WorldWideScience

Sample records for parthenogenetic activation intracytoplasmic

  1. Optimal developmental stage for vitrification of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal developmental stage to vitrify in-vitro cultured porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos. Embryos were vitrified by Cryotop on Day 4, 5 or 6 after oocyte activation (Day 0), and immediately after warming they were either time...

  2. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...... by HHP treatment was investigated in different holding media with or without Ca(2+). The efficiency of activation was tested at different pressure levels and media including T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 containing 2% cattle serum), and mannitol-PVA fusion medium with (MPVA + Ca(2+)) or without Ca(2...

  3. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  4. Effect of zona pellucida on porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Li, Juan

    2011-01-01

    μg mL–1 cytochalasin B and 10 μg mL–1 cycloheximide in PZM-3 medium for 4 h. ZP was removed by 3.3 mg mL–1 pronase. Both zona-intact (PAZI) and zona-free (PAZF) embryos were cultured individually for 6 days either in time-lapse incubator (Embryoscope D, Unisense A/S, Aarhus, Denmark) for 15-min......). The timing of morulae was recorded when they completed compaction. Good blastocysts were defined when they expanded to 1.5 times larger than oocytes and formed regular blastocoel cavity with uniform colour and distribution of cells. Timing data were analysed by Student's t-test, while development rates....... 22, 234). In the present study, we expanded this study to include also the timing of early development and the resulting quality and robustness (for vitrification) of porcine PA embryos. Parthenogenetic activation was made first by an electric pulse (1.26 kV cm–1, 80 μs) and then by incubation with 5...

  5. Improved parthenogenetic development of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes activated with 9% ethanol plus 6-DMAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Y -p; Liu, Ying; Dai, Y -p

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to compare various activation protocols on developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes. Bovine oocytes matured in vitro for 23 h were vitrified with EDFSF30 in open pulled straws. After warming, they were cultured in vitro for 1 h, followed by parthenogenetic activation....... Vitrified-warmed oocytes had a morphologically normal rate similar to that of controls (nonvitrified oocytes cultured in vitro for 24 h; 98.6% vs. 100%, P > 0.05). When vitrified-warmed oocytes were first activated with 7% ethanol for 5 min and then incubated in 6-dimethylaminopurin (6-DMAP) for 4 h...... (for 5 min) or in combination with 6-DMAP (4 h) was used to activate vitrified-warmed oocytes, cleavage rates ranged from 22.3% to 61.1% and blastocyst rates ranged from 1.1% to 30.6%. These rates were optimized when oocytes were treated with 9% ethanol plus 6-DMAP; this was verified in experiments...

  6. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    OpenAIRE

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24...

  7. Development capacity of pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes evaluated by somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Hanne; Li, Rong; Liu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Most of the porcine oocytes used for in vitro studies are collected from gilts. Our aims were to study development capacity of gilt v. sow oocytes (pre- and postpubertal respectively) using 2 techniques illustrating development competence [parthenogenetic activation (PA) and somatic cell nuclear...... transfer (SCNT)], and to describe a simple method to select the most competent oocytes. Inside-ZP diameter of in vitro-matured gilt oocytes was measured (µm; small ≤110; medium >110; large ≥120). Gilt and sow oocytes were morphologically grouped as good (even cytoplasm, smooth cell membrane, visible...

  8. Effect of ambient light exposure of media and embryos on development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Light exposure is a common stress factor during in vitro handling of oocytes and embryos that originates from both microscope and ambient light. In the current study, the effect of two types of ambient light (daylight and laboratory light) on porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos...... was tested in two experiments: (1) ambient light on medium subsequently used for embryo in vitro development; and (2) ambient light exposure on activated oocytes before in vitro development. The results from Experiment 1 showed that exposure of culture medium to both types of ambient light decreased...... the percentage of blastocysts that showed good morphology, only after 24 h exposure. The results from Experiment 2 revealed a reduction in both blastocyst formation and quality when activated oocytes were exposed to both types of ambient light. This effect was seen after only 1 h exposure and increased with time...

  9. Expression pattern of pluripotent markers in different embryonic developmental stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos and putative embryonic stem cells generated by parthenogenetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karn P; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos.

  10. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo and produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome...

  11. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in-vivo or produced by in-vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV......), in vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome...

  12. Effect of ambient light exposure of media and embryos on development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Light exposure is a common stress factor during in vitro handling of oocytes and embryos that originates from both microscope and ambient light. In the current study, the effect of two types of ambient light (daylight and laboratory light) on porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos was tested in two experiments: (1) ambient light on medium subsequently used for embryo in vitro development; and (2) ambient light exposure on activated oocytes before in vitro development. The results from Experiment 1 showed that exposure of culture medium to both types of ambient light decreased the percentage of blastocysts that showed good morphology, only after 24 h exposure. The results from Experiment 2 revealed a reduction in both blastocyst formation and quality when activated oocytes were exposed to both types of ambient light. This effect was seen after only 1 h exposure and increased with time. In conclusion, exposure to ambient light can be harmful to embryo development, both when medium is exposed for a long period of time and, to a greater extent, when the embryo itself is exposed for >1 h. In practice, it is therefore recommended to protect both culture medium and porcine embryos against ambient light during in vitro handling in the laboratory.

  13. Increased capacity for sustained locomotion at low temperature in parthenogenetic geckos of hybrid origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Wahl, Rebecca; Autumn, Kellar

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of parthenogenesis is typically associated with hybridization and polyploidy. These correlates of parthenogenesis may have important physiological consequences that need be taken into account in understanding the relative merits of sexual and parthenogenetic reproduction. We compared the thermal sensitivity of aerobically sustained locomotion in hybrid/triploid parthenogenetic races of the gecko Heteronotia binoei and their diploid sexual progenitors. Endurance times at low temperature (10 degrees , 12.5 degrees , and 15 degrees C, 0.05 km h(-1)) were significantly greater in parthenogenetic females than in sexual females. Comparison of oxygen consumption rates during sustained locomotion at increasing speeds (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30 km h(-1), 25 degrees C) indicated that parthenogenetic lizards have higher maximum oxygen consumption rates and maximum aerobic speeds than do female sexual geckos. In addition, parthenogenetic geckos showed greater levels of voluntary activity at 15 degrees C than did sexual geckos, although this pattern appears strongest in comparison to male sexual forms. Parthenogenetic lineages of Heteronotia thus have an advantage over sexual lineages in being capable of greater aerobic activity. This result is opposite of that found in prior studies of parthenogenetic teiid lizards (genus Cnemidophorus) and highlights the idiosyncratic nature of phenotypic evolution in parthenogens of hybrid origin.

  14. Effect of Kisspeptin on the Developmental Competence and Early Transcript Expression in Porcine Oocytes Parthenogenetically Activated with Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Saadeldin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies showed the modulatory effect of kisspeptin (KP on calcium waves through the cell membrane and inside the cell. Spermatozoon can induce similar ooplasmic calcium oscillations at fertilization to trigger meiosis II. Here, we evaluated the effect of KP supplementation with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP for 4 h on embryonic development after oocyte activation with single electric pulse, 5 µM ionomycin, or 8% ethanol. Compared to control nonsupplemented groups, KP significantly improved embryo developmental competence electric- and ethanol-activated oocytes in terms of cleavage (75.3% and 58.6% versus 64% and 48%, respectively, p<0.05 and blastocyst development (31.3% and 10% versus 19.3% and 4%, respectively, p<0.05. MOS expression was increased in electrically activated oocytes in presence of KP while it significantly reduced CCNB1 expression. In ionomycin treated group, both MOS and CCNB1 showed significant increase with no difference between KP and control groups. In ethanol-treated group, KP significantly reduced CCNB1 but no effect was observed on MOS expression. The early alterations in MOS and CCNB1 mRNA transcripts caused by KP may explain the significant differences in the developmental competence between the experimental groups. Kisspeptin supplementation may be adopted in protocols for porcine oocyte activation through electric current and ethanol to improve embryonic developmental competence.

  15. "Sexual" behavior in parthenogenetic lizards (Cnemidophorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D; Fitzgerald, K T

    1980-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Basic data on the behavior of parthenogens are lacking, however. We have discovered, from observations of captive Cnemidophorus uniparens, C. velox, and C. tesselatus, behavior patterns remarkably similar to the courtship and copulatory behavior of closely related sexual species. Briefly, in separately housed pairs, one lizard was repeatedly seen to mount and ride its cagemate and appose the cloacal regions. Dissection or palpation revealed that, in each instance, the courted animal was reproductively active, having ovaries containing large, preovulatory follicles, while the courting animal was either reproductively inactive or postovulatory, having ovaries containing only small, undeveloped follicles. These observations are significant for the questions they raise. For example, is this behavior a nonfunctional vestige of the species' ancestry, or is this behavior necessary for successful reproduction in the species (e.g., by priming reproductive neuroendocrine mechanisms as has been demonstrated in sexual species)?

  16. Goat oocyte quality and competence to undergo IVM and embryo development after parthenogenetic activation from goats fed with different levels of cashew nut bran as source of dietary lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, C C L; Feltrin, C; Martins, L T; Gaudêncio Neto, S; Aguiar, L H; Silva, A M; Oliveira, C H A; Silva, L M; Silva, C M G; Bertolini, M; Rondina, D

    2014-07-15

    Lipid-rich and energy-dense diets can have significant effects on the reproductive physiology, including the ovarian function and fertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cashew nut bran supplementation as a lipid source on follicle development, plasma and intrafollicular concentrations of cholesterol, and developmental competence of in vitro-matured goat oocytes. The inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the goats' diet for 28 days increased the percentage and number of degenerated oocytes compared with the control (P diet. In conclusion, the inclusion of cashew nut bran as 24% of the diet of adult goats for 28 days changed plasma cholesterol levels and reduced the proportion of viable immature oocytes; however, the 12% and 24% diet supplementations with cashew nut bran did not interfere with competence of resulting viable oocytes to reach the metaphase II stage after IVM, and to develop after parthenogenetic activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Children conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau, C; Juul, A; Main, K M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth.......The aim of the study was to evaluate current medical knowledge about children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with respect to congenital malformations, chromosome abnormalities and postnatal growth....

  18. Cytogenetics of a parthenogenetic Arctic species of Micropsectra (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David L.; Martin, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Micropsectra sedna (Oliver, 1976) is a parthenogenetic midge from the Canadian Arctic. The parthenogenetic mechanism is apomictic thelytoky, with a restitutional division during oogenesis, as found in other parthenogenetic Chironomidae. It is triploid, with two similar chromosome sets, and the third is relatively dissimilar, pairing little with the diploid set. Two karyotypes were observed: a single individual with eight polytene elements in the salivary glands (3n=12), considered standard, while the majority of larvae showed only seven polytene chromosomes (3n=11). Hybrid speciation is considered likely, although chromosomal recombination following the origin of thelytoky has played some part in karyotype evolution. A single morphologically distinct larva was also found, which might be the donor of the haploid chromosome set. The apomictic restitutional system is compared to that of the other, independently derived, parthenogenetic Chironomids to assess the extent of similarity between species. PMID:24260638

  19. “Sexual” behavior in parthenogenetic lizards (Cnemidophorus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, David; Fitzgerald, Kevin T.

    1980-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Basic data on the behavior of parthenogens are lacking, however. We have discovered, from observations of captive Cnemidophorus uniparens, C. velox, and C. tesselatus, behavior patterns remarkably similar to the courtship and copulatory behavior of closely related sexual species. Briefly, in separately housed pairs, one lizard was repeatedly seen to mount and ride its cagemate and appose the cloacal regions. Dissection or palpation revealed that, in each instance, the courted animal was reproductively active, having ovaries containing large, preovulatory follicles, while the courting animal was either reproductively inactive or postovulatory, having ovaries containing only small, undeveloped follicles. These observations are significant for the questions they raise. For example, is this behavior a nonfunctional vestige of the species' ancestry, or is this behavior necessary for successful reproduction in the species (e.g., by priming reproductive neuroendocrine mechanisms as has been demonstrated in sexual species)? Images PMID:16592761

  20. Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Aracely A; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Diana P; Wiegraebe, Winfried; Baumann, Peter

    2010-03-11

    Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual species. It has remained unclear how the meiotic program is altered to produce diploid eggs while maintaining heterozygosity. Here we show that meiosis commences with twice the number of chromosomes in parthenogenetic versus sexual species, a mechanism that provides the basis for generating gametes with unreduced chromosome content without fundamental deviation from the classic meiotic program. Our observation of synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata demonstrate that a typical meiotic program occurs and that heterozygosity is not maintained by bypassing recombination. Instead, fluorescent in situ hybridization probes that distinguish between homologues reveal that bivalents form between sister chromosomes, the genetically identical products of the first of two premeiotic replication cycles. Sister chromosome pairing provides a mechanism for the maintenance of heterozygosity, which is critical for offsetting the reduced fitness associated with the lack of genetic diversity in parthenogenetic species.

  1. Switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a zebra shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, Christine L; Coulton, Laura; Bone, Ren; Ovenden, Jennifer R; Thomas, Severine

    2017-01-16

    Parthenogenesis is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which embryos develop in the absence of fertilisation. Most commonly found in plants and invertebrate organisms, an increasing number of vertebrate species have recently been reported employing this reproductive strategy. Here we use DNA genotyping to report the first demonstration of an intra-individual switch from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction in a shark species, the zebra shark Stegostoma fasciatum. A co-housed, sexually produced daughter zebra shark also commenced parthenogenetic reproduction at the onset of maturity without any prior mating. The demonstration of parthenogenesis in these two conspecific individuals with different sexual histories provides further support that elasmobranch fishes may flexibly adapt their reproductive strategy to environmental circumstances.

  2. Changes in Parthenogenetic Imprinting Patterns during Reprogramming by Cell Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Sik Jang

    Full Text Available Differentiated somatic cells can be reprogrammed into the pluripotent state by cell-cell fusion. In the pluripotent state, reprogrammed cells may then self-renew and differentiate into all three germ layers. Fusion-induced reprogramming also epigenetically modifies the somatic cell genome through DNA demethylation, X chromosome reactivation, and histone modification. In this study, we investigated whether fusion with embryonic stem cells (ESCs also reprograms genomic imprinting patterns in somatic cells. In particular, we examined imprinting changes in parthenogenetic neural stem cells fused with biparental ESCs, as well as in biparental neural stem cells fused with parthenogenetic ESCs. The resulting hybrid cells expressed the pluripotency markers Oct4 and Nanog. In addition, methylation of several imprinted genes except Peg3 was comparable between hybrid cells and ESCs. This finding indicates that reprogramming by cell fusion does not necessarily reverse the status of all imprinted genes to the state of pluripotent fusion partner.

  3. “Sexual” behavior in parthenogenetic lizards (Cnemidophorus)

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, David; Fitzgerald, Kevin T.

    1980-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Basic data on the behavior of parthenogens are lacking, however. We have discovered, from observations of captive Cnemidophorus uniparens, C. velox, and C. tesselatus, behavior patterns remarkably similar to the courtship and copulatory behavior of closely related sexual species. Briefly, in separately housed pairs, one lizard was repeatedly seen to mount and ride its cagema...

  4. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and chromosomally abnormal spermatozoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. in 't Veld; F.J.M. Broekmans (Frank); H.F. de France; P.L. Pearson; M.H. Pieters; R.J. van Kooij

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAn infertile couple was referred for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) because of primary infertility and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) in the male. It was observed that although the sperm cells presented with an unusual head size and multiple

  5. Triplet pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection of cryopreserved oocytes: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E; Kenny, A; Puigdomenech, E; Van Thillo, G; Tiverón, M; Piazza, A

    1998-08-01

    To report a triplet pregnancy that occurred after intracytoplasmic injection of sperm into cryopreserved oocytes. Case report. Instituto de Ginecología y Fertilidad (IFER), Buenos Aires, Argentina. A 36-year-old infertile patient with premature ovarian failure and a previous term pregnancy with fresh donated oocytes. We administered leuprolide acetate for pituitary down-regulation followed by E2 valerianate in incremental doses until an endometrial lining of >8 mm was observed by ultrasound. Thawing of frozen donated oocytes, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and translaparoscopic fallopian tube ET also were performed. Natural micronized progesterone was administered intravaginally (600 mg/d) before ET. Ultrasound at the 8th week of gestation revealed a triplet pregnancy with active fetal heartbeats. A triple intrauterine gestation was achieved with the use of microinjection into cryopreserved oocytes. This case illustrates the feasibility of oocyte cryopreservation for clinical use in the era of ICSI.

  6. Coping with living in the soil: : the genome of the parthenogenetic springtail Folsomia candida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Anna; Kraaijeveld, Ken; Derks, Martijn F L; Anvar, Seyed Yahya; Agamennone, Valeria; Suring, Wouter; Kampfraath, Andries A.; Ellers, Jacintha; Le Ngoc, Giang; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Mariën, Janine; Smit, Sandra; van Straalen, Nico M.; Roelofs, Dick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Folsomia candida is a model in soil biology, belonging to the family of Isotomidae, subclass Collembola. It reproduces parthenogenetically in the presence of Wolbachia, and exhibits remarkable physiological adaptations to stress. To better understand these features and adaptations to

  7. Live Births after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in the Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the management of male infertility. We report two cases that demonstrate the successful application of this technology in Nigeria in the management of both oligospermia and azoospermia. The first case relates to the treatment of a 31-year-old woman who required ...

  8. The anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niftrik, L.A.M.P. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Damste, J.S.S.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single

  9. The anammoxosome : An intracytoplasmic compartment in anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Niftrik, L.A. van; Fuerst, J.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2004-01-01

    Anammox bacteria belong to the phylum Planctomycetes and perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox); they oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the electron acceptor to yield dinitrogen gas. The anammox reaction takes place inside the anammoxosome: an intracytoplasmic compartment bounded by a single

  10. Some Reflections on Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ebner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI allows proper fertilization in most cases of male sub fertility, it is one of the most unphysiological techniques in assisted reproductive technologies (ART. Thus, over the last decade, researchers have tried to improve sperm observation with higher-resolution microscopy techniques such as the intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI technique. In order to identify literatures for this review, the PubMed database was searched from 2000 onwards using the terms IMSI, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME and sperm vacuole. Approximately 10 years after the introduction of the MSOME and IMSI procedures, several questions related to the prevalence, origin, location, and clinical consequences of sperm vacuoles have not yet been clarified. It seems that IMSI as a routine application is not state of the art and the only confirmed indications for IMSI are recurrent implantation failure following ICSI and severe male factor.

  11. Intracytoplasmic Crystalline Inclusions in the Hepatocytes of an Antelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    trout [7]. They have never been described in antelopes. The current report describes the his- tological and electron microscopic features of...red O (Figure 2(b)), glycogen with periodic acid-Schiff stain (with and without diastase digestion ) (Figure 2(d)), and acid mucopolysaccharides. The...female Ohrid trout (Salmo letnica Kar.),” Tissue and Cell, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 281–285, 2009. [8] G. S. Murti and R. Borgmann, “Intracytoplasmic periodic

  12. Lower fecundity in parthenogenetic geckos than sexual relatives in the Australian arid zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, M; Shine, R

    2005-05-01

    Theoretical models of the advantage of sexual reproduction typically assume that reproductive output is equal in sexual and parthenogenetic females. We tested this assumption by comparing fecundity between parthenogenetic and sexual races of gekkonid lizards in the Heteronotia binoei complex, collected across a 1200 km latitudinal gradient through the Australian arid zone. Under laboratory conditions, parthenogenetic geckos had approximately 30% lower fecundity when compared with their sexual progenitors, irrespective of body size. Reflecting clutch-size constraints in gekkonids, this fecundity difference was mainly because of fewer clutches over a shorter period. When parthenogens were compared more broadly with all coexisting sexual races across the latitudinal gradient, parthenogens had lower fecundity than sexuals only when corrected for body size. Differences in fecundity between parthenogens and coexisting sexual races depended on which sexual race was considered. There was no significant relationship between fecundity and parasite (mite) load, despite significantly higher mite loads in parthenogens than in sexual races.

  13. The relationship between reproductive state and "sexually" dimorphic brain areas in sexually reproducing and parthenogenetic whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, J; Crews, D

    1991-07-22

    The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus are sexually dimorphic in the reproductively active whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus inornatus. The anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area, which is involved in the control of male-typical copulatory behaviors, is larger in males, whereas the ventromedial hypothalamus, which is involved in the control of female-typical receptivity, is larger in females. In the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard C. uniparens, which is a direct descendant of C. inornatus and exhibits both male-like and female-like pseudosexual behaviors, both brain areas are comparable in size to those of female C. inornatus. This study was conducted to determine whether these brain areas change in size in either species or sex during a time of year when these animals are reproductively inactive, or after removal of the gonads. In male C. inornatus both brain areas changed during reproductive inactivity (either seasonally or surgically induced) and became equivalent to the size characteristic of reproductively active female C. inornatus. When corrected for brain size, the anterior hypothalamus-preoptic area was significantly smaller in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. Conversely, the ventromedial hypothalamus was significantly larger in intact hibernating and castrated males than in intact males from the summer breeding season. The two brain areas were not significantly different among the groups of female C. inornatus or parthenogenetic C. uniparens. These results suggest that 1) the brain of whiptail lizards may differentiate seasonally and 2) the female state may be a neutral one to which the male brain reverts during reproductive inactivity.

  14. Wolbachia endosymbiont is essential for egg hatching in a parthenogenetic arthropod.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, M.J.T.N.; Ellers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis can induce a range of sex ratio distortions including parthenogenesis. Recently Wolbachia has been detected in the diploid, parthenogenetic, collembolan species Folsomia candida. In this paper we address the effect of Wolbachia on reproduction in F. candida. Wolbachia infection

  15. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection for treatment of the infertile male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E D; Lamb, D J; Lipshultz, L I

    1997-07-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with in vitro fertilization represents one of the most significant advances in fertility technology. In this relatively new procedure, a single viable sperm is microinjected into an oocyte that has been extracted transvaginally. After fertilization occurs, the embryo is transferred into the uterus. This procedure now affords men who were previously thought to be irreversibly infertile the chance to initiate their own biologic pregnancy. However, because of the procedure's significant costs and its potential risk to the mother, careful selection of couples following a thorough male factor evaluation is mandatory.

  16. Comparative Study of Biological and Technological Characters in Three Generations of Silkworm Bombyxmori L. Ameiotic, Parthenogenetically Cloned Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Greiss, H.; Vassilieva, J.; Petkov, N.; Petkov, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Detect any deviation in biologic and technologic characters of eight ameiotic-parthenogenetically cloned lines of Bombyx mori L. from different origins from a normal sexually reproduced control line in three generations.

  17. Impact of peak/mid luteal estradiol on pregnancy outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Hussain, Z.; Zahir, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare peak to mid estradiol ratio with the probability of successful conception after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Method: The quasi-experimental study was conducted in an infertility clinic at Islamabad from June 2010 till August 2011, and comprised couples subjected to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Down-regulation of ovaries was followed by calculated stimulation, ovulation induction, oocytes retrieval, intra cytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro maturation of embryos and finally blastocysts transfer. Serum estradiol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on ovulation induction day and the day of embryo transfer. Failure of procedure was detected by beta human chorionic gonadotropin 5-25mIU/ml (Group I; non-pregnant). Females with beta human chorionic gonadotropin>25mIU/ml and no cardiac activity after 4 weeks of transfer were placed in Group II (pre-clinical abortion), and confirmation of foetal heart in the latter comprised Group III (clinical pregnancy). Data was analysed using SPSS 15. Results: Of the 323 couples initially enrolled, embryo transfer was carried out in 282(87.3%) females. Clinical pregnancy was achieved in 101(36%) of the cases, while 61(21.63%) had pre-clinical abortion, and 120(42%) remained non-pregnant. The peak/mid-luteal estradiolratio was low (2.3) in patients who had high oocyte maturity (p=0.001) and fertilisation rate (p=0.003) compared to non-pregnant patients with high peak/mid-luteal estradiolratio (2.56). Conclusion: High peak estradiol with maintenance of optimal levels in mid-luteal phase is required for implantation of fertilised ovum and accomplishment of clinical pregnancy. (author)

  18. Phylogeography of competing sexual and parthenogenetic forms of a freshwater flatworm: patterns and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza Salvador

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Models of the maintenance of sex predict that one reproductive strategy, sexual or parthenogenetic, should outcompete the other. Distribution patterns may reflect the outcome of this competition as well as the effect of chance and historical events. We review the distribution data of sexual and parthenogenetic biotypes of the planarian Schmidtea polychroa. Results S. polychroa lives in allopatry or sympatry across Europe except for Central and North-Western Europe, where sexual individuals have never been reported. A phylogenetic relationship between 36 populations based on a 385 bp fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that haplotypes were often similar over large geographic distances. In North Italian lakes, however, diversity was extreme, with sequence differences of up to 5% within the same lake in both sexuals and parthenogens. Mixed populations showed "endemic" parthenogenetic lineages that presumably originated from coexisting sexuals, and distantly related ones that probably result from colonization by parthenogens independent from sexuals. Conclusions Parthenogens originated repeatedly from sexuals, mainly in Italy, but the same may apply to other Mediterranean regions (Spain, Greece. The degree of divergence between populations suggests that S. polychroa survived the ice ages in separate ice-free areas in Central, Eastern and Southern Europe and re-colonised Europe after the retreat of the major glaciers. Combining these results with those based on nuclear markers, the data suggest that repeated hybridisation between sexuals and parthenogenetic lineages in mixed populations maintains high levels of genetic diversity in parthenogens. This can explain why parthenogens persist in populations that were originally sexual. Exclusive parthenogenesis in central and western populations suggests better colonisation capacity, possibly because of inbreeding costs as well as hybridisation of sexuals

  19. Widespread failure to complete meiosis does not impair fecundity in parthenogenetic whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Aracely A; Schnittker, Robert R; Yu, Zulin; Munday, Sarah S; Baumann, Diana P; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Parthenogenetic species of whiptail lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis constitute a striking example of speciation by hybridization, in which first-generation hybrids instantly attain reproductive isolation and procreate as clonal all-female lineages. Production of eggs containing a full complement of chromosomes in the absence of fertilization involves genome duplication prior to the meiotic divisions. In these pseudo-tetraploid oocytes, pairing and recombination occur exclusively between identical chromosomes instead of homologs; a deviation from the normal meiotic program that maintains heterozygosity. Whether pseudo-tetraploid cells arise early in germ cell development or just prior to meiosis has remained unclear. We now show that in the obligate parthenogenetic species A. neomexicana the vast majority of oocytes enter meiosis as diploid cells. Telomere bouquet formation is normal, but synapsis fails and oocytes accumulate in large numbers at the pairing stage. Pseudo-tetraploid cells are exceedingly rare in early meiotic prophase, but they are the only cells that progress into diplotene. Despite the widespread failure to increase ploidy prior to entering meiosis, the fecundity of parthenogenetic A. neomexicana is similar to that of A. inornata, one of its bisexual ancestors. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Sexual characteristics and spermatogenesis in males of the parthenogenetic gecko Lepidodactylus lugubris (Reptilia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, Beate; von Düring, Monika U G

    2008-01-01

    Obligately parthenogenetic lizards usually are all-female populations of hybrids producing diploid oocytes by premeiotic endomitosis and quasi-normal meiosis. In an all-female strain of the gekkonid lizard Lepidodactylus lugubris several phenotypic males arose spontaneously. The sexual characteristics of these males were studied using light and electron microscopy and compared with normal males of the bisexual genus Lygodactylus. Emphasis was layed on morphology of seminiferous tubules, occurrence of spermatogenic stages and ultrastructure of spermatozoa. The phenotypic males possessed preanal pores filled with secretions and a sexual nephric segment which were exactly the same as in normal, reproductively active males. In the testes, density and morphology of non-spermatogenic cell types, the Leydig and Sertoli cells, indicate a normal production of testicular testosterone and a normal function of the blood-testis barrier, respectively. Both in the normal and the phenotypic males, all meiotic cell types of spermatogenesis can be recognised in the seminiferous tubules and are apparently identical, indicating a normal meiosis without impairment in the phenotypic males. In contrast, the differentiation process of spermatids is markedly disturbed in the phenotypic males of L. lugubris. In the normal male, spermiogenesis results in mature spermatids and spermatozoa with small elongated nuclei, an acrosomal complex, and a flagellar tail possessing one axoneme. Spermatozoa fill both the lumen of most seminiferous tubules and the lumina of ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens. In the phenotypic male, spermiogenesis results in seemingly normal spermatids and in spermatozoa with large, non-elongated, deformed nuclei and/or irregular tails possessing more than one axoneme. Both the lumen of most seminiferous tubules and the lumina of the ductus epididymidis and the ductus deferens contain relatively few spermatozoa. We suggest that the phenotypic males inherited the

  1. Clinical and economic analysis of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalom-paz, Einat; Alshalati, Jana; Shehata, Fady; Jimenez, Luis; Son, Weon-Young; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang Lin; Almog, Benny

    2011-12-01

    To identify clinical and embryological factors that may predict success in rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles (after total fertilization failure has occurred) and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of rescue ICSI strategy. Additionally, follow-up of 20 rescue ICSI pregnancies is reported. Retrospective analysis of total fertilization failure cycles. University-based tertiary medical center. In total, 92 patients who had undergone conventional in-vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with total fertilization failure were included. The patients were divided into two subgroups: those who conceived through rescue ICSI and those who did not. The pregnant members of the rescue ICSI subgroup were found to be significantly younger (32.9 ± 4.2 vs. 36.3 ± 4.5, respectively, p = 0.0035,) and to have better-quality embryos than those who did not conceive (cumulative embryo score: 38.3 ± 20.4 vs. 29.3 ± 14.7, p = 0.025). Cost effectiveness analysis showed 25% reduction in the cost per live birth when rescue ICSI is compared to cycle cancellation approach. The pregnancies follow-up did not show adverse perinatal outcome. Rescue ICSI is an option for salvaging IVF cycles complicated by total fertilization failure. Success in rescue ICSI was found to be associated with younger age and higher quality of embryos. Furthermore, the cost effectiveness of rescue ICSI in terms of total fertilization failure was found to be worthwhile.

  2. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: state of the art in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, G D; O'Neill, C L; Chow, S; Cheung, S; Parrella, A; Pereira, N; Rosenwaks, Z

    2017-12-01

    Among infertile couples, 25% involve both male and female factors, while male factor alone accounts for another 25% due to oligo-, astheno-, teratozoospermia, a combination of the three, or even a complete absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate and can lead to a poor prognosis even with the help of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been with us now for a quarter of a century and in spite of the controversy generated since its inception, it remains in the forefront of the techniques utilized in ART. The development of ICSI in 1992 has drastically decreased the impact of male factor, resulting in millions of pregnancies worldwide for couples who, without ICSI, would have had little chance of having their own biological child. This review focuses on the state of the art of ICSI regarding utility of bioassays that evaluate male factor infertility beyond the standard semen analysis and describes the current application and advances in regard to ICSI, particularly the genetic and epigenetic characteristics of spermatozoa and their impact on reproductive outcome. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Relationship between sperm parameters and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Chaichian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: With the adventure of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique, great progresses have developed in the treatment of infertility. Concentration on the properties of male’s gamete has been encouraged by the increasing concerns about the causes of ICSI failure. We hence conducted this study to investigate the probable association of sperm parameters with ISCI outcome. Methods: A total of 523 couples referred to Isfahan Fertility and Sterility Center from January 2007 to June 2008 for ICSI. Semen analysis was performed before ICSI procedure according to the WHO criteria. Patients were assigned into successful ICSI (case and failed ICSI (control groups. Sperm parameters were then compared between the 2 groups. Results: One hundred and six patients (20% had successful ICSI results (case group compared with 417 couples (80% with undesirable ICSI outcomes (control group. Among evaluated factors, sperm agglutination (p = 0.007, sperm concentration (p = 0.043, leukocytospermia (p = 0.026 and head abnormality of sperm (p = 0.019 showed statistically significant differences between two groups with differing ICSI results. None of the other semen parameters revealed significant differences between these two groups. Conclusion: Our study showed that some sperm parameters are associated with desirable ICSI outcome. However, it is unclear whether these associations are causal.

  5. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ANALYSES AND THE ORIGIN AND RELATIVE AGE OF PARTHENOGENETIC CNEMIDOPHORUS: PHYLOGENETIC CONSTRAINTS ON HYBRID ORIGINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, C; Wright, J W; Brown, W M

    1992-02-01

    Within the genus Cnemidophorus, parthenogenesis has arisen by hybridization several times. This provides the opportunity to investigate general features of hybridization events that result in the formation of parthenogenetic lineages. The relationships of mtDNA from all bisexual species of Cnemidophorus known to be parents of parthenogens were investigated to evaluate phylogenetic constraints on the hybrid-origin of parthenogenesis. No phylogenetic clustering of the parental species, either maternal or paternal, was apparent. However, the combination of bisexual species that have resulted in parthenogenetic lineages are generally distantly related or genetically divergent. This contrasts with the expectation if parthenogenesis in hybrids is due to the action of a single rare allele, but is consistent with the hypothesis that some minimal level of divergence is necessary to stimulate parthenogenetic reproduction in hybrids. © 1992 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. [Study of allelic polymorphism of (GATA)n-containing loci in parthenogenetic lizards Darevskia unisexualis (Lacertidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, V I; Martirosian, I A; Omel'chenko, A V; Darevskiĭ, I S; Ryskov, A P; Tokarskaia, O N

    2004-10-01

    The genesis of mini- and microsatellite loci, which is under extensive study in humans and some other bisexual species, have been virtually overlooked in species with clonal mode of reproduction. Earlier, using multilocus DNA fingerprinting, we have examined variability of some mini- and microsatellite DNA markers in parthenogenetic lizards from the genus Darevskia. In particular, mutant (GATA)n-restrictive DNA fragments were found in Darevskia unisexualis. In the present study, we examined intraspecific polymorphism of three cloned loci of D. unisexualis--Du323, Du215, and Du281--containing (GATA)7GAT(GATA)2, GAT(GATA)9, and (GATA)10TA(GATA) microsatellite clusters, respectively. Different levels of intrapopulation and interpopulation variability of these loci were found. Locus Du281 showed the highest polymorphism--six allelic variants (in the sample of 68 DNA specimens). Three alleles were found for locus Du215. The Du325 locus was electrophoretically invariant. The primers chosen for loci Du323, Du215, and Du281 were also used for PCR analysis of homologous loci in two presumptive parental bisexual species, D. valentini and D. nairensis. The PCR products of the corresponding loci of the parental species had approximately the same size (approximately 200 bp) as their counterparts in D. unisexualis, but the polymorphism levels of the paternal, maternal, and hybrid species were shown to be somewhat different. These data on the structure of the D. unisexualis loci provide a possibility to study genetic diversity in the parthenogenetic species D. unisexualis and other related unisexual and bisexual species of this genus, which can provide new information on the origin of parthenogenetic species and on the phylogenetic relationships in the genus Darevskia. These data can also be used for resolving problems of marking the lizard genome, which is still poorly studied.

  7. Involvement of Mos-MEK-MAPK pathway in cytostatic factor (CSF) arrest in eggs of the parthenogenetic insect, Athalia rosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Daisuke S; Tachibana, Kazunori; Sumitani, Megumi; Lee, Jae Min; Hatakeyama, Masatsugu

    2008-01-01

    Extensive survey of meiotic metaphase II arrest during oocyte maturation in vertebrates revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulated by the c-mos proto-oncogene product, Mos, has an essential role in cytostatic activity, termed cytostatic factor (CSF). In contrast, little is known in invertebrates in which meiotic arrest occurs in most cases at metaphase I (MI arrest). A parthenogenetic insect, the sawfly Athalia rosae, in which artificial egg activation is practicable, has advantages to investigate the mechanisms of MI arrest. Both the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and MAPK were phosphorylated and maintained active in MI-arrested sawfly eggs, whereas they were dephosphorylated soon after egg activation. Treatment of MI-arrested eggs with U0126, an inhibitor of MEK, resulted in dephosphorylation of MAPK and MI arrest was resumed. The sawfly c-mos gene orthologue encoding a serine/threonine kinase was cloned and analyzed. It was expressed in nurse cells in the ovaries. To examine CSF activity of the sawfly Mos, synthesized glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion sawfly Mos protein was injected into MI-resumed eggs in which MEK and MAPK were dephosphorylated. Both MEK and MAPK were phosphorylated again upon injection. In these GST-fusion sawfly Mos-injected eggs subsequent mitotic (syncytial) divisions were blocked and embryonic development was ceased. These results demonstrated that the MEK-MAPK pathway was involved in maintaining CSF arrest in sawfly eggs and Mos functioned as its upstream regulatory molecule.

  8. Overcoming male factor infertility with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Edson; Zanetti, Bianca Ferrarini; Braga, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira; Setti, Amanda Souza; Figueira, Rita de Cássia Sávio; Nardi, Aguinaldo César; Iaconelli, Assumpto

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of male factor infertility on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes compared with a control group presenting isolated tubal factor. This retrospective study included 743 couples undergoing ICSI as a result of isolated male factor and a control group consisting of 179 couples undergoing ICSI as a result of isolated tubal factor, performed in a private university- -affiliated in vitro fertilization center, between January/2010 and December/2016. Patients were divided into two groups according to maternal age: women ≤35 years old and >35 years old. The effects of infertility causes on laboratorial and clinical ICSI outcomes were evaluated using Student's t-test and (2 test. No differences in controlled ovarian stimulation outcomes were observed between male factor cycles and tubal factor cycles in the two age groups. Implantation (male factor 35.5% vs. tubal factor 32.0%, p=0.340), pregnancy (male factor 46.9% vs. tubal factor 40.9%, p=0.184) and miscarriage (male factor 10.3% vs. tubal factor 10.6%, p=0.572) rates were similar between the infertility groups, irrespective of female age. Considering maternal age, the cancelation rate was higher in older women (>35 years old) undergoing ICSI as a result of male factor infertility (17.4% vs. 8.9%, p=0.013). Our results showed that there is no difference in the outcomes of pregnancy between couples with male or tubal factor infertility, which indicates that ICSI surpasses the worse specific outcomes associated with male factor.

  9. Effect of a High Dose of Three Antibiotics on the Reproduction of a Parthenogenetic Strain of Folsomia candida (Isotomidae: Collembola)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, R.; Weber, E; Waite, J

    2010-01-01

    Folsomia candida Willem (Isotomidae: Collembola) is an edaphic parthenogenetic species commonly used in ecotoxicity studies. We exposed F. candida to a high dose of three antibiotics, tylosin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline, that target different bacterial groups. Possible toxic effects were...... assessed through egg production, hatching, and body size. All three antibiotics caused toxic effects. Treatment with oxytetracycline proved the most toxic. This group showed the smallest body size and lowest number of eggs laid, likely the result of a combination of antibiotic toxicity and avoidance...... of the antibiotic spiked food. Active toxin avoidance by F. candida in toxicological assays may play a role in minimizing their exposure to toxic compounds. Despite the administration of high doses of oxytetracycline, F. candida individuals remained infected with the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia indicating...

  10. Artificial fertilization by intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a teleost fish, the medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Satoshi; Iwai, Toshiharu; Nakahata, Shingo; Sakai, Chiharu; Yamashita, Masakane

    2009-01-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a technique that has been successfully used for assisting reproduction in mammals. However, this method is still not reliable in nonmammalian species, including teleosts. We succeeded in producing medaka individuals by ICSI with a rate of 13.4% (28 hatched embryos out of 209 eggs fertilized by ICSI), the best value reported so far in teleosts, including zebrafish and Nile tilapia. Although the technique was based on that developed for mammalian eggs, some critical modifications were made to adjust it to the medaka egg, which has a thick and hard envelope (the chorion) and a single sperm entry site (the micropyle). Medaka ICSI was performed by injecting a demembranated spermatozoon into an egg cytoplasm through the micropyle 10-15 sec after egg activation induced by a piezo-actuated vibration, the site and timing of sperm penetration being consistent with those in normal fertilization in medaka. To increase the efficiency of ICSI in medaka, we found that the fertilization by ICSI should precisely mimic the fertilization by insemination with intact sperm, both spatially and temporally. The success rate of ICSI was highly variable in batches of eggs (ranging from 0% to 56%), suggesting that the conditions of eggs are important factors in stabilizing the production of individuals by ICSI. The success in medaka ICSI provides a basis for future research to understand the basic mechanisms in gamete biology of teleosts as well as for development of new technology that can yield valuable applications in fisheries science.

  11. Developmental success, stability, and plasticity in closely related parthenogenetic and sexual lizards (Heteronotia, Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard

    2004-07-01

    The developmental trajectory of an organism is influenced by the interaction between its genes and the environment in which it develops. For example, the phenotypic traits of a hatchling reptile can be influenced by the organism's genotype, by incubation temperature, and by genetically coded norms of reaction for thermally labile traits. The evolution of parthenogenesis provides a unique opportunity to explore such effects: a hybrid origin of this trait in vertebrates modifies important aspects of the genotype (e.g., heterozygosity, polyploidy) and may thus impact not only on the phenotype generally, but also on the ways in which incubation temperature affects expression of the phenotype. The scarcity of vertebrate parthenogenesis has been attributed to developmental disruptions, but previous work has rarely considered reaction norms of embryogenesis in this respect. We used closely related sexual and asexual races of the Australian gecko Heteronotia binoei, which include those with multiple origins of parthenogenesis, to explore the ways in which reproductive modes (sexual, asexual), incubation temperatures (24, 27, and 30 degrees C), and the interaction between these factors affected hatchling phenotypes. The hatchling traits we considered included incubation period, incidence of deformities, hatchling survivorship, body size and shape, scalation (including fluctuating asymmetry), locomotor performance, and growth rate. Developmental success was slightly reduced (higher proportion of abnormal offspring) in parthenogenetic lineages although there was no major difference in hatching success. Incubation temperature affected a suite of traits including incubation period, tail length, body mass relative to egg mass, labial scale counts, running speed, growth rate, and hatchling survival. Our data also reveal an interaction between reproductive modes and thermal regimes, with the phenotypic traits of parthenogenetic lizards less sensitive to incubation temperature than

  12. Genome analysis of Diploscapter coronatus: insights into molecular peculiarities of a nematode with parthenogenetic reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Hideaki; Kagoshima, Hiroshi; Kraus, Christopher; Schiffer, Philipp H; Ueta, Yumiko; Kroiher, Michael; Schierenberg, Einhard; Kohara, Yuji

    2017-06-24

    Sexual reproduction involving the fusion of egg and sperm is prevailing among eukaryotes. In contrast, the nematode Diploscapter coronatus, a close relative of the model Caenorhabditis elegans, reproduces parthenogenetically. Neither males nor sperm have been observed and some steps of meiosis are apparently skipped in this species. To uncover the genomic changes associated with the evolution of parthenogenesis in this nematode, we carried out a genome analysis. We obtained a 170 Mbp draft genome in only 511 scaffolds with a N 50 length of 1 Mbp. Nearly 90% of these scaffolds constitute homologous pairs with a 5.7% heterozygosity on average and inversions and translocations, meaning that the 170 Mbp sequences correspond to the diploid genome. Fluorescent staining shows that the D. coronatus genome consists of two chromosomes (2n = 2). In our genome annotation, we found orthologs of 59% of the C. elegans genes. However, a number of genes were missing or very divergent. These include genes involved in sex determination (e.g. xol-1, tra-2) and meiosis (e.g. the kleisins rec-8 and coh-3/4) giving a possible explanation for the absence of males and the second meiotic division. The high degree of heterozygosity allowed us to analyze the expression level of individual alleles. Most of the homologous pairs show very similar expression levels but others exhibit a 2-5-fold difference. Our high-quality draft genome of D. coronatus reveals the peculiarities of the genome of parthenogenesis and provides some clues to the genetic basis for parthenogenetic reproduction. This draft genome should be the basis to elucidate fundamental questions related to parthenogenesis such as its origin and mechanisms through comparative analyses with other nematodes. Furthermore, being the closest outgroup to the genus Caenorhabditis, the draft genome will help to disclose many idiosyncrasies of the model C. elegans and its congeners in future studies.

  13. Integration of immunodeficiency virus in oocytes via intracytoplasmic injection: possible but extremely unlikely

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenvoorden, Marjan M. C.; Cornelissen, Marion; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Schuurman, Nancy M.; Egberink, Herman F.; Berkhout, Ben; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine if human oocytes can be infected with HIV-1 via intracytoplasmic injection and to determine the infection threshold. Design: Twenty-eight donated immature and unfertilized human oocytes from HIV-negative women were injected with 4 x 10(4) HIV-1 virions and 13 oocytes were

  14. A detailed cost analysis of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, C.A.; Lintsen, A.M.E.; Eijkemans, M.J.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Braat, D.D.M.; Hakkaart, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide detailed information about costs of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment stages and to estimate the cost per IVF and ICSI treatment cycle and ongoing pregnancy. DESIGN: Descriptive micro-costing study. SETTING: Four Dutch IVF

  15. Development and health of 5 - 8-year-old singletons born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoester, Marjolein

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the Leiden Artificial Reproductive Techniques Follow-up Project. In this project, the potential long-term effects of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were assessed in 5 – 8-year-old singleton children. ICSI is the method of artificial reproduction in which a sperm cel is

  16. Optimized method for isolation of immature intracytoplasmic retroviral particles from mammalian cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langerová, Hana; Ruml, T.; Rumlová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 248, Oct (2017), s. 19-25 ISSN 0166-0934 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : intracytoplasmic particles (ICAPs) * retrovirus * assembly * Mason-Pfizer monkey virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2016

  17. [Intra- and interspecific polymorphism of (AAT)n in microsatellite locus du47D in parthenogenetic species of the genus Darevskia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchagin, V I; Vergun, A A; Godakova, S A; Tokarskaia, O N

    2013-03-01

    The molecular structure of the allelic variants of (AAT)n of the Du47D microsatellite locus was determined in parthenogenetic lizards Darevskia dahli, D. armeniaca, and D. rostombekovi. Comparative analysis of these alleles showed that they were characterized by perfect structure of microsatellite cluster, and were different in the number of (AAT) monomeric units, as well as in the combinations of species-specific substitutions and deletions in the microsatellite flanking regions. Molecular structure of microsatellite cluster, species-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and different representation of alleles Du47 in the samples of parthenogenetic species examined point to the origin of the alleles from different bisexual species, which is consistent with the hybrid nature of unisexual species of the genus Darevskia. In addition, these data reflect different combination patterns of interspecific hybridization events with the participation of the same bisexual species upon the formation of hybrid genomes of parthenogenetic species. Possible application of the allelic variants of microsatellite loci of parthenogenetic lizards as the genetic markers for the analysis of the genomes of parthenogenetic species in the light of evolution, ecology, and parthenogenetic type of reproduction in vertebrates is discussed.

  18. Parallel origins of duplications and the formation of pseudogenes in mitochondrial DNA from parthenogenetic lizards (Heteronotia binoei; Gekkonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevering, C E; Moritz, C; Heideman, A; Sturm, R A

    1991-11-01

    Analysis of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from parthenogenetic lizards of the Heteronotia binoei complex with restriction enzymes revealed an approximately 5-kb addition present in all 77 individuals. Cleavage site mapping suggested the presence of a direct tandem duplication spanning the 16S and 12S rRNA genes, the control region and most, if not all, of the gene for the subunit 1 of NADH dehydrogenase (ND1). The location of the duplication was confirmed by Southern hybridization. A restriction enzyme survey provided evidence for modifications to each copy of the duplicated sequence, including four large deletions. Each gene affected by a deletion was complemented by an intact version in the other copy of the sequence, although for one gene the functional copy was heteroplasmic for another deletion. Sequencing of a fragment from one copy of the duplication which encompassed the tRNA(leu)(UUR) and parts of the 16S rRNA and ND1 genes, revealed mutations expected to disrupt function. Thus, evolution subsequent to the duplication event has resulted in mitochondrial pseudogenes. The presence of duplications in all of these parthenogens, but not among representatives of their maternal sexual ancestors, suggests that the duplications arose in the parthenogenetic form. This provides the second instance in H. binoei of mtDNA duplication associated with the transition from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction. The increased incidence of duplications in parthenogenetic lizards may be caused by errors in mtDNA replication due to either polyploidy or hybridity of their nuclear genomes.

  19. DNA damage and micronuclei in parthenogenetic and bisexual Darevskia rock lizards from the areas with different levels of soil pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Anna; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Sargsyan, Anzhela; Arakelyan, Marine; Minasyan, Seyran; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2018-06-15

    Natural species are widely used as indicator organisms to estimate of the impact of environmental pollution. Here we present the results of first study of a reliability of parthenogenetic Darevskia аrmeniaca and bisexual Darevskia raddei rock lizards as sentinels for monitoring of environmental genotoxicity. The comet assay and micronucleus test were applied to the lizards sampled in six areas in Armenia and Artsakh with different levels of soil contamination. The results obtained showed a clear relationship between the pollution level of lizards' habitats and the frequency of DNA damage in the comet assay. Low baseline frequency of micronuclei in D. аrmeniaca and D. raddei, however, makes this parameter ineffective for environmental genotoxicity evaluation. The parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca showed higher sensitivity toward genotoxic pollutions compared with bisexual D. raddei living in the same environment. The correlations between soil content of heavy metals Cr, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. аrmeniaca and between Cu, As, Mo, Pb and DNA damage in D. raddei were revealed. Overall, the lizards D. raddei and D. аrmeniaca appeared to be sensitive species in detecting soil pollution in natural environment. The application of the comet assay in Darevskia lizard species can be considered as a more appropriate method than a micronucleus test. The use of parthenogenetic lizards D. аrmeniaca as bioindicator will permit to assess the environmental genotoxicity independent of the genetic polymorphism of bisexual species. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Comparative study of biological and technological characters in three generations of silkworm Bombyx mori L. ameiotic, parthenogenetically cloned lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiss, H; Vassilieva, J; Petkov, N; Petkov, Z

    2004-11-01

    Detect any deviation in biologic and technologic characters of eight ameiotic-parthenogenetically cloned lines of Bombyx mori L. from different origins from a normal sexually reproduced control line in three generations. Comparative study of the three generations was conducted in SES, Vratza, unit of the National Center for Agrarian Sciences of Bulgaria after fixing all environmental rearing conditions. The ameiotic-parthen-clones displayed good parthenogenetic development, although total hatchability was significantly less than the sexually reproducing control populations. Survival rates between clones and control were not significantly different. All clones displayed significantly longer larval periods. Slight decline in second generation, and a steeper one in the third generation were observed for all eight cloned lines in cocoon weight, shell weight, and shell ratio and these differences were statistically significant. Cocoon yield was significantly lower than the control throughout the three generations. Our parthen-cloning method has a high rate of success in comparison to other cloning methods, the cloned progeny populations although were weaker technologically (cocoon weight, shell weight, and shell ratio), the biological characters (parthenogenetic development and survival rate) were not compromised. Further study is needed to determine the thermal needs of the cloned embryos and metabolic rate of all stages.

  1. Two cases of Robertsonian translocations in oligozoospermic males and their consequences for pregnancies induced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. In't Veld (Peter); R.F.A. Weber (Rob); F.J. Los; N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); M. Dhont; M.H.E.C. Pieters (Math H. E.); J.O.V. Hemel (Jan O. Van)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo case histories are presented documenting structural chromosome abnormalities in infertile males. The abnormalities were detected only after application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was repeatedly unsuccessful or resulted in an abnormal pregnancy. A mosaic Robertsonian

  2. Two cases of Robertsonian translocations in oligozoospermic males and their consequences for pregnancies induced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. Weber (Robert); F.J. Los; N.S. den Hollander (Nicolette); M. Dhont; M.H. Pieters; J.O. van Hemel; P.A. in 't Veld

    1997-01-01

    textabstractTwo case histories are presented documenting structural chromosome abnormalities in infertile males. The abnormalities were detected only after application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was repeatedly unsuccessful or resulted in an abnormal

  3. [No arguments to support an age limit for men entering an in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romkens, M.; Gordijn, B.; Verhaak, C.M.; Meuleman, E.J.H.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify medical and psychosocial risks that could arise from allowing older men to father children through in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN: Literature review. METHOD: The databases Medline, Current Contents weekly, Current Contents

  4. Comparison of Teratoma Formation between Embryonic Stem Cells and Parthenogenetic Embryonic Stem Cells by Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With their properties of self-renewal and differentiation, embryonic stem (ES cells hold great promises for regenerative therapy. However, teratoma formation and ethical concerns of ES cells may restrict their potential clinical applications. Currently, parthenogenetic embryonic stem (pES cells have attracted the interest of researchers for its self-renewing and pluripotent differentiation while eliciting less ethic concerns. In this study, we established a model with ES and pES cells both stably transfected with a double-fusion reporter gene containing renilla luciferase (Rluc and red fluorescent protein (RFP to analyze the mechanisms of teratoma formation. Transgenic Vegfr2-luc mouse, which expresses firefly luciferase (Fluc under the promoter of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (Vegfr2-luc, was used to trace the growth of new blood vessel recruited by transplanted cells. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI of Rluc/Fluc provides an effective tool in estimating the growth and angiogenesis of teratoma in vivo. We found that the tumorigenesis and angiogenesis capacity of ES cells were higher than those of pES cells, in which VEGF/VEGFR2 signal pathway plays an important role. In conclusion, pES cells have the decreased potential of teratoma formation but meanwhile have similar differentiating capacity compared with ES cells. These data demonstrate that pES cells provide an alternative source for ES cells with the risk reduction of teratoma formation and without ethical controversy.

  5. Effects of gamma irradiation of pollen on parthenogenetic haploid production in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuny, F.; Grotte, M.; Dumas de Vaulx, R.; Rieu, A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of increasing gamma ray exposures on muskmelon pollen of the Védrantais genotype were evaluated after autofertilization and hybridization with the F1.G1 genotype. Regardless of doses of between 0.15 and 1.6 kGy, fruit set and number of seeds per fruit were comparable to those of the control. The pollen tube from pollen irradiated with up to 2.5 kGy grew in styles and reached the ovules. When pollen was cultivated in vitro, relatively high doses of irradiation (1.6 kGy) were needed to reduce the level of germination. Radiation-induced changes in the generative nucleus led to the formation of two chromosomally unbalanced sperm cells (as indicated by the appearance of morphological dimorphism) which induced parthenogenetic development of the egg to form a haploid embryo. Haploid embryo production by gamma-irradiated pollen was genotype dependent. For exposures of between 0.15 and 2.5 kGy, the production of embryos was the same, about 3.4%; a maximum of 70% of these embryos placed in a specific culture medium produced haploid plants. The ploidy of the plantlets in vitro was determined by flow cytometry. No aneuploidy was detected. All resulting plants exhibited normal phenotypes. (author) [fr

  6. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  7. Ways Out of the Patenting Prohibition? Human Parthenogenetic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickl, Hannah; Braun, Matthias; Dabrock, Peter

    2017-06-01

    According to the judgement of the European Court of Justice in 2014, human parthenogenetic stem cells are excluded from the patenting prohibition of procedures based on hESC by the European Biopatent Directive, because human parthenotes are not human embryos. This article is based on the thesis that in light of the technological advances in the field of stem cell research, the attribution of the term 'human embryo' to certain entities on a descriptive level as well as the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities based on the criterion of totipotency, are becoming increasingly unclear. The example of human parthenotes in particular demonstrates that totipotency is not at all a necessary condition for the attribution of the term 'human embryo'. Furthermore, the example of hiPSC and somatic cells particularly shows that totipotency is also not a sufficient condition for the attribution of a normative protection status to certain entities. Therefore, it is not a suitable criterion for distinguishing between human embryos worthy of protection and human non-embryos not worthy of protection. Consequently, this conclusion has repercussions for the patenting question. The strict delineation between an ethically problematic commercial use of human embryos and the concomitant patenting prohibition of hESC-based procedures and an ethically unproblematic commercial use of human non-embryos and the therefore either unrestrictedly permitted (cf. human parthenotes) or even unregulated (cf. hiPSC) patenting of procedures based on these alleged alternatives becomes increasingly blurred. © 2017 The Authors. Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Changes in Sperm Motility and Capacitation Induce Chromosomal Aberration of the Bovine Embryo following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoku Kato

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI has become the method of choice to treat human male infertility. One of the outstanding problems associated with this technique is our current lack of knowledge concerning the effect of sperm capacitation and motility upon the subsequent development of oocytes following ICSI. In the present study, we first examined the capacitation state of sperm exhibiting normal motility, along with sperm that had been activated, and examined the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by these sperm types upon embryogenesis following bovine in vitro fertilization (IVF and ICSI. Data showed that activated sperm reduced the chromosomal integrity of IVF/ICSI embryos at the blastocyst stage, while capacitated sperm produced ROS in capacitation media. Secondly, we treated sperm with carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazine (CCCP, a chemical known to uncouple cell respiration within the mitochondria, and investigated the effect of this treatment upon blastocyst formation and chromosomal integrity at the blastocyst stage. Activated sperm in which the mitochondria had been treated with CCCP reduced levels of chromosomal aberration at the blastocyst stage following ICSI, by reducing mitochondrial activity in activated sperm. In conclusion, these findings suggest that capacitated sperm exhibiting activated motility induced chromosomal aberration during development to the blastocyst stage following ICSI. The injection of sperm exhibiting normal motility, or activated sperm in which mitochondrial activity had been reduced, improved the quality of ICSI-derived embryos. Therefore, the selection of sperm exhibiting progressive motility may not always be better for early embryo development and fetal growth following human ICSI, and that the use of a bovine model may contribute to a deeper understanding of sperm selection for human ICSI embryo development.

  9. Factors affecting the efficiency of foal production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equine embryo production by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is currently effective enough to be used clinically. However, there are several factors that affect the efficiency of this procedure because, in addition to specialized equipment, skill in oocyte and embryo handling, and sperm preparation as well as knowledge of oocyte and embryo culture are required. To the best of our knowledge, there are currently only a couple of reports available on the expected efficiency of foal production by ICSI. Here we discuss the parameters that pertain to the Texas A&M Equine Embryo Laboratory only, as other laboratories may have different results.

  10. Development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos after removal of zona pellucida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard

    2013-01-01

    at all developmental stages, but the difference was only significant at the five-cell stage. When compared with development of zona-intact embryos, ZP removal decreased the overall blastocyst percentage (83.9 ± 2.0 vs. 72.5 ± 2.9, respectively) and especially the percentage of good morphology (grades 1......, the developmental percentages, the frequency of apoptosis, and robustness after removal of the ZP by pronase. Three experiments were made between zona-free PA embryos and zona-intact embryos: (1) determination of the timing of developmental stages using time-lapse observations for 6 days; (2) determination...

  11. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on genomic expression profiling of porcine parthenogenetic activated and cloned embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Lin; Luo, Yonglun; Sørensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    derived by PA or HMC. Hierarchical clustering depicted stage-specific genomic expression profiling. At the 4-cell and blastocyst stages, 103 and 163 transcripts were differentially expressed between the HMC and PA embryos, respectively (P

  12. Birefringence characteristics in sperm heads allow for the selection of reacted spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianaroli, Luca; Magli, M Cristina; Ferraretti, Anna P; Crippa, Andor; Lappi, Michela; Capitani, Serena; Baccetti, Baccio

    2010-02-01

    To verify clinical outcome after injection of spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction (reacted spermatozoa) vs. those still having an intact acrosome (nonreacted spermatozoa). Prospective, randomized study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Italian Society for the Study of Reproductive Medicine, Bologna, Italy. According to a prospective randomization including 71 couples with severe male factor infertility, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was performed under polarized light that permitted analysis of the pattern of birefringence in the sperm head. Twenty-three patients had their oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa, 26 patient's oocytes were injected with nonreacted spermatozoa, and in 22 patients both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa were injected. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was performed under polarized light to selectively inject acrosome-reacted and acrosome-nonreacted spermatozoa. Rates of fertilization, cleavage, pregnancy, implantation, and ongoing implantation. There was no effect on the fertilizing capacity and embryo development of either type of sperm, whereas the implantation rate was higher in oocytes injected with reacted spermatozoa (39.0%) vs. those injected with nonreacted spermatozoa (8.6%). The implantation rate was 24.4% in the group injected with both reacted and nonreacted spermatozoa. The delivery rate per cycle followed the same trend. Spermatozoa that have undergone the acrosome reaction seem to be more prone to supporting the development of viable ICSI embryos. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. SEM study of diversity in the cyst surface topography of nine parthenogenetic Artemia (Crustacea: Anostraca) populations from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asem, Alireza; Sun, Shi-Chun

    2014-12-01

    The cysts of nine Chinese populations of parthenogenetic Artemia were studied by scanning electron microscope. In the 270 cysts examined, 15 different morphological patterns were recognized with most of them not recorded in previous studies and the "tubercled shell surface" being the most common pattern. Results also displayed high intrapopulation variability, with the maximum of 11 patterns (in 30 cysts) recorded from the Barkol population. No positive correlation between the diversity of cyst shell patterns and ploidy compositions was found. Principal components analysis suggests higher similarity among coastal populations than among inland populations, which may be attributed to the identity of physicochemical conditions among coastal salterns and dissimilarity among inland saline lakes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Testicular growth and tubular function in prepubertal boys conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Jean; Belva, Florence; Schiettecatte, Johan; Anckaert, Ellen; Tournaye, Herman; Bonduelle, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the gonadal function of boys conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) from fathers with compromised spermatogenesis. To evaluate the potential risk of tubular dysfunction in these boys, we assessed morphological and functional gonadal parameters and their correlation with paternal sperm characteristics. In a group of 88 eight-year-old ICSI boys, we measured testicular and penile size. Serum concentrations of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B were analyzed in 59 of them. Except for two boys with micropenis, penis length and mean testicular length were normal in all boys. In 7 boys inhibin B concentrations were below the lower limit for age, while all AMH results were within normal limits. Serum Sertoli cell markers correlated significantly with each other (p puberty. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Medical Cosmopolitanism in Global Dubai: A Twenty-first-century Transnational Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Depot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2017-03-01

    Dubai-one of the seven United Arab Emirates and the Middle East's only "global city"-is gaining a reputation as a transnational medical tourism hub. Characterized by its "medical cosmopolitanism," Dubai is now attracting medical travelers from around the world, some of whom are seeking assisted conception. Dubai is fast becoming known as a new transnational "reprohub" for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), the variant of in vitro fertilization designed to overcome male infertility. Based on ethnographic research conducted in one of the country's most cosmopolitan clinics, this article explores the ICSI treatment quests of infertile men coming to Dubai from scores of other nations. The case of an infertile British-Moroccan man is highlighted to demonstrate why ICSI is a particularly compelling "masculine hope technology" for infertile Muslim men. Thus, Muslim men who face barriers to ICSI access in their home countries may become "reprotravelers" to Dubai, an emergent ICSI depot. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  16. Varicocele management in the era of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Pathak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is the most common surgically treatable cause of male infertility, and often results in alterations in semen parameters, sperm DNA damage, and changes to the seminal milieu. Varicocele repair can result in improvement in these parameters in the majority of men with clinical varicocele; data supporting repair in men with subclinical varicocele are less definitive. In couples seeking fertility using assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs, varicocele repair may offer improvement in semen parameters and sperm health that can increase the likelihood of successful fertilization using techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, or may decrease the level of ART needed to achieve successful pregnancy. Male infertility is an indicator of general male health, and evaluation of the infertile male with an eye toward future health can facilitate optimal screening and treatment of these men. Furthermore, varicocele may represent a progressive lesion, offering an argument for its repair, although this is currently unclear.

  17. Analysis of limited fertility in intracytoplasmic sperm injection of sperm obtained by electroejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Masaya; Nishimura, Kenji; Tsujimura, Akira; Takeyama, Masami; Kondoh, Nobuyuki; Miyazaki, Kazunori; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims:  We correlated findings in semen from patients with ejaculatory dysfunction with results of in vitro fertilization using their electroejaculated sperm. Methods and Results:  Electroejaculation was carried out in six patients with the above‐mentioned criteria for a total of eight times. Sperm was obtained in six attempts. Intracytoplasmic injection of these sperm was performed in 156 eggs. Sixty‐seven eggs were fertilized; most of these were injected with motile sperm. Two women became pregnant, both after injection with motile sperm. As previously reported, electroejaculated sperm showed low motility and a low fertilization rate, but even motile sperm had a low fertilization rate. Conclusion:  The results of the present study suggest the importance in fertilization of undetermined factors in addition to sperm motility. (Reprod Med Biol 2004; 3: 9–12) PMID:29662380

  18. Sperm origins and concentration do not impact the clinical outcomes in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cen; Zhou, Ze-Hong; Zheng, Dan-Ni; Xu, Xiao-Fei; Huang, Jin; Lian, Ying; Qiao, Jie

    2018-05-25

    In the present study, we evaluated the impact of sperm origins and concentration on the clinical outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. A total of 1201 ICSI cycles were retrospectively analyzed for male azoospermia or oligozoospermia between January 2015 and December 2015 in the Peking University Third Hospital. Patients were divided into three groups (Group 1 vs Group 2/3; surgically extracted sperm vs ejaculated sperms): Group 1 included 343 ICSI cycles and Group 2 analyzed 388 cycles on semen with sperm concentration cycles with sperm concentration between 5 × 10 6 ml -1 and 15 × 10 6 ml -1 (mild oligozoospermia group). Fertilization rates, clinical pregnancy rates, and live birth rates were analyzed and compared among groups of different semen origins and concentrations on the oocyte retrieval day. Group 2 showed a lower fertilization rate than Group 3 (62.9% ± 21.6% vs 66.8% ± 22.1%,Pcycles.

  19. Population structure of an invasive parthenogenetic gastropod in coastal lakes and estuaries of northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A F Miranda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Estuaries and coastal lakes receive little attention despite being heavily invaded by non-indigenous invasive species (NIS. In these situations, studies of population dynamics in invaded habitats can provide valuable insights into how NIS interact with new environments. Tarebia granifera is a prosobranch gastropod from south-east Asia which has invaded other sub-tropical parts of the world. This study addresses whether a small number of key environmental factors influences gastropod communities, and specifically how the population density and size structure of T. granifera were influenced by environmental change in estuaries and coastal lakes in southern Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: T. granifera's density, number of brooded juveniles and size structure were measured at the St. Lucia Estuary, Mgobozeleni Estuary, Lake Sibaya and Lake Nhlange. Size structure was classified according to shell height (SH. All dissected individuals were found to be female and free from trematode infection. Salinity, water depth, temperature, and pH were the main factors correlated with population density of gastropod communities. T. granifera often reached densities well over 1000 ind. m(-2, displacing indigenous gastropods and becoming a dominant component of the benthic community. T. granifera successfully invaded estuaries despite frequent exposure to high salinity and desiccation, which could together eliminate >97% of the population. The persistence of T. granifera was ensured due to its high fecundity and the environmental tolerance of large adults (20-30 mm SH which carried an average of 158±12.8 SD brooded juveniles. Repeat introductions were not essential for the success of this parthenogenetic NIS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: There is a need for a broader study on the reproductive biology of T. granifera (including the previously overlooked "brood pouch ecology", which affects population dynamics and may be relevant to other

  20. Connectivity of the intracytoplasmic membrane of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: a functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verméglio, André; Lavergne, Jérôme; Rappaport, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    The photosynthetic apparatus in the bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is mostly present in intracytoplasmic membrane invaginations. It has long been debated whether these invaginations remain in topological continuity with the cytoplasmic membrane, or form isolated chromatophore vesicles. This issue is revisited here by functional approaches. The ionophore gramicidin was used as a probe of the relative size of the electro-osmotic units in isolated chromatophores, spheroplasts, or intact cells. The decay of the membrane potential was monitored from the electrochromic shift of carotenoids. The half-time of the decay induced by a single channel in intact cells was about 6 ms, thus three orders of magnitude slower than in isolated chromatophores. In spheroplasts obtained by lysis of the cell wall, the single channel decay was still slower (~23 ms) and the sensitivity toward the gramicidin concentration was enhanced 1,000-fold with respect to isolated chromatophores. These results indicate that the area of the functional membrane in cells or spheroplasts is about three orders of magnitude larger than that of isolated chromatophores. Intracytoplasmic vesicles, if present, could contribute to at most 10% of the photosynthetic apparatus in intact cells of Rba. sphaeroides. Similar conclusions were obtained from the effect of a ∆pH-induced diffusion potential in intact cells. This caused a large electrochromic response of carotenoids, of similar amplitude as the light-induced change, indicating that most of the system is sensitive to a pH change of the external medium. A single internal membrane and periplasmic space may offer significant advantages concerning renewal of the photosynthetic apparatus and reallocation of the components shared with other bioenergetic pathways.

  1. Does screening for vaginal infection have an impact on pregnancy rates in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Eldivan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assisted reproduction techniques have become widespread worldwide. Considering their costs, physicians endeavor to improve pregnancy rates. Infections are one of the disrupting problems in this arena. We aimed to investigate the effects of screening for vaginal infection on pregnancy rates in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty patients randomized into two groups for this study. Patients were screened for vaginal infections in group 1, and no screening was performed in group 2. The assisted reproduction outcomes were investigated and compared between the two groups. Results: There was no significant difference between ages, or durations and causes of infertility of patients who conceived and of those who did conceive. Forty-five patients in group 1, and 40 patients in group 2 reached the embryo transfer stage. The rates of conception were 23.5% (n=4 in culture-positive patients (n=17, and 42.9% (n=12 in culture-negative patients (n=28 in group 1. There was no significant difference among patients who were not screened, screen-positive, and screen-negative, in terms of pregnancy rates. None of the patients had Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis. Bacterial vaginosis was detected in 13 patients, and both bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis were detected in 4 patients. Three of 4 patients who conceived screen-positive and 8 of 12 patients who conceived screen-negative delivered healthily at term. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between patients who were sampled for culture and patients who were not sampled in terms of pregnancy rates. Also, no difference was found between the patients who were culture-negative and patients who were treated with antimicrobials after a culture positive result. Further larger studies are warranted to clarify this issue. PRECIS: No significant difference was found between patients who were sampled for culture and those who

  2. Pregnancy outcomes in women with repeated implantation failures after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Ana L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare laboratory and clinical outcomes of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI and conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in couples with repeated implantation failures. Methods A total of 200 couples with at least two prior unsuccessful ICSI cycles were enrolled: 100 couples were submitted to IMSI and 100 were submitted to routine ICSI. For IMSI, spermatozoa were selected at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski (differential interference contrast optics. For conventional ICSI, spermatozoa were selected at 400× magnification. Clinical outcomes were evaluated between the two groups. Results Study patients were comparable in age, number of treatment failures, aetiology of infertility, percentage of normal form assessed by MSOME (motile sperm organelle morphology examination, semen parameters, total number of oocytes collected, number of mature oocytes collected, total number of embryos transferred and number of high-quality embryos transferred. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed with regard to rates of fertilisation, implantation and pregnancy/cycle. Although not statistically significant, rates of miscarriage (IMSI:15.3% vs ICSI:31.7%, ongoing pregnancy (IMSI:22% vs ICSI:13% and live births (IMSI:21% vs ICSI:12% showed a trend towards better outcomes in the IMSI group. In addition, analysis of subpopulations with or without male factor showed similar results. Conclusions Our results suggest that IMSI does not provide a significant improvement in clinical outcome compared to ICSI, at least in couples with repeated implantation failures after conventional ICSI. However, it should be noted that there were clear trends for lower miscarriage rates (≈50% reduced and higher rates of ongoing pregnancy and live births (both nearly doubled within the IMSI group. Further confirmation

  3. Low-dose aspirin for in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentali, F.; Ageno, W.; Rezoagli, E.; Rancan, E.; Squizzato, A.; Middeldorp, S.; Margaglione, M.; Grandone, E.

    2012-01-01

    . Background: It was hypothesized that low-dose aspirin could improve implantation rates in subsequent pregnancies in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Previous studies have shown inconclusive results or focused on surrogate endpoints. We

  4. The preconception Mediterranean dietary pattern in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment increases the chance of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujkovic, M.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Lindemans, J.; Macklon, N.S.; Spek, van der P.J.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Steegers-Theunissen, R.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations between preconception dietary patterns and IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes validated by biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway. Design: Observational prospective study. Setting: A tertiary referral fertility clinic at the Erasmus University

  5. Hyaluronic acid binding ability of human sperm reflects cellular maturity and fertilizing potential: selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszar, Gabor; Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Jakab, Attila; Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Sati, G Leyla; Cayli, Sevil

    2006-06-01

    The current concepts of sperm biochemical markers and the central role of the HspA2 chaperone protein, a measure of sperm cellular maturity and fertilizing potential, are reviewed. Because HspA2 is a component of the synaptonemal complex, low HspA2 levels and increased frequency of chromosomal aneuploidies are related in diminished maturity sperm. We also suggest a relationship between HspA2 expression in elongating spermatids and events of late spermiogenesis, such as cytoplasmic extrusion and plasma membrane remodeling that aid the formation of the zona pellucida binding and hyaluronic acid binding sites. The presence of hyaluronic acid receptor on the plasma membrane of mature sperm, coupled with hyaluronic acid coated glass or plastic surfaces, facilitates testing of sperm function and selection of single mature sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The frequencies of sperm with chromosomal disomy are reduced approximately fourfold to fivefold in hyaluronic acid selected sperm compared with semen sperm, comparable to the increase in such abnormalities in intracytoplasmic sperm injection offspring. Hyaluronic acid binding also excludes immature sperm with cytoplasmic extrusion, persistent histones, and DNA chain breaks. Hyaluronic acid mediated sperm selection is a novel technique that is comparable to sperm zona pellucida binding. Hyaluronic acid selected sperm will also alleviate the risks related to intracytoplasmic sperm injection fertilization with sperm of diminished maturity that currently cause worldwide concern.

  6. Differences in the genetic control of early egg development and reproduction between C. elegans and its parthenogenetic relative D. coronatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Christopher; Schiffer, Philipp H; Kagoshima, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Hideaki; Vogt, Theresa; Kroiher, Michael; Kohara, Yuji; Schierenberg, Einhard

    2017-01-01

    The free-living nematode Diploscapter coronatus is the closest known relative of Caenorhabditis elegans with parthenogenetic reproduction. It shows several developmental idiosyncracies, for example concerning the mode of reproduction, embryonic axis formation and early cleavage pattern (Lahl et al. in Int J Dev Biol 50:393-397, 2006). Our recent genome analysis (Hiraki et al. in BMC Genomics 18:478, 2017) provides a solid foundation to better understand the molecular basis of developmental idiosyncrasies in this species in an evolutionary context by comparison with selected other nematodes. Our genomic data also yielded indications for the view that D. coronatus is a product of interspecies hybridization. In a genomic comparison between D. coronatus , C. elegans , other representatives of the genus Caenorhabditis and the more distantly related Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus , certain genes required for central developmental processes in C. elegans like control of meiosis and establishment of embryonic polarity were found to be restricted to the genus Caenorhabditis . The mRNA content of early D. coronatus embryos was sequenced and compared with similar stages in C. elegans and Ascaris suum . We identified 350 gene families transcribed in the early embryo of D. coronatus but not in the other two nematodes. Looking at individual genes transcribed early in D. coronatus but not in C. elegans and A. suum , we found that orthologs of most of these are present in the genomes of the latter species as well, suggesting heterochronic shifts with respect to expression behavior. Considerable genomic heterozygosity and allelic divergence lend further support to the view that D. coronatus may be the result of an interspecies hybridization. Expression analysis of early acting single-copy genes yields no indication for silencing of one parental genome. Our comparative cellular and molecular studies support the view that the genus Caenorhabditis differs

  7. Differences in the genetic control of early egg development and reproduction between C. elegans and its parthenogenetic relative D. coronatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kraus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The free-living nematode Diploscapter coronatus is the closest known relative of Caenorhabditis elegans with parthenogenetic reproduction. It shows several developmental idiosyncracies, for example concerning the mode of reproduction, embryonic axis formation and early cleavage pattern (Lahl et al. in Int J Dev Biol 50:393–397, 2006. Our recent genome analysis (Hiraki et al. in BMC Genomics 18:478, 2017 provides a solid foundation to better understand the molecular basis of developmental idiosyncrasies in this species in an evolutionary context by comparison with selected other nematodes. Our genomic data also yielded indications for the view that D. coronatus is a product of interspecies hybridization. Results In a genomic comparison between D. coronatus, C. elegans, other representatives of the genus Caenorhabditis and the more distantly related Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus, certain genes required for central developmental processes in C. elegans like control of meiosis and establishment of embryonic polarity were found to be restricted to the genus Caenorhabditis. The mRNA content of early D. coronatus embryos was sequenced and compared with similar stages in C. elegans and Ascaris suum. We identified 350 gene families transcribed in the early embryo of D. coronatus but not in the other two nematodes. Looking at individual genes transcribed early in D. coronatus but not in C. elegans and A. suum, we found that orthologs of most of these are present in the genomes of the latter species as well, suggesting heterochronic shifts with respect to expression behavior. Considerable genomic heterozygosity and allelic divergence lend further support to the view that D. coronatus may be the result of an interspecies hybridization. Expression analysis of early acting single-copy genes yields no indication for silencing of one parental genome. Conclusions Our comparative cellular and molecular studies support the

  8. A detailed cost analysis of in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmans, Clazien A M; Lintsen, Bea M E; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Habbema, J Dik F; Braat, Didi D M; Hakkaart, Leona

    2008-02-01

    To provide detailed information about costs of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment stages and to estimate the cost per IVF and ICSI treatment cycle and ongoing pregnancy. Descriptive micro-costing study. Four Dutch IVF centers. Women undergoing their first treatment cycle with IVF or ICSI. IVF or ICSI. Costs per treatment stage, per cycle started, and for ongoing pregnancy. Average costs of IVF and ICSI hormonal stimulation were euro 1630 and euro 1585; the costs of oocyte retrieval were euro 500 and euro 725, respectively. The cost of embryo transfer was euro 185. Costs per IVF and ICSI cycle started were euro 2381 and euro 2578, respectively. Costs per ongoing pregnancy were euro 10,482 and euro 10,036, respectively. Hormonal stimulation covered the main part of the costs per cycle (on average 68% and 61% for IVF and ICSI, respectively) due to the relatively high cost of medication. The costs of medication increased with increasing age of the women, irrespective of the type of treatment (IVF or ICSI). Fertilization costs (IVF laboratory) constituted 12% and 20% of the total costs of IVF and ICSI. The total cost per ICSI cycle was 8.3% higher than IVF.

  9. Effect of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI on Mouse Embryos Preimplantational Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cârstea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the in vitro culture (IVC of preimplantation embryos is associated with changes in gene expression. It is however, not known if the method of fertilization affects the global pattern of gene expression. We compared the development of mouse blastocysts produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI versus blastocysts fertilized in vivo and cultured in vitro from the zygote stage (IVC. At the end of cultivation (96 hrs for blastocyst stage embryos, expanded blastocysts of each group were randomly selected, and ICM and total cells number were differentially stained. The total cell number of blastocysts was estimated by counting the total number of nuclei using DAPI staining. Cell number for inner cell mass (ICM was estimated by counting the OCT4 (POU5FL positive cells. Digitally recombined, composite images were analyzed using the Zeiss Axion Vision software and Zeiss Apotome. All 5–10 optical sections were divided using a standard grid over each layer to count all. Comparing the total cells and the ICM cells number, it appears that each method of fertilization has a unique pattern development. The developmental rate and the total cell number of the blastocyst were significantly lower in ICSI versus in vivo fertilized embryos which affect the embryonic developmental rate and the total cell number of blastocysts.

  10. Sirenomelia of an intracytoplasmic sperm injection conceptus: a case report and review of mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtar, Omid; Benirschke, Kurt; Masliah, Eliezer

    2006-01-01

    Postmortem dissection of the 18-week male conceptus, product of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), demonstrated the hallmark findings of sirenomelia. The lower legs were fused and the left knee was rotated medially. Internal organs showed hypoplastic lungs, a multicystic kidney, and unilateral ureteral hypoplasia. The vitelline artery was absorbed, in a classic fashion, into the umbilical artery and communicated with the aorta at a point proximal to the iliac arteries. The tributaries distal to this point were hypoplastic. This finding is consistent with previously documented cases of sirenomelia and is thought to be the pathogenetic mechanism resulting in a vascular steal from the lower extremities. A rare finding was the presence of a penis on the dorsal side just below a perforate anus. In this case report, we discuss the pertinent clinical history and autopsy findings. A brief review of the mechanism thought to give rise to sirenomelia is provided. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of sirenomelia in an ICSI conceptus.

  11. Molecular and cytogenetic investigation of Y chromosome deletions over three generations facilitated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Agata; Wong, Edgar Chan; Harmer, Karynn; Ma, Sai

    2007-08-01

    The azoospermic factor (AZF) region is critical for normal spermatogenesis since microdeletions and partial deletions have been associated with infertility. We investigate the diagnostic ability of karyotyping in detecting clinically relevant Y chromosome deletions. The clinical significance of heterochromatin deletions, microdeletions and partial AZFc deletions is also evaluated. A patient with a Yq deletion, affected by severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) which resulted in the birth of a healthy baby boy. The patient, his father and his son underwent Y chromosome microdeletion and partial AZFc deletion screening. We also studied the aneuploidy rate in the sperm of the patient by fluorescent in situ hybridization. AZF microdeletions were absent in the family. However, microdeletion analysis confirmed that the Yq deletion was limited to the heterochromatin. We found a partial AZFc gr/gr deletion in all three family members. We observed an increased rate of sex chromosome aneuploidy in the infertile patient. Cytogenetic analysis was misleading in identifying the Yq breakpoint. Infertility observed in the patient was associated with the gr/gr partial deletion. However, because of the incomplete penetrance of gr/gr deletions, the consequence of the vertical transmission of the deletion through ICSI remains unknown. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Equivalency of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells Derived From Fertilized, Parthenogenetic, and Hand-Made Cloned Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L.; Singh, Karn P.; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Riaz A.; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Singla, Suresh K.; Palta, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (pcells (1.603±0.315 and 1±0, respectively). Pluripotent, stable buffalo ESC lines derived from IVF, parthenogenesis, and HMC embryos may be genetically manipulated to provide a powerful tool for studies involving embryonic development, genomic imprinting, gene targeting, cloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production. PMID:22582863

  13. Investigating the genetic and epigenetic basis of big biological questions with the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish: A review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gunter

    2018-03-01

    In the last 15 years, considerable attempts have been undertaken to develop the obligately parthenogenetic marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis as a new model in biology. Its main advantage is the production of large numbers of offspring that are genetically identical to the mother, making this crustacean particularly suitable for research in epigenetics. Now, a draft genome, transcriptome and genome-wide methylome are available opening new windows for research. In this article, I summarize the biological advantages and genomic and epigenetic features of marbled crayfish and, based on first promising data, discuss what this new model could contribute to answering of ''big'' biological questions. Genome mining is expected to reveal new insights into the genetic specificities of decapod crustaceans, the genetic basis of arthropod reproduction, moulting and immunity, and more general topics such as the genetic underpinning of adaptation to fresh water, omnivory, biomineralization, sexual system change, behavioural variation, clonal genome evolution, and resistance to cancer. Epigenetic investigations with the marbled crayfish can help clarifying the role of epigenetic mechanisms in gene regulation, tissue specification, adult stem cell regulation, cell ageing, organ regeneration and disease susceptibility. Marbled crayfish is further suitable to elucidate the relationship between genetic and epigenetic variation, the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic signatures and the contribution of epigenetic phenotype variation to the establishment of social hierarchies, environmental adaptation and speciation. These issues can be tackled by experiments with highly standardized laboratory lineages, comparison of differently adapted wild populations and the generation of genetically and epigenetically edited strains.

  14. Nematode assemblages associated with the parthenogenetic lizard Ameivula nativo in six restinga areas along the eastern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Mascarenhas, J C; Vrcibradic, D; Rocha, C F D

    2017-10-04

    We surveyed the nematode assemblages associated with populations of the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Ameivula nativo from six coastal restinga areas in eastern Brazil: Setiba, Comboios and Guriri (State of Espirito Santo) and Guaratiba, Prado and Maraú (State of Bahia). A total of five nematode species (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Skrjabinelazia intermedia, Subulura lacertilia and Parapharyngodon sp.) were recorded from the six different populations of A. nativo. There was considerable variation in overall prevalence of infection (1-42%) among study sites, but geographical distance among areas did not influence similarity in the composition of nematode assemblages. Overall intensity of infection was not affected by lizard body size and did not seem to affect host body condition, based on pooled data of all populations. The studied populations of the unisexual A. nativo had relatively low prevalences and intensities of infection compared to some bisexual congeners and to sympatric lizards from other families for which such data are available. We believe that the low richness of the nematode fauna associated with A. nativo, both locally and regionally, may reflect its narrow geographic distribution and the low diversity of habitats it occupies.

  15. Language development of children born following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) combined with assisted oocyte activation (AOA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anke Luyten; K. van Lierde; H. Gysels; B. Heindrynckx; Y. Thienpont; H. Roeyers; A. Oostra; K. Bettens; P. de Sutter; G. de Witte; E. D'haeseleer; F. Vanden Meerschaut

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of assisted reproduction technology (ART) on language development is still unclear. Moreover, different techniques are introduced at rapid pace and are not always accompanied by extensive follow-up programmes. AIMS: To investigate the language development of 3-10-year-old

  16. Language Development of Children Born Following Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Combined with Assisted Oocyte Activation (AOA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haeseleer, Evelien; Vanden Meerschaut, Frauke; Bettens, Kim; Luyten, Anke; Gysels, Hannelore; Thienpont, Ylenia; De Witte, Griet; Heindryckx, Björn; Oostra, Ann; Roeyers, Herbert; De Sutter, Petra; van Lierde, Kristiane

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effect of assisted reproduction technology (ART) on language development is still unclear. Moreover, different techniques are introduced at rapid pace and are not always accompanied by extensive follow-up programmes. Aims: To investigate the language development of 3-10-year-old children born following ART using intracytoplasmic…

  17. Application of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for fertilization and development in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kiyoshi; Ono, Tamao; Mizushima, Shusei

    2014-01-15

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technology in birds has been hampered due to opacity of oocyte. We developed ICSI-assisted fertilization and gene transfer in quail. This paper reviews recent advances of our ICSI experiments. The oocyte retrieved from the oviduct and a quail sperm was injected into the oocyte under a stereomicroscope. The oocyte was cultured for 24h at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. The fertilization and development was assessed by microscopic observation. The fertility rate ranged 12-18% and development varied from stage II to V in trials. To improve the fertility rate, phospholipase C (PLC) zeta was injected with a sperm. It was increased to 37-50%. Furthermore, injection of inositol trisphosphate increased to over 85%. Quail oocyte can be fertilized with chicken sperm and so can testicular elongated spermatid. To extend embryonic development, chicken eggshell was used as a surrogate culture at 37°C after the 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air. It survived up to 2days thereafter. Finally, gene transfer was attempted in quail egg. The sperm membrane was disrupted with Triton X-100 (TX-100) and was injected with PLCzeta cRNA and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene in oocyte. The GFP expression was evaluated at 24h incubation at 41°C under 5% CO2 in air in the embryos. While the expression was not detected in the control oocytes, the experimental treatment induced blastoderm development (44%) of the oocytes and 86% of blastoderm showed fluorescent emission. In addition, PCR analysis detected EGFP fragments in 50% of GFP-expressing blastoderm. Our ICSI method may be the first step toward the production of transgenic birds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predicting Implantation Outcome of In Vitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Hafiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In vitro fertilization (IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI are two important subsets of the assisted reproductive techniques, used for the treatment of infertility. Predicting implantation outcome of IVF/ICSI or the chance of pregnancy is essential for infertile couples, since these treatments are complex and expensive with a low probability of conception. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, the data of 486 patients were collected using census method. The IVF/ICSI dataset contains 29 variables along with an identifier for each patient that is either negative or positive. Mean accuracy and mean area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve are calculated for the classifiers. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratios of classifiers are employed as indicators of performance. The state-of-art classifiers which are candidates for this study include support vector machines, recursive partitioning (RPART, random forest (RF, adaptive boosting, and one-nearest neighbor. Results RF and RPART outperform the other comparable methods. The results revealed the areas under the ROC curve (AUC as 84.23 and 82.05%, respectively. The importance of IVF/ICSI features was extracted from the output of RPART. Our findings demonstrate that the probability of pregnancy is low for women aged above 38. Conclusion Classifiers RF and RPART are better at predicting IVF/ICSI cases compared to other decision makers that were tested in our study. Elicited decision rules of RPART determine useful predictive features of IVF/ICSI. Out of 20 factors, the age of woman, number of developed embryos, and serum estradiol level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration are the three best features for such prediction.

  19. Effect of two activation treatments and age of blastomere karyoplasts on in vitro development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Holm, Peter; Vajta, Gabor

    2001-01-01

    The yield and quality of (a) parthenogenetic blastocysts produced by two activation treatments (cycloheximide [CHX] or 6-dimethylaminopurine [DMAP]) and (b) nuclear transfer blastocysts generated using these two activation treatments and three different ages of karyoplast derived from day 3, 4......, or 5 in vitro produced donor embryos, were examined in order to define an optimal nuclear transfer protocol. The two activation protocols comprised calcium ionophore followed by either CHX or DMAP. Parthenogenetic blastocyst yields were greater (P ....7 +/- 5.1 vs. 31.4 +/- 4.5 [mean +/- SEM]). In contrast, nuclear transfer blastocyst rates per fused embryo were lower (P

  20. Parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells with H19 siRNA-mediated knockdown as a potential resource for cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Minhye; Hong, Su; Yu, Seong-Lan; Sim, Bo-Woong; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Kang, Jaeku

    2012-02-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are used in cell therapy and tissue engineering due to their ability to produce different cells types. However, studies of ES cells that are derived from fertilized embryos have raised concerns about the limitations imposed by ethical and political considerations. Therefore, many studies of stem cells use the stem cells that are derived from unfertilized oocytes and adult tissue. Although parthenogenetic embryonic stem (ESP) cells also avoid ethical and political dilemmas and can be used in cell-based therapy, the ESP cells exhibit growth retardation problems. Therefore, to investigate the potential for muscle growth from genetically modified ESP cells, we established four ES cell types, including normal embryonic stem (ESN) cells, ESP cells, ESP cells that overexpress the insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) gene (ESI) and ESP cells with down-regulated H19 gene expression (ESH). Using these cells, we examined the expression profiles of genes that were related to imprinting and muscle using microarrays. The gene expression patterns of ESI and ESH cells were similar and were more closely related to the ESN pattern than that of the ESP cells. Differentiated ESH cells exhibited increased expression of bone morphologic protein 4 (BMP4), which is a mesoderm marker, compared with the differentiated ESI cells. We showed that Igf2 expression was induced by H19 silencing in the ESP cells via hypermethylation of the H19 imprinting control region 1 (ICR1). Moreover, the proportion of ESH-derived chimera was slightly higher than those produced from the ESP cells. In addition, we detected increased cell proliferation in the MEF cells following H19 knock-down. These results indicate that the ESH cells may be a source of cell-based therapy for conditions such as muscular atrophy.

  1. Preclinical study of mouse pluripotent parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell derivatives for the construction of tissue-engineered skin equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Yang; Cui, Jihong; Yin, Lu; Liu, Wei; Liu, Wenguang; Sun, Mei; Yan, Xingrong; Wang, Ling; Chen, Fulin

    2016-10-22

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) derivatives hold great promise for the construction of tissue-engineered skin equivalents (TESE). However, harvesting of ESCs destroys viable embryos and may lead to political and ethical concerns over their application. In the current study, we directed mouse parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (pESCs) to differentiate into fibroblasts, constructed TESE, and evaluated its function in vivo. The stemness marker expression and the pluripotent differentiation ability of pESCs were tested. After embryoid body (EB) formation and adherence culture, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were enriched and directed to differentiate into fibroblastic lineage. Characteristics of derived fibroblasts were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA. Functional ability of the constructed TESE was tested by a mouse skin defects repair model. Mouse pESCs expressed stemness marker and could form teratoma containing three germ layers. MSCs could be enriched from outgrowths of EBs and directed to differentiate into fibroblastic lineage. These cells express a high level of growth factors including FGF, EGF, VEGF, TGF, PDGF, and IGF1, similar to those of ESC-derived fibroblasts and mouse fibroblasts. Seeded into collagen gels, the fibroblasts derived from pESCs could form TESE. Mouse skin defects could be successfully repaired 15 days after transplantation of TESE constructed by fibroblasts derived from pESCs. pESCs could be induced to differentiate into fibroblastic lineage, which could be applied to the construction of TESE and skin defect repair. Particularly, pESC derivatives avoid the limitations of political and ethical concerns, and provide a promising source for regenerative medicine.

  2. A case of primary osseous malignant immunoblastic B-cell lymphoma with intracytoplasmic mu lambda immunoglobulin inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiche, M; Le Tourneau, A; Audouin, J; Touzard, R C; Diebold, J

    1990-02-01

    Primary malignant lymphoma of bone, so-called Parker-Jackson reticulosarcoma, is a rare form of extranodal lymphoma with a relatively good prognosis. It often corresponds to B-cell lymphoma of high-grade malignancy. We report a case of mu lambda immunoblastic lymphoma showing two distinctive features: an abundant reactive T-lymphocytic population and unusual intra-cytoplasmic inclusions. These inclusions were PAS positive and consisted of monotypic mu lambda immunoglobulin localized in peculiar aggregates of rough endoplasmic reticulum. Their morphological appearances resembled the well-documented inclusions described in some varieties of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  3. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  4. Preimplantation genetic screening as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome : preferences of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off

  5. Preimplantation genetic screening as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome: preferences of women undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, Moniek; Haadsma, Maaike L.; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd; Mastenbroek, Sebastiaan; Heineman, Maas-Jan; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Korevaar, Johanna C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the primary goal of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) is to increase pregnancy rates in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment, it has been suggested that it may also be used as an alternative to prenatal testing for Down syndrome. Design: Trade-off

  6. A comparison of perinatal outcomes in singletons and multiples born after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection stratified for neonatal risk criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heesch, M.M.J.; Evers, J.L.H.; Dumoulin, J.C.M.; van der Hoeven, M.A.H.B.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Bonsel, G.J.; Dykgraaf, R.H.M.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Steiner, K.; Tamminga, P.; Tonch, N.; van Zonneveld, P.; Dirksen, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare perinatal singleton and multiple outcomes in a large Dutch in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) population and within risk subgroups. Newborns were assigned to a risk category based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and congenital

  7. A comparison of perinatal outcomes in singletons and multiples born after in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection stratified for neonatal risk criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesch, M.M. van; Evers, J.L.H.; Dumoulin, J.C.; Hoeven, M.A. van der; Beijsterveldt, C.E. van; Bonsel, G.J.; Dykgraaf, R.H.; Goudoever, J.B. van; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Steiner, K.; Tamminga, P.; Tonch, N.; Zonneveld, P. van; Dirksen, C.D.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal singleton and multiple outcomes in a large Dutch in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) population and within risk subgroups. Newborns were assigned to a risk category based on gestational age, birthweight, Apgar score and congenital

  8. Effect of the well of the well (WOW) system on in vitro culture for porcine embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, Mikiko; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Fukui, Yutaka

    2005-08-01

    For developmental competence of porcine embryos in vitro, it is important to improve the culture environment. The present study was performed to evaluate four different culture systems for in vitro matured porcine oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI); drop, well and two sizes of the well of the well (WOW) systems (500 and 1,000 microm in diameter). The cleavage rate on Day 2 and the mean cell number in blastocysts on Day 6 were not significantly different among the four treatments. However, the 1,000 microm WOW (24.6%) resulted in a significantly higher (PWOW, respectively). The present study indicates that the microenvironment created by the 1,000 microm diameter WOW improves blastocyst production of in vitro matured porcine oocytes after ICSI, and that the effectiveness of the WOW system is dependent on the size (diameter) of the WOW.

  9. Letrozole+ GnRH antagonist stimulation protocol in poor ovarian responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: An RCT

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    Mahbod Ebrahimi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol has been proposed as a potentially proper option for the patients with limited ovarian reserve. Nevertheless, there is no significant difference in terms of clinical pregnancy between the GnRH antagonist and agonist cycles. The use of aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole was suggested by some studies. Objective: The object of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of letrozole cotreatment with GnRH-antagonist protocol in ovarian stimulation of poor responder patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Materials and Methods: A double-blinded randomized control trial was conducted on 70 infertile women with poor ovarian response based on Bologna criteria in two groups: letrozole+GnRH-antagonist (LA group and placebo+GnRH-antagonist (PA group (n=35/each. The LA group involved at letrozole 2.5 mg daily over 5 days and recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone 225 IU/daily. The PA group received placebo over 5 days and recombinant human follicle stimulating hormone at the same starting day and dose, similar to LA group. GnRH-antagonist was introduced once one or more follicle reached ≥14 mm. The main outcome measures were the number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate, implantation rate, cycle cancellation rate, and clinical pregnancy rate. Results: There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. There were no significant differences between groups regarding the number of oocytes retrieved (p=0.81, number of embryos transferred (p=0.82, fertilization rate (p=0.225, implantation rate (p=0.72, total cycle cancelation rate (p=0.08, and clinical pregnancy rate (p=0.12. Conclusion: The use of letrozole in GnRH-antagonist cycles does not improve clinical outcomes in poor responder patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  10. Genetic homogeneity between two populations of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis cozumela Homogeneidad genética entre dos poblaciones de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis cozumela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma L. Manríquez-Morán

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We used skin-grafting to assess the genetic variability between 2 populations of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis cozumela. We transplanted 238 skin fragments among individuals of 2 coastal populations at Cozumel Island. Grafts belonging to individuals that survive more than 60 days suggested genetic homogeneity between both populations, consistent with the existence of only 1 clone within this unisexual species.Se utilizó el método de transplantes de piel para evaluar la variabilidad genética entre 2 poblaciones de la lagartija partenogenética Aspidoscelis cozumela. Se transplantaron 238 fragmentos de piel entre individuos de 2 poblaciones costeras de Isla Cozumel. Los transplantes pertenecientes a individuos que vivieron más de 60 días, mostraron homogeneidad genética entre ambas poblaciones, lo cual sugiere la existencia de 1 sólo clon dentro de esta especie unisexual.

  11. In vitro maturation, fertilization, embryo development & clinical outcome of human metaphase-I oocytes retrieved from stimulated intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles

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    Cristina Álvarez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The major cause of fertilisation failure after ICSI is failure of the oocyte to initiate the biochemical processes necessary for activation. This inability could be ascribed to cytoplasmic immaturity of those gametes even if they had reached nuclear maturity. The activation of a mature oocyte is characterised by release from metaphase II (MII arrest and extrusion of the second polar body, followed by pro-nuclear formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of in vitro matured (IVM metaphase I (MI oocytes subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI at different time intervals after extrusion of the first polar body (1PB in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Methods: A total of 8030 oocytes were collected from 1400 ICSI cycles, 5504 MII at the time of cumulus retrieval. Four hundred eight metaphase II (MII (27.1% matured to MII after in vitro culture for 2-26 h and 5389 sibling MII in the moment of oocyte denudation were injected. On the other hand, 49 ICSI cycles containing only MI oocytes at retrieval were injected at three different time intervals after reaching the MII. The intervals were as follows: 2-6 h (n=10, 8-11 h (n=4 and 23-26 h (n=10. Fertilization and development potential were evaluated in both studies. Results: Fertilization, embryo cleavage and quality were significantly lower in IVM MI compared to MII at time of denudation. Pregnancy rate was higher in group MII. Pregnancy was achieved in three embryo transfers when ICSI was performed within 2-6 h (group I and 8-11 h (group II after PB extrusion. One pregnancy was obtained in group I and a healthy neonate was born. Interpretation & conclusions: Immature oocytes from women whose ovaries have been stimulated could be matured, fertilized by ICSI, cleaved in vitro and to give rise to a live birth. However, the developmental competence of embryos derived from immature oocytes is reduced, compared with sibling in vivo matured oocytes

  12. Impact of Body Mass Index on Outcomes of In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Among Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Patients

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    Na Cui

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI on outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI among polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and non-PCOS patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that was performed in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University. Patients who were under 35 years old were included in the study and were divided into four groups based on their BMI. The number of retrieved oocytes, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and live births among PCOS and non-PCOS patients were compared between different BMIs. Results: IVF/ICSI pregnancies in obese PCOS women had a considerably higher risk of miscarriage and low rate of clinical pregnancy than in non-obese PCOS pregnancies. However, in non-PCOS patient, obesity significantly elevated miscarriage rate but did not affect clinical pregnancy rate. Conclusion: Obesity in PCOS patients led to poor outcomes of IVF/ICSI.

  13. Pronuclear morphology evaluation in in vitro fertilization (IVF / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles: a retrospective clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoli Alessia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The assessment of the embryo quality is crucial to maintain an high pregnancy rate and to reduce the risk of multiple pregnancy. The evaluation of the pronuclear and nucleolar characteristics of human zygote have been proposed as an indicator of embryo development and chromosomal complement. The aim of the current study was to assess the role of pronuclear morphology evaluation in vitro fertilization (IVF / intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles. Methods Retrospective clinical analysis on 755 non-elective transfers of only one embryo (ET. Embryo assessment was performed in days 1 and 2. Clinical and biological data were recorded and analyzed according to embryo and/or pronuclear morphology. Results Both pronuclear and embryo morphology were significantly related to clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates. No significant difference in clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates was detected when the pronuclear and embryo morphology assessments were combined. Embryo morphology and maternal age were the only independent predictors of favorable outcome by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Pronuclear evaluation is effective to select the best zygotes if ET is performed at day 1, whereas it did not improve the clinical outcomes when combined with embryo morphology evaluation in day 2.

  14. Effect of pigtail catheter application on obstetric outcomes in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection pregnancies following hyperstimulation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağlar Aytaç, Pınar; Kalaycı, Hakan; Yetkinel, Selçuk; Alkaş, Didem; Yüksel Şimşek, Seda; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent; Bulgan Kılıçdağ, Esra

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of percutaneous pigtail catheter drainage on the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) pregnancies following moderate or severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). This retrospective study included 189 patients hospitalized for OHSS following ICSI treatment in a tertiary in vitro fertilization unit between 2006 and 2014. Pigtail catheters were applied in 63 patients; the other 126 patients did not need that treatment. The obstetric reports of 173 patients could be accessed and were examined to investigate the pregnancy outcomes of those with and without catheters. No complications such as infection or vascular or intra-abdominal organ trauma were observed related to the pigtail application. There were no differences in abortus, preterm labor, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preeclampsia ratio between the pigtail and control groups (p>0.05). The rate of readmission to hospital for OHSS was lower in the pigtail group than in the control group although not statistically significant (p=0.08). Pigtail application is a safe and effective method for draining ascites in patients with OHSS after ICSI treatment. The use of pigtail catheters had no adverse effects on the perinatal outcomes of patients hospitalized with OHSS who became pregnant after ICSI treatment. In addition, the percutaneous drainage of ascites via a pigtail catheter helped prevent the readmission of patients with moderate or severe OHSS.

  15. Investigation of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) at multiple sites in post-delivery placentas derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Agata; Harmer, Karynn; Peters, Nicole; Yuen, Basil Ho; Ma, Sai

    2006-01-01

    Although earlier studies on pregnancies derived through intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) reported increased non-mosaic aneuploidy among ICSI children, undetected mosaicism, such as confined placental mosaicism (CPM) has not been evaluated. We investigated the incidence of CPM in post-delivery placentas derived from ICSI, evaluated whether CPM was increased and whether it was a contributing factor to negative pregnancy outcome. [Fifty-one post-delivery placentas were collected from patients who underwent ICSI with a normal or negative pregnancy outcome]. Trophoblast and chorionic stroma from three sites were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and flow cytometry. Detected abnormalities were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The incidence of CPM in the ICSI population was compared to the general population from published data. We detected three cases of CPM in our study. One abnormality was found by CGH analysis; partial trisomy 7q and a partial monosomy Xp limited to the trophoblast at two sites. The abnormality was associated with a child affected by spina bifida. Two cases of mosaic tetraploidy were observed by flow cytometry in pregnancies with a normal outcome. All three abnormalities were confirmed by FISH analysis. The incidence of CPM in the ICSI study population was 5.88% (3/51), which was not statistically different from published reports in the general population (5.88% (42/714), Chi square, P > 0.05). The post-ICSI population was not at risk for CPM in this study. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Total motile sperm count has a superior predictive value over the WHO 2010 cut-off values for the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, E; Setti, A S; Braga, D P A F; Figueira, R C S; Iaconelli, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare (i) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes among groups with different total motile sperm count ranges, (ii) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between groups with normal and abnormal total motile sperm count, and (iii) the predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and pre-wash total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, in couples with male infertility. This study included data from 518 patients undergoing their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle as a result of male infertility. Couples were divided into five groups according to their total motile sperm count: Group I, total motile sperm count sperm count 1-5 × 10(6) ; group III, total motile sperm count 5-10 × 10(6) ; group IV, total motile sperm count 10-20 × 10(6) ; and group V, total motile sperm count >20 × 10(6) (which was considered a normal total motile sperm count value). Then, couples were grouped into an abnormal and normal total motile sperm count group. The groups were compared regarding intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes. The predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes were also investigated. The fertilization rate was lower in total motile sperm count group I compared to total motile sperm count group V (72.5 ± 17.6 vs. 84.9 ± 14.4, p = 0.011). The normal total motile sperm count group had a higher fertilization rate (84.9 ± 14.4 vs. 81.1 ± 15.8, p = 0.016) and lower miscarriage rate (17.9% vs. 29.5%, p = 0.041) compared to the abnormal total motile sperm count group. The total motile sperm count was the only parameter that demonstrated a predictive value for the formation of high-quality embryos on D2 (OR: 1.18, p = 0.013), formation of high-quality embryos on D3 (OR: 1.12, p = 0.037), formation of blastocysts on D5 (OR: 1.16, p = 0.011), blastocyst expansion grade on D5

  17. Reduced serum testosterone levels in infant boys conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau Kai, Claudia; Main, Katharina M; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been raised for the health of the offspring conceived by assisted reproduction technologies. Basal reproductive hormones around 3 months of age reflect the pituitary-testicular axis, which is transiently active at this age....

  18. Reduced serum testosterone levels in infant boys conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mau Kai, Claudia; Main, Katharina M; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-01-01

    Concern has been raised for the health of the offspring conceived by assisted reproduction technologies. Basal reproductive hormones around 3 months of age reflect the pituitary-testicular axis, which is transiently active at this age.......Concern has been raised for the health of the offspring conceived by assisted reproduction technologies. Basal reproductive hormones around 3 months of age reflect the pituitary-testicular axis, which is transiently active at this age....

  19. Species delimitation in asexual insects of economic importance: The case of black scale (Parasaissetia nigra, a cosmopolitan parthenogenetic pest scale insect.

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    Yen-Po Lin

    Full Text Available Asexual lineages provide a challenge to species delimitation because species concepts either have little biological meaning for them or are arbitrary, since every individual is monophyletic and reproductively isolated from all other individuals. However, recognition and naming of asexual species is important to conservation and economic applications. Some scale insects are widespread and polyphagous pests of plants, and several species have been found to comprise cryptic species complexes. Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861 (Hemiptera: Coccidae is a parthenogenetic, cosmopolitan and polyphagous pest that feeds on plant species from more than 80 families. Here, we implement multiple approaches to assess the species status of P. nigra, including coalescence-based analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and ecological niche modelling. Our results indicate that the sampled specimens of P. nigra should be considered to comprise at least two ecotypes (or "species" that are ecologically differentiated, particularly in relation to temperature and moisture. The presence of more than one ecotype under the current concept of P. nigra has implications for biosecurity because the geographic extent of each type is not fully known: some countries may currently have only one of the biotypes. Introduction of additional lineages could expand the geographic extent of damage by the pest in some countries.

  20. Application of Sperm Selection Using Hyaluronic Acid Binding in Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles: A Sibling Oocyte Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Seung Ah; Tae, Jin Chul; Shin, Mi Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Chung Hyon; Lee, Joong Yeup; Hwang, Doyeong; Kim, Ki Chul; Suh, Chang Suk

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sperm selection by hyaluronic acid (HA) binding could improve fertilization rate and embryo quality in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Two hundred nineteen oocytes obtained from eighteen women were injected with either HA-bound (n = 107) or conventionally selected spermatozoa (n = 112) in a randomized way. All of the participants were infertile couples who had normal sperm parameters but low fertilization rate in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle (n = 5) or experienced multiple IVF failures (n = 13). Lower fertilization (75.7% vs 83.0%) and cleavage rate on day 2 (72.9% vs 83.0%) was observed in oocytes injected with HA-bound spermatozoa than the conventional group, but the difference was not significant. Significantly lower cleavage rate was observed on day 3 in HA group (56.0% vs 69.6%, P = 0.038). Blastocyst formation rate and the number of transferred embryos were similar in both groups. In multiple IVF failure patients, significantly reduced fertilization rate (71.8% vs 85.3%, P = 0.046) and cleavage rate on day 2 (70.4% vs 85.3%, P = 0.029) and day 3 (53.5% vs 77.3%, P = 0.002) were noticed in HA group. Five women achieved pregnancy continuing more than 12 weeks after transfer (27.8%). Success of ICSI was not related with the number of embryos fertilized by HA-bound spermatozoa. Application of ICSI by sperm selection using HA binding is not helpful in couples with repeated poor fertilization or implantation despite normal sperm parameters. PMID:23255860

  1. Clinical analyses of successful and previously failed intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle parameters in patients with poor ovarian reserve

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    Tayfun Kutlu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine some major characteristic differences between two consecutive successful and unsuccessful intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles in poor responders. Materials and Methods: Sixty women with poor ovarian response as determined using the Bologna criteria underwent ICSI cycles following an unsuccessful trial. Some parameters of both cycles including age, body mass index (BMI, serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and estradiol levels, antral follicle count, gonadotropin dosage, duration of stimulation, antagonist starting day, duration of antagonist administration, endometrial thickness at trigger day, number of total and fertilized oocytes, embryo transfer day, number of embryo cells, and fertilization rate were compared in the same patients to identify predictors of cycles with clinical pregnancy. Results: The mean age, BMI, serum FSH, estradiol concentrations, and antral follicle count were 35.9 years (range, 30-42 years, 25.9 kg/m2 (range, 18.4-33.5 kg/m2, 10.9 IU/mL (range, 7-13 IU/mL, 52.9 pg/mL (range, 11.6-75 pg/mL, and 4.7 (range, 2-10, respectively. A comparison of cycle characteristics showed a significantly higher total number of mature and fertilized oocytes in successful cycles. The fertilization rate was also significantly higher in cycles with clinical pregnancy. Early initiation of antagonist was shown to result in favorable outcomes. A comparison of embryo characteristics showed that transfer of higher-stage embryos and embryos with higher numbers of cells had a significant impact on cycle outcomes. Conclusion: Our comparison of parameters of failed and successful ICSI cycles in poor responders revealed significantly earlier antagonist initiation, higher total number of mature and fertilized oocytes, fertilization rate, and significantly higher stage of embryo development and cell numbers at transfer in cycles that resulted in clinical pregnancy.

  2. [Impact of sperm DNA and acrosome integrity and acrosome reaction rate on outcomes of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongzhi; Li, Dawen; Cheng, Junping; Huo, Zhongchao; Huang, Hongyi; Xiao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of sperm DNA integrity rate, acrosome integrity rate and acrosome reaction rate on the outcomes of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This retrospective analysis was conducted among 97 infertile couples receiving rescue ICSI due to failure of in vitro fertilization procedures in our Reproductive Medicine Center. Of these 97 women, 41 had clinical pregnancy and 56 did not, and the effects of sperm DNA integrity rate (estimated by DNA fragmentation index, DFI), acrosome integrity rate and acrosome reaction rate on rescue ICSI outcomes were analyzed. No significant difference was found in paternal age, testosterone value, testicular volume, FSH, female patient' age or the number of eggs retrieved between the two groups (P>0.05), but the infertility years was significantly shorter in the pregnancy group than in the non-pregnancy group (Prate and cleavage rate were similar between the two groups (P>0.05), but the good embryo rate was significantly higher in the pregnancy group (Preaction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05), but the acrosome integrity rate was significantly higher in the pregnancy group (Prate, acrosome integrity or acrosome reaction rate were not correlated with the fertilization rate, cleavage rate or good embryo rate (P>0.05). The pregnancy rate, twin and single fetus rates were 42.3%, 10.3% and 32.0% in this cohort after recue ICSI, respectively. Rescue ICSI is an effective treatment after failed in vitro fertilization procedure, and sperm acrosome integrity rate is associated with the outcome of rescue ICSI.

  3. Use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection in men with high sperm DNA fragmentation: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Roque, Matheus; Garrido, Nicolás

    2018-01-01

    Spermatozoa retrieved from the testis of men with high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) in the neat semen tend to have better DNA quality. Given the negative impact of SDF on the outcomes of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), an increased interest has emerged about the use of testicular sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (Testi-ICSI). In this article, we used a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis to summarize the advantages and drawbacks of this intervention. The rationale of Testi-ICSI is bypass posttesticular DNA fragmentation caused by oxidative stress during sperm transit through the epididymis. Hence, oocyte fertilization by genomically intact testicular spermatozoa may be optimized, thus increasing the chances of creating a normal embryonic genome and the likelihood of achieving a live birth, as recently demonstrated in men with high SDF. However, there is still limited evidence as regards the clinical efficacy of Testi-ICSI, thus creating opportunities for further confirmatory clinical research as well as investigation of Testi-ICSI in clinical scenarios other than high SDF. Furthermore, Testi-ICSI can be compared to other laboratory preparation methods for deselecting sperm with damaged DNA. At present, the available literature supports the use of testicular sperm when performing ICSI in infertile couples whose male partners have posttesticular SDF. Due to inherent risks of sperm retrieval, Testi-ICSI should be offered when less invasive treatments for alleviating DNA damage have failed. A call for continuous monitoring is nonetheless required concerning the health of generated offspring and the potential complications of sperm retrieval.

  4. Female parthenogenetic apomixis and androsporogenetic parthenogenesis in embryonal cells of Araucaria angustifolia: interpolation of progenesis and asexual heterospory in an artificial sporangium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durzan, Don J

    2012-09-01

    Cell fate, development timing and occurrence of reproductive versus apomictic development in gymnosperms are shown to be influenced by culture conditions in vitro. In this study, female parthenogenetic apomixis (fPA), androsporogenetic parthenogenesis (mAP) and progenesis were demonstrated using embryonal initials of Araucaria angustifolia in scaled-up cell suspensions passing through a single-cell bottleneck in darkness and in an artificial sporangium (AS). Expression was based on defined nutrition, hormones and feedforward-adaptive feedback process controls at 23-25 °C and in darkness. In fPA, the nucleus of an embryonal initial undergoes endomitosis and amitosis, forming a diploid egg-equivalent and an apoptotic ventral canal nucleus in a transdifferentiated archegonial tube. Discharge of egg-equivalent cells as parthenospores and their dispersal into the aqueous culture medium were followed by free-nuclear conifer-type proembryogenesis. This replaced the plesiomorphic and central features of proembryogenesis in Araucariaceae. Protoplasmic fusions of embryonal initials were used to reconstruct heterokaryotic expressions of fPA in multiwell plates. In mAP, restitutional meiosis (automixis) was responsible for androsporogenesis and the discharge of monads, dyads, tetrads and polyads. In a display of progenesis, reproductive development was brought to an earlier ontogenetic stage and expressed by embryonal initials. Colchicine increased polyploidy, but androspore formation became aberrant and fragmented. Aberrant automixis led to the formation of chromosomal bouquets, which contributed to genomic silencing in embryonal initials, cytomixis and the formation of pycnotic micronucleated cells. Dispersal of female and male parthenospores displayed heteromorphic asexual heterospory in an aqueous environment.

  5. Does the time interval between antimüllerian hormone serum sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation affect its predictive ability in in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Nelson, Scott M; Stoop, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response.......To investigate whether the time interval between serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) sampling and initiation of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) may affect the predictive ability of the marker for low and excessive ovarian response....

  6. Sex steroid hormones during the ovarian cycle of an all-female, parthenogenetic lizard and their correlation with pseudosexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Whittier, J M; Crews, D

    1985-11-01

    Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard that reproduces by parthenogenesis. Individuals of this species display male-like and female-like copulatory behaviors during different phases of the ovarian cycle suggesting that these pseudocopulatory behaviors are hormonally activated. To learn more about both the endocrinology of parthenogenesis and the possible hormonal activation of male-like copulatory behavior in female individuals, we (1) characterized changes in plasma levels of the sex steroid hormones progesterone, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, and 17 beta-estradiol during the ovarian cycle in both free-living and captive individuals, and (2) measured sex steroid hormones in plasma collected from captive individuals immediately after they expressed male-like or female-like copulatory behavior. In general, the pattern of secretion of ovarian hormones in C. uniparens appears to be similar to that of other oviparous vertebrates with similar reproductive cycles. Estradiol is elevated only during the preovulatory phase, whereas progesterone increases slightly during vitellogenesis and then increases dramatically following ovulation. Circulating levels of androgen are very low and are generally below the sensitivity of our radioimmunoassay at all stages of the ovarian cycle. The hormonal correlates of female-like copulatory behavior suggest that, as in other vertebrates, female receptivity is activated by a synergism of estradiol and progesterone. There is no evidence that the hormonal cycle has been altered to produce elevated levels of androgens during the phase of the cycle when male-like behavior is expressed. Rather it seems more likely that the central nervous system has evolved a novel response to a typical pattern of ovarian steroid hormone secretion. At present, the best hormonal correlate of male-like behavior is that changes in plasma levels of progesterone closely parallel changes in probability of expressing male-like behavior.

  7. Live birth after rescue in vitro maturation–intracytoplasmic sperm injection in type 1 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome patient using clomiphene–antagonist protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samundi Sankari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS associated with diabetes leads to challenging situations seeking alternative treatments. In vitro maturation (IVM followed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI could overcome the challenges with promising pregnancies in such patients. In the treatment of a 32-year-old diabetic woman who also had PCOS, single immature oocyte was retrieved. Rescue IVM followed by ICSI yielded a grade 1 day 3 embryo which on transferring resulted in pregnancy and a healthy infant was delivered. Rescue IVM–ICSI could help in achieving pregnancy and live birth. Stimulation involving clomiphene and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist is an effective and patient-friendly protocol for women with PCOS and diabetes and also for poor responders.

  8. Immunomodulatory treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin and prednisone in patients with recurrent miscarriage and implantation failure after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyborg, Kathinka Marie; Kolte, Astrid Marie; Larsen, Elisabeth Clare

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess outcome in terms of live-birth rate after fresh or frozen IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles where immunomodulation was given to patients with recurrent pregnancy loss after prior ART treatments. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study....... SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PATIENT(S): Fifty-two patients with a history of at least three consecutive pregnancy losses after ART who underwent at least one further ART cycle with concurrent immunomodulation in 2003-2012. INTERVENTION(S): Immunomodulation with IV immunoglobulin...... and prednisone starting from before ET and continuing in the first trimester if pregnancy was established. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live-birth rate per ET and cumulative live-birth rate after up to five ETs. RESULT(S): Nineteen patients (36.5%) achieved a live birth after the first ET with immunomodulation...

  9. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  10. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Progesterone elevation (PE during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the

  11. Association Between Progesterone Elevation on the Day of Human Chronic Gonadotropin Trigger and Pregnancy Outcomes After Fresh Embryo Transfer in In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C.; Khastgir, Gautam; Shah, Jatin; Murdia, Kshitiz; Gupta, Shweta Mittal; Rao, Durga G.; Dash, Soumyaroop; Ingale, Kundan; Patil, Milind; Moideen, Kunji; Thakor, Priti; Dewda, Pavitra

    2018-01-01

    Progesterone elevation (PE) during the late follicular phase of controlled ovarian stimulation in fresh embryo transfer in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles has been claimed to be associated with decreased pregnancy rates. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and clinicians still have questions about the clinical validity of measuring P levels during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles. We reviewed the existing literature aimed at answering four relevant clinical questions, namely (i) Is gonadotropin type associated with PE during the follicular phase of stimulated cycles? (ii) Is PE on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) associated with negative fresh embryo transfer IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles outcomes in all patient subgroups? (iii) Which P thresholds are best to identify patients at risk of implantation failure due to PE in a fresh embryo transfer? and (iv) Should a freeze all policy be adopted in all the cycles with PE on the day of hCG? The existing evidence indicates that late follicular phase progesterone rise in gonadotropin releasing analog cycles is mainly caused by the supraphysiological stimulation of granulosa cells with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone. Yet, the type of gonadotropin used for stimulation seems to play no significant role on progesterone levels at the end of stimulation. Furthermore, PE is not a universal phenomenon with evidence indicating that its detrimental consequences on pregnancy outcomes do not affect all patient populations equally. Patients with high ovarian response to control ovarian stimulation are more prone to exhibit PE at the late follicular phase. However, in studies showing an overall detrimental effect of PE on pregnancy rates, the adverse effect of PE on endometrial receptivity seems to be offset, at least in part, by the availability of good quality embryo for transfer in women with a high ovarian response. Given the limitations of

  12. Normal live births after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a man with the rare condition of Eagle-Barrett syndrome (prune-belly syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Steven D; Varughese, Elizabeth; Hua, Vi-Khiem; Robertson, Amanda; Dalzell, Fiona; Boothroyd, Clare V

    2013-12-01

    To report the first live births of male infants resulting from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using spermatozoa from a man with Eagle-Barrett syndrome (EBS). Case report. Assisted conception unit within a private hospital. An infertile couple. An infertile couple received repeated treatment with ICSI. Clinical pregnancy and a normal live birth. In 2008, after microinjection of ten oocytes, the transfer of a single expanded blastocyst led to the premature birth of a morphologically normal male infant at 18 weeks' gestation. This outcome followed preterm rupture of membranes and possible cervical incompetence. In 2009, after microinjection of six oocytes, transfer of a single 5-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy, with emergency cervical cerclage being performed at 21 weeks. A healthy male infant was born at 30 weeks, with no evidence of EBS, by lower-segment cesarean section for breech presentation and premature labor. In 2012, after elective laparoscopic placement of cervical suture, microinjection of ten oocytes and transfer of a single 4-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy with a healthy male infant, with no evidence of EBS, being born by cesarean section at 38 weeks. This report suggests that EBS is not transmitted to male offspring via ICSI. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of the first in vitro fertilization cycle for unexplained infertility: a cost-effectiveness analysis of split in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitek, Wendy S; Galárraga, Omar; Klatsky, Peter C; Robins, Jared C; Carson, Sandra A; Blazar, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    To determine the cost-effectiveness of split IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for the treatment of couples with unexplained infertility. Adaptive decision model. Academic infertility clinic. A total of 154 couples undergoing a split IVF-ICSI cycle and a computer-simulated cohort of women IVF. Modeling insemination method in the first IVF cycle as all IVF, split IVF-ICSI, or all ICSI, and adapting treatment based on fertilization outcomes. Live birth rate, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In a single cycle, all IVF is preferred as the ICER of split IVF-ICSI or all ICSI ($58,766) does not justify the increased live birth rate (3%). If two cycles are needed, split IVF/ICSI is preferred as the increased cumulative live birth rate (3.3%) is gained at an ICER of $29,666. In a single cycle, all IVF was preferred as the increased live birth rate with split IVF-ICSI and all ICSI was not justified by the increased cost per live birth. If two IVF cycles are needed, however, split IVF/ICSI becomes the preferred approach, as a result of the higher cumulative live birth rate compared with all IVF and the lesser cost per live birth compared with all ICSI. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of estradiol and progesterone priming/antagonist/letrozole and microdose flare-up protocols for poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Oguz; Ekin, Murat; Cengiz, Hüseyin; Zebitay, Ali Galip; Yalcinkaya, Sener; Karahuseyinoglu, Sercin

    2014-09-01

    To compare the effect of the GnRH antagonist/letrozole/gonadotropin protocol with the microdose GnRH agonist flare-up protocol in poor ovarian responders for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients suspected of having or with a history of poor ovarian response between January 2009 and June 2010, who were undergoing ICSI were enrolled. The microdose flareup (MF) protocol was used in 79 patients and the estradiol + progesterone/letrozole + gonadotropin and GnRH antagonist (EP/ALG) protocol was used in 42 patients. Age of the patients, duration of infertility, basal FSH, the total gonadotropin consumption, duration of stimulation, E2 level on the day of hCG administration, the number of embryo transferred, the fertilization rate, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate and the live birth rate were not statistically different (p > 0.05). Only the number of oocytes retrieved was significantly higher in the EP/LGA group (1.7 ± 0.7 versus 2.6 ± 0.6). The EP/LGA protocol has no significant improvement against the microdose flare-up protocol in poor responder patients.

  15. Comparison of intracytoplasmic sperm injection with testicular spermatozoa success in infertile men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia; a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ibrahim; Berker, Bulent; Sukur, Yavuz Emre; Kahraman, Korhan; Ates, Can

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and embryo transfer between couples with infertility due to male non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and obstructive azoospermia (OA). A retrospective analysis of 234 couples with azoospermia who were treated by ICSI and embryo transfer between January 2007 and October 2010 was performed. There were 61 couples in NOA group and 173 couples in OA group. Fertilization rates, pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates were the main outcome measures. The number of retrieved mature oocytes, injected oocytes, metaphase II (MII) oocytes, two distinct pronuclei oocytes, cleavage embryos and embryos transferred was not significantly different between the groups. The fertilization rate was significantly lower in NOA group when compared to OA group (56.2 vs. 66.7%, respectively; p = 0.013) and the pregnancy rate was significantly lower in NOA group than OA group (36.1 vs. 50.9%, respectively; p = 0.046). The clinical pregnancy rates were not statistically different between the patients with NOA and OA azoospermia groups (24.6 vs. 36.4%, respectively; p = 0.09). This study suggests that ICSI and embryo transfer together with testicular sperm extraction results in statistically significant lower fertilization and pregnancy rates in men with NOA when compared to men with OA.

  16. Has the prevalence of congenital abnormalities after intracytoplasmic sperm injection increased? The Leuven data 1994-2000 and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindryckx, An; Peeraer, Karen; Debrock, Sophie; Legius, Eric; de Zegher, Francis; Francois, Inge; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Demyttenaere, Koen; Rijkers, Anna; D'Hooghe, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Although intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is now accepted as the treatment of choice for severe male infertility, concerns about its safety and the potential risks for the offspring remain. We reviewed the literature with respect to the prevalence of major congenital malformations after the ICSI technique and supplemented these data with the results of a prospective follow-up study performed in our center. From January 1994 till June 2000, 776 ICSI cycles were carried out at the Leuven University Fertility Center. The resulting pregnancies (n = 172) were followed for biochemical and obstetrical parameters, prenatal diagnosis and congenital abnormalities. A total of 134/172 (78%) ongoing pregnancies resulted in 132 deliveries of 166 live born children. Two terminations of pregnancy were carried out due to the presence of major congenital anomalies, diagnosed at prenatal ultrasound. Prenatal diagnosis was carried out in 55 fetuses. Two de novo chromosomal aberrations were found. Major congenital abnormalities were observed at birth in 9/150 (6.0%) children. The total malformation rate was 6.5%. The prevalence of congenital abnormalities in children born after ICSI in our center (6.5%) was comparable to the prevalence of congenital abnormalities after ICSI reported in the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Comparison of clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in IVF-ICSI split insemination cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jae Hyun; Park, Yong-Seog; Yang, Kwang Moon; Lim, Chun Kyu

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in sibling oocytes. Additionally, we evaluated whether the implementation of split insemination contributed to an increase in the number of ICSI procedures. A total of 571 cycles in 555 couples undergoing split insemination cycles were included in this study. Among them, 512 cycles (89.7%) were a couple's first IVF cycle. The patients were under 40 years of age and at least 10 oocytes were retrieved in all cycles. Sibling oocytes were randomly allocated to IVF or ICSI. Total fertilization failure was significantly more common in IVF cycles than in ICSI cycles (4.0% vs. 1.4%, p cycles than in IVF cycles (17.2% vs. 11.4%, p cycle and the second cycle, split insemination or ICSI was performed in 18 of the 95 cycles in which a second IVF cycle was performed. The clinical outcomes did not differ between IVF and ICSI in split insemination cycles. Split insemination can decrease the risk of total fertilization failure. However, unnecessary ICSI is carried out in most split insemination cycles and the use of split insemination might make ICSI more common.

  18. Assisted Hatching and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection are not Associated with Improved Outcomes in ART Cycles for Diminished Ovarian Reserve: An Analysis of US Cycles from 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Samantha F.; Owen, Carter; Mainigi, Monica; Senapati, Suneeta; Seifer, David B.; Dokras, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and assisted hatching (AH) on ART outcomes in cycles with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) as the primary diagnosis. Design Retrospective cohort study of cycles from the SART-CORS database. Setting NA. Patient(s) A total of 422,949 fresh, non-donor, initial ART cycles of which 8,597 were diagnosed with only elevated FSH and 38,926 were diagnosed with only DOR according to the SART DOR categorization. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Live birth and clinical pregnancy rates. Result(s) ICSI and AH were associated with diminished odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles (AOR, 95% CI 0.88, 0.81–0.96 for ICSI; AOR, 95% CI 0.77 0.71–0.84 for AH). No association between either ICSI or AH in Elevated FSH only cycles was observed. The combination of ICSI and AH resulted in significantly lower odds of live birth in SART DOR only cycles but not in Elevated FSH only cycles. Conclusion(s) In initial ART cycles for which the only indication relates to a diagnosis of diminished ovarian reserve, assisted hatching and ICSI are not associated with improved live birth rates. PMID:25086790

  19. Pregnancy after preimplantation diagnosis for a deletion in the dystrophin gene by polymerase chain reaction in embryos obtained after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lissens, W.; Liu, J.; Van Broeckhoven, C. [University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common X-linked recessive diseases. In order to be able to perform a DMD-specific preimplantation diagnosis (PID) in a female carrier of a deletion of exons 3 to 18 in the dystrophin gene, we have developed a PCR assay to detect the deletion based on sequences of exon 17. The efficiency of this PCR was evaluated on 50 single blastomeres from 12 normal control embryos and on 41 blastomeres for 9 male and 3 female embryos from the female DMD carrier, obtained after a first preimplantation diagnosis by sexing. The exon 17 region was amplified with 100% efficiency, except in all 21 blastomeres from 6 male embryos from the carrier where no PCR signals were observed. The negative results in these blastomeres were interpreted as being found only in male embryos carrying the deletion. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was carried out on the carrier`s metaphase II oocytes retrieved after ovarian stimulation. Embryos were analyzed for the presence of exon 17 and 2 male embryos were found to be deleted, while 4 embryos showed normal amplification signals. Three of the latter embryos were replaced, resulting in a singleton pregnancy. Amniotic cell analysis showed a normal female karyotype and DNA analysis indicated a non-carrier.

  20. Does flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval affect pregnancy rates in subfertile women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashish, N M; Badway, H S; Abdelmoty, H I; Mowafy, A; Youssef, M A F M

    2014-05-01

    Follicular fluid of mature oocytes is rich in growth factors and cytokines that may exert paracrine and autocrine effects on implantation. The aim of this study was to investigate if flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval improved pregnancy rates in subfertile women undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). One hundred subfertile women undergoing ICSI between April 2012 and September 2012 at the centre for reproductive medicine, Cairo University, Egypt were enrolled in this open label, parallel randomized controlled study. Patients were randomized into two groups at the start of treatment using a computer-generated programme and sealed opaque envelopes: the follicular fluid group (n=50) and the control group (n=50). Inclusion criteria were: age 20-38 years; basal follicle-stimulating hormone 1000pg/ml and failure in previous in-vitro fertilization/ICSI cycles; and severe male factor infertility. Clinical pregnancy and implantation rates were higher in the follicular fluid group compared with the control group [354% (17/48) vs 319% (15/47); p=0718] and (18.6% vs 11.3%; p=0.153), respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Flushing the endometrial cavity with follicular fluid after oocyte retrieval neither improved nor adversely affected clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in subfertile women undergoing ICSI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal age and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome in infertile couples at Khartoum, Sudan [version 1; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI was considered as the mainstay of treatment for male infertility. Nowadays, the scope of ICSI has been widened to include other causes of infertility. There are few published data on ICSI in countries with low incomes. Aims A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad AbuAlla and Banoun Centers, Khartoum, Sudan to investigate outcomes of ICSI and to determine the parameters that might predict pregnancy success rate following ICSI. Methods The study included 191 infertile couples who underwent 296 ICSI cycles between 1st April 2013 and 31 March 2014. Results One hundred and ninety one couples (comprising 296 cycles of ICSI were enrolled to the study. The mean (SD number of retrieved oocytes was 9.7 (7.5.  The mean (SD number of transferred embryos was 2.9 (1.0. Out of these, 50 (26.2% and 40 (20.9% had chemical and clinical pregnancy, respectively. Thirty–six couples (18.8% and five couples (2.6% had miscarriage and had ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Under logistic regression, younger age (OR = 0.8, 95% CI= 0.81 ─ 0.96, P = 0.004 and endometrial thickness (OR = 1.3, 95% CI= 1.07─1.60, P = 0.009 were the significant predictors for the success of ICSI in inducing pregnancy. Conclusion                 The rates of successful fertilisation and pregnancy-to-term rates in this setting depend mainly on the maternal age.

  2. Monomeric RC-LH1 core complexes retard LH2 assembly and intracytoplasmic membrane formation in PufX-minus mutants of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter G; Mothersole, David J; Ng, Irene W; Olsen, John D; Hunter, C Neil

    2011-09-01

    In the model photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides domains of light-harvesting 2 (LH2) complexes surround and interconnect dimeric reaction centre-light-harvesting 1-PufX (RC-LH1-PufX) 'core' complexes, forming extensive networks for energy transfer and trapping. These complexes are housed in spherical intracytoplasmic membranes (ICMs), which are assembled in a stepwise process where biosynthesis of core complexes tends to dominate the early stages of membrane invagination. The kinetics of LH2 assembly were measured in PufX mutants that assemble monomeric core complexes, as a consequence of either a twelve-residue N-terminal truncation of PufX (PufXΔ12) or the complete removal of PufX (PufX(-)). Lower rates of LH2 assembly and retarded maturation of membrane invagination were observed for the larger and less curved ICM from the PufX(-) mutant, consistent with the proposition that local membrane curvature, initiated by arrays of bent RC-LH1-PufX dimers, creates a favourable environment for stable assembly of LH2 complexes. Transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution atomic force microscopy were used to examine ICM morphology and membrane protein organisation in these mutants. Some partitioning of core and LH2 complexes was observed in PufX(-) membranes, resulting in locally ordered clusters of monomeric RC-LH1 complexes. The distribution of core and LH2 complexes in the three types of membrane examined is consistent with previous models of membrane curvature and domain formation (Frese et al., 2008), which demonstrated that a combination of crowding and asymmetries in sizes and shapes of membrane protein complexes drives membrane organisation. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of the male factor on the clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection combined with preimplantation aneuploidy testing: observational longitudinal cohort study of 1,219 consecutive cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Rossella; Cimadomo, Danilo; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Capalbo, Antonio; Dovere, Lisa; Alviggi, Erminia; Dusi, Ludovica; Foresta, Carlo; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Tournaye, Herman; Alviggi, Carlo; Rienzi, Laura; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of the male factor on the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles combined with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A). Observational longitudinal cohort study. Private in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. A total of 1,219 oocyte retrievals divided into five study groups according to sperm parameters: normozoospermia (N), moderate male factor (MMF), severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT-S), obstructive azoospermia (OA), and nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). ICSI with ejaculated/surgically retrieved sperm, blastocyst culture, trophectoderm-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction PGT-A, and frozen-warmed euploid embryo transfer (ET). The primary outcome measures were fertilization, blastocyst development, and euploidy rates; the secondary outcome measures were live birth and miscarriage rates. Perinatal and obstetrical outcomes were monitored as well. A total of 9,042 metaphase II oocytes were inseminated. The fertilization rate was significantly reduced in MMF, OAT-S, OA, and NOA compared with N (74.8%, 68.7%, 67.3%, and 53.1% vs. 77.2%). The blastocyst rate per fertilized oocyte was significantly reduced in MMF and NOA compared with N (48.6% and 40.6% vs. 49.3%). The timing of blastocyst development also was affected in OA and NOA. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounders highlighted NOA as a negative predictor of obtaining an euploid blastocyst per OPU (odds ratio 0.5). When the analysis was performed per obtained blastocyst, however, no correlation between male factor and euploidy rate was observed. Embryo transfers also resulted in similar live birth and miscarriage rates. No impact of sperm factor on obstetrical/perinatal outcomes was observed. Severe male factor impairs early embryonic competence in terms of fertilization rate and developmental potential. However, the euploidy rate and implantation potential of the obtained blastocysts are independent from sperm quality

  4. Impact of GnRH analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigó János

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the clinical outcomes of ovarian stimulation with either GnRH-agonist or GnRH-antagonist analogues for in vitro fertilization (IVF being well analysed, the effect of analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development is still not known in detail. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the efficacy of a multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol with that of the GnRH agonist long protocol with a view to oocyte and embryo quality, embryo development and IVF treatment outcome. Methods Between October 2001 and December 2008, 100 patients were stimulated with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG and GnRH antagonist in their first treatment cycle for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. One hundred combined GnRH agonist + HMG (long protocol cycles were matched to the GnRH antagonist + HMG cycles by age, BMI, baseline FSH levels and by cause of infertility. We determined the number and quality of retrieved oocytes, the rate of early-cleavage embryos, the morphology and development of embryos, as well as clinical pregnancy rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank sum test and McNemar's chi-square test. P Results The rate of cytoplasmic abnormalities in retrieved oocytes was significantly higher with the use of GnRH antagonist than in GnRH agonist cycles (62.1% vs. 49.9%; P Conclusion Antagonist seemed to influence favourably some parameters of early embryo development dynamics, while other morphological parameters seemed not to be altered according to GnRH analogue used for ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles.

  5. Miopatia nemalínica com corpos intracitoplasmáticos esferúides: relato de caso Nemalinic myopathy with intracytoplasmic spheroid bodies: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga C. A. Azevedo

    1996-03-01

    , cytochrome oxidase and Oil-red-o revealed a primary muscular disease characterized by the presence of nemalinic and intracytoplasmic spheroid bodies. Nemalinic bodies have been described with different structural abnormalities of muscle fibers; however, such association is rare. This is the second case report of concomitant occurrence of nemalinic and spheroid bodies.

  6. Letrozole in a low-cost in vitro fertilization protocol in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles for male factor infertility: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiuli Mukherjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Letrozole, a selective aromatase inhibitor, reduces the total dose of gonadotrophin required for inducing follicular maturation. We evaluated if incorporation of letrozole could be an effective alternative for low-cost in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol particularly in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles where male factor infertility is the sole indication for IVF. Materials and Methods: It is a randomized controlled single-blind trial. 94 women with history of severe male factor infertility were selected. 42 women (study group received letrozole, 5 mg daily from day 3-7 and recombinant FSH (rFSH 75IU/day from day 5 continuously till hCG injection. 52 women (control group underwent continuous stimulation by rFSH (150-225IU/day from day 2. GnRH-antagonist (Inj. Orgalutran 0.25 ml sub-cutaneous was started at maximum follicle size of 14 in both groups. Ovulation was triggered by 10,000IU of hCG followed by IVF-ET. Main outcome measures were total dose of rFSH (IU/cycle, terminal E2 (pg/ml, number of mature follicles, number of oocyte retrieved, transferable embryo, endometrial thickness, pregnancy rate and mean expenditure. Statistical analysis is done by using SPSS11. Results :0 As compared to control group (1756 ± 75IU, the study group i.e., Let-rFSH received (625 ± 98IU significantly lower (P = 0.0001 total dose of rFSH. Terminal E2 was significantly lower (P = 0.0001 in study group than control (830 ± 36 vs. 1076 ± 41 pg/ml with significant increment in endometrial thickness (P = 0.0008 in study group, (9.1 ± 0.32 vs. 8.7 ± 0.69 which maintained an improved pregnancy rate though nonsignificant. The risk of hyperstimulation had significantly (P = 0.01 reduced in study group than control (0 vs. 7.Treatment outcome in all other aspects including pregnancy rate were statistically comparable. Per cycle mean expenditure was reduced by 34% in study group than control. Conclusion: Adjunctive use of letrozole may be an

  7. Complete mole in a dichorionic twin pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection Mola hidatiforme completa em gravidez bicoriônica após injecção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides

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    Tiago José Santos de Matos Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A dichorionic twin pregnancy with complete hydatidiform mole and coexistent fetus is a rare and challenging situation, whose pathogenesis has not been yet fully understood. We present a case of a 39-year-old woman who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection with two embryos transfer. The 12-week gestation ultrasound examination revealed normal fetus and placenta with features of hydatidiform mole, leading to pregnancy termination. Autopsy and histological examinations diagnosed a complete mole coexisting with a normal fetus, and the genetic analysis showed a diploid fetus with biparental genome and molar tissue with paternal diploidy. This case highlighted that complete molar pregnancies may still occur even though pregnancy is achieved after intracytoplasmic sperm injection. A review of the literature was performed by collecting data from the few similar reported cases and by commenting on the pathogenesis of this rare condition.Uma gravidez bicoriônica com mola hidatiforme completa e feto normal é uma situação rara e desafiadora, cuja patogênese não foi ainda totalmente compreendida. Apresenta-se o caso de uma mulher de 39 anos submetida à injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides com transferência de dois embriões. Na ecografia pré-natal realizada na 12ª semana de gestação, foi identificado um embrião morfologicamente normal e uma placenta com características molares. Esta situação resultou na terminação eletiva da gravidez. A autópsia e o estudo histológico permitiram o diagnóstico definitivo de uma mola hidatiforme completa coexistindo com feto normal. A análise genética mostrou feto diploide com genoma biparental e tecido molar com diploidia paterna. Este caso ressaltou que as gestações com mola hidatiforme completa poderão ainda ocorrer, mesmo que a gravidez seja realizada após uma injeção intracitoplasmática de espermatozoides. Foram realizadas uma revisão dos raros casos descritos na literatura

  8. Effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an analysis of 27,158 singleton infants born after fresh single-embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Mikiko; Jwa, Seung Chik; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru; Saito, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of semen quality on human sex ratio in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. A total of 27,158 singleton infants born between 2007 and 2012 after fresh single-embryo transfer. None. Proportion of male infants among liveborn infants. There were 14,996 infants born after IVF, 12,164 infants born after ICSI with ejaculated sperm, and 646 infants born after ICSI with nonejaculated sperm. The sex ratio of IVF was 53.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3-53.9); the sex ratio of ICSI with ejaculated and nonejaculated sperm demonstrated as statistically significant reduction (48.2%; 95% CI, 47.3-49.1 and 47.7%; 95% CI, 43.8-51.6, respectively). In IVF, lower sperm motility, including asthenozoospermia (sperm motility ratio compared with normal sperm (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.6-53.3 vs. 53.4%; 95% CI, 52.5-54.3). In ICSI with ejaculated sperm, there was no association between sperm motility and sex ratio. Sperm concentration was not associated with sex ratio in both IVF and ICSI. In IVF, lower sperm motility was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio; ICSI with either ejaculated or nonejaculated sperm was associated with a statistically significant reduction in sex ratio regardless of semen quality. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist flare-up protocol versus multiple dose gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Korhan; Berker, Bulent; Atabekoglu, Cem Somer; Sonmezer, Murat; Cetinkaya, Esra; Aytac, Rusen; Satiroglu, Hakan

    2009-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of microdose GnRH agonist (GnRH-a) flare-up and multiple dose GnRH antagonist protocols in patients who have a poor response to a long luteal GnRH-a protocol. Prospective, randomized, clinical study. University hospital. Forty-two poor responder patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-embryo transfer cycle. Twenty-one patients received microdose leuprolide acetate (LA) (50 microg twice daily) starting on the second day of withdrawal bleeding. The other 21 patients received 0.25 mg of cetrorelix daily when the leading follicle reached 14 mm in diameter. Serum E(2) levels, number of growing follicles and mature oocytes, embryo quality, dose of gonadotropin used, cancellation, fertilization, implantation rate and pregnancy rate (PR). The mean serum E(2) concentration on the day of hCG administration was significantly higher in the microdose GnRH-a group than in the GnRH antagonist group (1,904 vs. 1,362 pg/mL). The clinical PRs per started cycle of microdose GnRH-a and GnRH antagonist groups were 14.2% and 9.5%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the other ovulation induction characteristics, fertilization and implantation rates. Microdose GnRH-a flare-up protocol and multiple dose GnRH antagonist protocol seem to have similar efficacy in improving treatment outcomes of poor responder patients.

  10. Nucleolar re-activation is delayed in mouse embryos cloned from two different cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarcova, Olga; Dinnyes, A.; Polgar, Z.

    2009-01-01

    displayed early NPBs transformation. In conclusion, despite normal onset of EGA in cloned embryos, activation of functional nucleoli was one cell cycle delayed in NT embryos. NT-MEF embryos displayed normal targeting but delayed activation of nucleolar proteins. Contrary, in NT-HM1 embryos, both......Aim of this study was to evaluate and compare embryonic genome activation (EGA) in mouse embryos of different origin using nucleolus as a marker. Early and late 2-cell and late 4-cell stage embryos, prepared by in vitro fertilization (IVF), parthenogenetic activation (PG), and nuclear transfer...... ofmouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and mouse HM1 emryonic stem cells (HM1), were processed for autoradiography following 3H-uridine incubation (transcriptional activity), transmission electron microscopy (ultrastructure) and immunofluorescence (nucleolar proteins; upstream binding factor, UBF...

  11. Female age, serum antimüllerian hormone level, and number of oocytes affect the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Argento, Cindy; Grisendi, Valentina; Fiorentino, Francesco; Greco, Ermanno

    2017-11-01

    To study the relative role of female age and ovarian reserve, measured through serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in determining the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Retrospective analysis of cycles performed in 2014-2015. Tertiary referral IVF center. A total of 578 infertile couples undergoing IVF/ICSI and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) analysis. All embryos were cultured and biopsied at the blastocyst stage. The method involved whole-genome amplification followed by array comparative genome hybridization. Serum AMH was measured by means of the modified Beckman Coulter AMH Gen II assay. The rate and number of euploid blastocysts and their correlation with ovarian reserve and response to stimulation. The mean (±SD) age of patients was 37.6 ± 4.1 years, and the mean number of blastocysts per patient was 3.1 ± 2. The total number of blastocysts available to the analysis was 1,814, and 36% of them were euploid after PGS. Age and serum AMH were significantly and independently related to the rate of euploid blastocysts available for patients. As an effect of the cohort size, the number of mature oocytes positively affected the total number of euploid blastocysts per patient. A strong positive age-independent relationship between AMH level and the rate of euploid blastocysts was found. This confirms that the measurement of ovarian reserve by means of AMH has high relevance when counseling infertile patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High exposure to progesterone between the end of menstruation and the day of triggering final oocyte maturation is associated with a decreased probability of pregnancy in patients treated by in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrou, Dimitra; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Fatemi, Human M; Camus, Michel; Tournaye, Herman; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Devroey, Paul

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the association between the probability of pregnancy and hormone exposure between the end of menstruation and the day of triggering final oocyte maturation (menstruation-free interval). Prospective study. University. One hundred women (aged ≤ 39 years) stimulated with a fixed dose of recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (200 IU). Daily gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH, 0.25 mg) used from day 6 of stimulation onward, final oocyte maturation triggered by administration of 10,000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) as soon as ≥ 3 follicles ≥ 17 mm were present, and hormone assessment performed at initiation of stimulation, on the first day after menstruation had stopped, on the day of antagonist initiation, and on the day of hCG administration. The association between hormone exposure during the menstruation-free interval and the probability of ongoing pregnancy. The exposure to progesterone during the menstruation-free interval was statistically significantly higher in patients who did not become pregnant compared with those who did (4.20 ± 2.54 vs. 3.13 ± 1.14, respectively). Binary logistic regression confirmed the adverse effect of the increased exposure to progesterone for the achievement of pregnancy. In recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone/gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, a lower probability of pregnancy is associated with a higher exposure to progesterone during the menstruation-free interval. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension and operative delivery after conception induced by in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection in women aged 40 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshimitsu, Masatake; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Takaaki; Iwasawa-Kawai, Yuki; Komatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2014-10-01

    To clarify the association between preconception fertility status and obstetric outcomes in women aged 40 years and older. Retrospective study by reviewing medical records. Tertiary perinatal center in a university hospital. 330 women aged 40 years and older who delivered a singleton from 2006 to 2010, and 450 women aged 30 to 34 years who delivered at the same facility as controls. None. Incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, low birth weight, and mode of delivery assessed based on the mode of conception; spontaneous conception (SC) and in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection conception (IVF-ICSI). The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was statistically significantly higher in IVF-ICSI group than the SC group. This gap was commonly observed in both the women aged 40 years and older and those in the 30 to 34 age group. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, or low birth weight. As a characteristic of nulliparous women of advanced age, the rate of operative delivery, which includes emergency cesarean section and instrumental delivery, was statistically significantly higher in IVF-ICSI group than in the SC group. Detailed investigation into the medical indications for operative delivery revealed that the difference was attributable to the elevated incidence of labor protraction and arrest. Preconception fertility status can be a predicting factor of the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and labor outcome, especially for women aged 40 years and older. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Artificial oocyte activation with calcium ionophore for frozen sperm cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, Seda; Aksünger, Özlem; Ata, Can; Sağıroglu, Yusuf; Keskin, İlknur

    2018-04-05

    Fertilization problems are the major problems that may be faced in 30-55% of the patients during an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle. A successful oocyte activation depends on factors related to both sperm and oocyte, and one of the important factors that mediates the process is Ca 2+ concentration within the oocyte. Artificial oocyte activation (AOA) is a method used for fertilization problems that commonly involve the usage of Ca 2+ ionophores and is usually used in problems such as total fertilization failure (TFF) and globozoospermia. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible effects of AOA for different groups of patients with fertilization failure. Four groups of patients (previous TFF, low oocyte number, severe sperm quality, and frozen sperm (FS) group) that underwent ICSI with AOA were included in the study. All groups had similar control groups with same indications except TFF, where AOA was not performed. Fertilization rates were significantly higher in the TFF group than those observed in other AOA groups. Fertilization rates and quality of embryos observed in the remaining AOA groups were higher than those of the controls, which were statistically insignificant. Prgenancy rates were higher in all AOA groups compared to the controls, although the differences were significant in FS group only. Quality of embryos and pregnancy rates were lower in the TFF group compared to the remaining AOA groups indicating possible concomitant problems. Fertilization rates, quality of embryos and pregnancy rates seemed to be increased in all indication groups suggesting that not only TFF patients but also a wide variety of patients with different indications may benefit from AOA. ICSI: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection; ARTs: Assisted reproductive techniques; Ca: Calcium; AOA: Artificial oocyte activation; TFF: Total fertilization failures; OAT: Oligoasthenoteratozoospemia; IVF: In vitro fertilization; SOAT: Severe OAT; LON: Low ooctye number

  15. Paternal inheritance of B chromosomes in a parthenogenetic hermaphrodite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Seif, Miriam; Mettenmeyer, Thomas; Plowman, Amy B.; Michiels, Nicolaas K.

    1996-01-01

    B chromosomes are dispensable elements extra to the standard (A) chromosome complement. They have been described from many sexually reproducing species where they often exploit meiosis to accumulate from one generation to the next. Polycelis nigra is a simultaneously hermaphroditic flatworm that can

  16. Cyst quality and hatching in parthenogenetic brine shrimp, Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Ramaiah, N.

    ) enhance the percentage of hatching of the cysts. On the basis of naupliar size, low ash content and high protein content it can be suggested that this strain is likely to be preferred by predators...

  17. Parthenogenetic stem cells for tissue-engineered heart repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didie, Michael; Christalla, Peter; Rubart, Michael; Muppala, Vijayakumar; Doeker, Stephan; Unsoeld, Bernhard; El-Armouche, Ali; Rau, Thomas; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Schwoerer, Alexander P.; Ehmke, Heimo; Schumacher, Udo; Fuchs, Sigrid; Lange, Claudia; Becker, Alexander; Tao, Wen; Scherschel, John A.; Soonpaa, Mark H.; Yang, Tao; Lin, Qiong; Zenke, Martin; Han, Dong-Wook; Schoeler, Hans R.; Rudolph, Cornelia; Steinemann, Doris; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Kattman, Steve; Witty, Alec; Keller, Gordon; Field, Loren J.; Zimmermann, Wolfram-Hubertus

    Uniparental parthenotes are considered an unwanted byproduct of in vitro fertilization. In utero parthenote development is severely compromised by defective organogenesis and in particular by defective cardiogenesis. Although developmentally compromised, apparently pluripotent stem cells can be

  18. Using parthenogenetic lineages to identify advantages of sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neiman, Maurine; Schwander, Tanja

    The overwhelming predominance of sexual reproduction in nature is surprising given that sex is expected to confer profound costs in terms of production of males and the breakup of beneficial allele combinations. Recognition of these theoretical costs was the inspiration for a large body of empirical

  19. Non-hyperfunctioning nodules from multinodular goiters: a minor role in pathogenesis for somatic activating mutations in the TSH-receptor and Gsalpha subunit genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrien, C; Sonnet, E; Gicquel, I; Le Gall, J Y; Poirier, J Y; David, V; Maugendre, D

    2001-05-01

    Constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway stimulates thyrocyte proliferation. Gain-of-function mutations in Gsalpha protein have already been identified in thyroid nodules which have lost the ability to trap iodine. In contrast, most of the studies failed to detect somatic activating mutations in the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) in non-hyperfunctioning thyroid tumors. The aim of this study was to screen for mutations TSH-R exon 10, encoding the whole intracytoplasmic area involved in signal transduction, and Gsalpha exons 8 and 9, containing the two hot-spot codons 201 and 227, in a subset of non-hyperfunctioning nodules from multinodular goiter. Identified by matching ultrasonography and scintiscan, 22 eufunctioning (normal 99Tc uptake) and 15 nonfunctioning (decreased 99Tc uptake) nodules from 27 non-toxic multinodular goiters were isolated. After DNA extraction, TSH-R exon 10 was analyzed by direct sequencing of the PCR products and Gsalpha exons 8 and 9 by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. No mutation of TSH-R or Gsalpha was detected in the 37 nodules analyzed. This absence of mutation, despite the use of two sensitive screening methods associated with the analysis of the TSH-R whole intracytoplasmic area and Gsalpha two hot-spot codons, suggests that TSH-R and Gsalpha play a minor role in the pathogenesis of non-toxic nodules from multinodular goiters.

  20. Gas6 downregulation impaired cytoplasmic maturation and pronuclear formation independent to the MPF activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeoung-Hwa Kim

    Full Text Available Previously, we found that the growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6 is more highly expressed in germinal vesicle (GV oocytes than in metaphase II (MII oocytes using annealing control primer (ACP-PCR technology. The current study was undertaken to investigate the role of Gas6 in oocyte maturation and fertilization using RNA interference (RNAi. Interestingly, despite the specific and marked decrease in Gas6 mRNA and protein expression in GVs after Gas6 RNAi, nuclear maturation including spindle structures and chromosome segregation was not affected. The only discernible effect induced by Gas6 RNAi was a change in maturation promoting factor (MPF activity. After parthenogenetic activation, Gas6 RNAi-treated oocytes at the MII stage had not developed further and arrested at MII (90.0%. After stimulation with Sr(2+, Gas6-silenced MII oocytes had markedly reduced Ca(2+ oscillation and exhibited no exocytosis of cortical granules. In these oocytes, sperm penetration occurred during fertilization but not pronucleus (PN formation. By roscovitine and colcemid treatment, we found that the Gas6 knockdown affected cytoplasmic maturation directly, independent to the changed MPF activity. These results strongly suggest that 1 the Gas6 signaling itself is important to the cytoplasmic maturation, but not nuclear maturation, and 2 the decreased Gas6 expression and decreased MPF activity separately or mutually influence sperm head decondensation and PN formation.

  1. Activation of maternal centrosomes in unfertilized sea urchin eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Walter, M.; Biessmann, H.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    Centrosomes are undetectable in unfertilized sea urchin eggs, and normally the sperm introduces the cell's microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) at fertilization. However, artificial activation or parthenogenesis triggers microtubule assembly in the unfertilized egg, and this study explores the reappearance and behavior of the maternal centrosome. During activation with A23187 or ammonia, microtubules appear first at the cortex; centrosomal antigen is detected diffusely throughout the entire cytoplasm. Later, the centrosome becomes more distinct and organizes a radial microtubule shell, and eventually a compact centrosome at the egg center organizes a monaster. In these activated eggs, centrosomes undergo cycles of compaction and decompaction in synchrony with the chromatin, which also undergoes cycles of condensation and decondensation. Parthenogenetic activation with heavy water (50% D2O) or the microtubule-stabilizing drug taxol (10 microM) induces numerous centrosomal foci in the unfertilized sea urchin egg. Within 15 min after incubation in D2O, numerous fine centrosomal foci are detected, and they organize a connected network of numerous asters which fill the entire egg. Taxol induces over 100 centrosomal foci by 15 min after treatment, which organize a corresponding number of asters. The centrosomal material in either D2O- or taxol-treated eggs aggregates with time to form fewer but denser foci, resulting in fewer and larger asters. Fertilization of eggs pretreated with either D2O or taxol shows that the paternal centrosome is dominant over the maternal centrosome. The centrosomal material gradually becomes associated with the enlarged sperm aster. These experiments demonstrate that maternal centrosomal material is present in the unfertilized egg, likely as dispersed undetectable material, which can be activated without paternal contributions. At fertilization, paternal centrosomes become dominant over the maternal centrosomal material.

  2. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages, limitations, outcomes, implications and safety of using IVF/ICSI for male factor infertility to enable a more judicious use of these techniques and maximize their potential benefits while minimizing foreseen complications. PMID:21716935

  3. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET, subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia. ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART, the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages, limitations, outcomes, implications and safety of using IVF/ICSI for male factor infertility to enable a more judicious use of these techniques and maximize their potential benefits while minimizing foreseen complications.

  4. Barcode tagging of human oocytes and embryos to prevent mix-ups in assisted reproduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Sergi; Nogués, Carme; Penon, Oriol; Barrios, Leonardo; Santaló, Josep; Gómez-Martínez, Rodrigo; Esteve, Jaume; Errachid, Abdelhamid; Plaza, José Antonio; Pérez-García, Lluïsa; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Is the attachment of biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes to the outer surface of the zona pellucida an effective approach for the direct tagging and identification of human oocytes and embryos during assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs)? The direct tagging system based on lectin-biofunctionalized polysilicon barcodes of micrometric dimensions is simple, safe and highly efficient, allowing the identification of human oocytes and embryos during the various procedures typically conducted during an assisted reproduction cycle. Measures to prevent mismatching errors (mix-ups) of the reproductive samples are currently in place in fertility clinics, but none of them are totally effective and several mix-up cases have been reported worldwide. Using a mouse model, our group has previously developed an effective direct embryo tagging system which does not interfere with the in vitro and in vivo development of the tagged embryos. This system has now been tested in human oocytes and embryos. Fresh immature and mature fertilization-failed oocytes (n = 21) and cryopreserved day 1 embryos produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) (n = 205) were donated by patients (n = 76) undergoing ARTs. In vitro development rates, embryo quality and post-vitrification survival were compared between tagged (n = 106) and non-tagged (control) embryos (n = 99). Barcode retention and identification rates were also calculated, both for embryos and for oocytes subjected to a simulated ICSI and parthenogenetic activation. Experiments were conducted from January 2012 to January 2013. Barcodes were fabricated in polysilicon and biofunctionalizated with wheat germ agglutinin lectin. Embryos were tagged with 10 barcodes and cultured in vitro until the blastocyst stage, when they were either differentially stained with propidium iodide and Hoechst or vitrified using the Cryotop method. Embryo quality was also analyzed by embryo grading and time

  5. Meiosis, egg activation, and nuclear envelope breakdown are differentially reliant on Ca2+, whereas germinal vesicle breakdown is Ca2+ independent in the mouse oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombes, R. M.; Simerly, C.; Borisy, G. G.; Schatten, G.

    1992-01-01

    During early development, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization is not only essential for fertilization, but has also been implicated during other meiotic and mitotic events, such as germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD). In this study, the roles of intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ were examined during meiotic maturation and reinitiation at parthenogenetic activation and during first mitosis in a single species using the same methodologies. Cumulus-free metaphase II mouse oocytes immediately resumed anaphase upon the induction of a large, transient Ca2+ elevation. This resumption of meiosis and associated events, such as cortical granule discharge, were not sensitive to extracellular Ca2+ removal, but were blocked by intracellular Ca2+ chelators. In contrast, meiosis I was dependent on external Ca2+; in its absence, the formation and function of the first meiotic spindle was delayed, the first polar body did not form and an interphase-like state was induced. GVBD was not dependent on external Ca2+ and showed no associated Ca2+ changes. NEBD at first mitosis in fertilized eggs, on the other hand, was frequently, but not always associated with a brief Ca2+ transient and was dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. We conclude that GVBD is Ca2+ independent, but that the dependence of NEBD on Ca2+ suggests regulation by more than one pathway. As cells develop from Ca(2+)-independent germinal vesicle oocytes to internal Ca(2+)-dependent pronuclear eggs, internal Ca2+ pools increase by approximately fourfold.

  6. IVF cycle cost estimation using Activity Based Costing and Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassettari, Lucia; Mosca, Marco; Mosca, Roberto; Rolando, Fabio; Costa, Mauro; Pisaturo, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    The Authors present a new methodological approach in stochastic regime to determine the actual costs of an healthcare process. The paper specifically shows the application of the methodology for the determination of the cost of an Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in Italy. The reason of this research comes from the fact that deterministic regime is inadequate to implement an accurate estimate of the cost of this particular treatment. In fact the durations of the different activities involved are unfixed and described by means of frequency distributions. Hence the need to determine in addition to the mean value of the cost, the interval within which it is intended to vary with a known confidence level. Consequently the cost obtained for each type of cycle investigated (in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection), shows tolerance intervals around the mean value sufficiently restricted as to make the data obtained statistically robust and therefore usable also as reference for any benchmark with other Countries. It should be noted that under a methodological point of view the approach was rigorous. In fact it was used both the technique of Activity Based Costing for determining the cost of individual activities of the process both the Monte Carlo simulation, with control of experimental error, for the construction of the tolerance intervals on the final result.

  7. Behavioral facilitation of reproduction in sexual and unisexual whiptail lizards.

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, D; Grassman, M; Lindzey, J

    1986-01-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Mating behavior accomplishes the transfer of gametes and stimulates the coordination of reproductive activity of the male and female. Cnemidophorus uniparens, a parthenogenetic species, is believed to have resulted from the hybridization of two extant gonochoristic species, Cnemidophorus inornatus and Cnemidophorus gularis. C. uniparens regularly and reliably perform behavio...

  8. Analysis of cat oocyte activation methods for the generation of feline disease models by nuclear transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrick Jason R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic cell nuclear transfer in cats offers a useful tool for the generation of valuable research models. However, low birth rates after nuclear transfer hamper exploitation of the full potential of the technology. Poor embryo development after activation of the reconstructed oocytes seems to be responsible, at least in part, for the low efficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the response of cat oocytes to various stimuli in order to fine-tune existing and possibly develop new activation methods for the generation of cat disease models by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Methods First, changes in the intracellular free calcium concentration [Ca2+]i in the oocytes induced by a number of artificial stimuli were characterized. The stimuli included electroporation, ethanol, ionomycin, thimerosal, strontium-chloride and sodium (Na+-free medium. The potential of the most promising treatments (with or without subsequent incubation in the presence of cycloheximide and cytochalasin B to stimulate oocyte activation and support development of the resultant parthenogenetic embryos was then evaluated. Finally, the most effective methods were selected to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer with fibroblasts from mucopolysaccharidosis I- and alpha-mannosidosis-affected cats. Results All treatments were able to elicit a [Ca2+]i elevation in the ooplasm with various characteristics. Pronuclear formation and development up to the blastocyst stage was most efficiently triggered by electroporation (60.5 +/- 2.9 and 11.5 +/- 1.7% and the combined thimerosal/DTT treatment (67.7 +/- 1.8 and 10.6 +/- 1.9%; incubation of the stimulated oocytes with cycloheximide and cytochalasin B had a positive effect on embryo development. When these two methods were used to activate oocytes reconstructed during nuclear transfer, up to 84.9% of the reconstructed oocytes cleaved. When the 2 to 4-cell embryos (a total of 220 were

  9. Construction and long term preservation of clonal transgenic silkworms using a parthenogenetic strain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zabelina, Valeriya; Uchino, K.; Mochida, Y.; Yonemura, N.; Klymenko, V.; Sezutsu, H.; Tamura, T.; Sehnal, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, Oct 01 (2015), s. 28-35 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GAP502/10/2382 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : silkworm * transgenesis * parthenogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.267, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022191015001304

  10. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess the relative success of sexual versus asexual lineages with an unusual morphology and life cycle.

  11. Evaluation of different feeds for optimal growth and survival of parthenogenetic brine shrimp, Artemia

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.

    intestinalis and Ulva fasciata). Rice bran yielded best growth at an optimal level of 0.1 and 0.5 mg.ml-1 d-1 respectively for 1-4 and 4-8 d old larvae. Rice bran was also the best food for outdoor cultures. Artemia fed rice bran took shortest time to reach...

  12. Analysis of expressed sequence tags of the cyclically parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushirou Suga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rotifers are among the most common non-arthropod animals and are the most experimentally tractable members of the basal assemblage of metazoan phyla known as Gnathifera. The monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis is a developing model system for ecotoxicology, aquatic ecology, cryptic speciation, and the evolution of sex, and is an important food source for finfish aquaculture. However, basic knowledge of the genome and transcriptome of any rotifer species has been lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated and partially sequenced a cDNA library from B. plicatilis and constructed a database of over 2300 expressed sequence tags corresponding to more than 450 transcripts. About 20% of the transcripts had no significant similarity to database sequences by BLAST; most of these contained open reading frames of significant length but few had recognized Pfam motifs. Sixteen transcripts accounted for 25% of the ESTs; four of these had no significant similarity to BLAST or Pfam databases. Putative up- and downstream untranslated regions are relatively short and AT rich. In contrast to bdelloid rotifers, there was no evidence of a conserved trans-spliced leader sequence among the transcripts and most genes were single-copy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the small size of this EST project it revealed several important features of the rotifer transcriptome and of individual monogonont genes. Because there is little genomic data for Gnathifera, the transcripts we found with no known function may represent genes that are species-, class-, phylum- or even superphylum-specific; the fact that some are among the most highly expressed indicates their importance. The absence of trans-spliced leader exons in this monogonont species contrasts with their abundance in bdelloid rotifers and indicates that the presence of this phenomenon can vary at the subphylum level. Our EST database provides a relatively large quantity of transcript-level data for B. plicatilis, and more generally of rotifers and other gnathiferan phyla, and can be browsed and searched at gmod.mbl.edu.

  13. Analysis of expressed sequence tags of the cyclically parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Koushirou; Welch, David Mark; Tanaka, Yukari; Sakakura, Yoshitaka; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2007-08-01

    Rotifers are among the most common non-arthropod animals and are the most experimentally tractable members of the basal assemblage of metazoan phyla known as Gnathifera. The monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis is a developing model system for ecotoxicology, aquatic ecology, cryptic speciation, and the evolution of sex, and is an important food source for finfish aquaculture. However, basic knowledge of the genome and transcriptome of any rotifer species has been lacking. We generated and partially sequenced a cDNA library from B. plicatilis and constructed a database of over 2300 expressed sequence tags corresponding to more than 450 transcripts. About 20% of the transcripts had no significant similarity to database sequences by BLAST; most of these contained open reading frames of significant length but few had recognized Pfam motifs. Sixteen transcripts accounted for 25% of the ESTs; four of these had no significant similarity to BLAST or Pfam databases. Putative up- and downstream untranslated regions are relatively short and AT rich. In contrast to bdelloid rotifers, there was no evidence of a conserved trans-spliced leader sequence among the transcripts and most genes were single-copy. Despite the small size of this EST project it revealed several important features of the rotifer transcriptome and of individual monogonont genes. Because there is little genomic data for Gnathifera, the transcripts we found with no known function may represent genes that are species-, class-, phylum- or even superphylum-specific; the fact that some are among the most highly expressed indicates their importance. The absence of trans-spliced leader exons in this monogonont species contrasts with their abundance in bdelloid rotifers and indicates that the presence of this phenomenon can vary at the subphylum level. Our EST database provides a relatively large quantity of transcript-level data for B. plicatilis, and more generally of rotifers and other gnathiferan phyla, and can be browsed and searched at gmod.mbl.edu.

  14. Helminths infecting the parthenogenetic whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo in a restinga habitat of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D; Vicente, J J; Dutra, G F; Rocha, C F D

    2004-12-01

    A sample of 101 specimens of the unisexual whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus nativo (Squamata; Teiidae) from a coastal site in Bahia State, Brazil were examined for the presence of endoparasites. Of these, 35 (34.7%) harboured helminths. Six helminth species were recovered from C. nativo, including five nematodes (Physaloptera retusa, Physalopteroides venancioi, Subulura lacertilia, Skrjabinelazia intermedia and Parapharyngodon sp., and one cestode (Oochoristica ameivae), all representing new host records. Most lizards were infected by a single species of helminth and none by more than three. Infection rates were neither significantly influenced by host body size nor by environmental factors. The results are compared with data from studies on other whiptail species in both South and North America.

  15. Secondary queens in the parthenogenetic termite Cavitermes tuberosus develop through a transitional helper stage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellemans, S.; Fournier, D.; Hanus, Robert; Roisin, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 6 (2017), s. 253-262 ISSN 1520-541X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : facultative parthenogenesis * replacement queens * termites * asexual queen succession * ontogeny * Cavitermes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Developmental biology Impact factor: 2.243, year: 2016

  16. Monozygotic twinning after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment is not related to advanced maternal age, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted hatching, or blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Until definite conclusions are drawn from larger trials, patients receiving IVF should not be overly concerned about the increase in MZT risk when proceeding to various assisted reproductive procedures (i.e., ICSI, AH, and blastocyst transfer. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of monochorionic–monoamniotic twins may be significantly increased after IVF/ICSI cycles. Patients should be informed about the possible obstetric complications regarding this rare type of MZT.

  17. Oocyte activation and preimplantation development of bovine embryos obtained by specific inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases Ativação oocitária e desenvolvimento pré-implantação de embriões bovinos obtidos com o uso de inibidores específicos das quinases dependentes de ciclina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Perecin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of bohemine and roscovitine in combination with ionomycin on parthenogenetic activation and initial embryonic development of bovine oocytes was studied. Two experiments were performed: in the first, different concentrations (0, 50, 75 or 100µM and different exposure periods (2, 4 or 6 hours to bohemine or roscovitine were tested for activation rates of in vitro matured (IVM bovine oocytes, which were pre-exposed to ionomycin. The best treatments, 75µM bohemine and 50µM roscovitine, both for 6h, were used in the second experiment, in which IVM bovine oocytes were exposed to ionomycin, followed or not by bohemine or roscovitine treatment, and evaluated for nuclear status, activation rate and blastocyst development were assessed. The combined treatments (ionomycin + cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors - CDKIs showed better results for activation rates (77.3% and initial embryonic development (35.2% than the single ionomycin treatment (69.4% for activation and 21.9% for development; and also lead to a more uniform activation (nearly 90% single pronucleus development. The results showed that CDKIs improve the effects of ionomycin on parthenogenetic activation and blastocyst development in bovine oocytes and could help to achieve more efficient activation protocols, increasing the developmental competence of embryos obtained by reproductive biotechniques.Realizaram-se dois experimentos para avaliar a eficiência da bohemina e roscovitina associadas à ionomicina para ativação partenogenética e desenvolvimento embrionário inicial de bovinos. No primeiro, foram testadas diferentes concentrações (0, 50, 75 ou 100µM e diferentes tempos de exposição (2, 4 ou 6 horas à bohemina ou à roscovitina na ativação de oócitos bovinos maturados in vitro (MIV pré-expostos à ionomicina. Os melhores tratamentos, bohemina 75µM e roscovitina 50µM, ambos por seis horas, foram utilizados no segundo experimento, no qual oócitos bovinos

  18. Centrioles: active players or passengers during mitosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debec, Alain; Sullivan, William; Bettencourt-Dias, Monica

    2010-07-01

    Centrioles are cylinders made of nine microtubule (MT) triplets present in many eukaryotes. Early studies, where centrosomes were seen at the poles of the mitotic spindle led to their coining as "the organ for cell division". However, a variety of subsequent observational and functional studies showed that centrosomes might not always be essential for mitosis. Here we review the arguments in this debate. We describe the centriole structure and its distribution in the eukaryotic tree of life and clarify its role in the organization of the centrosome and cilia, with an historical perspective. An important aspect of the debate addressed in this review is how centrioles are inherited and the role of the spindle in this process. In particular, germline inheritance of centrosomes, such as their de novo formation in parthenogenetic species, poses many interesting questions. We finish by discussing the most likely functions of centrioles and laying out new research avenues.

  19. Transient Activation of Apomixis in Sexual Neotriploids May Retain Genomically Altered States and Enhance Polyploid Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hojsgaard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyploid genomes evolve and follow a series of dynamic transfigurations along with adaptation and speciation. The initial formation of a new polyploid individual within a diploid population usually involves a triploid bridge, a two-step mechanism of cell fusions between ubiquitous (reduced and rare (unreduced gametes. The primary fusion event creates an intermediate triploid individual with unbalanced genome sets, a situation of genomic-shock characterized by gene expression dysregulation, high dosage sensitivity, disturbed cell divisions, and physiological and reproductive attributes drastically altered. This near-sterile neotriploid must produce (even eupolyploids through secondary fusion events to restore genome steadiness, meiotic balance, and fertility required for the demographic establishment of a nascent lineage. Natural conditions locate several difficulties to polyploid establishment, including the production of highly unbalanced and rarely unreduced (euploid gametes, frequency-dependent disadvantages (minority cytotype exclusion, severe fitness loss, and ecological competition with diploid parents. Persistence and adaptation of neopolyploids depend upon genetic and phenotypic novelty coupled to joint selective forces that preserve shock-induced genomic changes (subgenome homeolog partitioning and drive meiotic (reproductive stabilization and ecological diversification. Thus, polyploid establishment through the triploid bridge is a feasible but not ubiquitous process that requires a number of low-probability events and singular circumstances. Yet, frequencies of polyploids suggest that polyploid establishment is a pervasive process. To explain this disparity, and supported in experimental evidence, I propose that situations like hybridization and ploidy-state transitions associated to genomic shock and substantial developmental alterations can transiently activate apomixis as a mechanism to halt genomic instability and cancel factors

  20. Oocyte activation and phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ): diagnostic and therapeutic implications for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Walaa M; Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin

    2012-07-09

    Infertility affects one in seven couples globally and has recently been classified as a disease by the World Health Organisation (WHO). While in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) offers effective treatment for many infertile couples, cases exhibiting severe male infertility (19-57%) often remain difficult, if not impossible to treat. In such cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a technique in which a single sperm is microinjected into the oocyte, is implemented. However, 1-5% of ICSI cycles still fail to fertilise, affecting over 1000 couples per year in the UK alone. Pregnancy and delivery rates for IVF and ICSI rarely exceed 30% and 23% respectively. It is therefore imperative that Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) protocols are constantly modified by associated research programmes, in order to provide patients with the best chances of conception. Prior to fertilisation, mature oocytes are arrested in the metaphase stage of the second meiotic division (MII), which must be alleviated to allow the cell cycle, and subsequent embryogenesis, to proceed. Alleviation occurs through a series of concurrent events, collectively termed 'oocyte activation'. In mammals, oocytes are activated by a series of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) oscillations following gamete fusion. Recent evidence implicates a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ), introduced into the oocyte following membrane fusion as the factor responsible. This review summarises our current understanding of oocyte activation failure in human males, and describes recent advances in our knowledge linking certain cases of male infertility with defects in PLCζ expression and activity. Systematic literature searches were performed using PubMed and the ISI-Web of Knowledge. Databases compiled by the United Nations and World Health Organisation databases (UNWHO), and the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA) were also scrutinised. It is clear that PLCζ plays a fundamental role in the

  1. Perkembangan Praimplantasi Embrio Mencit dengan Materi Genetik yang Berasal dari Parental, Maternal, dan Inti Sel Somatik (PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE EMBRYO WITH GENETIC MATERIAL DERIVED FROM PARENTAL, MATERNAL AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Murti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloned embryo and parthenogenetic embryo are a potential source of stem cells for regenerativemedicine. Stem cells derived from those embryos are expected to overcome the ethical issues to the use offertilization embryos for therapeutic purposes. The pre-implantation development is a critical step fordeveloping embryos reach the blastocyst stage. The objectives in vivo of this research are to produce mousecloned embryo, parthenogenetic embryo, and fertilized embryo and to study stages of  in vitro pre-implantation development culture. In vivo fertilized embryos, mouse oocytes, and cumulus cells were usedin this study. Treatment was performed on female mice superovulated with PMSG and hCG injections.Two-cell stage of in vivo fertilized embryos were collected on the second day post hCG injection. Clonedembryos were produced through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT, which included enucleation, nucleartransfer and artificial activation. Parthenogenetic embryos were produced with artificial activationtechnique. The result of the research indicated that SCNT application was able to produce cloned embryos which could develop to blastocyst stage (3,2%. In addition, artificial activation of oocytes could produceparthenogenetic embryos which were able to develop up to the blastocyst stage (8,6%. In conclusion,efficiency level of parthenogenetic embryos that is able to reach the blastocyst stage was higher than in thecloned embryos. Fertilized embryos shows a better development and more efficient compared to in vitrocloned embryos and parthenogenetic embryos cultures.

  2. Increased stress tolerance of matured pig oocytes after high hydrostatic presure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pribenszky, Cs; Du, Y; Molnár, M

    2008-01-01

    The present paper describes a method which uses high hydrostatic pressure as a pre-treatment to in vitro matured porcine oocytes to improve their survival rates in the subsequent processes including cryopreservation, parthenogenetic activation and embryo culture. In Experiment I oocytes were...... treated with different pressure impulses in the range of 20-80 MPa (200-800 times greater than atmospheric pressure) for 30-120 min at 24 °C. For parthenogenetic activation a single dc of 12.5 kV/cm was used, to test shock tolerance of the treated vs. control oocytes and also compare their developmental...... competence evaluated with continued in vitro development. The upper limit of pressure tolerance was found in the 40 MPa range. In Experiment II oocytes pre-treated with pressures in the 20-40 MPa range were vitrified with the Cryotop method, and parthenogenetically activated subsequently with combined...

  3. Elevated interleukin-12 in progressive multiple sclerosis correlates with disease activity and is normalized by pulse cyclophosphamide therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comabella, M; Balashov, K; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    1998-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is postulated to be a Th1-type cell-mediated autoimmune disease. We investigated cytokine profiles in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis by using intracytoplasmic staining. We found increased IL-12 production by monocytes and increased IFN-gamma production by T cells...

  4. Oocyte activation and phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ: diagnostic and therapeutic implications for assisted reproductive technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Walaa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infertility affects one in seven couples globally and has recently been classified as a disease by the World Health Organisation (WHO. While in-vitro fertilisation (IVF offers effective treatment for many infertile couples, cases exhibiting severe male infertility (19–57% often remain difficult, if not impossible to treat. In such cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, a technique in which a single sperm is microinjected into the oocyte, is implemented. However, 1–5% of ICSI cycles still fail to fertilise, affecting over 1000 couples per year in the UK alone. Pregnancy and delivery rates for IVF and ICSI rarely exceed 30% and 23% respectively. It is therefore imperative that Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART protocols are constantly modified by associated research programmes, in order to provide patients with the best chances of conception. Prior to fertilisation, mature oocytes are arrested in the metaphase stage of the second meiotic division (MII, which must be alleviated to allow the cell cycle, and subsequent embryogenesis, to proceed. Alleviation occurs through a series of concurrent events, collectively termed ‘oocyte activation’. In mammals, oocytes are activated by a series of intracellular calcium (Ca2+ oscillations following gamete fusion. Recent evidence implicates a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ, introduced into the oocyte following membrane fusion as the factor responsible. This review summarises our current understanding of oocyte activation failure in human males, and describes recent advances in our knowledge linking certain cases of male infertility with defects in PLCζ expression and activity. Systematic literature searches were performed using PubMed and the ISI-Web of Knowledge. Databases compiled by the United Nations and World Health Organisation databases (UNWHO, and the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA were also scrutinised. It is clear that PLCζ plays a

  5. Free fatty acids induce ER stress and block antiviral activity of interferon alpha against hepatitis C virus in cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunduz Feyza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic steatosis is recognized as a major risk factor for liver disease progression and impaired response to interferon based therapy in chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients. The mechanism of response to interferon-alpha (IFN-α therapy under the condition of hepatic steatosis is unexplored. We investigated the effect of hepatocellular steatosis on hepatitis C virus (HCV replication and IFN-α antiviral response in a cell culture model. Methods Sub-genomic replicon (S3-GFP and HCV infected Huh-7.5 cells were cultured with a mixture of saturated (palmitate and unsaturated (oleate long-chain free fatty acids (FFA. Intracytoplasmic fat accumulation in these cells was visualized by Nile red staining and electron microscopy then quantified by microfluorometry. The effect of FFA treatment on HCV replication and IFN-α antiviral response was measured by flow cytometric analysis, Renilla luciferase activity, and real-time RT-PCR. Results FFA treatment induced dose dependent hepatocellular steatosis and lipid droplet accumulation in the HCV replicon cells was confirmed by Nile red staining, microfluorometry, and by electron microscopy. Intracellular fat accumulation supports replication more in the persistently HCV infected culture than in the sub-genomic replicon (S3-GFP cell line. FFA treatment also partially blocked IFN-α response and viral clearance by reducing the phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat2 dependent IFN-β promoter activation. We show that FFA treatment induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response and down regulates the IFNAR1 chain of the type I IFN receptor leading to defective Jak-Stat signaling and impaired antiviral response. Conclusion These results suggest that intracellular fat accumulation in HCV cell culture induces ER stress, defective Jak-Stat signaling, and attenuates the antiviral response, thus providing an explanation to the clinical observation regarding how hepatocellular steatosis influences IFN

  6. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo Yon, E-mail: boyonlee@gmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  7. The presence of centrioles and centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells suggests human parthenotes developed in vitro can differentiate into mature cells without a sperm centriole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo Yon; Shim, Sang Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Kim, Seung Bo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The sperm centriole is the progenitor of centrosomes in all somatic cells. ► Centrioles and centrosomes exist in parthenogenetic ovarian teratoma cells. ► Without a sperm centriole, parthenogenetic oocytes produce centrioles and centrosomes. ► Parthenogenetic human oocytes can develop and differentiate into mature cells. -- Abstract: In most animals, somatic cell centrosomes are inherited from the centriole of the fertilizing spermatozoa. The oocyte centriole degenerates during oogenesis, and completely disappears in metaphase II. Therefore, the embryos generated by in vitro parthenogenesis are supposed to develop without any centrioles. Exceptional acentriolar and/or acentrosomal developments are possible in mice and in some experimental cells; however, in most animals, the full developmental potential of parthenogenetic cells in vitro and the fate of their centrioles/centrosomes are not clearly understood. To predict the future of in vitro human parthenogenesis, we explored the centrioles/centrosomes in ovarian mature cystic teratoma cells by immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy. We confirmed the presence of centrioles and centrosomes in these well-known parthenogenetic ovarian tumor cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that, even without a sperm centriole, parthenotes that develop from activated oocytes can produce their own centrioles/centrosomes, and can even develop into the well-differentiated mature tissue.

  8. Does Cigarette Smoking Affect Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI and Embryo Transfer (ET Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Karakoç Sökmensüer

    2007-04-01

    CONCLUSION: Smoking is a well known poor prognostic factor for spontaneous conception or IVF-ET cycles. However, deleterious effect of smoking may not be directly adapted to the whole ICSI-ET cycles in patients without another risk factor threatening ovarian reserve.

  9. Increased frequency of severe major anomalies in children conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Albisua, I; Borell-Kost, S; Mau-Holzmann, U A

    2007-01-01

    anomalies (MaCAs). Four children born after ICSI versus no control children had severe MaCAs (p=0.04). These were defined as having a significant impact on development or causing chronic disease: Angelman syndrome (n=1), lissencephaly (n=1), Hanhart syndrome (n=1), and persistent hyperinsulinemic...... for imprinting defects cannot be excluded. If we exclude children with severe MaCAs, the incidence of an abnormal somatic or neurodevelopmental outcome in the fourth year of life in children born after ICSI is similar to that of spontaneously conceived children....

  10. Adnexal Torsion during Pregnancy after Oocyte In Vitro Maturation and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Giulini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of right adnexal torsion during pregnancy after an oocyte in vitro maturation and intracitoplasmic sperm injection cycle in patient with polycystic ovary syndrome. A 31-year-old woman with a typical clinical disorder of polycystic ovarian syndrome was included in an oocyte in vitro maturation program. Right adnexal torsion occurred two days after embryo transfer, and laparoscopy detorsion was successfully performed with preservation of adnexa. The patient had a full-term pregnancy and delivered a healthy infant at 40 weeks of gestation. To our knowledge this is the first report of adnexal torsion after an oocyte in vitro maturation and intracitoplasmic sperm injection program.

  11. Reasons for dropout in an in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, J.M.; Verhaak, C.M.; Stolwijk, A.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Braat, D.D.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain more insight into psychological aspects of dropping out from IVF-ICSI. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: University hospital-based tertiary care fertility clinic. PATIENT(S): Women entering their first treatment cycle of IVF or ICSI. INTERVENTION(S): Standardized

  12. All azoospermic males should be screened for cystic fibrosis mutations before intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mocanu, Edgar

    2012-02-01

    We assessed the frequency of CFTR mutations in groups with varying degrees of sub-fertility and compared these groups to a fertile male group with proven paternity. Screening for CFTR mutations should be routine for all azoospermic males, irrespective of obstructive or non-obstructive etiology, prior to proposing ICSI treatment. CFTR testing has no value in the investigation of non-azoospermic infertile males.

  13. All azoospermic males should be screened for cystic fibrosis mutations before intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mocanu, Edgar

    2010-11-01

    We assessed the frequency of CFTR mutations in groups with varying degrees of sub-fertility and compared these groups to a fertile male group with proven paternity. Screening for CFTR mutations should be routine for all azoospermic males, irrespective of obstructive or non-obstructive etiology, prior to proposing ICSI treatment. CFTR testing has no value in the investigation of non-azoospermic infertile males.

  14. Active Teachers - Active Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as an initiative from the Polytechnic in Nantes, France and the University the Los Andes in Bogota, Colombia. The objective was to start a world wide collaboration allowing teachers in engineering to learn from each other about their experiences with active learning. In this thirteenth edition, ALE joins forces...... with the International Research Symposium on Problem Based Learning (IRSPB) and the International Symposium on Project Approaches in Engineering Education (PAEE) to organise the first International Joint Conference on the Learner in Engineering Education (IJCLEE 2015) hosted by Mondragon University, in San Sebastian...

  15. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  16. Characterisation of the nematode community of a low-activity cold seep in the recently ice-shelf free Larsen B area, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freija Hauquier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent climate-induced ice-shelf disintegration in the Larsen A (1995 and B (2002 areas along the Eastern Antarctic Peninsula formed a unique opportunity to assess sub-ice-shelf benthic community structure and led to the discovery of unexplored habitats, including a low-activity methane seep beneath the former Larsen B ice shelf. Since both limited particle sedimentation under previously permanent ice coverage and reduced cold-seep activity are likely to influence benthic meiofauna communities, we characterised the nematode assemblage of this low-activity cold seep and compared it with other, now seasonally ice-free, Larsen A and B stations and other Antarctic shelf areas (Weddell Sea and Drake Passage, as well as cold-seep ecosystems world-wide. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The nematode community at the Larsen B seep site differed significantly from other Antarctic sites in terms of dominant genera, diversity and abundance. Densities in the seep samples were high (>2000 individuals per 10 cm(2 and showed below-surface maxima at a sediment depth of 2-3 cm in three out of four replicates. All samples were dominated by one species of the family Monhysteridae, which was identified as a Halomonhystera species that comprised between 80 and 86% of the total community. The combination of high densities, deeper density maxima and dominance of one species is shared by many cold-seep ecosystems world-wide and suggested a possible dependence upon a chemosynthetic food source. Yet stable (13C isotopic signals (ranging between -21.97±0.86‰ and -24.85±1.89‰ were indicative of a phytoplankton-derived food source. CONCLUSION: The recent ice-shelf collapse and enhanced food input from surface phytoplankton blooms were responsible for the shift from oligotrophic pre-collapse conditions to a phytodetritus-based community with high densities and low diversity. The parthenogenetic reproduction of the highly dominant Halomonhystera species is rather unusual

  17. Pathological histone acetylation in Parkinson's disease: Neuroprotection and inhibition of microglial activation through SIRT 2 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ian F; Smith, Andrew D; Dexter, David T

    2018-02-14

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with degeneration of nigrostriatal neurons due to intracytoplasmic inclusions composed predominantly of a synaptic protein called α-synuclein. Accumulations of α-synuclein are thought to 'mask' acetylation sites on histone proteins, inhibiting the action of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) enzymes in their equilibrium with histone deacetylases (HDACs), thus deregulating the dynamic control of gene transcription. It is therefore hypothesised that the misbalance in the actions of HATs/HDACs in neurodegeneration can be rectified with the use of HDAC inhibitors, limiting the deregulation of transcription and aiding neuronal homeostasis and neuroprotection in disorders such as PD. Here we quantify histone acetylation in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta (SNpc) in the brains of control, early and late stage PD cases to determine if histone acetylation is a function of disease progression. PD development is associated with Braak-dependent increases in histone acetylation. Concurrently, we show that as expected disease progression is associated with reduced markers of dopaminergic neurons and increased markers of activated microglia. We go on to demonstrate that in vitro, degenerating dopaminergic neurons exhibit histone hypoacetylation whereas activated microglia exhibit histone hyperacetylation. This suggests that the disease-dependent increase in histone acetylation observed in human PD cases is likely a combination of the contributions of both degenerating dopaminergic neurons and infiltrating activated microglia. The HDAC SIRT 2 has become increasingly implicated as a novel target for mediation of neuroprotection in PD: the neuronal and microglial specific effects of its inhibition however remain unclear. We demonstrate that SIRT 2 expression in the SNpc of PD brains remains relatively unchanged from controls and that SIRT 2 inhibition, via AGK2 treatment of neuronal and microglial cultures, results in neuroprotection of

  18. Paraoxonase 3 Activity and The Ratio of Antioxidant to Peroxidation in The Follicular Fluid of Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paraoxonase-3 (PON3, as a high density lipoprotein (HDL-associated lactonase, is capable of preventing the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL. PON3 activity in follicular fluid (FF is three times more than its activity in serum. However, the detailed role of PON3 in women’s fertility remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between PON3 activity in the FF of women undergoing assisted reproductive technique (ART, in vitro fertilization (IVF, or intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 50 women from couples with male factor infertility (MFI or with female factor infertility (FFI. The FF samples were obtained during the ART intervention. PON3 activity, HDL cholesterol (HDL C, total antioxidant status (TAS and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA were determined. The morphology of the embryo was determined using embryo cell number (ECN and embryo fragmentation score (EFS. In addition, fertilization rate (FR was used an oocyte fertilization index. Results: Of 50 women, 20 women belonged to FFI group and the remaining 30 women belonged to MFI group. PON3 activity in FF of women in FFI group was significantly lower (p<0.05 in comparison with corresponding value in MFI group. The value of PON3 activity/MDA in the FFI group was lower than that in MFI group. Moreover, MDA level in the FF of FFI group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than its concentration in MFI group. Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in HDL-C concentration and TAS of both groups. No significant correlation was observed between the ECN and FF biochemical parameters. There was also a negative correlation between FR and MDA (r=-0.42, p=0.02, whereas a positive relation between FR with PON3 activity (r=0.59, p=0.004, HDL-C (r=0.35, p=0.04 and PON3/MDA (r=0.59, p=0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, PON3 activity level as a key

  19. Possible involvement of integrin-mediated signalling in oocyte activation: evidence that a cyclic RGD-containing peptide can stimulate protein kinase C and cortical granule exocytosis in mouse oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone Maria

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian sperm-oocyte interaction at fertilization involves several combined interactions between integrins on the oocyte and integrin ligands (disintegrins on the sperm. Recent research has indicated the ability of peptides containing the RGD sequence that characterized several sperm disintegrins, to induce intracellular Ca2+ transients and to initiate parthenogenetic development in amphibian and bovine oocytes. In the present study, we investigate the hypothesis that an integrin-associated signalling may participate in oocyte activation signalling by determining the ability of a cyclic RGD-containing peptide to stimulate the activation of protein kinase C (PKC and the exocytosis of cortical granules in mouse oocytes. Methods An In-Vitro-Fertilization assay (IVF was carried in order to test the condition under which a peptide containing the RGD sequence, cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Val, was able to inhibit sperm fusion with zona-free mouse oocytes at metaphase II stage. PKC activity was determined by means of an assay based on the ability of cell lysates to phosphorylate MARKS peptide, a specific PKC substrate. Loss of cortical granules was evaluated by measuring density in the oocyte cortex of cortical granules stained with LCA-biotin/Texas red-streptavidin. In all the experiments, effects of a control peptide containing a non RGD sequence, cyclo(Arg-Ala-Asp-D-Phe-Val, were evaluated. Results The IVF assay revealed that the fusion rate declined significantly when insemination was carried out in the presence of cyclic RGD peptide at concentrations > or = 250 microM (P Conclusion The presents results provide evidence that a cyclic RGD peptide highly effective in inhibiting sperm-oocyte interaction stimulates in mouse oocytes the activation of PKC and the exocytosis of cortical granules. These data support the view that RGD-binding receptors may function as signalling receptors giving rise integrated signalling not sufficient for

  20. Variance in total levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) in human sperm may limit the applicability of quantitative immunofluorescent analysis as a diagnostic indicator of oocyte activation capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashir, Junaid; Jones, Celine; Mounce, Ginny; Ramadan, Walaa M; Lemmon, Bernadette; Heindryckx, Bjorn; de Sutter, Petra; Parrington, John; Turner, Karen; Child, Tim; McVeigh, Enda; Coward, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether similar levels of phospholipase C zeta (PLC-ζ) protein are present in sperm from men whose ejaculates resulted in normal oocyte activation, and to examine whether a predominant pattern of PLC-ζ localization is linked to normal oocyte activation ability. Laboratory study. University laboratory. Control subjects (men with proven oocyte activation capacity; n = 16) and men whose sperm resulted in recurrent intracytoplasmic sperm injection failure (oocyte activation deficient [OAD]; n = 5). Quantitative immunofluorescent analysis of PLC-ζ protein in human sperm. Total levels of PLC-ζ fluorescence, proportions of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunoreactivity, and proportions of PLC-ζ localization patterns in sperm from control and OAD men. Sperm from control subjects presented a significantly higher proportion of sperm exhibiting PLC-ζ immunofluorescence compared with infertile men diagnosed with OAD (82.6% and 27.4%, respectively). Total levels of PLC-ζ in sperm from individual control and OAD patients exhibited significant variance, with sperm from 10 out of 16 (62.5%) exhibiting levels similar to OAD samples. Predominant PLC-ζ localization patterns varied between control and OAD samples with no predictable or consistent pattern. The results indicate that sperm from control men exhibited significant variance in total levels of PLC-ζ protein, as well as significant variance in the predominant localization pattern. Such variance may hinder the diagnostic application of quantitative PLC-ζ immunofluorescent analysis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common ...

  2. [Reticulate evolution of parthenogenetic species of the Lacertidae rock lizards: inheritance of CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobanu, D; Rudykh, I A; Riabinina, N L; Grechko, V V; Kramerov, D A; Darevskiĭ, I S

    2002-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of several bisexual and of four unisexual "Lacerta saxicola complex" lizards was studied, using monomer sequences of the complex-specific CLsat tandem repeats and anonymous RAPD markers. Genomes of parthenospecies were shown to include different satellite monomers. The structure of each such monomer is specific for a certain pair of bisexual species. This fact might be interpreted in favor of co-dominant inheritance of these markers in bisexual species hybridogenesis. This idea is supported by the results obtained with RAPD markers; i.e., unisexual species genomes include only the loci characteristic of certain bisexual species. At the same time, in neither case parthenospecies possess specific, autoapomorphic loci that were not present in this or that bisexual species.

  3. Parthenogenetic reproduction of Diaphanosoma celebensis (Crustacea: Cladocera): influence of salinity on feeding, survival, growth and neonate production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C; Shrivastava, Y.; Mahambre, G.G.; Goswami, S.C; Madhupratap, M.

    stream_size 69612 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Biol_137_19.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Biol_137_19.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 C67C46 C84C46 C65C99... C104C117C116C104C97C110C107C117C116C116C121 C225 C89C46 C83C104C114C105C118C97C115C116C97C118C97 C225 C71C46 C71C46 C77C97C104C97C109C98C114C101 C83C46 C67C46 C71C111C115C119C97C109C105 C225 C77C46 C77C97C100C104C117C112C114C97C116C97C112 C80C97C114C...

  4. Sex-biased dispersal creates spatial genetic structure in a parthenogenetic ant with a dependent-lineage reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, A; Bauman, D; Darras, H; Aron, S

    2017-10-01

    Reproduction and dispersal are key aspects of species life history that influence spatial genetic structure in populations. Several ant species in the genus Cataglyphis have evolved a unique breeding system in which new reproductives (that is, queens and males) are produced asexually by parthenogenesis; in contrast, non-reproductives (that is, workers) are produced via sexual reproduction by mates from distinct genetic lineages. We investigated how these two coexisting reproductive methods affect population-level spatial genetic structure using the ant Cataglyphis mauritanica as a model. We obtained genotypes for queens and their male mates from 338 colonies, and we found that the two lineages present in the study population occurred with equal frequency. Furthermore, analysis of spatial genetic structure revealed strong sex-biased dispersal. Because queens were produced by parthenogenesis and because they dispersed over short distances, there was an extreme level of spatial structuring: a mosaic of patches composed of clonal queens was formed. Males, on the other hand, dispersed over several hundred metres and, thus, across patches, ensuring successful interlineage mating.

  5. Active ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode F. Jacobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of active ageing has been gaining prominence in the Nordic countries and beyond. This has been reflected in policy papers in Norway and other Nordic nations. Aims: The aim of this article is to analyse the topic of active ageing in five Norwegian White Papers (2002 to 2015 and discuss those policy documents in context of relevant research literature. Methods: A qualitative document analyses is employed focusing on how active ageing, and ageing in general, is described and which concepts are employed. No ethical approval was needed. Findings: The general theme of ageing and the specific theme of active ageing are increasingly prominent in the Norwegian White Papers studied. In all documents, some assumptions regarding ageing and active ageing seem implicit, such as independence being more important than (interdependence. ‘Productive’ activities like participation in working life are stressed, while others, like reading, watching TV or watching children playing in the street, are ignored. Conclusions: The policy documents demonstrate that the topic of active ageing is growing in importance. The documents increasingly seem to stress ‘productive’ activities – those related to working life, voluntary work or sports and physical training. They exclude activities that are meaningful for many older people, like watching their grandchildren play or reading books. Implications for practice: Practitioners in older people’s care could consider reflecting on: Government documents dealing with their own practice The prevalent concept of active ageing The trend of active ageing as a facilitating or hindering factor for good care work How present discourse on active ageing may influence their attitude towards frail older persons How they wish to relate to active ageing in their own practice

  6. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  7. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  8. [Active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, A P; Hvidt, N

    1995-02-20

    The growing interest in the subject of active euthanasia in connection with the debate regarding legalization of such practices in Denmark necessitates taking a definite standpoint. The difference in concept between active and passive euthanasia is stressed, and the Dutch guidelines are reviewed. The article discusses how far the patient's autonomy should go, as it regards the consideration of self-determination as being too narrow a criterion in itself. The discussion on the quality of life is included, and the consequences of the process of expulsion as a sociological concept are considered--the risk of a patient feeling guilty for being alive and therefore feeling compelled to request active euthanasia. The changed function of the physician is underlined, and it is discussed whether active euthansia will cause a breach of confidence between the physician and his patient. In connection with the debate the following tendencies in society are emphasized: lack of clarity, increasing medicalization and utilitarian priorities.

  9. Active colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior. (physics of our days)

  10. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  11. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  12. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  13. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    themselves. We draw on two multi-year field studies of India and Denmark to investigate how national reforms and developments within the ranking industry interact in often surprising ways. Rankings do not always do what policy makers expect. We (1) highlight the activity of rankers in these two countries, (2...

  14. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  15. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  16. Active solar information dissemination activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of the project has been the development of an information dissemination strategy for the UK active solar heating industry. The project has also aimed to prepare the industry for the implementation of such a strategy and to produce initial information materials to support the early stages of the implementation process. (author)

  17. Calpain3 is expressed in a proteolitically active form in papillomavirus-associated urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpain 3 (Capn3, also named p94, is a skeletal muscle tissue-specific protein known to be responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A. Recent experimental studies have hypothesized a pro-apoptotic role of Capn3 in some melanoma cell lines. So far the link between calpain3 and tumors comes from in vitro studies. The objective of this study was to describe Capn3 activation in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we describe, for the first time in veterinary and comparative oncology, the activation of Capn3 in twelve urothelial tumor cells of the urinary bladder of cattle. Capn3 protein was initially identified with nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS in a co-immunoprecipitation experiment on E2F3, known to be a transcription factor playing a crucial role in bladder carcinogenesis in humans. Capn3 expression was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Finally, the Ca(2+-dependent proteolytic activity of Capn3 was assayed following ion exchange chromatography. Morphologically, Capn3 expression was documented by immunohistochemical methods. In fact numerous tumor cells showed an intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity, which was more rarely evident also at nuclear level. In urothelial tumors, bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 DNA was amplified by PCR and the expression of E5 protein, the major oncogenic protein of BVP-2, was detected by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. E2F3 overexpression and pRb protein downregulation were shown by western blotting. CONCLUSION: The role of capn3 protein in urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder remains to be elucidated: further studies would be required to determine the precise function of this protease in tumor development and progression. However, we suggest that activated Capn3 may be involved in molecular

  18. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  19. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  20. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  1. Comparison of Zygote Intrafallopian Transfer and Intrauterine Embryo Transfer for Male-factor Infertility After Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hui Lin

    2004-03-01

    Conclusion: The data presented in this report demonstrate that there was no therapeutic improvement associated with the increased complexity of ZIFT as compared with intrauterine ET after ICSI for the treatment of male-factor infertility. With the advent of improvements in culture techniques in the IVF laboratory, intrauterine ET remains the technique of choice.

  2. Birth of healthy twins after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using ejaculated immotile spermatozoa from a patient with Kartagener's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, S; Lemgruber, M; Taitson, P F; Valle, M; Sampaio, M

    2012-05-01

    This case report demonstrates a successful pregnancy after ICSI combined with hypo-osmotic swelling test in a couple with Kartagener's syndrome with complete immotile ejaculated spermatozoa. Our result suggests that even for complete immotile spermatozoa, the use of hypo-osmotic swelling test is a good alternative to identify viable spermatozoa. When associated with ICSI, it can be a valuable tool to get fertilisation and pregnancy. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Intracytoplasmic maturation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription complexes determines their capacity to integrate into chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashanchi Fatah

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The early events of the HIV-1 life cycle include entry of the viral core into target cell, assembly of the reverse transcription complex (RTCs performing reverse transcription, its transformation into integration-competent complexes called pre-integration complexes (PICs, trafficking of complexes into the nucleus, and finally integration of the viral DNA into chromatin. Molecular details and temporal organization of these processes remain among the least investigated and most controversial problems in the biology of HIV. Results To quantitatively evaluate maturation and nuclear translocation of the HIV-1 RTCs, nucleoprotein complexes isolated from the nucleus (nRTC and cytoplasm (cRTC of HeLa cells infected with MLV Env-pseudotyped HIV-1 were analyzed by real-time PCR. While most complexes completed reverse transcription in the cytoplasm, some got into the nucleus before completing DNA synthesis. The HIV-specific RNA complexes could get into the nucleus when reverse transcription was blocked by reverse transcriptase inhibitor, although nuclear import of RNA complexes was less efficient than of DNA-containing RTCs. Analysis of the RTC nuclear import in synchronized cells infected in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle showed enrichment in the nuclei of RTCs containing incomplete HIV-1 DNA compared to non-synchronized cells, where RTCs with complete reverse transcripts prevailed. Immunoprecipitation assays identified viral proteins IN, Vpr, MA, and cellular Ini1 and PML associated with both cRTCs and nRTCs, whereas CA was detected only in cRTCs and RT was diminished in nRTCs. Cytoplasmic maturation of the complexes was associated with increased immunoreactivity with anti-Vpr and anti-IN antibodies, and decreased reactivity with antibodies to RT. Both cRTCs and nRTCs carried out endogenous reverse transcription reaction in vitro. In contrast to cRTCs, in vitro completion of reverse transcription in nRTCs did not increase their integration into chromatin. Conclusion These results suggest that RTC maturation occurs predominantly in the cytoplasm. Immature RTCs containing RT and incomplete DNA can translocate into the nucleus during mitosis and complete reverse transcription, but are defective for integration.

  4. Male Infertility Diagnosis and Treatment in the Era of In Vitro Fertilization and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Michael M; Hockenberry, Mark S; Kirby, Edgar W; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2018-03-01

    As assisted reproductive technologies use increases, the evaluation of male factor infertility has often become overlooked. However, male evaluation remains critically important, with benefits seen in overall health, as well as in natural and assisted pregnancy and birth rates. A comprehensive assessment of the male partner should be offered to all couples seeking infertility care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  6. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  7. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  8. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  16. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  17. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  18. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  19. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly......The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension...... hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Apr...

  20. Activation analysis. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principle, sample and calibration standard preparation, activation by neutrons, charged particles and gamma radiation, sample transport after activation, activity measurement, and chemical sample processing are described for activation analysis. Possible applications are shown of nondestructive activation analysis. (J.P.)

  1. Replication of somatic micronuclei in bovine enucleated oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canel Natalia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT was developed to introduce a low number of chromosomes into a host cell. We have designed a novel technique combining part of MMCT with somatic cell nuclear transfer, which consists of injecting a somatic micronucleus into an enucleated oocyte, and inducing its cellular machinery to replicate such micronucleus. It would allow the isolation and manipulation of a single or a low number of somatic chromosomes. Methods Micronuclei from adult bovine fibroblasts were produced by incubation in 0.05 μg/ml demecolcine for 46 h followed by 2 mg/ml mitomycin for 2 h. Cells were finally treated with 10 μg/ml cytochalasin B for 1 h. In vitro matured bovine oocytes were mechanically enucleated and intracytoplasmatically injected with one somatic micronucleus, which had been previously exposed [Micronucleus- injected (+] or not [Micronucleus- injected (−] to a transgene (50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP during 5 min. Enucleated oocytes [Enucleated (+] and parthenogenetic [Parthenogenetic (+] controls were injected into the cytoplasm with less than 10 pl of PVP containing 50 ng/μl pCX-EGFP. A non-injected parthenogenetic control [Parthenogenetic (−] was also included. Two hours after injection, oocytes and reconstituted embryos were activated by incubation in 5 μM ionomycin for 4 min + 1.9 mM 6-DMAP for 3 h. Cleavage stage and egfp expression were evaluated. DNA replication was confirmed by DAPI staining. On day 2, Micronucleus- injected (−, Parthenogenetic (− and in vitro fertilized (IVF embryos were karyotyped. Differences among treatments were determined by Fisher′s exact test (p≤0.05. Results All the experimental groups underwent the first cell divisions. Interestingly, a low number of Micronucleus-injected embryos showed egfp expression. DAPI staining confirmed replication of micronuclei in most of the evaluated embryos. Karyotype analysis revealed that all Micronucleus-injected embryos had

  2. Rapid adaptive divergence of life-history traits in response to abiotic stress within a natural population of a parthenogenetic nematode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doroszuk, A.; Wojewodzic, M.W.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is acknowledged to facilitate adaptation to novel environments while asexual eukaryotes are often regarded as having low adaptive potential. This view has been challenged in a number of studies, but the adaptive potential of asexual populations in the field is poorly documented.

  3. Inter- and intra-specific cuticle variation between amphimictic and parthenogenetic species of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) as revealed by a bacterial parasite (Pasteuria penetrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K G; Rowe, J A; Williamson, V M

    2008-06-01

    Specific host-parasite interactions exist between species and strains of plant parasitic root-knot nematodes and the Gram-positive bacterial hyperparasite Pasteuria penetrans. This bacterium produces endospores that adhere to the cuticle of migrating juveniles, germinate and colonise the developing female within roots. Endospore attachment of P. penetrans populations to second-stage juveniles of the root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla showed there were interactive differences between bacterial populations and nematode species. Infected females of M. incognita produced a few progeny which were used to establish two nematode lines from single infective juveniles encumbered with either three or 26 endospores. Single juvenile descent lines of each nematode species were produced to test whether cuticle variation was greater within M. hapla lines that reproduce by facultative meiotic parthenogenesis than within lines of M. incognita, which reproduces by obligate parthenogenesis. Assays revealed variability between broods of individual females derived from single second-stage juvenile descent lines of both M. incognita and M. hapla suggesting that progeny derived from a single individual can differ in spore adhesion in both sexual and asexual nematode species. These results suggest that special mechanisms that produced these functional differences in the cuticle surface may have evolved in both sexually and asexually reproducing nematodes as a strategy to circumvent infection by this specialised hyperparasite.

  4. Parthenogenetic reproduction of Diaphanosoma celebensis (Crustacea: Cladocera). Effect of algae and algal density on survival, growth, life span and neonate production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shrivastava, Y.; Mahambre, G.G.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Madhupratap, M.

    ) and Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin), was determined. Growth was faster in the initial stage with all three diets but slowed down in later life. Increased food concentrations resulted in higher neonate production but reduced the life span of females. However, long...

  5. Ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis, testes, and vas deferens in the parthenogenetic tapeworm Atractolytocestus huronensis Anthony, 1958 (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea), a carp parasite from Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bruňanská, M.; Nebesářová, Jana; Oros, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2011), 61-68 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : GLARIDACRIS-CATOSTOMI * SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEX * REPRODUCTIVE DUCTS * COMMON CARP * SPERMATOZOA * PLATYHELMINTHES * VITELLOGENESIS * EVOLUTION * TRIPLOIDY * CESTOIDEA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.149, year: 2011

  6. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  12. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  13. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  14. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  16. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  17. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  18. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  19. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  20. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzi, Stefano S.

    2017-11-01

    I propose a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standard theories, activity is not introduced as an additional term of the stress tensor, but it is added as an external remodeling force that competes with the passive relaxation dynamics and drags the system out of equilibrium. In a simple one-dimensional channel geometry, we show that the interaction between nonuniform nematic order and activity results in either a spontaneous flow of particles or a self-organization into subchannels flowing in opposite directions.

  1. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  2. Active regions, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martres, M.J.; Bruzek, A.

    1977-01-01

    The solar Active Region is an extremely complex phenomenon comprising a large variety of features (active,region phenomena) in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The occurrence of the various active phenomena depends on the phase and state of evolution of the AR; their appearance depends on the radiation used for the observation. The various phenomena are described and illustrated with photographs. Several paragraphs are dedicated to magnetic classification of AR, Mt. Wilson Spot Classification, solar activity indices, and solar activity data publications

  3. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  4. Behavioral facilitation of reproduction in sexual and unisexual whiptail lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D; Grassman, M; Lindzey, J

    1986-12-01

    All-female, parthenogenetic species afford a unique test of hypotheses regarding the nature and evolution of sexuality. Mating behavior accomplishes the transfer of gametes and stimulates the coordination of reproductive activity of the male and female. Cnemidophorus uniparens, a parthenogenetic species, is believed to have resulted from the hybridization of two extant gonochoristic species, Cnemidophorus inornatus and Cnemidophorus gularis. C. uniparens regularly and reliably perform behaviors identical in form to those performed during mating by male C. inornatus. We have determined experimentally that individuals of the parthenogenetic species demonstrating male-like pseudosexual behavior also share a similarity in function with males of the sexually reproducing species. The number of female C. inornatus ovulating increases, and the latency to ovulation decreases, if a sexually active conspecific male is present. A similar facilitatory effect on ovarian recrudescence occurs in the all-female C. uniparens in the presence of a male-like individual. These results show that behavioral facilitation of ovarian recrudescence is important in sexual and unisexual species. This may represent a potent selection pressure favoring the maintenance of male-typical behaviors, thus accounting for the display of behavioral traits usually associated with males in unisexual species of hybrid origin.

  5. Antifeedant activity of quassinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskinen, V; Polonsky, J; Bhatnagar, S

    1984-10-01

    The antifeedant activity of 13 quassinoids of different structural types has been studied against the Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis Mulsant) 4th instar larvae and the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Crawer) 5th instar larvae. All quassinoids tested displayed significant activity against the Mexican bean beetle and, thus, do not reveal a simple structure-activity relationship. Five quassinoids were active against the southern armyworm. Interestingly, four of these-bruceantin (I), glaucarubinone (VI), isobruceine A (VIII), and simalikalactone D (XI)-possess the required structural features for antineoplastic activity. The noncytotoxic quassin (X) is an exception; it is active against both pests.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  7. Illicit Activities and Goondagardi

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research analyzes the pathways through which exclusionary urban ... casual labour in construction or small-scale trade activities, etc) and ... PATHWAYS TO ILLICIT ACTIVITIES .... VGG Nagar had become a gambling den for some time.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

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    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  12. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  14. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  16. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  20. Diabetes - keeping active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to add more activity to your day. Introduction There are many benefits to being active. Staying ... them emails. Take the stairs instead of the elevator. Stand up and move around while making phone ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  2. Activities for Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Arthur A.

    1987-01-01

    Ten activities that give learners in grades 5-8 a chance to explore mathematics with calculators are provided. The activity cards involve such topics as odd addends, magic squares, strange projects, and conjecturing rules. (MNS)

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  4. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  6. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  7. Interpretable Active Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Richard L.; Chang, Kyu Hyun; Friedler, Sorelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Active learning has long been a topic of study in machine learning. However, as increasingly complex and opaque models have become standard practice, the process of active learning, too, has become more opaque. There has been little investigation into interpreting what specific trends and patterns an active learning strategy may be exploring. This work expands on the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations framework (LIME) to provide explanations for active learning recommendations. W...

  8. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Immunizations: Active vs. Passive Safety & ...

  9. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

      In many types of activities communicative and material activities are so intertwined that the one cannot be understood without taking the other into account. This is true of maritime and hospital work that are used as examples in the paper. The spatial context of the activity is also important:...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  10. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual ...

  11. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  12. Modeling Patterns of Activities using Activity Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Prafulla N; Cook, Diane J; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2016-06-01

    Pervasive computing offers an unprecedented opportunity to unobtrusively monitor behavior and use the large amount of collected data to perform analysis of activity-based behavioral patterns. In this paper, we introduce the notion of an activity curve , which represents an abstraction of an individual's normal daily routine based on automatically-recognized activities. We propose methods to detect changes in behavioral routines by comparing activity curves and use these changes to analyze the possibility of changes in cognitive or physical health. We demonstrate our model and evaluate our change detection approach using a longitudinal smart home sensor dataset collected from 18 smart homes with older adult residents. Finally, we demonstrate how big data-based pervasive analytics such as activity curve-based change detection can be used to perform functional health assessment. Our evaluation indicates that correlations do exist between behavior and health changes and that these changes can be automatically detected using smart homes, machine learning, and big data-based pervasive analytics.

  13. Heterogeneous Active Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Klotsa, Daphne

    Active systems are composed of self-propelled (active) particles that locally convert energy into motion and exhibit emergent collective behaviors, such as fish schooling and bird flocking. Most works so far have focused on monodisperse, one-component active systems. However, real systems are heterogeneous, and consist of several active components. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of multi-component active matter systems and report on their emergent behavior. We discuss the phase diagram of dynamic states as well as parameters where we see mixing versus segregation.

  14. Active food packaging technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Murat; Floros, John D

    2004-01-01

    Active packaging technologies offer new opportunities for the food industry, in the preservation of foods. Important active packaging systems currently known to date, including oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide emitters/absorbers, moisture absorbers, ethylene absorbers, ethanol emitters, flavor releasing/absorbing systems, time-temperature indicators, and antimicrobial containing films, are reviewed. The principle of operation of each active system is briefly explained. Recent technological advances in active packaging are discussed, and food related applications are presented. The effects of active packaging systems on food quality and safety are cited.

  15. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....

  16. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  17. NEA activities in 1980. 9. Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1980 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  18. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  19. Activated carbon from biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  20. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    In the recent decade the concept of active aging has become important in the Western hemisphere. The World Health Organization and The European Union have staged active aging as a core policy area and initiated programs of physical activity, independence and prolonged working lives among...... the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... in their socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  1. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  2. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  3. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  4. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  5. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  7. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... due to photonic crystal dispersion. The observations are explained by the enhancement of net gain by light slow down. Another application based on active photonic crystal waveguides is micro lasers. Measurements on quantum dot micro laser cavities with different mirror configurations and photonic...

  8. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  9. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  10. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  11. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  12. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  14. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  15. NEA activities in 1983. 12. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1983 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and the fuel cycles nuclear safety technology and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings and other NEA joint projects, organisation and administration are reviewed

  16. Russian: An Active Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Nina

    The Active Introduction is one of the modules in an array of materials used in Russian training for beginners at the Foreign Service Institute. It is essentially a catalog of sentences relating to typical daily activities which can be combined to form different communication sequences in dialog form. Students learn to speak Russian through…

  17. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  18. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  19. Rhythmic Activities for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Practical Pointers, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on the development of fundamental rhythm skills involved in music and movement activities, this teaching guide emphasizes activities that will help children express their feelings and communicate with others, develop perceptual and motor skills, and enhance sensory awareness. Suggestions for involving handicapped children and examples of…

  20. Elementary Environmental Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert J.

    This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…

  1. Enzyme with rhamnogalacturonase activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kofod, L.V.; Andersen, L.N.; Dalboge, H.; Kauppinen, M.S.; Christgau, S.; Heldt-Hansen, H.P.; Christophersen, C.; Nielsen, P.M.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An enzyme exhibiting rhamnogalacturonase activity, capable of cleaving a rhamnogalacturonan backbone in such a manner that galacturonic acids are left as the non-reducing ends, and which exhibits activity on hairy regions from a soy bean material and/or on saponified hairy regions from a sugar beet

  2. RTE activity report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The RTE (electric power transport network) is the french manger of the electric power transport. This activity report provides information on the company results for the year 2005: panorama of the year, management and organization, the place of RTE in the european market, the customers, the industrial tool, the environment the human resources, the international activity and the management report. (A.L.B.)

  3. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  4. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  5. Activity report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This annual report deals with the activities, the program management and the financial aspects of the ANDRA (National Agency for the radioactive wastes management) during 2002. After a presentation of the activities during the year 2002, it provides the financial accounting, data on company cash, the ANDRA missions and publications. (A.L.B.)

  6. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  7. NEA activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an account of the activities of the Nuclear Energy Agency. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  8. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  9. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  10. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  11. Automation of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Ivanets, V.N.; Filippov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The basic data on the methods and equipment of activation analysis are presented. Recommendations on the selection of activation analysis techniques, and especially the technique envisaging the use of short-lived isotopes, are given. The equipment possibilities to increase dataway carrying capacity, using modern computers for the automation of the analysis and data processing procedure, are shown

  12. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  13. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  14. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20...

  15. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  16. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  17. Activity Fund Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Addresses the need of school districts in many states to decide on an appropriate mingling of centralization and decentralization in the operation of activity funds. Argues for analysis of activity fund operation through a breakdown into such major components as policy, the accounting system, and reporting and auditing. (JBM)

  18. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  19. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  20. AMP (Activity Manipulation Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engle, W.W. Jr.

    1976-03-01

    AMP is a FORTRAN IV program written to handle energy-group structured activity factors such as sources, conversion factors, and response functions, as used by ANISN, DOT III, and other nuclear reactor and shielding codes. Activities may be retrieved from ANISN-type cross-section and activity sets found on cards and tapes, and from tabular-type sets on cards. They may be altered by change of group structure, multiplication by a constant, or multiplication by delta E (the group-energy interval), and then output to ANISN-type cards or tape and tabular-type cards. A full edit of input and output activities is always printed by group and activity number

  1. ANDRA, 2006 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The French national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) was marked in 2006 by two outstanding events: the publication of the national inventory of radioactive wastes and valorisable materials, and the vote of the law from June 28, 2006 relative to the sustainable management of radioactive wastes and materials. This road-map law has an impact on ANDRA's activities for the coming years. This activity report presents several 2006 highlights of ANDRA's missions as well: the public service mission, the by-law about the effluents of the Aube plant for the storage of low-medium activity wastes, the building of the first 'double-cell' at the very-low activity waste storage plant of Aube, the research studies about the project of deep underground disposal of high-medium activity, long-living wastes, and the public information about ANDRA's technical and scientific know-how. The management and financial reports are attached in appendix. (J.S.)

  2. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  3. Activation neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  4. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, O.; Darcourt, J.; Benoit, M; Malandain, G.; Thirion, J.P.; Robert, Ph.; Vidal, R.; Desvignes, Ph.; Benoliel, J.; Ayache, N.; Bussiere, F.

    1997-01-01

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  5. Forecast of auroral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique is developed to predict auroral activity based on a sample of over 9000 auroral sites identified in global auroral images obtained by an ultraviolet imager on the NASA Polar satellite during a 6-month period. Four attributes of auroral activity sites are utilized in forecasting, namely, the area, the power, and the rates of change in area and power. This new technique is quite accurate, as indicated by the high true skill scores for forecasting three different levels of auroral dissipation during the activity lifetime. The corresponding advanced warning time ranges from 22 to 79 min from low to high dissipation levels

  6. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, L.V.; Lee, S.M.; Sahoo, D.; Sreedharan, O.M.; Srinivasan, G.

    1979-05-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during the year 1977 are reported. The report is presented in the form of individual summaries of R and D activities most of which are connected with the FBTR project. These R and D activities deal with various aspects of the FBTR project such as reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, fabrication, testing and quality assurance of reactor materials and components, reactor chemistry, reactor safety, reprocessing, systems analysis and instrumentation. (M.G.B.)

  7. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  8. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  9. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  10. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  11. 1985. Activity progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The research program of the Laboratory of nuclear and high energy physics (LPNHE) of the Institute of nuclear and particle physics (IN2P3) presents the research activities of its groups: principally, the Delphi group which constructs the outer detector of Delphi at LEP, the neutrino group which studies the neutrino mass, the Hera group whose work is collaboration to the construction of a detector for Hera collisioner; in parallel to these activities, other more little groups continue analysis of activities which are going to be finished: they are the CELLO group, the EHS group, the omega prime group and the nuclear emulsion group [fr

  12. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  13. Active Packaging Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Bastarrachea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Active food packaging involves the packaging of foods with materials that provide an enhanced functionality, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant or biocatalytic functions. This can be achieved through the incorporation of active compounds into the matrix of the commonly used packaging materials, or by the application of coatings with the corresponding functionality through surface modification. The latter option offers the advantage of preserving the packaging materials’ bulk properties nearly intact. Herein, different coating technologies like embedding for controlled release, immobilization, layer-by-layer deposition, and photografting are explained and their potential application for active food packaging is explored and discussed.

  14. IPSN's 2001 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activities and operation of the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) which has become the institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) after its merging with the office of protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI). IPSN's activities cover: the safety of nuclear facilities, the safety of nuclear wastes, the management of emergencies, the management of sensible materials, the protection of the environment and of the public health, some research activities with foreign partners (central and eastern Europe, Asia..), and a partnership with the GRS, the German homologue of IPSN. (J.S.)

  15. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  16. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  17. Cryogenic Active Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort seeks to develop active mirrors that can correct for thermally-induced figure deformations upon cooling from room-temperature at the time of manufacture,...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  19. Mining activities at Neyveli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, P.V.; Rathinavel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mining activities at lignite areas around Neyveli are described. Measures taken to safeguard the environment from despoliation of land, air pollution, noise pollution and effluents are described. (M.G.B.)

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  2. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript ...

  4. Uranium market activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized from the 1974 ERDA annual survey of buyers and sellers and from a survey of uranium price data which provided information on additional domestic buying activity during the first half of 1975 through 1982

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  6. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  7. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  10. 1996 GRAMME activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This note draws a balance of the activities made at CEA-DEM within the frame of GRAMME collaboration. Results in six interest fields are presented: solidification, Mephisto program, transport phenomena, isothermal diffusion, rhenium alloys and instrumentation. (A.C.)

  11. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  14. Home Activities Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet, broken up by state. PJs can use this report to view activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS, including;...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  17. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG ...

  2. Antitubercular activities of quinolones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper gives a brief account of the recently introduced Szeged index. (Sz). Using this .... good correlation with antitubercular activities and yield physically meaningful regressions. ..... Parr R G and Pearson R G 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc.

  3. Enerplan, activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2010 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  5. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  6. Activity report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1980-07-01

    The activites of the Eurochemic (European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels) at Mol is summarized under the following headings: the decontamination and intervention in the Fuel Reception and Storage Building, the active operation of the bituminization facility, the construction of two additional storage bunkers, the full active operation of the section for the handling of solid waste and the construction of various units for the conditioning of organic liquid waste and plutonium hearing solid wastes. (AF)

  7. Activity report 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drent, W.; Delande, E.

    1981-07-01

    The EUROCHEMIC Company's activity report for fiscal year 1980 covers the following topics: administrative and commercial matters; personnel; cleaning and decontamination works in the reprocessing plant; operation of the bituminization facility; active treatment of the spent solvent in the Eurowatt facility; operation of the waste sorting and shredding unit, preparing the plutonium contaminated solid wastes for conditioning and recovery of plutonium; radiation protection and library and documentation. (AF)

  8. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  9. Low activation ferritic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  10. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  11. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  12. Activity report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; Ramanathan, N.; Rodriguez, P.; Shankar Singh, R.; Venkataraman, S.

    1977-08-01

    The report covers a wide range of R and D activities in the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). The scientific and technical activities in various fields such as: reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, design of sodium circuits, reactor fuel handling, electrical and instrumentation engineering for FBTR, data processing system, reactor operation studies, reactor construction, materials science, metallurgy, reprocessing, instrumentation, safety research and engineering services, have been reported in brief. (A.K.)

  13. Fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981 numerous 14 MeV neutron activation analyses were performed at Korona. On the basis of that work the advantages of this analysis technique and therewith obtained results are compared with other analytical methods. The procedure of activation analysis, the characteristics of Korona, some analytical investigations in environmental research and material physics, as well as sources of systematic errors in trace analysis are described. (orig.) [de

  14. Taxing Financial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz

    2003-01-01

    In most countries, substantial business activity is related to financial intermediation: banking, trusts, investment companies and insurance. Financial businesses play a crucial role in the economy by matching lenders with borrowers as well as facilitating governance of businesses through close monitoring of funds lent to businesses. Financial institutions also reduce risk faced by investors by pooling investments over many different types of business activities and insuring against property,...

  15. Activity report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; Ramanathan, N.; Rodriguez, P.; Shankar Singh, R.; Venkataraman, S.

    1978-11-01

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during 1976 are reported. The main thrust of the R and D activities is directed towards the FBTR Project and they deal with the various aspects of the project such as reactor physics, reactor design, fuel handling, reactor instrumentation, reactor operation, reactor construction, reactor safety, reactor materials, reactor chemistry and fuel reprocessing. (M.G.B.)

  16. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Ostergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    This is the authors’ accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may h...

  17. Shareholder activism in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...

  18. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  19. Antibacterial activity of antileukoprotease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, P S; Maassen, R J; Stolk, J; Heinzel-Wieland, R; Steffens, G J; Dijkman, J H

    1996-01-01

    Antileukoprotease (ALP), or secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor, is an endogenous inhibitor of serine proteinases that is present in various external secretions. ALP, one of the major inhibitors of serine proteinases present in the human lung, is a potent reversible inhibitor of elastase and, to a lesser extent, of cathepsin G. In equine neutrophils, an antimicrobial polypeptide that has some of the characteristics of ALP has been identified (M. A. Couto, S. S. L. Harwig, J. S. Cullor, J. P. Hughes, and R. I. Lehrer, Infect. Immun. 60:5042-5047, 1992). This report, together with the cationic nature of ALP, led us to investigate the antimicrobial activity of ALP. ALP was shown to display marked in vitro antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. On a molar basis, the activity of ALP was lower than that of two other cationic antimicrobial polypeptides, lysozyme and defensin. ALP comprises two homologous domains: its proteinase-inhibitory activities are known to be located in the second COOH-terminal domain, and the function of its first NH2-terminal domain is largely unknown. Incubation of intact ALP or its isolated first domain with E. coli or S. aureus resulted in killing of these bacteria, whereas its second domain displayed very little antibacterial activity. Together these data suggest a putative antimicrobial role for the first domain of ALP and indicate that its antimicrobial activity may equip ALP to contribute to host defense against infection. PMID:8890201

  20. Dizygotic monochorionic twin pregnancy conceived following intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment and complicated by twin-twin transfusion syndrome and blood chimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Charlotte Kvist; Skibsted, L.; Søgaard, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    phenotypically a normal male and a normal female. Histology of the placenta showed it to be monochorionic diamniotic. Blood chimerism was found postnatally as both infants had the karyotypes 46,XX[13]/46,XY[17]. Chimerism was not found in cells from a buccal swab at 6 months of age. This is one of only a few...

  1. Microdose Flare-up Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonist Versus GnRH Antagonist Protocols in Poor Ovarian Responders Undergoing Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boza, Aysen; Cakar, Erbil; Boza, Barıs; Api, Murat; Kayatas, Semra; Sofuoglu, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Microdose flare-up GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist have become more popular in the management of poor ovarian responders (POR) in recent years; however, the optimal protocol for POR patients undergoing in vitro fertilization has still been a challenge. In this observational study design, two hundred forty four poor ovarian responders were retrospectively evaluated for their response to GnRH agonist protocol (group-1, n=135) or GnRH antagonist protocol (group-2, n=109). Clinical pregnancy rate was the primary end point and was compared between the groups. Student t-test, Mann Whitney U test and χ (2)-test were used to compare the groups. The pmicrodose flare-up protocol has favorable outcomes with respect to the number of oocytes retrieved and implantation rate; nevertheless, the clinical pregnancy rate was found to be similar in comparison to GnRH antagonist protocol in poor ovarian responders. GnRH antagonist protocol appears to be promising with significantly lower gonadotropin requirement and lower treatment cost in poor ovarian responders.

  2. Oral contraceptive pretreatment does not improve outcome in microdose gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol among poor responder intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvan, Candan Iltemir; Berker, Bulent; Turhan, Nilgun Ozturk; Satiroglu, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    To compare oral contraceptive (OC) pretreatment plus microdose GnRH-a in flare-up protocol and non-OC microdose GnRH-a in flare-up protocol among poor responder ICSI patients. A retrospective analysis of poor responder ICSI patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to used microdose protocol. Precycle treatment with OC followed by follicular phase administration of 40 microg s.c. leuprolide acetate (LA) every 12 h beginning on after 2 day pill-free period and rFSH administration was begun on the third day of LA administration (OC-Group, n=26). Alternatively on day 2 after menses, patients were administered similar stimulation regime (non-OC Group, n=27). There were no significant differences between groups in the number of oocytes, peak estradiol levels, endometrial thickness, fertilization rates and embryo quality. Implantations and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer were similar. OC pretreatment plus microdose GnRHa in flare-up protocol does not offer advantages over non-OC microdose GnRHa in flare-up protocol among poor responder ICSI patients.

  3. Outcome of Intracytoplasmic Injection of Sperm Obtained by Testicular Sperm Extraction from 14 Azoospermic Men Suffering from 47,XXY Non-mosaic Klinefelter's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ming Chiang

    2004-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrates that azoospermic patients suffering from non-mosaic Klinefelter's syndrome can father their own genetic offspring when the TESE procedure is combined with ICSI and embryo transfer techniques.

  4. Metformin treatment before and during in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: summary of a Cochrane review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Leopoldo O; Costello, Michael F; Albuquerque, Luiz Eduardo T; Andriolo, Régis B; Marjoribanks, Jane; Macedo, Cristiane R

    2015-09-01

    In women with polycystic ovary syndrome, metformin treatment before or during assisted reproductive technology cycles increases clinical pregnancy rates and decreases the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. However, there is no conclusive evidence of a benefit in live birth rates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A prospective randomized multicentre study comparing vaginal progesterone gel and vaginal micronized progesterone tablets for luteal support after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Christina; Lindenberg, Svend; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    fertility centres in Denmark and Sweden between March 2006 and January 2010. A web-based randomization program was used with concealed allocation of patients. Patients were randomized to one of two groups: vaginal progesterone gel or vaginal micronized progesterone tablets. There was no blinding of patients....... PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 2057 women ≤ 40 years of age were included and down-regulated, using the long agonist protocol and rFSH for stimulation. Luteal support was given for 19 days after embryo transfer or until a negative pregnancy test Day 14 after embryo transfer. Patient convenience...... (pregnancy) is robust, blinding would have been unlikely to affect the results. Unfortunately, owing to an error in the randomization, the intended age distribution allocated older women to the micronized progesterone tablet group. In the analysis of results, adjustments were made for age and number...

  6. Comparison of In Vitro Fertilization/Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection Cycle Outcome in Patients with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Modified Poisson Regression Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Vesali, Samira; Ghaheri, Azadeh; Esmailzadeh, Arezoo; Omani-Samani, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent condition in reproductive age women with a prevalence rate of 5-10%. This study intends to determine the relationship between PCOS and the outcome of assisted reproductive treatment (ART) in Tehran, Iran. In this historical cohort study, we included 996 infertile women who referred to Royan Institute (Tehran, Iran) between January 2012 and December 2013. PCOS, as the main variable, and other potential confounder variables were gathered. Modified Poisson Regression was used for data analysis. Stata software, version 13 was used for all statistical analyses. Unadjusted analysis showed a significantly lower risk for failure in PCOS cases compared to cases without PCOS [risk ratio (RR): 0.79, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.66-0.95, P=0.014]. After adjusting for the confounder variables, there was no difference between risk of non-pregnancy in women with and without PCOS (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.72-1.05, P=0.15). Significant predictors of the ART outcome included the treatment protocol type, numbers of embryos transferred (grades A and AB), numbers of injected ampules, and age. The results obtained from this model showed no difference between patients with and without PCOS according to the risk for non-pregnancy. Therefore, other factors might affect conception in PCOS patients. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  7. ウサギICSI (Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection)におけるPiezo-ICSIの有用性の検討

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 智草; 細井, 美彦; 加藤, 博己; 松本, 和也; 佐伯, 和弘; 入谷, 明

    2000-01-01

    Piezo-ICSIは、マウス、ヒト、ウシにおいて、Conventional ICSIよりも有用であることが報告されている。Piezo-ICSIはConventional ICSIと比較して、透明帯や卵細胞膜へのダメージが少ないといわれている。本実験では、ウサギ卵子を用いて、Conventional ICSI (Con) と Piezo-ICSI (Piezo)を行い、in vitro とin vivoにおいての発生率を比較、検討した。Conおける生存率、卵割率、胚盤胞期胚への発生率はそれぞれ65.1%、83.5%、16.4%であった。対して、Piezoでは、69.6%、82.8%、34.3%であった。生存率、受精率に有為な差は見られなかったが、胚盤胞期胚への発生率は、5%水準で有為差が見られた。また、同期化処理をした雌ウサギへの卵管移植の結果、Con 1% (1/70)、Piezo6% (4/70)の割合で産子が得られた。以上のことより、ウサギ卵子に対してのPiezo-ICSIは Conventional ICSIよりも有用であることが示唆された。 (英文) It report...

  8. Pregnancy outcome and neonatal data of children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection with a different duration of cryopreservation of spermatozoa obtained through testicular sperm extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ru Tsai

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: ICSI outcomes, pregnancy outcome, neonatal outcome, and congenital malformation rate appear not to be affected by the duration of the period of cryostorage. An earlier start of the ICSI cycle following the testicular sperm cryopreservation is preferable because longer preservation is associated with more advanced maternal age.

  9. Clinical outcomes and development of children born to couples with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia undergoing testicular sperm extraction-intracytoplasmic sperm injection: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ru Tsai

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: In our study, there were no differences in the fertility rate and clinic pregnancy rate between the OA and NOA groups using TESE-ICSI. Also, the clinical outcomes and development of children were similar between the OA and the NOA groups using TESE-ICSI.

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of sperm DNA damage on in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Luke; Zini, Armand; Dyachenko, Alina; Ciampi, Antonio; Carrell, Douglas T

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage is prevalent among infertile men and is known to influence natural reproduction. However, the impact of sperm DNA damage on assisted reproduction outcomes remains controversial. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies on sperm DNA damage (assessed by SCSA, TUNEL, SCD, or Comet assay) and clinical pregnancy after IVF and/or ICSI treatment from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PUBMED database searches for this analysis. We identified 41 articles (with a total of 56 studies) including 16 IVF studies, 24 ICSI studies, and 16 mixed (IVF + ICSI) studies. These studies measured DNA damage (by one of four assays: 23 SCSA, 18 TUNEL, 8 SCD, and 7 Comet) and included a total of 8068 treatment cycles (3734 IVF, 2282 ICSI, and 2052 mixed IVF + ICSI). The combined OR of 1.68 (95% CI: 1.49–1.89; P IVF and/or ICSI treatment. In addition, the combined OR estimates of IVF (16 estimates, OR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.34–2.04; P IVF + ICSI studies (16 estimates, OR = 2.37; 95% CI: 1.89–2.97; P IVF and/or ICSI treatment. PMID:27345006

  11. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  12. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  13. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  14. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  15. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  16. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  17. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  18. Photon-activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable 127 I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors

  19. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  20. Arctic industrial activities compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Most industrial activities in the Beaufort Sea region are directly or indirectly associated with the search for oil and gas. Activities in marine areas include dredging, drilling, seismic and sounding surveys, island/camp maintenance, vessel movements, helicoptor and fixed-wind flights, and ice-breaking. This inventory contains a summary of chemical usage at 119 offshore drilling locations in the Beaufort Sea, Arctic Islands and Davis Straight of the Canadian Arctic between 1973 and 1987. Data are graphically displayed for evaluating patterns of drill waste discharge in the three offshore drilling areas. These displays include a comparison of data obtained from tour sheets and well history records, summaries of drilling mud chemicals used by year, well and oil company, frequency of wells drilled as a function of water depth, and offshore drilling activity by year, company, and platform. 21 refs., 104 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  2. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active......This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  3. Rheology of Active Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintillan, David

    2018-01-01

    An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.

  4. IHY activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, Alisson

    The International Heliophysical Year is a program of international scientific colaboration planned to be held in the period from 2007-2009. Many brazilian institutions have shown interest in participating in the IHY activities. All of them provided information about their instrumental facilities and contact person. A list of institutions and their information is shown in the Latin-American IHY webpage (http://www.alage.org/IHYLA/ihyla.html), hosted by the Latin American Association on Space Geophysics - ALAGE. IHY Brazilian activities are being conducted in close colaboration with Latin-American Institutions. Five Coordinated Investigation programs (CIPs) have been proposed by scientists from brazilian institutions. Recentely, in February 2008, there has been the Latin American IHY School in Sao Paulo (Brazil), with the participation of 80 students from Brazil, Argentina, Peru, Mexico and Cuba. In this work, a report on the brazilian activities will be presented.

  5. CEREM activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the activity report of the CEREM (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEREM organization, activities and human resources with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the materials fabrication for the nuclear and automotive industries, the powders metallurgy (molding by injection, cold pressing modelling), the simulation of the hot and cold working processes, the surface treatments, the joining (brazed joints, sintering, welding), the electrochemical storage of the energy (fuel cells, lithium accumulators), the corrosion and the physico-chemistry of fluids, the mechanical properties and the cracks, the robots for nuclear units dismantlement, the alteration mechanisms of properties under different solicitations (thermal, mechanical, chemical, irradiation) and the solidification-crystallogenesis. (O.M.)

  6. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1978-07-01

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1977. Works in the plant are closely related to the handling of fuel element and the treatment of solid wastes as well as the management of liquid wastes. Industrial development activities have been primarily devoted to the solidification of HEWC (highly enriched waste concentrate) by means of the Lotes process; the treatment of spent solvent by means of the Eurowatt process; the treatment of the plutonium-bearing solid wastes by the Eurowetcomb process and the conditioning of highly activity non-combustible solid wastes by incorporation into polymer-concrete matrix . (AF)

  7. Activity report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1979-07-01

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid and solid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1978. Works in the plant are closely related to the decontamination in cooperation with specialized firms. Active operation of bituminization facility was started in June, and a total of 66 m 3 of medium level waste was incorporated into bitumen by the end of 1978. The associated storage facility was in active operation since June and preliminary studies for its extension were completed. A facility was completed for the conditioning of solid wastes arising from the decontamination operation of solid wastes whch were stored under water during plant operation. (AF)

  8. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  9. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...... (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain...

  10. Report of Activity - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, Philippe

    1999-01-01

    The Report of Activity on 1997 published by Waste Management Division (Direction chargee de la Gestion des Dechets) of French Atomic Energy Authority (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) presents the current activity in the framework of CEA Recovery Plan for Civil Centers initiated in 1991, aiming at managing all the radioactive problems issued from its Research and Development Activities. This plan covers three principal directions: management of radioactive wastes resulting from CEA research activities, reprocessing or storing the spent or un-used fuel resulting from research or prototype reactors, recovery measures and dismantling of nuclear facilities. In the field of radioactive waste management important projects, assuring the waste processing equipment, were developed in 1997 at Saclay (STELLA Installation), Cadarache (AGATE Installation) and Marcoule (ATENA Installation). The Radioactive Waste Storage TFA was put into operation at Cadarache. In the field of out-of-use fuel, in 1997 the fuel reprocessing units CARAMEL and UNGG were finished while as temporary storage for fuels waiting to be processed the CASCAD facility at Cadarache was assigned. Finally, concerning the recovery/dismantling activities, priority was granted to recover: the Radiochemical Lab. at Fontenay, the pilot workshop and UP1 plant of COGEMA at Marcoule, the EL4 reactor (in a joint action with EDF), and the AT1 pilot workshop at Cherbourg. The report is structured on five chapters with the following content: 1. The radioactive wastes; 2. The out-of-use fuels; 3. The dismantling of the definitively stopped installations; 4. The waste management at DAM (Direction des Applications Militaires); 5. Recovery activities at Marcoule

  11. Activated carbon material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards

  12. Andra 1997 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This activity report comprises two parts. The first part describes the missions and activities of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes): quality control of wastes produced by EdF, CEA, Cogema and the 1100 other small producers, design, construction and management of storage centres, anticipation and development of new management solutions, research and evaluation studies on deep storage facilities, inventory and control of all radioactive materials present in the French territory. The second part is a presentation of financial data. (J.S.)

  13. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  14. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) carries out for the Government, studies and inspections on nuclear installations at many life steps (design, realisation, exploitation, shutdown and dismantling). To obtain quality researches, the Institut performs studies in all domains concerned by the safety and its improvement. The main projects of the year 1999, in the following topics are presented: the nuclear installations and the radioactive wastes safety, the crisis and nuclear materials management, the human and the environment protection, the international activities and cooperation, the quality insurance. It provides also information on the cooperation, the budget, the human resource policy and the communication activities. (A.L.B.)

  15. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings...... of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions....

  16. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments; International relations; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (JC); The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC); International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX); Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): GIF Framework Agreement extended for ten years; Technology Road-map: Nuclear Energy; Steering Committee Policy Debate: Health Effects of Low-dose Radiation

  17. 1996 Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 activity report of the Direction for Waste Management of the CEA, is presented. Its activities have been developed in the framework of the general CEA cleaning plan, and include the management of wastes generated before 1992 in R and D CEA facilities, the disposal of spent fuels generated by research reactors (Orphee and Siloe) or prototype reactors (EL4 at Brennilis), and the dismantling and cleaning of obsolete facilities such as the plutonium radiochemistry building at Fontenay-aux-Roses and the pilot workshop at Marcoule

  18. Reference neutron activation library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,{gamma}), (n,2n), (n,{alpha}), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n,{sup 3}He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain

  19. Activity report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1982-07-01

    This report reviews the main activities of the Eurochemic company for the fiscal year 1981. These activities are: the plant operation including the safeguards for special nuclear materials, the management of radioactive wastes and the analytical services, new works such as vitrification project, Pamela building and the design for the storage of vitrified wastes. The industrial development concerns the Eurowatt process for solvent treatment, the wet combustion for plutonium bearing solid wastes, the separation of mercury, the incorporation of solid wastes into a polymer concrete matrix and the Pamela process. The health and safety division, the library and documentation service and the administrative matters are also presented. (AF)

  20. Activity report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drent, W.

    1985-07-01

    For the fiscal year 1984, the technical activities of Eurochemic were: a) the cleaning of the vessels having contained medium level liquid wastes and the incorporation into bitumen of the resulting solution, b) the conditioning of plutonium contaminated solid waste, c) the civil engineering works of Building 29 were completed and the mounting of equipment was begun. The installation will assure the surface storage of the blocks resulting from vitrification, by means of Pamela installation of the high-level liquid wastes. The report includes administrative matters as well as health and safety activity. (AF)

  1. Reference neutron activation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Many scientific endeavors require accurate nuclear data. Examples include studies of environmental protection connected with the running of a nuclear installation, the conceptual designs of fusion energy producing devices, astrophysics and the production of medical isotopes. In response to this need, many national and international data libraries have evolved over the years. Initially nuclear data work concentrated on materials relevant to the commercial power industry which is based on the fission of actinides, but recently the topic of activation has become of increasing importance. Activation of materials occurs in fission devices, but is generally overshadowed by the primary fission process. In fusion devices, high energy (14 MeV) neutrons produced in the D-T fusion reaction cause activation of the structure, and (with the exception of the tritium fuel) is the dominant source of activity. Astrophysics requires cross-sections (generally describing neutron capture) or its studies of nucleosynthesis. Many analytical techniques require activation analysis. For example, borehole logging uses the detection of gamma rays from irradiated materials to determine the various components of rocks. To provide data for these applications, various specialized data libraries have been produced. The most comprehensive of these have been developed for fusion studies, since it has been appreciated that impurities are of the greatest importance in determining the overall activity, and thus data on all elements are required. These libraries contain information on a wide range of reactions: (n,γ), (n,2n), (n,α), (n,p), (n,d), (n,t), (n, 3 He)and (n,n')over the energy range from 10 -5 eV to 15 or 20 MeV. It should be noted that the production of various isomeric states have to be treated in detail in these libraries,and that the range of targets must include long-lived radioactive nuclides in addition to stable nuclides. These comprehensive libraries thus contain almost all the

  2. Intergovernmental Organisation Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities, sorted by Organisation: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed binding instruments, Adopted legally binding instruments, Non-legally binding instruments; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability, Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Appointment of new Director-General, International experts in Japan to review safety after Fukushima Daiichi, China Atomic Energy Authority co-operation workshop

  3. MCO Monitoring activity description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  4. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  6. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. E-Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Joy

    2001-01-01

    Presents five technology-based activities to teach elementary students about the human body, including: creating a heartbeat graph; charting the benefits of exercise; playing a "sense"ational card game; reading online stories from three children living with various conditions or illnesses; and examining diagrams of the human body that have been…

  8. ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES THREATENING THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-02-17

    Feb 17, 2012 ... anthropogenic activities across the protected areas in the country. ... education and provision of fund to support sustainable livelihood practices. ... wildlife conservation and tourism. ... Fig: 1 Map of Oyo State showing location of Old Oyo National Park and adjoining community. #. #. # .... This was the view of.

  9. Acid-activated bentonite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we propose Maghnite-H + , as an ecological, cost-effective and easily renewable catalyst, for the polymerization of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). The Maghnite is a clay consisting primarily of smectite minerals (montmorillonite group), which can be activated/reactivated through a simple process, ...

  10. Activity report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1984-07-01

    The reports presents an account of the activities of the Eurochemic Company for the chemical processing of irradiated fuels, in the fiscal year l982. It deals with legal and administrative matters, industrial development, plant operation, new works, health and safety, library and documentation, and conferences and symposia. (AF)

  11. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equatio...

  12. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  13. Direct Activation Of Methane

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Sun, Miao; Caps, Valerie; Pelletier, Jeremie; Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2013-01-01

    Heteropolyacids (HPAs) can activate methane at ambient temperature (e.g., 20.degree. C.) and atmospheric pressure, and transform methane to acetic acid, in the absence of any noble metal such as Pd). The HPAs can be, for example, those with Keggin

  14. Flipped Classroom, active Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Dyreborg; Levinsen, Henrik; Philipps, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Action research is conducted in three physics classes over a period of eighteen weeks with the aim of studying the effect of flipped classroom on the pupils agency and learning processes. The hypothesis is that flipped classroom teaching will potentially allocate more time to work actively...

  15. Learning Activity Package, Algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Diane

    A set of ten teacher-prepared Learning Activity Packages (LAPs) in beginning algebra and nine in intermediate algebra, these units cover sets, properties of operations, number systems, open expressions, solution sets of equations and inequalities in one and two variables, exponents, factoring and polynomials, relations and functions, radicals,…

  16. NEA activities in 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the main features of the Agency's work during 1985. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear developments and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  17. NEA activities in 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the main features of the Agency's work during 1984. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear developments and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licencing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  18. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  20. Bonus Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  1. Activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    HTGR Activities in Europe: • Stimulated and coordinated by Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative (NC21) • a part of Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) • SNETP has 68 members: industry, research, TSO, ... Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative: Contribute to clean and competitive energy beyond electricity by facilitating deployment of nuclear cogeneration plants

  2. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  4. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  5. Multidisciplinary Wildlife Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernbrode, William R., Ed.

    This guide provides information and activities descriptions designed to allow the teacher to use wildlife concepts in the teaching of various subjects. The author suggests that wildlife and animals are tremendous motivators for children and hold their attention. In the process, concepts of wildlife interaction with man and the environment are…

  6. Neuromodulation on Cerebral Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremoux, Sylvain; Ibanez Pereda, Jaime; Ates, Sedar; Dessi, Alessia; Pons, José L.; Torricelli, Diego

    2014-01-01

    During a motor task, a causal relation occurs between the motor command generated in the cortex and the proprioceptive feedbacks that go from the activated muscles through the corticospinal pathway. This causal relation is of interest in neurorehabilitation to improve motor function for people with

  7. Mechanism of charity activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman B. Golovkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the essential properties of the mechanism of charitable activities and to formulate the concept of quotmechanism of charitable activityquot. Methods the objective of the study is achieved using the complex of methods which are based on the interaction of dialectical and metaphysical analysis the epistemological properties of which allowed to reveal various aspects of the charitable activities mechanism functioning taking into account the principles of comprehensiveness complexity specificity and objectivity of the research. Results the rules are stated of using the term quotmechanismquot to characterize actions of state and law the essence of the charity mechanism is defined the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activity quot is formulated. Scientific novelty for the first time at theoretical level in legal science the definition of quotthe mechanism of charitable activityquot is formulated and its essential properties are set. Practical significance the research will contribute to improving the legal regulation in the field of philanthropy as well as to improving the efficiency and quality of charitable activity in the Russian Federation. nbsp

  8. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…

  9. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  10. Institutional investor activism : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, William; Bratton, William; McCahery, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  11. DPHPE activities during 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1977 [fr

  12. NEA activities in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1981 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  13. [Cycloferon biological activity characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkina, T M; Potekhina, L P; Kartashova, O L; Vasilchenko, A S

    2014-01-01

    Study the effect of cycloferon in experimental and clinical conditions on persistence properties of aurococci as well as features of their morpho-functional reaction by atomic force microscopy. The study was carried out in 12 Staphylococcus aureus clones isolated from mucous membrane of nose anterior part of a resident carrier. The effect of cycloferon in vivo was evaluated in 26 resident staphylococci carriers under the control of anti-carnosine activity of staphylococci. Anti-carnosine activity was determined by O.V. Bukharin et al. (1999), biofilm formation -by G.A. O'Toole et al. (2000). Staphylococci treated with cycloferon were studied by atomic force microscopy in contact mode using scanning probe SMM-2000 microscope. The decrease of persistence properties of staphylococci under the effect of cycloferon in vitro and in vivo may be examined as one of the mechanisms of biological activity of the preparation. A significant increase of S. aureus surface roughness and changes in their morphology under the effect of cycloferon allow stating the disorder of barrier functions in the aurococci cell wall. The data obtained expand the understanding of cycloferon biological activity mechanisms.

  14. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  15. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee...

  16. DPHPE activities during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1978 [fr

  17. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  18. Activity report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This activity report of the DSIN ( Direction of Nuclear Installations Safety) is divided into 4 parts bearing on: (1) Organisation, Safety principles, Regulations (2) Nuclear basis installations following (3) Surveillance by the regional directions of the Ministry of Industry, Research and Environment (4) Other missions of the DSIN

  19. Sexual activity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruch, Monika; Kucharczyk, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is usually associated with significant regression in genito-genital intercourse frequency, sexual desire and satisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine women's sexual habits during the third trimester of gestation and to compare their sexual activity before the current pregnancy and during previous pregnancies in case of multiparas. The study material consisted of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw between January 2013 and February 2014, who filled out a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: demographic data, sexual activity prior to current pregnancy and during gestation, including sexual positions and sources of knowledge regarding the subject. The survey involved 25 questions and was distributed among 220 patients, out of which 165 were returned and 149 properly filled out and analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 29.6 ± 4.85 years; the majority (78.8%) were in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The decrease in sexual activity was evident in all age groups--the majority usually had sex 1 to 3 times a month in contrast to 1-2 times a week prior to conceiving. Sexual activity decreased significantly with increasing age. The main reasons for abandoning sexual activity included: decreased libido (35.5%), the doctor's suggestion (29%) and fears concerning child's health (29%). During pregnancy the frequency of vaginal intercourse significantly decreased (100% prior to vs. 86.6% during pregnancy; p < 0.001); as did oral sex (44.3% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.043) and anal sex (12% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02). 54% of the respondents declared reduced satisfaction with sexual life during pregnancy in comparison with the previous period; almost half (43.5%) felt less attractive while pregnant. The same claim was related to libido--it decreased in 58.8% of respondents. Multiparas tended to have sexual

  20. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  1. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  2. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  3. High activity waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaul, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Chem-Nuclear Environmental Services (CNES) has developed a container that is capable of containing high activity waste and can be shipped as a regular DOT Type A shipment. By making the container special form the amount of activity that can be transported in a Type A shipment is greatly enhanced. Special form material presents an extra degree of protection to the environment by requiring the package to be destroyed to get access to the radioactive material and must undergo specific testing requirements, whereas normal form material can allow access to the radioactive material. With the special form container up to 10 caries of radium can be transported in a single package. This paper will describe the considerations that were taken to develop these products

  4. Techniques for active passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Joseph R.; Herndon, Scott C.; Nelson, Jr., David D.

    2016-12-20

    In one embodiment, active (continuous or intermittent) passivation may be employed to prevent interaction of sticky molecules with interfaces inside of an instrument (e.g., an infrared absorption spectrometer) and thereby improve response time. A passivation species may be continuously or intermittently applied to an inlet of the instrument while a sample gas stream is being applied. The passivation species may have a highly polar functional group that strongly binds to either water or polar groups of the interfaces, and once bound presents a non-polar group to the gas phase in order to prevent further binding of polar molecules. The instrument may be actively used to detect the sticky molecules while the passivation species is being applied.

  5. Activation/waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, C.

    1984-10-01

    The selection of materials and the design of the blankets for fusion reactors have significant effects upon the radioactivity generated by neutron activation in the materials. This section considers some aspects of materials selection with respect to waste management. The activation of the materials is key to remote handling requirements for waste, to processing and disposal methods for waste, and to accident severity in waste management operations. In order to realize the desirable evnironmental potentials of fusion power systems, there are at least three major goals for waste management. These are: (a) near-surface burial; (b) disposal on-site of the fusion reactor; (c) acceptable radiation doses at least cost during and after waste management operations

  6. Powernext 2005 activity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility which organizes and warrants the transactions on the European power exchange and CO 2 exchange markets. This activity report presents the highlights of the market and of Powernext in 2005: market conditions (birth of the carbon market, price evolution on the power market), weather-related conditions, electricity production and consumption, situation at the borders, price of fuels, traded volumes at the three markets (Powernext Day-Ahead TM in the case of day-ahead contracts, Powernext Futures TM in the case of medium-term contracts, and Powernext Carbon in the case of CO 2 ), new active members, liquidity on the power market. (J.S.)

  7. Activity report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (IPSN), carries out researches and expert studies needed to manage nuclear risks and their consequences on people and environment. These activities cover the installation safety, the radioactive matter transport, the public health and environmental control, the nuclear matters safety and control and the crisis situation management. The IPSN have got also a mission of public information and participates to international actions in the domain of scientific researches or expert's report. This annual report presents the highlights of the year 1998, information on staff, budgets and geographical situation. Then technical and scientific papers gathers the activities of the year covered by the IPSN: the ''Free Tribune'', installations and radioactive wastes safety, crisis and nuclear matter management, public health and environment control, international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Effects of Activating Schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    schools. Two gender-segregated focus groups at each school, including in total 57 fourth to eight graders (28 girls), were conducted. The focus groups included go-along interviews in the schoolyard, and a post-it note activity. The data was collected between April and June 2016 (six months after...... as positive for their schoolyard as it provided more variation in play facilities and improved the appearance. However, at most schools the children experienced that the renewed schoolyards were dominated by the youngest children (under 10-year-old). To minimise crowding some schools had formally restricted...... access to the renovated areas for older children and allowed them to leave the school area during recess. Furthermore, most of the children felt that the renewed schoolyard areas were far from their classrooms. CONCLUSIONS: Renewing the schoolyard is not enough to stimulate physical activity. Schools...

  9. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ''Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire'' (IPSN), carries out researches and expert studies needed to manage nuclear risks and their consequences on people and environment. These activities cover the installation safety, the radioactive matter transport, the public health and environmental control, the nuclear matters safety and control and the crisis situation management. The IPSN have got also a mission of public information and participates to international actions in the domain of scientific researches or expert's report. This annual report presents the highlights of the year 1999, information on staff, budgets and geographical situation. Then technical and scientific papers gathers the activities of the year covered by the IPSN: the ''Free Tribune'', installations and radioactive wastes safety, crisis and nuclear matter management, public health and environment control, international cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  10. Thermal Activated Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary......, environmental dynamics and occupancy dynamics. Lastly, a physical prototype is created, which illustrates the physical expression of the bi-materials and the problems related to manufacturing of these composite structures.......The research studies the making of a responsive architectural envelope based on bi-materials. The bi-materials are organized according to a method that combines different isotropic metals and plastic into an active composite structure that reacts to temperature variations. Through an evolutionary...

  11. Industrial Activity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalik, G

    2000-01-01

    The decrease in the number of CERN staff creates the need for optimization of the non-core, infrastructure-related activities. An industrial, service-orientated approach has long been considered as an appropriate way to cope with the problem of diminishing resources. This paper presents industrial and service activity issues at CERN based on the experience of the exploitation of the power network. The most important problems linked to the application of the industrial approach to the exploitation of equipment in the CERN research environment are covered. These include the interface between accelerators and electrical exploitation services, external and internal regulations, sharing of responsibility between CERN staff and external contractors, continuous modification of clients' requirements, the balance between the cost of accelerator downtime versus the cost of infrastructure upgrade. A benchmarking through a comparison with a big industrial manufacturer is followed by recommendations for possible improveme...

  12. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  13. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent Intergovernmental organisation activities, sorted by organisation: - European Atomic Energy Community: Adopted legally binding instruments; Non-legally binding instruments; International relations. - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); 58. regular session of the IAEA General Conference; IAEA Treaty Event; Side event on 'The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) - in the Context of the Global Nuclear Liability Regime'; Legislative assistance activities; Nuclear Law Institute. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Steering Committee approves decommissioning exclusion; European Nuclear Energy Tribunal (ENET) Judges approved; High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR); Joint Declaration; The Characteristics of an Effective Nuclear Regulator

  15. Neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taure, I.; Riekstina, D.; Veveris, O.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) in Latvia began to develop after 1961 when nuclear reactor in Salaspils started to work. It provided a powerful neuron source, which is necessary for this analytical method. In 1963 at Institute of Physics of the Latvian Academy of Sciences the Laboratory of Neutron Activation Analysis was formed. At the first stage of development the main tasks were of theoretical and technical aspects of NAA. Later the NAA was used to solve problems in technology, biology, and medicine. In the beginning of the 80-ties more attention was focussed to the use of NAA in the environmental research. Environmental problems stayed the main task till the closing the nuclear reactor in Salaspils in 1998 that ceased the main the existence of the laboratory and of NAA, this significant and powerful analytical method in Latvia and Baltic in general. (authors)

  16. LANSCE Activity Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Robinson; Audrey Archuleta; Barbara Maes; Dan Strottman; Earl Hoffman; Garth Tietjen; Gene Farnum; Geoff Greene; Joyce Roberts; Ken Johnson; Paul Lewis; Roger Pynn; Stan Schriber; Steve Sterbenz; Steve Wender; Sue Harper

    1999-02-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center Activity Report describes scientific and technological progress and achievements in LANSCE Division during the period of 1995 to 1998. This report includes a message from the Division Director, an overview of LANSCE, sponsor overviews, research highlights, advanced projects and facility upgrades achievements, experimental and user program accomplishments, news and events, and a list of publications. The research highlights cover the areas of condensed-matter science and engineering, accelerator science, nuclear science, and radiography. This report also contains a compact disk that includes an overview, the Activity Report itself, LANSCE operations progress reports for 1996 and 1997, experiment reports from LANSCE users, as well as a search capability.

  17. International regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    Among international regulatory activities we find resolutions adopted by the IAEA general conference (2003), through European Union we find proposals for directives on nuclear safety and radioactive waste management, new regulation on the application of EURATOM safeguards, control of high activity sealed radioactive sources, recommendation on the protection and information of the public with regard to the continued contamination of certain wild food products following the Chernobyl accident, proposals for decisions authorizing the Member states to sign and ratify the Protocol to amend the Paris convention, p)proposals for a directive on environment liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage, proposal of a regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligation. (N.C.)

  18. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii ™ (Nintendo ® ; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  19. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  20. Integration of Active Video Games in Extracurricular Activity at Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Huang, Charles; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Active video games require players to be physically active. Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is an interactive dancing game that requires fast-foot movement coordinated with energetic music and visuals. The Wii and Xbox Kinect games have also become good active video games for the promotion of physical activity participation. These games are much more…