active mines were used, and the RCS was quantified by using: (1) an ordinary least squares (OLS) calibration approach that utilizes standard silica material as done in the Mine Safety and Health Administration's P7 method; and (2) a partial least squares (PLS) regression approach. Both were capable of accounting for kaolinite, which can confound the IR analysis of silica. The OLS method utilized analytical standards for silica calibration and kaolin correction, resulting in a good linear correlation with P7 results and minimal bias but with the accuracy limited by the presence of kaolinite. The PLS approach also produced predictions well-correlated to the P7 method, as well as better accuracy in RCS prediction, and no bias due to variable kaolinite mass. Besides decreased sensitivity to mineral or substrate confounders, PLS has the advantage that the analyst is not required to correct for the presence of kaolinite or background interferences related to the substrate, making the method potentially viable for automated RCS prediction in the field. This study demonstrated the efficacy of FT-IR transmission spectrometry for silica determination in

  17. Direct measurement of the field from a magnetic recording head using an InAs Hall sensor on a contact write/read tester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokemeijer, N.J.; Clinton, T.W.; Crawford, T.M.; Johnson, Mark

    2005-01-01

    At 1 Tbit/in 2 areal density magnetic recording dimensions, reliable magnetic field metrology does not exist. One technique to map the spatial profile of the magnetic field of a write head is to use a contact read/write tester. A magnetic recording head is brought into contact with a Hall sensor, and is subsequently scanned with nm resolution. For a 300 nm track width longitudinal recording head, the magnetic field of the head was mapped. Measurements include the down track field gradient and cross-track field profile and the current-field transfer curve. These results suggest this technique offers a viable write field metrology

  18. LANL Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    : (505) 665-3664 ethics@lanl.gov Journalist queries Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Media contacts programs and employee resources. General Employee directory Emergency communication Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Ethics & Audits Internal Audit: (505) 665-3104 Ethics Office: (505) 667-7506 Fax

  19. Two gap superconductivity in Ba{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals studied by the directional point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, P.; Pribulova, Z. [Centre of Low Temperature Physics, IEP Slovak Academy of Sciences and P.J.Safarik University, Watsonova 47, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia); Pristas, G.; Bud' ko, S.L.; Canfield, P.C. [Ames Laboratory and Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Samuely, P., E-mail: samuely@saske.s [Centre of Low Temperature Physics, IEP Slovak Academy of Sciences and P.J.Safarik University, Watsonova 47, SK-04001 Kosice (Slovakia)

    2009-10-15

    First directional point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy on the Ba{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals is presented. The spectra show significant differences when measured in the ab plane in comparison with those measured in the c direction. In the latter case no traces of superconducting energy gap could be found, just a reduced point-contact conductance persisting up to about 100 K and indicating reduced density of states. On the other hand within the ab plane two nodeless superconducting energy gaps DELTA{sub S}approx2-5 meV and DELTA{sub L}approx9-11 meV are detected.

  20. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  1. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  2. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  3. Guide-Plane Retention in Designing Removable Partial Dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothopi-Peri, Matshediso; Owen, C Peter

    To compare the influence of abutment teeth guide planes and guiding surfaces on retention of a removable partial denture (RPD). Extracted teeth embedded into a maxillary cast in the first premolar and second molar positions simulated two bounded saddles. Acrylic resin RPDs were made with no guide planes, then with guide planes, then with guiding surfaces added to directly contact the guide planes. The maximum loads on removal from the cast were recorded. There was a significant increase in retention force of 1.6 times when only guide planes were present and of 10.2 times when guiding surfaces intimately contacted the guide planes. The retention of acrylic resin RPDs can be substantially increased by making their guiding surfaces intimately contact the guide planes of the teeth.

  4. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia

    2016-01-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including......R) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries...... in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven...

  5. Investigation of the direct runoff generation mechanism for the analysis of the SCS-CN method applicability to a partial area experimental watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Soulis, K. X.; Valiantzas, J. D.; Dercas, N.; Londra, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff volume for a given rainfall event. The applicability of the SCS-CN method and the direct runoff generation mechanism were thoroughly analysed in a Mediterranean experimental watershed in Greece. The region is characterized by a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. A detailed land cover and soil survey using remote sensing and GIS techniques, showed that the watershed is dominated by coarse soils...

  6. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  7. Heterodimerization with the β1 subunit directs the α2 subunit of nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase to calcium-insensitive cell-cell contacts in HEK293 cells: Interaction with Lin7a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheiser, Julia; Haase, Tobias; Busker, Mareike; Sömmer, Anne; Kreienkamp, Hans-Jürgen; Behrends, Sönke

    2016-12-15

    Nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase is a heterodimeric enzyme consisting of an α and a β subunit. Two different α subunits (α 1 and α 2 ) give rise to two heterodimeric enzymes α 1 /β 1 and α 2 /β 1 . Both coexist in a wide range of tissues including blood vessels and the lung, but expression of the α 2 /β 1 form is generally much lower and approaches levels similar to the α 1 /β 1 form in the brain only. In the present paper, we show that the α 2 /β 1 form interacts with Lin7a in mouse brain synaptosomes based on co-precipitation analysis. In HEK293 cells, we found that the overexpressed α 2 /β 1 form, but not the α 1 /β 1 form is directed to calcium-insensitive cell-cell contacts. The isolated PDZ binding motif of an amino-terminally truncated α 2 subunit was sufficient for cell-cell contact localization. For the full length α 2 subunit with the PDZ binding motif this was only the case in the heterodimer configuration with the β 1 subunit, but not as isolated α 2 subunit. We conclude that the PDZ binding motif of the α 2 subunit is only accessible in the heterodimer conformation of the mature nitric oxide-sensitive enzyme. Interaction with Lin7a, a small scaffold protein important for synaptic function and cell polarity, can direct this complex to nectin based cell-cell contacts via MPP3 in HEK293 cells. We conclude that heterodimerization is a prerequisite for further protein-protein interactions that direct the α 2 /β 1 form to strategic sites of the cell membrane with adjacent neighbouring cells. Drugs increasing the nitric oxide-sensitivity of this specific form may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulsed Current Static Electrical Contact Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Harry N; Neri, Jesse M; Boyer, Craig N; Cooper, Khershed P; Meger, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    .... The voltage developed across the interface is directly related to the contact temperature and pressure, the number of a-spots, the thermophysical and mechanical properties of the contacting materials...

  9. Application of the top specified boundary layer (TSBL) approximation to initial characterization of an inland aquifer mineralization 1. Direct contact between fresh and saltwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a basic study in generalized terms that originates from two needs: (1) to understand the major mechanisms involved in the mineralization of groundwater of the Great Bend Prairie aquifer of Kansas by saltwater originating from a deeper Permian bedrock formation, and (2) to develop simple, robust tools that can readily be used for local assessment and management activities in the salt-affected region. A simplified basic conceptual model is adopted, incorporating two horizontal layers of porous medium which come into contact at a specific location within the model domain. The top layer is saturated with freshwater, and the bottom layer is saturated with saltwater. The paper considers various stages of approximation which can be useful for simplified simulation of the build-up of the transition zone (TZ) between the freshwater and the saltwater. The hierarchy of approximate approaches leads to the development of the top specified boundary layer (TSBL) method, which is the major tool used in this study for initial characterization of the development of the TZ. It is shown that the thickness of the TZ is mainly determined by the characteristic dispersivity. The build-up of the TZ is completed after a time period equal to the time needed to advect a fluid particle along the whole extent of the TZ. Potential applications and the effects of natural recharge and pumpage on salinity transport in the domain are discussed and evaluated in the context of demonstrating the practicality of the TSBL approach.

  10. 77 FR 3585 - Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Cirrus Design Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Corporation (Cirrus) Model SR22T airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of partial loss of engine power.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Cirrus Design Corporation, 4515 Taylor...

  11. Detection of partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears: is a single direct MR arthrography series in ABER position as accurate as conventional MR arthrography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreinemachers, Saskia A.; Hulst, Victor P.M. van der; Woude, Henk-Jan van der; Willems, W.J.; Bipat, Shandra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate sensitivity and specificity of a single magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography series in abduction external rotation (ABER) position compared with conventional MR arthrography for detection of supraspinatus tendon tears, with arthroscopy as gold standard, and to assess interobserver variability. Institutional review board approval was obtained; informed consent was waived. MR arthrograms of 250 patients (170 men and 80 women; mean age, 36 years) were retrospectively and independently evaluated by three observers. Oblique coronal T1-weighted fat-suppressed images, proton density, and T2-weighted images and axial T1-weighted images and oblique sagittal T1-weighted fat-suppressed images were analyzed to detect supraspinatus tendon tears. Separately, a single T1-weighted fat-suppressed oblique axial series in ABER position was evaluated. Both protocols were scored randomly without knowledge of patients' clinical history and arthroscopy results. Tears were subclassified, based on articular surface integrity and extension (Lee classification). Interobserver agreement was assessed by kappa statistics for all patients. Ninety-two of 250 patients underwent arthroscopy; sensitivity and specificity of ABER and conventional MR arthrography were calculated and compared using paired McNemar test. Weighted kappa values of ABER and conventional MR arthrography were 0.48-0.65 and 0.60-0.67, respectively. According to arthroscopy, 69 of 92 patients had an intact cuff, and 23 patients had a cuff tear (16 partial thickness and seven full thickness). There were no statistically significant differences between ABER and conventional MR arthrography regarding sensitivity (48-61% and 52-70%, respectively) and specificity (80-94% and 91-95%). Sensitivity and specificity of a single T1-weighted series in ABER position and conventional MR arthrography are comparable for assessment of rotator cuff tears. (orig.)

  12. Detection of partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears: is a single direct MR arthrography series in ABER position as accurate as conventional MR arthrography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreinemachers, Saskia A. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulst, Victor P.M. van der; Woude, Henk-Jan van der [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Willems, W.J. [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Orthopaedic Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bipat, Shandra [University of Amsterdam (NL). Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate sensitivity and specificity of a single magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography series in abduction external rotation (ABER) position compared with conventional MR arthrography for detection of supraspinatus tendon tears, with arthroscopy as gold standard, and to assess interobserver variability. Institutional review board approval was obtained; informed consent was waived. MR arthrograms of 250 patients (170 men and 80 women; mean age, 36 years) were retrospectively and independently evaluated by three observers. Oblique coronal T1-weighted fat-suppressed images, proton density, and T2-weighted images and axial T1-weighted images and oblique sagittal T1-weighted fat-suppressed images were analyzed to detect supraspinatus tendon tears. Separately, a single T1-weighted fat-suppressed oblique axial series in ABER position was evaluated. Both protocols were scored randomly without knowledge of patients' clinical history and arthroscopy results. Tears were subclassified, based on articular surface integrity and extension (Lee classification). Interobserver agreement was assessed by kappa statistics for all patients. Ninety-two of 250 patients underwent arthroscopy; sensitivity and specificity of ABER and conventional MR arthrography were calculated and compared using paired McNemar test. Weighted kappa values of ABER and conventional MR arthrography were 0.48-0.65 and 0.60-0.67, respectively. According to arthroscopy, 69 of 92 patients had an intact cuff, and 23 patients had a cuff tear (16 partial thickness and seven full thickness). There were no statistically significant differences between ABER and conventional MR arthrography regarding sensitivity (48-61% and 52-70%, respectively) and specificity (80-94% and 91-95%). Sensitivity and specificity of a single T1-weighted series in ABER position and conventional MR arthrography are comparable for assessment of rotator cuff tears. (orig.)

  13. Non-targeted screening for contaminants in paper and board food-contact materials using effect-directed analysis and accurate mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtström, Linda; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Trier, Xenia; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger; Granby, Kit; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Driffield, Malcolm; Højslev Petersen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    Due to large knowledge gaps in chemical composition and toxicological data for substances involved, paper and board food-contact materials (P&B FCM) have been emerging as a FCM type of particular concern for consumer safety. This study describes the development of a step-by-step strategy, including extraction, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, tentative identification of relevant substances and in vitro testing of selected tentatively identified substances. As a case study, we used two fractions from a recycled pizza box sample which exhibited aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activity. These fractions were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometers (QTOF MS) in order tentatively to identify substances. The elemental composition was determined for peaks above a threshold, and compared with entries in a commercial mass spectral library for GC-MS (GC-EI-QTOF MS) analysis and an in-house built library of accurate masses for substances known to be used in P&B packaging for UHPLC-QTOF analysis. Of 75 tentatively identified substances, 15 were initially selected for further testing in vitro; however, only seven were commercially available and subsequently tested in vitro and quantified. Of these seven, the identities of three pigments found in printing inks were confirmed by UHPLC tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ MS/MS). Two pigments had entries in the database, meaning that a material relevant accurate mass database can provide a fast tentative identification. Pure standards of the seven tentatively identified substances were tested in vitro but could not explain a significant proportion of the AhR-response in the extract. Targeted analyses of dioxins and PCBs, both well-known AhR agonists, was performed. However, the dioxins could explain approximately 3% of the activity observed in the pizza box extract indicating that some very AhR active substance(s) still remain to be

  14. Simulation and economic analysis of a liquid-based solar system with a direct-contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger, in comparison to a system with a conventional heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, P.; Karaki, S.

    Using a solar computer simulation package called TRNSYS, simulations of the direct contact liquid-liquid heat exchanger (DCLLHE) solar system and a system with conventional shell-and-tube heat exchanger were developed, based in part on performance measurements of the actual systems. The two systems were simulated over a full year on an hour-by-hour basis at five locations; Boston, Massachusetts, Charleston, South Carolina, Dodge City, Kansas, Madison, Wisconsin, and Phoenix, Arizona. Typically the direct-contact system supplies slightly more heat for domestic hot water and space heating in all locations and about 5 percentage points more cooling as compared to the conventional system. Using a common set of economic parameters and the appropriate federal and state income tax credits, as well as property tax legislation for solar systems in the corresponding states, the results of the study indicate for heating-only systems, the DCLLHE system has a slight life-cycle cost disadvantage compared to the conventional system. For combined solar heating and cooling systems, the DCLLHE has a slight life-cycle cost advantage which varies with location and amounts to one to three percent difference from the conventional system.

  15. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  16. Contact Lens Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative Contact ...

  17. Investigation of the direct runoff generation mechanism for the analysis of the SCS-CN method applicability to a partial area experimental watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulis, K. X.; Valiantzas, J. D.; Dercas, N.; Londra, P. A.

    2009-05-01

    The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is widely used for predicting direct runoff volume for a given rainfall event. The applicability of the SCS-CN method and the direct runoff generation mechanism were thoroughly analysed in a Mediterranean experimental watershed in Greece. The region is characterized by a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. A detailed land cover and soil survey using remote sensing and GIS techniques, showed that the watershed is dominated by coarse soils with high hydraulic conductivities, whereas a smaller part is covered with medium textured soils and impervious surfaces. The analysis indicated that the SCS-CN method fails to predict runoff for the storm events studied, and that there is a strong correlation between the CN values obtained from measured runoff and the rainfall depth. The hypothesis that this correlation could be attributed to the existence of an impermeable part in a very permeable watershed was examined in depth, by developing a numerical simulation water flow model for predicting surface runoff generated from each of the three soil types of the watershed. Numerical runs were performed using the HYDRUS-1D code. The results support the validity of this hypothesis for most of the events examined where the linear runoff formula provides better results than the SCS-CN method. The runoff coefficient of this formula can be taken equal to the percentage of the impervious area. However, the linear formula should be applied with caution in case of extreme events with very high rainfall intensities. In this case, the medium textured soils may significantly contribute to the total runoff and the linear formula may significantly underestimate the runoff produced.

  18. Investigation of the direct runoff generation mechanism for the analysis of the SCS-CN method applicability to a partial area experimental watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. X. Soulis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN method is widely used for predicting direct runoff volume for a given rainfall event. The applicability of the SCS-CN method and the direct runoff generation mechanism were thoroughly analysed in a Mediterranean experimental watershed in Greece. The region is characterized by a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. A detailed land cover and soil survey using remote sensing and GIS techniques, showed that the watershed is dominated by coarse soils with high hydraulic conductivities, whereas a smaller part is covered with medium textured soils and impervious surfaces. The analysis indicated that the SCS-CN method fails to predict runoff for the storm events studied, and that there is a strong correlation between the CN values obtained from measured runoff and the rainfall depth. The hypothesis that this correlation could be attributed to the existence of an impermeable part in a very permeable watershed was examined in depth, by developing a numerical simulation water flow model for predicting surface runoff generated from each of the three soil types of the watershed. Numerical runs were performed using the HYDRUS-1D code. The results support the validity of this hypothesis for most of the events examined where the linear runoff formula provides better results than the SCS-CN method. The runoff coefficient of this formula can be taken equal to the percentage of the impervious area. However, the linear formula should be applied with caution in case of extreme events with very high rainfall intensities. In this case, the medium textured soils may significantly contribute to the total runoff and the linear formula may significantly underestimate the runoff produced.

  19. Biofuel cells based on direct enzyme-electrode contacts using PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenase/bilirubin oxidase and modified carbon nanotube materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbahn, V; Putze, M T; Dietzel, B; Heinlein, T; Schneider, J J; Lisdat, F

    2014-11-15

    Two types of carbon nanotube electrodes (1) buckypaper (BP) and (2) vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vaCNT) have been used for elaboration of glucose/O2 enzymatic fuel cells exploiting direct electron transfer. For the anode pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase ((PQQ)GDH) has been immobilized on [poly(3-aminobenzoic acid-co-2-methoxyaniline-5-sulfonic acid), PABMSA]-modified electrodes. For the cathode bilirubin oxidase (BOD) has been immobilized on PQQ-modified electrodes. PABMSA and PQQ act as promoter for enzyme bioelectrocatalysis. The voltammetric characterization of each electrode shows current densities in the range of 0.7-1.3 mA/cm(2). The BP-based fuel cell exhibits maximal power density of about 107 µW/cm(2) (at 490 mV). The vaCNT-based fuel cell achieves a maximal power density of 122 µW/cm(2) (at 540 mV). Even after three days and several runs of load a power density over 110 µW/cm(2) is retained with the second system (10mM glucose). Due to a better power exhibition and an enhanced stability of the vaCNT-based fuel cells they have been studied in human serum samples and a maximal power density of 41 µW/cm(2) (390 mV) can be achieved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of stabilizers on the production of gold nanoparticles by direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge generated in contact with liquid flowing cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzimitrowicz, Anna; Jamroz, Piotr, E-mail: piotr.jamroz@pwr.edu.pl; Greda, Krzysztof; Nowak, Piotr; Nyk, Marcin; Pohl, Pawel [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry (Poland)

    2015-04-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared by direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) generated between a miniature argon flow microjet and a flowing liquid cathode. The applied discharge system was operated in a continuous flow liquid mode. The influence of various stabilizers added to the solution of the liquid cathode, i.e., gelatin (GEL), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as well as the concentration of the Au precursor (chloroauric acid, HAuCl{sub 4}) in the solution on the production growth of Au NPs was investigated. Changes in the intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band in UV/Vis absorption spectra of solutions treated by dc-μAPGD and their color were observed. The position and the intensity of the LSPR band indicated that relatively small nanoparticles were formed in solutions containing GEL as a capping agent. In these conditions, the maximum of the absorption LSPR band was at 531, 534, and 535 nm, respectively, for 50, 100, and 200 mg L{sup −1} of Au. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to analyze the structure and the morphology of obtained Au NPs. The shape of Au NPs was spherical and uniform. Their mean size was ca. 27, 73, and 92 nm, while the polydispersity index was 0.296, 0.348, and 0.456 for Au present in the solution of the flowing liquid cathode at a concentration of 50, 100, and 200 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The production rate of synthesized Au NPs depended on the precursor concentration with mean values of 2.9, 3.5, and 5.7 mg h{sup −1}, respectively.

  1. The influence of stabilizers on the production of gold nanoparticles by direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge generated in contact with liquid flowing cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimitrowicz, Anna; Jamroz, Piotr; Greda, Krzysztof; Nowak, Piotr; Nyk, Marcin; Pohl, Pawel

    2015-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared by direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) generated between a miniature argon flow microjet and a flowing liquid cathode. The applied discharge system was operated in a continuous flow liquid mode. The influence of various stabilizers added to the solution of the liquid cathode, i.e., gelatin (GEL), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), as well as the concentration of the Au precursor (chloroauric acid, HAuCl4) in the solution on the production growth of Au NPs was investigated. Changes in the intensity of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band in UV/Vis absorption spectra of solutions treated by dc-μAPGD and their color were observed. The position and the intensity of the LSPR band indicated that relatively small nanoparticles were formed in solutions containing GEL as a capping agent. In these conditions, the maximum of the absorption LSPR band was at 531, 534, and 535 nm, respectively, for 50, 100, and 200 mg L-1 of Au. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were used to analyze the structure and the morphology of obtained Au NPs. The shape of Au NPs was spherical and uniform. Their mean size was ca. 27, 73, and 92 nm, while the polydispersity index was 0.296, 0.348, and 0.456 for Au present in the solution of the flowing liquid cathode at a concentration of 50, 100, and 200 mg L-1, respectively. The production rate of synthesized Au NPs depended on the precursor concentration with mean values of 2.9, 3.5, and 5.7 mg h-1, respectively.

  2. Application of Direct Current Atmospheric Pressure Glow Microdischarge Generated in Contact with a Flowing Liquid Solution for Synthesis of Au-Ag Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzimitrowicz, Anna; Jamroz, Piotr; Nyk, Marcin; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-04-06

    A direct current atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (dc-μAPGD) generated between an Ar nozzle microjet and a flowing liquid was applied to produce Au-Ag core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AgCSNPs) in a continuous flow system. Firstly, operating dc-μAPGD with the flowing solution of the Au(III) ions as the cathode, the Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) core was produced. Next, to produce the core-shell nanostructures, the collected AuNPs solution was immediately mixed with an AgNO₃ solution and passed through the system with the reversed polarity to fabricate the Ag nanoshell on the AuNPs core. The formation of Au@AgCSNPs was confirmed using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Three localized surface plasmon resonance absorption bands with wavelengths centered at 372, 546, and 675 nm were observed in the UV-Vis spectrum of Au@AgCSNPs, confirming the reduction of both the Au(III) and Ag(I) ions. The right configuration of metals in Au@AgCSNPs was evidenced by TEM. The Au core diameter was 10.2 ± 2.0 nm, while the thickness of the Ag nanoshell was 5.8 ± 1.8 nm. The elemental composition of the bimetallic nanoparticles was also confirmed by EDS. It is possible to obtain 90 mL of a solution containing Au@AgCSNPs per hour using the applied microdischarge system.

  3. Sensitivity of the activated partial thromboplastin time, the dilute Russell's viper venom time, and the kaolin clotting time for the detection of the lupus anticoagulant: a direct comparison using plasma dilutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B A; Branch, D W; Rodgers, G M

    1996-01-01

    Increasing dilutions of lupus anticoagulant (LA) plasmas from twelve patients were used to directly compare the sensitivity of four tests for LA. The tests evaluated were the modified Bell and Alton activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), an APTT using a commercially prepared partial thromboplastin (Platelin LS APTT), a modified dilute Russell's viper venom time (DRVVT), and a modified kaolin clotting time (KCT). LAs were detected in all twelve plasmas by each of three tests and eleven of twelve plasmas in a fourth test when undiluted patient plasma was used. Repeating the tests after diluting the LA plasmas with normal platelet-free plasma (PFP) showed that the KCT was the most sensitive test for LA, detecting eleven of twelve LAs at a dilution of 10% patient plasma and ten of twelve LAs at a dilution of 5% patient plasma. The modified Bell and Alton APTT and the modified DRVVT had similar sensitivities at a patient plasma concentration of 10%, detecting seven of twelve and eight of twelve LAs, respectively. The Platelin LS APTT detected only four of twelve LAs at a patient plasma concentration of 10%. Our results indicate that the modified KCT is a sensitive method for the detection of LAs. The modified Bell and Alton APTT and the DRVVT were less sensitive.

  4. Temperature Identification in the Structural Elements of Non-Contacting Face Seals by Using Trefftz Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna PAWIŃSKA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomena of the heat transfer in non-contacting face seals was described by partial differential equation of the second order and boundary conditions. In this way, the mathematical model was developed for the sealing rings. The distributions of temperature in the structural elements was obtained by the Trefftz method. It is a simple method of solving direct and inverse problems described by a homogeneous or an inhomogeneous partial differential equation. The main idea of the method is to determine functions satisfying a given differential equation (Trefftz functions and to fit the linear combination of them to the governing boundary conditions.

  5. Improvements To Micro Contact Performance And Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-22

    layers approximately 0.2mm thick. The extruder is controlled in both the x and y directions by servo motors while the plate height is controlled with a...and contact area as the contacts pressed together and shared more surface area as the contacts elastically or plastically pressed together[164]. Figure...CrossRef 33. M. Braunovic, N. K. Myshkin, and V. V. Konchits, Electrical contacts: funda- mentals, applications and technology. CRC press , 2010, vol

  6. Occupational contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutre, Marie-Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis and eczema are the most prevalent occupational skin diseases. Less common are immediate contact reactions such as contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. Occupational contact urticaria can be subdivided into two categories, immunological and non immunological. However, some agents can induce these two types of reactions. Contact urticaria to natural rubber latex is particularly frequent among health care personnel, but contact urticaria to a wide variety of other substances occurs in many other occupations. Among those at risk are cooks, bakers, butchers, restaurant personnel, veterinarians, hairdressers, florists, gardeners, and forestry workers. Protein contact dermatitis in some of these occupations is caused principally by proteins of animal or plant origin, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis requires careful interrogation, clinical examination and skin tests (open tests and prick tests with immediate lecture) to identify a particular contact allergen.

  7. Treatment of a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm of the vertebral artery by aneurysm trapping and direct vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery end-to-end anastomosis: technical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Ludwig; Kappus, Christoph; Sure, Ulrich; Bertalanffy, Helmut

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to focus for the first time on the operative management of a direct vertebral artery (VA)-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) end-to-end anastomosis in a partially thrombosed giant VA-PICA-complex aneurysm and to underline its usefulness as an additional treatment option. The operative technique of a direct VA-PICA end-to-end anatomosis is described in detail. The VA was entering the large aneurysm sack. Distally, the PICA originated from the aneurysm sack-VA-complex. The donor and recipient vessel were cut close to the aneurysm. Whereas the VA was cut in a straight manner, the PICA was cut at an oblique 45-degree angle to enlarge the vascular end diameter. Vessel ends were flushed with heparinized saline and sutured. The thrombotic material inside the aneurysm sack was removed and the distal VA clipped, leaving the anterior spinal artery and brainstem perforators free. The patient regained consciousness without additional morbidity. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a completely decompressed brainstem without infarction. The postoperative angiograms demonstrated a good filling of the anastomosed PICA. Despite the caliber mistmatch of these two vessels the direct VA-PICA end-to-end anastomosis provides an accurate alternative in addition to other anastomoses and bypass techniques, when donor and recipient vessels are suitable and medullary perforators do not have to be disrupted.

  8. Infinite partial summations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, D.W.L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a brief review of those aspects of the effective interaction problem that can be grouped under the heading of infinite partial summations of the perturbation series. After a brief mention of the classic examples of infinite summations, the author turns to the effective interaction problem for two extra core particles. Their direct interaction is summed to produce the G matrix, while their indirect interaction through the core is summed in a variety of ways under the heading of core polarization. (orig./WL) [de

  9. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Levine, Harold

    1997-01-01

    The subject matter, partial differential equations (PDEs), has a long history (dating from the 18th century) and an active contemporary phase. An early phase (with a separate focus on taut string vibrations and heat flow through solid bodies) stimulated developments of great importance for mathematical analysis, such as a wider concept of functions and integration and the existence of trigonometric or Fourier series representations. The direct relevance of PDEs to all manner of mathematical, physical and technical problems continues. This book presents a reasonably broad introductory account of the subject, with due regard for analytical detail, applications and historical matters.

  10. Application of contact mechanics for fretting damage of fuel rod: part 1 influence functions and numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.; Kang, H. S.; Song, G. N.

    1998-01-01

    For the analysis of the fretting problem of the fuel rods, present paper(Part I) shows the numerical method developed for evaluating the stresses on the contact surfaces between the fuel rods and the spacer grids. Theory of Contact Mechanics was incorporated. Contact area was regarded as a plane strain condition, so plane problem was taken into consideration. Normal stress profile on the contact surface was assumed to be Hertzian. As for the direction of the shear load, a closed load path, e.g. load increase in transverse increase in axial decrease in transverse decrease in axial increase in transverse increase in axial direction was considered for simulating the rod vibration in a reactor core. Partial slip problem was consulted. As for the numerical method, a triangular traction element was utilized and the corresponding influence functions were evaluated. Numerical program has been implemented for the present analysis, of which the validity was verified by comparing the Mindlin-Cattaneo solution

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  13. Modular invariance, chiral anomalies and contact terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutasov, D.

    1988-03-01

    The chiral anomaly in heterotic strings with full and partial modular invariance in D=2n+2 dimensions is calculated. The boundary terms which were present in previous calculations are shown to be cancelled in the modular invariant case by contact terms, which can be obtained by an appropriate analytic continuation. The relation to the low energy field theory is explained. In theories with partial modular invariance, an expression for the anomaly is obtained and shown to be non zero in general. (author)

  14. Agreement between arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen values obtained by direct arterial blood measurements versus noninvasive methods in conscious healthy and ill foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David M; Alcott, Cody J; Wang, Chong; Bornkamp, Jennifer L; Young, Jessica L; Sponseller, Brett A

    2011-11-15

    To determine agreement between indirect measurements of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) and saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) with direct measurements of PaCO(2) and calculated saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen in arterial blood (SaO(2)) in conscious healthy and ill foals. Validation study. 10 healthy and 21 ill neonatal foals. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed on healthy and ill foals examined at a veterinary teaching hospital to determine direct measurements of PaCO(2) and PaO(2) along with SaO(2). Concurrently, PetCO(2) was measured with a capnograph inserted into a naris, and SpO(2) was measured with a reflectance probe placed at the base of the tail. Paired values were compared by use of Pearson correlation coefficients, and level of agreement was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. Mean ± SD difference between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2) was 0.1 ± 5.0 mm Hg. There was significant strong correlation (r = 0.779) and good agreement between PaCO(2) and PetCO(2). Mean ± SD difference between SaO(2) and SpO(2) was 2.5 ± 3.5%. There was significant moderate correlation (r = 0.499) and acceptable agreement between SaO(2) and SpO(2). Both PetCO(2) obtained by use of nasal capnography and SpO(2) obtained with a reflectance probe are clinically applicable and accurate indirect methods of estimating and monitoring PaCO(2) and SaO(2) in neonatal foals. Indirect methods should not replace periodic direct measurement of corresponding parameters.

  15. Non-conformal contact mechanical characteristic analysis on spherical components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen-zhi, G.; Bin, H.; Zheng-ming, G.; Feng-mei, Y.; Jin, Q [The 2. Artillery Engineering Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2017-03-15

    Non-conformal spherical-contact mechanical problems is a three-dimensional coordination or similar to the coordination spherical contact. Due to the complexity of the problem of spherical-contact and difficulties of solving higher-order partial differential equations, problems of three-dimensional coordination or similar to the coordination spherical-contact is still no exact analytical method for solving. It is based on three-dimensional taper model is proposed a model based on the contour surface of the spherical contact and concluded of the formula of the contact pressure and constructed of finite element model by contact pressure distribution under the non-conformal spherical. The results shows spherical contact model can reflect non-conformal spherical-contacting mechanical problems more than taper-contacting model, and apply for the actual project.

  16. Partial volume effect in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Munehiro; Yoshiya, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiji

    1989-01-01

    According to the direction and the thickness of the imaging slice in tomography, the border between the tissues becomes unclear (partial volume effect). In the present MRI experiment, we examined border area between fat and water components using phantom in order to investigate the partial volume effect in MRI. In spin echo sequences, the intensity of the border area showed a linear relationship with composition of fat and water. Whereas, in inversion recovery and field echo sequences, we found the parameters to produce an extremely low intensity area at the border region between fat and water. This low intensity area was explained by cancellation of NMR signals from fat and water due to the difference in the direction of magnetic vectors. Clinically, partial volume effect can cause of mis-evaluation of walls, small nodules, tumor capsules and the tumor invasion in the use of inversion recovery and field echo sequences. (author)

  17. On the Method of Efficient Ice Cold Energy Storage Using a Heat Transfer of Direct Contact Phase Change and a Natural Circulation of a Working Medium in an Enclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utaka, Yoshio; Saito, Akio; Nakata, Naoki

    The objectives of this report are to propose a new method of the high performance cold energy storage using ice as a phase change material and to clarify the heat transfer characteristics of the apparatus of ice cold energy storage based on the proposed principle. A working medium vapor layer a water layer and a working medium liquid layer stratified in this order from the top were kept in an enclosure composed of a condenser, an evaporator and a condensate receiver-and-return tube. The direct contact heat transfers between water or ice and a working medium in an enclosure were applied for realizing the high performance cold energy storage and release. In the storage and release processes, water changes the phase between the liquid and the solid, and the working medium cnanges between the vapor and the liquid with a natural circulation. Experimental apparatus was manufactured and R12 and R114 were selected as working media in the thermal energy storage enclosure. It was confirmed by the measurements that the efficient formation and melting of ice were achieved. Then, th e heat transfer characteristics were clarified for the effects of the initial water height, the initial height of woking medium liquid layer and the inlet coolant temperature.

  18. The contact sport of rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpick, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Describing the way two surfaces touch and make contact may seem simple, but it is not. Fully describing the elastic deformation of ideally smooth contacting bodies, under even low applied pressure, involves second-order partial differential equations and fourth-rank elastic constant tensors. For more realistic rough surfaces, the problem becomes a multiscale exercise in surface-height statistics, even before including complex phenomena such as adhesion, plasticity, and fracture. A recent research competition, the “Contact Mechanics Challenge” (1), was designed to test various approximate methods for solving this problem. A hypothetical rough surface was generated, and the community was invited to model contact with this surface with competing theories for the calculation of properties, including contact area and pressure. A supercomputer-generated numerical solution was kept secret until competition entries were received. The comparison of results (2) provides insights into the relative merits of competing models and even experimental approaches to the problem.

  19. Contact Estimation in Robot Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo D'Ippolito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, safety issues are examined in a scenario in which a robot manipulator and a human perform the same task in the same workspace. During the task execution, the human should be able to physically interact with the robot, and in this case an estimation algorithm for both interaction forces and a contact point is proposed in order to guarantee safety conditions. The method, starting from residual joint torque estimation, allows both direct and adaptive computation of the contact point and force, based on a principle of equivalence of the contact forces. At the same time, all the unintended contacts must be avoided, and a suitable post-collision strategy is considered to move the robot away from the collision area or else to reduce impact effects. Proper experimental tests have demonstrated the applicability in practice of both the post-impact strategy and the estimation algorithms; furthermore, experiments demonstrate the different behaviour resulting from the adaptation of the contact point as opposed to direct calculation.

  20. Contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small contact to full contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. The numerical calculations mainly focus on the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For a small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For a high load the contact area approaches the nominal contact area (i.e. complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches zero. The numerical results have been compared with analytical theory and experimental results. They are in good agreement with each other. The present findings may be very important for soft solids, e.g. rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderately high loads without plastic deformation of the solids

  1. Proposed ICDRG Classification of the Clinical Presentation of Contact Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pongpairoj, Korbkarn; Ale, Iris; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2016-01-01

    The International Contact Dermatitis Research Group proposes a classification for the clinical presentation of contact allergy. The classification is based primarily on the mode of clinical presentation. The categories are direct exposure/contact dermatitis, mimicking or exacerbation of preexisting....../mucosal symptoms, oral contact dermatitis, erythroderma/exfoliative dermatitis, minor forms of presentation, and extracutaneous manifestations....

  2. New aspects in allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give selected new information on contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis with focus on diagnostic procedures and pitfalls. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies dealing with common contact allergens have improved our understanding of the relationship between positive patch...... contact dermatitis. The main culprits include fragrance chemicals, preservatives, and hair dyes. We are all more or less exposed to cosmetics and topical drugs on a daily basis. The labelling requirements given in the Cosmetics Directive is of great help in tracing the causative allergenic ingredients...... tests and the clinical interpretation and consequences for the patient. SUMMARY: Nickel allergy is still the most common contact allergy in Europe in spite of full implementation of the EU Nickel Directive in 2001. Contact allergens in cosmetics and topical drugs are another common cause of allergic...

  3. Dual Component Removable Partial Denture shows improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual Component Removable Partial Denture (DuCo RPD) is composed of a double base; lower and upper. The lower base, where the artificial teeth are attached, acts as a support and is in contact with the alveolar ridges and oral mucosa. Clasps are designed on the upper base, which acts towards the retention and ...

  4. A pepducin derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2 is a partial agonist for direct activation of this receptor in neutrophils but a full agonist for cross-talk triggered reactivation of FPR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gabl

    Full Text Available We recently described a novel receptor cross-talk mechanism in neutrophils, unique in that the signals generated by the PAF receptor (PAFR and the ATP receptor (P2Y2R transfer formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1 from a desensitized (non-signaling state back to an actively signaling state (Forsman H et al., PLoS One, 8:e60169, 2013; Önnheim K, et al., Exp Cell Res, 323∶209, 2014. In addition to the G-protein coupled FPR1, neutrophils also express the closely related receptor FPR2. In this study we used an FPR2 specific pepducin, proposed to work as an allosteric modulator at the cytosolic signaling interface, to determine whether the cross-talk pathway is utilized also by FPR2. The pepducin used contains a fatty acid linked to a peptide sequence derived from the third intracellular loop of FPR2, and it activates as well as desensensitizes this receptor. We now show that neutrophils desensitized with the FPR2-specific pepducin display increased cellular responses to stimulation with PAF or ATP. The secondary PAF/ATP induced response was sensitive to FPR2-specific inhibitors, disclosing a receptor cross-talk mechanism underlying FPR2 reactivation. The pepducin induced an activity in naïve cells similar to that of a conventional FPR2 agonist, but with lower potency (partial efficacy, meaning that the pepducin is a partial agonist. The PAF- or ATP-induced reactivation was, however, much more pronounced when neutrophils had been desensitized to the pepducin as compared to cells desensitized to conventional agonists. The pepducin should thus in this respect be classified as a full agonist. In summary, we demonstrate that desensitized FPR2 can be transferred back to an actively signaling state by receptor cross-talk signals generated through PAFR and P2Y2R, and the difference in agonist potency with respect to pepducin-induced direct receptor activation and cross-talk reactivation of FPR2 puts the concept of functional selectivity in focus.

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  12. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But ... consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  17. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  18. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Majhi, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a ...

  20. Irritant Contact Dermatitis : Diagnosis and Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, Maria; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is frequent and is induced by direct and repeated contact with skin irritants such as detergents, abrasives, solvents and physical factors such as dry air and occlusion (by wearing gloves) but also water. When dermatitis has developed, even a minimal skin irritation, like

  1. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  2. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  3. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  4. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  5. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  6. CONTACT RESISTANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. LOSKUTOV

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the contribution of the real contact spots distribution in the total conductivity of the conductors contact. Methodology. The electrical contact resistance research was carried out on models. The experimental part of this work was done on paper with a graphite layer with membranes (the first type and conductive liquids with discrete partitions (the second type. Findings. It is shown that the contact electrical resistance is mainly determined by the real area of metal contact. The experimental dependence of the electrical resistance of the second type model on the distance between the electrodes and the potential distribution along the sample surface for the first type model were obtained. The theoretical model based on the principle of electric field superposition was considered. The dependences obtained experimentally and calculated by using the theoretical model are in good agreement. Originality. The regularity of the electrical contact resistance formation on a large number of membranes was researched for the first time. A new model of discrete electrical contact based on the liquid as the conducting environment with nuclear membrane partitions was developed. The conclusions of the additivity of contact and bulk electrical resistance were done. Practical value. Based on these researches, a new experimental method of kinetic macroidentation that as a parameter of the metal surface layer deformation uses the real contact area was developed. This method allows to determine the value of average contact stresses, yield point, change of the stress on the depth of deformation depending on the surface treatment.

  7. Contact and symplectic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Vincent; Stipsicz, András

    2014-01-01

    Symplectic and contact geometry naturally emerged from the mathematical description of classical physics. The discovery of new rigidity phenomena and properties satisfied by these geometric structures launched a new research field worldwide. The intense activity of many European research groups in this field is reflected by the ESF Research Networking Programme "Contact And Symplectic Topology" (CAST). The lectures of the Summer School in Nantes (June 2011) and of the CAST Summer School in Budapest (July 2012) provide a nice panorama of many aspects of the present status of contact and symplectic topology. The notes of the minicourses offer a gentle introduction to topics which have developed in an amazing speed in the recent past. These topics include 3-dimensional and higher dimensional contact topology, Fukaya categories, asymptotically holomorphic methods in contact topology, bordered Floer homology, embedded contact homology, and flexibility results for Stein manifolds.

  8. Low operation voltage of GaN-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO upper contact directly on p-type GaN without insert layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. H.; Chen, Yu An; Chang, L. C.; Lai, W. C.; Kuo, Cheng Huang

    2015-07-01

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film was evaporated on double-side polished sapphire, p-GaN layers, n+-InGaN-GaN short-period superlattice (SPS) structures, and GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by e-beam. The AZO film on the p-GaN layer after thermal annealing exhibited an extremely high transparency (98% at 450 nm) and a small specific contact resistance of 2.19 × 10-2 Ω cm2, which was almost the same as that of as-deposited AZO on n+-SPS structure. With 20 mA injection current, the forward voltages were 3.30 and 3.27 V, whereas the output powers were 4.32 and 4.07 mW for the LED with AZO on insert n+-SPS upper contact and the LED with AZO on p-GaN upper contact (without insert layer), respectively. The small specific contact resistance and low operation voltage of LED with AZO on p-GaN upper contact was achieved by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) process.

  9. Introduction to contact mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2000-01-01

    Contact mechanics deals with the elastic or plastic contact between two solid objects, and is thus intimately connected with such topics as fracture, hardness, and elasticity.This text, intended for advanced undergraduates, begins with an introduction to the mechanical properties of materials, general fracture mechanics, and fractures in brittle solids.This is followed by a detailed discussion of stresses and the nature of elastic and elastic-plastic contact.

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial ...

  11. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  12. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of the lenses found online or in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up ... contact lenses from a retailer that does not ask for a prescription. ...

  14. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ...

  16. Sciences & Nature: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ehouan Etienne Ehile Professor University of Abobo-Adjamé 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02. Phone: (+225) 2030 4201. Fax: (+225) 2030 4203. Email: eh_ehile@yahoo.fr. Support Contact. Irie Zoro Bi Email: banhiakalou@yahoo.fr. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  17. Contact Us | DOepatents

    Science.gov (United States)

    advance. Your help is appreciated. Contact us by email Email doepatentscomments@osti.gov NOTE: Email us by phone Phone Phone (865) 241-5275 Contact us in writing Mail U.S. Department of Energy Office of non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site. Javascript Not Enabled Email Link

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  19. Contact dermatitis. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Benezra, C; Burrows, D

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in our understanding of contact dermatitis. This paper is a review of our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in contact dermatitis and related phenomena, the investigation of these events and the emergence of significant new allergens during...

  20. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  1. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a way...

  2. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  4. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  5. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  6. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  7. Hysteresis of the Contact Angle of a Meniscus Inside a Capillary with Smooth, Homogeneous Solid Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchin, Igor V; Starov, Victor M

    2016-05-31

    A theory of contact angle hysteresis of a meniscus inside thin capillaries with smooth, homogeneous solid walls is developed in terms of surface forces (disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm) using a quasi-equilibrium approach. The disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm includes electrostatic, intermolecular, and structural components. The values of the static receding θr, advancing θa, and equilibrium θe contact angles in thin capillaries were calculated on the basis of the shape of the disjoining/conjoining pressure isotherm. It was shown that both advancing and receding contact angles depend on the capillary radius. The suggested mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis has a direct experimental confirmation: the process of receding is accompanied by the formation of thick β-films on the capillary walls. The effect of the transition from partial to complete wetting in thin capillaries is predicted and analyzed. This effect takes place in very thin capillaries, when the receding contact angle decreases to zero.

  8. Toward full-chip prediction of yield-limiting contact patterning failure: correlation of simulated image parameters to advanced contact metrology metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturtevant, John L.; Chou, Dyiann

    2006-03-01

    Electrical failure due to incomplete contacts or vias has arisen as one of the primary modes of yield loss for 130 nm and below designs in manufacturing. Such failures are generally understood to arise from both random and systematic sources. The addition of redundant vias, where possible, has long been an accepted DFM practice for mitigating the impact of random defects. Incomplete vias are often characterized by having a diameter near the target dimension but a depth of less than 100% of target. As such, it is a difficult problem to diagnose and debug in-line, since bright and dark field optical inspection systems cannot typically distinguish between a closed, partially open and fully open contact. Advanced metrology systems have emerged in recent years to meet this challenge, but no perfect manufacturing solution has yet been identified for full field verification of all contacts. Voltage Contrast (VC) SEM metrology biases the wafer to directly measure electrical conductivity after fill / polish, and can therefore easily discern a lack of electrical connection to the underlying conductor caused by incomplete photo, etch, or fill processing. While an entire wafer can in principal be VC scanned, throughput limitations dictate very sparse sampling in manufacturing. SEM profile grading (PG) leverages the rich content of the secondary electron waveform to decipher information about the bottom of the contact. Several authors have demonstrated an excellent response of the Profile Grade to intentional defocus vectors. However, the SEM can only target discreet or single digit groupings of contacts, and therefore requires intelligent guidance to identify those contacts which are most prone to failure, enabling protection of the fab WIP. An a-priori knowledge of which specific contacts in a layout are most likely to fail would prove very useful for proactive inspection in manufacturing. Model based pre-manufacturing verification allows for such knowledge to be communicated

  9. Quantized conductance in an atom-sized point contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, L.; Laegsgaard, E.; Stensgaard, I.

    1994-01-01

    We present direct measurements at room temperature of the conductance of a point contact between a scanning tunneling microscope tip and Ni, Cu, and Pt surfaces. As the contact is stretched the conductance jumps in units of 2e2/h. Atomistic simulations of the stretch of the contact combined...

  10. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Contact Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, Yasunori; De Camilli, Pietro

    2017-06-20

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a broad localization throughout the cell and forms direct physical contacts with all other classes of membranous organelles, including the plasma membrane (PM). A number of protein tethers that mediate these contacts have been identified, and study of these protein tethers has revealed a multiplicity of roles in cell physiology, including regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics and signaling as well as control of lipid traffic and homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the cross talk between the ER and the PM mediated by direct contacts. We review factors that tether the two membranes, their properties, and their dynamics in response to the functional state of the cell. We focus in particular on the role of ER-PM contacts in nonvesicular lipid transport between the two bilayers mediated by lipid transfer proteins.

  12. Contact dermatitis in cement workers in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraji Fariba

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to recent industrialization and inadequately protected workers or in other words poor supervision on constructive workers habits in our large city of Isfahan cement contact dermatitis is relatively high especially among cement factory workers and constructive personnel. PURPOSES: To investigate the prevalence rate of cement contact dermatitis in cement factory workers in Isfahan. METHODS: A case-control clinical study was carried out by randomly selecing 150 factory workders and 150 official clerks in a cement factory in Isfahan in 2001. After a complete physical examination, data was recorded in observational checklists. FINDINGS: The percentages of contact dermatitis prevalences in the first and the second groups were 22% and 5.3% respectively. About 60% of cement workers with contact dermatitis were between 30-40 years of age. There was a direct relationship with age in both groups of the workers. In the high-exposure group, the hand eczema along was 70% but in the other group the percentage of involvement was the same in exposed and unexposed anatomical areas. CONCLUSIONS: There was a direct relationship between occurrence and the severity of involvement and duration of contact in the first group. Cent percent of cement workers had contact dermatitis after 10 or less years, but the percentage among the other group was 35%. LIMITATION: Irritant contact dermatitis to cement has not been detected.

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a ... prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  15. Contact Line Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  18. SAM Technical Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  1. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from a licensed eye ... available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ... have given blind patients some functional vision, using human embryonic stem cells. Two blind patients regained enough ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... that decorative lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact ... By Kate Rauch In a small but intriguing study, scientists in England have given blind patients some ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Proper Contact Lens Care Apr 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of the ... edging closer, thanks to a wave of new technologies aiming to fix failing eye parts with human- ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How common is retinal detachment for people with high myopia? ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  19. Ergonomics SA: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by ... Care Apr 23, 2018 How long does it take the eye to go back to its original ...

  5. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  6. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ...

  15. Hyperbolic partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1986-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M

  16. Successful removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Christopher D

    2012-03-01

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) remain a mainstay of prosthodontic care for partially dentate patients. Appropriately designed, they can restore masticatory efficiency, improve aesthetics and speech, and help secure overall oral health. However, challenges remain in providing such treatments, including maintaining adequate plaque control, achieving adequate retention, and facilitating patient tolerance. The aim of this paper is to review the successful provision of RPDs. Removable partial dentures are a successful form of treatment for replacing missing teeth, and can be successfully provided with appropriate design and fabrication concepts in mind.

  17. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2011-01-01

    A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres

  18. On contact modelling in isogeometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, R. P. R.; Adetoro, O. B.

    2017-11-01

    IsoGeometric Analysis (IGA) has proved to be a reliable numerical tool for the simulation of structural behaviour and fluid mechanics. The main reasons for this popularity are essentially due to: (i) the possibility of using higher order polynomials for the basis functions; (ii) the high convergence rates possible to achieve; (iii) the possibility to operate directly on CAD geometry without the need to resort to a mesh of elements. The major drawback of IGA is the non-interpolatory characteristic of the basis functions, which adds a difficulty in handling essential boundary conditions and makes it particularly challenging for contact analysis. In this work, the IGA is expanded to include frictionless contact procedures for sheet metal forming analyses. Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) are going to be used for the modelling of rigid tools as well as for the modelling of the deformable blank sheet. The contact methods developed are based on a two-step contact search scheme, where during the first step a global search algorithm is used for the allocation of contact knots into potential contact faces and a second (local) contact search scheme where point inversion techniques are used for the calculation of the contact penetration gap. For completeness, elastoplastic procedures are also included for a proper description of the entire IGA of sheet metal forming processes.

  19. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  1. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  2. Beginning partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neil, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or

  3. Degradation of partially immersed glass: A new perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnam, R. K.; Fossati, P. C. M.; Lee, W. E.

    2018-05-01

    The International Simple Glass (ISG) is a six-component borosilicate glass which was developed as a reference for international collaborative studies on high level nuclear waste encapsulation. Its corrosion behaviour is typically examined when it is immersed in a leaching solution, or when it is exposed to water vapour. In this study, an alternative situation is considered in which the glass is only partially immersed for 7 weeks at a temperature of 90 °C. In this case, half of the glass sample is directly in the solution itself, and the other half is in contact with a water film formed by condensation of water vapour that evaporated from the solution. This results in a different degradation behaviour compared to standard tests in which the material is fully immersed. In particular, whilst in standard tests the system reaches a steady state with a very low alteration rate thanks to the formation of a protective gel layer, in partially-immersed tests this steady state could not be reached because of the continuous alteration from the condensate water film. The constant input of ions from the emerged part of the sample caused a supersaturation of the solution, which resulted in early precipitation of secondary crystalline phases. This setup mimics storage conditions once small amounts of water have entered a glass waste form containing canister. It offers a more realistic outlook of corrosion mechanisms happening in such situations than standard fully-immersed corrosion tests.

  4. Eye contact facilitates awareness of faces during interocular suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, T.; Senju, A.; Peelen, M.V.; Sterzer, P.

    Eye contact captures attention and receives prioritized visual processing. Here we asked whether eye contact might be processed outside conscious awareness. Faces with direct and averted gaze were rendered invisible using interocular suppression. In two experiments we found that faces with direct

  5. Eye Contact Facilitates Awareness of Faces during Interocular Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Timo; Senju, Atsushi; Peelen, Marius V.; Sterzer, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    Eye contact captures attention and receives prioritized visual processing. Here we asked whether eye contact might be processed outside conscious awareness. Faces with direct and averted gaze were rendered invisible using interocular suppression. In two experiments we found that faces with direct gaze overcame such suppression more rapidly than…

  6. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  7. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  8. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  9. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  10. Contact and contagion: Probability of transmission given contact varies with demographic state in bighorn sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kezia R; Cassirer, E Frances; Plowright, Raina K; Cross, Paul C; Hudson, Peter J

    2017-07-01

    Understanding both contact and probability of transmission given contact are key to managing wildlife disease. However, wildlife disease research tends to focus on contact heterogeneity, in part because the probability of transmission given contact is notoriously difficult to measure. Here, we present a first step towards empirically investigating the probability of transmission given contact in free-ranging wildlife. We used measured contact networks to test whether bighorn sheep demographic states vary systematically in infectiousness or susceptibility to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an agent responsible for bighorn sheep pneumonia. We built covariates using contact network metrics, demographic information and infection status, and used logistic regression to relate those covariates to lamb survival. The covariate set contained degree, a classic network metric describing node centrality, but also included covariates breaking the network metrics into subsets that differentiated between contacts with yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs, and animals with and without active infections. Yearlings, ewes with lambs, and ewes without lambs showed similar group membership patterns, but direct interactions involving touch occurred at a rate two orders of magnitude higher between lambs and reproductive ewes than between any classes of adults or yearlings, and one order of magnitude higher than direct interactions between multiple lambs. Although yearlings and non-reproductive bighorn ewes regularly carried M. ovipneumoniae, our models suggest that a contact with an infected reproductive ewe had approximately five times the odds of producing a lamb mortality event of an identical contact with an infected dry ewe or yearling. Consequently, management actions targeting infected animals might lead to unnecessary removal of young animals that carry pathogens but rarely transmit. This analysis demonstrates a simple logistic regression approach for testing a priori

  11. A Partial Equilibrium Theory for Drops and Capillary Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searcy, Alan W.; Beruto, Dario T.; Barberis, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    The two-century old theory of Young and Laplace retains a powerful influence on surface and interface studies because it quantitatively predicts the height of rise of capillary liquids from the contact angles of drops. But the classical theory does not acknowledge that equilibrium requires separate minimization of partial free energies of one-component liquids bonded to immiscible solids. We generalize a theorem of Gibbs and Curie to obtain a partial equilibrium (PE) theory that does so and that also predicts the height of capillary rise from contact angles of drops. Published observations and our own measurements of contact angles of water bonded to glass and Teflon surfaces support the conclusion of PE theory that contact angles of meniscuses and of drops are different dependent variables. PE theory provides thermodynamic and kinetic guidance to nanoscale processes that the classical theory obscures, as illustrated by examples in our concluding section

  12. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Lawrence C

    2010-01-01

    This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

  13. Electro-thermal analysis of contact resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nitin; Jain, Ishant; Reddy, Sudhakar; Gulhane, Nitin P.

    2018-05-01

    Electro-Mechanical characterization over copper samples are performed at the macroscopic level to understand the dependence of electrical contact resistance and temperature on surface roughness and contact pressure. For two different surface roughness levels of samples, six levels of load are selected and varied to capture the bulk temperature rise and electrical contact resistance. Accordingly, the copper samples are modelled and analysed using COMSOLTM as a simulation package and the results are validated by the experiments. The interface temperature during simulation is obtained using Mikic-Elastic correlation and by directly entering experimental contact resistance value. The load values are varied and then reversed in a similar fashion to capture the hysteresis losses. The governing equations & assumptions underlying these models and their significance are examined & possible justification for the observed variations are discussed. Equivalent Greenwood model is also predicted by mapping the results of the experiment.

  14. Catalytic partial oxidation of pyrolysis oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennard, David Carl

    2009-12-01

    details the catalytic partial oxidation of glycerol without preheat: droplets of glycerol are sprayed directly onto the top of the catalyst bed, where they react autothermally with contact times on the order of tau ≈ 30 ms. The reactive flash volatilization of glycerol results in equilibrium syngas production over Rh-Ce catalysts. In addition, water can be added to the liquid glycerol, resulting in true autothermal reforming. This highly efficient process can increase H2 yields and alter the H2 to CO ratio, allowing for flexibility in syngas quality depending on the purpose. Chapter 5 details the results of a time on stream experiment, in which optimal syngas conditions are chosen. Although conversion is 100% for 450 hours, these experiments demonstrate the deactivation of the catalyst over time. Deactivation is exhibited by decreases in H2 and CO 2 production accompanied by a steady increase in CO and temperature. These results are explained as a loss of water-gas shift equilibration. SEM images suggest catalyst sintering may play a role; EDS indicates the presence of impurities on the catalyst. In addition, the instability of quartz in the reactor is demonstrated by etching, resulting in a hole in the reactor tube at the end of the experiment. These results suggest prevaporization may be desirable in this application, and that quartz is not a suitable material for the reactive flash volatilization of oxygenated fuels. In Chapter 6, pyrolysis oil samples from three sources - poplar, pine, and hardwoods - are explored in the context of catalytic partial oxidation. Lessons derived from the tests with model compounds are applied to reactor design, resulting in the reactive flash vaporization of bio oils. Syngas is successfully produced, though deactivation due to coke and ash deposition keeps H2 below equlibrium. Coke formation is observed on the reactor walls, but is avoided between the fuel injection site and catalyst by increasing the proximity of these in the reactor

  15. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  20. Fermilab | Contact Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Related Links DOE FRA UChicago URA Newsroom -840-3000 Fax: 630-840-4343 Shipping address Fermilab Receiving Wilson Street and Kirk Road Batavia IL 60510-5011 Phone: 630-840-3000 Visiting address Fermilab entrance Kirk Road and Pine Street Batavia IL

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ...

  2. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  3. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  4. Fermilab Education Office - Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Office of Education and Public Outreach: Contacts All telephone numbers require area code Presentations for Presenters 840-3094 Office of Education and Public Outreach Spencer Pasero spasero@fnal.gov Education Office 840-3076 Fermilab Friends for Science Education General Questions Susan Dahl sdahl@fnal.gov

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A medical degree and many more years of training, for starters. A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can help you look after ... Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  6. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  7. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  9. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  11. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  12. Rigid Bodies in Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebe, Sarah Maria

    . A contact point determination method, based on boolean surface maps, is developed to handle collisions between tetrahedral meshes. The novel nonsmooth nonlinear conjugate gradient (NNCG) method is presented. The NNCG method is comparable in terms of accuracy to the state-of-the-art method, projected Gauss...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into ...

  14. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...

  15. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  16. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the i...

  17. Frequency shift and hysteresis suppression in contact-mode AFM using contact stiffness modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhaq M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the frequency response shift and hysteresis suppression of contact-mode atomic force microscopy is investigated using parametric modulation of the contact stiffness. Based on the Hertzian contact theory, a lumped single degree of freedom oscillator is considered for modeling the cantilever dynamics contact-mode atomic force microscopy. We use the technique of direct partition of motion and the method of multiple scales to obtain, respectively, the slow dynamic and the corresponding slow flow of the system. As results, this study shows that the amplitude of the contact stiffness modulation has a significant effect on the frequency response. Specifically, increasing the amplitude of the stiffness modulation suppresses hysteresis, decreases the peak amplitude and produces shifts towards higher and lower frequencies.

  18. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  19. Partial Remission Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Hougaard, Philip; Pörksen, Sven

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the partial remission (PR) definition based on insulin dose-adjusted HbA1c (IDAA1c). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The IDAA1c was developed using data in 251 children from the European Hvidoere cohort. For validation, 129 children from a Danish cohort were followed from the onset...

  20. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  1. Partially ordered models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, R.; Deveaux, V.

    2010-01-01

    We provide a formal definition and study the basic properties of partially ordered chains (POC). These systems were proposed to model textures in image processing and to represent independence relations between random variables in statistics (in the later case they are known as Bayesian networks).

  2. Partially Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Rissanen, Jorma

    1996-01-01

    Partially Hidden Markov Models (PHMM) are introduced. They differ from the ordinary HMM's in that both the transition probabilities of the hidden states and the output probabilities are conditioned on past observations. As an illustration they are applied to black and white image compression where...

  3. Honesty in partial logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van der Hoek (Wiebe); J.O.M. Jaspars; E. Thijsse

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe propose an epistemic logic in which knowledge is fully introspective and implies truth, although truth need not imply epistemic possibility. The logic is presented in sequential format and is interpreted in a natural class of partial models, called balloon models. We examine the

  4. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their practices. Decorative contacts (also called “costume,” colored,” “fashion,” or “plano” contacts). The FDA has often warned ... Lenses Decorative Contact Lenses Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Related Consumer Updates 'Colored' and Decorative Contact Lenses: A Prescription ...

  5. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  6. [News on occupational contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda

    2014-03-01

    Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens.

  7. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  8. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  9. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  10. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  11. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  12. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  13. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    . This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure....

  14. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  15. FreeContact: fast and free software for protein contact prediction from residue co-evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaján, László; Hopf, Thomas A; Kalaš, Matúš; Marks, Debora S; Rost, Burkhard

    2014-03-26

    20 years of improved technology and growing sequences now renders residue-residue contact constraints in large protein families through correlated mutations accurate enough to drive de novo predictions of protein three-dimensional structure. The method EVfold broke new ground using mean-field Direct Coupling Analysis (EVfold-mfDCA); the method PSICOV applied a related concept by estimating a sparse inverse covariance matrix. Both methods (EVfold-mfDCA and PSICOV) are publicly available, but both require too much CPU time for interactive applications. On top, EVfold-mfDCA depends on proprietary software. Here, we present FreeContact, a fast, open source implementation of EVfold-mfDCA and PSICOV. On a test set of 140 proteins, FreeContact was almost eight times faster than PSICOV without decreasing prediction performance. The EVfold-mfDCA implementation of FreeContact was over 220 times faster than PSICOV with negligible performance decrease. EVfold-mfDCA was unavailable for testing due to its dependency on proprietary software. FreeContact is implemented as the free C++ library "libfreecontact", complete with command line tool "freecontact", as well as Perl and Python modules. All components are available as Debian packages. FreeContact supports the BioXSD format for interoperability. FreeContact provides the opportunity to compute reliable contact predictions in any environment (desktop or cloud).

  16. Moving contact lines on vibrating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomenko, Zlatko; Spelt, Peter; Scott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    Large-scale simulations of flows with moving contact lines for realistic conditions generally requires a subgrid scale model (analyses based on matched asymptotics) to account for the unresolved part of the flow, given the large range of length scales involved near contact lines. Existing models for the interface shape in the contact-line region are primarily for steady flows on homogeneous substrates, with encouraging results in 3D simulations. Introduction of complexities would require further investigation of the contact-line region, however. Here we study flows with moving contact lines on planar substrates subject to vibrations, with applications in controlling wetting/dewetting. The challenge here is to determine the change in interface shape near contact lines due to vibrations. To develop further insight, 2D direct numerical simulations (wherein the flow is resolved down to an imposed slip length) have been performed to enable comparison with asymptotic theory, which is also developed further. Perspectives will also be presented on the final objective of the work, which is to develop a subgrid scale model that can be utilized in large-scale simulations. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ANR for financial support (ANR-15-CE08-0031) and the meso-centre FLMSN for use of computational resources. This work was Granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocation A0012B06893 made by GENCI.

  17. Rough viscoelastic sliding contact: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, G.; Putignano, C.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we show how the numerical theory introduced by the authors [Carbone and Putignano, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 61, 1822 (2013), 10.1016/j.jmps.2013.03.005] can be effectively employed to study the contact between viscoelastic rough solids. The huge numerical complexity is successfully faced up by employing the adaptive nonuniform mesh developed by the authors in Putignano et al. [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 60, 973 (2012), 10.1016/j.jmps.2012.01.006]. Results mark the importance of accounting for viscoelastic effects to correctly simulate the sliding rough contact. In detail, attention is, first, paid to evaluate the viscoelastic dissipation, i.e., the viscoelastic friction. Fixed the sliding speed and the normal load, friction is completely determined. Furthermore, since the methodology employed in the work allows to study contact between real materials, a comparison between experimental outcomes and numerical prediction in terms of viscoelastic friction is shown. The good agreement seems to validate—at least partially—the presented methodology. Finally, it is shown that viscoelasticity entails not only the dissipative effects previously outlined, but is also strictly related to the anisotropy of the contact solution. Indeed, a marked anisotropy is present in the contact region, which results stretched in the direction perpendicular to the sliding speed. In the paper, the anisotropy of the deformed surface and of the contact area is investigated and quantified.

  18. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  19. Time domain contact model for tyre/road interaction including nonlinear contact stiffness due to small-scale roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, P. B. U.; Kropp, W.

    2008-11-01

    Rolling resistance, traction, wear, excitation of vibrations, and noise generation are all attributes to consider in optimisation of the interaction between automotive tyres and wearing courses of roads. The key to understand and describe the interaction is to include a wide range of length scales in the description of the contact geometry. This means including scales on the order of micrometres that have been neglected in previous tyre/road interaction models. A time domain contact model for the tyre/road interaction that includes interfacial details is presented. The contact geometry is discretised into multiple elements forming pairs of matching points. The dynamic response of the tyre is calculated by convolving the contact forces with pre-calculated Green's functions. The smaller-length scales are included by using constitutive interfacial relations, i.e. by using nonlinear contact springs, for each pair of contact elements. The method is presented for normal (out-of-plane) contact and a method for assessing the stiffness of the nonlinear springs based on detailed geometry and elastic data of the tread is suggested. The governing equations of the nonlinear contact problem are solved with the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. Relations between force, indentation, and contact stiffness are calculated for a single tread block in contact with a road surface. The calculated results have the same character as results from measurements found in literature. Comparison to traditional contact formulations shows that the effect of the small-scale roughness is large; the contact stiffness is only up to half of the stiffness that would result if contact is made over the whole element directly to the bulk of the tread. It is concluded that the suggested contact formulation is a suitable model to include more details of the contact interface. Further, the presented result for the tread block in contact with the road is a suitable input for a global tyre/road interaction model

  20. Photogenic partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M J; Binnie, C D

    2000-01-01

    To establish the incidence and symptoms of partial seizures in a cohort of patients investigated on account of known sensitivity to intermittent photic stimulation and/or precipitation of seizures by environmental visual stimuli such as television (TV) screens or computer monitors. We report 43 consecutive patients with epilepsy, who had exhibited a significant EEG photoparoxysmal response or who had seizures precipitated by environmental visual stimuli and underwent detailed assessment of their photosensitivity in the EEG laboratory, during which all were questioned concerning their ictal symptoms. All patients were considered on clinical grounds to have an idiopathic epilepsy syndrome. Twenty-eight (65%) patients reported visually precipitated attacks occurring initially with maintained consciousness, in some instances evolving to a period of confusion or to a secondarily generalized seizure. Visual symptoms were most commonly reported and included positive symptoms such as coloured circles or spots, but also blindness and subjective symptoms such as "eyes going funny." Other symptoms described included nonspecific cephalic sensations, deja-vu, auditory hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting. No patient reported any clear spontaneous partial seizures, and there were no grounds for supposing that any had partial epilepsy excepting the ictal phenomenology of some or all of the visually induced attacks. These findings provide clinical support for the physiological studies that indicate that the trigger mechanism for human photosensitivity involves binocularly innervated cells located in the visual cortex. Thus the visual cortex is the seat of the primary epileptogenic process, and the photically triggered discharges and seizures may be regarded as partial with secondary generalization.

  1. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  2. [Sport injuries in full contact and semi-contact karate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K; Riechelmann, H; Ziemska, J

    2014-03-01

    Karate enjoys great popularity both in professional and recreational sports and can be classified into full, half and low contact styles. The aim of this study was the analysis of sports injuries in Kyokushinkai (full contact) and traditional Karate (semi-contact). In a retrospective study design, 215 active amateur karateka (114 full contact, 101 semi-contact) were interviewed by means of a standardised questionnaire regarding typical sport injuries during the last 36 months. Injuries were categorised into severity grade I (not requiring medical treatment), grade II (single medical treatment), grade III (several outpatient medical treatments) and grade IV (requiring hospitalisation). In total, 217 injuries were reported in detail. 125 injuries (58%) occurred in full contact and 92 (42%) in semi-contact karate. The time related injury rate of full contact karateka was 1.9/1000 h compared to 1.3/1000 h of semi-contact karateka (p injuries were musculoskeletal contusions (33% full contact, 20% semi-contact), followed by articular sprains with 19% and 16%. The lower extremity was affected twice as often in full contact (40%) as in semi-contact (20%) karate. Training injuries were reported by 80% of the full contact and 77% of the semi-contact karateka. Most injuries, both in training and competition, occurred in kumite. 75% of the reported injuries of full contact and 70% of semi-contact karateka were classified as low grade (I or II). The high rate of injuries during training and kumite (sparring) points to specific prevention goals. The emphasis should be put on proprioceptive training and consistent warm-up. In the actual competition the referees play a vital role regarding prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Hierarchical partial order ranking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Assessing the potential impact on environmental and human health from the production and use of chemicals or from polluted sites involves a multi-criteria evaluation scheme. A priori several parameters are to address, e.g., production tonnage, specific release scenarios, geographical and site-specific factors in addition to various substance dependent parameters. Further socio-economic factors may be taken into consideration. The number of parameters to be included may well appear to be prohibitive for developing a sensible model. The study introduces hierarchical partial order ranking (HPOR) that remedies this problem. By HPOR the original parameters are initially grouped based on their mutual connection and a set of meta-descriptors is derived representing the ranking corresponding to the single groups of descriptors, respectively. A second partial order ranking is carried out based on the meta-descriptors, the final ranking being disclosed though average ranks. An illustrative example on the prioritisation of polluted sites is given. - Hierarchical partial order ranking of polluted sites has been developed for prioritization based on a large number of parameters

  4. Development of a computational technique to measure cartilage contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Ryan; Lapner, Michael; Lalone, Emily A; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A

    2014-03-21

    Computational measurement of joint contact distributions offers the benefit of non-invasive measurements of joint contact without the use of interpositional sensors or casting materials. This paper describes a technique for indirectly measuring joint contact based on overlapping of articular cartilage computer models derived from CT images and positioned using in vitro motion capture data. The accuracy of this technique when using the physiological nonuniform cartilage thickness distribution, or simplified uniform cartilage thickness distributions, is quantified through comparison with direct measurements of contact area made using a casting technique. The efficacy of using indirect contact measurement techniques for measuring the changes in contact area resulting from hemiarthroplasty at the elbow is also quantified. Using the physiological nonuniform cartilage thickness distribution reliably measured contact area (ICC=0.727), but not better than the assumed bone specific uniform cartilage thicknesses (ICC=0.673). When a contact pattern agreement score (s(agree)) was used to assess the accuracy of cartilage contact measurements made using physiological nonuniform or simplified uniform cartilage thickness distributions in terms of size, shape and location, their accuracies were not significantly different (p>0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that cartilage contact can be measured indirectly based on the overlapping of cartilage contact models. However, the results also suggest that in some situations, inter-bone distance measurement and an assumed cartilage thickness may suffice for predicting joint contact patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Contact, Perspective Taking, and Anxiety as Predictors of Stereotype Endorsement, Explicit Attitudes, and Implicit Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We proposed a model of intergroup contact wherein contact promotes understanding of outgroup perspectives, perspective taking relates to reduced intergroup anxiety that in turn is associated with lessened stereotyping and more positive intergroup attitudes. Additionally, we examined if implicit attitudes followed this model or were directly impacted by contact. White undergraduates (n = 153) completed measures of contact, perspective taking, intergroup anxiety, stereotype ...

  6. An elastic-plastic contact model for line contact structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haibin; Zhao, Yingtao; He, Zhifeng; Zhang, Ruinan; Ma, Shaopeng

    2018-06-01

    Although numerical simulation tools are now very powerful, the development of analytical models is very important for the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of line contact structures for deeply understanding contact problems and engineering applications. For the line contact structures widely used in the engineering field, few analytical models are available for predicting the mechanical behaviour when the structures deform plastically, as the classic Hertz's theory would be invalid. Thus, the present study proposed an elastic-plastic model for line contact structures based on the understanding of the yield mechanism. A mathematical expression describing the global relationship between load history and contact width evolution of line contact structures was obtained. The proposed model was verified through an actual line contact test and a corresponding numerical simulation. The results confirmed that this model can be used to accurately predict the elastic-plastic mechanical behaviour of a line contact structure.

  7. Partial Acquistion as an Entry Mode in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian; Meyer, Klaus E.

    2007-01-01

    Multinational enterprises often acquire stakes in an existing enterprise when entering emerging economies. This paper examines the determinants of entry mode choices with a special focus on these partial acquisitions, which have received little attention in the scholarly literature. We show...... negotiations are subject to significant stakeholder interference. (For more information, please contact: Kristian Jakobsen, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark: kj.int@cbs.dk)...

  8. Dancoff factors with partial neutrons absorption in cluster geometry by the direct method; Calculo dos fatores de Dancoff com absorcao parcial de neutrons em geometria cluster pelo metodo direto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch

    2007-07-01

    Accurate analysis of resonance absorption in heterogeneous systems is essential in problems like criticality, breeding ratios and fuel depletion calculations. In compact arrays of fuel rods, resonance absorption is strongly affected by the Dancoff factor, defined in mis study as the probability that a neutron emitted from the surface of a fuel element, enters another fuel element without any collusion in the moderator or cladding. In fact, in the most practical cases of irregular cells, it is observed that inaccuracies in computing both Grey and Black Dancoff factors, i.e. for partially and perfectly absorbing fuel rods, can lead to considerable errors in the calculated values of such integral quantities. For this reason, much effort has been made in the past decades to further improve the models for calculating Dancoff factors, a task that has been accomplished in connection with the development of faster computers. In the WIMS code, Black Dancoff factors based on the above mentioned collusion probability definition are computed in cluster geometry, for each one of the symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions in the cell. Sets of equally-spaced parallel lines are drawn in subroutine PIJ, at a number of discrete equally-incremented azimuthal angles, covering the whole system and forming a mesh over which the in-plane integrations of the Bickley functions are carried out by simple trapezoidal rule, leading to the first-flight collusion matrices. Although fast, the method in PIJ is inefficient, since the constructed mesh does not depended on the system details, so that regions of small relative volumes are crossed out by relatively few lines, which affects the convergence of the calculated probabilities. A new routine (PIJM) was then created to incorporate a more efficient integration scheme considering each system region individually, minimizing convergence problems and reducing the number of neutron track lines required in the in-plane integrations for any given

  9. [Eye contact effects: A therapeutic issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltazar, M; Conty, L

    2016-12-01

    The perception of a direct gaze - that is, of another individual's gaze directed at the observer that leads to eye contact - is known to influence a wide range of cognitive processes and behaviors. We stress that these effects mainly reflect positive impacts on human cognition and may thus be used as relevant tools for therapeutic purposes. In this review, we aim (1) to provide an exhaustive review of eye contact effects while discussing the limits of the dominant models used to explain these effects, (2) to illustrate the therapeutic potential of eye contact by targeting those pathologies that show both preserved gaze processing and deficits in one or several functions that are targeted by the eye contact effects, and (3) to propose concrete ways in which eye contact could be employed as a therapeutic tool. (1) We regroup the variety of eye contact effects into four categories, including memory effects, activation of prosocial behavior, positive appraisals of self and others and the enhancement of self-awareness. We emphasize that the models proposed to account for these effects have a poor predictive value and that further descriptions of these effects is needed. (2) We then emphasize that people with pathologies that affect memory, social behavior, and self and/or other appraisal, and self-awareness could benefit from eye contact effects. We focus on depression, autism and Alzheimer's disease to illustrate our proposal. To our knowledge, no anomaly of eye contact has been reported in depression. Patients suffering from Alzheimer disease, at the early and moderate stage, have been shown to maintain a normal amount of eye contact with their interlocutor. We take into account that autism is controversial regarding whether gaze processing is preserved or altered. In the first view, individuals are thought to elude or omit gazing at another's eyes while in the second, individuals are considered to not be able to process the gaze of others. We adopt the first stance

  10. Contacting gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for contacting substantially immiscible phases to transfer material from one phase to another, which comprises passing the phases through a contactor, while causing portions of at least one phase to be repeatedly passed through at least one other phase. One phase in the contactor is gaseous, and another liquid. A further phase can be liquid or solid The process may be used for extracting impurities from china clay, or extracting uranium values from ore with oxygen gas acting to oxidise the uranium. (author)

  11. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  12. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  13. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  14. Contact with turf algae alters the coral microbiome: contact versus systemic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Zoe A.; Longo, Guilherme O.; Burns, Andrew S.; Hay, Mark E.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2018-03-01

    Coral reefs are degrading to algae-dominated reefs worldwide, with alterations of coral microbiomes commonly co-occurring with reef demise. The severe thermal anomaly during the 2016 El Niño event in the South Pacific killed many corals and stressed others. We examined the microbiome of turf algae and of the coral Porites sp. in contact with turf during this thermal event to investigate algal turf effects on the coral microbiome during a period of environmental stress. The microbial composition of turf did not differ between coral-contacted and non-contacted turfs. However, microbiomes of corals in direct contact with turf were similar to those of the turf microbiome, but differed significantly from coral portions 5 cm from the point of turf/coral contact and from portions of the coral that looked most healthy, regardless of location. Although the majority of significant differences occurred in coral samples at the point of contact, a small subset of microbial taxa was enriched in coral tissues taken 5 cm from turf contact compared to all other sample types, including samples from areas of the coral that appeared most healthy. These results suggest that the coral microbiome is susceptible to colonization by microbes from turf, but not vice versa. Results also suggest that algal contact elicits a subtle shift in the coral microbiome just beyond the contact site. The combination of turf microbiome stability and coral microbiome vulnerability at areas of contact may contribute to the continued decline in coral cover and increase in algal cover associated with coral-algae phase shifts.

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from octylisothiazolinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Anja Pahlow; Frost, Simon; Ohlund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen.......Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen....

  16. Partial digitization method of wave processes in rail lines on the discrete basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyurekhodzhaev, A.N.; Ibraev, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Analytical solution of the problem about longitudinal vibration of the rail which lies on the ties taking into account contact dry friction between wheel and rail is provided by the method of partial digitization and Laplace dual integral transformation. (author)

  17. Partially ordered algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    Originally published in an important series of books on pure and applied mathematics, this monograph by a distinguished mathematician explores a high-level area in algebra. It constitutes the first systematic summary of research concerning partially ordered groups, semigroups, rings, and fields. The self-contained treatment features numerous problems, complete proofs, a detailed bibliography, and indexes. It presumes some knowledge of abstract algebra, providing necessary background and references where appropriate. This inexpensive edition of a hard-to-find systematic survey will fill a gap i

  18. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  19. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  20. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Sloan, D; Süli, E

    2001-01-01

    /homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html7-Volume Set now available at special set price ! Over the second half of the 20th century the subject area loosely referred to as numerical analysis of partial differential equations (PDEs) has undergone unprecedented development. At its practical end, the vigorous growth and steady diversification of the field were stimulated by the demand for accurate and reliable tools for computational modelling in physical sciences and engineering, and by the rapid development of computer hardware and architecture. At the more theoretical end, the analytical insight in