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Sample records for partial crediting resulted

  1. Some Considerations on the Partial Credit Model

    OpenAIRE

    H.H.F.M. Verstralen; N.D. Verhelst

    2008-01-01

    The Partial Credit Model (PCM) is sometimes interpreted as a model for stepwise solution of polytomously scored items, where the item parameters are interpreted as di culties of the steps. It is argued that this interpretation is not justi ed. A model for stepwise solution is discussed. It is shown that the PCM is suited to model sums of binary responses which are not supposed to be stochastically independent. As a practical result, a statistical test of sto...

  2. A Generalized Partial Credit Model: Application of an EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Eiji

    1992-01-01

    The partial credit model with a varying slope parameter is developed and called the generalized partial credit model (GPCM). Analysis results for simulated data by this and other polytomous item-response models demonstrate that the rating formulation of the GPCM is adaptable to the analysis of polytomous item responses. (SLD)

  3. Some Considerations on the Partial Credit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.H.F.M. Verstralen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Partial Credit Model (PCM is sometimes interpreted as a model for stepwise solution of polytomously scored items, where the item parameters are interpreted as di culties of the steps. It is argued that this interpretation is not justi ed. A model for stepwise solution is discussed. It is shown that the PCM is suited to model sums of binary responses which are not supposed to be stochastically independent. As a practical result, a statistical test of stochastic independence in the Rasch model is derived

  4. Testing the generalized partial credit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The partial credit model (PCM) (G.N. Masters, 1982) can be viewed as a generalization of the Rasch model for dichotomous items to the case of polytomous items. In many cases, the PCM is too restrictive to fit the data. Several generalizations of the PCM have been proposed. In this paper, a

  5. Some Considerations on the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhelst, N. D.; Verstralen, H. H. F. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Partial Credit Model (PCM) is sometimes interpreted as a model for stepwise solution of polytomously scored items, where the item parameters are interpreted as difficulties of the steps. It is argued that this interpretation is not justified. A model for stepwise solution is discussed. It is shown that the PCM is suited to model sums of binary…

  6. Response Styles in the Partial Credit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tutz, Gerhard; Schauberger, Gunther; Berger, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    In the modelling of ordinal responses in psychological measurement and survey- based research, response styles that represent specific answering patterns of respondents are typically ignored. One consequence is that estimates of item parameters can be poor and considerably biased. The focus here is on the modelling of a tendency to extreme or middle categories. An extension of the Partial Credit Model is proposed that explicitly accounts for this specific response style. In contrast to exi...

  7. Testing the generalized partial credit model

    OpenAIRE

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The partial credit model (PCM) (G.N. Masters, 1982) can be viewed as a generalization of the Rasch model for dichotomous items to the case of polytomous items. In many cases, the PCM is too restrictive to fit the data. Several generalizations of the PCM have been proposed. In this paper, a generalization of the PCM (GPCM), a further generalization of the one-parameter logistic model, is discussed. The model is defined and the conditional maximum likelihood procedure for the method is describe...

  8. Partially Observed Mixtures of IRT Models: An Extension of the Generalized Partial-Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Davier, Matthias; Yamamoto, Kentaro

    2004-01-01

    The generalized partial-credit model (GPCM) is used frequently in educational testing and in large-scale assessments for analyzing polytomous data. Special cases of the generalized partial-credit model are the partial-credit model--or Rasch model for ordinal data--and the two parameter logistic (2PL) model. This article extends the GPCM to the…

  9. Fitting and Testing Conditional Multinormal Partial Credit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A multinormal partial credit model for factor analysis of polytomously scored items with ordered response categories is derived using an extension of the Dutch Identity (Holland in "Psychometrika" 55:5-18, 1990). In the model, latent variables are assumed to have a multivariate normal distribution conditional on unweighted sums of item…

  10. Detecting Math Anxiety with a Mixture Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ölmez, Ibrahim Burak; Cohen, Allan S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a new methodology for detection of differences in middle grades students' math anxiety. A mixture partial credit model analysis revealed two distinct latent classes based on homogeneities in response patterns within each latent class. Students in Class 1 had less anxiety about apprehension of math…

  11. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  12. Two echelon partial trade credit financing in a supply chain derived algebraically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaggi Chandra K.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Trade credit financing has become a powerful tool to improve sales & profit in an industry. In general, a supplier/retailer frequently offers trade credit to its credit risk downstream member in order to stimulate their respective sales. This trade credit may either be full or partial depending upon the past profile of the downstream member. Partial trade credit may be offered by the supplier/retailer to their credit risk downstream member who must pay a portion of the purchase amount at the time of placing an order and then receives a permissible delay on the rest of the outstanding amount to avoid non-payment risks. The present study investigates the retailer’s inventory problem under partial trade credit financing for two echelon supply chain where the supplier, as well as the retailer, offers partial trade credit to the subsequent downstream member. An algebraic approach has been applied for finding the retailer’s optimal ordering policy under minimizing the annual total relevant cost. Results have been validated with the help of examples followed by comprehensive sensitivity analysis.

  13. Optimal Designs for the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bürkner, Paul-Christian; Schwabe, Rainer; Holling, Heinz

    2018-01-01

    Analyzing ordinal data becomes increasingly important in psychology, especially in the context of item response theory. The generalized partial credit model (GPCM) is probably the most widely used ordinal model and finds application in many large scale educational assessment studies such as PISA. In the present paper, optimal test designs are investigated for estimating persons' abilities with the GPCM for calibrated tests when item parameters are known from previous studies. We will derive t...

  14. MODEL PENSKORAN PARTIAL CREDIT PADA BUTIR MULTIPLE TRUE-FALSE BIDANG FISIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasis Wasis

    2013-01-01

    in 2007 of Faculty of Mathematics and Science of Surabaya State University. The testees’ responses were scored using the partial credit model (PCM I; II; and III and also dichotomously scored. The results of the four scoring models were analyzed using the Quest program to obtain the estimation of the butir difficulty level (δ and that of the testees’ abilities (θ. The generating of the simulation data used the SAS statistical program and the estimation accuracy was analyzed by using the root mean squared error (RMSE method. The results of the study show the following: (i The scoring with the partial credit model with weighting is capable of estimating abilities more accurate than without weighting and dichotomous scoring; (ii The more the number of the categories in the partial credit scoring is, the more accurate the result of the ability estimation. Keywords: partial credit model scoring, multiple true-false butir

  15. Stepwise Analysis of Differential Item Functioning Based on Multiple-Group Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    Extended an Item Response Theory (IRT) method for detection of differential item functioning to the partial credit model and applied the method to simulated data using a stepwise procedure. Then applied the stepwise DIF analysis based on the multiple-group partial credit model to writing trend data from the National Assessment of Educational…

  16. An Extension of the Partial Credit Model with an Application to the Measurement of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gerhard H.; Ponocny, Ivo

    1994-01-01

    An extension to the partial credit model, the linear partial credit model, is considered under the assumption of a certain linear decomposition of the item x category parameters into basic parameters. A conditional maximum likelihood algorithm for estimating basic parameters is presented and illustrated with simulation and an empirical study. (SLD)

  17. An Introduction to the Partial Credit Model for Developing Nursing Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates how the partial credit model, a variation of the Rasch Measurement Model, can be used to develop performance-based assessments for nursing education. Applies the model using the Practical Knowledge Inventory for Nurses. (SK)

  18. Rasch-Master's Partial Credit Model in the assessment of children's creativity in drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tatiana de Cássia; Primi, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to use the Partial Credit Model to study the factors of the Test of Creativity in Children and identify which characteristics of the creative person would be more effective to differentiate subjects according to their ability level. A sample of 1426 students from first to eighth grades answered the instrument. The Partial Credits model was used to estimate the ability of the subjects and item difficulties on a common scale for each of the four factors, indicating which items required a higher level of creativity to be scored and will differentiate the more creative individuals. The results demonstrated that the greater part of the characteristics showed good fit indices, with values between 0.80 and 1.30 both infit and outfit, indicating a response pattern consistent with the model. The characteristics of Unusual Perspective, Expression of Emotion and Originality have been identified as better predictors of creative performance because requires greater ability level (usually above two standard deviation). These results may be used in the future development of an instrument's reduced form or simplification of the current correction model.

  19. An Examination of Exposure Control and Content Balancing Restrictions on Item Selection in CATs Using the Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin; Pastor, Dena A.; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chiang, Claire; Fitzpatrick, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of the Sympson-Hetter technique and rotated content balancing relative to no exposure control and no content rotation conditions in a computerized adaptive testing system based on the partial credit model. Simulation results show the Sympson-Hetter technique can be used with minimal impact on measurement precision,…

  20. A Comparison of Item Selection Techniques and Exposure Control Mechanisms in CATs Using the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Dena A.; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Studied the impact of using five different exposure control algorithms in two sizes of item pool calibrated using the generalized partial credit model. Simulation results show that the a-stratified design, in comparison to a no-exposure control condition, could be used to reduce item exposure and overlap and increase pool use, while degrading…

  1. Parent Ratings of ADHD Symptoms: Generalized Partial Credit Model Analysis of Differential Item Functioning across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rapson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Generalized partial credit model, which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to test differential item functioning (DIF) for the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.), inattention (IA), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) symptoms across boys and girls. Method: To accomplish this, parents completed…

  2. An isotonic partial credit model for ordering subjects on the basis of their sum scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, R.

    2012-01-01

    In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable.

  3. A Comparison of Graded Response and Rasch Partial Credit Models with Subjective Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.; Rounds, James B.; Zevon, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    Compared two multiple category item response theory models using a data set of 52 mood terms with 713 undergraduate psychology students. Comparative model fit for the Samejima (F. Samejima, 1966) logistic model for graded responses and the Masters (G. Masters, 1982) partial credit model favored the former model for this data set. (SLD)

  4. Applying a Weighted Maximum Likelihood Latent Trait Estimator to the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall D.; Bergeron, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    This article applies a weighted maximum likelihood (WML) latent trait estimator to the generalized partial credit model (GPCM). The relevant equations required to obtain the WML estimator using the Newton-Raphson algorithm are presented, and a simulation study is described that compared the properties of the WML estimator to those of the maximum…

  5. A Comparison of Item Exposure Control Procedures with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Edgar Isaac

    2008-01-01

    To enhance test security of high stakes tests, it is vital to understand the way various exposure control strategies function under various IRT models. To that end the present dissertation focused on the performance of several exposure control strategies under the generalized partial credit model with an item pool of 100 and 200 items. These…

  6. Methods for Assessing Item, Step, and Threshold Invariance in Polytomous Items Following the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Randall D.; Myers, Nicholas D.; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement invariance in the partial credit model (PCM) can be conceptualized in several different but compatible ways. In this article the authors distinguish between three forms of measurement invariance in the PCM: step invariance, item invariance, and threshold invariance. Approaches for modeling these three forms of invariance are proposed,…

  7. On the Existence and Uniqueness of JML Estimates for the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli-Barsotti, Lucio

    2005-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is given in this paper for the existence and uniqueness of the maximum likelihood (the so-called joint maximum likelihood) estimate of the parameters of the Partial Credit Model. This condition is stated in terms of a structural property of the pattern of the data matrix that can be easily verified on the basis…

  8. Strategies for Controlling Item Exposure in Computerized Adaptive Testing with the Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Laurie Laughlin

    2004-01-01

    Choosing a strategy for controlling item exposure has become an integral part of test development for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study investigated the performance of six procedures for controlling item exposure in a series of simulated CATs under the generalized partial credit model. In addition to a no-exposure control baseline…

  9. An Isotonic Partial Credit Model for Ordering Subjects on the Basis of Their Sum Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligtvoet, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    In practice, the sum of the item scores is often used as a basis for comparing subjects. For items that have more than two ordered score categories, only the partial credit model (PCM) and special cases of this model imply that the subjects are stochastically ordered on the common latent variable. However, the PCM is very restrictive with respect…

  10. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  11. A Model Fit Statistic for Generalized Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tie; Wells, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    Investigating the fit of a parametric model is an important part of the measurement process when implementing item response theory (IRT), but research examining it is limited. A general nonparametric approach for detecting model misfit, introduced by J. Douglas and A. S. Cohen (2001), has exhibited promising results for the two-parameter logistic…

  12. Financial Instability - a Result of Excess Liquidity or Credit Cycles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Christensen, Christian

    This paper compares the financial destabilizing effects of excess liquidity versus credit growth, in relation to house price bubbles and real economic booms. The analysis uses a cointegrated VAR model based on US data from 1987 to 2010, with a particulary focus on the period preceding the global...... financial crisis. Consistent with monetarist theory, the results suggest a stable money supply-demand relation in the period in question. However, the implied excess liquidity only resulted in financial destabilizing effect after year 2000. Meanwhile, the results also point to persistent cycles of real...... house prices and leverage, which appear to have been driven by real credit shocks, in accordance with post-Keynesian theories on financial instability. Importantly, however, these mechanisms of credit growth and excess liquidity are found to be closely related. In regards to the global financial crisis...

  13. The Dif Identification in Constructed Response Items Using Partial Credit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Heri Retnawati

    2017-01-01

    The study was to identify the load, the type and the significance of differential item functioning (DIF) in constructed response item using the partial credit model (PCM). The data in the study were the students’ instruments and the students’ responses toward the PISA-like test items that had been completed by 386 ninth grade students and 460 tenth grade students who had been about 15 years old in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region in Indonesia. The analysis toward the item characteris...

  14. Do Facilitated Online Dual Credit Classes Result in Deep Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark Education Partnership, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This study, with funding from the Jennings Foundation, sought to answer the following broad research question: Do facilitated online dual credit courses result in deep learning? The answer to this question is key to addressing barriers many students face in bridging from high school to college. This report includes a descriptive case study that…

  15. The Dif Identification in Constructed Response Items Using Partial Credit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Retnawati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was to identify the load, the type and the significance of differential item functioning (DIF in constructed response item using the partial credit model (PCM. The data in the study were the students’ instruments and the students’ responses toward the PISA-like test items that had been completed by 386 ninth grade students and 460 tenth grade students who had been about 15 years old in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region in Indonesia. The analysis toward the item characteristics through the student categorization based on their class was conducted toward the PCM using CONQUEST software. Furthermore, by applying these items characteristics, the researcher draw the category response function (CRF graphic in order to identify whether the type of DIF content had been in uniform or non-uniform. The significance of DIF was identified by comparing the discrepancy between the difficulty level parameter and the error in the CONQUEST output results. The results of the analysis showed that from 18 items that had been analyzed there were 4 items which had not been identified load DIF, there were 5 items that had been identified containing DIF but not statistically significant and there were 9 items that had been identified containing DIF significantly. The causes of items containing DIF were discussed.

  16. Measurement of Online Student Engagement: Utilization of Continuous Online Student Behavior Indicators as Items in a Partial Credit Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Student engagement has been shown to be essential to the development of research-based best practices for K-12 education. It has been defined and measured in numerous ways. The purpose of this research study was to develop a measure of online student engagement for grades 3 through 8 using a partial credit Rasch model and validate the measure…

  17. A Multidimensional Partial Credit Model with Associated Item and Test Statistics: An Application to Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua; Schwarz, Richard D.

    2006-01-01

    Multidimensional item response theory (IRT) models have been proposed for better understanding the dimensional structure of data or to define diagnostic profiles of student learning. A compensatory multidimensional two-parameter partial credit model (M-2PPC) for constructed-response items is presented that is a generalization of those proposed to…

  18. Comparison of Exposure Controls, Item Pool Characteristics, and Population Distributions for CAT Using the Partial Credit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HwaYoung; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated item exposure control procedures under various combinations of item pool characteristics and ability distributions in computerized adaptive testing based on the partial credit model. Three variables were manipulated: item pool characteristics (120 items for each of easy, medium, and hard item pools), two ability…

  19. Ordering policies of a deteriorating item in an EOQ model with backorder under two-level partial trade credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molamohamadi, Zohreh; Arshizadeh, Rahman; Ismail, Napsiah

    2015-05-01

    In the classical inventory model, it was assumed that the retailer must settle the accounts of the purchased items as soon as they are received. In practice, however, the supplier usually offers a full or partial delay period to the retailer to pay for the amount of the purchasing costs. In the partial trade credit contract, which is mostly applied to avoid non-payment risks, the retailer must pay for a portion of the purchased goods at the time of ordering and may delay settling the rest until the end of the predefined agreed upon period, so-called credit period. This paper assumes a two-level partial trade credit where both supplier and retailer offer a partial trade credit to their downstream members. The objective here is to determine the retailer's ordering policy of a deteriorating item by formulating his economic order quantity (EOQ) inventory system with backorder as a cost minimization problem. The sensitivity of the variables on different parameters has been also analyzed by applying numerical examples.

  20. A Study of Reverse-Worded Matched Item Pairs Using the Generalized Partial Credit and Nominal Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlock Cole, Ki Lynn; Turner, Ronna C.; Gitchel, W. Dent

    2018-01-01

    The generalized partial credit model (GPCM) is often used for polytomous data; however, the nominal response model (NRM) allows for the investigation of how adjacent categories may discriminate differently when items are positively or negatively worded. Ten items from three different self-reported scales were used (anxiety, depression, and…

  1. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangam, A.

    2015-06-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers etc. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancelation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancelations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also he offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item has allowed paying on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  2. Retailer's inventory system in a two-level trade credit financing with selling price discount and partial order cancellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangam, A.

    2014-02-01

    In today's fast marketing over the Internet or online, many retailers want to trade at the same time and change their marketing strategy to attract more customers. Some of the customers may decide to cancel their orders partially with a retailer due to various reasons such as increase in customer's waiting time, loss of customer's goodwill on retailer's business, and attractive promotional schemes offered by other retailers. Even though there is a lag in trading and order cancellation, this paper attempts to develop the retailer's inventory model with the effect of order cancellations during advance sales period. The retailer announces a price discount program during advance sales period to promote his sales and also offers trade credit financing during the sales periods. The retailer availing trade credit period from his supplier offers a permissible delay period to his customers. The customer who gets an item is allowed to pay on or before the permissible delay period which is accounted from the buying time rather than from the start period of inventory sales. This accounts for significant changes in the calculations of interest payable and interest earned by the retailer. The retailer's total cost is minimized so as to find out the optimal replenishment cycle time and price discount policies through a solution procedure. The results derived in mathematical theorems are implemented in numerical examples, and sensitivity analyses on several inventory parameters are obtained.

  3. Penskalaan Butir Format Respons Pilihan dan Respons Bebas Berdasarkan Model Rasch dan Partial Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hariadi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian melihat pengaruh jumlah parameter butir, kategori respons bebas (RB, pengaruh sampel terhadap akurasi estimasi parameter kemampuan untuk menghasilkan estimasi yang stabil dan pengaruh pembobotan butir RP dan butir RB terhadap kesalahan baku. Penelitian dalam dua tahap, simulasi menggunakan 30 kondisi dengan replikasi 50 dengan variabel panjang tes, jumlah kategori, dan jumlah parameter butir, dan analisis deskriptif, dilanjutkan penerapan penskalaan gabungan butir tipe respons pilihan (rp dan butir respons bebas (rb pada konstruksi tes elektronika yang terdiri 40 butir pilihan ganda dan 4 butir jawaban tersusun, 3 butir memiliki lima kategori jawaban dan 1 butir dengan 4 kategori jawaban, melibatkan 355 siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan: ukuran sampel kurang berpengaruh pada root mean square error atau (RSME> dan korelasi antara 9 dengan 0, namun berpengaruh terhadap akurasi estimasi parameter butir pilihan ganda (/>/y,dan parameter butir respons tersusun (3^- Jumlah parameter butir berpengaruh terhadap parameter kemampuan, tetapi tidak berpengaruh terhadap akurasi dari b^, dan S„,. Estimasi dari parameter tingkat kesulitan butir jawaban tersusun tiga kategori lebih akurat daripada butir jawaban tersusun lima kategori. Estimasi tahan {robust untuk parameter kesulitan butir jawaban tersusun 5 kategori memerlukan sampel minimal 250 responden, sedangkan untuk butir respons tersusun 3 kategori memerlukan sampel minimal 100 responden. Estimasi parameter kemampuan dari skor total (0^^ tidak sama dengan rata-rata jumlah tbeta dari masing-masing subtes (0^ + 0CR. Theta dari tes yang dikalibrasi bersama-sama berbeda dengan theta dari total subtes yang dikalibrasi secara terpisah. Korelasi kemampuan yang mengunakan pembobotan dan kemampuan tanpa pembobotan mempunyai suatu rentang dari 0,988 sampai 0,948. Kata kunci: penyekaiaan, model rash dan partial credit.

  4. On Partial Defaults in Portfolio Credit Risk : A Poisson Mixture Model Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Weißbach, Rafael; von Lieres und Wilkau, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    Most credit portfolio models exclusively calculate the loss distribution for a portfolio of performing counterparts. Conservative default definitions cause considerable insecurity about the loss for a long time after the default. We present three approaches to account for defaulted counterparts in the calculation of the economic capital. Two of the approaches are based on the Poisson mixture model CreditRisk+ and derive a loss distribution for an integrated portfolio. The third method treats ...

  5. Application of Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach in an economic production quantity model with partial trade credit policy under fuzzy environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Majumder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, a production inventory model with partial trade credit is formulated and solved in fuzzy environment via Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach. To capture the market, a supplier offers a trade credit period to its retailers. Due to this facility, retailer also offers a partial trade credit period to his/her customer to boost the demand of the item. In practical life situation, demands are generally dependent upon time. Constant demand of an item varies time to time. In this vague situation, demands are taken as time dependent, where its constant part is taken as Left Right - type fuzzy number. In this paper, Generalized Hukuhara derivative approach is used to solve the fuzzy inventory model. Four different cases are considered by using Generalized Hukuhara-(i differentiability and Generalized Hukuhara-(ii differentiability. The objective of this paper is to find out the optimal time so as the total inventory cost is minimum. Finally the model is solved by generalized reduced gradient method. The proposed model and technique are illustrated by numerical examples. Some sensitivity analyses both in tabular and graphical forms are presented and the effects of minimum cost with respect to various inventory parameters are discussed.

  6. A credit policy approach in a two-warehouse inventory model for deteriorating items with price- and stock-dependent demand under partial backlogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Gobinda Chandra; Khan, Md. Al-Amin; Shaikh, Ali Akbar

    2018-04-01

    Advertisement of the product is an important factor in inventory analysis. Also, price and stock have an important role to attract more customers in the competitive business situations. Trade credit policy is another important role in inventory analysis. We have combined these three factors together in a two-warehouse inventory model and represented it mathematically. In addition, we have added deteriorating factor of our proposed problem with price- and stock-dependent demand under partial backlogged shortage and solved. The frequency of advertisement is considered constant for a year in this paper. The proposed model is highly nonlinear in nature. Due to highly nonlinearity, we could not find the closed form solution. In this paper, trade credit facility is taken in the perspective of retailer, and all the possible cases and subcases of the model are discussed and solved using lingo 10.0 software. The results of sensitivity analysis prove the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  7. Partial-array test results in IFSMTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.; Koizumi, K.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; Shen, S.S.; Zahn, G.R.; Zichy, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary performance tests of two large superconducting magnets have been carried out in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF). Each of the Japanese (JA) and General Dynamics/Convair (GD) coils was operated up to its full design current of 10.2 kA with the other serving as an adjacent background coil at 40% of design current. Cryostatic stability was demonstrated for both coils by noting recovery from a full half-turn (5 m) driven normal. A new pick-up coil compensation scheme was successfully used for the quench detection system. Each coil remained superconducting when the other was dumped. Unique instrumentation was used to measure changes in bore dimensions and displacement of the winding from the coil case. Agreement between structural analysis and measurement of bore dimension changes resulting from magnetic loads is good. The Swiss (CH) coil underwent only a cryogenic test. The forced cooling worked well and an inlet temperature of 3.8 K was demonstrated

  8. Exchange credit risk: Measurement and implications on the stability of partially dollarized financial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Mordecki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Some emergent economies present a high financial dollarization in loans and deposits, generating a specific risk in the banking activity. We quantify this exchange credit risk as the price of an option equivalent to this loan, and discuss the financial stability implications due to the (implicit issuance of these options. The exchange rate is modeled through a Levy process. The depth of the market depends on the type of the currencies involved. Whenever possible, we depart from option prices to calibrate a model, like in the EUR/USD market. But if the market is not liquid, as the USD/UYU market, we provide alternative pricing methodologies.

  9. Chiral and continuum extrapolation of partially quenched lattice results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Allton; W. Armour; D.B. Leinweber; A.W. Thomas; R.D. Young

    2005-04-01

    The vector meson mass is extracted from a large sample of partially quenched, two-flavor lattice QCD simulations. For the first time, discretization, finite-volume and partial quenching artifacts are treated in a unified chiral effective field theory analysis of the lattice simulation results.

  10. An EOQ model of time quadratic and inventory dependent demand for deteriorated items with partially backlogged shortages under trade credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pushpinder; Mishra, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Vikramjeet; Saxena, Seema

    2017-07-01

    In this paper a single buyer, single supplier inventory model with time quadratic and stock dependent demand for a finite planning horizon has been studied. Single deteriorating item which suffers shortage, with partial backlogging and some lost sales is considered. Model is divided into two scenarios, one with non permissible delay in payment and other with permissible delay in payment. Latter is called, centralized system, where supplier offers trade credit to retailer. In the centralized system cost saving is shared amongst the two. The objective is to study the difference in minimum costs borne by retailer and supplier, under two scenarios including the above mentioned parameters. To obtain optimal solution of the problem the model is solved analytically. Numerical example and a comparative study are then discussed supported by sensitivity analysis of each parameter.

  11. Item and response-category functioning of the Persian version of the KIDSCREEN-27: Rasch partial credit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Peyman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to determine whether the Persian version of the KIDSCREEN-27 has the optimal number of response category to measure health-related quality of life (HRQoL in children and adolescents. Moreover, we aimed to determine if all the items contributed adequately to their own domain. Findings The Persian version of the KIDSCREEN-27 was completed by 1083 school children and 1070 of their parents. The Rasch partial credit model (PCM was used to investigate item statistics and ordering of response categories. The PCM showed that no item was misfitting. The PCM also revealed that, successive response categories for all items were located in the expected order except for category 1 in self- and proxy-reports. Conclusions Although Rasch analysis confirms that all the items belong to their own underlying construct, response categories should be reorganized and evaluated in further studies, especially in children with chronic conditions.

  12. OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Calculational Criticality Benchmark Phase I-B Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Burnup credit is an ongoing technical concern for many countries that operate commercial nuclear power reactors. In a multinational cooperative effort to resolve burnup credit issues, a Burnup Credit Working Group has been formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This working group has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide, and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods are in agreement to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods are within 11% agreement about the average for all fission products studied. Furthermore, most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are {sup 149}Sm, {sup 151}Sm, and {sup 155}Gd.

  13. OECD/NEA burnup credit calculational criticality benchmark Phase I-B results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Brady, M.C. [Sandia National Labs., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-06-01

    In most countries, criticality analysis of LWR fuel stored in racks and casks has assumed that the fuel is fresh with the maximum allowable initial enrichment. This assumption has led to the design of widely spaced and/or highly poisoned storage and transport arrays. If credit is assumed for fuel burnup, initial enrichment limitations can be raised in existing systems, and more compact and economical arrays can be designed. Such reliance on the reduced reactivity of spent fuel for criticality control is referred to as burnup credit. The Burnup Credit Working Group, formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods agree to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods agree within 11% about the average for all fission products studied. Most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are Sm 149, Sm 151, and Gd 155.

  14. OECD/NEA Burnup Credit Calculational Criticality Benchmark Phase I-B Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Burnup credit is an ongoing technical concern for many countries that operate commercial nuclear power reactors. In a multinational cooperative effort to resolve burnup credit issues, a Burnup Credit Working Group has been formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. This working group has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide, and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods are in agreement to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods are within 11% agreement about the average for all fission products studied. Furthermore, most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are 149 Sm, 151 Sm, and 155 Gd

  15. OECD/NEA burnup credit calculational criticality benchmark Phase I-B results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.; Parks, C.V.; Brady, M.C.

    1996-06-01

    In most countries, criticality analysis of LWR fuel stored in racks and casks has assumed that the fuel is fresh with the maximum allowable initial enrichment. This assumption has led to the design of widely spaced and/or highly poisoned storage and transport arrays. If credit is assumed for fuel burnup, initial enrichment limitations can be raised in existing systems, and more compact and economical arrays can be designed. Such reliance on the reduced reactivity of spent fuel for criticality control is referred to as burnup credit. The Burnup Credit Working Group, formed under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, has established a set of well-defined calculational benchmarks designed to study significant aspects of burnup credit computational methods. These benchmarks are intended to provide a means for the intercomparison of computer codes, methods, and data applied in spent fuel analysis. The benchmarks have been divided into multiple phases, each phase focusing on a particular feature of burnup credit analysis. This report summarizes the results and findings of the Phase I-B benchmark, which was proposed to provide a comparison of the ability of different code systems and data libraries to perform depletion analysis for the prediction of spent fuel isotopic concentrations. Results included here represent 21 different sets of calculations submitted by 16 different organizations worldwide and are based on a limited set of nuclides determined to have the most important effect on the neutron multiplication factor of light-water-reactor spent fuel. A comparison of all sets of results demonstrates that most methods agree to within 10% in the ability to estimate the spent fuel concentrations of most actinides. All methods agree within 11% about the average for all fission products studied. Most deviations are less than 10%, and many are less than 5%. The exceptions are Sm 149, Sm 151, and Gd 155

  16. Results of the mock-up experiment on partial LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.; Winkler, H.

    1985-01-01

    A mockup experiment has been performed to verify the heat transfer model for a partial loss of coolant accident in the swimming pool reactor SAPHIR. Three coolant channels with the same dimensions as in a SAPHIR fuel element were simulated using four electrically heated plates. For a water level such that the heated plates are partially submerged, plate temperatures remain below 160 deg. C for plate powers of up to 650 W. For water levels low enough to just block the channels, plate temperatures of 400 deg. C are reached for plate powers as low as 60 W. Details of the experiment and further results are discussed. (author)

  17. Results of the mockup experiment on partial LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.; Winkler, H.

    1985-01-01

    A mockup experiment has been performed to verify the heat transfer model for a partial loss of coolant accident in the swimming pool reactor SAPHIR. Three coolant channels with the same dimensions as in a SAPHIR fuel element were simulated using four electrically heated plates. For a water level such that the heated plates are partially submerged, plate temperatures remain below 160 0 C for plate powers of up to 650 W. For water levels low enough to just block the channels, plate temperatures of 400 0 C are reached for plate powers as low as 60 W. Details of the experiment and further results are discussed

  18. Cystoscopic-assisted partial cystectomy: description of technique and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gofrit ON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ofer N Gofrit,1 Amos Shapiro,1 Ran Katz,1 Mordechai Duvdevani,1 Vladimir Yutkin,1 Ezekiel H Landau,1 Kevin C Zorn,2 Guy Hidas,1 Dov Pode1 1Department of Urology, Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel; 2Department of Surgery, Section of Urology, Montreal, Canada Background: Partial cystectomy provides oncological results comparable with those of radical cystectomy in selected patients with invasive bladder cancer without the morbidity associated with radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. We describe a novel technique of partial cystectomy that allows accurate identification of tumor margins while minimizing damage to the rest of the bladder. Methods: During the study period, 30 patients underwent partial cystectomy for invasive high-grade cancer. In 19 patients, the traditional method of tumor identification was used, ie, identifying the tumor by palpation and cystotomy. In eleven patients, after mobilization of the bladder, flexible cystoscopy was done and the light of the cystoscope was pointed toward one edge of the planned resected ellipse around the tumor, thus avoiding cystotomy. Results: Patients who underwent partial cystectomy using the novel method were similar in all characteristics to patients operated on using the traditional technique except for tumor diameter which was significantly larger in patients operated on using the novel method (4.3±1.5 cm versus 3.11±1.18 cm, P=0.032. Complications were rare in both types of surgery. The 5-year local recurrence-free survival was marginally superior using the novel method (0.8 versus 0.426, P=0.088. Overall, disease-specific and disease-free survival rates were similar. Conclusion: The use of a flexible cystoscope during partial cystectomy is a simple, low-cost maneuver that assists in planning the bladder incision and minimizes injury to the remaining bladder by avoiding the midline cystotomy. Initial oncological results show a trend toward a lower rate of local

  19. Measuring positive and negative affect in older adults over 56 days: comparing trait level scoring methods using the partial credit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbacher, Monica K; Schmidt, Karen M; Boker, Steven M; Bergeman, Cindy S

    2012-01-01

    Positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) are important constructs in health and well-being research. Good longitudinal measurement is crucial to conducting meaningful research on relationships between affect, health, and well-being across the lifespan. One common affect measure, the PANAS, has been evaluated thoroughly with factor analysis, but not with Racsh-based latent trait models (RLTMs) such as the Partial Credit Model (PCM), and not longitudinally. Current longitudinal RLTMs can computationally handle few occasions of data. The present study compares four methods of anchoring PCMs across 56 occasions to longitudinally evaluate the psychometric properties of the PANAS plus additional items. Anchoring item parameters on mean parameter values across occasions produced more desirable results than using no anchor, using first occasion parameters as anchors, or allowing anchor values to vary across occasions. Results indicated problems with NA items, including poor category utilization, gaps in the item distribution, and a lack of easy-to-endorse items. PA items had much more desirable psychometric qualities.

  20. Aesthetic results following partial mastectomy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matory, W.E. Jr.; Wertheimer, M.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Walton, R.L.; Love, S.; Matory, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the aesthetic changes inherent in partial mastectomy followed by radiation therapy in the treatment of stage I and stage II breast cancer. A retrospective analysis of breast cancer patients treated according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project Protocol B-06 was undertaken in 57 patients from 1984 to the present. The size of mastectomy varied between 2 x 1 cm and 15 x 8 cm. Objective aesthetic outcome, as determined by physical and photographic examination, was influenced primarily by surgical technique as opposed to the effects of radiation. These technical factors included orientation of resections, breast size relative to size of resection, location of tumor, and extent and orientation of axillary dissection. Regarding cosmesis, 80 percent of patients treated in this study judged their result to be excellent or good, in comparison to 50 percent excellent or good as judged by the plastic surgeon. Only 10 percent would consider mastectomy with reconstruction for contralateral disease. Asymmetry and contour abnormalities are far more common than noted in the radiation therapy literature. Patients satisfaction with lumpectomy and radiation, however, is very high. This satisfaction is not necessarily based on objective criteria defining aesthetic parameters, but is strongly influenced by retainment of the breast as an original body part

  1. Wind plant capacity credit variations: A comparison of results using multiyear actual and simulated wind-speed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Although it is widely recognized that variations in annual wind energy capture can be significant, it is not clear how significant this effect is on accurately calculating the capacity credit of a wind plant. An important question is raised concerning whether one year of wind data is representative of long-term patterns. This paper calculates the range of capacity credit measures based on 13 years of actual wind-speed data. The results are compared to those obtained with synthetic data sets that are based on one year of data. Although the use of synthetic data sets is a considerable improvement over single-estimate techniques, this paper finds that the actual inter-annual variation in capacity credit is still understated by the synthetic data technique.

  2. Refundable Tax Credits

    OpenAIRE

    Congressional Budget Office

    2013-01-01

    In 1975, the first refundable tax credit—the earned income tax credit (EITC)—took effect. Since then, the number and cost of refundable tax credits—credits that can result in net payments from the government—have grown considerably. Those credits will cost $149 billion in 2013, CBO estimates, mostly for the EITC and the child tax credit.

  3. Imprecise results: Utilizing partial computations in real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Liu, Jane W.-S.

    1987-01-01

    In real-time systems, a computation may not have time to complete its execution because of deadline requirements. In such cases, no result except the approximate results produced by the computations up to that point will be available. It is desirable to utilize these imprecise results if possible. Two approaches are proposed to enable computations to return imprecise results when executions cannot be completed normally. The milestone approach records results periodically, and if a deadline is reached, returns the last recorded result. The sieve approach demarcates sections of code which can be skipped if the time available is insufficient. By using these approaches, the system is able to produce imprecise results when deadlines are reached. The design of the Concord project is described which supports imprecise computations using these techniques. Also presented is a general model of imprecise computations using these techniques, as well as one which takes into account the influence of the environment, showing where the latter approach fits into this model.

  4. Using R and WinBUGS to fit a generalized partial credit model for developing and evaluating patient-reported outcomes assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuelin; Baser, Ray

    2012-08-15

    The US Food and Drug Administration recently announced the final guidelines on the development and validation of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) assessments in drug labeling and clinical trials. This guidance paper may boost the demand for new PRO survey questionnaires. Henceforth, biostatisticians may encounter psychometric methods more frequently, particularly item response theory (IRT) models to guide the shortening of a PRO assessment instrument. This article aims to provide an introduction on the theory and practical analytic skills in fitting a generalized partial credit model (GPCM) in IRT. GPCM theory is explained first, with special attention to a clearer exposition of the formal mathematics than what is typically available in the psychometric literature. Then, a worked example is presented, using self-reported responses taken from the international personality item pool. The worked example contains step-by-step guides on using the statistical languages r and WinBUGS in fitting the GPCM. Finally, the Fisher information function of the GPCM model is derived and used to evaluate, as an illustrative example, the usefulness of assessment items by their information contents. This article aims to encourage biostatisticians to apply IRT models in the re-analysis of existing data and in future research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Bankruptcy prediction for credit risk using neural networks: a survey and new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, A F

    2001-01-01

    The prediction of corporate bankruptcies is an important and widely studied topic since it can have significant impact on bank lending decisions and profitability. This work presents two contributions. First we review the topic of bankruptcy prediction, with emphasis on neural-network (NN) models. Second, we develop an NN bankruptcy prediction model. Inspired by one of the traditional credit risk models developed by Merton (1974), we propose novel indicators for the NN system. We show that the use of these indicators in addition to traditional financial ratio indicators provides a significant improvement in the (out-of-sample) prediction accuracy (from 81.46% to 85.5% for a three-year-ahead forecast).

  6. Modernization of credit relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Volosovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is essential to modernize credit relations in the conditions of global economy transformations. This is due to the influence of integration processes on credit relations and transformation of the risks inherent in the credit field. The purpose of this article is to develop measures that help to improve the efficiency of interaction of credit relations’ participants. Modernization of credit relations is based on the interaction of its main and indirect subjects who belong to the subsystems of loans granting, deposits attraction and provision of related services. Its goal is to pass from extensive to intensive model of interaction between the subjects of credit relations. Components of the credit relations modernization are the following: institutional modernization, which is based on the interaction of credit relations’ subjects, and ensures the development of competition in all credit market’s segments, the creation of its corresponding infrastructure, qualitative change in the approaches of regulation and supervision; technological modernization, which involves the formation of joint products on the credit market and the formation of an integrated informational and analytical system. In the result of the credit relations’ modernization it is expected to achieve synergies between the subjects of credit relations, that will lead to changes in the business architecture of the financial market.

  7. Cash or Credit? Compensation in Psychology Studies: Motivation Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J. Bowen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is common practice for psychology researchers to recruit their sample of participants from the undergraduate student population. Participants are typically compensated with partial course credit or a monetary payment. The current study reveals that the motivation to participate in a study (cash versus course credit can relate to performance on a behavioral task of rewarded memory. In Experiment 1, undergraduate participants were recruited and compensated for their time with either partial course credit or cash. Potential performance-based cash rewards were earned during a rewarded memory task, where correct recognition of half the stimuli was worth a high reward and the other half a low reward. Memory for high reward items was better than low reward items, but only for the cash group. The credit group did not modulate their performance based on the value of the stimuli. In Experiment 2, undergraduates were compensated with partial course credit for their time and given the opportunity to earn a bonus credit for performance on a memory test. The findings were in line with the results from the credit group of Experiment 1, suggesting that the modulation of performance in the cash group of Experiment 1 cannot be accounted for by congruency between motivation to participate and reward for task performance. Of methodological importance, the findings indicate that recruiting and compensating participants with cash versus course credit may influence the results on a rewarded memory task. This factor should be taken into consideration in studies of reward motivation.

  8. 77 FR 13270 - Stainless Steel Bar From India: Preliminary Results and Partial Rescission of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... standard input-output norm (SION) for the exported product. DEPS credits can be used for any subsequent... section 773(a)(6)(C) of the Act for home market credit expenses (offset by interest revenue). We capped...

  9. Scalar meson in dynamical and partially quenched two-flavor QCD: Lattice results and chiral loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelovsek, S.; Dawson, C.; Izubuchi, T.; Orginos, K.; Soni, A.

    2004-01-01

    This is an exploratory study of the lightest nonsinglet scalar qq state on the lattice with two dynamical quarks. Domain wall fermions are used for both sea and valence quarks on a 16 3 x32 lattice with an inverse lattice spacing of 1.7 GeV. We extract the scalar meson mass 1.58±0.34 GeV from the exponential time dependence of the dynamical correlators with m val =m sea and N f =2. Since this statistical error bar from dynamical correlators is rather large, we analyze also the partially quenched lattice correlators with m val ≠m sea . They are positive for m val ≥m sea and negative for m val sea . In order to understand this striking effect of partial quenching, we derive the scalar correlator within the partially quenched chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and find it describes lattice correlators well. The leading unphysical contribution in partially quenched ChPT comes from the exchange of the two pseudoscalar fields and is also positive for m val ≥m sea and negative for m val sea at large t. After the subtraction of this unphysical contribution from the partially quenched lattice correlators, the correlators are positive and exponentially falling. The resulting scalar meson mass 1.51±0.19 GeV from the partially quenched correlators is consistent with the dynamical result and has an appreciably smaller error bar

  10. CREDIT SYSTEM AND CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay GECER

    2012-01-01

    Credit system is an integrated architecture consisted of financial information, credit rating, credit risk management, receivables and credit insurance systems, credit derivative markets and credit guarantee programs. The main purpose of the credit system is to provide the functioning of all credit channels and to make it easy to access of credit sources demanded by all of real and legal persons in any economic system. Credit guarantee program, the one of prominent elements of the credit syst...

  11. Methods for improving mechanical properties of partially stabilized zirconia and the resulting product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for improving mechanical surface properties of a rigid body comprising partially stabilized zirconia as a constituent is described comprising the following steps: (i) providing a rigid body having an exposed surface and an interior volume; (ii) subjecting the exposed surface region of partially stabilized zirconia to external heating to heat the exposed surface region to 1100 0 C-1600 0 C without heating the interior volume above 500 0 C-800 0 C; and (iii) cooling the rigid body to a temperature of less than 500 0 C to cause a portion of the exposed surface region to transform from the tetragonal lattice modification to the monoclinic lattice modification, thereby creating a compressive stress field in the exposed surface region and improving the mechanical surface properties of the exposed surface region. In a ceramic body comprising a first exposed region of a partially stabilized zirconia, and a second region of a partially stabilized zirconia at an interior portion of the ceramic body, the improvement is described comprising the ceramic body having in the first, exposed region a greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification than in the second region; having in the first, exposed region 5 percent to 100 percent in the monoclinic lattice modification; and having a molded surface finish in the first, exposed region; the first, exposed region being subjected to a compressive field resulting from the greater percentage of the monoclinic lattice modification

  12. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabušić S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation , where satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  13. Factors Affecting the Behavior of University Community to Use Credit Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Sari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to gain insights and tested the factors that influence credit cards usage in university community of UPI through Theory of Planned Behavior model approach. Using Path Analysis to explain the direct and indirect influence of attitude, subjective norm and behavioral control to intention and behavior of credit card usage. The results showed all respondents have a positive attitude towards credit cards usage, with high influence of subjective norm, high behavior control, high intention to use credit cards and all respondents used credit cards wisely. There was positive and significant effect either simultaneously or partially between behavioral attitudes, subjective norms, and behavior control toward the intention to use credit card. The partial test results showed behavioral attitude has the greatest influence on the intention to use credit card. There was a positive and significant influence both simultaneously and partially between behavioral attitudes, subjective norms, and behavioral control on default-risk debt behavior. The partial results showed that attitude gives the greatest influence on default debt risk behavior. The result also proved there was a positive and significant influence of the intention to use credit card on default debt risk behavior.

  14. Credit where credit's due?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargittai, Magdolna

    2012-09-01

    It is often said that physicist Chien-Shiung Wu, who was born 100 years ago, should have received a share in the 1957 Nobel Prize for Physics but missed out as a result of gender discrimination. Magdolna Hargittai investigates the truth of the matter.

  15. [Long-term result of total versus partial fundoplication following esophagomyotomy for primary esophageal motor disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zi-jiang; Chen, Long-qi; Duranceau, Andre

    2008-02-15

    To compare the long-term results of total and partial fundoplication on esophagus myotomy. From January 1978 to October 1998, 64 patients with achalasia or diffuse esophageal spasm underwent esophagomyotomy and antireflux operation via left thoracotomy. Twenty-one patients underwent Nissen total fundoplication (Nissen group) and 43 patients underwent Belsey Marker IV partial fundoplication (Belsey group). Clinical, radiologic, radionuclide transit, manometric, 24-hour pH monitoring and endoscopic assessments were performed before and after the operation. There was no operative death and major complications for either group. At over 6 years follow-up and compared to Belsey group, patients in Nissen group revealed a higher frequency of dysphagia (P = 0.025) and more radionuclide material retention (P = 0.044). Both operative procedures reduced the lower esophageal sphincter pressure gradient. However, in Nissen group, the esophageal diameter observed on radiology was significantly increased from 3.9 cm preoperatively to 5.5 cm postoperatively (P = 0.012), while it kept the same for Belsey group (from 5.4 to 5.3 cm, P = 0.695). Reoperation in order to relieve the recurrent dysphagia and esophageal obstruction was performed on 8 patients in Nissen group and 1 in Belsey group (P < 0.01). When treating achalasia or diffuse esophageal spasm by esophageal myotomy and an antireflux operation, a total fundoplication is not appropriate, whereas a partial fundoplication provides proper antireflux effect without significant esophageal emptying difficulty.

  16. Sexual outcomes after partial penectomy for penile cancer: results from a multi-institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Sansalone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy. Surgical treatment is inevitably mutilating. Considering the strong impact on patients′ sexual life we want to evaluate sexual function and satisfaction after partial penectomy. The patients in this study (n = 25 represented all those who attended our institutions and were diagnosed and treated for penile cancer from October 2011 to November 2013. All patients underwent partial penectomy and followed-up (mean: 14 months; range: 12-25. Sexual presurgical baseline was estimated using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction 15 (IIEF-15. Sexual outcomes of each patient were estimated considering four standardized and validated questionnaires. We analyzed the means and ranges of IIEF-15 including erectile function (IIEF-1-5 and -15, orgasmic function (IIEF-9 and -10, sexual desire (IIEF-11 and -12, intercourse satisfaction (IIEF-6-8, and overall satisfaction (IIEF-13 and -14. Then, we also used Quality of Erection Questionnaire (QEQ, Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS and Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR to evaluate the sexual function and satisfaction of our patients. The final results showed that penile cancer leads to several sexual and psychosexual dysfunctions. Nevertheless, patients who undergo partial penectomy for penile cancer can maintain the sexual outcomes at levels slightly lower to those that existed in the period before surgery.

  17. Efficacy of Online Algebra I for Credit Recovery for At-Risk Ninth Graders: Consistency of Results from Two Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppen, Jessica; Sorensen, Nicholas; Allensworth, Elaine; Walters, Kirk; Stachel, Suzanne; Michelman, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    The consequences of failing core academic courses during the first year of high school are dire. In the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), only about one-fifth of off-track freshmen--students who fail more than one semester of a core academic course and/or fail to earn enough credits to be promoted to 10th grade--graduate high school, compared with…

  18. Results of Patello-Tibial Cerclage Wire Technique for Comminuted Patella Fractures Treated with Partial Patellectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Alagöz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Partial patellectomy and patellotibial cerclage technique used in comminuted inferior pole patellar fractures were evaluated and the results were discussed. Methods: Thirteen patients who have undergone partial distal patellar excision were evaluated in the study. In all patients, the inferior pole of the patella was resected, patellar tendon was sutured to the proximal patellar fragment and patellotibial cerclage was performed. At the last visit, the patients were evaluated using measurement of the distance between the superior pole of the patella and the tibial tubercle, the Lysholm knee scoring scale, knee range of motion and thigh circumference measurement. Results: The mean flexion value was 131.10 (±4.6 in normal knees and 117.20 (±8.0 in operated knees. The mean thigh diameter was 49.5 (±3.7 cm and 46.4 (±4.5 cm in normal knees and in operated knees, respectively. The mean Lysholm knee score in the patient group was 84.3 (±17.1 points. The mean distance between the superior pole of the patella and the tibial tubercle was 10.6 (±1.0 cm in normal knees and 10.1 (±1.2 cm in operated knees. The exstensor mechanism was intact in all patients and no revision surgery was performed. Conclusion: Patellotibial cerclage technique performed after partial patellectomy permits early motion and protects patients from harmful effects of immobilization; and good functional results are obtained if patients start early knee motion.

  19. Estimating Full IM240 Emissions from Partial Test Results: Evidence from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W; Harrington, Winston; McConnell, Virginia

    1999-10-01

    The expense and inconvenience of enhanced-vehicle-emissions testing using the full 240-second dynamometer test has led states to search for ways to shorten the test process. In fact, all states that currently use the IM240 allow some type of fast-pass, usually as early in the test as second 31, and Arizona has allowed vehicles to fast-fail after second 93. While these shorter tests save states millions of dollars in inspection lanes and driver costs, there is a loss of information since test results are no longer comparable across vehicles. This paper presents a methodology for estimating full 240-second results from partial-test results for three pollutants: HC, CO, and NO x . If states can convert all tests to consistent IM240 readings, they will be able to better characterize fleet emissions and to evaluate the impact of inspection and maintenance and other programs on emissions over time. Using a random sample of vehicles in Arizona which received full 240-second tests, we use regression analysis to estimate the relationship between emissions at second 240 and emissions at earlier seconds in the test. We examine the influence of other variables such as age, model-year group, and the pollution level itself on this relationship. We also use the estimated coefficients in several applications. First, we try to shed light on the frequent assertion that the results of the dynamometer test provide guidance for vehicle repair of failing vehicles. Using a probit analysis, we find that the probability that a failing vehicle will pass the test on the first retest is greater the longer the test has progressed. Second, we test the accuracy of our estimates for forecasting fleet emissions from partial-test emissions results in Arizona. We find forecasted fleet average emissions to be very close to the actual fleet averages for light-duty vehicles, but not quite as good for trucks, particularly when NO x emissions are forecast.

  20. Precision attachment-retained removable partial dentures. Part 3. General practitioner results up to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owall, B; Jönsson, L

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the techniques, production problems, and 2-year results of attachment-retained removable partial denture (RPD) treatment provided by general practitioners in Sweden. At a major dental laboratory, consecutive cases involving new production of crowns, or of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and RPDs retained with precision attachments, were studied. Parameters of the dentition, crown or FPD, type and brand of attachment, etc, as well as early satisfaction by dentist and patient, were recorded using specially designed forms at the dental laboratory and questionnaires for the dentists. After 2 years, questionnaires were again sent out to the dentists to record complications and patients' and dentists' opinions of the results. The sample gathered totaled 83 constructions. After 2 years, responses for 57 patients, all of whom had distal-extension RPDs, were received. Most drop-outs in the study were explicable. The most frequently cited reasons for using attachments were esthetics and need for crowning the teeth abutting the RPD. McCollum rigid slide attachment was the predominant brand used (43% of constructions). Dentists and patients were dissatisfied with 6% of the constructions. During the first 2 years, 22 of 57 constructions were complication-free. Seventeen had attachment complications and 9 had serious complications related to the abutment teeth or RPDs. A comparison between these 2 groups revealed that those with complications had every second abutment root-canal treated and a root post, while the group without complications had every fifth abutment root-canal treated. There were many technical and biotechnical complications and failures; the exact ratio, however, depended on the definition of "complications" and "failure." The 2-year results also deviated considerably from the dentists' opinions of the early results.

  1. Partial trisomy 5q resulting from chromosome 7 insertion: An expansion of the phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, M.H.; Reilly, P.A.; Williams, T.C. [Keesler Medical Center, MS (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Partial trisomy 5q has been categorized into three separate phenotypes; however, a distinctive phenotype has not been described for duplications spanning 5q23-q35. We report a case of partial trisomy 5q for this region as a result of a ins(7,5)(q31.3;q23.2q35.1)mat. The liveborn male infant was delivered by emergency cesarean section at 37 weeks after a pregnancy notable for oligohydramnios, with birth weight 1792 g (<3%). Postnatal course was marked by psychomotor delay, failure to thrive, and biopsy demonstrated neonatal giant cell hepatitis with a paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. His appearance was remarkable for lack of subcutaneous fat, midline displaced hair whorl, bitemporal narrowing with frontal bossing, wide anterior fontanel, widow`s peak, protuberant eyes with periorbital and lid edema, short flat nasal bridge with broad flattened nasal tip, long smooth philtrum, wide mouth with thin lips, wide gingival ridges, micrognathia, posteriorly rotated low-set ears, hepatomegaly, flexion contractions of elbows, and generalized hypertonicity. Urine organic acids, oligosaccharide/mucopolysaccharide screen, and plasma amino acids were negative. GTG-banding on prometaphase chromosomes showed an unbalanced translocation involving chr. 7. This was identified as an insertion of chr. 5 (q23.2q35.1) into distal 7q after FISH using chr. 5 and chr. 7 painting probes. The infant`s mother carries the balanced insertional rearrangement: 46,XX,dir ins(7,5)(q31.3;q23.2q35.1). This phenotype overlaps that of previously described duplications with the addition of giant cell hepatitis, coarsened facial features, gingival thickening, and flexion contractures, suggestive of a yet undiagnosed storage disorder.

  2. Estimation of AUC or Partial AUC under Test-Result-Dependent Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Ma, Junling; George, Stephen; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) are summary measures used to assess the accuracy of a biomarker in discriminating true disease status. The standard sampling approach used in biomarker validation studies is often inefficient and costly, especially when ascertaining the true disease status is costly and invasive. To improve efficiency and reduce the cost of biomarker validation studies, we consider a test-result-dependent sampling (TDS) scheme, in which subject selection for determining the disease state is dependent on the result of a biomarker assay. We first estimate the test-result distribution using data arising from the TDS design. With the estimated empirical test-result distribution, we propose consistent nonparametric estimators for AUC and pAUC and establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimators have good finite sample properties and that the TDS design yields more efficient AUC and pAUC estimates than a simple random sampling (SRS) design. A data example based on an ongoing cancer clinical trial is provided to illustrate the TDS design and the proposed estimators. This work can find broad applications in design and analysis of biomarker validation studies.

  3. Evaluation of the results from partial arthroplasty for treating shoulder osteoarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Naoki Miyazaki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In this study we aim at statistically evaluating the results of the surgical treatment of the osteoarthrosis of the shoulder (OAS with partial shoulder arthroplasty (PSA and at correlating them with the several variables involved. METHODS: In this study we evaluated 36 shoulders of 31 patients with OAS who underwent treatment with PSA in the Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo (Group of Shoulders and Elbows of the Department of Traumatology and Orthopedics of the Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa de São Paulo - Pavillion Fernandinho Simonsen between January, 1989 and November, 2010. Patients who underwent PSA and who had a post-operative follow-up of at least 12 months were included in the study. RESULTS: After the surgery the range of elevation, external rotation, internal rotation and the UCLA scale improved (with average differences of 35º, 27º, 4ºand 17 points, respectively, with a significant level of 5% (p < 0.05. For the same level of significance, the relation between a satisfactory UCLA and two variables was found: patients with maximum age of 60 years old at the moment of the surgery and patients that underwent tenotomy of the long head of biceps. CONCLUSION: Patients under 60 who underwent surgery and patients who underwent tenotomy of the long head of biceps achieved better results.

  4. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Do, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos [Department of Surgical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Mirshahidi, Hamid [Department of Medical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  5. Partial dissociative emission cross sections and product state distributions of the resulting photofragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu., E-mail: Sergy.Grebenshchikov@ch.tum.de

    2016-12-20

    This paper relates the partial cross section of a continuous optical emission into a given scattering channel of the lower electronic state to the photofragment population. This allows one to infer partial emission cross sections ‘non-optically’ from product state distributions; in computations, explicit construction of exact scattering states is therefore avoided. Applications to the emission spectra of NaI, CO{sub 2}, and pyrrole are given. It is also demonstrated that a similar relationship holds between partial cross sections of dissociative photoionization and distributions of ionic fragments over final product channels.

  6. A Partial Join Approach for Mining Co-Location Patterns: A Summary of Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yoo, Jin S; Shekhar, Shashi

    2005-01-01

    .... They propose a novel partial-join approach for mining co-location patterns efficiently. It transactionizes continuous spatial data while keeping track of the spatial information not modeled by transactions...

  7. Low-term results from non-conventional partial arthroplasty for treating rotator cuff arthroplasthy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Tenor Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the evolution of the functional results from CTA(rhemiarthroplasty for surgically treating degenerative arthroplathy of the rotator cuff, with a mean follow-up of 5.4 years.METHODS: Eighteen patients who underwent CTA(r partial arthroplasty to treat degenerative arthroplathy of the rotator cuff between April 2007 and June 2009 were reevaluated, with minimum and mean follow-ups of 4.6 years and 5.4 years, respectively. Pre and postoperative parameters for functionality and patient satisfaction were used (functional scale of the University of California in Los Angeles, UCLA. All the patients underwent prior conservative treatment for 6 months and underwent surgical treatment because of the absence of satisfactory results. Patients were excluded if they presented any of the following: previous shoulder surgery; pseudoparalysis; insufficiency of the coracoacromial arch (type 2 B in Seebauer's classification; neurological lesions; or insufficiency of the deltoid muscle and the subscapularis muscle.RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 5.4 years, 14 patients considered that they were satisfied with the surgery (78%; the mean range of joint motion for active elevation improved from 55.8° before the operation to 82.0° after the operation; the mean external rotation improved from 18.9° before the operation to 27.3° after the operation; and the mean medial rotation remained at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. The mean UCLA score after the mean follow-up of 5.4 years was 23.94 and this was an improvement in comparison with the preoperative mean and the mean 1 year after the operation.CONCLUSION: The functional results from CTA(r hemiarthroplasty for treating rotator cuff arthroplasty in selected patients remained satisfactory after a mean follow-up of 5.4 years.

  8. Chronic ethanol or nicotine treatment results in partial cross-tolerance between these agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J B; de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J; Collins, A C

    1988-01-01

    Female DBA/2Ibg mice were treated chronically (21 days) with ethanol- or dextrin-containing liquid diets or infused chronically with nicotine (8 mg/kg/h) or saline for 10 days. The responses of these animals to challenge doses of ethanol (2.5 g/kg) or nicotine (1 or 2 mg/kg) were measured using a test battery consisting of respiration rate, acoustic startle response, Y-maze crosses and rears, heart rate and body temperature. Chronic ethanol-treated animals were tolerant to the effects elicited by a challenge dose of ethanol on four of the six measures and were cross-tolerant to nicotine's effects on the acoustic startle test. Chronic nicotine-treated animals were tolerant to nicotine's effects on five of the six measures and cross-tolerant to ethanol's effects on heart rate and body temperature. Thus, partial cross-tolerance between ethanol and nicotine exists. Chronic nicotine treatment resulted in significant increases in L-[3H]-nicotine binding in six of seven brain regions and in alpha-[125I]-bungarotoxin binding in three of seven brain regions. Chronic ethanol treatment failed to alter the binding of either ligand. Therefore, the cross-tolerance that develops between ethanol and nicotine is not totally dependent on alterations in the number of brain nicotinic receptors.

  9. Results after laparoscopic partial splenectomy for children with hereditary spherocytosis: Are outcomes influenced by genetic mutation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugi, Jakob; Carcao, Manuel; Drury, Luke J; Langer, Jacob C

    2018-05-01

    Laparoscopic partial splenectomy (LPS) theoretically maintains long-term splenic immune function for children with hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Our goal was to review our results after LPS and to determine if specific genetic mutations influence outcome. All children with HS undergoing LPS between 2005 and 2016 were reviewed. Thirty-one children underwent LPS (16 male) at a median age of 9 (range 2-18) years. All experienced an increase in hemoglobin and decrease in reticulocyte count early after LPS and at last follow-up. Twenty-two were sent for genetic analysis. Mutations in α-spectrin, β-spectrin, and Ankyrin were identified in 6, 5, and 11 patients, respectively. Gene mutation was not correlated with complications, perioperative transfusion, length of hospital stay, or median hemoglobin, platelet, or reticulocyte counts. Three children required completion splenectomy at 10.9, 6.9, and 3.2years post-LPS, each with a different gene mutation. LPS is effective in reversing anemia and reducing reticulocytosis. So far less than 10% have required completion splenectomy, and those children did benefit from delaying the risks of asplenia. In this preliminary analysis, genetic mutation did not influence outcome after LPS. A larger multicenter study is necessary to further investigate potential correlations with specific genetic mutations. Prognosis Study. IV. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. MODELING CREDIT RISK THROUGH CREDIT SCORING

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Cantemir CALIN; Oana Cristina POPOVICI

    2014-01-01

    Credit risk governs all financial transactions and it is defined as the risk of suffering a loss due to certain shifts in the credit quality of a counterpart. Credit risk literature gravitates around two main modeling approaches: the structural approach and the reduced form approach. In addition to these perspectives, credit risk assessment has been conducted through a series of techniques such as credit scoring models, which form the traditional approach. This paper examines the evolution of...

  11. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim

    2010-01-01

    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project was a fr......During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... estate sector each addressing three interlinked levels: building/ projects level, company or enterprise level and benchmarking system level. Additionally it has been based on dialogue with researchers and professional organisation, international research and standardisation work and national building...

  12. New results on the Roper resonance and the P-11 partial wave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarantsev, A. V.; Fuchs, M.; Kotulla, M.; Thoma, U.; Ahrens, J.; Annand, J. R. M.; Anisovich, A. V.; Anton, G.; Bantes, R.; Bartholomy, O.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Yu.; Castelijns, R.; Crede, V.; Ehmanns, A.; Ernst, J.; Fabry, I.; Flemming, H.; Foesel, A.; Funke, Chr.; Gothe, R.; Gridnev, A.; Gutz, E.; Hoeffgen, St.; Horn, I.; Hoessl, J.; Hornidge, D.; Janssen, S.; Junkersfeld, J.; Kalinowsky, H.; Klein, F.; Klempt, E.; Koch, H.; Konrad, M.; Kopf, B.; Krusche, B.; Langheinrich, J.; Loehner, H.; Lopatin, I.; Lotz, J.; McGeorge, J. C.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Matthaey, H.; Menze, D.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Metag, V.; Nikonov, V. A.; Novinski, D.; Novotny, R.; Ostrick, M.; van Pee, H.; Pfeiffer, M.; Radkov, A.; Rosner, G.; Rost, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schoch, B.; Suft, G.; Sumachev, V.; Szczepanek, T.; Walther, D.; Watts, D. P.; Weinheimer, Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Properties of the Roper resonance, the first scalar excitation of the nucleon, are determined. Pole positions and residues of the P-11 partial wave are studied in a combined analysis of pion- and photo-induced reactions. We find the Roper pole at {(1371 +/- 7) - i(92 +/- 10)} MeV and an elasticity

  13. Pressure of a partially ionized hydrogen gas : numerical results from exact low temperature expansions

    OpenAIRE

    Alastuey , Angel; Ballenegger , Vincent

    2010-01-01

    8 pages; International audience; We consider a partially ionized hydrogen gas at low densities, where it reduces almost to an ideal mixture made with hydrogen atoms in their ground-state, ionized protons and ionized electrons. By performing systematic low-temperature expansions within the physical picture, in which the system is described as a quantum electron-proton plasma interacting via the Coulomb potential, exact formulae for the first five leading corrections to the ideal Saha equation ...

  14. New results on the Roper resonance and the P{sub 11} partial wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarantsev, A.V. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Fuchs, M. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Kotulla, M. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Basel (Switzerland); II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Thoma, U. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Ahrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Anisovich, A.V. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Anton, G. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Bantes, R. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bartholomy, O. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Beck, R. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Beloglazov, Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Castelijns, R. [KVI, Groningen (Netherlands); Crede, V. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Department of Physics, Florida State University (United States); Ehmanns, A.; Ernst, J.; Fabry, I. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Flemming, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Foesel, A. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen (Germany); Funke, Chr. [Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universitaet Bonn (Germany)] (and others)

    2008-01-17

    Properties of the Roper resonance, the first scalar excitation of the nucleon, are determined. Pole positions and residues of the P{sub 11} partial wave are studied in a combined analysis of pion- and photo-induced reactions. We find the Roper pole at {l_brace}(1371{+-}7)-i(92{+-}10){r_brace} MeV and an elasticity of 0.61{+-}0.03. The largest decay coupling is found for the N{sigma} ({sigma}=({pi}{pi})-S-wave). The analysis is based on new data on {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} for photons in the energy range from the two-pion threshold to 820 MeV from TAPS at Mainz and from 0.4 to 1.3 GeV from Crystal Barrel at Bonn and includes further data from other experiments. The partial wave analysis excludes the possibility that the Roper resonance is split into two states with different partial decay widths.

  15. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with external beam radiotherapy. First results of the German phase 2 trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Oliver J.; Strnad, Vratislav; Stillkrieg, Wilhelm; Fietkau, Rainer [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Uter, Wolfgang [University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Dept. of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany); Beckmann, Matthias W. [University Hospital Erlangen, Dept. of Gynecology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of external beam three-dimensional (3D) conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) for selected patients with early breast cancer. Between 2011 and 2016, 72 patients were recruited for this prospective phase 2 trial. Patients were eligible for APBI if they had histologically confirmed breast cancer or pure ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a tumor diameter ≤3 cm, clear resection margins ≥2 mm, no axillary lymph node involvement, no distant metastases, tumor bed clips, and were aged ≥50 years. Patients were excluded if mammography showed a multicentric invasive growth pattern, or if they had residual diffuse microcalcifications postoperatively, an extensive intraductal component, or vessel invasion. Patients received 3D conformal external beam APBI with a total dose of 38 Gy in 10 fractions in 1-2 weeks. The trial had been registered at the German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS-ID: DRKS00004417. Median follow-up was 25.5 months (range 1-61 months). Local control was maintained in 71 of 72 patients. The 3-year local recurrence rate was 2.1% (95% confidence interval, CI: 0-6.1%). Early toxicity (grade 1 radiodermatitis) was seen in 34.7% (25/72). Late side effects ≥ grade 3 did not occur. Cosmetic results were rated as excellent/good in 96.7% (59/61). APBI with external beam radiotherapy techniques is feasible with low toxicity and, according to the results of the present and other studies, on the way to becoming a standard treatment option for a selected subgroup of patients. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung der Vertraeglichkeit und Sicherheit der externen, 3-D-konformalen akzelerierten Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) fuer ausgewaehlte Patientinnen mit einem fruehen Mammakarzinom. Von 2011 bis 2016 wurden 72 Patientinnen in diese prospektive Phase-2-Studie eingebracht. Einschlusskriterien waren ein histologisch gesichertes Mammakarzinom oder DCIS, ein Tumordurchmesser ≤ 3 cm, tumorfreie Resektionsraender ≥ 2

  16. Soft shoulders ahead: spurious signatures of soft and partial selective sweeps result from linked hard sweeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrider, Daniel R; Mendes, Fábio K; Hahn, Matthew W; Kern, Andrew D

    2015-05-01

    Characterizing the nature of the adaptive process at the genetic level is a central goal for population genetics. In particular, we know little about the sources of adaptive substitution or about the number of adaptive variants currently segregating in nature. Historically, population geneticists have focused attention on the hard-sweep model of adaptation in which a de novo beneficial mutation arises and rapidly fixes in a population. Recently more attention has been given to soft-sweep models, in which alleles that were previously neutral, or nearly so, drift until such a time as the environment shifts and their selection coefficient changes to become beneficial. It remains an active and difficult problem, however, to tease apart the telltale signatures of hard vs. soft sweeps in genomic polymorphism data. Through extensive simulations of hard- and soft-sweep models, here we show that indeed the two might not be separable through the use of simple summary statistics. In particular, it seems that recombination in regions linked to, but distant from, sites of hard sweeps can create patterns of polymorphism that closely mirror what is expected to be found near soft sweeps. We find that a very similar situation arises when using haplotype-based statistics that are aimed at detecting partial or ongoing selective sweeps, such that it is difficult to distinguish the shoulder of a hard sweep from the center of a partial sweep. While knowing the location of the selected site mitigates this problem slightly, we show that stochasticity in signatures of natural selection will frequently cause the signal to reach its zenith far from this site and that this effect is more severe for soft sweeps; thus inferences of the target as well as the mode of positive selection may be inaccurate. In addition, both the time since a sweep ends and biologically realistic levels of allelic gene conversion lead to errors in the classification and identification of selective sweeps. This

  17. The Role of Indocyanine Green for Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: Early Results, Limitations and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Klaassen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The surgical management of small renal masses has continued to evolve, particularly with the advent of the robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Recent studies at high volume institutions utilizing near infrared imaging with indocyanine green (ICG fluorescent dye to delineate renal tumor anatomy has generated interest among robotic surgeons for improving warm ischemia times and positive margin rate for RPN. To date, early studies suggest positive margin rate using ICG is comparable to traditional RPN, however this technology improves visualization of the renal vasculature allowing selective clamping or zero ischemia. The precise combination of fluorescent compound, dose, and optimal tumor anatomy for ICG RPN has yet to be elucidated.

  18. Result of radiation therapy of sino-nasal cancers using partial attenuation filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Kim, Ok Bae; Choi, Tae Jin [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    This study was to evaluate the survival and pattern of failure after radiation therapy of sino-nasal cancer using partial attenuation filer and wedged beams and to help radiotherapy planning of sino-nasal cancer. Between February 1992 and March 2003, 17 patients with sino-nasal cancers underwent radiation therapy using partial attenuation filter at Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung university. There were 9 male and 8 female patients. Patients' age ranged from 40 to 75 years (median 59 years). There were 10 patients of maxillary sinus cancer, 7 patients of nasal cancer. The histologic type was squamous cell carcinoma in 11, adenoid cystic carcinoma in 4 and olfactory neuroblastoma in 2. The distribution of clinical stage by the AJCC system was 3 for stage II, 7 for III and 6 for IV. The five patients were treated with radiation alone and 12 patients were treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 44 to 76 Gy (median 60 Gy). The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 173 months with median of 78 months. The overall 2 year survival rate and disease free survival rate was 76.4%. The 5 year and 10 year survival rate were 76.4% and 45.6% and the 5 year and 10 year disease free survival rate was 70.6%. The 5 year disease free survival rate by treatment modality was 91.6% for postoperative radiation group and 20% for radiation alone group, statistical significance was found by treatment modality ({rho} = 0.006). There were no differences in survival by pathology and stage. There were local failure in 5 patients (29%) but no distant failure and no severe complication required surgical intervention. Radiation therapy of sino-nasal cancer using partial attenuation filter was safe and effective. Combined modality with conservative surgery and radiation therapy was more advisable to achieve loco-regional control in sino-nasal cancer. Also we considered high precision radiation therapy with

  19. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal land...

  20. Credit Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  1. The calculational VVER burnup Credit Benchmark No.3 results with the ENDF/B-VI rev.5 (1999)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Gual, Maritza [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba). E-mail: mrgual@ctn.isctn.edu.cu

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this papers to present the results of CB3 phase of the VVER calculational benchmark with the recent evaluated nuclear data library ENDF/B-VI Rev.5 (1999). This results are compared with the obtained from the other participants in the calculations (Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Slovaquia, Spain and the United Kingdom). The phase (CB3) of the VVER calculation benchmark is similar to the Phase II-A of the OECD/NEA/INSC BUC Working Group benchmark for PWR. The cases without burnup profile (BP) were performed with the WIMS/D-4 code. The rest of the cases have been carried with DOTIII discrete ordinates code. The neutron library used was the ENDF/B-VI rev. 5 (1999). The WIMS/D-4 (69 groups) is used to collapse cross sections from the ENDF/B-VI Rev. 5 (1999) to 36 groups working library for 2-D calculations. This work also comprises the results of CB1 (obtained with ENDF/B-VI rev. 5 (1999), too) and CB3 for cases with Burnup of 30 MWd/TU and cooling time of 1 and 5 years and for case with Burnup of 40 MWd/TU and cooling time of 1 year. (author)

  2. Credit concession through credit scoring: Analysis and application proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Amat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study herein develops and tests a credit scoring model which can help financial institutions in assessing credit requests.  Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study has the objective of answering two questions: (1 Which ratios better discriminate the companies based on their being solvent or insolvent? and (2 What is the relative importance of these ratios? To do this, several statistical techniques with a multifactorial focus have been used (Multivariate Analysis of Variance, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Logit and Probit Models. Several samples of companies have been used in order to obtain and to test the model.  Findings: Through the application of several statistical techniques, the credit scoring model has been proved to be effective in discriminating between good and bad creditors.  Research limitations:  This study focuses on manufacturing, commercial and services companies of all sizes in Spain; Therefore, the conclusions may differ for other geographical locations. Practical implications:  Because credit is one of the main drivers of growth, a solid credit scoring model can help financial institutions assessing to whom to grant credit and to whom not to grant credit. Social implications: Because of the growing importance of credit for our society and the fear of granting it due to the latest financial turmoil, a solid credit scoring model can strengthen the trust toward the financial institutions assessment’s.  Originality/value: There is already a stream of literature related to credit scoring. However, this paper focuses on Spanish firms and proves the results of our model based on real data. The application of the model to detect the probability of default in loans is original.

  3. Extended partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis and model-dependent results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The corrections to Goldberger-Treiman relations for ΔS = 0 and vertical-bardeltaSvertical-bar = 1 β decays (Δ/sub π/and Δ/sub K/, respectively) are estimated from a Veneziano-type model for three-point functions. The effect of unitarizing the model is also discussed, and it turns out that Δ/sub π/and Δ/sub K/ are almost insensitive to a variation in the widths of the pseudoscalar-meson daughters. Moreover, the predictions for Δ/sub π/and Δ/sub K/ are in close agreement with experiment. Finally, on-mass-shell extrapolation factors for chiral anomalies in eta → γγ and eta → π + π - γ are also derived, and agreement with experiment is found without the need for invoking eta-eta' mixing. In summary, the model discussed here seems to be a suitable implementation of the recently proposed extended partially conserved axial-vector current hypothesis

  4. Pressure of a partially ionized hydrogen gas: numerical results from exact low temperature expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alastuey, A. [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS, Lyon (France); Ballenegger, V. [Institut UTINAM, Universite de Franche-Comte, CNRS, Besancon (France)

    2010-01-15

    We consider a partially ionized hydrogen gas at low densities, where it reduces almost to an ideal mixture made with hydrogen atoms in their ground-state, ionized protons and ionized electrons. By performing systematic low-temperature expansions within the physical picture, in which the system is described as a quantum electron-proton plasma interacting via the Coulomb potential, exact formulae for the first.ve leading corrections to the ideal Saha equation of state have been derived[A. Alastuey, V. Ballenegger et al., J. Stat. Phys. 130, 1119 (2008)]. Those corrections account for all effects of interactions and thermal excitations up to order exp(E{sub H} /kT) included, where E{sub H} {approx_equal} -13.6 eV is the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom. Among the.ve leading corrections, three are easy to evaluate, while the remaining ones involve suitably truncated internal partition functions of H{sub 2} molecules and H{sup -} and H{sub 2}{sup +} ions, for which no analytical formulae are available in closed form. We estimate those partitions functions at.nite temperature via a simple phenomenology based on known values of rotational and vibrational energies. This allows us to compute numerically the leading deviations to the Saha pressure along several isotherms and isochores. Our values are compared with those of the OPAL tables (for pure hydrogen) calculated within the ACTEX method (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Credit: A Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Brandolyn; And Others

    Intended for teachers of secondary school students, five lessons on consumer credit are presented. In the first lesson students identify and evaluate sources of credit, compare some of the costs and benefits of credit, and learn to apply criteria used in evaluating applications for credit. In the second lesson, students learn about two basic types…

  6. NCA & Credit Guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stooppn

    purposes of the National Credit Act; what the definition of a credit guarantee set out ...... Scholtz et al National Credit Act in para 8.2.4; Scott et al Law of Commerce ..... Eitelberg E "Autonomy of Documentary Credit Undertakings in South African.

  7. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers - Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this July 2012 document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule.

  8. Did Globalization Influence Credit Market Deregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Eppinger, Peter; Potrafke, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether globalization influenced credit market deregulation over the period 1970-2010. Globalization is measured by the KOF indices of globalization. Credit market deregulation is measured by the credit market freedom indicators of the Fraser Institute. The results from both cross-sectional and panel regressions using ordinary least squares indicate a positive correlation between globalization and credit market deregulation. We account for reverse causality by using predicted t...

  9. Avaliação de atitudes de estudantes de psicologia via modelo de crédito parcial da TRI Assessment of psychology students' attitudes through credit partial model of IRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudette Maria Medeiros Vendramini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as atitudes de estudantes de Psicologia em relação a estatística, via modelo de créditos parciais da TRI, e suas relações com a autopercepção e desempenho em estatística. Uma amostra não aleatória de 361 estudantes de Psicologia, com idades de 18 a 65 anos, 81% mulheres e 53% do noturno, respondeu a um questionário de identificação e uma escala de atitudes. A escala é do tipo likert de quatro pontos e composta de 20 itens que expressam os sentimentos em relação a estatística, sendo dez positivos e dez negativos, e um item complementar, que verifica a autopercepção do universitário em relação ao próprio desempenho em estatística. Observou-se que a escala é fidedigna e válida para medir as atitudes. Os participantes apresentaram atitudes ligeiramente mais negativas do que positivas. Constatou-se a existência de correlações positivas e significativas entre atitude, desempenho acadêmico e autopercepção de desempenho.The aim of this work was to assess psychology students' attitudes toward statistics trough credit partial model of IRT, and to identify the association among the students' attitudes, academic performance, and self-perception in Statistics. A not random sample of 361 Psychology students answered the identification questionnaire and the attitudes scale towards Statistics. The students aged 18-65, 81% were female and 53% from evening classes. The likert scale is composed of 20 items, ten positives and ten negatives, which express the feelings towards Statistics. There is one item which verifies the university student's self-perception towards its own performance in Statistics. It was observed that the scale was reliable and valid to measure attitudes. The students presented their attitudes slightly more negative than positive. It was noticed the existence of positive and significant correlations among attitudes, academic performance and performance self-perception.

  10. MASTICATION, PHONETICS AND ESTHETICS AS A FINAL RESULT OF PARTIAL OR COMPLETE DENTURE TREATMENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Georgieva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Three target groups- dentists/ dental students, dental technicians and patients were asked to fill in an anonymous questionnaire about their satisfaction of the final results after prosthetic treatment with removable dentures using a scale from 1 to 5 (1- completely dissatisfied, 2-dissatisfied, 3-indifferent, 4-satisfied, 5-completely satisfied. The mean results (including colour, shape and size of artificial teeth, arrangement of front teeth, colour of artificial gums, phonetics, mastication, natural smile, enough space for tongue for all three groups of respondents were compared. Dental technicians (4,34 are more satisfied than dentists/dental students (3,62 and patients (3,53. A successful outcome of prosthetic treatment depends on one hand on the professional approach of the dental team and on the other hand on the patient’s motivation and cooperation. The predictive final results and realistic expectations lead to satisfaction of all participants in the treatment process.

  11. 76 FR 67142 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ..., including but not limited to phosphoric acid, zinc chloride sulfuric acid or potassium hydroxide, that... Preliminary Results that provides a basis for reconsideration of these determinations. Therefore, the..., CCT and Jacobi, are de minimis and accordingly, the Department has determined a reasonable method for...

  12. Cognitive Learning Strategy as a Partial Effect on Major Field Test in Business Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Kenneth David

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was developed to determine if cognitive learning strategies improved standardized university business exam results. Previous studies revealed that factors such as prior ability, age, gender, and culture predicted a student's Major Field Test in Business (MFTB) score better than course content. The experiment control consisted of…

  13. Inverse Spectral Results for AKNS Systems with Partial Information on the Potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, R. del; Grebert, B.

    2001-01-01

    For the AKNS operator on L 2 ([0,1],C 2 ) it is well known that the data of two spectra uniquely determine the corresponding potential φ a.e. on [0,1] (Borg's type Theorem). We prove that, in the case where φ is a-priori known on [a,1], then only a part (depending on a) of two spectra determine φ on [0,1]. Our results include generalizations for Dirac systems of classical results obtained by Hochstadt and Lieberman for the Sturm-Liouville case, where they showed that half of the potential and one spectrum determine all the potential functions. An important ingredient in our strategy is the link between the rate of growth of an entire function and the distribution of its zeros

  14. Rural Credit in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer; Tarp, Finn

    This paper uses a survey of 932 rural households to uncover how the rural credit market operates in four provinces of Vietnam. Households obtain credit through formal and informal lenders, but formal loans are almost entirely for production and asset accumulation. Interest rates fell from 1997...... to 2002, reflecting increased market integration; but the determinants of formal and informal credit demand are distinct. Credit rationing depends on education and credit history, but we find no evidence of a bias against women. Regional differences are striking, and a ‘one size fits all’ approach...... to credit policy is clearly inappropriate....

  15. COMPENSATORY INTEREST SETTLEMENT AND CREDIT BANKING MORATORIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino Sánchez, Esteban Marino

    2014-01-01

    First is explained the reasons for this article, it mentions the specific legal rules that support the settlement of interest on the credit operations of companies in the financial system with end users, and then presents the average interest rates of some operations credit. Then we present the formula for calculating interest, and illustrates its application with examples 1 and 2 (the simplest). The following is, in examples 3 and 4, the calculation of interest with imputation of partial pay...

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Efficiency Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Daryl [ORNL; Papar, Riyaz [Hudson Technologies; Wright, Dr. Anthony [ALW Consulting

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., subpart DDDDD of CFR part 63). This document divides Boiler System conservation opportunities into four functional areas: 1) the boiler itself, 2) the condensate recovery system, 3) the distribution system, and 4) the end uses of the steam. This document provides technical information for documenting emissions credits proposed in the Implementation Plan for functional areas 2) though 4). This document does not include efficiency improvements related to the Boiler tune-ups.

  17. Credit Monitoring – a Core of Credit Risk Management: Theory and Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: Purpose of the article is to identify credit monitoring as a keystone of credit risk management in banks. CRM is widely discussed in scientific literature and in reports of institutions undertaking credit risk or supervisory bodies. However majority of such investigations are based on implementation of numerous quantitative or qualitative methods used for credit risk assessment before granting a loan or for credit portfolio risk management. There is a lack of information or investigations made on estimation of the need of credit monitoring in credit risk management process. Scientific aim: Scientific aim is to structure the early warning signs that reflect the condition of credits. Methodology/methods: The paper is based on analysis and resumption of various scientific and professional articles related to organization of credit process in banks. It combines results of assessments of credit monitoring importance in credit risk management process made by theoretical studies as well as investigation of experts. Findings: Finding of the article is presentation of credit monitoring tools that should be applied for corporate (and individual clients via modification of original credit agreement. Conclusions: (limits, implications etc Conclusion of the article is that credit monitoring is a keystone in credit risk management process. The purpose of credit monitoring is to detect in time possible worsening of the loan and to react (make changes in loan agreement. The simplest tool for credit monitoring is to identify early warning signs in time that could be assorted into four groups: EWS of business environment; EWS with regard to management, EWS regarding collateral, EWS in financial analysis. Limitation of investigation is impossibility of evaluation of importance of monitoring process in practice except investigation of experts (employees directly responsible for credit business.

  18. Intermediate-term results of partial plantar fascia release with microtenotomy using bipolar radiofrequency microtenotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Douglas E; Ekroth, Scott R; Hyer, Christopher F

    2015-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a common condition, with most patients treated successfully with nonoperative management. Recalcitrant disease has been managed with surgical procedures that vary in design and associated morbidity. The present study sought to determine the intermediate-term results of percutaneous bipolar radiofrequency microtenotomy in recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. The patient medical records were reviewed, and data were gathered for all the patients who met the inclusion criteria. The foot function index and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scale questionnaires were mailed to the 111 patients. Of the 111 patients, 61 (55.0%) returned their questionnaires and were ultimately included in the present analysis. Of the 61 patients, 44 (72.1%) were female and 17 were (27.9%) male, with an average reported follow-up of 33.3 ± 8.6 (range 16.1 to 46.6) months. The median postoperative VAS score was 0.0 (range 0.0 to 10.0), and the median foot function index score was 3.1 (range 0.0 to 97.1). The patients were subdivided into success and failure groups according to their satisfaction. Of the 61 patients, 51 (83.6%) were satisfied and would recommend the procedure to a friend. The median VAS score in the success group was 0.0 (range 0.0 to 5.0), and the median VAS score in the failure group was 6.0 (range 0.0 to 10.0), a significant difference (p plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 18 CFR 367.2550 - Account 255, Accumulated deferred investment tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Accumulated deferred investment tax credits. 367.2550 Section 367.2550 Conservation of Power and Water... 255, Accumulated deferred investment tax credits. This account must be credited with all investment tax credits deferred by companies that have elected to follow deferral accounting, partial or full...

  20. Credit Card Quiz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students design credit cards and discover for themselves the mathematical realities of buying on credit. Employs multiple-intelligence theory to increase the chance that all students will be reached. (YDS)

  1. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  2. Credit Card Security

    OpenAIRE

    G.C., Anup

    2013-01-01

    Author: Anup G.C. Year: 2013 Subject of thesis: Credit Card Security Number of pages: 36+2 Credit Card is a widely used electronic chip for easy transactions. The main purpose of the report was to show the security measures of transaction by credit cards. The purpose was to give information about credit cards and how they were introduced. The thesis reportcontained the types of card theft with examples and sited the various protocols used for online ...

  3. Credit Market Information Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Balasubramanyan, Lakshmi; Craig, Ben R.; Thomson, James B.; Zaman, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    We examine how a combination of credit market and asset quality information can jointly be used in assessing bank franchise value. We find that expectations of future credit demand and future asset quality explain contemporaneous bank franchise value, indicative of the feedback in credit market information and its consequent impact on bank franchise value.

  4. Boundedly rational credit cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez, María

    1996-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary model of a credit market. We show that the economy exhibits credit cycles. The model predicts dynamics which are consistent with some evidence about the Great Depression. Real shocks trigger episodes of credit--crunch which are observed in the process of adjustment towards the post shock equilibrium.

  5. Private Sector Credit and Inflation Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna Katusiime

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of inflation volatility on private sector credit growth. The results indicate that private sector credit growth is positively linked to the one period lagged inflation volatility. Given that past monetary policy actions continue to affect the targeted variables due to the substantial lags in the transmission mechanism, the positive response of private sector credit growth to past inflation volatility suggests a credible monetary policy regime in Uganda, which has led to a reduction in the level of macroeconomic uncertainty and the restoration of favorable economic conditions and prospects, thus increasing the demand for credit. Further, the study finds that the lagged private sector credit growth, nominal exchange rate, and inflation have a statistically significant effect on private sector credit growth while financial innovation, interest rates, and GDP growth appear not to be important determinants of private sector credit growth. The robustness of our findings is confirmed by sensitivity checks.

  6. Psychiatrists’ awareness of partial and nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: results from an Asia–Pacific survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jose Manuel; Thirunavukarasu, Manickam; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Zhang, Hong Yan; Zhang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonadherence is a well-known problem among schizophrenia patients, among whom relapse is fivefold more likely, adversely affecting health, employment, and social functioning. The Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was developed to determine the scope and causes of medication nonadherence in schizophrenia. Methods The 20-question ADHES survey was distributed to 19,370 psychiatrists in 13 Asia–Pacific countries in January–April 2012, to ascertain psychiatrists’ perceptions of antipsychotic medication adherence levels among their schizophrenia patients, reasons for partial/nonadherence, their preferred methods of assessing adherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Responses are reported as mean and range across countries. Results Four thousand, six hundred sixty one psychiatrists (24% of recipients) completed the survey (highest contributors: People’s Republic of China, 1854; India, 1616). Psychiatrists perceived that 56% (range, 30%–71%) of schizophrenia patients were non- or partially adherent to medication. Patients discontinue medication primarily due to lack of insight into their condition (mean, 37%; 1%–65%) and because patients consider medication unnecessary when feeling better (mean, 27%; 15%–68%). Over half of psychiatrists (mean, 55%; 42%–99%) assess medication adherence at every visit, almost exclusively (81%) by asking their patients, versus quantitative measures. One in three psychiatrists expressed their preference to switch to or add a long-acting antipsychotic to improve adherence (15%–82%). Conclusions The substantial prevalence of partial/nonadherence to medication demonstrates that more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia is needed to improve adherence and thereby treatment outcomes. Registration Registration of this study was not required. PMID:23976858

  7. Breast-conserving therapy with partial or whole breast irradiation: Ten-year results of the Budapest randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polgár, Csaba; Fodor, János; Major, Tibor; Sulyok, Zoltán; Kásler, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To report the long-term results of a single-institution randomized study comparing the results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Patients and methods: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected women with pT1 pN0-1mi M0, grade 1–2, non-lobular breast cancer without the presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after BCS to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 × 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multi-catheter brachytherapy (BT; n = 88) or 50 Gy electron beam (EB) irradiation (n = 40). Primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR) as a first event. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cosmetic results. Results: After a median follow up of 10.2 years, the ten-year actuarial rate of LR was 5.9% and 5.1% in PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p = 0.77). There was no significant difference in the ten-year probability of OS (80% vs 82%), CSS (94% vs 92%), and DFS (85% vs 84%), either. The rate of excellent-good cosmetic result was 81% in the PBI, and 63% in the control group (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation delivered by interstitial HDR BT or EB for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces similar ten-year results to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with HDR BT implants compared with the outcome after WBI

  8. Breast-conserving therapy with partial or whole breast irradiation: ten-year results of the Budapest randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, Csaba; Fodor, János; Major, Tibor; Sulyok, Zoltán; Kásler, Miklós

    2013-08-01

    To report the long-term results of a single-institution randomized study comparing the results of breast-conserving treatment with partial breast irradiation (PBI) or conventional whole breast irradiation (WBI). Between 1998 and 2004, 258 selected women with pT1 pN0-1mi M0, grade 1-2, non-lobular breast cancer without the presence of extensive intraductal component and resected with negative margins were randomized after BCS to receive 50 Gy WBI (n=130) or PBI (n=128). The latter consisted of either 7 × 5.2 Gy high-dose-rate (HDR) multi-catheter brachytherapy (BT; n=88) or 50 Gy electron beam (EB) irradiation (n=40). Primary endpoint was local recurrence (LR) as a first event. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cosmetic results. After a median follow up of 10.2 years, the ten-year actuarial rate of LR was 5.9% and 5.1% in PBI and WBI arms, respectively (p=0.77). There was no significant difference in the ten-year probability of OS (80% vs 82%), CSS (94% vs 92%), and DFS (85% vs 84%), either. The rate of excellent-good cosmetic result was 81% in the PBI, and 63% in the control group (p<0.01). Partial breast irradiation delivered by interstitial HDR BT or EB for a selected group of early-stage breast cancer patients produces similar ten-year results to those achieved with conventional WBI. Significantly better cosmetic outcome can be achieved with HDR BT implants compared with the outcome after WBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. First results of total and partial cross-section measurements of the 107Ag(p,γ)108Cd reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Scholz, Philipp; Spieker, Mark; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The γ process is assumed to play an important role in the nucleosynthesis of the majority of the p nuclei. Since the network of the γ process includes so many different reactions and - mainly unstable - nuclei, cross-section values are predominantly calculated in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The values heavily depend on the nuclear-physics input parameters. The results of total and partial cross-section measurements are used to improve the accuracy of the theoretical calculations. In order to extend the experimental database, the 107Ag(p,γ)108Cd reaction was studied via the in-beam method at the high-efficiency HPGe γ-ray spectrometer HORUS at the University of Cologne. Proton beams with energies between 3.5 MeV and 5.0 MeV were provided by the 10 MV FN-Tandem accelerator leading to the determination of four new total cross-section values. After slight adjustments of the nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function an excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimentally deduced values for both total and partial cross sections has been obtained.

  10. The Function of Credit Scheme to Improve Family Income among Beef Cattle Farmers in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.; Ekowati, T.; Roessali, W.; Gayatri, S.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of study were: (i) identify of beef cattle fattening credit scheme, (ii) calculating and analyze of beef cattle farmers’ income, (iii) analyze of factors influencing beef cattle credit scheme towards farmer’s income. The research was held in five regencies in Central Java Province. Beef cattle fattening farm was standardized as an elementary unit. Survey method was used, while Two Stage Cluster Purposive Sampling was used for determining of sample. Data were analyzed using statistical method of quantitative descriptive and inferential statistics in term of income analysis and multiple linear regression models. The result showed that farmers used their own capital to run the farm. The average amount was IDR 10,769,871. Kredit Ketahanan Pangan dan Energi was credit scheme which was dominantly access by farmers. The average credit was IDR 23,312,200/farmer with rate of credit equal to 6.46%, the time of credit returning equal to 24.60 monthand the prediction of average collateral equal to IDR 35,800,00. The average of farmers’ income was IDR 4,361,611.60/2.96 head of beef cattle/fattening period. If the labour cost did not calculate as a cost production, hence the farmer’ income was IDR 7,608,630.41 or in other word the farmer’ income increase 74.44%. Factors of credit scheme which partially significant influence to the farmers’ income were number of own capital usage and value of credit collateral. Meanwhile, name of credit scheme, financing institution as a creditor, amount of credit, rate of credit scheme and time of returning credit were not significantly influence towards farmers’ income.

  11. Modified Grice-Green subtalar arthrodesis performed using a partial fibular graft yields satisfactory results in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Melih; Tokyay, Abbas; Akman, Budak; Encan, Mehmet E; Altintaş, Faik

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report the experience with the use of a modified Grice-Green technique, which was performed using a partial subperiosteal fibular bone graft because of valgus unstable foot in children with cerebral palsy. Fifteen feet of 11 patients were evaluated on the basis of the appearance of the feet, clinical symptoms, and radiographic measurements. After an average follow-up duration of 24 (9-39) months, all feet showed satisfactory clinical and radiological results. Solid fusion and sustained correction took place in all feet. The gap at the donor site was bridged with new bone in all cases. No donor-site morbidity was detected. This modification of the Grice-Green technique can be used effectively in the correction of planovalgus foot in cerebral palsy.

  12. Psychiatrists' awareness of partial and nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: results from an Asia–Pacific survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares JM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Jose Manuel Olivares,1 Manickam Thirunavukarasu,2 Jayashri Kulkarni,3 Hong Yan Zhang,4 Mingyuan Zhang,5 Fan Zhang61Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Vigo, Vigo, Spain; 2Department of Psychiatry, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Department of Psychiatry, Monash University and the Alfred Hospital, Prahran, Vic, Australia; 4Department of Psychiatry, Peking University Institute of Mental Health, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 5Department of Psychiatry, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 6Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: Nonadherence is a well-known problem among schizophrenia patients, among whom relapse is fivefold more likely, adversely affecting health, employment, and social functioning. The Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES survey was developed to determine the scope and causes of medication nonadherence in schizophrenia.Methods: The 20-question ADHES survey was distributed to 19,370 psychiatrists in 13 Asia–Pacific countries in January–April 2012, to ascertain psychiatrists' perceptions of antipsychotic medication adherence levels among their schizophrenia patients, reasons for partial/nonadherence, their preferred methods of assessing adherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Responses are reported as mean and range across countries.Results: Four thousand, six hundred sixty one psychiatrists (24% of recipients completed the survey (highest contributors: People's Republic of China, 1854; India, 1616. Psychiatrists perceived that 56% (range, 30%-71% of schizophrenia patients were non- or partially adherent to medication. Patients discontinue medication primarily due to lack of insight into their condition (mean, 37%; 1%–65% and because patients consider medication unnecessary when feeling better (mean, 27%; 15%–68%. Over

  13. Credit scoring for individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria DIMITRIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lending money to different borrowers is profitable, but risky. The profits come from the interest rate and the fees earned on the loans. Banks do not want to make loans to borrowers who cannot repay them. Even if the banks do not intend to make bad loans, over time, some of them can become bad. For instance, as a result of the recent financial crisis, the capability of many borrowers to repay their loans were affected, many of them being on default. That’s why is important for the bank to monitor the loans. The purpose of this paper is to focus on credit scoring main issues. As a consequence of this, we presented in this paper the scoring model of an important Romanian Bank. Based on this credit scoring model and taking into account the last lending requirements of the National Bank of Romania, we developed an assessment tool, in Excel, for retail loans which is presented in the case study.

  14. Introducing the Improved Heaviside Approach to Partial Fraction Decomposition to Undergraduate Students: Results and Implications from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yiu-Kwong

    2012-01-01

    Partial fraction decomposition is a useful technique often taught at senior secondary or undergraduate levels to handle integrations, inverse Laplace transforms or linear ordinary differential equations, etc. In recent years, an improved Heaviside's approach to partial fraction decomposition was introduced and developed by the author. An important…

  15. Results of total lung irradiation and chemotherapy in comparison with partial lung irradiation in metastatic undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, N.; Fuerst, G.; Pape, H.; Bannach, B.; Schmitt, G.; Molls, M.

    1988-07-01

    The poor prognosis of patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcoma is well known. In order to evaluate the beneficial effect of radiotherapy, we have treated 44 patients with pulmonary metastases of grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma from 1980 to 1986. In 36 patients the treatment volume was restricted to the single metastases up to a dose of 50 to 60 (9 to 10 Gy/week). The survival rate at one year was 18% and at two years 6%. Eight patients were treated with a combined regimen, consisting of cisplatin and ifosfamide with simultaneous whole lung irradiation. Irradiation was performed with 8 or 16 MV photons at a hyperfractionation of 2x0,8 Gy/day (8 Gy/week). After a dose of 12 Gy, the single metastases were boosted up to 50 to 60 Gy, with a second course of chemotherapy. In six of eight patients complete remissions were achieved, one patient showed a partial remission. The survival rate at 27 months was 50%. The patients with partial remission died from pulmonary progression at 23 months. One patient died after twelve months from a loco-regional recurrence in the tonsillar fossa without evidence of pulmonary disease. Side effects included alopecia and moderate bone marrow suppression approximately twelve days after each chemotherapy cycle. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed only at the high dose volume without impairment of respiratory function. From these observations the conclusion is drawn that whole lung irradiation simultaneously with cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy provides good palliative results without relevant morbidity in patients with high grade unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcomas.

  16. Medición de la Alfabetización Económica en Niños: Oportunidades Diagnósticas con el Modelo de Crédito Parcial Measurement of Economic Literacy in Children: Diagnostic Opportunities With Partial Credit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gempp

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe el uso del Modelo de Crédito Parcial (MCP para medir Alfabetización Económica en niños, a través de ítems de Elección Múltiple Ordenada (EMO. Elaboramos ítems EMO basados en un modelo piagetano que propone tres niveles progresivos en el desarrollo de conceptos y razonamiento sobre la economía. En el formato EMO, cada una de las posibles alternativas de respuesta estuvo ligada a una etapa cognitiva de desarrollo del pensamiento económico propuesta por la teoría. Los ítems fueron administrados a 1035 niños, entre 10 a 15 años de edad, y calibrados utilizando el MCP. Los resultados muestran tanto la utilidad de los ítems EMO como la eficiencia del MCP como herramientas para puntuar, analizar e interpretar evaluaciones diagnósticas construidas en un marco de referencia piagetano.This paper describes the use of the Partial Credit Model (PCM to measure Economic Literacy in children, with Ordered Multiple-Choice Items (OMC. We developed OMC items based on a Piagetian model that proposes three progressive levels in the development of concepts and reasoning about the economy. In OMC format, each of the possible answer choices was linked to a cognitive stage of economical thinking proposed by the theory. The items were administered to 1035 children, ages 10 to 15 years, and calibrated using the PCM. The results show both the utility of OMC items and the efficiency of PCM as tools for the score, analysis, and interpretation of diagnostic assessments constructed in a Piagetian framework.

  17. Credit Constraints, Political Instability, and Capital Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Risto Herrala; Rima Turk-Ariss

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the complex interactions between credit constraints, political instability, and capital accumulation using a novel approach based on Kiyotaki and Moore’s (1997) theoretical framework. Drawing on a unique firm-level data set from Middle-East and North Africa (MENA), empirical findings point to a large and significant effect of credit conditions on capital accumulation and suggest that continued political unrest worsens credit constraints. The results support the view that financ...

  18. Credit risk transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2003-01-01

    Executive summary Techniques for transferring credit risk, such as financial guarantees and credit insurance, have been a long-standing feature of financial markets. In the past few years, however, the range of credit risk transfer (CRT) instruments and the circumstances in which they are used have widened considerably. A number of factors have contributed to this growth, including: greater focus by banks and other financial institutions on risk management; a more rigorous approach to risk/re...

  19. Modern bank's credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šabović Šerif

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit risk is the most important risk banks have to face with. It occurs due to an obligation created because of debtors' capital and interest rate nonpayment. Debtors obligations non-fulfilment may lead to great losses and insolvency in bank's business. Credit risk is the crucial reason of bank's insolvency. Over 80% of bank's balance sheet is exposed to credit risk.

  20. Lending and Credit Monitoring Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica IOAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The results of a bank’s activities depend to a significant extent on the quality of the credit portfolio that it holds, as well as on the credit tracking and control system. The purpose and functioning of such inter-banking systems differs from one bank to another. Loans require an increasingly efficient type of internal surveillance of activity. Following the clients’ behavior and performances, as well as their entire activity is a particularly important phase and absolutely necessary in the course of a loan. The purpose of this activity is, generally, that of identifying, as early as possible, of clues about any problems that may appear during the course of the loan, so as to make possible, as early as can be, the taking of remedial measures with a view to anticipate the deterioration of the loan’s debt. An open communication between the bank and the loan’s beneficiary is an essential condition for an efficient tracking program. Another basic element is the rigorous and complete filling out of the credit papers. The credit files are the backbone of the of the loan monitoring process because these contain all of the documents which may offer to the credit officer, accounting expert, as well as other interested parties a permanent, chronological record of the loan relation.

  1. Partial ion yield and NEXAFS of 2-(perfluorooctyl)ethanethiol self-assembled monolayer: Comparison with PTFE results

    CERN Document Server

    Setoyama, H; Murase, T; Imamura, M; Mase, K; Okudaira, K K; Hara, M; Ueno, N

    2003-01-01

    Partial-ion-yield (PIY) spectra using ion time-of-flight (TOF) method and near-edge absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra were measured for 2-(perfluorooctyl)ethanethiol [CF sub 3 (CF sub 2) sub 7 (CH sub 2) sub 2 SH] self-assembled monolayer (F8-SAM) on Au(1 1 1) near carbon K-edge. The PIY spectra of the F8-SAM at the magic angle, where -CF sub 3 groups exist at the surface were compared with those of the rubbed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin film. The F sup + intensity from the F8-SAM at the photon energy of the sharp peak of the NEXAFS, which originates from the excitation of C1s electron to sigma sup * (C-F) states at -CF sub 2 - chain, was extremely smaller than that from the rubbed PTFE film. This result clearly indicates that the ions observed by PIY do not originate from the film inside but from the surface. This was confirmed by changes in ion-TOF mass spectra during soft X-ray induced etching of the F8-SAM. The NEXAFS peaks of the F8-SAM were also assigned by considering PIY results.

  2. Preoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results of a Prospective, Phase 2 Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Elizabeth; Kesmodel, Susan B.; Bellavance, Emily; Drogula, Cynthia; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Cohen, Randi J.; Citron, Wendla; Morgan, Michelle; Staats, Paul; Feigenberg, Steven; Regine, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of utilizing 3-dimensional conformal accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) in the preoperative setting followed by standard breast-conserving therapy. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective trial testing the feasibility of preoperative APBI followed by lumpectomy for patients with early-stage invasive ductal breast cancer. Eligible patients had T1-T2 ( 21 days after radiation therapy. Adjuvant therapy was given as per standard of care. Results: Twenty-seven patients completed treatment. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 0.5-5 years), there have been no local or regional failures. A complete pathologic response according to hematoxylin and eosin stains was seen in 4 patients (15%). There were 4 grade 3 seromas. Patient-reported cosmetic outcome was rated as good to excellent in 79% of patients after treatment. Conclusions: Preoperative 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy−APBI is feasible and well tolerated in select patients with early-stage breast cancer, with no reported local recurrences and good to excellent cosmetic results. The pathologic response rates associated with this nonablative APBI dose regimen are particularly encouraging and support further exploration of this paradigm.

  3. Preoperative Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Preliminary Results of a Prospective, Phase 2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Elizabeth, E-mail: Enichols1@umm.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Kesmodel, Susan B.; Bellavance, Emily; Drogula, Cynthia [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tkaczuk, Katherine [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Cohen, Randi J.; Citron, Wendla; Morgan, Michelle [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Staats, Paul [Department of Pathology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Feigenberg, Steven; Regine, William F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of utilizing 3-dimensional conformal accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) in the preoperative setting followed by standard breast-conserving therapy. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective trial testing the feasibility of preoperative APBI followed by lumpectomy for patients with early-stage invasive ductal breast cancer. Eligible patients had T1-T2 (<3 cm), N0 tumors. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions delivered twice daily. Surgery was performed >21 days after radiation therapy. Adjuvant therapy was given as per standard of care. Results: Twenty-seven patients completed treatment. With a median follow-up of 3.6 years (range, 0.5-5 years), there have been no local or regional failures. A complete pathologic response according to hematoxylin and eosin stains was seen in 4 patients (15%). There were 4 grade 3 seromas. Patient-reported cosmetic outcome was rated as good to excellent in 79% of patients after treatment. Conclusions: Preoperative 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy−APBI is feasible and well tolerated in select patients with early-stage breast cancer, with no reported local recurrences and good to excellent cosmetic results. The pathologic response rates associated with this nonablative APBI dose regimen are particularly encouraging and support further exploration of this paradigm.

  4. Who needs credit and who gets credit in Eastern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Popov, A.; Yesin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Based on survey data covering 8,387 firms in 20 countries we compare the access to bank credit for firms in Eastern Europe to that in selected Western European countries. Our analysis reveals five main results. First, the firm-level determinants of the propensity to apply are similar in Eastern and

  5. Credit Participation and Credit Source Selection of Vietnam Small and Medium Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Anh Hoang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the motivation behind the decision to participate in the credit market of SMEs from perspectives of behavioral finance and social capital theories. In addi- tion, the study also examines the effect of behavioral finance and social capital factors on the credit source selection among SMEs. This study’s design strategy involves conducting questionnaire sur- veys to SMEs owners and statistical techniques to analyze the determinants of credit participation and credit source selection of borrowers. The findings showed that personal traits of SMEs owners/ managers in terms of behavioral finance factors such as debt and risk attitudes, present biased and overconfidence and firms networking also have impacts on the firms’ credit participation and credit source selection. The research is one of the few studies that consider the influence of behavioral finance factors on firms financing decision. Furthermore, our result also contributes to explain the common use of informal credit market in developing countries.

  6. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  7. Results of the radiological verification survey of the partial remediation at 90 Avenue C, Lodi, New Jersey (LJ079V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, R.D.; Johnson, C.A.

    1994-02-01

    The property at 90 Avenue C, Lodi, New Jersey is one of the vicinity properties of the former Maywood Chemical Works, Maywood, New Jersey designated for remedial action by the US Department of Energy (DOE). In July 1991, Bechtel National, Inc. performed a partial remedial action on this property. At the request of DOE, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted an independent radiological verification survey in July, 1991 at this site. The purpose of the verification survey was to ensure the effectiveness of remedial actions performed within FUSRAP and to confirm the site's compliance with DOE guidelines. The radiological survey included surface gamma scans indoors and outdoors, ground-level beta-gamma measurements, and systematic and biased soil and material sampling. Results of the verification survey demonstrated that all radiological measurements on the portions of the property that had been remediated were within DOE guidelines. However, there still remains a portion of the property to be remediated that is not covered by this verification survey

  8. [Peripheral refraction and retinal contour in children with myopia by results of refractometry and partial coherence interferometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarutta, E P; Milash, S V; Tarasova, N A; Romanova, L I; Markosian, G A; Epishina, M V

    2014-01-01

    To determine the posterior pole contour of the eye based on the relative peripheral refractive error and relative eye length. A parallel study was performed, which enrolled 38 children (76 eyes) with myopia from -1.25 to -10.82 diopters. The patients underwent peripheral refraction assessment with WR-5100K Binocular Auto Refractometer ("Grand Seiko", Japan) and partial coherence tomography with IOLMaster ("Carl Zeiss", Germany) for the relative eye length in areas located 15 and 30 degrees nasal and temporal from the central fovea along the horizontal meridian. In general, refractometry and interferometry showed high coincidence of defocus signs and values for the areas located 15 and 30 degrees nasal as well as 15 degrees temporal from the fovea. However, in 41% of patients defocus signs determined by the two methods mismatched in one or more areas. Most of the mismatch cases were mild myopia. We suppose that such a mismatch is caused by optical peculiarities of the anterior eye segment that have an impact on refractometry results.

  9. Credit Risk Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamore, Stephen; Ohene Djan, Kwame; Alon, Ilan

    2018-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of scholarly research on credit risk measurement during the last 57 years applying bibliometric citation analysis and elaborates an agenda for future research. The bibliography is compiled using the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web...... of Science (WOS) database and includes all articles with citations over the period 1960–2016. Specifically, the review is carried out using 1695 articles across 72 countries published in 442 journals by 2928 authors. The findings suggest that credit risk research is multifaceted and can be classified...... into six streams: (1) defaultable security pricing, (2) default intensity modeling, (3) comparative analysis of credit models, (4) comparative analysis of credit markets, (5) credit default swap (CDS) pricing, and (6) loan loss provisions. The article contributes through synthesizing and identifying...

  10. Accelerated partial breast irradiation in the elderly: 5-year results of high-dose rate multi-catheter brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genebes, Caroline; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Chand, Marie-Eve; Gal, Jocelyn; Gautier, Mathieu; Raoust, Ines; Ihrai, Tarik; Courdi, Adel; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Peyrottes, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate clinical outcome after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) in the elderly after high-dose-rate interstitial multi-catheter brachytherapy (HIBT). Between 2005 and 2013, 70 patients underwent APBI using HIBT. Catheter implant was performed intra or post-operatively (referred patients) after lumpectomy and axillary sentinel lymph node dissection. Once the pathological results confirmed the indication of APBI, planification CT-scan was performed to deliver 34 Gy/10f/5d or 32 Gy/8f/4d. Dose-volume adaptation was manually achieved (graphical optimization). Dosimetric results and clinical outcome were retrospectively analyzed. Physician cosmetic evaluation was reported. With a median follow-up of 60.9 months [4.6 – 90.1], median age was 80.7 years [62 – 93.1]. Regarding APBI ASTRO criteria, 61.4%, 18.6% and 20% were classified as suitable, cautionary and non-suitable respectively. Axillary sentinel lymph node dissection was performed in 94.3%; 8 pts (11.5%) presented an axillary involvement. A median dose of 34 Gy [32 – 35] in 8 to 10 fractions was delivered. Median CTV was 75.2 cc [16.9 – 210], median D90 EQD2 was 43.3 Gy [35 – 72.6] and median DHI was 0.54 [0.19 – 0.74]. One patient experienced ipsilateral recurrence (5-year local free recurrence rate: 97.6%. Five-year specific and overall survival rates were 97.9% and 93.2% respectively. Thirty-four patients (48%) presented 47 late complications classified grade 1 (80.8%) and grade 2 (19.2%) with no grade ≥ 3. Cosmetic results were considered excellent/good for 67 pts (95.7%). APBI using HIBT and respecting strict rules of implantation and planification, represents a smart alternative between no post-operative irradiation and whole breast irradiation delivered over 6 consecutive weeks

  11. Toxicity and cosmetic result of partial breast high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for conservatively operated early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu Xia; Tripuraneni Prabhakar; Giap Huan; Lin Ray; Chu Colin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Objective To study the method, side effects and cosmetic outcome of high- dose-rate (HDR) accelerated partial breast interstitial irradiation (APBI) alone in early stage breast cancer' after conservative surgery. Methods: From February 2002 to June 2003,47 breast cancer lesions from 46 patients suffering from stage I/II breast cancer were treated with HDR 192 Ir APBI after conservative surgery. All patients were over 40 year-old, with T1-2N0-1 (≤3 lymph nodes positive), surgical margin > 1-2 mm, but those having lobular or inflammatory breast cancer were excluded. HDR brachytherapy with 34 Gy, 10 fractions/5 days was used after surgery, toxic reaction and cosmetic outcome were observed in one month, 6 and 12 months respectively. Results: Follow up of 1846 months, 34 months was carried out for the whole group. During the treatment, acute reactions including: erythema, edema, tenderness and infection, all under I-II grade, none of III-IV grade were observed in 21 patients(46%); late toxicity reactions: skin fibrosis, breast tenderness, fat necrosis, and telangiectasia, totally 20 patients (43%) were observed: 2 patients in III grade but one patient received 6 cycle chemotherapy. The result of cosmetic outcome evaluation was excellent or good, at 6 months 95% and 12 months 98%, respectively, but there was no recurfence. Conclusions: Excellent and favorable cosmetic results are noted after APBI by interstitial alone. Acute and late reactions are few. Long term observation is necessary for the rate of' local control. (authors)

  12. MANAGEMENT OF CREDIT LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Anoshkina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of credit loss management topical for modern Russian science and banking practice. The bank’s lending activity is an integral and the most profitable sphere of banking activity. Banks need to take credit risks inherent in their core business and minimize their impact through the establishment of advanced risk management systems. The study, reflected in the present paper, has been conducted in order to determine approaches to the organization of credit loss management in banking. Analysis of the system of management of credit risks and credit losses has shown that they have different scope, object and purpose. In this connection, there is an objective necessity to create a special subsystem for the management of credit losses in banks. On the basis of common bank approaches to credit risk management, the paper develops models of credit loss management: a multi-level management model in the area of ‘operational-tactical-strategic management’ and a functional management model in the area of ‘technology-execution-control’. These models are important for the modern theory and practice of banking, as they allow the bank to manage credit losses on the entire time horizon of the management process, thus opening a wide range of opportunities for the creation and implementation of large-scale programs, as well as specific techniques. This study allows drawing a conclusion about the need to consider control credit losses as a strictly regulated multi-level process, in which each division is assigned with specific objectives, tasks, functions, formally enshrined in the relevant lists, job descriptions and other legal documents.

  13. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 215 - Section 5200 of the Revised Statutes Total Loans and Extensions of Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... extensions of credit and not upon any full or partial recourse endorsement or guarantee by the transferor... Loans and Extensions of Credit Appendix to Part 215 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... Statutes Total Loans and Extensions of Credit (a)(1) The total loans and extensions of credit by a national...

  14. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  15. Are Credit Shocks Supply or Demand Shocks?

    OpenAIRE

    Bijapur, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides new insights into the relationship between the supply of credit and the macroeconomy. We present evidence that credit shocks constitute shocks to aggregate supply in that they have a permanent effect on output and cause inflation to rise in the short term. Our results also suggest that the effects on aggregate supply have grown stronger in recent decades.

  16. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 results in delayed liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Haixin; Zhang, Hong; Wu, Xunwei

    2009-01-01

    Cdc42, a member of the Rho guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) family, plays important roles in the regulation of the cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, cell polarity, and cellular transport, but little is known about its specific function in mammalian liver. We investigated the function of Cdc42...... in regulating liver regeneration. Using a mouse model with liver-specific knockout of Cdc42 (Cdc42LK), we studied liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Histological analysis, immunostaining, and western blot analysis were performed to characterize Cdc42LK livers and to explore the role of Cdc42 in liver...... regeneration. In control mouse livers, Cdc42 became activated between 3 and 24 hours after partial hepatectomy. Loss of Cdc42 led to a significant delay of liver recovery after partial hepatectomy, which was associated with reduced and delayed DNA synthesis indicated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining...

  17. Partial sequence homogenization in the 5S multigene families may generate sequence chimeras and spurious results in phylogenetic reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galián, José A; Rosato, Marcela; Rosselló, Josep A

    2014-03-01

    Multigene families have provided opportunities for evolutionary biologists to assess molecular evolution processes and phylogenetic reconstructions at deep and shallow systematic levels. However, the use of these markers is not free of technical and analytical challenges. Many evolutionary studies that used the nuclear 5S rDNA gene family rarely used contiguous 5S coding sequences due to the routine use of head-to-tail polymerase chain reaction primers that are anchored to the coding region. Moreover, the 5S coding sequences have been concatenated with independent, adjacent gene units in many studies, creating simulated chimeric genes as the raw data for evolutionary analysis. This practice is based on the tacitly assumed, but rarely tested, hypothesis that strict intra-locus concerted evolution processes are operating in 5S rDNA genes, without any empirical evidence as to whether it holds for the recovered data. The potential pitfalls of analysing the patterns of molecular evolution and reconstructing phylogenies based on these chimeric genes have not been assessed to date. Here, we compared the sequence integrity and phylogenetic behavior of entire versus concatenated 5S coding regions from a real data set obtained from closely related plant species (Medicago, Fabaceae). Our results suggest that within arrays sequence homogenization is partially operating in the 5S coding region, which is traditionally assumed to be highly conserved. Consequently, concatenating 5S genes increases haplotype diversity, generating novel chimeric genotypes that most likely do not exist within the genome. In addition, the patterns of gene evolution are distorted, leading to incorrect haplotype relationships in some evolutionary reconstructions.

  18. Islamic Banking Existence and Domestic Credit: Study at Seven Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Yuafi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the determinants of domestic credit across a wide range of 7 countries; these are United Kingdom, Malaysia, Egypt, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and Indonesia. We use dynamic panel estimation to examine effects of exchange rate, inflation, lending interest rate, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking on domestic credit. We obtain several notable empirical results. First, the lending interest rate, banking crisis negatively and insignificantly contribute to domestic credit. The existence of Islamic bank has positive and insignificant contribution to domestic credit, while exchange rate positively and significantly contributes to domestic credit.  Inflation negatively and significantly contributes to domestic credit. Second, banking crisis and existence of wholesale Islamic banking show insignificant effect on domestic credit. Third, we find that today’s domestic credit is depended on domestic credit in the previous year.DOI: 10.15408/aiq9i2.4906

  19. Trust and Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    The present paper is an answer to the question, how did trust and credit emerge. The systems of trust and credit reduce the environmental and contextual complexities in which trust and credit are embedded. The paper analyses the forms of this reduction in a number of stages in the evolution...... of history from the present risk of modern systems back to early modernity, the Reformation and the high medieval Revolutions in law, organization and theology. It is not a history of economics, but a history of the conditions of some communication codes used in economic systems....

  20. Credit Risk Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David

    Credit risk is today one of the most intensely studied topics in quantitative finance. This book provides an introduction and overview for readers who seek an up-to-date reference to the central problems of the field and to the tools currently used to analyze them. The book is aimed at researchers...... and students in finance, at quantitative analysts in banks and other financial institutions, and at regulators interested in the modeling aspects of credit risk. David Lando considers the two broad approaches to credit risk analysis: that based on classical option pricing models on the one hand...

  1. Credit risk management in banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pětníková, Tereza

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...

  2. Credit derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Rancière

    2002-01-01

    Credit Derivatives are securities that offer protection against credit or default risk of bonds or loans. The credit derivatives emerging market has grown rapidly and credit derivatives are widely used. This paper describes the emerging credit derivatives market structure. The current market activity is analyzed through elementary pricing dynamics and the study of the term structure of default risk. Focusing on the performance of credit derivatives in stress situation, including legal and mar...

  3. Impact of Costing and Cost Analysis Methods on the Result of the Period: Methods Based on Partial Cost Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma Maria

    2017-01-01

    Looking from this perspective, in the present paper we have proposed that objectives, to approach the full cost calculation methods based on partial costs (direct-costing on the product or direct-costing evolved, and comparing them to determine the effect they have on the outcome of the period.

  4. Public Service? Tax Credits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, Albert

    1982-01-01

    Acknowledges the good work of private schools but resists the provision of further direct or indirect government aid to these schools. Argues that tax credits will adversely affect public education and American society. (Author/WD)

  5. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  6. Forecasting the value of credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Shakila; Ahmad, Noryati; Jaffar, Maheran Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring system plays an important role in banking sector. This process is important in assessing the creditworthiness of customers requesting credit from banks or other financial institutions. Usually, the credit scoring is used when customers send the application for credit facilities. Based on the score from credit scoring, bank will be able to segregate the "good" clients from "bad" clients. However, in most cases the score is useful at that specific time only and cannot be used to forecast the credit worthiness of the same applicant after that. Hence, bank will not know if "good" clients will always be good all the time or "bad" clients may become "good" clients after certain time. To fill up the gap, this study proposes an equation to forecast the credit scoring of the potential borrowers at a certain time by using the historical score related to the assumption. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) is used to measure the accuracy of the forecast scoring. Result shows the forecast scoring is highly accurate as compared to actual credit scoring.

  7. CONTINGENCIES FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE CREDIT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela BARBULESCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Global Financial Crisis, which affected various banks, some of them very important banks, highlighted the importance of an accurate credit risk measurement in order to be able to overcome it. There are a variety of such credit risk measurement models, so we can say that banks face a real dilemma when having to choose the most appropriate one. The aim of this paper is to examine the most popular methods used to measure the credit risk and to identify the strengths and the weaknesses of each one of it. The research was accomplished from a double perspective, in which the conceptual methodological approach is correlated to a variety of references to practical actions aiming the measurement and the prevention of credit risk. The study includes the presentation of the objectives of credit risk analysis, the most appropriate moments for doing such an analysis, the steps that have to be done in order to measure the credit risk, the errors that can overcome in the credit risk measurement system, generated by the misclassifications of the studied company, and the presentation of the specific information of financial creditors. The findings expressed in this paper were mainly the result of a qualitative analysis which showed that there is no best model for credit risk measurement, each one having both strengths and weaknesses, some providing a comprehensive analysis of the individual customer’s financial strength others allowing banks permanently monitor fluctuating default risk and identify the possibly problems at an early stage.

  8. Credit scoring analysis using kernel discriminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiharih, T.; Mukid, M. A.; Mustafid

    2018-05-01

    Credit scoring model is an important tool for reducing the risk of wrong decisions when granting credit facilities to applicants. This paper investigate the performance of kernel discriminant model in assessing customer credit risk. Kernel discriminant analysis is a non- parametric method which means that it does not require any assumptions about the probability distribution of the input. The main ingredient is a kernel that allows an efficient computation of Fisher discriminant. We use several kernel such as normal, epanechnikov, biweight, and triweight. The models accuracy was compared each other using data from a financial institution in Indonesia. The results show that kernel discriminant can be an alternative method that can be used to determine who is eligible for a credit loan. In the data we use, it shows that a normal kernel is relevant to be selected for credit scoring using kernel discriminant model. Sensitivity and specificity reach to 0.5556 and 0.5488 respectively.

  9. Solar tax credits: the U.S. experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallmen Smith, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    From 1978 to 1985, the U.S. Federal government used income tax credits to induce taxpayers to purchase residential solar energy devices. These credits resulted in a significant number of households installing solar devices during the credit period but subsequently devastated the solar industry. Numerous structural problems with the credits and the failure to address important issues in the legislation led to this result. (Author)

  10. Can Repeat Injection Provide Clinical Benefit in Patients with Lumbosacral Diseases When First Epidural Injection Results Only in Partial Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-02-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for lower back or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after a single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of repeat injections in cumulative clinical pain reduction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than that provided by intermittent injection performed only when pain was aggravated. An Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved retrospective chart review. Spine hospital. Two hundred and four patients who had underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of lower back and radicular pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed-up for one year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (NRS = 3 after first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 96) comprised partial responders who did not receive a repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received repeat injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data including total number of injections during one year, duration of NRS group A, or after first injection in group B (time to reinjection), were assessed. These data were compared between groups A and B in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, the mean time to reinjection was 6.09 ± 3.02 months in group A and 3.69 ± 2.07 months in group B. The NRS groups A and B, respectively. In HIVD patients, the mean time to reinjection was 5.82 ± 3.23 months in group A and 3.84 ± 2.34 months in group B, and NRS groups A and B, respectively. In SS patients, the mean time to

  11. Psychiatrists' awareness of partial and nonadherence to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia: results from an Asia-Pacific survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Jose Manuel; Thirunavukarasu, Manickam; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Zhang, Hong Yan; Zhang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Nonadherence is a well-known problem among schizophrenia patients, among whom relapse is fivefold more likely, adversely affecting health, employment, and social functioning. The Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was developed to determine the scope and causes of medication nonadherence in schizophrenia. The 20-question ADHES survey was distributed to 19,370 psychiatrists in 13 Asia-Pacific countries in January-April 2012, to ascertain psychiatrists' perceptions of antipsychotic medication adherence levels among their schizophrenia patients, reasons for partial/nonadherence, their preferred methods of assessing adherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Responses are reported as mean and range across countries. Four thousand, six hundred sixty one psychiatrists (24% of recipients) completed the survey (highest contributors: People's Republic of China, 1854; India, 1616). Psychiatrists perceived that 56% (range, 30%-71%) of schizophrenia patients were non- or partially adherent to medication. Patients discontinue medication primarily due to lack of insight into their condition (mean, 37%; 1%-65%) and because patients consider medication unnecessary when feeling better (mean, 27%; 15%-68%). Over half of psychiatrists (mean, 55%; 42%-99%) assess medication adherence at every visit, almost exclusively (81%) by asking their patients, versus quantitative measures. One in three psychiatrists expressed their preference to switch to or add a long-acting antipsychotic to improve adherence (15%-82%). The substantial prevalence of partial/nonadherence to medication demonstrates that more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia is needed to improve adherence and thereby treatment outcomes. Registration of this study was not required.

  12. Medical Comorbidity of Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in United States Adults: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined associations between lifetime trauma exposures, PTSD and partial PTSD, and past-year medical conditions in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 participants in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of trauma exposure, PTSD and partial PTSD with respondent-reported medical diagnoses. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid Axis I and II disorders, respondents with full PTSD were more likely than traumatized respondents without full or partial PTSD (comparison group) to report diagnoses of diabetes mellitus, noncirrhotic liver disease, angina pectoris, tachycardia, hypercholesterolemia, other heart disease, stomach ulcer, HIV seropositivity, gastritis, and arthritis (odds ratios [ORs]=1.2-2.5). Respondents with partial PTSD were more likely than the comparison group to report past-year diagnoses of stomach ulcer, angina pectoris, tachycardia, and arthritis (ORs=1.3-1.6). Men with full and partial PTSD were more likely than controls to report diagnoses of hypertension (both ORs=1.6), and both men and women with PTSD (ORs=1.8 and 1.6, respectively), and men with partial PTSD (OR=2.0) were more likely to report gastritis. Total number of lifetime traumatic event types was associated with many assessed medical conditions (ORs=1.04-1.16), reducing the magnitudes and rendering non-significant some of the associations between PTSD status and medical conditions. Conclusions Greater lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD are associated with numerous medical conditions, many of which are stress-related and chronic, in U.S. adults. Partial PTSD is associated with intermediate odds of some of these conditions. PMID:21949429

  13. KARAKTERISTIK PERUSAHAAN DAN CREDIT RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Wahdani Permanasari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of characteristic of firm to the level of creditrisk. Characteristics of the firm is proxied by size, leverage, spread ownership, net profit margin,return on equity, industry type and scope of the company’s operations. Measurement of level creditrisk uses PT Pefindo bond rating. Annual reports of listed companies in PT Pefindo and IndonesiaStock Exchange (IDX 2010-2011 are collected based on purposive sampling techniques. Thepopulation is 238 companies. Sample used amounted to 84 companies. The analysis model usedin this study is multiple linear regression. Results of this study indicate that the level of corporatecredit risk in Indonesia is high because it is below the 50.00%. The test result of multiple regressionshowed that firm of characteristic affect the level of credit risk. Firm characteristics that affectthe level of credit risk are size, leverage, dispersion of ownership, net profit margin and returnon equity.

  14. Credit Card Attitudes and Behaviors of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, S.-H.; Grable, J. E.; Bagwell, D. C.

    2005-01-01

    At a southwestern public university, 242 students responded to a questionnaire about their credit-card use and attitudes. The results revealed that about 70 percent of the students held one or more credit cards, and about 10 percent had five or more credit cards. Twenty-two percent never kept copies of their charge slips, and only 49 percent paid…

  15. EXPLANATION OF VARIATION IN DEMAND FOR FARM CREDIT IN MISSOURI

    OpenAIRE

    Ashlock, Tara; Rimal, Arbindra

    2004-01-01

    The study analyzed the demand for farm credit in Missouri. Results suggested that financial leverage, government payments, occupation of farm operators, average farm acreages, value of land and buildings and types of farm operation had significant influence on farm credit usage. The study highlighted the potential for credit rationing.

  16. Latinos in the Credit Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Access to consumer credit as a means of building wealth is one of the least examined forms of social inequality. The recent economic crisis in the United States has brought attention to the significance of consumer credit in our nation's economy; however, less understood are the specific obstacles and barriers that prevent low-income individuals from reaching the "American Dream." In an exploratory manner, this study compared credit access, credit literacy, and credit experience of low-income...

  17. Credit derivatives and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Michael S. Gibson

    2007-01-01

    The striking growth of credit derivatives suggests that market participants find them to be useful tools for risk management. I illustrate the value of credit derivatives with three examples. A commercial bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risk of its loan portfolio. An investment bank can use credit derivatives to manage the risks it incurs when underwriting securities. An investor, such as an insurance company, asset manager, or hedge fund, can use credit derivatives to align its...

  18. Models of Credit Risk Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Hagiu Alina

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk is defined as that risk of financial loss caused by failure by the counterparty. According to statistics, for financial institutions, credit risk is much important than market risk, reduced diversification of the credit risk is the main cause of bank failures. Just recently, the banking industry began to measure credit risk in the context of a portfolio along with the development of risk management started with models value at risk (VAR). Once measured, credit risk can be diversif...

  19. Familial partial lipodystrophy phenotype resulting from a single-base mutation in deoxyribonucleic acid-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monajemi, Houshang; Zhang, Lin; Li, Gang; Jeninga, Ellen H.; Cao, Henian; Maas, Mario; Brouwer, C. B.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Stroes, Erik; Hegele, Robert A.; Leff, Todd

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) results from coding sequence mutations either in LMNA, encoding nuclear lamin A/C, or in PPARG, encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). The LMNA form is called FPLD2 (MIM 151660) and the PPARG form is called FPLD3 (MIM

  20. Credit Card Selection Criteria: Singapore Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Lydia L. Gan; Ramin Cooper Maysami

    2006-01-01

    This study used factor analysis to examine credit card selection criteria among Singaporeans. The results showed that convenience of use and protection, economics, and flexibility were the main drivers, while the reputation of card was the least important in determining credit card selection in Singapore. Demographic results showed that high-income earners, the better educated, the elderly, married and the professional preferred the convenience-protection factor to the economic-promotional fa...

  1. Credit risk assessment: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghodrati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring different risk factors such as credit risk in banking industry has been an interesting area of studies. The artificial neural network is a nonparametric method developed to succeed for measuring credit risk and this method is applied to measure the credit risk. This research’s neural network follows back propagation paradigm, which enables it to use historical data for predicting future values with very good out of sample fitting. Macroeconomic variables including GDP, exchange rate, inflation rate, stock price index, and M2 are used to forecast credit risk for two Iranian banks; namely Saderat and Sarmayeh over the period 2007-2011. Research data are being tested for ADF and Causality Granger tests before entering the ANN to achieve the best lag structure for the research model. MSE and R values for the developed ANN in this research respectively are 86×〖10〗^(-4 and 0.9885, respectively. The results showed that ANN was able to predict banks’ credit risk with low error. Sensibility analyses which has accomplished on this research’s ANN corroborates that M2 has the highest effect on the ANN’s credit risk and should be considered as an additional leading indicator by Iran’s banking authorities. These matters confirm validation of macroeconomic notions in Iran’s credit systematic risk.

  2. Acquired Credit Unions: Drivers of Takeover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raymond Sant

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study acquired credit unions and analyze their financial performance up to six years prior to merger, on a quarterly basis. The primary focus is on balance sheet (asset liability management and profitability variables (return on assets. We find that acquired credit unions during the period 2008 (third quarter to 2014 (first quarter experienced negative return on assets for several quarters prior to their takeover. This was the result of a declining loan portfolio and increasing charge offs. In spite of decreasing lending activity, such credit unions continued to increase their deposits, i.e., adding to their cost base. Due to declining loans, their net interest margin as a proportion of deposits was also in decline. We argue that this is an indicator of poor management ability. Furthermore, our analysis finds that operating expenses were increasing over time, something that has been documented in previous literature also for smaller credit unions and is attributable to lack of economies of scale. The average asset size of the acquired credit unions in our sample is about $22 million just before acquisition. We attribute our findings to poor business strategy followed by such credit unions. We also conclude that signs of trouble are evident up to two years before merger on average and regulatory policy may have to become more proactive to manage the consolidation challenge faced by the credit union industry in general.

  3. Joint replenishment and credit policies under two levels of trade credit financing when demand and bad-debt loss depends upon credit period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarawal K.K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, a firm usually receives trade credit financing from its supplier on the purchase of inventory. Similarly, in order to meet competition and generate credit sales over and above cash sales, the firm also gives credit period to their customers. However, the decision of granting credit period may have a disintegrating effect on cash sales apart from generating new credit sales because some of the cash customers may switch to credit purchase. In addition, despite of the best credit granting policies and collection practices, the firm may incurs some amount of bad debt losses because a certain fraction of buyers will undoubtedly be unable to pay off their debt obligations and become bad debt loss to the firm. In this paper, using discounted cash flow (DCF approach, a mathematical model is developed to jointly determine optimal inventory and credit policies under two levels of trade credit financing when demand and bad-debt losses are dependent on credit period. The objective of the model is to maximize the present value of firm’s net profit per unit time by jointly optimizing the replenishment interval and date-terms credit period. Numerical examples and sensitivity analysis are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model, and the results are discussed.

  4. Recommendations for Alternative Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenderman, Ed; And Others

    Following a review of the mathematics topics taught in accounting, electronics, auto, food and clothing, and metals courses at Linn-Benton Community College, Albany, Oregon, recommendations were made to grant one semester of mathematics credit for completing a two-year sequence of these courses. The other required semester of mathematics should be…

  5. Earned Income Tax Credit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.M. van Oers; R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn recent policy discussions in the Netherlands, the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) has been put forward as an effective instrument to reduce the unemployment rate among low-skilled workers. Using the MIMIC model, this article shows that a targeted EITC at low incomes indeed seems

  6. Waiting for tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinkopf, K.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the effect of tax credits and related legislation under consideration by Congress on the economics of the renewable energy industry. The topics discussed in the article include conflicting industry opinion on financial incentives, the effectiveness of current incentives, and alternative approaches. The article also includes a sidebar on tax incentives offered by state programs

  7. CO2 credit or energy credit in emission trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, E.

    2002-01-01

    Emission trading is a good concept and approach to tackle global warming. However, what ''currency'' or ''credit'' should be used in the trading has remained a debatable topic. This paper proposed an ''Energy Credit'' concept as an alternative to the ''CO 2 credit'' that is currently in place. From the thermodynamic point of view, the global warming problem is an ''energy balance'' problem. The energy credit concept is thought to be more thermodynamically correct and tackles the core of the global warming problem more directly. The Energy credit concept proposed can be defined as: the credit to offset the extra energy trapped/absorbed in the earth (and its atmosphere) due to the extra anthropogenic emission (or other activities) by a country or company. A couple of examples are given in the paper to demonstrate the concept of the Energy credit and its advantages over the CO 2 credit concept. (author)

  8. The Alchemy of CDO Credit Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Efraim Benmelech; Jennifer Dlugosz

    2009-01-01

    Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLOs) were one of the largest and fastest growing segments of the structured finance market, fueling the 2003-2007 boom in syndicated loans and leveraged buyouts. The credit crisis brought CLO issuance to a halt, and as a result the leveraged loan market dried up. Similar to other structured finance products, investors in CLOs rely heavily on credit rating provided by the rating agencies, yet little is known about CLO rating practices. This paper attempts to f...

  9. Introduction of Credit Derivatives and Valuation of Credit Default Swap

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Lu

    2006-01-01

    The credit derivative market was established at the beginning of the 1990s since the emergence of credit derivatives fits the rapid development of the whole derivatives market. However, compare to other derivative market, this market is still small and incomplete. As with other derivatives, credit derivatives can be used to either take more risk or hedge it, hence various credit derivatives instruments are accepted and widely used by market participants such as banks, insurance companies, etc...

  10. Determinants of Trade Credit: A Preliminary Analysis on Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a preliminary analysis of the correlations between trade credit and some selected measures of financial performance for a sample of 958 firms acting in the construction sector. The examined period covers 2004-2013. The sample derived from Amadeus database contains firms that have sold and bought on credit. Results showed that larger firms offered and used more credit than counterparties. Firms offered and used in same time credit, but not in same level. Firms with higher return on assets and profit margin used and offered less credit from suppliers, respectively to clients. Moreover, more liquid firms used less trade payables.

  11. Augmented reality: a new tool to improve surgical accuracy during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy? Preliminary in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teber, Dogu; Guven, Selcuk; Simpfendörfer, Tobias; Baumhauer, Mathias; Güven, Esref Oguz; Yencilek, Faruk; Gözen, Ali Serdar; Rassweiler, Jens

    2009-08-01

    Use of an augmented reality (AR)-based soft tissue navigation system in urologic laparoscopic surgery is an evolving technique. To evaluate a novel soft tissue navigation system developed to enhance the surgeon's perception and to provide decision-making guidance directly before initiation of kidney resection for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Custom-designed navigation aids, a mobile C-arm capable of cone-beam imaging, and a standard personal computer were used. The feasibility and reproducibility of inside-out tracking principles were evaluated in a porcine model with an artificially created intraparenchymal tumor in vitro. The same algorithm was then incorporated into clinical practice during LPN. Evaluation of a fully automated inside-out tracking system was repeated in exactly the same way for 10 different porcine renal units. Additionally, 10 patients underwent retroperitoneal LPNs under manual AR guidance by one surgeon. The navigation errors and image-acquisition times were determined in vitro. The mean operative time, time to locate the tumor, and positive surgical margin were assessed in vivo. The system was able to navigate and superpose the virtually created images and real-time images with an error margin of only 0.5 mm, and fully automated initial image acquisition took 40 ms. The mean operative time was 165 min (range: 135-195 min), and mean time to locate the tumor was 20 min (range: 13-27 min). None of the cases required conversion to open surgery. Definitive histology revealed tumor-free margins in all 10 cases. This novel AR tracking system proved to be functional with a reasonable margin of error and image-to-image registration time. Mounting the pre- or intraoperative imaging properties on real-time videoendoscopic images in a real-time manner will simplify and increase the precision of laparoscopic procedures.

  12. Emission credits : what are they worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilman, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    The current cost of making a carbon transaction was discussed with particular reference to a time-line when emissions trading will become more cost-effective and streamlined for quicker results. This paper described how companies are dealing with the risk of emissions trading in terms of pricing and the expected financial impacts of owning a new commodity. The incorporation of emissions credits and trading activities into a company's balance sheet was also described in terms of how banks will consider a company's credit when calculating their loan potential. It was noted that some credits will be valued higher than others based on their historical background. The financial impact that credits have on company assets was addressed in terms of measuring reputation management. The importance of developing a financial plan for effective management was emphasized in terms of evaluating emissions reduction projects and future options. 17 refs., 2 figs

  13. Consumer Handbook to Credit Protection Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    The five sections of this consumer handbook are The Cost of Credit, Applying for Credit, Credit Histories and Records, Correcting Credit Mistakes, and Complaining about Credit. Each section discusses relevant legislation: Truth in Lending, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Topics discussed in section I include…

  14. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  15. Partial dispensability of Djp1's J domain in peroxisomal protein import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results from genetic redundancy with another class II J protein, Caj1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobriyal, Neha; Tripathi, Prerna; Sarkar, Susrita; Tak, Yogesh; Verma, Amit K; Sahi, Chandan

    2017-05-01

    J proteins are obligate co-chaperones of Hsp70s. Via their signature J domain, all J proteins interact with their partner Hsp70s and stimulate their weak ATPase activity, which is vital for Hsp70 functions. The dependency of J proteins on their J domain is such that mutations in critical amino acids in the J domain often results into a null phenotype for a particular J protein. Here, we show that the J domain of Djp1, a cytosolic J protein important for peroxisomal protein import in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is partially dispensable. A complete deletion of Djp1 J domain resulted into only partial loss in peroxisomal protein import function. Instead, the C-terminal domain of Djp1 was found to be essential for proper localization of the peroxisomal targeted GFP-PTS1. Furthermore, we show that Caj1, another cytosolic J protein, also has some role in peroxisomal protein import. Caj1 was found to be partially redundant with Djp1 as cells lacking both Djp1 and Caj1 resulted into a much more severe defect in GFP-PTS1 localization. Based on these results, we propose that dispensability of J domains could be attributed to genetic redundancy between different J proteins sharing common structural topology and cellular localization.

  16. Dynamic Diversification in Corporate Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Jin, Xisong

    We characterize diversification in corporate credit using a new class of dynamic copula models which can capture dynamic dependence and asymmetry in large samples of firms. We also document important differences between credit spread and equity return dependence dynamics. Modeling a decade...... the crisis and remain high as well. The most important shocks to credit dependence occur in August of 2007 and in August of 2011, but interestingly these dates are not associated with significant changes to median credit spreads....

  17. Elaboration of an SPSS program for the analysis of clinical results of radiotherapy and chemotherapy after partial synchronisation of the cell cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopp, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy after partial synchronisation are carried out at the radiotherapy centre of Charlottenburg hospital. At the end of August, 1974, 214 patients had been treated according to this principle. For a more efficient evaluation of the therapeutical results, electronic data processing was employed for the first time. In particular, pieces of information and new therapeutical findings will be transmitted to a central unit on punched cards via a data display station. (orig./AJ) [de

  18. DELPHI results on the Z0 → bb-bar partial width and on the average B hadrons semileptonic branching ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.

    1992-05-01

    Results from DELPHI on the Z 0 → bb-bar partial width (Γ ( bb-bar)) and on the average B hadron semileptonic branching ratio (B s.l. ) are reviewed. Prospects are given for improving these measurements, using different complementary techniques. A new and potentially powerful method for extracting the branching ratio R b with minimal errors is suggested, based on using the redundancy provided by two independent discriminators for bb-bar events. (R.P.) 12 refs., 3 figs

  19. Are carbon credits effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Is it possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by assigning a value to CO 2 ? That's the concept behind carbon credits. Their advantage: they set targets but let companies decide how to meet them. Of all the processes that can be used to reduce air pollution, the cap and trade system is the best way to meet global targets on a national or continental scale. The system's efficiency is based on setting a ceiling for emissions: this is the cap. The emissions quotas are negotiable goods that can be traded on a market: this is the 'trade'. No company can exceed its quotas, but it can choose how to meet them: decreasing its emissions by changing its production processes, buying carbon credits sold by companies that have exceeded their targets, or using clean development mechanisms. For a carbon credit system to function correctly on an economic level, it's essential to meet one condition: don't allocate too many emissions quotas to the companies involved. If they receive too many quotas, it's not hard for them to meet their objectives without changing their production processes. The supply of carbon credits currently exceeds demand. The price per ton of CO 2 is collapsing, and companies that have exceeded their targets are not rewarded for their efforts. Efficient though it may be, the cap and trade system cannot be the only way to fight CO 2 emissions. In Europe, it presently covers 40% of the CO 2 emissions by targeting utilities and industries that consume the most fossil fuels. But it cannot be extended to some sectors where pollution is diffuse. In transportation, for example, it's not possible to impose such a requirement. For that sector, as well as for the building sector, a suitable system of taxes might be effective and incentive

  20. The African Credit Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H. Baltagi; Panicos O. Demetriades; David Fielding

    2010-01-01

    We put forward a plausible explanation of African financial underdevelopment in the form of a bad credit market equilibrium. Utilising an appropriately modified IO model of banking, we show that the root of the problem could be unchecked moral hazard (strategic loan defaults) or adverse selection (a lack of good projects). We provide empirical evidence from a large panel of African banks which suggests that loan defaults are a major factor inhibiting bank lending when the quality of regulatio...

  1. Credit scoring methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtek, Martin; Kočenda, Evžen

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2006), s. 152-167 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : banking sector * credit scoring * discrimination analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1050_s_152_167.pdf

  2. Follow Up: Credit Card Caution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Timothy P.

    2007-01-01

    In "Pushing Plastic," ("The New England Journal of Higher Education", Summer 2007), John Humphrey notes that many college administrators justify their credit card solicitations by suggesting that credit card access will help students learn to manage their own finances. Instead, credit card debt will teach thousands of students…

  3. Intertemporal consumption and credit constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    There is continuing controversy over the importance of credit constraints. This paper investigates whether total household expenditure and debt is affected by an exogenous increase in access to credit provided by a credit market reform that enabled Danish house owners to use housing equity...

  4. The Supply of Trade Credit by Brazilian Publicly Traded Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Felipe Schiozer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of trade credit supply by Brazilian publicly traded companies between the years of 2005 and 2008. International literature (both theoretical and empirical documents that the main determinants of trade credit supply are the size of the firm and the size of its debt. Both indicate that the availability of resources to the firm is an important factor for the supply of trade credit. In addition, the literature confirms strategic uses of trade credit such as those for price discrimination purposes. The results obtained using a sample of 157 Brazilian companies do not support that size and indebtedness are relevant determinants for trade credit supply, but they confirm the supply of trade credit as a strategic tool for the firms. Additionally we observed a significant decrease in trade credit supply in 2008, the year in which a severe international financial crisis took place.

  5. A neural network model for credit risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashman, Adnan

    2009-08-01

    Credit scoring is one of the key analytical techniques in credit risk evaluation which has been an active research area in financial risk management. This paper presents a credit risk evaluation system that uses a neural network model based on the back propagation learning algorithm. We train and implement the neural network to decide whether to approve or reject a credit application, using seven learning schemes and real world credit applications from the Australian credit approval datasets. A comparison of the system performance under the different learning schemes is provided, furthermore, we compare the performance of two neural networks; with one and two hidden layers following the ideal learning scheme. Experimental results suggest that neural networks can be effectively used in automatic processing of credit applications.

  6. Credit scoring analysis using weighted k nearest neighbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukid, M. A.; Widiharih, T.; Rusgiyono, A.; Prahutama, A.

    2018-05-01

    Credit scoring is a quatitative method to evaluate the credit risk of loan applications. Both statistical methods and artificial intelligence are often used by credit analysts to help them decide whether the applicants are worthy of credit. These methods aim to predict future behavior in terms of credit risk based on past experience of customers with similar characteristics. This paper reviews the weighted k nearest neighbor (WKNN) method for credit assessment by considering the use of some kernels. We use credit data from a private bank in Indonesia. The result shows that the Gaussian kernel and rectangular kernel have a better performance based on the value of percentage corrected classified whose value is 82.4% respectively.

  7. Credit-proofing fundamentals for a solid credit policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydiatt, I. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This Power Point presentation presented the basics of a credit policy with reference to corporate objectives, governance, credit definitions, subjective/objective elements, quantification of full risk, management, monitoring, reporting and gate-keeping processes. Options for a credit policy were described as being approval authority grids, confidentiality issues, credit scoring, corporate risk levels, follow-up collection calling, and procedures on unapproved exposures. Recommendations for setting risk and credit limits were also presented with a note emphasizing that in the past 6 months credit evaluation processes have had to deal with the media risk, a new risk that has not been seen before. This risk can be addressed by careful monitoring of stock prices. The paper also presented recommendations for what to look for as indicators and how to deal with risk in volatile price periods. Credit tools for volatile times were described. 1 tab.

  8. Credit-proofing fundamentals for a solid credit policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydiatt, I.

    2003-01-01

    This Power Point presentation presented the basics of a credit policy with reference to corporate objectives, governance, credit definitions, subjective/objective elements, quantification of full risk, management, monitoring, reporting and gate-keeping processes. Options for a credit policy were described as being approval authority grids, confidentiality issues, credit scoring, corporate risk levels, follow-up collection calling, and procedures on unapproved exposures. Recommendations for setting risk and credit limits were also presented with a note emphasizing that in the past 6 months credit evaluation processes have had to deal with the media risk, a new risk that has not been seen before. This risk can be addressed by careful monitoring of stock prices. The paper also presented recommendations for what to look for as indicators and how to deal with risk in volatile price periods. Credit tools for volatile times were described. 1 tab

  9. Modeling Cycle Dependence in Credit Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Caja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Business and credit cycles have an impact on credit insurance, as they do on other businesses. Nevertheless, in credit insurance, the impact of the systemic risk is even more important and can lead to major losses during a crisis. Because of this, the insurer surveils and manages policies almost continuously. The management actions it takes limit the consequences of a downturning cycle. However, the traditional modeling of economic capital does not take into account this important feature of credit insurance. This paper proposes a model aiming to estimate future losses of a credit insurance portfolio, while taking into account the insurer’s management actions. The model considers the capacity of the credit insurer to take on less risk in the case of a cycle downturn, but also the inverse, in the case of a cycle upturn; so, losses are predicted with a more dynamic perspective. According to our results, the economic capital is over-estimated when not considering the management actions of the insurer.

  10. Micro Credit and Gender: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem BALKIZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Micro credit programs, which are based on lending money on interest and encouraging savings, have been first been used in Southern countries and are now being implemented worldwide. Mainly aimed at the rural poor, particularly poor women, micro credit programs seek to ensure sustainable economic development in line with the requirements of global capitalism and to include women in the productive activities of the market. Micro credit has been made institutionalized based on three main paradigms, namely financial sustainability, poverty alleviation and women’s empowerment. In micro credit programs, where the emphasis on women’s empowerment is strong, the lack of a social gender perspective is striking. In fact, women may face patriarchal pressure and restrictions at the start in access to loans, loan usage models, participation to the productive activities in the market and during loan repayment. Thus the allegation that by way of micro credit, women will be empowered in terms of economic, social and political means in the family and society becomes questionable. This article, by problematizing women’s relationship with micro credit, will discuss social gender relationships which prevent them from making use of these programs as they wish and from achieving the results they intend

  11. Beta dosimetry using partial body dosimeters II. Results of intercomparison measurements of 1998/1999 - PTB report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, P.; Helmstaedter, K.

    2000-12-01

    In 1998 the PTB organised a second series of intercomparison measurements for selected beta dosimeters worn on the extremities. In April 1999 these intercomparison measurements and the results obtained were discussed in a one day meeting. The contributions given and the results obtained and the conclusions drawn after extensive discussions are presented in this PTB report. (orig.) [de

  12. 76 FR 3084 - Silicon Metal From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial Rescission of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Financial Ratios For the final results, we have included the financial statements of Vipra Ferro Alloys Private Ltd. and Lalwani Ferro Alloys Ltd. in our calculation of surrogate financial ratios. See Comment 9... Results. Based on our analysis of the comments received, we made certain changes to our margin calculation...

  13. Value of credit bureau reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brković Milan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient system of credit information sharing contributes to solving the problem of information asymmetry on the credit and financial markets in general. The consequences of the global economic and financial crisis revealed an increasing demand for reliable information and data which could close the existing gap in their insufficiency, misuse or inadequate analytical value for the economic and financial policy makers. In that sense, more attention is directed to the usefulness of credit information sharing and the practical value of information and data contained in credit bureau reports for the purposes of achieving the overall economic policy goals. The fulfillment of that role depends mostly on the credit information sharing system and its characteristics, participants, and procedures. A credit bureau report in the best possible manner reflects all advantages and disadvantages of the established credit information exchange system in terms of its analytical value for the purposes of efficient macroeconomic and macrofinancial policies.

  14. THE DEMAND FOR PRIVATE PROPERTY RIGHTS: LAND TITLING, CREDIT, AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Nancy L.

    1998-01-01

    Land titles can increase agricultural productivity by increasing access to collateralized credit. However, increased credit use depends on the assumption that farmers face asset-based credit rationing. This assumption is tested using data from Mexico's voluntary land titling program. The results do not support the existence of widespread credit rationing.

  15. The Impact of Credit on Poultry Farm Productivity in Oyo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that informal sources of credit are still preferred and more than half of the respondents are credit constrained. The statistically significant factors that affect farm productivity include value of feed, quantity of water, numbers and age of birds, training and the credit constraint condition of farmers. Credit constraint ...

  16. 77 FR 67332 - Certain Steel Threaded Rod From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ... Value for Hydrochloric Acid (3) Surrogate Financial Ratios Comment 2. Correcting the Harmonized Tariff...'') April 1, 2010, through March 31, 2011.\\1\\ Based upon our analysis of the comments and information... parties were further provided an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Between July 17 and...

  17. A proposal of ITER vacuum vessel fabrication specification and results of the full-scale partial mock-up test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, M.; Takeda, N.; Kakudate, S.; Onozuka, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure and fabrication methods of the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) have been investigated and defined by the ITER International Team (IT). However, some of the current technical specifications are difficult to be achieved from the manufacturing point of view. To solve such an issue, this paper proposes an alternative specification of the VV to the IT's design. A series of the fabrication and assembly procedures for the mock-up are presented, together with candidates of welding configurations. Finally, the paper summarizes the results of mock-up fabrication, such as non-destructive examination of weld lines, obtained welding deformation and issues revealed from the fabrication experience. Based on the results, it is suggested that several issues such as clarification of conditions of repair welding, demonstration of welding distortion control and detectability/localization of internal defects should be solved before manufacturing the ITER VV

  18. A proposal of ITER vacuum vessel fabrication specification and results of the full-scale partial mock-up test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)], E-mail: nakahira.masataka@jaea.go.jp; Takeda, N.; Kakudate, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Mukouyama 801-1, Naka-machi, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Nuclear Energy Systems, Inc., 1700K Street NW, Suite 440, Washington, DC 20006 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    The structure and fabrication methods of the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) have been investigated and defined by the ITER International Team (IT). However, some of the current technical specifications are difficult to be achieved from the manufacturing point of view. To solve such an issue, this paper proposes an alternative specification of the VV to the IT's design. A series of the fabrication and assembly procedures for the mock-up are presented, together with candidates of welding configurations. Finally, the paper summarizes the results of mock-up fabrication, such as non-destructive examination of weld lines, obtained welding deformation and issues revealed from the fabrication experience. Based on the results, it is suggested that several issues such as clarification of conditions of repair welding, demonstration of welding distortion control and detectability/localization of internal defects should be solved before manufacturing the ITER VV.

  19. Credit Rating and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Camanho; Pragyan Deb; Zijun Liu

    2010-01-01

    In principle, credit rating agencies are supposed to be impartial observers that bridge the gap between private information of issuers and the information available to the wider pool of investors. However, since the 1970s, rating agencies have relied on an issuer-pay model, creating a conflict of interest the largest source of income for the rating agencies are the fees paid by the issuers the rating agencies are supposed to impartially rate. In this paper, we explore the trade-off between re...

  20. Hydrochemical and isotopic studies of ground water from Botucatu Aquifer - Partial results for North region of Parana Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.B.G. da; Kimmelmann, A.A.; Cunha Reboucas, A. da

    1985-01-01

    The first results of an investigation, to study the flow path, the processes controlling the chemical composition, the recharge, as well as, the origin, apparent ages and dynamic of the groundwater of the Botucatu Aquifer in the Brazilian part of the Parana Basin (818.000 Km 2 ), using hydrochemical and environmental isotope technics ( 2 H, 18 O, 13 C, 3 H, 14 C), are presented. Samples of 20 deep wells, located in the northern part of the Basin (states of Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goias), were analysed. (Author) [pt

  1. Documentary Credit Transfer and Other Financing from What Can Match as Product of Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libardo Quintero Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When a contract of international sale of goods is mediated by a form of payment as the documentary credit, exporters that initially lack financial resources to produce or obtain merchandise that then will be delivered to the importer, look as first natural possibility of financing the transfer for the documentary credit. Now not always the credit can be transferable in accordance with the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits (UCP – because, for example, the importer or the financial entity do not want it in that way. Given the above scenario, this article aims to provide solutions, explaining legal alternatives for the exporter that is not in the UCP-, to use the money that might correspond as a result of the documentary credit, to finance the production or acquisition of goods against other traders, and then reselling them to the importer. It concludes that the exporter can achieve such immediate funding - similar to what encourage the transfer of documentary credit - using to their relations with the supplier, figures as the assignment of a future credit, banker’s acceptance and contract terms.

  2. A proposal of ITER vacuum vessel fabrication specification and results of the full-scale partial mock-up test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takeda, Nobukazu; Onozuka, Masanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Kakudate, Satoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    The structure and fabrication methods of the ITER vacuum vessel have been investigated and defined by the ITER international team. However, some of the current specifications are very difficult to be achieved from the manufacturing point of view and will lead to cost increase. In the mock-up fabrication, it is planned to conduct the following items: 1. Feasibility of the Japanese proposed VV structure and fabrication methods and the applicability to the ITER are to be confirmed; 2. Assembly procedure and inspection procedure are to be confirmed; 3. Manufacturing tolerances are to be assessed; 4. Manufacturing schedule is to be assessed. This report summarizes the Japanese proposed specification of the VV mock-up describing differences between the ITER supplied design. General scope of the mock-up fabrication and the detailed dimensions are also shown. In the VV fabrication, several types of weld joint configuration will be used. This report shows the joint configurations proposed by Japan to be used for the inner shell connection, the rib-to-shell connection and outer shell connection, and the housing-to-shell connection, respectively. Non-destructive testing considered to be applied to each joint configuration is also presented. A series of the fabrication and assembly procedures for the mock-up are presented in this report, together with candidates of welding configurations. Finally, the report summarizes the results of mock-up fabrication, including results of nondestructive examination of weld lines, obtained welding deformation and issues revealed from the fabrication experience. (orig.)

  3. Does ownership structure improve credit ratings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aws AlHares

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to examine the impact of Block Ownership structure on Credit Ratings in OECD countries. This research seeks to contribute to the extant literature by exploring the effects of Corporate Governance (CG mechanisms on corporate credit ratings. The study uses a panel data of 200 companies from Anglo American and European countries between 2010 and 2014. The ordinary least square regression is used to examine the relationships. Additionally, to alleviate the concern of potential endogeneity, we use fixed effect regression, two-stage least squares using instrumental variables. The results show there is a negative and significant relationship between block ownership and credit ratings, with a greater significance among Anglo American countries than among European countries. The rationale for this is that Anglo-American system gives preferential treatment to individual shareholders and its accounting tradition leads to a decline in risk and increase in credit ratings. The result is consistent with the multi-theoretical framework predictions derived from the agency and stewardship theories. Future research could investigate credit ratings using other credit rating agencies, selecting a larger sample that includes small, mid-size and large companies. This paper extends, as well as contributes to extant CG literature by offering new evidence on the effect of block ownership on credit ratings between two different traditions. This will be explored by employing firm-level CG mechanisms by accounting for control variables. The findings will help regulators and policymakers in OECD countries in evaluating the adequacy of current CG reforms to prevent management misconduct and scandals.

  4. Inverse spectral results for Schroedinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L.; Raoux, T.; Faupin, J.

    2009-01-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schroedinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux [''Inverse spectral results for Schroedinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces,'' Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L 1 with their difference in L p (1≤p k,1 spaces having their difference in W k,p , where 1≤p≤+∞, k(set-membership sign)(0,1,2). It is proved that two potentials in W k,1 ([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to W k,p ([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase

  5. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.

    2009-03-01

    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  6. Partial Results Regarding Exploitation Characteristics, Morpho-Productive Traits for Saanen Breed Goats in South of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Vlad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Over about 92% from national goat livestock come from local unameliorated breeds, namely Carpathian breed whichis traditionally exploited in a mixed way next to sheep in a proportion of over 65% from the breed total.Expectations towards a qualitative and quantitative production led to pretty important imports for specialized breedslike the Saanen one, from communitary states, during the last 10 years.This study presents the results of someresearch started since the last semestre of the previous year on some goat livestock from Saanen breed, livestockwhich was brought to the Garbovi farm, Ialomita county. The livestock presents the following morpho-productivetraits, such as: weight 57.375±0.23 Kg as an average, back length 67.47±0,38cm, crupper length 69.25±0,41 cm,oblique body length 70,98±0,38 cm, thoracical perimeter 89.17cm±0.32 cm, resulting a dolicomorphe body structure.The medium milk production in is of 2.19 l/head/day during the stalling months November-February, with average ofNovember 58.05±1.77 l.,December 70.47±2,07 l.,January 92.30±2.93 l., and February 45.10±1.38 l.,only during thefirst 120 days, and the chemical composition of the main constituent parts: Dry matter nonfat 9.3%, protein 3.53%,fat 4.02%, a significant quantitative and qualitative gain of goat milk especially when the local breeds don’t yieldthem.The females prolificity is of 128%, being a lot below the breed average 150-170% in comparison with theaverage proven by the breed but also in comparison with the unameliorated breeds, this aspect being also a basicalelement in selection, next to the milk quantitative aspect. The gain recorded for goat youth over the 90 days iscomprised between 127g, 198g, 122g/day of males and 109g, 173g, 106 g/day of females, during the whole periodwhich was much over the average of Carpathian breed. Shortage of some agricultural policies on breed, of trainedstaff in the farm,speciality information concerning the exploitation of

  7. 12 CFR 561.12 - Consumer credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; loans in the nature of overdraft protection; and credit extended in connection with credit cards. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer credit. 561.12 Section 561.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended...

  8. Quality of urban forest carbon credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyala; Jacek P. Siry; J.M. Bowker

    2011-01-01

    While the urban forest is considered an eligible source of carbon offset credits, little is known about its market potential and the quality aspects of the credits. As credit suppliers increase in number and credit buyers become more interested in purchasing carbon credits, it is unclear whether and how urban forest carbon credits can perform relative to the other...

  9. Nonconventional fuel tax credit application deadline approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, F.W.; Steger, E.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has established Dec. 31, 1992, as the deadline for producers to file Natural Gas Policy Act applications for gas produced from nonconventional fuel sources. Qualifying wells may receive tax credits ranging from 52 cents/MMBTU to 92 cents/MMBTU depending on the category and year of production. The most commonly eligible wells include tight formations, coalbed methanes, and gas from Devonian shales. FERC Order 539 allows producers to make application with the state jurisdictional agencies through Dec. 31, 1992. Many state jurisdictional agencies are willing to accept partial applications to be completed shortly thereafter

  10. Relationship lending, hierarchical distance and credit tightening: Evidence from the financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cotugno; S. Monferrà; G. Sampagnaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the firms’ credit availability during the 2007–2009 financial crisis using a dataset of 5331 bank–firm relationships provided by borrowers’ credit folders of three Italian banks. It aims to test whether a strong lender–borrower relationship can produce less credit rationing for borrowing firms even during a credit crunch period. The results show that exclusivity of the relationship can mitigate the firm credit rationing. We also verify the influence of lending organization...

  11. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...

  12. Sovereign Credit Risk in Latin America and Global Common Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Agosin Trumper; Juan Díaz Maureira

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of global common factors in the evolution of sovereign credit risk in a group of emerging economies (15 countries in Latin America for which daily data are available on sovereign credit spreads and CDS quotations from the beginning of 2007 until February 2012). We arrive at three principal results. First, there is robust evidence for the existence of a common factor in the evolution of the two measurements of sovereign credit risk that we use. Second, the com...

  13. Burnup credit for storage and transportation casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The application of burnup credit to storage and transportation cask licensing results in a significant improvement in cask capacity and an associated reduction of the cost per kilogram of uranium in the cask contents. The issues for licensing with burnup credit deal primarily with the treatment of fission product poisons and methods of verification of burnup during cask operations. Other issues include benchmarking of cross-section sets and codes and the effect of spatial variation of burnup within an assembly. The licensing of burnup credit for casks will be complex, although the criticality calculations are not themselves difficult. Attention should be directed to the use of fission product poisons and the uncertainties that they introduce. Verification of burnup by measurements will remove some of the concerns for criticality safety. Calculations for burnup credit casks should consider rod-to-rod and axial variations of burnup, as well as variability of burnable poisons it they are used in the assembly. In spite of the complexity of cask burnup credit licensing issues, these issues appear to be resolvable within the current state of the art of criticality safety

  14. Concurrent credit portfolio losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicking, Joachim; Guhr, Thomas; Schäfer, Rudi

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of concurrent portfolio losses in two non-overlapping credit portfolios. In order to explore the full statistical dependence structure of such portfolio losses, we estimate their empirical pairwise copulas. Instead of a Gaussian dependence, we typically find a strong asymmetry in the copulas. Concurrent large portfolio losses are much more likely than small ones. Studying the dependences of these losses as a function of portfolio size, we moreover reveal that not only large portfolios of thousands of contracts, but also medium-sized and small ones with only a few dozens of contracts exhibit notable portfolio loss correlations. Anticipated idiosyncratic effects turn out to be negligible. These are troublesome insights not only for investors in structured fixed-income products, but particularly for the stability of the financial sector. JEL codes: C32, F34, G21, G32, H81.

  15. Fat Necrosis After Partial-Breast Irradiation With Brachytherapy or Electron Irradiation Versus Standard Whole-Breast Radiotherapy-4-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevey, Katalin; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Szabo, Eva; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Janvary, Levente; Froehlich, Georgina; Kasler, Miklos; Polgar, Csaba

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the incidence and clinical relevance of fat necrosis after accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) using interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in comparison with partial-breast electron irradiation (ELE) and whole-breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomized to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy HDR-BT (n = 88) or 50 Gy ELE (n = 40). The incidence of fat necrosis, its impact on cosmetic outcome, accompanying radiologic features, and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: The 4-year actuarial rate of fat necrosis was 31.1% for all patients, and 31.9%, 36.5%, and 17.7% after WBI, HDR-BT and ELE, respectively (p WBI/HDR-BT = 0.26; p WBI/ELE = 0.11; p ELE/HDR-BT = 0.025). The respective rate of asymptomatic fat necrosis was 20.2%, 25.3%, and 10% of patients. The incidence of symptomatic fat necrosis was not significantly different after WBI (8.5%), HDR-BT (11.4%), and ELE (7.5%). Symptomatic fat necrosis was significantly associated with a worse cosmetic outcome, whereas asymptomatic fat necrosis was not. Fat necrosis was detectable with mammography and/or ultrasound in each case. Additional imaging examinations were required in 21% of cases and aspiration cytology in 42%. Conclusions: Asymptomatic fat necrosis is a common adverse event of breast-conserving therapy, having no significant clinical relevance in the majority of the cases. The incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic fat necrosis is similar after conventional WBI and accelerated partial-breast HDR-BT

  16. 29 CFR 4206.7 - Amount of credit in plans using the direct attribution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TO A PARTIAL WITHDRAWAL § 4206.7 Amount of credit in plans using the direct attribution method. In a plan that uses the direct attribution allocation method described in section 4211(c)(4) of ERISA, the... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of credit in plans using the direct attribution...

  17. Credit risk evaluation based on social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Gu, Jing; Zhou, Zongfang

    2016-07-01

    Social media has been playing an increasingly important role in the sharing of individuals' opinions on many financial issues, including credit risk in investment decisions. This paper analyzes whether these opinions, which are transmitted through social media, can accurately predict enterprises' future credit risk. We consider financial statements oriented evaluation results based on logit and probit approaches as the benchmarks. We then conduct textual analysis to retrieve both posts and their corresponding commentaries published on two of the most popular social media platforms for financial investors in China. Professional advice from financial analysts is also investigated in this paper. We surprisingly find that the opinions extracted from both posts and commentaries surpass opinions of analysts in terms of credit risk prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Benefits of actinide-only burnup credit for shutdown PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, C.; Rivard, D.

    1998-02-01

    Owners of PWRs that are shutdown prior to resolution of interim storage or permanent disposal issues have to make difficult decisions on what to do with their spent fuel. Maine Yankee is currently evaluating multiple options for spent fuel storage. Their spent fuel pool has 1,434 assemblies. In order to evaluate the value to a utility of actinide-only burnup credit, analysis of the number of canisters required with and without burnup credit was made. In order to perform the analysis, loading curves were developed for the Holtec Hi-Star 100/MPC-32. The MPC-32 is hoped to be representative of future burnup credit designs from many vendors. The loading curves were generated using the actinide-only burnup credit currently under NRC review. The canister was analyzed for full loading (32 assemblies) and with partial loadings of 30 and 28 assemblies. If no burnup credit is used the maximum capacity was assumed to be 24 assemblies. this reduced capacity is due to the space required for flux traps which are needed to sufficiently reduce the canister reactivity for the fresh fuel assumption. Without burnup credit the 1,343 assemblies would require 60 canisters. If all the fuel could be loaded into the 32 assembly canisters only 45 canisters would be required. Although the actinide-only burnup credit approach is very conservative, the total number of canisters required is only 47 which is only two short of the minimum possible number of canisters. The utility is expected to buy the canister and the storage overpack. A reasonable cost estimate for the canister plus overpack is $500,000. Actinide-only burnup credit would save 13 canisters and overpacks which is a savings of about $6.5 million. This savings is somewhat reduced since burnup credit requires a verification measurement of burnup. The measurement costs for these assemblies can be estimated as about $1 million. The net savings would be $5.5 million

  19. The Effects of the Bali Yoga Program for Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: Results of a Partially Randomized and Blinded Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestin, Annélie S; Dupuis, Gilles; Lanctôt, Dominique; Bali, Madan

    2017-10-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been shown to be beneficial in reducing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. However, conclusive results are lacking in order to confirm its usefulness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a standardized yoga intervention could reduce these adverse symptoms. This was a partially randomized and blinded controlled trial comparing a standardized yoga intervention with standard care. Eligible patients were adults diagnosed with stages I to III breast cancer receiving chemotherapy. Patients randomized to the experimental group participated in an 8-week yoga program. There was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting after 8 weeks. Results suggest the yoga program is not beneficial in managing these adverse symptoms. However, considering preliminary evidence suggesting yoga's beneficial impact in cancer symptom management, methodological limitations should be explored and additional studies should be conducted.

  20. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  1. Store Security. Credit Card Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockway, Jerry

    The manual, intended for use by adults and not in the high school classroom situation, presents material directed toward assisting in the reduction of credit card crime. This teaching guide is organized in three sections which deal with the nature of and major reasons for credit card fraud, the types of hot card runners, and methods of reducing…

  2. Tuition Tax Credits. Issuegram 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augenblick, John; McGuire, Kent

    Approaches for using the federal income tax system to aid families of pupils attending private schools include: tax credits, tax deductions, tax deferrals, and education savings incentives. Tax credit structures can be made refundable and made sensitive to taxpayers' income levels, the level of education expenditures, and designated costs.…

  3. Foreign currency exchange network topology across the 2008 credit crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Shamshuritawati; Ap, Nuraisah Che; Ruslan, Nuraimi

    2017-05-01

    A stable world currency exchange rate is a very important aspect to be considered for a developed country, i.e Malaysia. A better understanding about the currencies itself is needed nowadays. This project is about to understanding the fluctuation and to identify the most influential world currencies in the three different cases; before credit crisis, during credit crisis and after credit crisis. A network topology approach is use to examine the interrelationship between currencies based on correlation analysis. With this point of view, those relationships can be measured by a correlation structure among the currencies. The network can be analyse by filtering the important information using minimum spanning tree (MST) and interpret it using degree centrality as the centrality measure. This topology will give a useful guide to understand the behaviour and determine the most influential currency in the network as a part of a complex system. All currencies are compared among the three different cases; before credit crisis, during credit crisis and after credit crisis period. The result of this project shows that Unites State Dollar (USD), Brazilian Real (BRL), United Kingdom Pound (EUR) and Danish Krone (DKK) are the most influential currencies before the credit crisis period. With respect to during the credit crisis, New Zealand Dollar (NZD) dominates the network and it is followed by Singapore Dollar (SGD) for after the credit crisis period.

  4. WWER-1000 Burnup Credit Benchmark (CB5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolova, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper the specification of WWER-1000 Burnup Credit Benchmark first phase (depletion calculations), given. The second phase - criticality calculations for the WWER-1000 fuel pin cell, will be given after the evaluation of the results, obtained at the first phase. The proposed benchmark is a continuation of the WWER benchmark activities in this field (Author)

  5. 12 CFR 703.6 - Credit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit analysis. 703.6 Section 703.6 Banks and... ACTIVITIES § 703.6 Credit analysis. A Federal credit union must conduct and document a credit analysis on an... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. A Federal credit union must update this analysis at least annually...

  6. Credit Cards. Bulletin No. 721. (Revised.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Linda Kirk

    This cooperative extension bulletin provides basic information about credit cards and their use. It covers the following topics: types of credit cards (revolving credit, travel and entertainment, and debit); factors to consider when evaluating a credit card (interest rates, grace period, and annual membership fee); other credit card costs (late…

  7. 7 CFR 4280.139 - Credit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit quality. 4280.139 Section 4280.139 Agriculture... Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.139 Credit quality. The lender must determine credit quality and must address all of the elements of credit quality in a written credit analysis, including...

  8. New Closed-Form Results on Ordered Statistics of Partial Sums of Gamma Random Variables and its Application to Performance Evaluation in the Presence of Nakagami Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-06-19

    Complex wireless transmission systems require multi-dimensional joint statistical techniques for performance evaluation. Here, we first present the exact closed-form results on order statistics of any arbitrary partial sums of Gamma random variables with the closedform results of core functions specialized for independent and identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels based on a moment generating function-based unified analytical framework. These both exact closed-form results have never been published in the literature. In addition, as a feasible application example in which our new offered derived closed-form results can be applied is presented. In particular, we analyze the outage performance of the finger replacement schemes over Nakagami fading channels as an application of our method. Note that these analysis results are directly applicable to several applications, such as millimeter-wave communication systems in which an antenna diversity scheme operates using an finger replacement schemes-like combining scheme, and other fading scenarios. Note also that the statistical results can provide potential solutions for ordered statistics in any other research topics based on Gamma distributions or other advanced wireless communications research topics in the presence of Nakagami fading.

  9. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kron, Tomas, E-mail: Tomas.Kron@petermac.org [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); School of Science, Engineering and Technology, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Willis, David; Link, Emma [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Lehman, Margot [Princess Alexandra Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Campbell, Gillian [Auckland City Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland (New Zealand); O' Brien, Peter [Newcastle Calvary Mater Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Newcastle, NSW (Australia); Chua, Boon [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Physical Sciences and Radiation Therapy, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

  10. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kron, Tomas; Willis, David; Link, Emma; Lehman, Margot; Campbell, Gillian; O'Brien, Peter; Chua, Boon

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI

  11. Survival rates of IPS empress 2 all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures: results of a 5-year prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Pascal; Strub, Jörg Rudolf

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this prospective clinical study was to evaluate the survival rates of IPS Empress 2 (Ivoclar Vivadent) all-ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs) after an observation period of up to 5 years. Forty-three patients (19 women and 24 men) were included in this study. The patients were treated with a total of 58 adhesive bonded IPS Empress 2 restorations. A total of 27 single crowns were placed on molars and premolars, and 31 three-unit FPDs were placed in the anterior and premolar regions. Clinical follow-up examinations took place at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after insertion. Statistical analysis of the data was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results of the 50-month analysis (interquartile range, 33 to 61 months) showed that the survival rate was 100% for crowns and 70% for FPDs. Six failures that occurred exclusively in the three-unit FPDs were observed. Framework fractures were recorded in three FPD units where the connector dimensions did not meet the manufacturer specifications. Only one FPD exhibited an irreparable partial veneer fracture, and 2 FPDs showed evidence of biologic failures. The accuracy of fit and esthetic parameters were clinically satisfactory for crowns and FPDs. The results of this 5-year clinical evaluation suggest that IPS Empress 2 ceramic is an appropriate material for the fabrication of single crowns. Because of the reduced survival rates, strict conditions should be considered before the use of IPS Empress 2 material for the fabrication of three-unit FPDs.

  12. The influence of sovereign credit ratings on corporate credit ratings.

    OpenAIRE

    Umutoni, Liliane

    2017-01-01

    Credit ratings have a key role in modern financial markets as they communicate crucial information on the creditworthiness of a debt issuer to investors and regulators. These credit ratings are mostly determined by three rating agencies, namely Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch, even though, the credit rating industry counts a dozen of recognized rating agencies. Indeed, the three agencies have become the market leaders with a market share of 94.3% on the U.S market (Bloomberg, 2015) and 9...

  13. Impacts of the use of spent nuclear fuel burnup credit on DOE advanced technology legal weight truck cask GA-4 fleet size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobasheran, A.S.; Boshoven, J.; Lake, B.

    1995-01-01

    The object of this paper is to study the impact of full and partial spent fuel burnup credit on the capacity of the Legal Weight Truck Spent Fuel Shipping Cask (GA-4) and to determine the numbers of additional spent fuel assemblies which could be accommodated as a result. The scope of the study comprised performing nuclear criticality safety scoping calculations using the SCALE-PC software package and the 1993 spent fuel database to determine logistics for number of spent fuel assemblies to be shipped. The results of the study indicate that more capacity than 2 or 3 pressurized water reactor assemblies could be gained for GA-4 casks when burnup credit is considered. Reduction in GA-4 fleet size and number of shipments are expected to result from the acceptance of spent fuel burnup credit

  14. Mobile Payment Technology and Competitiveness In the Credit Card Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Guilherme Silveira; FGV-EAESP; Martins, Michele Esteves; FGV-EAESP; Di Serio, Luiz Carlos; FGV-EAESP; Csillag, João Mário; FGV-EAESP; Santos, Camila Aparecida; Freeddom Tecnologia e Serviços S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the value creation sources of Mobile Payment concept into the Credit Card Chain. A case-study was developed based on the Transaction Cost Theory, Value Chain Analysis, RB V, Schumpeterian Innovation, and Strategic Network Theory. The results illustrate the technology potential to modify the configuration of Credit Card chain.

  15. The Fiscal Impact of the Kentucky Education Tax Credit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the fiscal impact of a proposal to create a personal tax credit for educational expenses and a tax-credit scholarship program in Kentucky. It finds that the actual fiscal impact of the program would be much less than its nominal dollar size, due to the reduced public school costs resulting from migration of students from public…

  16. Production inventory model for two-level trade credit financing under the effect of preservation technology and learning in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the inventory model for a retailer under two levels of trade credit to reflect the supply chain management. Supplier offers trade credit period of M to the retailer while in turn retailer provides a trade credit period of N to his/her customers. The supplier is willing to provide the retailer a full trade credit period for payments and the retailer offers the partial trade credit period to his/her customers. Here, selling items are considered as perishable items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, etc. so that its potential worth decreases. It is assumed that decay in potential worth of items can be increased by using preservation technology. The demand is considered as the function of selling price and trade credit. Ordering cost can be reducing due to learning by doing phenomenon. By applying convex fractional programming results, we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions of an optimal solution. Some theorems are developed to determine retailer’s optimal ordering policies and numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems. In addition, some managerial insights from the numerical examples are also concluded.

  17. Impact of Economic Crisis on Credit Insurance Market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina VÎRLANUTA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Bank Insurance phenomenon can not be attributed primarily or banks or insurance institutions. Near the two sectors was due to mutations occurring in supply and demand for financial services. Convergence bankers and insurers are determined by common platform for each country of local influence by supervisors and reforms at the central level. Credit insurance has emerged as a necessity stemming from the fact that most trade agreements concluded in circumstances in which payment is partially or completely after delivery of the goods or services covered by the agreement, so the payment delayed or selling on credit.

  18. An Anonymous Credit Card System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulaki, Elli; Bellovin, Steven

    Credit cards have many important benefits; however, these same benefits often carry with them many privacy concerns. In particular, the need for users to be able to monitor their own transactions, as well as bank’s need to justify its payment requests from cardholders, entitle the latter to maintain a detailed log of all transactions its credit card customers were involved in. A bank can thus build a profile of each cardholder even without the latter’s consent. In this paper, we present a practical and accountable anonymous credit system based on ecash, with a privacy preserving mechanism for error correction and expense-reporting.

  19. Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using 5-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Asal; Thomas, Kimberly; Spangler, Ann; Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Wooldridge, Rachel; Rivers, Aeisha; Seiler, Stephen; Albuquerque, Kevin; Stevenson, Stella; Goudreau, Sally; Garwood, Dan; Haley, Barbara; Euhus, David; Heinzerling, John; Ding, Chuxiong; Gao, Ang; Ahn, Chul; Timmerman, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability of a dose-escalated 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for partial-breast irradiation (S-PBI) in treating early-stage breast cancer after partial mastectomy; the primary objective was to escalate dose utilizing a robotic stereotactic radiation system treating the lumpectomy cavity without exceeding the maximum tolerated dose. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive nonlobular epithelial histologies and stage 0, I, or II, with tumor size <3 cm. Patients and physicians completed baseline and subsequent cosmesis outcome questionnaires. Starting dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions and was escalated by 2.5 Gy total for each cohort to 40 Gy. Results: In all, 75 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 62 years. Median follow-up for 5 cohorts was 49.9, 42.5, 25.7, 20.3, and 13.5 months, respectively. Only 3 grade 3 toxicities were experienced. There was 1 dose-limiting toxicity in the overall cohort. Ten patients experienced palpable fat necrosis (4 of which were symptomatic). Physicians scored cosmesis as excellent or good in 95.9%, 100%, 96.7%, and 100% at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after S-PBI, whereas patients scored the same periods as 86.5%, 97.1%, 95.1%, and 95.3%, respectively. The disagreement rates between MDs and patients during those periods were 9.4%, 2.9%, 1.6%, and 4.7%, respectively. There have been no recurrences or distant metastases. Conclusion: Dose was escalated to the target dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions, with the occurrence of only 1 dose-limiting toxicity. Patients felt cosmetic results improved within the first year after surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Our results show minimal toxicity with excellent cosmesis; however, further follow-up is warranted in future studies. This study is the first to show the safety, tolerability, feasibility, and cosmesis results of a 5-fraction dose-escalated S-PBI treatment for

  20. Preliminary Results of a Phase 1 Dose-Escalation Trial for Early-Stage Breast Cancer Using 5-Fraction Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Partial-Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Asal, E-mail: asal.rahimi@utsouthwestern.edu [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thomas, Kimberly; Spangler, Ann [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Rao, Roshni; Leitch, Marilyn; Wooldridge, Rachel; Rivers, Aeisha [Department of Surgery, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Seiler, Stephen [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Albuquerque, Kevin; Stevenson, Stella [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Goudreau, Sally [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Garwood, Dan [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Haley, Barbara [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Euhus, David [Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Heinzerling, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Levine Cancer Institute, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Ding, Chuxiong [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Gao, Ang; Ahn, Chul [Department of Statistics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Timmerman, Robert [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the tolerability of a dose-escalated 5-fraction stereotactic body radiation therapy for partial-breast irradiation (S-PBI) in treating early-stage breast cancer after partial mastectomy; the primary objective was to escalate dose utilizing a robotic stereotactic radiation system treating the lumpectomy cavity without exceeding the maximum tolerated dose. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive nonlobular epithelial histologies and stage 0, I, or II, with tumor size <3 cm. Patients and physicians completed baseline and subsequent cosmesis outcome questionnaires. Starting dose was 30 Gy in 5 fractions and was escalated by 2.5 Gy total for each cohort to 40 Gy. Results: In all, 75 patients were enrolled, with a median age of 62 years. Median follow-up for 5 cohorts was 49.9, 42.5, 25.7, 20.3, and 13.5 months, respectively. Only 3 grade 3 toxicities were experienced. There was 1 dose-limiting toxicity in the overall cohort. Ten patients experienced palpable fat necrosis (4 of which were symptomatic). Physicians scored cosmesis as excellent or good in 95.9%, 100%, 96.7%, and 100% at baseline and 6, 12, and 24 months after S-PBI, whereas patients scored the same periods as 86.5%, 97.1%, 95.1%, and 95.3%, respectively. The disagreement rates between MDs and patients during those periods were 9.4%, 2.9%, 1.6%, and 4.7%, respectively. There have been no recurrences or distant metastases. Conclusion: Dose was escalated to the target dose of 40 Gy in 5 fractions, with the occurrence of only 1 dose-limiting toxicity. Patients felt cosmetic results improved within the first year after surgery and stereotactic body radiation therapy. Our results show minimal toxicity with excellent cosmesis; however, further follow-up is warranted in future studies. This study is the first to show the safety, tolerability, feasibility, and cosmesis results of a 5-fraction dose-escalated S-PBI treatment for

  1. Pricing Chinese Convertible Bonds with Dynamic Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To price convertible bonds more precisely, least squares Monte Carlo (LSM method is used in this paper for its advantage in handling the dependence of derivatives on the path, and dynamic credit risk is used to replace the fixed one to make the value of convertible bonds reflect the real credit risk. In the empirical study, we price convertible bonds based on static credit risk and dynamic credit risk, respectively. Empirical results indicate that the ICBC convertible bond has been overpriced, resulting from the underestimation of credit risk. In addition, when there is an issue of dividend, the conversion price will change in China's convertible bonds, while it does not change in the international convertible bonds. So we also empirically study the difference between the convertible bond's prices by assuming whether the conversion price changes or not.

  2. Partial Cancellation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Partial Cancellation. Full Cancellation is desirable. But complexity requirements are enormous. 4000 tones, 100 Users billions of flops !!! Main Idea: Challenge: To determine which cross-talker to cancel on what “tone” for a given victim. Constraint: Total complexity is ...

  3. Factors Associated With Optimal Long-Term Cosmetic Results in Patients Treated With Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Balloon-Based Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, Frank A.; Keisch, Martin; Shah, Chirag; Goyal, Sharad; Khan, Atif J.; Beitsch, Peter D.; Lyden, Maureen; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months for early-stage breast cancer patients treated with Mammosite balloon-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Methods and Materials: A total of 1,440 patients (1,449 cases) with early-stage breast cancer undergoing breast-conserving therapy were treated with balloon-based brachytherapy to deliver APBI (34 Gy in 3.4-Gy fractions). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated at each follow-up visit and dichotomized as excellent/good (E/G) or fair/poor (F/P). Follow-up was evaluated at 36 and 72 months to establish long-term cosmesis, stability of cosmesis, and factors associated with optimal results. Results: The percentage of evaluable patients with excellent/good (E/G) cosmetic results at 36 months and more than 72 months were 93.3% (n = 708/759) and 90.4% (n = 235/260). Factors associated with optimal cosmetic results at 72 months included: larger skin spacing (p = 0.04) and T1 tumors (p = 0.02). Using multiple regression analysis, the only factors predictive of worse cosmetic outcome at 72 months were smaller skin spacing (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; confidence interval [CI], 0.80–0.99) and tumors greater than 2 cm (OR, 4.96, CI, 1.53–16.07). In all, 227 patients had both a 36-month and a 72-month cosmetic evaluation. The number of patients with E/G cosmetic results decreased only slightly from 93.4% at 3 years to 90.8% (p = 0.13) at 6 years, respectively. Conclusions: APBI delivered with balloon-based brachytherapy produced E/G cosmetic results in 90.4% of cases at 6 years. Larger tumors (T2) and smaller skin spacing were found to be the two most important independent predictors of cosmesis.

  4. The Determinants of Credit Rating: Brazilian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cruz de Souza Murcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model considering a panel structure with a categorical dependent variable (credit rating and ten independent variables: leverage, profitability, size, financial coverage, growth, liquidity, corporate governance, control, financial market performance and internationalization. The sample consisted of 153 rating observations during the period of 1997-2011 for a total of 49 public firms operating in the Brazilian Market. Results showed that leverage and internationalization are significant at the 1% level in explaining credit rating. Performance in the financial market was significant at a 5% level; profitability and growth were also statistically significant, but at a 10% significance level.

  5. Application of burnup credit concept to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamura, Yoshiaki; Nakagome, Yoshihiro.

    1994-01-01

    For the design and safety assessment of the casks for transporting spent fuel, the fuel contained in them has been assumed to be new fuel. The reason is, it was difficult to evaluate the variation of the reactivity of fuel, and the research on the affecting factors and the method of measuring burnup were not much advanced. Recently, high burnup fuel has been adopted, and initial degree of enrichment rose. The research has been advanced for pursuing the economy of the casks for spent fuel, and burnup credit has become applicable to their design and safety assessment. As the result, the containing capacity increases by about 20%. When burnup credit is considered, it is necessary to confirm accurately the burnup of spent fuel. The burnup dependence of the concentration of fissile substances and neutron emissivity, the coolant void dependence of the concentration of fissile substances, and the relation of neutron multiplication rate with initial degree of enrichment or burnup are discussed. The conceptual design of casks considering burnup credit and its assessment, the merit, problem and the countermeasures to it when burnup credit is introduced are described. (K.I.)

  6. War of the Credit Cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, colleges are offering affinity credit cards with attractive incentives as a marketing tool. Some in academe feel the trend may compromise educational objectives. Institutions may also face taxation on unrelated-business income generated through the cards. (MSE)

  7. Armenia - Water to Market Credit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The analysis of WtM credit used baseline and final follow-up Farming Practices Survey (FPS) data to summarize beneficiary and loan characteristics, as well as to...

  8. Trade Credit and Informational Asymmetry.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Janet Kiholm

    1987-01-01

    Commonly used trade credit terms implicitly define a high interest rate that operates as an efficient screening device where information about buyer default risk is asymmetrically held. By offering trade credit, a seller can identify prospective defaults more quickl y than if financial institutions were the sole providers of short-ter m financing. The information is valuable in cases where a seller has made nonsalvageable investments in buyers since it enables the seller to take actions to pr...

  9. Capital Requirements and Credit Rationing

    OpenAIRE

    Itai Agur

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trade-off between financial stability and credit rationing that arises when increasing capital requirements. It extends the Stiglitz-Weiss model of credit rationing to allow for bank default. Bank capital structure then matters for lending incentives. With default and rationing endogenous, optimal capital requirements can be analyzed. Introducing bank financiers, the paper also shows that uninsured funding raises the sensitivity of rationing to capital requirements. In...

  10. Credit Stagnation in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Barajas; Roberto Steiner

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the recent marked slowdown in bank credit to the private sector in Latin America. Based on the study of eight countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela), the magnitude of the slowdown is documented, comparing it to historical behavior and to slowdown episodes in other regions of the world. Second, changes in bank balance sheets are examined to determine whether the credit slowdown is merely a reflection of a slowdown in bank deposi...

  11. Investigation of partial volume effect in different PET/CT systems: a comparison of results using the madeira phantom and the NEMA NU-2 2001 phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipiga, L.; Sydoff, M.; Zvonova, I.; Bernhardsson, C.

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) is a quantitative technique used for diagnosing various diseases and for monitoring treatment response for different types of tumours. However, the accuracy of the data is limited by the spatial resolution of the system. In addition, the so-called partial volume effect (PVE) causes a blurring of image structures, which in turn may cause an underestimation of activity of a structure with high-activity content. In this study, a new phantom, MADEIRA (Minimising Activity and Dose with Enhanced Image quality by Radiopharmaceutical Administrations) for activity quantification in PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was used to investigate the influence on the PVE by lesion size and tumour-to-background activity concentration ratio (TBR) in four different PET/CT systems. These measurements were compared with data from measurements with the NEMA NU-2 2001 phantom. The results with the MADEIRA phantom showed that the activity concentration (AC) values were closest to the true values at low ratios of TBR (<10) and reduced to 50 % of the actual AC values at high TBR (30-35). For all scanners, recovery of true values became closer to 1 with an increasing diameter of the lesion. The MADEIRA phantom showed good agreement with the results obtained from measurements with the NEMA NU-2 2001 phantom but allows for a wider range of possibilities in measuring image quality parameters. (authors)

  12. A Soft Intelligent Risk Evaluation Model for Credit Scoring Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khashei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is one of the most important branches of business and finance. Classification models are the most popular and widely used analytical group of data mining approaches that can greatly help financial decision makers and managers to tackle credit risk problems. However, the literature clearly indicates that, despite proposing numerous classification models, credit scoring is often a difficult task. On the other hand, there is no universal credit-scoring model in the literature that can be accurately and explanatorily used in all circumstances. Therefore, the research for improving the efficiency of credit-scoring models has never stopped. In this paper, a hybrid soft intelligent classification model is proposed for credit-scoring problems. In the proposed model, the unique advantages of the soft computing techniques are used in order to modify the performance of the traditional artificial neural networks in credit scoring. Empirical results of Australian credit card data classifications indicate that the proposed hybrid model outperforms its components, and also other classification models presented for credit scoring. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered as an appropriate alternative tool for binary decision making in business and finance, especially in high uncertainty conditions.

  13. Effects on Funding Equity of the Arizona Tax Credit Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Y. Wilson

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the results from the first year (1998 of the Arizona Education Tax Credit program. The tax credit law allows individuals a dollar- for-dollar tax credit of $500 for donations to private schools and a dollar-for-dollar tax credit of $200 for donations to public schools. Although one justification for this statute was that it would help lower income students, the primary beneficiaries of this program tend to be the relatively well off. The author concludes that Arizona's tax credit law increases educational funding inequity in Arizona. Data for 1999, only recently made available, show a 159.1 percent increase in total contributions and an exacerbation of the trends noted here.

  14. Partial processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This discussion paper considers the possibility of applying to the recycle of plutonium in thermal reactors a particular method of partial processing based on the PUREX process but named CIVEX to emphasise the differences. The CIVEX process is based primarily on the retention of short-lived fission products. The paper suggests: (1) the recycle of fission products with uranium and plutonium in thermal reactor fuel would be technically feasible; (2) it would, however, take ten years or more to develop the CIVEX process to the point where it could be launched on a commercial scale; (3) since the majority of spent fuel to be reprocessed this century will have been in storage for ten years or more, the recycling of short-lived fission products with the U-Pu would not provide an effective means of making refabrication fuel ''inaccessible'' because the radioactivity associated with the fission products would have decayed. There would therefore be no advantage in partial processing

  15. Partial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.М. Karimova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A girl with partial gigantism (the increased I and II fingers of the left foot is being examined. This condition is a rare and unresolved problem, as the definite reason of its development is not determined. Wait-and-see strategy is recommended, as well as correcting operations after closing of growth zones, and forming of data pool for generalization and development of schemes of drug and radial therapeutic methods.

  16. EFFICIENCY OF CREDIT PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT IN CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshel H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The active development of integration processes causes the necessity of applying high-level approaches to management of the banking system, which is an essential part of the financial sector. Due to the importance of credit operations in the portfolio of banking assets, development of efficient and flexible credit management system is the basis for financial and market stability of banks. Purpose. Analyze the condition of the credit portfolio of banking institutions under the influence of economic processes and make conclusions and recommendations about the effectiveness of managing the bank’s credit portfolio and generalize ways of improving the structure and quality of the bank’s credit portfolio. Results. Over the last six years, the quality of the credit portfolio has become worse because of the bad debts growing and, as a result, decreasing in revenues. The calculated coefficient of management efficiency of a credit portfolio shows the dependence of this indicator on the value of risk and yield. In order to confirm the dependence and determine the degree of influence of these indicators on the efficiency of management of a loan portfolio, an economic-mathematical model was constructed on the example of both individual banks and the banking system as a whole. Detected dependence of factors is quite logical, therefore, the model can be recommended for practical use. Conclusion. Using this method of determining the management efficiency of a credit portfolio will allow the management of the bank to make reasonable decisions. It will allow the possibility of forming a more justified credit portfolio, taking into account not only the profitability, but also the real level of risk of credit operations.

  17. Immediate versus early non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients. One-year results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merli, Mauro; Merli, Aldo; Bernardelli, Francesco; Lombardini, Francesco; Esposito, Marco

    2008-01-01

    To compare immediate versus early (6 weeks) non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients 1 year after loading. Sixty patients were randomised: 30 to the immediately loaded group and 30 to the early loaded group. In order to be immediately loaded, implants were inserted with a minimum torque of > or = 40Ncm. Implants were fully occlusally loaded after 6 months. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, and biological and biomechanical complications. Five implants in five patients randomised to the immediately loaded group did not reach the required primary implant stability. Three of these implants (two prostheses) were not immediately loaded. Two patients who were randomised to the early loaded group were immediately loaded erroneously. Implants in five patients of the early loaded group were conventionally loaded. No patient dropped out and there were no failures. Two complications occurred in the early and one in the immediately loaded group (no statistically significant difference), but were solved. The use of a flapless technique for placing dental implants in conjunction with non-occlusal immediate or early loading in selected patients can provide excellent clinical results. No differences were observed when comparing implants that were loaded immediately or early. Therefore, when a high primary implant stability is obtained, it might be preferable to load the implants immediately rather than waiting for a few weeks.

  18. DID CREDIT CRUNCH CAUSE A COLLAPSE IN PRIVATE INVESTMENT?: TURKEY CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül CAMBAZOĞLU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The economists have focused on credit crunch since 1990’s. The economists are not in consensus as to what constitutes the credit crunch. The differences in definitions come from the causes of credit contraction. Credit crunch is generally accepted as an enormous decline period in credit supply. Although the credit crunch is seen as a supply phenomenon, some economists define it as a demand issue. Investment declines significantly as result of an increase in credit rationing. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dependence of private investment on money and credit supply in Turkey. In other words, we want to quantify the effect of credit contraction in the banking sector on private fixed investment. VAR model is used to identify the existence of credit crunch through four economic variables: Private fixed investment, money stock (M2, bank loans to private sector and interest rate of commercial loans for the period ranging from 2003:01 to 2010:08. According to results of this study, it can be said that the credit crunch that we dealt with as a supply phenomenon leads to an investment collapse (slump in Turkey. The paper proceeds as follows: Section I provides theoretical background of credit channels and credit crunch. Section II summarizes recent empirical studies. Section III describes variables and discusses the empirical findings of the model. Section IV provides concluding remarks.

  19. Optimal pricing and replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items with backlogging and trade credit under inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara Rajan, R.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we develop an economic order quantity model to investigate the optimal replenishment policies for instantaneous deteriorating items under inflation and trade credit. Demand rate is a linear function of selling price and decreases negative exponentially with time over a finite planning horizon. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the optimal selling price, optimal order quantity and optimal replenishment time. An easy-to-use algorithm is developed to determine the optimal replenishment policies for the retailer. We also provide optimal present value of profit when shortages are completely backlogged as a special case. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the algorithm provided to obtain optimal profit. And we also obtain managerial implications from numerical examples to substantiate our model. The results show that there is an improvement in total profit from complete backlogging rather than the items being partially backlogged.

  20. THE CREDIT AND CREDIT RISK MANAGEMENT DURING THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitan Gheorghe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of credit risk management to ensure the financial system stability,the paper presents financial and real sector interaction highlighting that credit growth based on increase of creditdemand, of income, of assets prices, of currency availability, the interest rate differential between countries andrelaxation of regulatory framework, leaves banks more vulnerable to subsequent downturn in economic activity andasset prices. It also outlines the steps taken or those I think that should be implemented in terms of improving creditrisk management, implementation of regulatory measures to limit credit expansion, enforcing the regulatoryrequirements for covering the expected and unexpected losses, introduction of new surveillance tools aimed to leadto a more resilient financial system.

  1. External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashtan, Itai M.; Recht, Abram; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Brachtel, Elena; Abi-Raad, Rita F.; D'Alessandro, Helen A.; Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y.; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Goldberg, Saveli; Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L.; Powell, Simon N.; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

  2. External Beam Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation Using 32 Gy in 8 Twice-Daily Fractions: 5-Year Results of a Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashtan, Itai M. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Recht, Abram [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ancukiewicz, Marek [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brachtel, Elena [Department of Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Abi-Raad, Rita F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); D' Alessandro, Helen A. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Levy, Antonin; Wo, Jennifer Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hirsch, Ariel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kachnic, Lisa A. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goldberg, Saveli [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michelle; Smith, Barbara L. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: External beam accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is an increasingly popular technique for treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer following breast-conserving surgery. Here we present 5-year results of a prospective trial. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 through November 2005, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were enrolled in the first dose step (32 Gy delivered in 8 twice-daily fractions) of a prospective, multi-institutional, dose escalation clinical trial of 3-dimensional conformal external beam APBI (3D-APBI). Median age was 61 years; median tumor size was 0.8 cm; 89% of tumors were estrogen receptor positive; 10% had a triple-negative phenotype; and 1% had a HER-2-positive subtype. Median follow-up was 71 months (range, 2-88 months; interquartile range, 64-75 months). Results: Five patients developed ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), for a 5-year actuarial IBTR rate of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-10%). Three of these cases occurred in patients with triple-negative disease and 2 in non-triple-negative patients, for 5-year actuarial IBTR rates of 33% (95% CI, 0%-57%) and 2% (95% CI, 0%-6%; P<.0001), respectively. On multivariable analysis, triple-negative phenotype was the only predictor of IBTR, with borderline statistical significance after adjusting for tumor grade (P=.0537). Conclusions: Overall outcomes were excellent, particularly for patients with estrogen receptor-positive disease. Patients in this study with triple-negative breast cancer had a significantly higher IBTR rate than patients with other receptor phenotypes when treated with 3D-APBI. Larger, prospective 3D-APBI clinical trials should continue to evaluate the effect of hormone receptor phenotype on IBTR rates.

  3. The effects of the Bali Yoga Program (BYP-BC) on reducing psychological symptoms in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: results of a randomized, partially blinded, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, Dominique; Dupuis, Gilles; Marcaurell, Roger; Anestin, Annélie S; Bali, Madan

    2016-12-01

    Background Several cognitive behavioral interventions have been reported to reduce psychological symptoms in breast cancer (BC) patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a yoga intervention in reducing depression and anxiety symptoms in BC patients. Methods This study was a randomized, partially blinded, controlled trial comparing a standardized yoga intervention to standard care. It was conducted at three medical centers in Montreal, Canada. Eligible patients were women diagnosed with stage I-III BC receiving chemotherapy. Participants were randomly assigned to receive yoga intervention immediately (experimental group, n=58) or after a waiting period (n=43 control group). The Bali Yoga Program for Breast Cancer Patients (BYP-BC) consisted of 23 gentle Hatha asanas (poses), 2 prayanamas (breathing techniques), shavasanas (relaxation corpse poses) and psychoeducational themes. Participants attended eight weekly sessions lasting 90 min each and received a DVD for home practice with 20- and 40-min sessions. Participants in the wait list control group received standard care during the 8-week waiting period. Results A total of 101 participants took part in the final intention-to-treat analyses. The repeated measures analyses demonstrated that depression symptoms increased in the control group (p=0.007), while no change was reported in the BYP-BC group (p=0.29). Also, depression symptoms decreased in the WL control group after receiving the BYP-BC intervention (p=0.03). Finally, there was no statistical significance in terms of anxiety symptoms (p=0.10). Conclusions Results support the BYP-BC intervention as a beneficial means of reducing and preventing the worsening of depression symptoms during chemotherapy treatment.

  4. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act...

  5. 76 FR 79531 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... exclude CLF stock subscriptions, based on the asset's negligible credit risk and to facilitate corporate... removing paragraphs (c)(3) and (f)(4) and adding paragraph (h) to read as follows: Sec. 704.6 Credit risk... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 704 RIN 3133-AD95 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY...

  6. 49 CFR 536.4 - Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.4 Credits. (a) Type and vintage... category, and model year of origin (vintage). (b) Application of credits. All credits earned and applied are calculated, per 49 U.S.C. 32903(c), in tenths of a mile per gallon by which the average fuel...

  7. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit

  8. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...). The resultant credit equivalent amount is assigned to the appropriate risk-weight category described... directly or indirectly retains or assumes credit risk. For risk participations in such arrangements... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet...

  9. The Impact of Trade Credit on Customer Switching Behaviour: Evidence from the Tanzanian Rice Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N.; Kihanga, E.; Lensink, B.W.; Lutz, C.

    2012-01-01

    We use primary survey data to analyse the relationship between trade credit and customer switching in the context of trade transactions between wholesalers and retailers in the Tanzanian rice market. Results reveal a negative relation of trade credit and customer switching, that is, trade credit

  10. The impact of trade credit on customer switching behaviour : Evidence from the Tanzanian rice market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Kihanga, E.P.; Lensink, B.W.; Lutz, C.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    We use primary survey data to analyse the relationship between trade credit and customer switching in the context of trade transactions between wholesalers and retailers in the Tanzanian rice market. Results reveal a negative relation of trade credit and customer switching, that is, trade credit

  11. 78 FR 54391 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect individuals and corporations that...

  12. The Dual Benefits of Tax Credits: Taxpayer Income Generation and Economy Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Robin; Tiggeman, Theresa; Edmond, Tracie

    2010-01-01

    Two important provisions of the Internal Revenue Code were the creation of the Earned Income Tax Credit and Child Tax Credit. Each of these credits were designed to reduce the amount of tax owed, thereby offsetting some of the increases in living expenses and federal income tax. For many this results in a smaller a tax liability. For others with…

  13. 76 FR 42076 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The text of those temporary regulations published in...

  14. 76 FR 53818 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... of taxes paid for purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect...

  15. 76 FR 53819 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect individuals and corporations that...

  16. 76 FR 42036 - Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Determining the Amount of Taxes Paid for Purposes of the Foreign Tax Credit AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... purposes of the foreign tax credit. These regulations address certain highly structured arrangements that produce inappropriate foreign tax credit results. The regulations affect individuals and corporations that...

  17. Decline of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Results of a Single-Institution Prospective Clinical Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, Adam L.; Ben-David, Merav A.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Moran, Jean M.; Marsh, Robin B.; Pierce, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the final cosmetic results from a single-arm prospective clinical trial evaluating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with active-breathing control (ABC). Methods and Materials: Women older than 40 with breast cancer stages 0-I who received breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study evaluating APBI using IMRT administered with deep inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions given twice daily over 5 consecutive days. The planning target volume was defined as the lumpectomy cavity with a 1.5-cm margin. Cosmesis was scored on a 4-category scale by the treating physician. Toxicity was scored according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0). We report the cosmetic and toxicity results at a median follow-up of 5 years. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Two patients were excluded because of fair baseline cosmesis. The trial was terminated early because fair/poor cosmesis developed in 7 of 32 women at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. At a median follow-up of 5 years, further decline in the cosmetic outcome was observed in 5 women. Cosmesis at the time of last assessment was 43.3% excellent, 30% good, 20% fair, and 6.7% poor. Fibrosis according to CTCAE at last assessment was 3.3% grade 2 toxicity and 0% grade 3 toxicity. There was no correlation of CTCAE grade 2 or greater fibrosis with cosmesis. The 5-year rate of local control was 97% for all 34 patients initially enrolled. Conclusions: In this prospective trial with 5-year median follow-up, we observed an excellent rate of tumor control using IMRT-planned APBI. Cosmetic outcomes, however, continued to decline, with 26.7% of women having a fair to poor cosmetic result. These results underscore the need for continued cosmetic assessment for patients treated with APBI by technique

  18. Decline of Cosmetic Outcomes Following Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Results of a Single-Institution Prospective Clinical Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liss, Adam L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ben-David, Merav A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan (Israel); Jagsi, Reshma; Hayman, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Moran, Jean M.; Marsh, Robin B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pierce, Lori J., E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: To report the final cosmetic results from a single-arm prospective clinical trial evaluating accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with active-breathing control (ABC). Methods and Materials: Women older than 40 with breast cancer stages 0-I who received breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved prospective study evaluating APBI using IMRT administered with deep inspiration breath-hold. Patients received 38.5 Gy in 3.85-Gy fractions given twice daily over 5 consecutive days. The planning target volume was defined as the lumpectomy cavity with a 1.5-cm margin. Cosmesis was scored on a 4-category scale by the treating physician. Toxicity was scored according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE version 3.0). We report the cosmetic and toxicity results at a median follow-up of 5 years. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Two patients were excluded because of fair baseline cosmesis. The trial was terminated early because fair/poor cosmesis developed in 7 of 32 women at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. At a median follow-up of 5 years, further decline in the cosmetic outcome was observed in 5 women. Cosmesis at the time of last assessment was 43.3% excellent, 30% good, 20% fair, and 6.7% poor. Fibrosis according to CTCAE at last assessment was 3.3% grade 2 toxicity and 0% grade 3 toxicity. There was no correlation of CTCAE grade 2 or greater fibrosis with cosmesis. The 5-year rate of local control was 97% for all 34 patients initially enrolled. Conclusions: In this prospective trial with 5-year median follow-up, we observed an excellent rate of tumor control using IMRT-planned APBI. Cosmetic outcomes, however, continued to decline, with 26.7% of women having a fair to poor cosmetic result. These results underscore the need for continued cosmetic assessment for patients treated with APBI by technique.

  19. Personality Disorders Associated with Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the U.S. Population: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Background While it is well known that personality disorders are associated with trauma exposure and PTSD, limited nationally representative data are available on DSM-IV personality disorders that co-occur with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and partial PTSD. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 adults participating in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics and additional psychiatric comorbidity evaluated associations of PTSD and partial PTSD with personality disorders. Results Prevalence rates of lifetime PTSD and partial PTSD were 6.4% and 6.6%, respectively. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and additional psychiatric comorbidity, respondents with full PTSD were more likely than trauma controls to meet criteria for schizotypal, narcissistic, and borderline personality disorders (ORs=2.1–2.5); and respondents with partial PTSD were more likely than trauma controls to meet diagnostic criteria for borderline (OR=2.0), schizotypal (OR=1.8), and narcissistic (OR=1.6) PDs. Women with PTSD were more likely than controls to have obsessive-compulsive PD. Women with partial PTSD were more likely than controls to have antisocial PD; and men with partial PTSD were less likely than women with partial PTSD to have avoidant PD. Conclusions PTSD and partial PTSD are associated with borderline, schizotypal, and narcissistic personality disorders. Modestly higher rates of obsessive-compulsive PD were observed among women with full PTSD, and of antisocial PD among women with partial PTSD. PMID:20950823

  20. The level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interorganizational relationships of Brazilian credit cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract This article aims to analyze the level of influence of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power in the interrelationships of individual credit cooperatives and their central organization in Brazil. The quantitative and descriptive research was developed in unique credit unions linked to the Central Bank of Brazil and the Organization of Brazilian Cooperatives. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, with the estimation through partial least squares. The results obtained for the coefficients of determination (R2 of the endogenous latent variables confirmed the assumptions found in the theoretical models of Morgan and Hunt (1994 and Coote, Forrest, and Tam (2003. Statistical significance was also found in the relationships between power and trust, commitment and cooperation, trust and commitment, trust and cooperation, and power and commitment. However, in this study the relationship between power and commitment characterized the significance and was positive between the individual credit cooperatives and their central organization. This is in line with the understanding that power is the solution to resolving conflicts. The research identifies how the constructs of trust, commitment, cooperation, and power show relevance to the alignment of relations between individual credit cooperatives and their central organization.

  1. Controlled, prospective, randomized, clinical split-mouth evaluation of partial ceramic crowns luted with a new, universal adhesive system/resin cement: results after 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Vanessa; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Federlin, Marianne; Schmalz, Gottfried

    2016-12-01

    A new universal adhesive with corresponding luting composite was recently marketed which can be used both, in a self-etch or in an etch-and-rinse mode. In this study, the clinical performance of partial ceramic crowns (PCCs) inserted with this adhesive and the corresponding luting material used in a self-etch or selective etch approach was compared with a self-adhesive universal luting material. Three PCCs were placed in a split-mouth design in 50 patients. Two PCCs were luted with a combination of a universal adhesive/resin cement (Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate, 3M ESPE) with (SB+E)/without (SB-E) selective enamel etching. Another PCC was luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem 2, 3M ESPE). Forty-eight patients were evaluated clinically according to FDI criteria at baseline and 6, 12 and 18 months. For statistical analyses, the chi-square test (α = 0.05) and Kaplan-Meier analysis were applied. Clinically, no statistically significant differences between groups were detected over time. Within groups, clinically significant increase for criterion "marginal staining" was detected for SB-E over 18 months. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly higher retention rates for SB+E (97.8 %) and SB-E (95.6 %) in comparison to RXU2 (75.6 %). The 18-month clinical performance of a new universal adhesive/composite combination showed no differences with respect to bonding strategy and may be recommended for luting PCCs. Longer-term evaluation is needed to confirm superiority of SB+E over SB-E. At 18 months, the new multi-mode adhesive, Scotchbond Universal, showed clinically reliable results when used for luting PCCs.

  2. Using discriminant analysis for credit decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghiţa DINCĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper follows to highlight the link between the results obtained applying discriminant analysis and lending decision. For this purpose, we have carried out the research on a sample of 24 Romanian private companies, pertaining to 12 different economic sectors, from I and II categories of Bucharest Stock Exchange, for the period 2010-2012. Our study works with two popular bankruptcy risk’s prediction models, the Altman model and the Anghel model. We have double-checked and confirmed the results of our research by comparing the results from applying the two fore-mentioned models as well as by checking existing debt commitments of each analyzed company to credit institutions during the 2010-2012 period. The aim of this paper was the classification of studied companies into potential bankrupt and non-bankrupt, to assist credit institutions in their decision to grant credit, understanding the approval or rejection algorithm of loan applications and even help potential investors in these ompanies.

  3. [Accelerated partial breast irradiation with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery - preliminary results of a phase II clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Stelczer, Gábor; Zaka, Zoltán; Mózsa, Emõke; Fodor, János; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to implement accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) by means of image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive (St I-II) breast cancer who underwent BCS were enrolled in our phase II prospective study. Postoperative APBI was given by means of step and shoot IG-IMRT using 4 to 5 fields to a total dose of 36.9 Gy (9×4.1 Gy) using a twice-a-day fractionation. Before each fraction, series of CT images were taken from the region of the target volume using a kV CT on-rail mounted in the treatment room. An image fusion software was used for automatic image registration of the planning and verification CT images. Patient set-up errors were detected in three directions (LAT, LONG, VERT), and inaccuracies were adjusted by automatic movements of the treatment table. Breast cancer related events, acute and late toxicities, and cosmetic results were registered and analysed. At a median follow-up of 24 months (range 12-44) neither locoregional nor distant failure was observed. Grade 1 (G1), G2 erythema, G1 oedema, and G1 and G2 pain occurred in 21 (35%), 2 (3.3%), 23 (38.3%), 6 (10%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. No G3-4 acute side effects were detected. Among late radiation side effects G1 pigmentation, G1 fibrosis, and G1 fat necrosis occurred in 5 (8.3%), 7 (11.7%), and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. No ≥G2 late toxicity was detected. Excellent and good cosmetic outcome was detected in 45 (75%) and 15 (25%) patients. IG-IMRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for the delivery of APBI following conservative surgery for the treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. Preliminary results are promising, early radiation side effects are minimal, and cosmetic results are excellent.

  4. Credit Rationing Effects of Credit Value-at-Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Slijkerman; D.J.C. Smant (David); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractBanks provide risky loans to firms which have superior information regarding the quality of their projects. Due to asymmetric information the banks face the risk of adverse selection. Credit Value-at-Risk (CVaR) regulation counters the problem of low quality, i.e. high risk, loans and

  5. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberti Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  6. Multiwavelength Lidar Observation of the Atmospheric Response to the 20th March 2015 Partial Solar Eclipse in Rome Tor Vergata: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Gian Luigi; Dionisi, Davide; Federico, Stefano; Congeduti, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    This study reports some preliminary analyses of multichannel lidar measurements taken in Rome Tor Vergata (Italy) during the 20th March 2015 partial solar eclipse. The objective is assessing the capability of the instrument to document the effect of the eclipse in the lower troposphere, with a particular emphasis on the information content at relatively small temporal and spatial scales.

  7. Neural fraud detection in credit card operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorronsoro, J R; Ginel, F; Sgnchez, C; Cruz, C S

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an online system for fraud detection of credit card operations based on a neural classifier. Since it is installed in a transactional hub for operation distribution, and not on a card-issuing institution, it acts solely on the information of the operation to be rated and of its immediate previous history, and not on historic databases of past cardholder activities. Among the main characteristics of credit card traffic are the great imbalance between proper and fraudulent operations, and a great degree of mixing between both. To ensure proper model construction, a nonlinear version of Fisher's discriminant analysis, which adequately separates a good proportion of fraudulent operations away from other closer to normal traffic, has been used. The system is fully operational and currently handles more than 12 million operations per year with very satisfactory results.

  8. Credit reporting, relationship banking, and loan repayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Shirzad Kebria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on loan repayment in one of Iranian banks named Sepah Bank over the period 2012-2013. The study selects a sample of 290 bank’s customers who received loans and, using logistic regression technique, tries to find whether or not qualitative as well as quantitative characteristics of loan receivers influence on repayment of loans. The results indicate that history of outstanding debt as well as customers’ past experiences with banks had meaningful relationships with having bad credit and non-payment of loans. In our survey, having a bad credit in the past had positive relationship with non-payment of loans but long-term customers had negative relationship with non-payment of loans. In addition, working capital turnover ratio, cash ratio, total liabilities, current assets and loan value had significant impact on non-repayment of the loan facilities.

  9. Can repeat injection provide clinical benefit in patients with cervical disc herniation and stenosis when the first epidural injection results only in partial response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-07-01

    Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is known to be an effective treatment for neck or radicular pain due to herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) and spinal stenosis (SS). Although repeat ESI has generally been indicated to provide more pain relief in partial responders after single ESI, there has been little evidence supporting the usefulness of this procedure. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether repeat ESI at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection would provide greater clinical benefit in patients with partial pain reduction than intermittent ESI performed only when pain was aggravated. One hundred eighty-four patients who underwent transforaminal ESI (TFESI) for treatment of axial neck and radicular arm pain due to HIVD or SS and could be followed up for 1 year were enrolled. We divided the patients into 2 groups. Group A (N = 108) comprised partial responders (numeric rating scale (NRS) ≥ 3 after the first injection) who underwent repeat injection at a prescribed interval of 2 to 3 weeks after the first injection. Group B (N = 76) comprised partial responders who did not receive repeat injection at the prescribed interval, but received intermittent injections only for aggravation of pain. Various clinical data were assessed, including total number of injections during 1 year, NRS duration of Group A, or after first injection in Group B (time to reinjection). Groups A and B were compared in terms of total population, HIVD, and SS. In the whole population, HIVD subgroup, and SS subgroup, patients in Group A required significantly fewer injections to obtain satisfactory pain relief during the 1-year follow-up period. Group A showed a significantly longer time to reinjection and longer NRS Group B did. Repeat TFESI conducted at 2- to 3-week intervals after the first injection in partial responders contributed to greater clinical benefit compared with intermittent TFESI performed only upon pain

  10. Tutorial on Online Partial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Cook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a short tutorial introduction to online partial evaluation. We show how to write a simple online partial evaluator for a simple, pure, first-order, functional programming language. In particular, we show that the partial evaluator can be derived as a variation on a compositionally defined interpreter. We demonstrate the use of the resulting partial evaluator for program optimization in the context of model-driven development.

  11. Effects of corporate social responsibility and governance on its credit ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young; Kim, JeongYeon

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings.

  12. Effects of Corporate Social Responsibility and Governance on Its Credit Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-young

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate governance on its credit rating. The result of regression analysis to credit ratings with relevant primary independent variables shows that both factors have significant effects on it. As we have predicted, the signs of both regression coefficients have a positive sign (+) proving that corporates with excellent CSR and governance index (CGI) scores have higher credit ratings and vice versa. The results show nonfinancial information also may have effects on corporate credit rating. The investment on personal data protection could be an example of CSR/CGI activities which have positive effects on corporate credit ratings. PMID:25401134

  13. Credit Supply and Corporate Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amore, Mario Daniele; Schneider, Cédric; Zaldokas, Alminas

    We present evidence that banking development plays a key role in technological progress. We focus on firms’ innovative performance, measured by patent-based metrics, and employ exogenous variations in banking development arising from the staggered deregulation of banking activities across U.S. st...... by a greater ability of deregulated banks to geographically diversify credit risk....

  14. Methodology of Credit Analysis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slađana Neogradi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research presented in this paper refers to the definition of methodology for the development of credit analysis in companies and its application in lending operations in the Republic of Serbia. With the developing credit market, there is a growing need for a well-developed risk and loss prevention system. In the introduction the process of bank analysis of the loan applicant is presented in order to minimize and manage the credit risk. By examining the subject matter, the process of processing the credit application is described, the procedure of analyzing the financial statements in order to get an insight into the borrower's creditworthiness. In the second part of the paper, the theoretical and methodological framework is presented applied in the concrete company. In the third part, models are presented which banks should use to protect against exposure to risks, i.e. their goal is to reduce losses on loan operations in our country, as well as to adjust to market conditions in an optimal way.

  15. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  16. Credit Derivatives and Loan Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norden, L.; Wagner, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the new markets for credit default swaps (CDS) and the pricing of syndicated loans to U.S. corporates. We find that changes in CDS spreads have a significantly positive coefficient and explain about 25% of subsequent monthly changes in aggregate loan

  17. Insurability of export credit risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.; Antufjew, J.; Huizingh, K.R.E.; Koning, Ruud H.; Sterken, E.; Woltil, M.

    2003-01-01

    Firms exporting their goods and services abroad face risks that are different from the risks faced by firms who do not engage in international trade. It is common practice to allow the receiving party to pay in instalments. The exporting firm faces credit risk, but as in most countries, Dutch firms

  18. Brownfields New Markets Tax Credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Brownfi elds Solutions factsheet is intended for brownfields stakeholders interested in how the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC) Program can be used as a financing mechanism in brownfields cleanup and redevelopment.

  19. Accelerated partial breast irradiation with external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. Five-year results of a prospective phase II clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozsa, Emoeke [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Landesklinikum Wiener Neustadt, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Meszaros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Froehlich, Georgina; Stelczer, Gabor; Fodor, Janos; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [National Institute of Oncology, Centre of Surgery, Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-05-15

    The aim of this study was to report the 5-year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using external beam three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Between 2006 and 2011, 44 patients with low-risk, stage I-II breast cancer underwent breast-conserving surgery. Postoperative APBI was given by means of 3D-CRT using three to five non-coplanar fields. The total dose of APBI was 36.9 Gy (nine fractions of 4.1 Gy b.i.d.). The mean follow-up time was 58.2 months for surviving patients. Survival results, side effects, and cosmetic results were assessed. One (2.3 %) local recurrence was observed, for a 5-year actuarial rate of 3.7 %. Neither regional nor distant failure was observed. Two patients died of internal disease. The 5-year disease-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival rates were 96.3, 100, and 95.1 %, respectively. Acute side effects included grade 1 (G1) erythema in 75 %, G1 parenchymal induration in 46 %, and G1 pain in 46 % of patients. No G2 or higher acute side effect occurred. Late side effects included G1, G2, and G3 fibrosis in 44, 7, and 2 % of patients, respectively, G1 skin pigmentation in 12 %, and G1 pain in 2 %. Asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 14 %. Cosmetic results were rated excellent or good in 86 % of cases by the patients themselves and 84 % by the physicians. The 5-year local tumor control, toxicity profile, and cosmetic results of APBI delivered with external beam 3D-CRT are encouraging and comparable to other APBI series. (orig.) [German] Evaluation der 5-Jahres-Ergebnisse bezueglich Ueberleben, Tumorkontrolle, Nebenwirkungen und Kosmetik nach Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) mittels 3-D-konformaler, akzelerierter Radiotherapie (3D-CRT). Zwischen 2006 und 2011 wurden 44 Patienten mit Brustkrebs im Stadium I-II und niedrigem Risikoprofil brusterhaltend operiert. Die adjuvante, 3-D-konformale APBI wurde mittels 3-5 nonkoplanarer Feldern durchgefuehrt. Die Gesamtdosis betrug 36,9 Gy bei 9 -mal 4,1 Gy b.i.d.. Nach

  20. Long-term exposure and safety of lacosamide monotherapy for the treatment of partial-onset (focal) seizures: Results from a multicenter, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossler, David G; Wechsler, Robert T; Williams, Paulette; Byrnes, William; Therriault, Sheila

    2016-10-01

    To assess long-term use and safety of lacosamide (LCM) ≤800 mg/day monotherapy in patients with partial-onset seizures (POS) enrolled previously in a historical-controlled, conversion-to-monotherapy study (SP902; NCT00520741). Patients completing or exiting SP902 with LCM as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy were eligible to enter this 2-year open-label extension (OLE) trial (SP904; NCT00530855) at a starting dose ±100 mg/day of their final SP902 dose. Investigators could adjust the LCM dose to 100-800 mg/day and add up to two antiepileptic drugs to optimize tolerability and seizure reduction. Three hundred twenty-two patients received LCM: 210 patients (65.2%) completed and 112 (34.8%) discontinued, most commonly owing to withdrawal of consent (9.3%). Two hundred fifty-eight patients (80.1%) had ≥1 year of and 216 (67.1%) had ≥2 years of LCM exposure, of whom 179/258 (69.4%) achieved LCM monotherapy lasting for any 12-month period, and 126/216 (58.3%) patients exposed for ≥24 months achieved LCM monotherapy for any 24-month period. Total exposure = 525.5 patient-years. The median modal dose was 500 mg/day. Two hundred ninety-two patients (90.7%) achieved LCM monotherapy at some point during the study. Sixty-five of 87 patients who exited and 193/235 who completed SP902 were exposed for ≥12 months, and 43.1% and 78.2%, respectively, achieved LCM monotherapy for ≥12 months. Median LCM monotherapy duration was 587.0 days (2-791 days); 91.0% of patients reported treatment-emergent adverse events, of which the most common were dizziness (27.3%), headache (17.1%), and nausea (14.3%). Compared with the SP902 study baseline, 74.2% of patients had a ≥50% seizure reduction and 5.6% were seizure-free at 24 months. The majority of patients were receiving LCM monotherapy at 0, 12, and 24 months in this OLE. Lacosamide monotherapy (median dose of 500 mg/day) had a safety profile similar to that of adjunctive therapy studies. These results support the use of

  1. Credit rating calibration

    OpenAIRE

    David Hampel; Kateřina Jůzová; Martina Matulíková

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we deal with determination of chosen characteristics of vending business in the Czech Republic. Vending seems to be dynamically developing sector of economics. A strong competition is present in this market. This can be a reason that new ideas of improvement appear continuously. Primary data are used to characterize vending business from the perspective of consumer as well as vending operator. The data are used as input to statistical tests; results are summarized and presented ...

  2. A Mechanism for Anonymous Credit Card Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    This paper proposes a mechanism for anonymous credit card systems, in which each credit card holder can conceal individual transactions from the credit card company, while enabling the credit card company to calculate the total expenditures of transactions of individual card holders during specified periods, and to identify card holders who executed dishonest transactions. Based on three existing mechanisms, i.e. anonymous authentication, blind signature and secure statistical data gathering, together with implicit transaction links proposed here, the proposed mechanism enables development of anonymous credit card systems without assuming any absolutely trustworthy entity like tamper resistant devices or organizations faithful both to the credit card company and card holders.

  3. Credit Card Debt Hardship Letter Samples

    OpenAIRE

    lissa coffey

    2016-01-01

    Having trouble with your credit card debt? Below you will find examples of hardship letters. There are several things to consider when writing a credit card hardship letter. A hardship letter is the first step to letting the credit card company know that things are bad. This free credit card hardship letter sample is only a guide in order to start the negotiation. Credit card debt hardship letter example, hardship letter to credit card. If you are having trouble paying off your debt and need ...

  4. Credit Risk Evaluation of Swedish SMEs : A Banking Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hörstedt, Maria; Linjamaa, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    As a result from the latest financial crisis, the banking industry has undergone major modifications during the last years in order to limit banks’ risks. A vast majority of existing literature tends to focus upon credit risk evaluation methods and techniques mainly concerning quantitative measures and large companies. Thus, the lack of research regarding credit risk evaluation of SMEs is profound, especially considering Sweden. With the dominant market share of SMEs compared to large corpora...

  5. Review of Research on Credit Risk Management for Rural Credit Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of rural micro-credit, whether the qagriculture, rural areas and farmersq problems have been effectively solved, whether the credit risk has been effectively controlled, these have become the focus of our attention to the rural economic environment. The main content of this paper contains four aspects: the classification and characteristics of credit risk, the problems and factors of credit risk, the model and evaluation of credit risk, the countermeasures and suggestions of credit risk. This paper reviews the research of credit risk management for rural credit cooperatives from the above four aspects, and makes a brief summary.

  6. The origin of the concept of partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie

    1999-03-01

    The International League Against Epilepsy has devised classifications which subdivide both epileptic seizures and the epilepsies and epileptic syndromes into two main types: generalized and partial. Epileptogenesis in the partial variety is believed to originate in a localized part of the cerebral cortex and results in clinical manifestations which appear to commence in only a restricted part of the sufferer's body. Use of the term 'partial' in relation to these entities has often been said to date back to James Cowles Prichard (1786-1849) who was the author of the second major work on epilepsy to be written in the UK. While Prichard certainly described 'partial epilepsy', he stated that he intended the words to refer to the fact that the disorder he described under that designation was only partly, and not fully, epileptic in nature. He did not refer to the fact that it affected only part of the body as his basis for using the term. In the absence of knowledge of localization of function in the cerebral cortex at Prichard's time of writing, he had no basis for deducing that the underlying epileptic process arose in only part of the brain. However, there is an earlier mention of the use of the word 'partial' in relation to epilepsy. This is to be found in the writings of the great Scottish physician William Cullen (1710-1790), and there is reason to believe that Prichard should have been aware of this. Cullen used 'partial' with an intention similar to the modern one, employing the word to refer to seizures which affected only part of the body. Credit for the origin of the idea of a 'partial' epilepsy should belong to Cullen; not only did he have priority over Prichard but his concept was closer to the modern one than was Prichard's. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. Credit securitization and credit derivatives: Financial instruments and the credit risk management of middle market commercial loan portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Henke, Sabine; Burghof, Hans-Peter; Rudolph, Bernd

    1998-01-01

    Banks increasingly recognize the need to measure and manage the credit risk of their loans on a portfolio basis. We address the subportfolio "middle market". Due to their specific lending policy for this market segment it is an important task for banks to systematically identify regional and industrial credit concentrations and reduce the detected concentrations through diversification. In recent years, the development of markets for credit securitization and credit derivatives has provided n...

  8. Credit rating calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hampel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we deal with determination of chosen characteristics of vending business in the Czech Republic. Vending seems to be dynamically developing sector of economics. A strong competition is present in this market. This can be a reason that new ideas of improvement appear continuously. Primary data are used to characterize vending business from the perspective of consumer as well as vending operator. The data are used as input to statistical tests; results are summarized and presented in economic terms. At first, survey (about 600 respondents is analyzed in empirical way. It is informative in such sense, that vending machines are used by majority of users, more often in school or workplace. The main reasons of using vending machines are speed of shopping and no other shopping possibility. Further part is devoted to comparison of prices under different situations. For example, there are differences among various vending machine locations. Vending machine prices are not necessarily higher than prices in shops or cafeterias. Finally, operator profitability is explored based on company internal data. Among others, hot drinks vending machines are more profitable than vending machines selling bottled beverages of packaged food in general.

  9. An economic evaluation of a storage system for casks with burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Masahiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki; Yamada, Nobuyuki; O-iwa, Akio.

    1993-01-01

    It is generally recognized that casks designed with burnup credit are more economical than those without burnup credit. To estimate how much more economical they are, we made conceptual designs of transport/storage casks with and without burnup credit for PWR and BWR fuels of various uranium enrichment. The casks were designed to contain the maximum number of fuel assemblies under the necessary weight and dimensional limitations as well as the criticality and shielding criteria. The results showed that approximately 8 % to 44 % more fuel assemblies could be contained in casks with burnup credit. We then evaluated the economy of cask storage system incorporating the cask designs obtained above both with and without burnup credit. The results showed that the cost of storing casks with burnup credit is approximately 7 % to 30 % less expensive than storing casks without burnup credit. (J.P.N.)

  10. Incorporating Contagion in Portfolio Credit Risk Models Using Network Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Anagnostou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio credit risk models estimate the range of potential losses due to defaults or deteriorations in credit quality. Most of these models perceive default correlation as fully captured by the dependence on a set of common underlying risk factors. In light of empirical evidence, the ability of such a conditional independence framework to accommodate for the occasional default clustering has been questioned repeatedly. Thus, financial institutions have relied on stressed correlations or alternative copulas with more extreme tail dependence. In this paper, we propose a different remedy—augmenting systematic risk factors with a contagious default mechanism which affects the entire universe of credits. We construct credit stress propagation networks and calibrate contagion parameters for infectious defaults. The resulting framework is implemented on synthetic test portfolios wherein the contagion effect is shown to have a significant impact on the tails of the loss distributions.

  11. Investigating smallholder farmers’ exclusion from credit markets in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chisasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit by smallholder farmers in South Africa has been empirically observed to be characterised by a variety constraints. This paper examines the demographic, financial and economic characteristics of smallholder farmers in order to gain a better understanding of why smallholder farmers are excluded from formal credit markets. The paper uses survey data collected from 362 smallholder farmers randomly selected from Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Using descriptive analysis, the paper observes that smallholder farmers have low annual turnover, low demand for credit and often with a family culture not to borrow. The paper concludes that smallholder farmers in South Africa are still financially excluded, particularly from the formal banking systems. Results of this paper demonstrate a need for a review of financial policies in favour of increasing the supply of financial services, particularly credit to smallholder farmers if South Africa is to achieve its Millenium Development Goals of employment creation and poverty alleviation.

  12. Psychiatric Comorbidity of Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Older Adults in the United States: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To present findings on the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric comorbidity of DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and partial PTSD in a nationally representative sample of U.S. older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants Face-to-face interviews with 9,463 adults aged 60 years and older in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Measurements Sociodemographic correlates, worst stressful experiences, comorbid lifetime mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders, psychosocial functioning, and suicide attempts. Results Lifetime prevalences±standard errors of PTSD and partial PTSD were 4.5%±0.25 and 5.5%±0.27, respectively. Rates were higher in women (5.7%±0.37 and 6.5%±0.39) than men (3.1%±0.31 and 4.3%±0.37). Older adults with PTSD most frequently identified unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and own serious or life-threatening illness as their worst stressful events. Older adults exposed to trauma but without full or partial PTSD and respondents with partial PTSD most often identified unexpected death of someone close, serious illness or injury to someone close, and indirect experience of 9/11 as their worst events. PTSD was associated with elevated odds of lifetime mood, anxiety, drug use, and borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, and decreased psychosocial functioning. Partial PTSD was associated with elevated odds of mood, anxiety, and narcissistic and schizotypal personality disorders, and poorer psychosocial functioning relative to older adults exposed to trauma but without full or partial PTSD. Conclusions PTSD among older adults in the United States is slightly more prevalent than previously reported and associated with considerable psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial dysfunction. Partial PTSD is associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity, particularly with mood and other anxiety disorders. PMID:22522959

  13. Weekly bi-fractionated 40 Gy three-dimensional conformational accelerated partial irradiation of breast: results of a phase II French pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgier, C.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Heymann, S.; Biron, B.; Delaloge, S.; Garbay, J.R.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourhis, J.; Taghian, A.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the first French experience of three-dimensional conformational and accelerated partial irradiation of breast. Twenty five patients have been concerned by this phase II trial. The prescribed total dose was 40 Gy, was delivered over 5 days in two daily fractions. Irradiation was performed with two 6 MV tangential mini-beams and a 6-22 MeV front electron beams. The planning target volume coverage was very good. Toxicity has been assessed. Healthy tissues (heart, lungs) are considerably protected. The acute and late toxicity is correct. Short communication

  14. British and American attitudes toward credit cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bijou; James, Simon; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    American university students owned more than twice as many credit cards as British university students. However, scores on a credit card attitude scale predicted the number of cards owned by respondents in both countries.

  15. Portfolio Optimization for Multiple Group Credit Unions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willis, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) to diversify, credit unions now have the opportunity to market their services to specific employee groups or industries which can reduce the overall risk to the credit unions' health or solvency...

  16. Fish marketing and credit in Viet Nam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lem, Audun

    2004-01-01

    .... State-owned financial institutions play a major role in financing capital expenditure while working capital requirements are mainly met by informal sources of credit. However, future investment requirements and credit needs are greater than currently available.

  17. Credit Card Risk Behavior on College Campuses: Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Mendes-da-Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available College students frequently show they have little skill when it comes to using a credit card in a responsible manner. This article deals with this issue in an emerging market and in a pioneering manner. University students (n = 769 in São Paulo, Brazil’s main financial center, replied to a questionnaire about their credit card use habits. Using Logit models, associations were discovered between personal characteristics and credit card use habits that involve financially risky behavior. The main results were: (a a larger number of credit cards increases the probability of risky behavior; (b students who alleged they knew what interest rates the card administrators were charging were less inclined to engage in risky behavior. The results are of interest to the financial industry, to university managers and to policy makers. This article points to the advisability, indeed necessity, of providing students with information about the use of financial products (notably credit cards bearing in mind the high interest rates which their users are charged. The findings regarding student behavior in the use of credit cards in emerging economies are both significant and relevant. Furthermore, financial literature, while recognizing the importance of the topic, has not significantly examined the phenomenon in emerging economies.

  18. Computational Benchmark for Estimation of Reactivity Margin from Fission Products and Minor Actinides in PWR Burnup Credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    This report proposes and documents a computational benchmark problem for the estimation of the additional reactivity margin available in spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from fission products and minor actinides in a burnup-credit storage/transport environment, relative to SNF compositions containing only the major actinides. The benchmark problem/configuration is a generic burnup credit cask designed to hold 32 pressurized water reactor (PWR) assemblies. The purpose of this computational benchmark is to provide a reference configuration for the estimation of the additional reactivity margin, which is encouraged in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) guidance for partial burnup credit (ISG8), and document reference estimations of the additional reactivity margin as a function of initial enrichment, burnup, and cooling time. Consequently, the geometry and material specifications are provided in sufficient detail to enable independent evaluations. Estimates of additional reactivity margin for this reference configuration may be compared to those of similar burnup-credit casks to provide an indication of the validity of design-specific estimates of fission-product margin. The reference solutions were generated with the SAS2H-depletion and CSAS25-criticality sequences of the SCALE 4.4a package. Although the SAS2H and CSAS25 sequences have been extensively validated elsewhere, the reference solutions are not directly or indirectly based on experimental results. Consequently, this computational benchmark cannot be used to satisfy the ANS 8.1 requirements for validation of calculational methods and is not intended to be used to establish biases for burnup credit analyses

  19. Credit Risk Transfer and Crunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigan, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Rather than in terms of the inevitable demise of a destabilising process of speculation, this article explores the ‘credit crunch’ as a window on the fabrication, and measure of the proportions of a political shift driven by market actors and financial innovation. The Basel process reconceptualised...... banks as risk navigators and generated a competitive hierarchy within the global banking industry determined on a gauge of this capacity. This private regulatory regime promoted market inflation and rendered institutional liquidity and risk transfer definitive of market power. In turn, a ballooning...... credit derivatives market broke the limits of financial production and defined state actions in the face of crisis. A shift from a central concern with solvency to that of liquidity thinly masks a profound redistribution of power from the public to the private. By swapping private assets of uncertain...

  20. STATE CREDIT RATING MARK: PRESENT DOMESTIC REALITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalko, N. M.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the problematic aspects of credit ratings and ranking. The economic and legal aspects of ranking relations are addressed. It is concluded that a low credit standing of Ukraine is a sign of our country’s low debt sustainability.It is proved that both for Ukraine and for economically developed countries, the issue of credit ratings is quite important, and at times problematic. The issue is related to the development of the national and international financial credit resour...

  1. Service quality in consumer's credit branch

    OpenAIRE

    Blechová, Věra

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and comparison of their service quality. The first part of research is dedicated to consumer's knowledge of credit issues. Second describes main difficulties of consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and proves their use of unfair manners. The final part of thesis propose improvements, which will boost consumer's protection on field of consumer's credits.

  2. Developing emission reduction credit trading in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Texas Air Control Board has begun to develop a system of emission reduction credit training. The system will be developed incrementally over time. The first step, banking of VOC and NO x Emission Reduction Credits, began March 15, 1993. Additional programs under study and development include NO x RACT trading, emission credits for motor vehicle scrappage and alternative fuel conversion, and establishment of community organizations to generate and acquire emission reduction credits for economic development purposes

  3. Implementation of image-guided intensity-modulated accelerated partial breast irradiation. Three-year results of a phase II clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meszaros, Norbert; Major, Tibor; Stelczer, Gabor; Zaka, Zoltan; Takacsi-Nagy, Zoltan; Fodor, Janos; Polgar, Csaba [National Institute of Oncology, Center of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Mozsa, Emoke [National Institute of Oncology, Center of Radiotherapy, Budapest (Hungary); Landesklinikum, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pukancsik, David [National Institute of Oncology, Department of Breast and Sarcoma Surgery, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-01-15

    To report 3-year results of accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) following breast conserving surgery (BCS) for low-risk early invasive breast cancer. Between July 2011 and March 2014, 60 patients with low-risk early invasive breast cancer underwent BCS and were enrolled in this phase II prospective study. The total dose was 36.9 Gy (9 fractions of 4.1 Gy, two fractions/day). Patient setup errors were detected in LAT, LONG and VERT directions. Local tumour control, survival results, early and late side effects and cosmetic outcome were assessed. At a median follow-up of 39 months, all patients were alive and neither locoregional nor distant failure occurred. One contralateral breast cancer and two new primary malignancies outside the breast were observed. No grade (G) 3-4 acute toxicity was detected. G1 and G2 erythema occurred in 21 (35%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively; while G1 oedema was observed in 23 (38.8%) cases. G1 and G2 pain was reported by 6 (10%) and 2 (3.3%) patients, respectively. Among the late radiation side effects, G1 pigmentation or telangiectasia, G1 fibrosis and G1 asymptomatic fat necrosis occurred in 10 (16.7%), 7 (11.7%) and 3 (5%) patients, respectively. No ≥ G2 late toxicity was detected. Cosmetic outcome was excellent in 43 (71.7%) and good in 17 (28.3%) patients. IG-IMRT is a reproducible and feasible technique for delivery of external beam APBI following BCS for treatment of low-risk, early-stage invasive breast carcinoma. In order to avoid toxicity, image guidance performed before each radiation fraction is necessary to minimize the PTV. Three-year results are promising, early and late radiation side-effects are minimal, and cosmetic results are excellent to good. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung der 3-Jahres-Ergebnisse der Teilbrustbestrahlung (APBI) mittels bildgefuehrter intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IG-IMRT) nach brusterhaltender Operation (BCS

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    Full Text Available Ministério da EducaçãoSecretaria de Educação Profissional e TecnológicaInstituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Fluminense Reitora Cibele Daher Botelho Monteiro Pró-Reitora de Ensino Fabíola de Amério Ney Silva Pró-Reitor de Pesquisa e Inovação Hélio Gomes Filho Pró-Reitor de Extensão Eugênio Ferreira Naegele da Silva Pró-Reitor de Desenvolvimento Institucional Roberto Moraes Pessanha Editora-chefe Inez Barcellos de AndradeCoordenação Editorial do Boletim Maria Inês Paes Ferreira Conselho Editorial Conselho Consultivo Desiely Silva GusmãoEdinalda Almeida da SilvaHelvia Pereira Pinto BastosInez Barcellos de AndradeJefferson Manhães de AzevedoLuiz de Pinedo Quinto JuniorMaria Amelia Ayd CorrêaMaria Inês Paes FerreiraPedro de Azevedo Castelo BrancoRegina Coeli Martins AquinoRogério Atem de CarvalhoRomeu e Silva NetoSaid Sérgio Martins AuattSalvador TavaresSergio VasconcelosSilvia Lúcia dos Santos BarretoSynthio Vieira de AlmeidaVania Cristina Alexandrino BernardoVicente de Paulo Santos OliveiraWander Gomes Ney Adalberto Cardoso (IESP/UERJAntonio Carlos Secchin (UFRJAntônio José da Silva Neto (IPRJ/UERJAsterio Kiyoshi Tanaka (UNIRIO e UFRJErica Maria Pellegrini Caramaschi (UFRJFernando Benedicto Mainier (UFFFernando Pruski (UFVFrancisco de Assis Esteves (UFRJGaudêncio Frigotto (UFFHamilton Jorge de Azevedo (UFRRJHelder Gomes Costa (UFFIná Elias de Castro (UFRJJader Lugon Junior (IFF/UERJ/SENAIJanete Bolite Frant (UNIBANJosé Abdallah Helayël-Neto (CBPF/MCTMiriam Fontelle (UNIFLU e UNESARodrigo Valente Serra (ANPRonaldo Pinheiro da Rocha Paranhos (UENFSérgio Arruda de Moura (UENFVera Lucia Marques da Silva (FBPNVirgínia Maria Gomes de Mattos Fontes (UFF Apoio TécnicoCarlos David PascoDenia Cristina da Silva BarretoGisele Carvalho da Silva Costa Nogueira Bolsista de Iniciação CientíficaJáder da Mota SiqueiraJúlio Fontoura Gonçalves de LimaSamara Melo RodriguesWanessa Alves Duarte Revisão de Texto Edinalda Maria Almeida da SilvaVania Cristina Alexandrino Bernardo Projeto Gráfico André da Silva CruzEric Moreira Carvalho Diagramação Diego Melo Gomes CapaAndré da Silva Cruz Revisão Técnica Inez Barcellos de Andrade CopidesqueCláudia de Souza CaetanoCatalogação Inez Barcellos de Andrade Dados de Catalogação na Publicação (CIPB688 Boletim do Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego / InstitutoFederal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Fluminense.Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego. - Vol. 1, no. 1(jan./jun. 2007 - .- Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ: Essentia Editora,2007- SemestralCentro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Campos - CEFET Camposaté 2008. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia - IF Fluminense apartir de 2009. ISSN versão impressa 1981-6197ISSN versão eletrônica 2177-4560 1. Engenharia ambiental. I. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência eTecnologia Fluminense. II. Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego. CDD - 628 Tiragem: 1000 exemplaresImpressão: Borzan Indústria Gráfica | Tel.: (22 3211-9274

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    Full Text Available Ministério da EducaçãoSecretaria de Educação Profissional e TecnológicaInstituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Fluminense Reitor Luiz Augusto Caldas Pereira Pró-Reitor de Ensino Carlos Márcio Lima Pró-Reitor de Pesquisa e Inovação José Augusto Ferreira da Silva Pró-Reitora de Extensão Paula Aparecida Martins Borges Bastos Pró-Reitora de Desenvolvimento Institucional Ana Lúcia Campinho Coordenadora da Essentia Editora Kíssila da Conceição Ribeiro Conselho Editorial Conselho Consultivo Desiely Silva GusmãoEdinalda Almeida da SilvaHelvia Pereira Pinto BastosInez Barcellos de AndradeJefferson Manhães de AzevedoLuiz de Pinedo Quinto JuniorMaria Amelia Ayd CorrêaMaria Inês Paes FerreiraPedro de Azevedo Castelo BrancoRegina Coeli Martins AquinoRogério Atem de CarvalhoRomeu e Silva NetoSaid Sérgio Martins AuattSalvador TavaresSergio VasconcelosSilvia Lúcia dos Santos BarretoSynthio Vieira de AlmeidaVania Cristina Alexandrino BernardoVicente de Paulo Santos OliveiraWander Gomes Ney Adalberto Cardoso (IESP/UERJAntonio Carlos Secchin (UFRJAntônio José da Silva Neto (IPRJ/UERJAsterio Kiyoshi Tanaka (UNIRIO e UFRJErica Maria Pellegrini Caramaschi (UFRJFernando Benedicto Mainier (UFFFernando Pruski (UFVFrancisco de Assis Esteves (UFRJGaudêncio Frigotto (UFFHamilton Jorge de Azevedo (UFRRJHelder Gomes Costa (UFFIná Elias de Castro (UFRJJader Lugon Junior (IFF/UERJ/SENAIJanete Bolite Frant (UNIBANJosé Abdallah Helayël-Neto (CBPF/MCTRodrigo Valente Serra (ANPRonaldo Pinheiro da Rocha Paranhos (UENFSérgio Arruda de Moura (UENFVera Lucia Marques da Silva (FBPNVirgínia Maria Gomes de Mattos Fontes (UFF Equipe Editorial Revisão de Língua Portuguesa Edson Carlos NascimentoIsabela Bastos de CarvalhoKíssila Ferreira de SouzaPriscila Matos MonkenRosângela Caldas Revisão de Língua Inglesa Hélvia Pereira Pinto Bastos Capa, Projeto Gráfico André da Silva Cruz Diagramação Cláudia Marcia Alves FerreiraMariana de Almeida Reis Revisão Técnica e Catalogação Inez Barcellos de Andrade Logotipo Marcos Antonio Esquef Maciel Dados de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP V567 Vértices / Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Fluminense. -Vol.1, n. 1 (dez. 1997 - . - Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ: EssentiaEditora, 1997- QuadrimestralCentro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Campos - CEFET Camposaté 2008. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia -IF Fluminense a partir de jan.2009. ISSN 1415-2843 (versão impressaISSN 1809-2667 (versão eletrônica 1. Educação - Periódicos. I. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciênciae Tecnologia Fluminense. CDD - 370.5 Revista Indexada em: Instituto Brasileiro em Ciência e Tecnologia/Sistema de Editoração Eletrônico de Revistas (IBICT/SEER Sistema Regional de Información en Línea para Revistas Científicasde América Latina, el Caribe, Espanã y Portugal (LATINDEX Directory Open Access Journals (DOAJ Revista filiada à: Associação Brasileira de Editores Científicos Tiragem: 1000 exemplaresImpressão: Impressoart Editora Gráfica Ltda. | Tel.: (41 3348-2728 A revista Vértices é uma publicação científica do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Fluminense. Os artigos assinados são de responsabilidade exclusiva dos autores e não expressam, necessariamente, a opinião do Conselho Editorial. É permitida a reprodução total ou parcial dos artigos desta revista, desde que citada a fonte.

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    Full Text Available Diretora Geral Cibele Daher Botelho Monteiro Vice-Diretora Geral Jefferson Manhães de Azevedo Coordenadora de Pós-Graduação Vera Raimunda Amério Asseff Coordenador de Pesquisa Rogério Atem de Carvalho Editora-Chefe Maria Amelia Ayd Correa Coordenação Editorial do Boletim Maria Inês Paes Ferreira Conselho Editorial Dalila Silva MelloMarcos Antonio Cruz MoreiraRoberta de Sousa RamalhoVicente de Paulo Santos de Oliveira Organizadores deste número Maria Inês Paes FerreiraMariana Rodrigues de Carvalhaes PinheiroTathiana Chaves de Souza Apoio Técnico Gisele Carvalho da Silva Costa NogueiraCarlos David Pasco Bolsistas de Iniciação Científica Felipe Eliakim SilvaSamara Melo Rodrigues Revisão de Texto Edinalda Maria Almeida da Silva Projeto Gráfico André da Silva CruzDaniel Marques Sardinha Diagramação Daniel Marques Sardinha Capa Daniel Marques Sardinha Revisão Técnica Flávia Gomes de Abreu SiqueiraVanessa Vasconcelos Lopes Assistente de Editoração Cláudia de Souza Caetano Catalogação Antonio Soares das Chagas Filho Dados de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP Boletim do Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego. - Vol. 2, n. 1 (jan./jun. 2008. Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológicade Campos. Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego.Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ: Essentia Editora, 2008 - v. : il. 14 cm. SemestralISSN 1981-6197 1. Engenharia ambiental. I. Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológicade Campos. II. Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego. CDD - 628 Tiragem: 1000 exemplaresImpressão: Gráfica e Editora GSA | Tel.: (27 3232-1266

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    Full Text Available Ministério da EducaçãoSecretaria de Educação Profissional e TecnológicaInstituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Fluminense Reitor Luiz Augusto Caldas Pereira Pró-Reitor de Ensino Carlos Márcio Lima Pró-Reitor de Pesquisa e Inovação José Augusto Ferreira da Silva Pró-Reitora de Extensão Paula Aparecida Martins Borges BastosEditora-Chefe Inez Barcellos de Andrade Coordenação Editorial do Boletim Maria Inês Paes Ferreira Conselho Editorial Conselho Consultivo Edinalda Almeida da SilvaHelvia Pereira Pinto BastosJefferson Manhães de AzevedoLuiz de Pinedo Quinto JuniorMaria Amelia Ayd CorrêaMaria Inês Paes FerreiraPedro de Azevedo Castelo BrancoRegina Coeli Martins AquinoRogério Atem de CarvalhoRomeu e Silva NetoSaid Sérgio Martins AuattSalvador TavaresSergio VasconcelosSilvia Lúcia dos Santos BarretoSynthio Vieira de AlmeidaVania Cristina Alexandrino BernardoVicente de Paulo Santos OliveiraWander Gomes Ney Adalberto Cardoso (IESP/UERJAntonio Carlos Secchin (UFRJAntônio José da Silva Neto (IPRJ/UERJAsterio Kiyoshi Tanaka (UNIRIO e UFRJErica Maria Pellegrini Caramaschi (UFRJFernando Benedicto Mainier (UFFFernando Pruski (UFVFrancisco de Assis Esteves (UFRJGaudêncio Frigotto (UFFHamilton Jorge de Azevedo (UFRRJHelder Gomes Costa (UFFIná Elias de Castro (UFRJJader Lugon Junior (IFF/UERJ/SENAIJanete Bolite Frant (UNIBANJosé Abdallah Helayël-Neto (CBPF/MCTMiriam Fontelle (UNIFLU e UNESARodrigo Valente Serra (ANPRonaldo Pinheiro da Rocha Paranhos (UENFSérgio Arruda de Moura (UENFVera Lucia Marques da Silva (FBPNVirgínia Maria Gomes de Mattos Fontes (UFF Organizadores deste númeroMaria Inês Paes FerreiraJader Lugon JuniorLuiz de Pinedo Quinto JúniorLuiz Felipe Umbelino dos SantosBolsista de Iniciação CientíficaCamilla Cardoso da Costa Revisão de Língua Portuguesa e Inglesa Edson Carlos Nascimento Projeto Gráfico André da Silva CruzEric Moreira Carvalho Diagramação Cláudia Marcia Alves FerreiraDiego Melo Gomes CapaAndré da Silva Cruz Revisão Técnica e Catalogação Inez Barcellos de Andrade CopidesqueEdson Carlos NascimentoDados de Catalogação na Publicação (CIP B688      Boletim do Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego / InstitutoFederal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Fluminense.Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego. - Vol. 1, no. 1(jan./jun. 2011 - .- Campos dos Goytacazes (RJ: Essentia Editora,2011- SemestralCentro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Campos - CEFET Camposaté 2008. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia - IF Fluminense apartir de 2009. ISSN versão impressa 1981-6197ISSN versão eletrônica 2177-4560 1. Engenharia ambiental. I. Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência eTecnologia Fluminense. II. Observatório Ambiental Alberto Ribeiro Lamego. CDD - 628 Tiragem: 1000 exemplaresImpressão: Meneghitti's Gráfica e Editora Ltda. | Tel.: (21 2136-6999

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  12. 75 FR 64785 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... management (ALM) and credit risk, and whether to make modifications in the area of corporate governance. NCUA... the revisions, an analysis of how the final investment, credit risk, and asset liability provisions..., credit risk, ALM, liquidity, and capital measures that together should greatly reduce the systemic risk...

  13. 76 FR 24089 - Credit Risk Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... 17 CFR Part 246 Department of Housing and Urban Development 24 CFR Part 267 Credit Risk Retention... 2501-AD53 Credit Risk Retention AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury (OCC..., Commission, FHFA, and HUD (the Agencies) are proposing rules to implement the credit risk retention...

  14. 76 FR 34010 - Credit Risk Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... 2501-AD53 Credit Risk Retention AGENCIES: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury (OCC... credit risk retention requirements of section 15G of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as added by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Credit Risk NPR'' or ``proposed rule...

  15. Rare disasters, credit, and option market puzzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Du, Du; Elkamhi, Redouane

    2017-01-01

    calibrated to the real economy can simultaneously explain several key empirical regularities in equity, credit, and options markets. Our model captures the empirical level and volatility of credit spreads, generates a flexible credit risk term structure, and provides a good fit to a century of observed...

  16. Rare Disasters and Credit Market Puzzles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Du, Du; Elkamhi, Redouane

    to the real economy and not to bond prices can simultaneously explain several key empirical regularities in credit markets. Our model captures the empirical level and volatility of credit spreads, generates a flexible credit risk term structure, and provides a good fit to a century of observed spreads...

  17. 76 FR 54991 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... believes the credit risk of carrying this asset is negligible and warrants such treatment, as CLF stock is... credit union excludes the consolidated assets of such programs from risk-weighted assets pursuant to... paragraphs (c)(3) and (f)(4) and adding new p(h) to read as follows: Sec. 704.6 Credit risk management...

  18. Consumer Credit: Evidence from Italian Micro Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochguertel, S.; Alessie, R.; Weber, G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse unique data on credit applications received by the leading provider of consumer credit in Italy (Findomestic). The data set covers a five-year period (1995-1999) during which the consumer credit market rapidly expanded in Italy and a new law (the usury law) came into force

  19. CREDIT RATIONING AND SME DEVELOPMENT IN BOTSWANA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    None

    have the negative effect of stifling the growth of potential firms, thereby .... credit market may explain the credit rationing behaviour of banks to ... derive policy implications to enhance access to bank credit by SMEs. 4. ..... The main challenges to SMEs identified by the study were non-payment of outstanding ... This decision is.

  20. 24 CFR 206.37 - Credit standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.37 Credit standing. Each mortgagor must have a general credit standing satisfactory to the Secretary. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit standing. 206.37 Section 206...

  1. Credit in Acceptance Sampling on Attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Chris A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Credit is introduced in acceptance sampling on attributes and a Credit Based Acceptance sampling system is developed that is very easy to apply in practice.The credit of a producer is defined as the total number of items accepted since the last rejection.In our sampling system the sample size for a

  2. 27 CFR 46.223 - Tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax credit. 46.223 Section... for Sale on April 1, 2009 Tax Liability Calculation § 46.223 Tax credit. The dealer is allowed a credit of up to $500 against the total floor stocks tax. However, controlled groups are eligible for only...

  3. 48 CFR 2132.607 - Tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Tax credit. 2132.607... Contract Debts 2132.607 Tax credit. FAR 32.607 has no practical application to FEGLI Program contracts. The... Government, contractors may not offset debts to the Fund by a tax credit that is solely a Government...

  4. 48 CFR 1632.607 - Tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Tax credit. 1632.607... 1632.607 Tax credit. FAR 32.607 has no practical application to FEHBP contracts. The statutory... may not offset debts to the Fund by a tax credit which is solely a Government obligation. ...

  5. 40 CFR 91.1307 - Credit calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... family in kW (sales weighted). The power of each configuration is the rated output in kilowatts as....1307 Credit calculation. For each participating engine family, emission credits (positive or negative... for an engine family whether generating positive or negative in-use emission credits: ER04oc96.053...

  6. 78 FR 25101 - Credit Ratings Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69433; File No. 4-661] Credit Ratings... examine issues in connection with the possibility of developing a credit rating assignment system. The... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Scott Davey at (212) 336-0075, Office of Credit Ratings, Securities and...

  7. Oklahoma Cherokee formation study shows benefits of gas tax credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, B.J.; Cline, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    To no one's surprise, the administration's recently released energy initiative package does not advocate the use of tax incentives such as the Internal Revenue Code Sec. 29 (tight sand gas) credit that expired Dec. 31, 1992. This is unfortunate since tax credits do stimulate drilling, as the authors' recent study of Oklahoma's Pennsylvanian age Cherokee formation demonstrates. Within this 783,000 acre study area, more than 130 additional wells were drilled between 1991--92 because of tax credit incentives. And such tax credits also increase total federal tax revenues by causing wells to be drilled that would not have been drilled or accelerating the drilling of wells, thereby increasing taxable revenue. In short, tax credits create a win-win situation: they stimulate commerce, increase tax revenues, reduce the outflow of capital to foreign petroleum projects, and add to the nation's natural gas reserve, which is beneficial for national security, balance of payments, the environment, and gas market development. The paper discusses the study assumptions, study results, and the tax credit policy

  8. Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression Applied to Credit Scoring Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Melo Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Abstract This study used real data from a Brazilian financial institution on transactions involving Consumer Direct Credit (CDC, granted to clients residing in the Distrito Federal (DF, to construct credit scoring models via Logistic Regression and Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR techniques. The aims were: to verify whether the factors that influence credit risk differ according to the borrower’s geographic location; to compare the set of models estimated via GWLR with the global model estimated via Logistic Regression, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution; and to verify the viability of using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models. The metrics used to compare the models developed via the two techniques were the AICc informational criterion, the accuracy of the models, the percentage of false positives, the sum of the value of false positive debt, and the expected monetary value of portfolio default compared with the monetary value of defaults observed. The models estimated for each region in the DF were distinct in their variables and coefficients (parameters, with it being concluded that credit risk was influenced differently in each region in the study. The Logistic Regression and GWLR methodologies presented very close results, in terms of predictive power and financial losses for the institution, and the study demonstrated viability in using the GWLR technique to develop credit scoring models for the target population in the study.

  9. Credit Hours with No Set Time: A Study of Credit Policies in Asynchronous Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasuhn, Frederick Carl

    2014-01-01

    U.S. public university system policies were examined to learn how credit hours were determined for asynchronous online education. Findings indicated that (a) credit hour meaning and use are not consistent, (b) primary responsibility for credit hour decisions was at the local level, and (c) no policies exist to guide credit hour application for…

  10. πN → πN and KN → KN low energy data and partial wave analyses recent results and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.L.

    1975-07-01

    This review deals with πN → πN and KN → KN physics below about 3 GeV/c. An attempt is made to convey the state of the art, and to point out what appear to be promising directions for future research. The situation as of about one year ago is summarized in the 1974 Review of Particle Properties and in London conference talks so more recent developments are considered. A comprehensive survey of πN → πN data between the Δ region and 3 GeV/c is given. Problems associated with spin-rotation experiments are discussed, and the current πN → πN partial wave analyses. I = 1 and I = 0 KN → KN analyses, respectively, are considered

  11. Measurements of partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries in Z sup 0 decays into ss-bar, cc-bar and bb-bar-preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Axelsson, M G

    1999-01-01

    Measurements are reported of partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries in flavour-identified quark final states based on the full LEP1 statistics, corresponding to 3x10 sup 6 hadronic Z sup 0 decays collected by the DELPHI experiment from 1992 to 1995. Particle identification provided by the Ring Imaging Cherenkov counters and the Time Projection Chamber is used to obtain clear D sup 0 , D sup + , D sub s sup + and LAMBDA sub c sup + signatures. A measurement of the charm multiplicity in bb-bar events is also presented. Identification of high-energy charged kaons is used to tag the s quark. Two methods for determination of the forward-backward asymmetry of the s quark are presented.

  12. Immediate occluding definitive partial fixed prosthesis versus non-occluding provisional restorations - 4-month post-loading results from a pragmatic multicenter randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Friedhelm; Grufferty, Brendan; Papavasiliou, George; Dominiak, Marzena; García, Jaime Jiménez; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Esposito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    To compare the clinical outcome of dental implants restored with definitive occluding partial fixed prostheses within 1 week, after implant placement with immediate non-occluding provisional restorations, which were to be replaced by definitive prostheses after 4 months. Fifty partially edentulous patients treated with one to three dental implants, at least 8.5 mm long and 4.0 mm wide inserted with a torque of at least 35 Ncm, were randomised in two groups of 25 patients each, to be immediately loaded with partial fixed prostheses. Patients of one group received one definitive screw-retained metal-ceramic prosthesis in occlusion within 1 week after placement. Patients of the other group received one non-occluding provisional acrylic reinforced prosthesis within 24 h after implant placement. Provisional prostheses were replaced after 4 months by definitive ones. The follow-up for all patients was 4-months post-loading. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, any complications, peri-implant marginal bone level changes, aesthetic evaluation by a clinician, patient satisfaction, chair time and number of visits at the dental office from implant placement to delivery of definitive restorations. No patient dropped out. Two immediately occlusally loaded implants with their related definitive prostheses (8%) failed early (difference in proportions = 0.08; 95% CI: -0.03 to 0.19; P = 0.490). Four complications occurred in the occlusal group versus one in the non-occlusal group; (difference in proportions = 0.12; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.28; P = 0.349). Four months after loading, patients subjected to non-occlusal loading lost an average of 0.72 mm of peri-implant bone versus 0.99 mm of patients restored with occluding definitive partial fixed prostheses. There were no statistically significant differences for marginal bone level changes between the two groups (mean difference = -0.27 mm; 95% CI: -0.84 to 0.30; P = 0.349). The differences for aesthetic scores showed

  13. Credit Card Blues: The Middle Class and the Hidden Costs of Easy Credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Randy; Dwyer, Rachel; Neilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In an era of increased access to credit, it becomes increasingly important to understand the consequences of taking on unsecured consumer debt. We argue that credit can have both positive and negative consequences resulting from its ability to smooth life transitions and difficulties but that this occurs simultaneously with increased financial risks and stress resulting from carrying unsecured debt. We find that those in the middle of the income distribution suffer the greatest disruptions to mental health from carrying debt. Affluent borrowers are relatively unmoved by debt, suggesting the use of short-term debt as a convenience strategy for the financially well-heeled. The least advantaged borrowers are also suffer emotionally less from debt, possibly because securing spendable funds for necessities remains their most pressing concern. The onset of the Great Recession, however, produced increased emotional distress for all classes.

  14. Effects of Short-Term Cognitive Remediation on Cognitive Dysfunction in Partially or Fully Remitted Individuals with Bipolar Disorder: Results of a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsa M Demant

    Full Text Available Cognitive dysfunction is common in bipolar disorder (BD but is not sufficiently addressed by current treatments. Cognitive remediation (CR may improve cognitive function in schizophrenia but no randomised controlled trial has investigated this intervention in BD. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of CR on persistent cognitive dysfunction in BD.Patients with BD in partial remission with cognitive complaints were randomised to 12 weeks group-based CR (n=23 or standard treatment (ST (n=23. Outcomes were improved verbal memory (primary, sustained attention, executive and psychosocial function (secondary and additional measures of cognitive and psychosocial function (tertiary. Participants were assessed at baseline and weeks 12 and 26.Of the 46 randomised participants five dropped out and one was excluded after baseline. CR (n=18 had no effect on primary or secondary measures of cognitive or psychosocial function compared with ST (n=22. However, CR improved subjective sharpness at week 12, and quality of life and verbal fluency at week 26 follow-up (tertiary outcomes. Although the trial turned out to have suboptimal statistical power for the primary outcome analysis, calculation of the 95% confidence interval showed that it was highly unlikely that an increase in sample size would have rendered any beneficial effects of CR vs. ST on the verbal memory.Short-term group-based CR did not seem to improve overall cognitive or psychosocial function in individuals with BD in full or partial remission. The present findings suggest that that longer-term, more intensive and individualised CR may be necessary to improve cognition in BD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01457235.

  15. Sex of respondent and credit attitudes as predictors of credit card use and debt payment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael; Eckrich, Donald W

    2006-06-01

    Researchers have suggested there may be sex differences in attitudes towards credit card possession and use. Undergraduates, 41 men and 41 women, completed a survey regarding their attitudes towards credit, credit card use, and repayment. Analysis indicated sex played a significant moderating role between number of credit cards used and the importance of paying off monthly balances. Women possessed more credit cards than men and engaged in more frequent shopping. Number of credit cards increased with paying off of monthly balances. Data are discussed in terms of the importance of managing credit card debt in an increasingly cashless society.

  16. A user credit assessment model based on clustering ensemble for broadband network new media service supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cao, San-xing; Lu, Rui

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a user credit assessment model based on clustering ensemble aiming to solve the problem that users illegally spread pirated and pornographic media contents within the user self-service oriented broadband network new media platforms. Its idea is to do the new media user credit assessment by establishing indices system based on user credit behaviors, and the illegal users could be found according to the credit assessment results, thus to curb the bad videos and audios transmitted on the network. The user credit assessment model based on clustering ensemble proposed by this paper which integrates the advantages that swarm intelligence clustering is suitable for user credit behavior analysis and K-means clustering could eliminate the scattered users existed in the result of swarm intelligence clustering, thus to realize all the users' credit classification automatically. The model's effective verification experiments are accomplished which are based on standard credit application dataset in UCI machine learning repository, and the statistical results of a comparative experiment with a single model of swarm intelligence clustering indicates this clustering ensemble model has a stronger creditworthiness distinguishing ability, especially in the aspect of predicting to find user clusters with the best credit and worst credit, which will facilitate the operators to take incentive measures or punitive measures accurately. Besides, compared with the experimental results of Logistic regression based model under the same conditions, this clustering ensemble model is robustness and has better prediction accuracy.

  17. A Network Model of Credit Risk Contagion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Qiang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A network model of credit risk contagion is presented, in which the effect of behaviors of credit risk holders and the financial market regulators and the network structure are considered. By introducing the stochastic dominance theory, we discussed, respectively, the effect mechanisms of the degree of individual relationship, individual attitude to credit risk contagion, the individual ability to resist credit risk contagion, the monitoring strength of the financial market regulators, and the network structure on credit risk contagion. Then some derived and proofed propositions were verified through numerical simulations.

  18. Formal and Informal Credit Markets and Rural Credit Demand in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Sai; Guan, Zhengfei; Jin, Songqing

    2010-01-01

    Credit markets are an essential economic institution. In developing countries, particularly in countries undergoing rapid social and economic transition, it is important to identify emerging credit demand and institute credit supply in a timely manner to facilitate economic transformation. This research focuses on the evolving rural credit market in China, where borrowing from the social network has been common but the recent economic transition has made this informal credit market inadequate...

  19. The Impact of Financial Development on the Relationship between Trade Credit, Bank Credit and Firm Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Jézabel Couppey-Soubeyran; Jérôme Héricourt

    2013-01-01

    Using a database of more than 1,300 firms from six countries in the MENA region, we study the impact of financial development on the relationship between trade credit on the one hand and bank credit access and firm-level characteristics, especially financial health, on the other hand. Trade credit use increases with the difficulty for gaining access to bank credit, and indicators of the quality of the firm's financial structure negatively influence the use of trade credit. Additional investig...

  20. Statistical credit risk assessment model of small and very small enterprises for Lithuanian credit unions

    OpenAIRE

    Špicas, Renatas

    2017-01-01

    While functioning in accordance with the new, business and efficiency-oriented operating model, credit unions develop and begin functioning outside the community. It is universally recognised in scientific literature that as credit unions expand their activities beyond a community, social relations with credit union members weaken and the credit unions lose their social control element, which help them to better assess and manage information asymmetry and credit risk. So far, the analysis of ...

  1. Non-conventional fuel tax credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeoet, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Coal-seam methane, along with certain other non-conventional fuels, is eligible for a tax credit. This production tax credit allowed coal-seam methane producers to receive $0.7526 per million Btu of gas sold during 1986. In 1987, this credit rose to $0.78 per million Btu. The tax credit is a very significant element of the economic analysis of current coal-seam methane projects. In today's spot market, gas prices are around $1.50 per million Btu. Allowing for costs of production, the gas producer will net more income from the tax credit than from the sale of the gas. The Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980 is the source of this tax credit. There were some minor changes made by subsequent legislation, but most of the tax credit has remained intact. Wells must be drilled by 1990 to qualify for the tax credit but the production from such wells is eligible for the tax credit until 2001. Projections have been made, showing that the tax credit should increase to $0.91 per million Btu for production in 1990 and $1.34 per million Btu in 2000. Variables which may decrease the tax credit from these projections are dramatically lower oil prices or general economic price deflation

  2. Determinants of Supply and Demand for Trade Credit by Micro, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinê Jordão de Carvalho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the determinant factors of supply and demand for trade credit by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs, using data collected in a survey of managers from 481 firms in 32 cities in the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais (Brazil between 2008 and 2010. The multivariate relationship model proposed here is grounded in trade credit, agency and transaction costs theories. This study is based on a technique known as path analysis that uses a system of simple regressions estimated by simultaneous equations. The main results show the following: (i trade credit and short-term bank loans are supplementary (and not substitute sources of funds for MSMEs, which demonstrates that trade credit can be used by financial institutions as an indicator of the creditworthiness of the company; (ii the proportion of credit sales, the days sales outstanding measure and sales growth are positively related to the amount of trade credit demanded, which suggests that trade credit is transferred along the supply chain; and (iii the supply of trade credit is positively related to the importance that management ascribes to both internal capital and bank credit, which illustrates the strategic use of the supply of trade credit to increase sales. These results have important implications for companies' managers, financial institutions and the government agencies responsible for formulating policies that support and promote the development of small and medium-sized enterprises.

  3. 49 CFR 536.8 - Conditions for trading of credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions for trading of credits. 536.8 Section... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRANSFER AND TRADING OF FUEL ECONOMY CREDITS § 536.8 Conditions for trading of credits. (a) Trading of credits. If a credit holder wishes to trade credits to...

  4. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...

  5. 17 CFR 256.255 - Accumulated deferred investment tax credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credits. 256.255 Section 256.255 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... investment tax credits. (a) This account shall be credited and account 411.5, Investment tax credit, debited with investment tax credits deferred by companies which do not apply such credits as a reduction of the...

  6. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery.

  7. Algebraic partial Boolean algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Partial Boolean algebras, first studied by Kochen and Specker in the 1960s, provide the structure for Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems which deny the existence of non-contextual hidden variable theories. In this paper, we study partial Boolean algebras which are 'algebraic' in the sense that their elements have coordinates in an algebraic number field. Several of these algebras have been discussed recently in a debate on the validity of Bell-Kochen-Specker theorems in the context of finite precision measurements. The main result of this paper is that every algebraic finitely-generated partial Boolean algebra B(T) is finite when the underlying space H is three-dimensional, answering a question of Kochen and showing that Conway and Kochen's infinite algebraic partial Boolean algebra has minimum dimension. This result contrasts the existence of an infinite (non-algebraic) B(T) generated by eight elements in an abstract orthomodular lattice of height 3. We then initiate a study of higher-dimensional algebraic partial Boolean algebras. First, we describe a restriction on the determinants of the elements of B(T) that are generated by a given set T. We then show that when the generating set T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors in a real irreducible root lattice, B(T) is infinite just if that root lattice has an A 5 sublattice. Finally, we characterize the rays of B(T) when T consists of the rays spanning the minimal vectors of the root lattice E 8

  8. Sustainability and Organizational Change by Sustainable Crediting Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Ilie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that one of the therapies to achieve sustainability and organizational change in the context of current challenges in the national economies is sustainable crediting. The research method is based on a survey of 30 commercial companies from various fields of activity that have or have not implemented, at the leadership level, the concept of sustainable crediting. The data collecting and processing approach has resulted in the determination of the main economic-financial indicators for a period of 5 years, indicators used by banks in relation with the credited organizations. The main results show that companies that have implemented the sustainable crediting concept are more able to achieve sustainability in their developed activity, as well as organizational change with positive effects on their business and on the company as a whole. The concept of sustainable crediting implies the capitalization of the commercial companies, the increase of the loan portfolio quality, the achievement of the financial balance and environmental protection

  9. 75 FR 17976 - WNC Tax Credits 38, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 39, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager, LLC and WNC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Credits 38, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 39, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager, LLC and WNC & Associates, Inc... collectively, the ``Funds''), WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager, LLC (the ``Manager'') and WNC & Associates, Inc... credit under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. The Manager is a California limited liability...

  10. Network topology and interbank credit risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Avella, Juan Carlos; Hoffmann de Quadros, Vanessa; Iglesias, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Modern financial systems are greatly entangled. They exhibit a complex interdependence, including a network of bilateral exposures in the interbank market. The most frequent interaction consists in operations where institutions with surplus liquidity lend to those with a liquidity shortage. These loans may be interpreted as links between the banks and the links display features in some way representative of scale-free networks. While the interbank market is responsible for efficient liquidity allocation, it also introduces the possibility for systemic risk via financial contagion. Insolvency of one bank can propagate through links leading to insolvency of other banks. In this paper, we explore the characteristics of financial contagion in interbank networks whose distribution of links approaches a power law, as well as we improve previous models by introducing a simple mechanism to describe banks’ balance sheets, that are obtained from information on network connectivity. By varying the parameters for the creation of the network, several interbank networks are built, in which the concentration of debt and credit comes from the distribution of links. The results suggest that more connected networks that have a high concentration of credit are more resilient to contagion than other types of networks analyzed.

  11. Accelerated re-epithelialization of partial-thickness skin wounds by a topical betulin gel: Results of a randomized phase III clinical trials program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Juan P; Podmelle, Fred; Lipový, Břetislav; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Schumann, Hauke; Schwieger-Briel, Agnes; Zahn, Tobias R; Metelmann, Hans-Robert

    2017-09-01

    The clinical significance of timely re-epithelialization is obvious in burn care, since delayed wound closure is enhancing the risk of wound site infection and extensive scarring. Topical treatments that accelerate wound healing are urgently needed to reduce these sequelae. Evidence from preliminary studies suggests that betulin can accelerate the healing of different types of wounds, including second degree burns and split-thickness skin graft wounds. The goal of this combined study program consisting of two randomized phase III clinical trials in parallel is to evaluate whether a topical betulin gel (TBG) is accelerating re-epithelialization of split-thickness skin graft (STSG) donor site wounds compared to standard of care. Two parallel blindly evaluated, randomised, controlled, multicentre phase III clinical trials were performed in adults undergoing STSG surgery (EudraCT nos. 2012-003390-26 and 2012-000777-23). Donor site wounds were split into two equal halves and randomized 1:1 to standard of care (a non-adhesive moist wound dressing) or standard of care plus TBG consisting of 10% birch bark extract and 90% sunflower oil (Episalvan, Birken AG, Niefern-Oeschelbronn, Germany). The primary efficacy assessment was the intra-individual difference in time to wound closure assessed from digital photographs by three blinded experts. A total of 219 patients were included and treated in the two trials. Wounds closed faster with TBG than without it (15.3 vs. 16.5 days; mean intra-individual difference=-1.1 days [95% CI, -1.5 to -0.7]; p<0.0001). This agreed with unblinded direct clinical assessment (difference=-2.1 days [95% CI, -2.7 to -1.5]; p<0.0001). Adverse events possibly related to treatment were mild or moderate and mostly at the application site. TBG accelerates re-epithelialization of partial thickness wounds compared to the current standard of care, providing a well-tolerated contribution to burn care in practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  12. On Degenerate Partial Differential Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gui-Qiang G.

    2010-01-01

    Some of recent developments, including recent results, ideas, techniques, and approaches, in the study of degenerate partial differential equations are surveyed and analyzed. Several examples of nonlinear degenerate, even mixed, partial differential equations, are presented, which arise naturally in some longstanding, fundamental problems in fluid mechanics and differential geometry. The solution to these fundamental problems greatly requires a deep understanding of nonlinear degenerate parti...

  13. Monetary Policy and Credit Demand in India and Some EMEs

    OpenAIRE

    B L Pandit; Pankaj Vashisht

    2012-01-01

    Impact of changes in policy rate of interest on demand for bank credit is examined for seven emerging market economies including India for the period 2002 to 2010. Panel data techniques are used after ruling out the presence of unit roots. The results show that when other determinants, like domestic demand pressure, export demand and impact of stock market signals are controlled for, change in policy rate of interest is an important determinant of firms’ demand for bank credit. The results ...

  14. Findings of an international study on burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.C.; Takano, M.; Okuno, H.; DeHart, M.D.; Nouri, A.

    1996-01-01

    Findings from a four year study by an international benchmarking group in the comparison of computational methods for evaluating burnup credit in criticality safety analyses are presented in this paper. Approximately 20 participants from 11 countries have provided results for most problems. Four detailed benchmark problems for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel have been completed and are summarized in this paper. Preliminary results from current work addressing burnup credit for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel will also be discussed as well as planned activities for additional benchmarks including Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuels, subcritical benchmarks, international databases, and other activities

  15. Exit and Failure of Credit Unions in Brazil: A Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Leonel de Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the factors that affect the market exit of Brazilian singular credit unions from 1995 to 2009; it also identifies and lists the determinants of various types of market exits and analyzes whether profitability is a significant factor for credit union survival. This study was conducted with accounting data provided by the Central Bank of Brazil, which derives only from individual cooperatives, i.e. singular credit unions. Quarterly financial statements from these credit unions that were active from 1995 to the second quarter of 2009 were employed, totaling 71,325 observations for 1,929 credit unions. Based on survival and the model of competing risks (such as the Cox, Exponential, Weibull, Gompertz, and Competing Risk models, the results show that there is no statistical evidence to ensure a correlation between profitability and credit union survival. The results also suggest that the size of credit unions plays a key role in their survival and longevity and that their funding and investment management are related to their survival and risk of market exit. In conclusion, the results confirm the initial idea that the duality inherent to credit unions - cooperative principles versus economic efficiency - might influence the stability, survival, and longevity of these institutions. Such results may also imply that a credit union embracing the rationale of a private bank will become more estranged from its members, something which will hinder its future operations and increase the likelihood of its exit from the market.

  16. Trade credit and the propagation of corporate failure: An empirical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Tor; von Schedvin, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the importance of trade credit chains for the propagation of corporate bankruptcies. Our results show that trade creditors (suppliers) that issue more trade credit are more exposed to trade debtor (customer) failures, both in terms of the likelihood of experiencing a debtor failure and the loss given failure. We further document that the credit loss invoked by a debtor failure imposes a substantially enhanced bankruptcy risk on the creditors. The propagation mechanism is mitigated...

  17. Monetary policy and credit conditions: new evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Ongena

    1995-01-01

    A number of recent papers seek to distinguish between "money" and "credit" theories of the transmission of monetary disturbances using asymmetric information arguments. In credit models money causes output not only through the real interest rate but also through the availability of bank credit. The research described in this paper extends the work of Kashyap, Stein and Wilcox (1993) who construct a model that incorporates a relationship benefit to bank borrowing and then test the implications...

  18. Corporate financing and anticipated credit rating changes

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Chi-Hsiou D.; Banerjee, Anurag; Meng, Qingrui

    2017-01-01

    Firm circumstances change but rating agencies may not make timely revisions to their\\ud ratings, increasing information asymmetry between firms and the market. We examine\\ud whether firms time the securities market before a credit rating agency publicly reveals\\ud its decision to downgrade a firm's credit rating. Using quarterly data, we show that\\ud firms adjust their financing structures before credit rating downgrades are publicly\\ud revealed. More specifically, firms on average increase t...

  19. Credit Risk Management in Chinese Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Credit risk is by far the most important risk faced by banks, and it influences the bank profitability and its long-term operation significantly. Well management on credit risk can be a competitive advantage for banks in the competitive banking industry. Chinese banks suffer from serious financial fragility manifested by high proportions of NPLs and low capital adequacy ratios (Bonin and Huang, 2001). This dissertation examines the real credit performance of Chinese banks ba...

  20. Development of Consumer Credit Laws in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Ahmad Saufi Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Consumer Credit is a branch of Commercial Law, which has been developing in recent years inMalaysia. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the latest amendments in the consumer credit laws inMalaysia and to highlight its significance. The discussion will be limited to the three most important laws ofconsumer credit in Malaysia: the hire-purchase, money lending and pawn broking laws.

  1. Multiple Layers of Credit and Mortgage Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Hernandez-Verme

    2011-01-01

    I examine a production economy with a financial sector that contains multiple layers of credit. Such layers are designed to constitute credit chains which are inclusive of a simple mortgage market. The focus is on the nature and contagion properties of credit chains in an economy where the financial sector plays a real allocative role and agents have a nontrivial choice of whether to default on mortgages or not. Multiple equilibria with different rates of default are observed, due to the pres...

  2. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  3. Partially composite Higgs models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Buarque Franzosi, Diogo; Frandsen, Mads T.

    2018-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of partially composite-Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking is dynamically induced, and the Higgs is a mixture of a composite and an elementary state. The models considered have explicit realizations in terms of gauge-Yukawa theories with new strongly...... interacting fermions coupled to elementary scalars and allow for a very SM-like Higgs state. We study constraints on their parameter spaces from vacuum stability and perturbativity as well as from LHC results and find that requiring vacuum stability up to the compositeness scale already imposes relevant...... constraints. A small part of parameter space around the classically conformal limit is stable up to the Planck scale. This is however already strongly disfavored by LHC results. in different limits, the models realize both (partially) composite-Higgs and (bosonic) technicolor models and a dynamical extension...

  4. THE COOPERATIVE CREDIT MUTUAL IN BRAZIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laércio Baptista da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an analysis of the reality of credit unions in Brazil, in view of the singular importance of credit unions for the whole society as an alternative to private resources in favor of members of the community where they are located. It confirms that, in Brazil, the mutual credit unions, besides being presented as one of the viable options within the financial system, are also seen as an alternative by which some sectors of society promote the humanization of the financial system by offering credit and return on capital with fairer interest rates.

  5. An endogenous model of the credit network

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianmin; Sui, Xin; Li, Shouwei

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an endogenous credit network model of firm-bank agents is constructed. The model describes the endogenous formation of firm-firm, firm-bank and bank-bank credit relationships. By means of simulations, the model is capable of showing some obvious similarities with empirical evidence found by other scholars: the upper-tail of firm size distribution can be well fitted with a power-law; the bank size distribution can be lognormally distributed with a power-law tail; the bank in-degrees of the interbank credit network as well as the firm-bank credit network fall into two-power-law distributions.

  6. Phenomena and parameters important to burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Dehart, M.D.; Wagner, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water- reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given. (author)

  7. A Pruning Neural Network Model in Credit Classification Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajiao Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, credit classification models are widely applied because they can help financial decision-makers to handle credit classification issues. Among them, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been widely accepted as the convincing methods in the credit industry. In this paper, we propose a pruning neural network (PNN and apply it to solve credit classification problem by adopting the well-known Australian and Japanese credit datasets. The model is inspired by synaptic nonlinearity of a dendritic tree in a biological neural model. And it is trained by an error back-propagation algorithm. The model is capable of realizing a neuronal pruning function by removing the superfluous synapses and useless dendrites and forms a tidy dendritic morphology at the end of learning. Furthermore, we utilize logic circuits (LCs to simulate the dendritic structures successfully which makes PNN be implemented on the hardware effectively. The statistical results of our experiments have verified that PNN obtains superior performance in comparison with other classical algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  8. ORIGIN CREDIT-DEFAULT SWAPS, AND IDIOSYNCRATIC THEIR FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марсель Альбертович Шарипов

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Credit-default swaps as well as all derivatives have appeared as a result of policy of a decontrol the American government of bank sector of economy.In article attempt to open motives of unfair use swaps is lead by some states, and modern anti-recessionary decisions concerning derivatives are considered. The objective of research consist it is revealing history and the reasons by occurrence the credit-default swaps, also the history of development the institutional infrastructures for stable and not causing suspicions functioning of the market of credit-default swaps by national regulators.  The research of the given problem in modern aspect of its progress has outstanding of novelty character. The reaction of regulators for the crisis are remarkable which events caused by shadow use of derivative financial tools including and credit-default swaps. In research the authors come to following conclusions. First, credit-default swaps are compatible to qualitative variations in corporate economy and answers to modern calls of more globalized financial system. The second, the functioning of the market of derivatives is really idiosyncratic that predetermines a final adage of that sort that arising problems with derivatives occurs not in their essence, but in purposefulness of their use.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-40

  9. An Empirical Research on Bank Client Credit Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Individual microcredit loans involve large quantities and small amounts and necessitate rapid approval, therefore making simple and fast application approvals rather critical. Creditors must evaluate clients’ credit status and default risk within the shortest time when determining whether to approve or decline their applications, preventing overdue responses that negatively impact bank profits and management practices, and could trigger domestic financial crises. This study investigates client credit quality criteria, focusing on the expert opinions of bank managers. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory method is adopted to enable a comparison and analysis of the similarities and differences in how banks evaluate their clients’ character, ability, financial capability, and collateral. Based on causality and correlations among the criteria, we also identify the core problems and key improvement criteria in the evaluation system. Through survey results of professional managers from Taiwanese banks, this study uses the DEMATEL method to compare the differences in bank evaluation methods based on the four dimensions of clients’ character, ability, pockets, and collateral, as well as the corresponding 14 criteria. In order to improve the reliability and usefulness in bank client credit risk assessment, the assessment dimensions and indicators of bank client credit risk assessment are first discussed; second, the causal relationship and degree of mutual influence between different dimensions and criteria are researched and assessed; in the end, the paper discusses how to improve the function and the benefits of bank client credit risk assessment.

  10. Information Asymmetry and Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena TUPANGIU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Information asymmetry defines relationships where an agent holds information while another does not hold it. Thus, to the extent that one of the parties to the financing agreement has information more or less accurate than another, the asymmetry of information appears to be a major constraint in the financing of a project. Banks, in their capacity of financial intermediary, operate the transfer of funds to agents in need of financing, to the borrowers, being necessary in this process to have more information in order to benefit of expertise in assessing borrowers. The research of information asymmetry and credit risk consists of interrogating the following aspects: information issues between the bank and borrowers; settlement of information issues; bank’s activism towards information asymmetry. In our approach we will look at the first aspect, namely the information issues between the bank and the borrowers.

  11. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  12. FACTORING- CREDIT OPPORTUNITIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADELA IONESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Capital is the main factor of production, business development becomes virtually impossible without taking into account the financial market and the resources it provides to businesses. Any business, regardless of its degree of development, is involving direct contact with financial markets, namely the institutions that mediate mobilization of capital and the services they provide. Understanding the functioning of the financial system, the specific financial mechanisms through which savings are allocated to support capital investments and the costs and risks involved is essential for the development of a solid base for business. In this context, factoring operations can support economic agents, allowing a transfer of commercial receivables from their holder to a factor who commits to their recovery and guarantee such operations even if temporary or permanent insolvency of the debtor . Thus, factoring is a complex technique in at least two aspects, of the debt and the transfer of credit. . Factoring is a means of financing business, especially export-import transactions, less known in Romania. Maybe because of poor business environment popularize the term is as little known as it was a few years ago the leasing. Present in Romanian legislation since 2002, factoring appears as a contract between one party (called adherent, providing goods or service and a banking company or a financial institution specialized (called factor, which the last one shall finance debts pursuing and preservation against credit risks and adherent gives factor by way of sale, debts arising from the sale of goods or services to third parties. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part we defined the concept of factoring and international factoring, then I presented the advantages and development of factoring in Romania, and the last part conclusions.

  13. An application of locally linear model tree algorithm with combination of feature selection in credit scoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siami, Mohammad; Gholamian, Mohammad Reza; Basiri, Javad

    2014-10-01

    Nowadays, credit scoring is one of the most important topics in the banking sector. Credit scoring models have been widely used to facilitate the process of credit assessing. In this paper, an application of the locally linear model tree algorithm (LOLIMOT) was experimented to evaluate the superiority of its performance to predict the customer's credit status. The algorithm is improved with an aim of adjustment by credit scoring domain by means of data fusion and feature selection techniques. Two real world credit data sets - Australian and German - from UCI machine learning database were selected to demonstrate the performance of our new classifier. The analytical results indicate that the improved LOLIMOT significantly increase the prediction accuracy.

  14. On the role of credit in agricultural growth: An Iranian panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hosseini Nejad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit is considered as a major stimulus of economic growth especially in developing economies. Given the critical role of agriculture in Iranian economy in one hand and lack of credit on the other hand, study on the association between credit and sector growth is necessary. Based on a provincial panel data set, this article identifies econometrically the impact of credits provided by non-governmental funds on agricultural growth for the period 2008–2014. Main results introduce credit as a driver of sector growth as one percent rise in credits allocated leads, on average, to 0.59 percent increase in agricultural growth. Same effect is found for labor, public investment and energy inputs. Public supportive policies aiming at empowering of private funds and increase their capital, is recommended.

  15. The two-child limit for Universal Credit and Child Tax Credit

    OpenAIRE

    MACHIN, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Richard Machin explores the background to, and likely impact of, the two-child limit on the child element in Universal Credit and the Child Tax Credit, which was introduced by the Welfare Reform and Work Act 2016

  16. A Global Optimizing Policy for Decaying Items with Ramp-Type Demand Rate under Two-Level Trade Credit Financing Taking Account of Preservation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory system for deteriorating items, with ramp-type demand rate, under two-level trade credit policy taking account of preservation technology is considered. The objective of this study is to develop a deteriorating inventory policy when the supplier provides to the retailer a permissible delay in payments, and during this credit period, the retailer accumulates the revenue and earns interest on that revenue; also the retailer invests on the preservation technology to reduce the rate of product deterioration. Shortages are allowed and partially backlogged. Sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal replenishment policy are provided, and an algorithm, for its determination, is proposed. Numerical examples draw attention to the obtained results, and the sensitivity analysis of the optimal solution with respect to leading parameters of the system is carried out.

  17. Fuel model studies. Comparison of our present version of GAPCON-THERMAL-2 with results from the EPRI code comparison study. Partial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malen, K.; Jansson, L.

    1978-08-01

    Runs with our present version of GAPCON-THERMAL-2 have been compared to results from the EPRI code comparison study. Usually also our version of GAPCON predicts high temperatures, 100-300 K or 10-15% higher than average code predictions and experimental results. The well-known temperaturegas release instablility is found also with GAPCON. In this case one identifies the gas release limits 1400 deg C and 1700 deg C as instablility points. (author)

  18. ABOUT FEW APPROACHES TO COMMERCIAL BANK PERCENTAGE POLICY CONSTRUCTION IN CREDITING POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kuklin

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article we consider some aspects of Russian Federation and Sverdlovsk region bank sector development and few principles of credit organization percentage policy construction. We also describe interest rate calculation methods depending on currency toolkit and the received results of using the methods in reference to population crediting development. Besides we give some offers on increasing management efficiency of percentage policy and decreasing delayed credit debts level and some offers on specification of population crediting development forecasts in Sverdlovsk region.

  19. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Permintaan Kredit pada Credit Sondang Nauli Kecamatan Munte Kabupaten Karo

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Adi Sahputra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors for the Credit Union Credit Demand Sondang Nauli Munte Karo District in 2012. The independent variables used in this study are income, number of dependents and level of education members. The method used in the analysis of demand factors for the Credit Union Credit Sondang Nauli Sub Munte Ordinanary Karo is the method of least squares (OLS) using the analysis tools to process data by using SPSS 17.0 Based on the estimation results ind...

  20. The impact of credit risk assessment on credit activity of commercial banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Marijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As banks have great social responsibility and are a subject to a specific and extensive regulations, one of the being Basel, the authors of this paper focus on the impact of credit risk assessment on credit activity of commercial banks. The authors of this paper provide a standard for risk management and an insight into directions on how to manage credit risk in the most efficient way and how to assess credit rating of a borrower.

  1. WHAT INFLUENCE CREDIT CARD DEBTS IN YOUNG CONSUMERS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Shah ALAM; Ruzita Abdul RAHIM; Ridhwanul HAQ; Atiqur Rahman KHAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically antecedents of the credit card debts in young consumers in Malaysia. We examine whether easy access to credit card, credit card related knowledge, aggressive promotion by credit card industry, low minimum payment requirement and attitude towards credit cards influence credit card debts in the younger generation. Regression model was used to meet the objectives. These findings based on a sample of 240 young credit card holders, show that the factors that affect ...

  2. Systematic and Idiosyncratic Default Risk in Synthetic Credit Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldhütter, Peter; Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    2012-01-01

    We present a new estimation approach that allows us to extract from spreads in synthetic credit markets the contribution of systematic and idiosyncratic default risk to total default risk. Using an extensive dataset of 90,600 credit default swap and collateralized debt obligation (CDO) tranche...... spreads on the North American Investment Grade CDX index, we conduct an empirical analysis of an intensity-based model for correlated defaults. Our results show that systematic default risk is an explosive process with low volatility, while idiosyncratic default risk is more volatile but less explosive...

  3. Isotopic and criticality validation for actinide-only burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, E.; Lancaster, D.; Rahimi, M.

    1997-01-01

    The techniques used for actinide-only burnup credit isotopic validation and criticality validation are presented and discussed. Trending analyses have been incorporated into both methodologies, requiring biases and uncertainties to be treated as a function of the trending parameters. The isotopic validation is demonstrated using the SAS2H module of SCALE 4.2, with the 27BURNUPLIB cross section library; correction factors are presented for each of the actinides in the burnup credit methodology. For the criticality validation, the demonstration is performed with the CSAS module of SCALE 4.2 and the 27BURNUPLIB, resulting in a validated upper safety limit

  4. The "Negative" Credit Card Effect: Credit Cards as Spending-Limiting Stimuli in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Celia; Hunt, Maree; Peters, Heather L.; Veliu, Bahrie; Harper, David

    2010-01-01

    The "credit card effect" describes a finding where greater value is given to consumer items if credit card logos are present. One explanation for the effect is that credit cards elicit spending behavior through associative learning. If this is true, social, economic and historical contexts should alter this effect. In Experiment 1, Year…

  5. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes... farmers and ranchers eligible to borrow from such associations. (b) Such notes and other obligations...

  6. Credit Cycle and Adverse Selection Effects in Consumer Credit Markets – Evidence from the HELOC Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calem, P.; Cannon, M.; Nakamura, L.I.

    2011-01-01

    We empirically study how the underlying riskiness of the pool of home equity line of credit originations is affected over the credit cycle. Drawing from the largest existing database of U.S. home equity lines of credit, we use county-level aggregates of these loans to estimate panel regressions on

  7. Who Gets the Credit? Who Pays the Consequences? The Illinois Tuition Tax Credit. Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Arohi; Keenan, Nancy

    In 1999, Illinois enacted a tuition tax credit program. Tax credit supporters suggest tax credits help low-income students. However, opponents argue that they disproportionately benefit higher-income families whose children are already attending private schools and may decrease already limited resources available to public schools. New data from…

  8. New Closed-Form Results on Ordered Statistics of Partial Sums of Gamma Random Variables and its Application to Performance Evaluation in the Presence of Nakagami Fading

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Ko, Young-Chai; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    in the literature. In addition, as a feasible application example in which our new offered derived closed-form results can be applied is presented. In particular, we analyze the outage performance of the finger replacement schemes over Nakagami fading channels

  9. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dašić Žarko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Meniscal injuries are common in professional or recreational sports as well as in daily activities. If meniscal lesions lead to physical impairment they usually require surgical treatment. Arthroscopic treatment of meniscal injuries is one of the most often performed orthopedic operative procedures. Methods. The study analyzed the results of arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy in 213 patients in a 24-month period, from 2006, to 2008. Results. In our series of arthroscopically treated medial meniscus tears we noted 78 (36.62% vertical complete bucket handle lesions, 19 (8.92% vertical incomplete lesions, 18 (8.45% longitudinal tears, 35 (16.43% oblique tears, 18 (8.45% complex degenerative lesions, 17 (7.98% radial lesions and 28 (13.14% horisontal lesions. Mean preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC score was 49.81%, 1 month after the arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy the mean IKDC score was 84.08%, and 6 months after mean IKDC score was 90.36%. Six months after the procedure 197 (92.49% of patients had good or excellent subjective postoperative clinical outcomes, while 14 (6.57% patients subjectively did not notice a significant improvement after the intervention, and 2 (0.93% patients had no subjective improvement after the partial medial meniscectomy at all. Conclusion. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscetomy is minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and in well selected cases is a method of choice for treatment of medial meniscus injuries when repair techniques are not a viable option. It has small rate of complications, low morbidity and fast rehabilitation.

  10. Adam Smith, Religion, and Tuition Tax Credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kern

    1983-01-01

    Examines tuition tax credit programs in framework of Adam Smith's ideas on the economic impact of established churches. Finds that tuition tax credits would amount to state expenditures to relieve the financial burden of parochial school parents and would allow churches to invest commercially to maintain their charitable functions. (JW)

  11. Dynamic Dependence and Diversification in Corporate Credit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Jin, Xisong

    We characterize dependence and tail dependence in corporate credit using a new class of dynamic copula models which can capture dynamic dependence and asymmetry in large samples of firms. We also document important differences between the dependence dynamics for credit spreads and equity returns...

  12. 76 FR 41590 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... discriminate in any aspect of a credit transaction on the basis of sex, race, color, religion, national origin... with questions about their credit score, even if creditors are not in a position to answer those... best position to identify the key factors that affected the score, and the creditor could rely on that...

  13. 76 FR 13896 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... creditors disclose additional information on FCRA adverse action notices. Specifically, a person must... that a creditor obtained information from a consumer reporting agency. Consistent with section 1100F of... action would need to provide a credit score and information relating to that credit score to those...

  14. Overcoming credit card fraud in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A credit card is a convenient method of payment, but it does carry risks. The enormous ... Identity theft and the exponential ... Unique Security Features of a Credit Card with the Aim of Identifying ..... technology in an attempt to try and curb the.

  15. Potentials in Asian Export Credit Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "Mekong River Regional Development Project advocated by Asian Development Bank (ADB) has been implemented. Trans-Asia Railway and Trans-Asia Highway are being discussed. It is a good opportunity for Asian Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) to cooperate and financing these large crossboarder projects."On May 11, at the 10th Annual Meeting of Asian Export Credit Agencies,

  16. Tiebreaker: Certification and Multiple Credit Ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G.J. Bongaerts (Dion); K.J.M. Cremers (Martijn); W.N. Goetzmann (William)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: This paper explores the role played by multiple credit rating agencies (CRAs) in the market for corporate bonds. Moody’s, S&P and Fitch operate in a competitive setting with market demand for both credit information and the certification value of a high rating. We

  17. Tiebreaker: Certification and multiple credit ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Cremers, K.J.M.; Goetzmann, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role played by multiple credit rating agencies (CRAs) in the market for corporate bonds. Moody’s, S&P and Fitch operate in a competitive setting with market demand for both credit information and the certification value of a high rating. We empirically document the outcome of

  18. Trade credit, collateral liquidation, and borrowing constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabbri, D.; Menichini, A.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Assuming that firms’ suppliers are better able to extract value from the liquidation of assets in default and have an information advantage over other creditors, the paper derives six predictions on the use of trade credit. (1) Financially unconstrained firms (with unused bank credit lines) take

  19. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-02] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  20. 75 FR 17944 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-01] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  1. MBS Ratings and the Mortgage Credit Boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashcraft, A.; Goldsmith-Pinkham, P.; Vickery, J.

    2010-01-01

    We study credit ratings on subprime and Alt-A mortgage-backed securities (MBS) deals issued between 2001 and 2007, the period leading up to the subprime crisis. The fraction of highly-rated securities in each deal is decreasing in mortgage credit risk (measured either ex-ante or ex-post), suggesting

  2. The Credit Hour and Public Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Jane V.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the ways the credit hour has come to be used by public funding systems in higher education. The literature review shows that the credit hour has become a barrier to innovation and a way to create systemic inequities between institutions or sectors in resource allocation. (SLD)

  3. Credit Ratings and Bank Monitoring Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to

  4. Facilitating SME Financing through Improved Credit Reporting

    OpenAIRE

    International Committee on Credit Reporting

    2014-01-01

    The general principles for credit reporting were issued by the World Bank in September 2011. Since then, the World Bank and the international committee on credit reporting (ICCR) have been leading efforts towards the implementation of the general principles worldwide. This report is one of the concrete outputs of the work following the general principles. It addresses one of the most signi...

  5. Credit Risk Evaluation : Modeling - Analysis - Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrspohn, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    An analysis and further development of the building blocks of modern credit risk management: -Definitions of default -Estimation of default probabilities -Exposures -Recovery Rates -Pricing -Concepts of portfolio dependence -Time horizons for risk calculations -Quantification of portfolio risk -Estimation of risk measures -Portfolio analysis and portfolio improvement -Evaluation and comparison of credit risk models -Analytic portfolio loss distributions The thesis contributes to the evaluatio...

  6. Capacity Credit and Security of Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chozas, Julia Fernandez; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    electricity systems are planned, and how renewable energies fit in these systems. The second part of the article assesses the actual contribution that variable renewable energies can make to security of supply, firstly from a qualitative point of view and secondly in measurable terms. The study is based......This paper addresses the question of how renewable energies can contribute to security of supply. In order to analyse this subject, the paper has two differentiated parts. In the first part, the concept of security of supply is reviewed. This provides the baseline to understand how current...... demand for electricity is highest, the study focuses on the capacity credit of future Danish scenarios including high penetrations of offshore wind, onshore wind, wave and solar PV. The results of this project can ultimately lead towards the improvement of existing rules and methods in system planning...

  7. Sovereign Credit Risk, Liquidity and ECB Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    This paper explores the interaction between credit risk and liquidity, in the context of the intervention by the European Central Bank (ECB), during the Euro-zone crisis. The laboratory for our investigation is the Italian sovereign bond market, the largest in the Euro-zone. We use a unique data...... between changes in Italian sovereign credit risk and liquidity in the secondary bond market, conditional on the level of credit risk, measured by the Italian sovereign credit default swap (CDS) spread. We demonstrate the existence of a threshold of 500 basis points (bp) in the CDS spread, above which...... there is a structural change in this relationship. Other global systemic factors also a ffect market liquidity, but the speci c credit risk of primary dealers plays only a modest role in a ffecting market liquidity, especially under conditions of stress. Moreover, the data indicate that there is a clear structural...

  8. Models for assessing and managing credit risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neogradi Slađana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay deals with the definition of a model for assessing and managing credit risk. Risk is an inseparable component of any average and normal credit transaction. Looking at the different aspects of the identification and classification of risk in the banking industry as well as representation of the key components of modern risk management. In the first part of the essay will analyze how the impact of credit risk on bank and empirical models for determining the financial difficulties in which the company can be found. Bank on the basis of these models can reduce number of approved risk assets. In the second part, we consider models for improving credit risk with emphasis on Basel I, II and III, and the third part, we conclude that the most appropriate model and gives the best effect for measuring credit risk in domestic banks.

  9. Issues for effective implementation of burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, C.V.; Wagner, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, burnup credit has been used in the criticality safety evaluation for storage pools at pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and considerable work has been performed to lay the foundation for use of burnup credit in dry storage and transport cask applications and permanent disposal applications. Many of the technical issues related to the basic physics phenomena and parameters of importance are similar in each of these applications. However, the nuclear fuel cycle in the United States has never been fully integrated and the implementation of burnup credit to each of these applications is dependent somewhat on the specific safety bases developed over the history of each operational area. This paper will briefly review the implementation status of burnup credit for each application area and explore some of the remaining issues associated with effective implementation of burnup credit. (author)

  10. Tight gas sand tax credit yields opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, F.W.; Osburn, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Internal Revenue Service on Apr. 1, 1991, released the inflation adjustments used in the calculations of Non-Conventional Fuel Tax Credits for 1990. The inflation adjustment, 1.6730, when applied to the base price of $3/bbl of oil equivalent, adjusts the tax credit to $5.019/bbl for oil and 86.53 cents/MMBTU for gas. The conversion factor for equivalent fuels is 5.8 MMBTU/bbl. Unfortunately, the tax credit for tight formation gas continues to be unadjusted for inflation and remains 52 cents/MMBTU. As many producers are aware, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 expanded the dates of eligibility and the usage for-Non-Conventional Fuel Tax Credits. Among other provisions, eligible wells may be placed in service until Jan. 1, 1992, and once in place may utilize the credit for production through Dec. 31, 2002. Both dates are 2 year extensions from previous regulations

  11. An Analysis of the Factors Leading to Rising Credit Risk in the Zimbabwe Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Sandada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to analyse the factors that lead to rising credit risk in the Zimbabwean banking sector. The objective was to ascertain the impact of macroeconomic, industry and bank specific factors on rising credit risk in in Zimbabwe. The study aimed at contributing to credit risk management literature by providing evidence Sub Saharan context. Being anchored on the positivist quantitative research approach, a survey was carried out gather the data that were analysed using descriptive, correlation and regression analyses. The results revealed that the most significant factors leading to credit risk in the Zimbabwean banking sector were macroeconomic and bank specific factors. The industry factors did not show a significant influence on the rising credit risk. The research findings of this study will a valuable addition to the existing knowledge and provide a platform for further research on how the credit risk problems can be dealt with. While credit risk is known as one of the risks inherent to any banking institutions, the alarming levels of credit risk in the Zimbabwe banking sector has motivated this current study to critically analyse the factors that have led to the high credit risk levels.

  12. Advanced empirical estimate of information value for credit scoring models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Řezáč

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit scoring, it is a term for a wide spectrum of predictive models and their underlying techniques that aid financial institutions in granting credits. These methods decide who will get credit, how much credit they should get, and what further strategies will enhance the profitability of the borrowers to the lenders. Many statistical tools are avaiable for measuring quality, within the meaning of the predictive power, of credit scoring models. Because it is impossible to use a scoring model effectively without knowing how good it is, quality indexes like Gini, Kolmogorov-Smirnov statisic and Information value are used to assess quality of given credit scoring model. The paper deals primarily with the Information value, sometimes called divergency. Commonly it is computed by discretisation of data into bins using deciles. One constraint is required to be met in this case. Number of cases have to be nonzero for all bins. If this constraint is not fulfilled there are some practical procedures for preserving finite results. As an alternative method to the empirical estimates one can use the kernel smoothing theory, which allows to estimate unknown densities and consequently, using some numerical method for integration, to estimate value of the Information value. The main contribution of this paper is a proposal and description of the empirical estimate with supervised interval selection. This advanced estimate is based on requirement to have at least k, where k is a positive integer, observations of socres of both good and bad client in each considered interval. A simulation study shows that this estimate outperform both the empirical estimate using deciles and the kernel estimate. Furthermore it shows high dependency on choice of the parameter k. If we choose too small value, we get overestimated value of the Information value, and vice versa. Adjusted square root of number of bad clients seems to be a reasonable compromise.

  13. The joint estimation of term structures and credit spreads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, P.; Hoek, J.; Kleibergen, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    We present a new framework for the joint estimation of the default-free government term structure and corporate credit spread curves. By using a data set of liquid, German mark denominated bonds, we show that this yields more realistic spreads than traditionally obtained spread curves that result

  14. Determinants of SME credit worthiness under Basel rules: the value of credit history information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Dainelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Basel III Accord has reportedly had an impact on SME financing. In this paper, we aim to highlight the determinants of SME credit worthiness. We use credit history in addition to financial ratios and “hybrid” indicators that have been built by mixing credit history with financial statement data. We develop a failure prediction logit model on 187 Italian SMEs. The use of short-term credit lines is the most important variable. Contrary to common understanding, capitalization levels do not affect ratings. Lastly, credit worthiness is sensitive to sale profitability.

  15. Partial breast irradiation as sole therapy for low risk breast carcinoma: Early toxicity, cosmesis and quality of life results of a MammoSite brachytherapy phase II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacemi, Yazid; Chauvet, Marie-Pierre; Giard, Sylvia; Villette, Sylviane; Lacornerie, Thomas; Bonodeau, Francois; Baranzelli, Marie-Christine; Bonneterre, Jacques; Lartigau, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The MammoSite is a device that was developed with the goal of making breast-conserving surgery (BCT) more widely available. Our objective was to evaluate the MammoSite device performances after an open cavity placement procedure and quality of life in highly selected patients with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and materials: From March 2003 to March 2005, 43 patients with T1 breast cancer were enrolled in a phase II study. The median age was 72 years. Twenty-five (58%) patients were treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy using the MammoSite applicator to deliver 34 Gy in 10 fractions. The main disqualifying factor was pathologic sentinel node involvement (10/43; 23%). There were no device malfunctions, migration or rupture of the balloon. Results: After a median follow-up of 13 months, there were no local recurrences and one contralateral lobular carcinoma. Seventeen (68%), 13 (52%), 8 (32%), 5 (20%) and 2 (8%) patients had erythema, seroma, inflammation, hematoma and sever infection, respectively. Only 2 patients developed telangiectasia. At 1 year the rate of 'good to excellent' cosmetic results was 84%. Significant changes in QoL were observed for emotional and social well-being between 3 and 12 months. At 24 months, only emotional well-being subscore changes were statistically significant (p = 0.015). Conclusions: Our data in patients older than 60 years support the previously published data. Histologic features were the main disqualifying criteria. With higher skin spacing levels we observed very low incidence of telangiectasia. QoL evaluation indicates that baseline scores were satisfactory. Changes concerned emotional and social well-being

  16. 12 CFR 226.12 - Special credit card provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special credit card provisions. 226.12 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.12 Special credit card provisions. (a) Issuance of credit cards. Regardless of the purpose for which a credit card is to be used, including...

  17. 12 CFR 614.4720 - Letters of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4720 Letters of credit. Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks, under policies adopted by their boards of directors...

  18. 12 CFR 704.6 - Credit risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit risk management. 704.6 Section 704.6... CREDIT UNIONS § 704.6 Credit risk management. (a) Policies. A corporate credit union must operate according to a credit risk management policy that is commensurate with the investment risks and activities...

  19. Food insecurity partially mediates associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults in india: Results from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Joshua M; McClure, Heather H; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Charlton, Karen E; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Naidoo, Nirmala; Kowal, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Our objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross-sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556). Adjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity. We then examined whether food insecurity, in turn, was associated with anthropometric measures of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We also tested whether food insecurity mediated the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition. In adjusted models, lower household wealth [lowest quintile (Q5) vs highest quintile (Q1): odds ratio (OR) = 13.57, P insecurity. Those who were severely food insecure had greater odds of being underweight (OR = 1.36, P insecurity explained 4.7%-29.7% of the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition, depending on the variables considered. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that food insecurity is a mechanism linking social disadvantage and body composition among older adults in India. These analyses contribute to a better understanding of processes leading to variation in body composition, which may help enhance the design of interventions aimed at improving population nutritional status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Determinants of Financial Sustainability for Farm Credit Applications—A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes I. F. Henning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmers use credit from commercial credit providers to finance production activities. Commercial credit providers have to predict the financial sustainability of the enterprise to ensure that the borrower will have the ability to repay the loan. A Delphi study was conducted to explore what factors are used as indicators of loan-repayment ability of farmers. The objective was not only to identify factors that are currently considered, but also to identify other personal attributes that may improve the accuracy in predicting the repayment ability of potential borrowers. The Delphi was applied to a panel consisting of nine credit analysts and credit managers from a commercial credit provider in South Africa. The results indicate that the current and past financial performance, account standing, collateral, and credit record of the farm are very important in the assessment of applications in terms of financial performance. Experience and the success factors compared to competitors were found to be important, while age and education/qualification are regarded as less important in predicting repayment ability. The results also show that, although not currently objectively included in credit evaluations, credit analysis regards leadership and human relations; commitment and confidence; internal locus of control; self-efficacy; calculated risk taking; need for achievement; and opportunity seeking as important indicators of the ability of potential borrows to repay their loans. Thus, credit analysts and managers also regard management abilities and entrepreneurial characteristics of potential borrowers to be good indicators of repayment ability. Results from this research provide new indicator factors that can be used to extend existing credit evaluation instruments in order to more accurately predict repayment ability.

  1. Cast Partial Denture versus Acrylic Partial Denture for Replacement of Missing Teeth in Partially Edentulous Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramita Suwal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effects of cast partial denture with conventional all acrylic denture in respect to retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort and periodontal health of abutments. Methods: 50 adult partially edentulous patient seeking for replacement of missing teeth having Kennedy class I and II arches with or without modification areas were selected for the study. Group-A was treated with cast partial denture and Group-B with acrylic partial denture. Data collected during follow-up visit of 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year by evaluating retention, stability, masticatory efficiency, comfort, periodontal health of abutment. Results: Chi-square test was applied to find out differences between the groups at 95% confidence interval where p = 0.05. One year comparison shows that cast partial denture maintained retention and stability better than acrylic partial denture (p< 0.05. The masticatory efficiency was significantly compromising from 3rd month to 1 year in all acrylic partial denture groups (p< 0.05. The comfort of patient with cast partial denture was maintained better during the observation period (p< 0.05. Periodontal health of abutment was gradually deteriorated in all acrylic denture group (p

  2. Credit market access in Uganda: evidence from household survey data 1999/2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Okurut

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the individual and household characteristics that influenced credit market access in Uganda using household data for 1999/2000. The results suggest that credit market access was significantly influenced by gender, household wealth, age, regional location, and urban/rural location.

  3. 31 CFR 29.518 - Reporting delinquent debts to credit bureaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting delinquent debts to credit... Collection Collection of Overpayments § 29.518 Reporting delinquent debts to credit bureaus. (a) Notice. If a debtor's response to the demand letter does not result in payment in full, payment by offset, or payment...

  4. THE INDIANA ENTERPRISE ZONE PROGRAM: FISCAL IMPACT OF A JOB CREATION TAX CREDIT

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Sarah A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper estimated the fiscal impact of a job creation tax credit, a proposed incentive for establishments participating in the Indiana enterprise zone program. State unemployment insurance files were utilized with GIS to obtain enterprise zone data. Labor demand and labor supply were estimated. Job creation due to the credit was calculated from empirical results.

  5. The Accuracy of the Information Presented in Credit Bureau Reports: Research and Comparative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Simović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research results regarding information accuracy in the Serbian credit bureau reports and tries to identify the reasons which affect the accuracy of the information presented in credit bureau reports, in global terms. The research was conducted by interviewing respondents. Comparative analysis was used in order to formulate proposal of factors which determine information accuracy in the credit bureau reports. The results show that the materially significant errors in information presented in Serbian credit bureau reports make 0.5% of the sample. This implies that creditors in Serbia base their credit decisions on reliable information. The results of this study were compared to results of the studies conducted in USA and Germany in order to formulate proposal of factors which influence the information accuracy in the credit bureau reports. In order toimprove information accuracy in credit bureau reports, in global terms, special attention should be paid to formulation of international standards of credit reporting and identification systems of natural persons and legal entities.

  6. STOCHASTIC MODELING OF OPTIMIZED CREDIT STRATEGY OF A DISTRIBUTING COMPANY ON THE PHARMACEUTICAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boychuk

    2015-10-01

    pharmaceutical product has a stochastic character. If the coefficient in the Poisson process differs from zero, then there are three modes of crediting (full, partial and absence of crediting, and if the coefficient equals to zero there are two modes of financing (full and the absence of crediting.

  7. Value of burnup credit beyond actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, D.; Fuentes, E.; Kang, Chi.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has submitted a topical report to the NRC justifying burnup credit based only on actinide isotopes (U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, and Am-241). When this topical report is approved, it will allow a great deal of the commercial spent nuclear fuel to be transported in significantly higher capacity casks. A cost savings estimate for shipping fuel in 32 assembly (burnup credit) casks as opposed to 24 assembly (non-burnup credit) casks was previously presented. Since that time, more detailed calculations have been performed using the methodology presented in the Actinide-Only Burnup Credit Topical Report. Loading curves for derated casks have been generated using actinide-only burnup credit and are presented in this paper. The estimates of cost savings due to burnup credit for shipping fuel utilizing 32, 30, 28, and 24 assembly casks where only the 24 assembly cask does not burnup credit have been created and are discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs

  8. 76 FR 40946 - WNC Tax Credits 40, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 41, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager 2, LLC, WNC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Credits 40, LLC, WNC Tax Credits 41, LLC, WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager 2, LLC, WNC National Partners... (``Fund 41'') (each a ``Fund,'' and collectively, the ``Funds''), WNC Housing Tax Credits Manager 2, LLC (the ``Manager''), WNC National Partners, LLC (``WNC National Partners'') and WNC & Associates, Inc...

  9. Partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Agranovich, M S

    2002-01-01

    Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

  10. Transitive Credit and JSON-LD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Katz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Science and engineering research increasingly relies on activities that facilitate research but are not currently rewarded or recognized, such as: data sharing; developing common data resources, software and methodologies; and annotating data and publications. To promote and advance these activities, we must develop mechanisms for assigning credit, facilitate the appropriate attribution of research outcomes, devise incentives for activities that facilitate research, and allocate funds to maximize return on investment. In this article, we focus on addressing the issue of assigning credit for both direct and indirect contributions, specifically by using JSON-LD to implement a prototype transitive credit system.

  11. Credit Spreads Across the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Stenbo

    This paper studies how corporate bond spreads vary with the business cycle. I show that both level and slope of empirical credit spread curves are correlated with the state of the economy, and I link this to variation in idiosyncratic jump risk. I develop a structural credit risk model...... that accounts for both business cycle and jump risk, and show by estimation that the model captures the counter-cyclical level and pro-cyclical slope of empirical credit spread curves. In addition, I provide a new procedure for estimation of idiosyncratic jump risk, which is consistent with observed shocks...

  12. A dynamic model of unsecured credit

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. Sanches

    2010-01-01

    The author studies the terms of credit in a competitive market in which sellers (lenders) are willing to repeatedly finance the purchases of buyers (borrowers) by engaging in a credit relationship. The key frictions are: (i) the lender is unable to observe the borrower's ability to repay a loan; (ii) the borrower cannot commit to any long-term contract; (iii) it is costly for the lender to contact a borrower and to walk away from a contract; and (iv) transactions within each credit relationsh...

  13. Using non-performing loan ratios as default rates in the estimation of credit losses and macroeconomic credit risk stress testing: A case from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guray Kucukkocaoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, inspired by the Credit Portfolio View approach, we intend to develop an econometric credit risk model to estimate credit loss distributions of Turkish Banking System under baseline and stress macro scenarios, by substituting default rates with non-performing loan (NPL ratios. Since customer number based historical default rates are not available for the whole Turkish banking system’s credit portfolio, we used NPL ratios as dependent variable instead of default rates, a common practice for many countries where historical default rates are not available. Although, there are many problems in using NPL ratios as default rates such as underestimating portfolio losses as a result of totally non-homogeneous total credit portfolios and transferring non-performing loans to asset management companies from banks’ balance sheets, our aim is to underline and limit some ignored problems using accounting based NPL ratios as default rates in macroeconomic credit risk modeling. Developed models confirm the strong statistical relationship between systematic component of credit risk and macroeconomic variables in Turkey. Stress test results also are compatible with the past experiences

  14. Monetary Policies And Credit Financing As Factors In Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... cheap interest rate polices has negative effect on credit supply while policies associated with plough ... credit was influenced mainly by the availability of credit subsidies and availability of guarantees.

  15. 5 CFR 610.408 - Use of credit hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Flexible and Compressed Work Schedules § 610.408 Use of credit hours. Members of the Senior Executive Service (SES) may not accumulate credit hours under an alternative work schedule. Any credit hours...

  16. monetary policies and credit financing as factors in agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controls the supply of money. This assumes the ... input supply, marketing services and of course credit supply. Provision of ... credit in state, assess the impact of credit on agricultural ..... Inflation targeting be a framework for monetary policy.

  17. Establishment of the Credit Indicator System of Micro Enterprises Based on Support Vector Machine and R-Type Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The micro enterprises’ credit indicators with credit identification ability are selected by the two classification models of Support Vector Machine for the first round of indicator selection and then for the second round of indicator selection, deleting credit indicators with redundant information by clustering variables through the principle of minimum sum of deviation squares. This paper provides a screening model for credit evaluation indicators of micro enterprises and uses credit data of 860 micro enterprises samples in Inner Mongolia in western China for application analysis. The test results show that, first, the constructed final micro enterprises’ credit indicator system is in line with the 5C model; second, the validity test based on the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic curve reveals that each of the screened credit evaluation indicators is valid.

  18. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  19. Impacts of Federal Tax Credit Extensions on Renewable Deployment and Power Sector Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Federal tax credits for renewable energy (RE) have served as one of the primary financial incentives for RE deployment over the last two decades in the United States. In December 2015, the wind power production tax credit and solar investment tax credits were extended for five years as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2016. This report explores the impact that these tax credit extensions might have on future RE capacity deployment and power sector carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The analysis examines the impacts of the tax credit extensions under two distinct natural gas price futures as natural gas prices have been key factors in influencing the economic competitiveness of new RE development. The analysis finds that, in both natural gas price futures, RE tax credit extensions can spur RE capacity investments at least through the early 2020s and can help lower emissions from the U.S. electricity system. More specifically, the RE tax credit extensions are estimated to drive a net peak increase of 48-53 GW in installed RE capacity in the early 2020s -- longer term impacts are less certain. In the longer term after the tax credits ramp down, greater RE capacity is driven by a combination of assumed RE cost declines, rising fossil fuel prices, and other clean energy policies such as the Clean Power Plan. The tax credit extension-driven acceleration in RE capacity development can reduce fossil fuel-based generation and lower electric sector CO2 emissions. Cumulative emissions reductions over a 15-year period (spanning 2016-2030) as a result of the tax credit extensions are estimated to range from 540 to 1420 million metric tonnes CO2. These findings suggest that tax credit extensions can have a measurable impact on future RE deployment and electric sector CO2 emissions under a range of natural gas price futures.

  20. Retention, dosing, tolerability and patient reported seizure outcome of Zonisamide as only add-on treatment under real-life conditions in adult patients with partial onset seizures: Results of the observational study ZOOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Hajo; Baulac, Michel; McMurray, Rob; Kockelmann, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    Zonisamide is licensed for adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalisation in patients 6 years and older and as monotherapy for the treatment of partial seizures in adult patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy, and shows a favourable pharmacokinetic profile with low interaction potential with other drugs. The aim of the present study was to gather real-life data on retention and modalities of zonisamide use when administered as only add-on treatment to a current AED monotherapy in adult patients with partial-onset seizures. This multicenter observational study was performed in 4 European countries and comprised three visits: baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Data on patients' retention, reported efficacy, tolerability and safety, and quality of life was collected. Of 100 included patients, 93 could be evaluated. After 6 months, the retention rate of zonisamide add-on therapy was 82.8%. At this time, a reduction of seizure frequency of at least 50% was observed in 79.7% of patients, with 43.6% reporting seizure freedom over the last 3 months of the study period. Adverse events were reported by 19.4% of patients, with fatigue, agitation, dizziness, and headache being most frequent. Approximately 25% of patients were older than 60 years, many of whom suffered from late-onset epilepsy. Compared to younger patients, these patients showed considerable differences with regard to their antiepileptic drug regimen at baseline, and slightly higher responder and retention rates at 6 months. Despite limitations due to the non-interventional open-label design and the low sample size, the results show that zonisamide as only add-on therapy is well retained, indicating effectiveness in the majority of patients under real-life conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Essays on partial retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarci, T.

    2012-01-01

    The five essays in this dissertation address a range of topics in the micro-economic literature on partial retirement. The focus is on the labor market behavior of older age groups. The essays examine the economic and non-economic determinants of partial retirement behavior, the effect of partial

  2. Validation Techniques of the Intern Models for Credit Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Moinescu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The new own funds adequacy device, officialy named “ International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards”, describes the most important benchmark framework for micro-prudential supervision at the moment. The publication of the final text in June 2004, after five years of deliberations, represents the result of multiple analyses and comments provided by all interested parties, banking supervision authorities, associations and credit institutions. Provided the development of complex methodologies of risk measurement and management, on a large scale, by credit institutions, simple and static rules of the first accord have become less and less relevant during the last years. And so, the need of setting up a own funds adequacy framework which is much more risk sensitive and provides incentives to credit institutions on what concerns the improvement of risk measurement and management systems was met by approval of the Basel II Accord, which will, therefore, lead to the strengthening of financial stability. The revisal of the Accord was mainly focused on the increase of risk analysis and internal measurement and the changes made to their estimation allow banks to create their own methodological framework to calculate capital requirements (also considering each credit institution’ risk appetite.

  3. Use of burnup credit for transportation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Ewing, R.I.; Lake, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Burnup credit is the application of the effects of fuel burnup to nuclear criticality design. When burnup credit is considered in the design of storage facilities and transportation casks for spent fuel, the objectives are to reduce the requirements for storage space and to increase the payload of casks with acceptable nuclear criticality safety margins. The spent-fuel carrying capacities of previous-generation transport casks have been limited primarily by requirements to remove heat and/or to provide shielding. Shielding and heat transfer requirements for casks designed to transport older spent fuel with longer decay times are reduced significantly. Thus a considerable weight margin is available to the designer for increasing the payload capacity. One method to achieve an increase in capacity is to reduce fuel assembly spacing. The amount of reduction in assembly spacing is limited by criticality and fuel support structural concerns. The optimum fuel assembly spacing provides the maximum cask loading within a basket that has adequate criticality control and sufficient structural integrity for regulatory accident scenarios. The incorporation of burnup credit in cask designs could result in considerable benefits in the transport of spent fuel. The acceptance of burnup credit for the design of transport casks depends on the resolution of system safety issues and the uncertainties that affect the determination of criticality safety margins. The remainder of this report will examine these issues and the integrated approach under way to resolve them. 20 refs., 2 figs

  4. Retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time in a supply chain for deteriorating items with up-stream and down-stream trade credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Gour Chandra

    2015-09-01

    In practice, the supplier often offers the retailers a trade credit period and the retailer in turn provides a trade credit period to her/his customer to stimulate sales and reduce inventory. From the retailer's perspective, granting trade credit not only increases sales and revenue but also increases opportunity cost (i.e., the capital opportunity loss during credit period) and default risk (i.e., the percentage that the customer will not be able to pay off his/her debt obligations). Hence, how to determine credit period is increasingly recognized as an important strategy to increase retailer's profitability. Also, the selling items such as fruits, fresh fishes, gasoline, photographic films, pharmaceuticals and volatile liquids deteriorate continuously due to evaporation, obsolescence and spoilage. In this paper, we propose an economic order quantity model for the retailer where (1) the supplier provides an up-stream trade credit and the retailer also offers a down-stream trade credit, (2) the retailer's down-stream trade credit to the buyer not only increases sales and revenue but also opportunity cost and default risk, and (3) the selling items are perishable. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a profit maximization problem to determine the retailer's optimal replenishment decisions under the supply chain management. We then show that the retailer's optimal credit period and cycle time not only exist but also are unique. We deduce some previously published results of other researchers as special cases. Finally, we use some numerical examples to illustrate the theoretical results.

  5. 26 CFR 1.35-1 - Partially tax-exempt interest received by individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Partially tax-exempt interest received by individuals. 1.35-1 Section 1.35-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.35-1 Partially tax-exempt interest received by...

  6. Prefrontal system dysfunction and credit card debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2004-10-01

    Credit card use often involves a disadvantageous allocation of finances because they allow for spending beyond means and buying on impulse. Accordingly they are associated with increased bankruptcy, anxiety, stress, and health problems. Mounting evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical studies implicates prefrontal-subcortical systems in processing financial information. This study examined the relationship of credit card debt and executive functions using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FRSBE). After removing the influences of demographic variables (age, sex, education, and income), credit card debt was associated with the Executive Dysfunction scale, but not the Apathy or Disinhibition scales. This suggests that processes of conceptualizing and organizing finances are most relevant to credit card debt, and implicates dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction.

  7. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  8. Securitization, Credit Rating and Issuers’ Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Palmada Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the growth of securitization through Credit Receivables Investment Funds (Fundos de Investimento em Direitos Creditórios - FIDCs in Brazil in recent years, this work aims to investigate empirically the relationship between securitization and credit rating in the Brazilian market. All issues of FIDCs held by banks and registered in the CVM from 2005 to July 2010 were analyzed. The two hypotheses discussed by Gorton and Souleles (2005 were confirmed to Brazilian financial institutions. There is evidence of an implied contract between the transferor companies and investors in securitizations made via FIDCs. Companies with higher credit risk, worst ratings, tend to securitize more. However no relationship was found between securitization and asset value, amount of loans or capital ratio.

  9. College credit for in-house training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, K.; Getty, C.; Knief, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Program on Non-Collegiate Sponsored Instruction (PONSI) and similar organizations may be of considerable help to the industry to the extent that college credit can be awarded for certain activities in reactor site training programs. The credit recommendations generally may be used at local colleges. They also may be applied (along with credit for college-level activities such as correspondence and on-campus courses, proficiency testing, and other evaluations) to degrees granted by the Regent's External Degree Program (REX) and other organizations. This paper describes the principle features of the PONSI and REX programs. PONSI's first credit evaluation at a nuclear plant - Consolidated Edison's Indian Point 2 - is summarized. Recent proposals for an explicit nuclear degree through REX are also described briefly

  10. Credit risk management in the power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.

    2002-01-01

    Deregulation of the electric power industry has the potential to put power businesses at market risk particularly when the value of an asset or liability will change with market movements. Market risk gives rise to credit risk where a contract cannot be fulfilled. This presentation describes how credit risks can be identified and measured. Most practitioners use some variant of value-at-risk (VAR) technology for measuring market risk. Under this approach, risk is determined by the volatility implied by the market. Volatility of electricity prices and natural gas prices has increased significantly in Alberta in recent years. The consequence is an increase in both market and credit risk. The author described the difference between the two risks and their significance. An overview of credit risk management with derivatives, an over-the counter contract, was also presented. The author also discusses issue of protection buyers in the event of a failed contract. 9 figs

  11. The market for tradable renewable energy credits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, David

    2002-01-01

    As states seek to foster the development of renewable energy resources, some have introduced renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) which require retailers of electricity to derive a specified amount of their energy supply from renewable energy resources. RPSs in Texas, Arizona, Wisconsin and Nevada allow for or require the use of tradable renewable energy credits. The price of such credits is expected to reflect the cost premium for generating electricity from renewable resources relative to the market price of conventionally generated electricity. Using the market to trade renewable energy credits exposes buyers and sellers to risks of imperfect information, poor performance, and opportunism. These risks can be managed through contractual arrangements and regulatory requirements pertaining to property rights in credits, pricing, term of the contract, and assurance of performance

  12. New Market Tax Credit Qualified Census Tract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFI) Fund, a division of the US Department of the Treasury, administers the New Markets Tax Credit (NMTC). The...

  13. Status of burnup credit implementation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    1998-01-01

    Burnup credit is currently not used for the storage of spent fuel in the reactor pools in Switzerland, but credit is taken for integral burnable absorbers. Interest exists to take credit of burnup in future for the storage in a central away-from-reactor facility presently under construction. For spent fuel transports to foreign reprocessing plants the regulations of the receiving countries must be applied in addition to the Swiss licensing criteria. Burnup credit has been applied by one Swiss PWR utility for such transports in a consistent manner with the licensing practice in the receiving countries. Measurements of reactivity worths of small spent fuel samples in a Swiss zero-power research reactor are at an early stage of planning. (author)

  14. The public control of credit unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto García Müller

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Public control is the activity of investigation or review by the government takes over a company, to verify the conformity of its actions to law. This paper analyzes the control over credit unions.

  15. Managing sovereign credit risk in bond portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Bruder, Benjamin; Hereil, Pierre; Roncalli, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    With the recent development of the European debt crisis, traditional index bond management has been severely called into question. We focus here on the risk issues raised by the classical market-capitalization weighting scheme. We propose an approach to properly measure sovereign credit risk in a fixed-income portfolio. For that, we assume that CDS spreads follow a SABR process and we derive a sovereign credit risk measure based on CDS spreads and duration of portfolio bonds. We then consider...

  16. The determinants of credit rating: brazilian evidence

    OpenAIRE

    MurciaI,Flávia Cruz de Souza; Dal-Ri Murcia,Fernando; Rover,Suliani; Borba,José Alonso

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equa...

  17. Credit Default Swap Valuation with Counterparty Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Seng Yuen; Kwok, Yue Kuen

    2005-01-01

    Using the reduced form framework with inter-dependent default correlation, we perform valuation of credit default swap with counterparty risk. The inter-dependent default risk structure between the protection buyer, protection seller and the reference entity in a credit default swap are characterized by their correlated default intensities, where the default intensity of one party increases when the default of another party occurs. We explore how settlement risk and replacement cost affect th...

  18. Counterparty Credit Risk on the Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Starlander, Isak

    2017-01-01

    Counterparty credit risk is present in trades offinancial obligations. This master thesis investigates the up and comingtechnology blockchain and how it could be used to mitigate counterparty creditrisk. The study intends to cover essentials of the mathematical model expectedloss, along with an introduction to the blockchain technology. After modellinga simple smart contract and using historical financial data, it was evidentthat there is a possible opportunity to reduce counterparty credit r...

  19. Health insurance premium tax credit. Final regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document contains final regulations relating to the health insurance premium tax credit enacted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.These final regulations provide guidance to individuals related to employees who may enroll in eligible employer-sponsored coverage and who wish to enroll in qualified health plans through Affordable Insurance Exchanges (Exchanges) and claim the premium tax credit.

  20. Grant credit lines for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatikov, P.; Iliev, I.

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission established a mechanism of credit lines to integrate more quickly the Bulgarian economy to the open international markets. Thereby it was enabled certain Bulgarian banks to provide grant loans to private companies in the industrial sector for projects of improvement of the energy efficiency of their production. The Bulgarian experience in using of two European credit lines and their role in the current economic crisis is presented in this paper. (authors)