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Sample records for part load efficiency

  1. Methods to improve efficiency of four stroke, spark ignition engines at part load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutlar, Osman Akin; Arslan, Hikmet; Calik, Alper Tolga

    2005-01-01

    The four stroke, spark ignition (SI) engine pressure-volume diagram (p-V) contains two main parts. They are the compression-combustion-expansion (high pressure loop) and the exhaust-intake (low pressure or gas exchange loop) parts. The main reason for efficiency decrease at part load conditions for these types of engines is the flow restriction at the cross sectional area of the intake system by partially closing the throttle valve, which leads to increased pumping losses and to increased low pressure loop area on the p-V diagram. Meanwhile, the poorer combustion quality, i.e. lower combustion speed and cycle to cycle variations, additionally influence these pressure loop areas. In this study, methods for increasing efficiency at part load conditions and their potential for practical use are investigated. The study also includes a review of the vast literature on the solution of this problem. This investigation shows that the potential for increasing the efficiency of SI engines at part load conditions is not yet exhausted. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Among these, the most promising methods to decrease the fuel consumption at part load conditions are stratified charge and variable displacement engines. When used in combination, the other listed methods are more effective than their usage alone

  2. Part load efficiency of packaged air-cooled water chillers with inverter driven scroll compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchinato, Luca

    2010-01-01

    In this paper different packaged air-cooled systems, operating on scroll compressors, are experimentally analysed from the point of view of the relation between energy efficiency and actual capacity. Single compressor, double compressors and double compressors with uneven volumetric capacity units are tested. Experimental tests demonstrated that cooling capacity control by means of variation of rotational speed is an suitable solution for improving the part load efficiency of these systems. Step capacity units obtained by splitting the system volumetric capacity between two compressors are also effective solutions. Nevertheless they appear to be more efficient than single inverter driven chillers only for part load conditions lower than 60%. In the analysed cooling capacity range (25-50 kW), tandem compressors chillers with one inverter driven compressor appear the most efficient solution combining rotational speed with step capacity control. Seasonal energy efficiency ratios were obtained with prEN 14825 calculation method confirming reduced energy consumption associated to continuous and step cooling capacity control.

  3. Experimental determination of the energy efficiency of an air-cooled chiller under part load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T.

    2005-01-01

    In cities located in a subtropical climate, air-cooled chillers are commonly used to provide cooling to the indoor environment. This accounts for the increasing electricity demand of buildings over the decades. This paper investigates how the condensing temperature serves to accurately determine the energy efficiency, or coefficient of performance (COP), of air-cooled chillers under part load conditions. An experiment on an air-cooled reciprocating chiller showed that for any given operating condition, the COP of the chiller varies, depending on how the condensing temperature is controlled. A sensitivity analysis is implemented to investigate to what extent COP is responding to changes in operating variables and confirms that the condensing temperature is an adequate variable to gauge COP under various operating conditions. The specifications of the upper limit for the condensing temperature in order to improve the energy efficiency of air-cooled chillers are discussed. The results of this work will give designers and researchers a good idea about how to model chiller energy performance curves in the thermal and energy computation exercises

  4. An analysis of limits for part load efficiency improvement with VVA devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knop, Vincent; Mattioli, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Variable valve actuation aims at reducing pumping losses for spark-ignition engines. • Fully unthrottled operation is never reached because of combustion degradation. • Present paper quantifies the combustion degradation origins for various strategies. • Fully unthrottled CAI combustion mode is a non-combustion-limited alternative. • Combustion limitation is, however, replaced by a heat loss limitation. - Abstract: The implementation of Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) in Spark-Ignition (SI) engines generally aims at increasing part-load efficiency by reducing pumping losses. However, any innovative valve strategy has effects on the combustion process itself, introducing new limitations and mitigating the fuel consumption benefits. The experimental analysis of such valve strategies identifies the optimum settings but does not explain the origin of benefits and the sources of unexpected drawbacks. In the present study, the experimentally-optimised operating conditions for different valve strategies were numerically compared with 3D CFD to gain knowledge about causes for efficiency benefits and consequences of valve strategy on combustion progress. We compared standard SI operation in a single-cylinder port-fuel injection gasoline engine to mixture leaning, early intake valve closure (Miller cycle), late intake valve closure (Atkinson cycle), as well as Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI). All alternative methods reduced pumping work and improved fuel consumption. However, all alternative methods also altered combustion progress and thermodynamic state within the combustion chamber, so that the observed fuel consumption benefits never reached the expected values. An energy balance provided the additional losses induced by each strategy while in-cylinder turbulence and temperature quantification helped explain the trends in combustion speed.

  5. Improvement of the efficiency of the Agnew micro hydro turbine at part loads due to installing guide vanes mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yassi, Yousef; hashemloo, Safar [Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), No. 29 Forssat St., Enghelaab Ave., Tehran (Iran)

    2010-10-15

    Agnew turbine is an axial micro hydro of Kaplan type, with its main shaft subtending 45 to the line of horizon. Due to governmental power generating programs for limited hydro potentials in Iran and on the basis of a joint project between the University of Glasgow and the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), the turbine was developed to operate under low heads and limited flow potentials in Iran. However the turbine was originally designed to operate without any guide vanes and test results showed that the turbine achieved an efficiency of 62% at its best point of performance. Later a modified Agnew turbine, consisting of a guide blades mechanism was designed and manufactured, at (IROST). The mechanism was so designed that it was also used as a second support for the turbine's main shaft. The standard turbine tests proved that; the modified version of the Agnew turbine had 23% higher efficiency at its best performance point; compared to the original design. Then the effects of the improvements on the turbine were studied on the performance of the turbine at part loads. However, efficiency improvements were observed under all part load conditions. (author)

  6. Improvement of the efficiency of the Agnew micro hydro turbine at part loads due to installing guide vanes mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yassi, Yousef; Hashemloo, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Agnew turbine is an axial micro hydro of Kaplan type, with its main shaft subtending 45 deg. to the line of horizon. Due to governmental power generating programs for limited hydro potentials in Iran and on the basis of a joint project between the University of Glasgow and the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), the turbine was developed to operate under low heads and limited flow potentials in Iran. However the turbine was originally designed to operate without any guide vanes and test results showed that the turbine achieved an efficiency of 62% at its best point of performance. Later a modified Agnew turbine, consisting of a guide blades mechanism was designed and manufactured, at (IROST). The mechanism was so designed that it was also used as a second support for the turbine's main shaft. The standard turbine tests proved that; the modified version of the Agnew turbine had 23% higher efficiency at its best performance point; compared to the original design. Then the effects of the improvements on the turbine were studied on the performance of the turbine at part loads. However, efficiency improvements were observed under all part load conditions.

  7. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... polypropylene film capacitor can be the equivalent capacitive load. Because of the voltage dependent characteristic, X7R MLCC cannot be used to replace the DEAP actuator. However, this type of capacitor can be used to substitute the capacitive actuator with voltage dependent property at the development phase....

  8. Dynamic loading of galvanized parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is divided into two parts: the theoretical part includes actual knowledge and points of view about degradation processes in construction materials, anticorrosion protection, zinc coat composition and high frequency fatigue. The laboratory part follow-up existing regulations contents Czech standards and formulate specifications for acquisition of objective information from acceleration la­bo­ra­to­ry tests in condensation chests, mechanical high frequency fatigue tests on pulsator machine and possibilities of evaluation of fatigue tests. Laboratory findings declare to fundamental types of damage of constructions with anticorrosion protection in real loading conditions with dynamic high frequency character. Laboratory tests were made in sulphide and chloride environments.

  9. Efficient Load Scheduling Method For Power Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijo M Joy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An efficient load scheduling method to meet varying power supply needs is presented in this paper. At peak load times the power generation system fails due to its instability. Traditionally we use load shedding process. In load shedding process disconnect the unnecessary and extra loads. The proposed method overcomes this problem by scheduling the load based on the requirement. Artificial neural networks are used for this optimal load scheduling process. For generate economic scheduling artificial neural network has been used because generation of power from each source is economically different. In this the total load required is the inputs of this network and the power generation from each source and power losses at the time of transmission are the output of the neural network. Training and programming of the artificial neural networks are done using MATLAB.

  10. Part-load performance of a high temperature Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Anish; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Haglind, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed algorithm to solve high temperature Kalina cycle in part load. • A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation considered as case study. • Part-load performance curves and fitted equations presented. - Abstract: The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as an alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. The cycle has been studied for use with both low and high temperature applications such as geothermal power plants, ocean thermal energy conversion, waste heat recovery, gas turbine bottoming cycle, and solar power plants. The high temperature cycle layouts are inherently more complex than the low temperature layouts due to the presence of a distillation-condensation subsystem, three pressure levels, and several heat exchangers. This paper presents a detailed approach to solve the Kalina cycle in part-load operating conditions for high temperature (a turbine inlet temperature of 500 °C) and high pressure (100 bar) applications. A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation is considered as a case study where the part-load conditions are simulated by changing the solar heat input to the receiver. Compared with the steam Rankine cycle, the Kalina cycle has an additional degree of freedom in terms of the ammonia mass fraction which can be varied in order to maximize the part-load efficiency of the cycle. The results include the part-load curves for various turbine inlet ammonia mass fractions and the fitted equations for these curves.

  11. Developing strategies to enhance loading efficiency of erythrosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Lopez, Sandra C.; Ritter, Sarah C.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    For diabetics, continuous glucose monitoring and the resulting tighter control of glucose levels ameliorate serious complications from hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Diabetics measure their blood glucose levels multiple times a day by finger pricks, or use implantable monitoring devices. Still, glucose and other analytes in the blood fluctuate throughout the day and the current monitoring methods are invasive, immunogenic, and/or present biodegradation problems. Using carrier erythrocytes loaded with a fluorescent sensor, we seek to develop a biodegradable, efficient, and potentially cost effective method to continuously sense blood analytes. We aim to reintroduce sensor-loaded erythrocytes to the bloodstream and conserve the erythrocytes lifetime of 120 days in the circulatory system. Here, we compare the efficiency of two loading techniques: hypotonic dilution and electroporation. Hypotonic dilution employs hypotonic buffer to create transient pores in the erythrocyte membrane, allowing dye entrance and a hypertonic buffer to restore tonicity. Electroporation relies on controlled electrical pulses that results in reversible pores formation to allow cargo entrance, follow by incubation at 37°C to reseal. As part of the cellular characterization of loaded erythrocytes, we focus on cell size, shape, and hemoglobin content. Cell recovery, loading efficiency and cargo release measurements render optimal loading conditions. The detected fluorescent signal from sensor-loaded erythrocytes can be translated into a direct measurement of analyte levels in the blood stream. The development of a suitable protocol to engineer carrier erythrocytes has profound and lasting implications in the erythrosensor's lifespan and sensing capabilities.

  12. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  13. Energy efficiency analysis of reconfigured distribution system for practical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In deregulated rate structure, the performance evaluation of distribution system for energy efficiency includes; loss minimization, improved power quality, loadability limit, reliability and availability of supply. Energy efficiency changes with the variation in loading pattern and the load behaviour. Further, the nature of load at each node is not explicitly of any one type rather their characteristics depend upon the node voltages. In most cases, load is assumed to be constant power (real and reactive. In this paper voltage dependent practical loads are represented with composite load model and the energy efficiency performance of distribution system for practical loads is evaluated in different configurations of 33-node system.

  14. An efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagaros, Nikos D.

    2014-01-01

    In engineering problems, randomness and uncertainties are inherent. Robust design procedures, formulated in the framework of multi-objective optimization, have been proposed in order to take into account sources of randomness and uncertainty. These design procedures require orders of magnitude more computational effort than conventional analysis or optimum design processes since a very large number of finite element analyses is required to be dealt. It is therefore an imperative need to exploit the capabilities of computing resources in order to deal with this kind of problems. In particular, parallel computing can be implemented at the level of metaheuristic optimization, by exploiting the physical parallelization feature of the nondominated sorting evolution strategies method, as well as at the level of repeated structural analyses required for assessing the behavioural constraints and for calculating the objective functions. In this study an efficient dynamic load balancing algorithm for optimum exploitation of available computing resources is proposed and, without loss of generality, is applied for computing the desired Pareto front. In such problems the computation of the complete Pareto front with feasible designs only, constitutes a very challenging task. The proposed algorithm achieves linear speedup factors and almost 100% speedup factor values with reference to the sequential procedure.

  15. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  16. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Prediction of the part-load performance of gas turbines is advantageous in various applications. Sometimes reasonable part-load performance is sufficient, while in other cases complete agreement with the performance of an existing machine is desirable. This paper is aimed at providing some guidance...... on methodologies for predicting part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Two different design models – one simple and one more complex – are created. Subsequently, for each of these models, the part-load performance is predicted using component maps and turbine constants, respectively. Comparisons...... with manufacturer data are made. With respect to the design models, the simple model, featuring a compressor, combustor and turbines, results in equally good performance prediction in terms of thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature as does a more complex model. As for part-load predictions, the results suggest...

  17. Accessibility, equity and efficiency. Part 1: Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Dentinho, T.; Patuelli, R.; Geurs, K.T.; Patuelli, R.; Dentinho, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tension between efficiency and equity has been the focus of major debate since equity aspects started to be considered as part of project evaluation procedures (Thomopoulos et al. 2009). In this book, we contribute to the debate by focusing on the links and trade-offs between accessibility,

  18. Part-load pumping operation, control and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Twenty one papers are printed. Their main concern is with pump performance under abnormal operating conditions or when operating at part-load. The effect of part-load operation on pump performance, pump internal flow and pump cavitation and noise were considered. The pumps considered are used in a variety of situations and some case studies were discussed. One paper about part-load operation of the boiler pumps for French pressurized water reactors and one paper on pressure pulsations of centrifugal pumps at very low flowrate, are indexed separately. (U.K.)

  19. Increasing induction motors efficiency by reducing electromagnetic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivian Chiver

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of any device is a major problem today. The design and construction of high efficiency motors is strongly required from the viewpoint of reducing energy consumption and protecting the environment. This paper deal with the problem of improving efficiency by reducing electrical and magnetic loads of these motors. Using the finite elements method (FEM, the authors will study the influence of these changes on the parameters and characteristics of the initial motor.

  20. Efficient field testing for load rating railroad bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jeffrey L.; Brett C., Commander

    1995-06-01

    As the condition of our infrastructure continues to deteriorate, and the loads carried by our bridges continue to increase, an ever growing number of railroad and highway bridges require load limits. With safety and transportation costs at both ends of the spectrum. the need for accurate load rating is paramount. This paper describes a method that has been developed for efficient load testing and evaluation of short- and medium-span bridges. Through the use of a specially-designed structural testing system and efficient load test procedures, a typical bridge can be instrumented and tested at 64 points in less than one working day and with minimum impact on rail traffic. Various techniques are available to evaluate structural properties and obtain a realistic model. With field data, a simple finite element model is 'calibrated' and its accuracy is verified. Appropriate design and rating loads are applied to the resulting model and stress predictions are made. This technique has been performed on numerous structures to address specific problems and to provide accurate load ratings. The merits and limitations of this approach are discussed in the context of actual examples of both rail and highway bridges that were tested and evaluated.

  1. Life time evaluation of spectrum loaded machine parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabb, R. [Waertsilae NSD Corporation, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    In a medium speed diesel engine there are some important components, such as the cylinder head, the piston and the cylinder liner, which are subjected to a specific load spectrum consisting of mainly two distinct parts. One is the low cycle part which is due to the temperature field that builds up after that the engine has been started. This low cycle part causes a big stress amplitude but consists of only a couple of thousand cycles during the engine life time. The other part of the load spectrum is the high cycle part due to the firing pressure. The high cycle part has a smaller amplitude but consists of billions of cycles during the engine life time. The cylinder head and the cylinder liner are made of cast iron. In this investigation the true extension into the high cycle domain of the S-N curve for grey cast iron grade 300/ISO 185 was established through fatigue tests with a load spectrum resembling the existing one. This testing resulted in much new and improved knowledge about the fatigue properties of grey cast iron and it was even possible to generalize the outcome of the spectrum fatigue tests into a simple design curve. (orig.) 11 refs.

  2. Preliminary study of S-CO{sub 2} cycle control logic for part load operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The benefits of S-CO{sub 2} cycle are relatively high efficiency under the mild turbine inlet temperature region, simple layout configuration and small foot-print. In addition, the safety of the SFR system can be inherently enhanced as the violent sodium-water reaction can be substituted with the mild sodium-CO{sub 2} reaction. 75MWe S-CO{sub 2} recompression cycle with radial type turbomachineries and PCHE was designed. Under various part load conditions (30-100% thermal load), off-design performance of the designed system was assessed, and different control logics were first tested. It was identified that the inventory control strategy is the most efficient logic for the part load operation. In the system operation, the compressor surge condition is seriously considered and controlled to avoid the system damage.

  3. Efficient Energy Consumption Scheduling: Towards Effective Load Leveling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different agents in the smart grid infrastructure (e.g., households, buildings, communities consume energy with their own appliances, which may have adjustable usage schedules over a day, a month, a season or even a year. One of the major objectives of the smart grid is to flatten the demand load of numerous agents (viz. consumers, such that the peak load can be avoided and power supply can feed the demand load at anytime on the grid. To this end, we propose two Energy Consumption Scheduling (ECS problems for the appliances held by different agents at the demand side to effectively facilitate load leveling. Specifically, we mathematically model the ECS problems as Mixed-Integer Programming (MIP problems using the data collected from different agents (e.g., their appliances’ energy consumption in every time slot and the total number of required in-use time slots, specific preferences of the in-use time slots for their appliances. Furthermore, we propose a novel algorithm to efficiently and effectively solve the ECS problems with large-scale inputs (which are NP-hard. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is significantly more efficient than standard benchmarks, such as CPLEX, while guaranteeing near-optimal outputs.

  4. Operation window and part-load performance study of a syngas fired gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fen; Li, Zheng; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) provides a great opportunity for clean utilization of coal while maintaining the advantage of high energy efficiency brought by gas turbines. A challenging problem arising from the integration of an existing gas turbine to an IGCC system is the performance change of the gas turbine due to the shift of fuel from natural gas to synthesis gas, or syngas, mainly consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Besides the change of base-load performance, which has been extensively studied, the change of part-load performance is also of great significance for the operation of a gas turbine and an IGCC plant. In this paper, a detailed mathematical model of a syngas fired gas turbine is developed to study its part-load performance. A baseline is firstly established using the part-load performance of a natural gas fired gas turbine, then the part-load performance of the gas turbine running with different compositions of syngas is investigated and compared with the baseline. Particularly, the impacts of the variable inlet guide vane, the degree of fuel dilution, and the degree of air bleed are investigated. Results indicate that insufficient cooling of turbine blades and a reduced compressor surge margin are the major factors that constrain the part-load performance of a syngas fired gas turbine. Results also show that air bleed from the compressor can greatly improve the working condition of a syngas fired gas turbine, especially for those fired with low lower heating value syngas. The regulating strategy of a syngas fired gas turbine should also be adjusted in accordance to the changes of part-load performance, and a reduced scope of constant TAT (turbine exhaust temperature) control mode is required.

  5. Investigation of load transfer efficiency in jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Sadeghi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Owing to heavy traffic loads, rigid pavements encounter various types of failures at transverse joints during their lifetime. Three-dimensional finite-element method (3D-FEM was used to assess the structural response of jointed concrete pavement under moving tandem axle loads. In this study, 3D FEM was verified using an existing numerical model and field measurement of the concrete slab traversed by a moving truck. This paper also investigated the effects of multiple parameters: material properties, slab geometry, load magnitude and frictional status of the slab and base layer on load transfer efficiency (LTE of the transverse joints. Further study has been done to investigate the slab performance without the dowel bars which occurs when parts of the pavement needed to be repaired using precast slabs. The aggregate interlock between the new slab and the existing slab is simulated by frictional interface. In 3D FEM model, the load transfer efficiency has been improved by increasing the elasticity modules of the concrete slab and the base layer or increasing the slab thickness. This can decrease the joints' deflections, reduces the damages on pavement joints. Removing dowel bars adversely affected the load transfer. Keywords: Concrete pavement, Load transfer, Finite-element method, Dowel bar, Structural behavior

  6. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  7. Efficient Resources Provisioning Based on Load Forecasting in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongdong Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud providers should ensure QoS while maximizing resources utilization. One optimal strategy is to timely allocate resources in a fine-grained mode according to application’s actual resources demand. The necessary precondition of this strategy is obtaining future load information in advance. We propose a multi-step-ahead load forecasting method, KSwSVR, based on statistical learning theory which is suitable for the complex and dynamic characteristics of the cloud computing environment. It integrates an improved support vector regression algorithm and Kalman smoother. Public trace data taken from multitypes of resources were used to verify its prediction accuracy, stability, and adaptability, comparing with AR, BPNN, and standard SVR. Subsequently, based on the predicted results, a simple and efficient strategy is proposed for resource provisioning. CPU allocation experiment indicated it can effectively reduce resources consumption while meeting service level agreements requirements.

  8. Efficiency and Loading Evaluation of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (HEME) - 12003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Waggoner, Charles A. [Institute for Clean Energy Technology, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Blvd Starkville, MS 39759 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are filters primarily used to remove moisture and/or liquid aerosols from an air stream. HEME elements are designed to reduce aerosol and particulate load on primary High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters and to have a liquid particle removal efficiency of approximately 99.5% for aerosols down to sub-micron size particulates. The investigation presented here evaluates the loading capacity of the element in the absence of a water spray cleaning system. The theory is that without the cleaning system, the HEME element will suffer rapid buildup of solid aerosols, greatly reducing the particle loading capacity. Evaluation consists of challenging the element with a waste surrogate dry aerosol and di-octyl phthalate (DOP) at varying intervals of differential pressure to examine the filtering efficiency of three different element designs at three different media velocities. Also, the elements are challenged with a liquid waste surrogate using Laskin nozzles and large dispersion nozzles. These tests allow the loading capacity of the unit to be determined and the effectiveness of washing down the interior of the elements to be evaluated. (authors)

  9. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Combined cycle performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    The part-load performance of combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry gas turbines on the part-load efficiency for combined...... cycles used for ship propulsion. Moreover, the paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within combined cycle power plants. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero......-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. The results suggest that by the use of variable geometry gas turbines, the combined cycle part-load performance can be improved. In order to minimise the voyage fuel consumption, a combined cycle featuring two-shaft gas turbines with VAN control...

  10. TAF11 assembles RISC loading complex to enhance RNAi efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C.; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains Dicer-2(Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here, we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11−/− ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of Drosophila RLC and elucidate a novel cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. PMID:26257286

  11. Influence of Hydraulic Design on Stability and on Pressure Pulsations in Francis Turbines at Overload, Part Load and Deep Part Load based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Model Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnoli, M V; Maiwald, M

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines have been running more and more frequently in part load conditions, in order to satisfy the new market requirements for more dynamic and flexible energy generation, ancillary services and grid regulation. The turbines should be able to be operated for longer durations with flows below the optimum point, going from part load to deep part load and even speed-no-load. These operating conditions are characterised by important unsteady flow phenomena taking place at the draft tube cone and in the runner channels, in the respective cases of part load and deep part load. The current expectations are that new Francis turbines present appropriate hydraulic stability and moderate pressure pulsations at overload, part load, deep part load and speed-no-load with high efficiency levels at normal operating range. This study presents series of investigations performed by Voith Hydro with the objective to improve the hydraulic stability of Francis turbines at overload, part load and deep part load, reduce pressure pulsations and enlarge the know-how about the transient fluid flow through the turbine at these challenging conditions. Model test measurements showed that distinct runner designs were able to influence the pressure pulsation level in the machine. Extensive experimental investigations focused on the runner deflector geometry, on runner features and how they could reduce the pressure oscillation level. The impact of design variants and machine configurations on the vortex rope at the draft tube cone at overload and part load and on the runner channel vortex at deep part load were experimentally observed and evaluated based on the measured pressure pulsation amplitudes. Numerical investigations were employed for improving the understanding of such dynamic fluid flow effects. As example for the design and experimental investigations, model test observations and pressure pulsation curves for Francis machines in mid specific speed range, around n qopt = 50

  12. An Efficient Approach of Load Shifting by Using SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Sohail

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of electric power has increased significantly in the past few years, and its demand is still increasing every day. In this regard, its proper distribution is a significant challenge. This paper includes a method not only to improve the existing power distribution by using SCADA but also to reduce the human errors from the system by making the system automated. As a prototype for this paper, a geographical area was divided in to three regions named as A-Islamabad, B-Rawalpindi and C-Attock. These three regions were used as the Remote Terminal Units RTU’s and were further divided into four sectors based on different types of consumers. One main control unit was set to handle the whole power system which was referred to as the MTU (master terminal unit. MTU was designed in such a way that not only it was capable to show RTU’s readings on Graphical user interface-GUI but also to control them. By establishing such a design, distribution of electric power based on priority was achieved among these regions and thus the load requirements were managed by means of priorities among them. The entire load management task was supervised by an individual who was authorized to control the MTU’s GUI. SCADA system enabled the MTU to regulate the electric power in regions and their sectors. All the RTU’s were connected with the MTU by means of a wireless network based on an Internet Service Provider (ISP. If the system works accordingly, the MTU would be able to access the RTU’s from any part of the world. SCADA provides a platform to manage the overall system with the minimal manpower; hence, the human errors were reduced.

  13. Part-Load Performance of aWet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pierobon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT fueled by woodchips and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC turbogenerator. An exergy analysis is performed to identify the sources of inefficiencies, the optimal design variables, and the most suitable working fluid for the organic Rankine process. This step enables to parametrize the part-load model of the plant and to estimate its performance at different power outputs. The novel plant has a nominal power of 250 kW and a thermal efficiency of 43%. The major irreversibilities take place in the burner, recuperator, compressor and in the condenser. Toluene is the optimal working fluid for the organic Rankine engine. The part-load investigation indicates that the plant can operate at high efficiencies over a wide range of power outputs (50%–100%, with a peak thermal efficiency of 45% at around 80% load. While the ORC turbogenerator is responsible for the efficiency drop at low capacities, the off-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit.

  14. Concurrent Memory Load Can Make RSVP Search More Efficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Gomez de Liano, Beatriz; Botella, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effect of increased memory load on selective attention has been demonstrated in many situations. However, in search tasks over time using RSVP methods, it is not clear how memory load affects attentional processes; no effects as well as beneficial and detrimental effects of memory load have been found in these types of tasks. The…

  15. Achievement of the charge exchange work diminishing of an internal combustion engine in part load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan POSTRZEDNIK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal combustion engines, used for driving of different cars, occurs not only at full load, but mostly at the part load. The relative load exchange work at the full (nominal engine load is significantly low. At the part load of the IC engine its energy efficiency ηe is significantly lower than in the optimal (nominal field range of the performance parameters. One of the numerous reasons of this effect is regular growing of the relative load exchange work of the IC engine. It is directly connected with the quantitative regulation method commonly used in the IC engines. From the thermodynamic point of view - the main reason of this effect is the throttling process (causing exergy losses occurring in the inlet and outlet channels. The known proposals for solving of this problem are based on applying of the fully electronic control of the motion of inlet, outlet valves and new reference cycles.The idea presented in the paper leads to diminishing the charge exchange work of the IC engines. The problem can be solved using presented in the paper a new concept of the reference cycle (called as eco-cycle of IC engine. The work of the engine basing on the eco-cycle occurs in two 3-stroke stages; the fresh air is delivered only once for both stages, but in range of each stage a new portion of fuel is burned. Normally the charge exchange occurs once during each engine cycle realized. Elaborated proposition bases on the elimination of chosen charge exchange processes and through this the dropping of the charge exchange work can be achieved.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF PERFORMANCE OF DUAL FUEL ENGINE OPERATED AT PART LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rising petroleum prices, an increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions, global warming and the threat of supply instabilities has led to the choice of inedible Mahua oil (MO as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel oil in India. In the present work, MO was converted into biodiesel by transesterification using methanol and sodium hydroxide. The cost of Mahua oil biodiesel (MOB is higher than diesel. Hence liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, which is one of the cheapest gaseous fuels available in India, was fumigated along with the air to reduce the operating cost and to reduce emissions. The dual fuel engine resulted in lower efficiency and higher emissions at part load. Hence in the present work, the injection time was varied and the performance of the dual fuel engine was studied. From the engine tests, it is observed that an advanced injection time results in higher efficiency and lower emissions. Hence, advancing the injection timing is one of the ways of increasing the efficiency of LPG+MOB dual fuel engine operated at part load.

  17. An efficient targeted drug delivery through apotransferrin loaded nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athuluri Divakar Sai Krishna

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancerous state is a highly stimulated environment of metabolically active cells. The cells under these conditions over express selective receptors for assimilation of factors essential for growth and transformation. Such receptors would serve as potential targets for the specific ligand mediated transport of pharmaceutically active molecules. The present study demonstrates the specificity and efficacy of protein nanoparticle of apotransferrin for targeted delivery of doxorubicin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Apotransferrin nanoparticles were developed by sol-oil chemistry. A comparative analysis of efficiency of drug delivery in conjugated and non-conjugated forms of doxorubicin to apotransferrin nanoparticle is presented. The spherical shaped apotransferrin nanoparticles (nano have diameters of 25-50 etam, which increase to 60-80 etam upon direct loading of drug (direct-nano, and showed further increase in dimension (75-95 etam in conjugated nanoparticles (conj-nano. The competitive experiments with the transferrin receptor specific antibody showed the entry of both conj-nano and direct-nano into the cells through transferrin receptor mediated endocytosis. Results of various studies conducted clearly establish the superiority of the direct-nano over conj-nano viz. (a localization studies showed complete release of drug very early, even as early as 30 min after treatment, with the drug localizing in the target organelle (nucleus (b pharmacokinetic studies showed enhanced drug concentrations, in circulation with sustainable half-life (c the studies also demonstrated efficient drug delivery, and an enhanced inhibition of proliferation in cancer cells. Tissue distribution analysis showed intravenous administration of direct nano lead to higher drug localization in liver, and blood as compared to relatively lesser localization in heart, kidney and spleen. Experiments using rat cancer model confirmed the efficacy of the formulation in

  18. Part-Load Performance of a Wet Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine Integrated with an Organic Rankine Cycle Turbogenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Mazzucco, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years, much attention has been paid to the development of efficient and low-cost power systems for biomass-to-electricity conversion. This paper aims at investigating the design- and part-load performance of an innovative plant based on a wet indirectly fired gas turbine (WIFGT......-design performance is governed by the efficiency characteristics of the compressor and turbine serving the gas turbine unit....

  19. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolet, C; Zobeiri, A; Maruzewski, P; Avellan, F

    2010-01-01

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  20. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolet, C [Power Vision Engineering sarl Ch. des Champs-Courbes 1, CH-1024 Ecublens (Switzerland); Zobeiri, A; Maruzewski, P; Avellan, F, E-mail: christophe.nicolet@powervision-eng.c [Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines, Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne, EPFL Av. de Cour 33bis, CH-1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  1. On the upper part load vortex rope in Francis turbine: Experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, C.; Zobeiri, A.; Maruzewski, P.; Avellan, F.

    2010-08-01

    The swirling flow developing in Francis turbine draft tube under part load operation leads to pressure fluctuations usually in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 times the runner rotational frequency resulting from the so-called vortex breakdown. For low cavitation number, the flow features a cavitation vortex rope animated with precession motion. Under given conditions, these pressure fluctuations may lead to undesirable pressure fluctuations in the entire hydraulic system and also produce active power oscillations. For the upper part load range, between 0.7 and 0.85 times the best efficiency discharge, pressure fluctuations may appear in a higher frequency range of 2 to 4 times the runner rotational speed and feature modulations with vortex rope precession. It has been pointed out that for this particular operating point, the vortex rope features elliptical cross section and is animated of a self-rotation. This paper presents an experimental investigation focusing on this peculiar phenomenon, defined as the upper part load vortex rope. The experimental investigation is carried out on a high specific speed Francis turbine scale model installed on a test rig of the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The selected operating point corresponds to a discharge of 0.83 times the best efficiency discharge. Observations of the cavitation vortex carried out with high speed camera have been recorded and synchronized with pressure fluctuations measurements at the draft tube cone. First, the vortex rope self rotation frequency is evidenced and the related frequency is deduced. Then, the influence of the sigma cavitation number on vortex rope shape and pressure fluctuations is presented. The waterfall diagram of the pressure fluctuations evidences resonance effects with the hydraulic circuit. The time evolution of the vortex rope volume is compared with pressure fluctuations time evolution using image processing. Finally, the influence of the Froude number on the vortex rope shape and

  2. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Goyal

    2 Water Power Laboratory, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Norwegian ... The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load. ..... cascade of bandpass filters in MATLAB to eliminate the .... simulation of unsteady operation of hydroelectric systems.

  3. Implementation of GAMMON - An efficient load balancing strategy for a local computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Katherine M.; Kling, Ralph M.; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1989-01-01

    GAMMON (Global Allocation from Maximum to Minimum in cONstant time), an efficient load-balancing algorithm, is described. GAMMON uses the available broadcast capability of multiaccess networks to implement an efficient search technique for finding hosts with maximal and minimal loads. The search technique has an average overhead which is independent of the number of participating stations. The transition from the theoretical concept to a practical, reliable, and efficient implementation is described.

  4. Efficient Load Forecasting Optimized by Fuzzy Programming and OFDM Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    reduce the error of load forecasting, fuzzy method has been used with Artificial Neural Network (ANN and OFDM transmission is used to get data from outer world and send outputs to outer world accurately and quickly. The error has been reduced to a considerable level in the range of 2-3%. For further reducing the error, Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM can be used with Reed-Solomon (RS encoding. Further studies are going on with Fuzzy Regression methods to reduce the error more.

  5. Efficient lifetime estimation techniques for general multiaxial loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papuga, Jan; Halama, Radim; Fusek, Martin; Rojíček, Jaroslav; Fojtík, František; Horák, David; Pecha, Marek; Tomčala, Jiří; Čermák, Martin; Hapla, Václav; Sojka, Radim; Kružík, Jakub

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss and present our progress toward a project, which is focused on fatigue life prediction under multiaxial loading in the domain of low-cycle fatigue, i.e. cases, where the plasticity cannot be neglected. First, the elastic-plastic solution in the finite element analysis is enhanced and verified on own experiments. Second, the method by Jiang describing the instantaneous damage increase by analyses of load time by time, is in implementation phase. In addition, simplified routines for conversion of elastic stresses-strains to elastic-plastic ones as proposed by Firat and Ye et.al. are evaluated on the basis of data gathered from external sources. In order to produce high quality complex analyses, which could be feasible in an acceptable time, and allow the period for next analyses of results to be expanded; the core of PragTic fatigue solver used for all fatigue computations are being re-implemented to get the fully parallelized scalable solution.

  6. ENERGY EFFICIENCY DETERMINATION OF LOADING-BACK SYSTEM OF ELECTRIC TRACTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Afanasov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Acceptance post-repair testsof electric traction machinesare conducted onloading-backstandsthat reducethe overall power costsfor the tests.Currentlya numberof possiblecircuit designs of loading-backsystems of electric machines are known, but there is nomethod of determiningtheir energy efficiency. This in turn makes difficult the choiceof rationaloptions. The purpose of the article is the development of the corresponding methodo-logy to make easier this process. Methodology. Expressions for determining theenergy efficiency ofa stand for testingof electric traction machineswere obtained using the generalizedscheme analysisof energy transformationsin the loading-backsystems of universal structure. Findings.Thetechnique wasoffered and the analytical expressions for determining the energy efficiency of loading-backsystemsof electric traction machines wereobtained. Energy efficiency coefficientofloading-backsystemisproposed to consider as the ratio of the total actionenergy of the mechanical and electromotive forces, providing anchors rotation and flowof currents in electric machines, which are being tested,to the total energy, consumed during the test from the external network. Originality. The concept was introduced and the analytical determination method of the energy efficiency of loading-backsystem in electric traction machines was offered. It differs by efficiency availability of power sources and converters, as well as energy efficiency factors of indirect methods of loss compensation. Practical value. The proposed technique of energy efficiency estimation of a loading-backsystemcan be used in solving the problem of rational options choice of schematics stands decisions for electric traction machines acceptance tests of main line and industrial transport.

  7. Efficient computations of wave loads on offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp

    -toolbox OpenFoam R, the fully nonlinear potential flow solver OceanWave3D and finally a fully nonlinear domain decomposed solver, which was developed as part of this project. In the domain decomposed solver, the outer wave field is described by the potential flow solver, whereas the inner wave field...

  8. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper-Bui, L.M. [Department of Environmental Science, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwok, E.S.C. [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Buchholz, B.A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Rust, M.K. [Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Eastmond, D.A. [Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Vogel, J.S. [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of {sup 14}C-sucrose, {sup 14}C-hydramethylnon, and {sup 14}C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  9. Insecticide transfer efficiency and lethal load in Argentine ants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper-Bui, L.M.; Kwok, E.S.C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Rust, M.K.; Eastmond, D.A.; Vogel, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Trophallaxis between individual worker ants and the toxicant load in dead and live Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) in colonies exposed to fipronil and hydramethylnon experimental baits were examined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). About 50% of the content of the crop containing trace levels of 14 C-sucrose, 14 C-hydramethylnon, and 14 C-fipronil was shared between single donor and recipient ants. Dead workers and queens contained significantly more hydramethylnon (122.7 and 22.4 amol/μg ant, respectively) than did live workers and queens (96.3 and 10.4 amol/μg ant, respectively). Dead workers had significantly more fipronil (420.3 amol/μg ant) than did live workers (208.5 amol/μg ant), but dead and live queens had equal fipronil levels (59.5 and 54.3 amol/μg ant, respectively). The distribution of fipronil differed within the bodies of dead and live queens; the highest amounts of fipronil were recovered in the thorax of dead queens whereas live queens had the highest levels in the head. Resurgence of polygynous ant colonies treated with hydramethylnon baits may be explained by queen survival resulting from sublethal doses due to a slowing of trophallaxis throughout the colony. Bait strategies and dose levels for controlling insect pests need to be based on the specific toxicant properties and trophic strategies for targeting the entire colony.

  10. Replaceable Substructures for Efficient Part-Based Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Han; Vimont, Ulysse; Wand, Michael; Cani, Marie Paule; Hahmann, Stefanie; Rohmer, Damien; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2015-01-01

    A popular mode of shape synthesis involves mixing and matching parts from different objects to form a coherent whole. The key challenge is to efficiently synthesize shape variations that are plausible, both locally and globally. A major obstacle is to assemble the objects with local consistency, i.e., all the connections between parts are valid with no dangling open connections. The combinatorial complexity of this problem limits existing methods in geometric and/or topological variations of the synthesized models. In this work, we introduce replaceable substructures as arrangements of parts that can be interchanged while ensuring boundary consistency. The consistency information is extracted from part labels and connections in the original source models. We present a polynomial time algorithm that discovers such substructures by working on a dual of the original shape graph that encodes inter-part connectivity. We demonstrate the algorithm on a range of test examples producing plausible shape variations, both from a geometric and from a topological viewpoint. © 2015 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Replaceable Substructures for Efficient Part-Based Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Han

    2015-05-01

    A popular mode of shape synthesis involves mixing and matching parts from different objects to form a coherent whole. The key challenge is to efficiently synthesize shape variations that are plausible, both locally and globally. A major obstacle is to assemble the objects with local consistency, i.e., all the connections between parts are valid with no dangling open connections. The combinatorial complexity of this problem limits existing methods in geometric and/or topological variations of the synthesized models. In this work, we introduce replaceable substructures as arrangements of parts that can be interchanged while ensuring boundary consistency. The consistency information is extracted from part labels and connections in the original source models. We present a polynomial time algorithm that discovers such substructures by working on a dual of the original shape graph that encodes inter-part connectivity. We demonstrate the algorithm on a range of test examples producing plausible shape variations, both from a geometric and from a topological viewpoint. © 2015 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparison of thermal and radical effects of EGR gases on combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Sohrabi, A.; Niaei, A.

    2007-01-01

    Dual fuel engines at part load inevitably suffer from lower thermal efficiency and higher emission of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. This work is conducted to investigate the combustion characteristics of a dual fuel (Diesel-gas) engine at part loads using a single zone combustion model with detailed chemical kinetics for combustion of natural gas fuel. In this home made software, the presence of the pilot fuel is considered as a heat source that is deriving form two superposed Wiebe's combustion functions to account for its contribution to ignition of the gaseous fuel and the rest of the total released energy. The chemical kinetics mechanism consists of 112 reactions with 34 species. This combustion model is able to establish the development of the combustion process with time and the associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, heat release rate (HRR) and species concentration. Therefore, this work is an attempt to investigate the combustion phenomenon at part load and using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve the above mentioned problems. Also, the results of this work show that each of the different cases of EGR (thermal, chemical and radical cases) has an important role on the combustion process in dual fuel engines at part loads. It is found that all the different cases of EGR have positive effects on the performance and emission parameters of dual fuel engines at part loads despite the negative effect of some diluent gases in the chemical case, which moderates too much the positive effects of the thermal and radical cases of EGR. Predicted values show good agreement with corresponding experimental values over the whole range of engine operating conditions. Implications will be discussed in detail

  13. Effect of vibration loading on the fatigue life of part-through notched pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Rahul; Singh, P.K.; Pukazhendi, D.M.; Bhasin, V.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic experimental and analytical study has been carried out to investigate the effect of vibration loading on the fatigue life of the piping components. Three Point bend (TPB) specimens machined from the actual pipe have been used for the evaluation of Paris constants by carrying out the experiments under vibration + cyclic and cyclic loading as per the ASTM Standard E647. These constants have been used for the prediction of the fatigue life of the pipe having part-through notch of a/t = 0.25 and aspect ratio (2c/a) of 10. Predicted results have shown the reduction in fatigue life of the notched pipe subjected to vibration + cyclic loading by 50% compared to that of cyclic loading. Predicted results have been validated by carrying out the full-scale pipe (with part-through notch) tests. Notched pipes were subjected to loading conditions such that the initial stress-intensity factor remains same as that of TPB specimen. Experimental results of the full-scale pipe tests under vibration + cyclic loading has shown the reduction in fatigue life by 70% compared to that of cyclic loading. Fractographic examination of the fracture surface of the tested specimens subjected to vibration + cyclic loading have shown higher presence of brittle phases such as martensite (in the form of isolated planar facets) and secondary micro cracks. This could be the reason for the reduction of fatigue life in pipe subjected to vibration + cyclic loading. - Highlights: → Vibration loading affects fatigue crack growth rate. → Crack initiation life depends on crack tip radius. → Crack initiation life depends on the characteristic distance. → Characteristic distance depends on the loading conditions. → Vibration + cyclic load gives lower fatigue life.

  14. Investigation of efficiency of electric drive control system of excavator traction mechanism based on feedback on load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, N. K.; Iov, I. A.; Iov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the results of a study of the efficiency of the electric drive control system of the traction mechanism of a dragline based on the use of feedback on load in the traction cable. The investigations were carried out using a refined electromechanical model of the traction mechanism, which took into account not only the elastic elements of the gearbox, the backlashes in it and the changes in the kinematic parameters of the mechanism during operation, but also the mechanical characteristics of the electric drive and the features of its control system. By mathematical modeling of the transient processes of the electromechanical system, it is shown that the introduction of feedback on the load in the elastic element allows one to reduce the dynamic loads in the traction mechanism and to limit the elastic oscillations of the actuating mechanism in comparison with the standard control system. Fixed as a general decrease in the dynamic load of the nodes of traction mechanism in the modes of loading and latching of the bucket, and a decrease the operating time of the mechanism at maximum load. At the same time, undesirable phenomena in the operation of the electric drive were also associated with the increase in the recovery time of the steady-state value of the speed of the actuating mechanism under certain operating conditions, which can lead to a decrease in the reliability of the mechanical part and the productivity of the traction mechanism.

  15. Green IGP Link Weights for Energy-efficiency and Load-balancing in IP Backbone Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Frederic; Wang, Ning; Moessner, Klaus; Georgoulas, Stylianos; Xu, Ke

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption of backbone networks has become a primary concern for network operators and regulators due to the pervasive deployment of wired backbone networks to meet the requirements of bandwidth-hungry applications. While traditional optimization of IGP link weights has been used in IP based load-balancing operations, in this paper we introduce a novel link weight setting algorithm, the Green Load-balancing Algorithm (GLA), which is able to jointly optimize both energy efficiency ...

  16. Active load sharing technique for on-line efficiency optimization in DC microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanseverino, E. Riva; Zizzo, G.; Boscaino, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, DC power distribution is gaining more and more importance over its AC counterpart achieving increased efficiency, greater flexibility, reduced volumes and capital cost. In this paper, a 24-120-325V two-level DC distribution system for home appliances, each including three parallel DC......-DC converters, is modeled. An active load sharing technique is proposed for the on-line optimization of the global efficiency of the DC distribution network. The algorithm aims at the instantaneous efficiency optimization of the whole DC network, based on the on-line load current sampling. A Look Up Table......, is created to store the real efficiencies of the converters taking into account components tolerances. A MATLAB/Simulink model of the DC distribution network has been set up and a Genetic Algorithm has been employed for the global efficiency optimization. Simulation results are shown to validate the proposed...

  17. An Efficient Topology for Wireless Power Transfer over a Wide Range of Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqing Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although an inductive power transfer (IPT system can transfer power efficiently in full-load conditions, its efficiency obviously decreases in light-load conditions. To solve this problem, based on a two-coil IPT system with a series-series compensation topology, a single-ended primary-inductor converter is introduced at the secondary side. By adjusting the set effective value of the current in the primary coil, the converter input voltage changes to maintain the equivalent input resistance of the converter in an optimal condition. The system can then transfer the power efficiently with the wide load conditions. Moreover, the system operates at a constant resonance frequency with a high power factor. Both the simulation and experimentation of a prototype with a 10 W IPT system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed topology for wireless power transfer.

  18. Improving laboratory efficiencies to scale-up HIV viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Onyebujoh, Philip; Nkengasong, John N

    2017-03-01

    Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum. This will translate to increased costs and ineffectiveness of scale-up approaches. This review describes different parameters that could be addressed across the viral load testing spectrum aimed at improving efficiencies and utilizing test results for patient management. Though progress is being made in some countries to scale-up viral load, many others still face numerous challenges that may affect scale-up efficiencies: weak demand creation, ineffective supply chain management systems; poor specimen referral systems; inadequate data and quality management systems; and weak laboratory-clinical interface leading to diminished uptake of test results. In scaling up access to viral load testing, there should be a renewed focus to address efficiencies across the entire spectrum, including factors related to access, uptake, and impact of test results.

  19. Numerical modelling of flexible pavement incorporating cross-anisotropic material properties. Part II: Surface rectangular loading

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, J W; Kawana, F; Matsui, K

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the impact of increased loading on roads, studies on tyre-road interaction have gained prominence in recent years. Tyres form an essential interface between vehicles and road pavement surfaces. These are the only parts of the vehicle that are in contact with the road and transmit the vehicle loading to the road surface. The use of the Cartesian coordinate system is convenient in dealing with a uniform/non-uniform tyre load acting over a rectangular area, but few ...

  20. Part load performance of air-cooled centrifugal chillers with variable speed condenser fan control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-11-15

    Air-cooled centrifugal chillers are commonly used in commercial buildings but their performance analysis is lacking. This paper investigates the part load performance of the chillers via a thermodynamic model. The model was validated using a wide range of operating data from an existing chiller with specific settings of outdoor temperature and condensing pressure in controlling the condensing temperature. The validated model was developed specifically to ascertain the maximum coefficient of performance of chiller (COP) together with the strategy for optimizing the condensing temperature under various operating conditions. It is found that the highest COP occurs at a part load ratio (PLR) of 0.71-0.84, depending on the outdoor temperature and the control of condensing temperature, rather than at full load. Yet the chillers operating at such part load conditions will cause extra energy used for the early staging of chilled water pumps. To minimize the overall chiller plant energy consumption, it is still preferable to implement chiller sequencing based on the full load condition than on the aforementioned PLRs. The results of this paper present criteria for implementing low-energy strategies for operating air-cooled chillers satisfying a given building cooling load profile. (author)

  1. Dynamic stresses in a Francis model turbine at deep part load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Wilhelm; von Locquenghien, Florian; Conrad, Philipp; Koutnik, Jiri

    2017-04-01

    A comparison between numerically obtained dynamic stresses in a Francis model turbine at deep part load with experimental ones is presented. Due to the change in the electrical power mix to more content of new renewable energy sources, Francis turbines are forced to operate at deep part load in order to compensate stochastic nature of wind and solar power and to ensure grid stability. For the extension of the operating range towards deep part load improved understanding of the harsh flow conditions and their impact on material fatigue of hydraulic components is required in order to ensure long life time of the power unit. In this paper pressure loads on a model turbine runner from unsteady two-phase computational fluid dynamics simulation at deep part load are used for calculation of mechanical stresses by finite element analysis. Therewith, stress distribution over time is determined. Since only few runner rotations are simulated due to enormous numerical cost, more effort has to be spent to evaluation procedure in order to obtain objective results. By comparing the numerical results with measured strains accuracy of the whole simulation procedure is verified.

  2. Power efficiency optimization of disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghe; Li Jinhai; Li Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    Disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure (TWS), which is widely used in scientific research and industry, is a vital accelerating structure in electron linear accelerator. The power efficiency is an important parameter for designing TWS, which greatly effects the expenses for the fabrication and commercial running. The key parameters related with power efficiency were studied for TWS optimization. The result was proved by experiment result, and it shows some help for accelerator engineering. (authors)

  3. Insulin-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles: efficient, sustained and safe insulin delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Thiago M; Teixeira, Zaine; Barbosa-Sampaio, Helena C; Rezende, Luiz F; Boschero, Antonio C; Durán, Nelson; Höehr, Nelci F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an efficient, biodegradable, biocompatible and safe controlled release system using insulin-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles. The insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion method (water-in-oil-in-water) using Pluronic F68 as emulsifier. Using the double emulsion method a high insulin encapsulation efficiency (90.6 +/-1.6%) with a zeta potential of -29 +/-2.7 mV and average particle size of 796 +/-10.5 nm was obtained. Insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles showed no toxicity to MIN6 cells. Insulin nanoparticles administered subcutaneously and intraperitoneally in rats reduced glycaemia of basal levels after 15 minutes, and presented a sustainable hypoglycemic effect on insulin-dependent type 1 diabetic rats, showing to be more efficient than unencapsulated insulin. Furthermore, these nanoparticles were not hepatotoxic, as evaluated by the effect over liver cell-death and oxidative stress scavenger system in rats. These results suggest that insulin-loaded PCL nanoparticles prepared by water-in-oil-in-water emulsion method are biocompatible, efficient and safe insulin-delivering system with controlled insulin release, which indicates that it may be a powerful tool for insulin-dependent patients care.

  4. The effect of crank position and backrest inclination on shoulder load and mechanical efficiency during handcycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnet, U.; van Drongelen, S.; Schlussel, M.; Lay, V.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Handbikes come in different models and setups, but only limited knowledge is available on the handbike-user interface. The aim of this study was to identify optimal handbike setups, assuming that in such a setup mechanical efficiency is high, while shoulder load is low. Thirteen subjects with a

  5. The effect of crank position and backrest inclination on shoulder load and mechanical efficiency during handcycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnet, U.; van Drongelen, S.; Schluessel, M.; Lay, V.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Veeger, H. E. J.

    Handbikes come in different models and setups, but only limited knowledge is available on the handbike-user interface. The aim of this study was to identify optimal handbike setups, assuming that in such a setup mechanical efficiency is high, while shoulder load is low. Thirteen subjects with a

  6. COGNITIVE LOAD MEASUREMENT WITHIN THE RESEARCH OF EFFICIENT USAGE OF LEARNING SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana M. Derkach

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The methods of cognitive load measurement are described within the research of efficient usage of learning Software. Their classification is given, main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed, as well as area of use of these methods is defined. The article presents an overview of modern Software and Hardware that can be used for cognitive load measurement while studying with information technologies and practical examples of such methods. The use of the secondary task method is reasoned to be the most optimal for cognitive load measurement as well as for detection of optimal conditions for student work with different learning materials. This method allows to receive objective quantification of cognitive load and to investigate its dynamics accurately.

  7. Efficiency of an on-line isotope separator system employing cooled and NaCl-loaded He-jet methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeystoe, J.; Rantala, V.; Valli, K.; Hillebrand, S.; Kortelahti, M.; Eskola, K.; Raunemaa, T.

    1976-01-01

    A pure helium-jet at liquid nitrogen temperature coupled to a Nielsen type ion source, and a NaCl-loaded helium-jet coupled to a hollow-cathode ion source have been investigated as means to connect a cyclotron target chamber on-line to a mass separator. Technical details and performances of some critical parts of the system are described. Total separation efficiencies measured under various experimental conditions for several nuclides vary between 0.01 and 1.0%. (Auth.)

  8. Working memory load predicts visual search efficiency: Evidence from a novel pupillary response paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Nada; Schneps, Matthew H; Pomplun, Marc

    2016-10-01

    An observer's pupil dilates and constricts in response to variables such as ambient and focal luminance, cognitive effort, the emotional stimulus content, and working memory load. The pupil's memory load response is of particular interest, as it might be used for estimating observers' memory load while they are performing a complex task, without adding an interruptive and confounding memory test to the protocol. One important task in which working memory's involvement is still being debated is visual search, and indeed a previous experiment by Porter, Troscianko, and Gilchrist (Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 211-229, 2007) analyzed observers' pupil sizes during search to study this issue. These authors found that pupil size increased over the course of the search, and they attributed this finding to accumulating working memory load. However, since the pupil response is slow and does not depend on memory load alone, this conclusion is rather speculative. In the present study, we estimated working memory load in visual search during the presentation of intermittent fixation screens, thought to induce a low, stable level of arousal and cognitive effort. Using standard visual search and control tasks, we showed that this paradigm reduces the influence of non-memory-related factors on pupil size. Furthermore, we found an early increase in working memory load to be associated with more efficient search, indicating a significant role of working memory in the search process.

  9. Automatic control of load increases power and efficiency in a microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premier, Giuliano C.; Kim, Jung Rae; Michie, Iain [Sustainable Environment Research Centre (SERC), Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Mid-Glamorgan CF37 1DL (United Kingdom); Dinsdale, Richard M.; Guwy, Alan J. [Sustainable Environment Research Centre (SERC), Faculty of Health, Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Mid-Glamorgan CF37 1DL (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Increasing power production and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is a common research ambition as the viability of the technology depends to some extent on these measures of performance. As MFCs are typically time varying systems, comparative studies of controlled and un-controlled external load impedance are needed to show if control affects the biocatalyst development and hence MFC performance. The application of logic based control of external load resistance is shown to increase the power generated by the MFC, when compared to an equivalent system which has a static resistive load. The controlled MFC generated 1600 {+-} 400 C, compared to 300 {+-} 10 C with an otherwise replicate fixed load MFC system. The use of a parsimonious gradient based control was able to increase the CE to within the range of 15.1-22.7%, while the CE for a 200 {omega} statically loaded MFC lay in the range 3.3-3.7%. The controlled MFC improves the electrogenic anodic biofilm selection for power production, indicating that greater power and substrate conversion can be achieved by controlling load impedance. Load control ensured sustainable current demand, applied microbial selection pressures and provided near-optimal impedance for power transference, compared to the un-controlled system. (author)

  10. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis Dept.; Hamrin, J. [Centre for Resource Solutions (United States); Eyre, N. [Energy Savings Trust (United Kingdom); Crossley, D.; Maloney, M.; Watt, G. [Energy Futures Australia Pty Ltd (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted. (author)

  11. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Edward; Hamrin, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Crossley, David; Maloney, Michelle; Watt, Greg

    2003-04-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted.

  12. Public policy analysis of energy efficiency and load management in changing electricity businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, Edward; Hamrin, Jan; Eyre, Nick; Crossley, David; Maloney, Michelle; Watt, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is (1) the potential effectiveness of the reform of the electricity industry on promoting energy efficiency and load management, and (2) the potential effectiveness of new mechanisms for promoting energy efficiency and load management. Many countries are initiating reforms of their power sectors to stimulate private investment, increase operation and management efficiencies, and lower the cost of power. These countries are unbundling vertically integrated utilities into distinct generation, transmission, distribution and retail supply companies; introducing commercial management principles to government-owned monopolies; and in many cases transferring operation or ownership to private companies. Electric industry restructuring may force regulators and policy makers to re-examine existing mechanisms for promoting load management and energy efficiency. In some cases, electric industry restructuring replaces the long-standing relationship between a single monopoly provider and protected customer franchise with a new set of relationships among retail electricity suppliers and customers who may now be free to choose suppliers. In these types of situations, markets, not government regulators and utility monopolies, are seen as determining future energy production and consumption decisions. However, it is uncertain whether this type of restructuring will overcome important market barriers to energy efficiency that limit markets for energy-efficient products and services from functioning effectively. As a result of these barriers, a large, untapped potential for cost-effective energy-efficiency investments exists. Supporters of public policies argue that energy-efficiency programs are an appropriate government strategy to capture economic efficiencies that the market cannot secure unassisted

  13. Unsteady hydraulic simulation of the cavitating part load vortex rope in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, J.; Segoufin, C.; Duparchy, F.; Lowys, P. Y.; Favrel, A.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    For Francis turbines at part load operation a helical vortex rope is formed due to the swirling nature of the flow exiting the runner. This vortex creates pressure fluctuations which can lead to power swings, and the unsteady loading can lead to fatigue damage of the runner. In the case that the vortex rope cavitates there is the additional risk that hydro-acoustic resonance can occur. It is therefore important to be able to accurately simulate this phenomenon to address these issues. In this paper an unsteady, multi-phase CFD model was used to simulate two part-load operating points, for two different cavitation conditions. The simulation results were validated with test-rig data, and showed very good agreement. These results also served as an input for FEA calculations and fatigue analysis, which are presented in a separate study.

  14. Maximizing Efficiency and Reducing Robotic Surgery Costs Using the NASA Task Load Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Carrie; Webb, Paula J

    2017-10-01

    Perioperative leaders at our facility were struggling to meet efficiency targets for robotic surgery procedures while also maintaining the satisfaction of the surgical team. We developed a human resources time and motion study tool and used it in conjunction with the NASA Task Load Index to observe and analyze the required workload of personnel assigned to 25 robotic surgery procedures. The time and motion study identified opportunities to enlist the help of nonlicensed support personnel to ensure safe patient care and improve OR efficiency. Using the NASA Task Load Index demonstrated that high temporal, effort, and physical demands existed for personnel assisting with and performing robotic surgery. We believe that this process could be used to develop cost-effective staffing models, resulting in safe and efficient care for all surgical patients. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure. Part 1; Ultimate Design Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses finite element analysis and testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part I of the paper considers the five most critical load conditions, which are internal pressure only and positive and negative g-loads with and without internal pressure. Analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during testing. Performance of the test article is found to be closely aligned with predictions and, consequently, able to support the hybrid wing body design loads in pristine and barely visible impact damage conditions.

  16. SOEC efficiency and cost improvement Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, B.; Chang, K.-C.; Meyers, D. J.; You, H.; Carter, J.D.; Elam, J.W.; Honegger, D.A.; Libera, J.A.; Pellin, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Part I: Electrochemical and X-ray Characterization of Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Cell Oxygen Electrodes on Electrolyte Substrates--The governing reaction mechanisms, and the electrode and electrolyte material compositions and structures, that controls the efficiency and durability of the solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC) need to be identified and well-understood for a significant improvement in nuclear hydrogen production using high temperature steam electrolysis. ANL conducted experimental analysis of SOEC electrolyte and electrodes to progress in this objective. Our study on the oxygen electrode focused on specifically the effect of electrode crystal structure on its electrochemical performance, and the evolution of the electronic and structural properties of the electrodes while under electrochemical conditions and high temperature. We found through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments that, while different crystal orientations in La 0.8 Sr 0.2 MnO 3+d (LSM) show different initial performance and different electrochemical activation under SOEC conditions, a good mixed ionic electronic conductor La 0.8 Sr 0.2 CoO 3+d (LSC) does not seem to exhibit similar variations. Our in-situ x-ray and electrochemical measurements at the Advanced Photon Source of ANL have identified the chemical states of the A-site elements of the doped lanthanum manganite electrodes. We found that the changes in the concentration and in the electronic state of the La and Sr (the A-site elements of the perovskite) occurring only at the top airelectrode film interface can be responsible from the electrochemical improvement of the SOEC anode under DC current. Our observation related to the La chemical state change is unexpected and probably unique to the electrochemical current-conditioning. Part II: Progress Towards the Atomic Layer Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Manganate--Lanthanum strontium manganate (LSM) is the most commonly used cathode material for solid oxide fuel

  17. Two efficient heuristics to solve the integrated load distribution and production planning problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajpal, Yuvraj; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a multi-period production system where a set of machines are arranged in parallel. The machines are unreliable and the failure rate of machine depends on the load assigned to the machine. The expected production rate of the system is considered to be a non-monotonic function of its load. Because of the machine failure rate, the total production output depends on the combination of loads assigned to different machines. We consider the integration of load distribution decisions with production planning decision. The product demands are considered to be known in advance. The objective is to minimize the sum of holding costs, backorder costs, production costs, setup costs, capacity change costs and unused capacity costs while satisfying the demand over specified time horizon. The constraint is not to exceed available repair resources required to repair the machine breakdown. The paper develops two heuristics to solve the integrated load distribution and production planning problem. The first heuristic consists of a three-phase approach, while the second one is based on tabu search metaheuristic. The efficiency of the proposed heuristics is tested through the randomly generated problem instances. - Highlights: • The expected performance of the system is a non-monotonic function of its load. • We consider the integration of load distribution and production planning decisions. • The paper proposes three phase and tabu search based heuristics to solve the problem. • Lower bound has been developed for checking the effectiveness of the heuristics. • The efficiency of the heuristic is tested through randomly generated instances.

  18. Grid Load Shifting and Performance Assessments of Residential Efficient Energy Technologies, a Case Study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable energy decreases grid flexibility; thus, decentralized energy management or demand response are emerging as the main approaches to resolve this limitation and to provide flexibility of resources. This research investigates the performance of high energy efficiency appliances and grid-integrated distributed generators based on real monitored data from a social demonstration project. The analysis not only explores the potential cost savings and environmental benefits of high energy efficiency systems in the private sector, but also evaluates public grid load leveling potential from a bottom-up approach. This research provides a better understanding of the behavior of high decentralized efficient energy and includes detailed scenarios of monitored power generation and consumption in a social demonstration project. The scheduled heat pump effectively lifts valley load via transforming electricity to thermal energy, its daily electricity consumption varies from 4 kWh to 10 kWh and is concentrated in the early morning over the period of a year. Aggregated vehicle to home (V2H brings flexible resources to the grid, by discharging energy to cover the residential night peak load, with fuel cost savings attributed to 90% of profit. The potential for grid load leveling via integrating the power utility and consumer is examined using a bottom-up approach. Five hundred thousand contributions from scheduled electrical vehicles (EVs and fuel cells provide 5.0% of reliable peak power capacity at 20:00 in winter. The outcome illustrates the energy cost saving and carbon emission reduction scenarios of each of the proposed technologies. Relevant subsidies for heat pump water heater systems and cogeneration are essential customers due to the high initial capital investment. Optimal mixes in structure and coordinated control of high efficiency technologies enable customers to participate in grid load leveling in terms of

  19. An efficient domain decomposition strategy for wave loads on surface piercing circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    A fully nonlinear domain decomposed solver is proposed for efficient computations of wave loads on surface piercing structures in the time domain. A fully nonlinear potential flow solver was combined with a fully nonlinear Navier–Stokes/VOF solver via generalized coupling zones of arbitrary shape....... Sensitivity tests of the extent of the inner Navier–Stokes/VOF domain were carried out. Numerical computations of wave loads on surface piercing circular cylinders at intermediate water depths are presented. Four different test cases of increasing complexity were considered; 1) weakly nonlinear regular waves...

  20. Enhanced water use efficiency in global terrestrial ecosystems under increasing aerosol loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Chen, Min; Liu, Yaling; Miralles, Diego G.; Wang, Faming

    2017-05-01

    Aerosols play a crucial role in the climate system, affecting incoming radiation and cloud formation. Based on a modelling framework that couples ecosystem processes with the atmospheric transfer of radiation, we analyze the effect of aerosols on surface incoming radiation, gross primary productivity (GPP), water losses from ecosystems through evapotranspiration (ET) and ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE, defined as GPP/ET) for 2003–2010 and validate them at global FLUXNET sites. The total diffuse radiation increases under relatively low or intermediate aerosol loadings, but decreases under more polluted conditions. We find that aerosol-induced changes in GPP depend on leaf area index, aerosol loading and cloudiness. Specifically, low and moderate aerosol loadings cause increases in GPP for all plant types, while heavy aerosol loadings result in enhancement (decrease) in GPP for dense (sparse) vegetation. On the other hand, ET is mainly negatively affected by aerosol loadings due to the reduction in total incoming radiation. Finally, WUE shows a consistent rise in all plant types under increasing aerosol loadings. Overall, the simulated daily WUE compares well with observations at 43 eddy-covariance tower sites (R2=0.84 and RMSE=0.01gC (kg H2O)-1) with better performance at forest sites. In addition to the increasing portions of diffuse light, the rise in WUE is also favored by the reduction in radiation- and heat-stress caused by the aerosols, especially for wet and hot climates.

  1. Efficiency and mass loading characteristics of a typical HEPA filter media material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, V.J.; Higgins, P.J.; Dierkschiede, B.; Abrahamson, C.; Richardson, W.B.; Monson, P.R.; Ellison, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The particle removal efficiency of the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter material used at the Savannah River Site was measured as a function of monodisperse particle diameter and two gas filtration velocities. the results indicate that the material meets or exceeds the minimum specified efficiency of 99.97% for all particle diameters at both normal and minimum operating flow conditions encountered at the Savannah River site. The pressure drop across the HEPA filter material used at the Savannah River site was measured as a function of particle mass loading for various aerosol size distributions. The pressure drop was found to increase linearly with the particle mass loaded onto the filters, as long as the particles were completely dry. The slope of the curve was found to be dependent on the particle diameter and velocity of the aerosol. The linear behavior between the initial pressure drop (clean filter) and the final pressure drop (loaded filter) implies that the filtration mechanism is dominated by the particle cake that rapidly forms on the front surface of the HEPA filter. This behavior is consistent with the high filtration efficiency of the material

  2. A verified and efficient approach towards fatigue validation of safety parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weihe, Stefan; Weigel, Nicolas [Daimler AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Dressler, Klaus; Speckert, Michael; Feth, Sascha

    2011-07-01

    In the automotive industry, safety parts must be designed according to the state of the art of science and technology such that they do not fail as long as the vehicle is used according to its purpose and misuse of the vehicle does not exceed a reasonably expectable degree. Due to scatter in customer loads and component properties, fatigue validation needs to be based on statistical methods. Mathematically sound methods are devised in order to make the validation process as efficient as possible. They allow considering all test results, including censored test data (e.g. tests suspended due to premature failure of components which are not under consideration). Furthermore, these methods permit adapting the success run criterion successively to the testing process. (orig.)

  3. Advances in the Assessment of Wind Turbine Operating Extreme Loads via More Efficient Calculation Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Peter; Damiani, Rick R.; Dykes, Katherine; Jonkman, Jason M.

    2017-01-09

    A new adaptive stratified importance sampling (ASIS) method is proposed as an alternative approach for the calculation of the 50 year extreme load under operational conditions, as in design load case 1.1 of the the International Electrotechnical Commission design standard. ASIS combines elements of the binning and extrapolation technique, currently described by the standard, and of the importance sampling (IS) method to estimate load probability of exceedances (POEs). Whereas a Monte Carlo (MC) approach would lead to the sought level of POE with a daunting number of simulations, IS-based techniques are promising as they target the sampling of the input parameters on the parts of the distributions that are most responsible for the extreme loads, thus reducing the number of runs required. We compared the various methods on select load channels as output from FAST, an aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool for the design and analysis of wind turbines developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Our newly devised method, although still in its infancy in terms of tuning of the subparameters, is comparable to the others in terms of load estimation and its variance versus computational cost, and offers great promise going forward due to the incorporation of adaptivity into the already powerful importance sampling concept.

  4. Coupled Fluid-Solid Interaction Under Shock Wave Loading: Part II - Dynamic Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipton, David Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christon, Mark Allen [CTO Offce, Dassault Systµemes SIMULIA, Providence, RI (United States); Ingber, Marc Stuart [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This article is the second of two that consider the treatment of fluid-solid interaction problems where the solid experiences wave loading and large bulk Lagrangian displacements. In part-I, we presented the formulation for the edge-based unstructured-grid Euler solver in the context of a discontinuous- Galerkin framework with the extensions used to treat internal fluid-solid interfaces. A super-sampled L2 projection was used to construct level-set data from the Lagrangian interface, and a narrow-band approach was used to identify and construct appropriate ghost data and boundary conditions at the fluid-solid interface. A series of benchmark problems were used to verify the treatment of the fluid-solid interface conditions with a static interface position. In this paper, we consider the treatment of dynamic interfaces and the associated large bulk Lagrangian displacements of the solid.We present the coupled dynamic fluid-solid system, and develop an explicit, monolithic treatment of the fully-coupled system. The conditions associated with moving interfaces and their implementation are discussed. A comparison of moving vs. fixed reference frames is used to verify the dynamic interface treatment. Lastly, a series of two and and three-dimensional projectile and shock-body interaction calculations are presented. Ultimately, the use of the Lagrangian interface position and a super-sampled projection for fast level-set construction, the narrow-band extraction of ghost data, and monolithic explicit solution algorithm has proved to be a computationally efficient means for treating shock induced fluid-solid interaction problems.

  5. High-efficiency water-loaded microwave antenna in ultra-high-frequency band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zilun; Bartone, Chris; Yang, Fuyi; Yao, Jie

    2018-03-01

    High-index dielectrics are widely used in microwave antennas to control the radiation characteristics. Liquid water, with a high dielectric index at microwave frequency, is an interesting material to achieving tunable functionalities. Here, we demonstrate a water-loaded microwave antenna system that has high loss-tolerance and wideband tunability enabled by fluidity. Our simulation and experimental results show that the resonance frequency can be effectively tuned by the size of loading water. Furthermore, the antenna systems with water loading can achieve high radiation efficiency (>90%) in the ultra-high-frequency (0.3-3 GHz) band. This work brings about opportunities in realistic tunable microwave antenna designs enabled by liquid.

  6. Efficient loading of primary alcohols onto a solid phase using a trityl bromide linker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crestey, François; Ottesen, Lars Korsgaard; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2008-01-01

    The Letter describes an improved, rapid and mild strategy for the loading of primary alcohols onto a polystyrene trityl resin via a highly reactive trityl bromide linker. This protocol facilitates an efficient resin loading even of acid-sensitive or heat-labile alcohols, which otherwise require...... expensive or non-commercial resin types. Secondary alcohols were only attached in moderate to low yields, while attempts to load a tertiary alcohol expectedly failed. Importantly, selective attachment of diols via a primary alcohol group in the presence of more hindered alcohol groups proved possible....... The effects of activation time and reagent excess as well as alcohol structure were investigated. This improved method provides a convenient access to O-linked resin-bound N-Fmoc-protected amino alcohols that may be employed in SPS of peptides with C-terminal alcohol functionalities. In the case...

  7. Load response of shape-changing microswimmers scales with their swimming efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Benjamin M.

    2018-04-01

    External forces acting on a microswimmer can feed back on its self-propulsion mechanism. We discuss this load response for a generic microswimmer that swims by cyclic shape changes. We show that the change in cycle frequency is proportional to the Lighthill efficiency of self-propulsion. As a specific example, we consider Najafi's three-sphere swimmer. The force-velocity relation of a microswimmer implies a correction for a formal superposition principle for active and passive motion.

  8. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-11-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method.

  9. Anticipation, Teamwork, and Cognitive Load: Chasing Efficiency during Robot-Assisted Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Kevin; Johnson, Amanda; Gotsch, Amanda; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Cavuoto, Lora; Guru, Khurshid A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Robot-assisted surgery (RAS) has changed the traditional operating room, occupying more space with equipment and isolating console surgeons away from the patients and their team. We aimed to evaluate how anticipation of surgical steps and familiarity between team members impacted efficiency and safety. Methods We analyzed recordings (video and audio) of 12 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. Any requests between surgeon and the team members were documented and classified by personnel, equipment type, mode of communication, level of inconvenience in fulfilling the request, and anticipation. Surgical team members completed questionnaires assessing team familiarity and cognitive load (NASA-TLX). Predictors of team efficiency were assessed using Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression. Results 1330 requests were documented of which 413 (31%) were anticipated. Anticipation correlated negatively with operative time resulting in overall 8% reduction of OR time. Team familiarity negatively correlated with inconveniences. Anticipation ratio, percent of requests that were nonverbal, and total request duration were significantly correlated with the console surgeons’ cognitive load (r=0.77, p=0.006; r=0.63, p=0.04; and r=0.70, p=0.02, respectively). Conclusions Anticipation and active engagement by the surgical team resulted in shorter operative time; and higher familiarity scores were associated with fewer inconveniences. Less anticipation and nonverbal requests were also associated with lower cognitive load for the console surgeon. Training efforts to increase anticipation and team familiarity can improve team efficiency during RAS. PMID:28689193

  10. Long-duration heat load measurement approach by novel apparatus design and highly efficient algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yanwei; Yi, Fajun; Meng, Songhe; Zhuo, Lijun; Pan, Weizhen

    2017-01-01

    Improving the surface heat load measurement technique for vehicles in aerodynamic heating environments is imperative, regarding aspects of both the apparatus design and identification efficiency. A simple novel apparatus is designed for heat load identification, taking into account the lessons learned from several aerodynamic heating measurement devices. An inverse finite difference scheme (invFDM) for the apparatus is studied to identify its surface heat flux from the interior temperature measurements with high efficiency. A weighted piecewise regression filter is also proposed for temperature measurement prefiltering. Preliminary verification of the invFDM scheme and the filter is accomplished via numerical simulation experiments. Three specific pieces of apparatus have been concretely designed and fabricated using different sensing materials. The aerodynamic heating process is simulated by an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel facility. The identification of surface temperature and heat flux from the temperature measurements is performed by invFDM. The results validate the high efficiency, reliability and feasibility of heat load measurements with different heat flux levels utilizing the designed apparatus and proposed method. (paper)

  11. Dynamics of suspended sediment load in the upper part of the Rasina River Basin in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafić Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the issue of the suspended sediment load transport in the upper part of the Rasina River Basin, upstream from the "Ćelije" reservoir during the year of 2010. Measurements of the suspended sediment concentrations were being done at two hydrological profiles Brus and Ravni. Total quantity of the suspended sediment load that was transported at the profile of Brus in 2010 amounted to 3,437.3 t, which gave the specific transport of 16.4 t/km2/year. At the downstream profile of Ravni, 43,165 t of the suspended sediment load was transported, that is, 95.7 t/km2/year. The basin on the whole is characterized by the existence of two seasons, which by their characteristics in the load transport represent the extreme variants. During the winter-spring season, 74-85.8 % of the total annual load was transported, аnd during the summer-autumn season between 14.2 and 26 %.

  12. Numerical simulation of thermal loading produced by shaped high power laser onto engine parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hongwei; Li Shaoxia; Zhang Ling; Yu Gang; Zhou Liang; Tan Jiansong

    2010-01-01

    Recently a new method for simulating the thermal loading on pistons of diesel engines was reported. The spatially shaped high power laser is employed as the heat source, and some preliminary experimental and numerical work was carried out. In this paper, a further effort was made to extend this simulation method to some other important engine parts such as cylinder heads. The incident Gaussian beam was transformed into concentric multi-circular patterns of specific intensity distributions, with the aid of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). By incorporating the appropriate repetitive laser pulses, the designed transient temperature fields and thermal loadings in the engine parts could be simulated. Thermal-structural numerical models for pistons and cylinder heads were built to predict the transient temperature and thermal stress. The models were also employed to find the optimal intensity distributions of the transformed laser beam that could produce the target transient temperature fields. Comparison of experimental and numerical results demonstrated that this systematic approach is effective in simulating the thermal loading on the engine parts.

  13. Anticipation, teamwork and cognitive load: chasing efficiency during robot-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Kevin; Johnson, Amanda; Gotsch, Amanda; Hussein, Ahmed A; Cavuoto, Lora; Guru, Khurshid A

    2018-02-01

    Robot-assisted surgery (RAS) has changed the traditional operating room (OR), occupying more space with equipment and isolating console surgeons away from the patients and their team. We aimed to evaluate how anticipation of surgical steps and familiarity between team members impacted efficiency. We analysed recordings (video and audio) of 12 robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. Any requests between surgeon and the team members were documented and classified by personnel, equipment type, mode of communication, level of inconvenience in fulfilling the request and anticipation. Surgical team members completed questionnaires assessing team familiarity and cognitive load (National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Task Load Index). Predictors of team efficiency were assessed using Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression. 1330 requests were documented, of which 413 (31%) were anticipated. Anticipation correlated negatively with operative time, resulting in overall 8% reduction of OR time. Team familiarity negatively correlated with inconveniences. Anticipation ratio, per cent of requests that were non-verbal and total request duration were significantly correlated with the console surgeons' cognitive load (r=0.77, p=0.006; r=0.63, p=0.04; and r=0.70, p=0.02, respectively). Anticipation and active engagement by the surgical team resulted in shorter operative time, and higher familiarity scores were associated with fewer inconveniences. Less anticipation and non-verbal requests were also associated with lower cognitive load for the console surgeon. Training efforts to increase anticipation and team familiarity can improve team efficiency during RAS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  15. Theoretical study of the electromechanical efficiency of a loaded tubular dielectric elastomer actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechenbach, Björn; Willatzen, Morten; Lassen, Benny

    2016-01-01

    The electromechanical efficiency of a loaded tubular dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) is investigated theoretically. In previous studies, the external system, on which the DEA performs mechanical work, is implemented implicitly by prescribing the stroke of the DEA in a closed operation cycle....... Here, a more generic approach, modelling the external system by a frequency-dependent mechanical impedance which exerts a certain force on the DEA depending on its deformation, is chosen. It admits studying the dependence of the electromechanical efficiency of the DEA on the external system. A closed...... operation cycle is realized by exciting the DEA electrically by a sinusoidal voltage around a bias voltage. A detailed parametric study shows that the electromechanical efficiency is highly dependent on the frequency, amplitude, and bias of the excitation voltage and the mechanical impedance of the external...

  16. Efficient approach to simulate EM loads on massive structures in ITER machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Andreeva, Z.; Belov, A.; Belyakov, V.; Filatov, O. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Gribov, Yu.; Ioki, K. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Kukhtin, V.; Labusov, A.; Lamzin, E.; Lyublin, B.; Malkov, A.; Mazul, I. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Rozov, V.; Sugihara, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Sychevsky, S., E-mail: sytch@sintez.niiefa.spb.su [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute, 196641 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A modelling technique to predict EM loads in ITER conducting structures is presented. ► The technique provides low computational cost and parallel computations. ► Detailed models were built for the system “vacuum vessel, cryostat, thermal shields”. ► EM loads on massive in-vessel structures were simulated with the use of local models. ► A flexible combination of models enables desired accuracy of load distributions. -- Abstract: Operation of the ITER machine is associated with high electromagnetic (EM) loads. An essential contributor to EM loads is eddy currents induced in passive conductive structures. Reasoning from the ITER construction, a modelling technique has been developed and applied in computations to efficiently predict anticipated loads. The technique allows us to avoid building a global 3D finite-element (FE) model that requires meshing of the conducting structures and their vacuum environment into 3D solid elements that leads to high computational cost. The key features of the proposed technique are: (i) the use of an existing shell model for the system “vacuum vessel (VV), cryostat, and thermal shields (TS)” implementing the magnetic shell approach. A solution is obtained in terms of a single-component, in this case, vector electric potential taken within the conducting shells of the “VV + cryostat + TS” system. (ii) EM loads on in-vessel conducting structures are simulated with the use of local FE models. The local models use either the 3D solid body or shell approximations. Reasoning from the simulation efficiency, the local boundary conditions are put with respect to the total field or an external field. The use of an integral-differential formulation and special procedures ensures smooth and accurate simulated distributions of fields from current sources of any geometry. The local FE models have been developed and applied for EM analyses of a variety of the ITER components including the diagnostic systems

  17. Development of Houttuynia cordata Extract-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery: High Drug Loading Efficiency and Controlled Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Heon Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Houttuynia cordata (H. cordata has been used for diuresis and detoxification in folk medicine as well as a herbal medicine with antiviral and antibacterial activities. H. cordata extract-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (H-SLNs were prepared with various concentration of poloxamer 188 or poloxamer 407 by a hot homogenization and ultrasonication method. H-SLNs dispersion was freeze-dried with or without trehalose as a cryoprotectant. The physicochemical characteristics of H-SLNs were evaluated by dynamic laser scattering (DLS, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Additionally, the in vitro release and in vitro cytotoxicity of H-SLNs were measured. Encapsulation efficiencies of H-SLNs (as quercitrin were 92.9–95.9%. The SEM images of H-SLNs showed that H-SLNs have a spherical morphology. DSC and FT-IR showed that there were no interactions between ingredients. The increased extent of particle size of freeze-dried H-SLNs with trehalose was significantly lower than that of H-SLNs without trehalose. H-SLNs provided sustained release of quercitrin from H. cordata extracts. Cell viability of Caco-2 cells was over 70% according to the concentration of various formulation. Therefore, it was suggested that SLNs could be good carrier for administering H. cordata extracts.

  18. The influence of increased distal loading on metabolic cost, efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Conor M; Bessone, Veronica; Federolf, Peter; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively. At 12% incline, there was a significant increase in metabolic rate and a decrease in gross efficiency with added weight (P0.05). No changes in cycle characteristics were observed between the different ski loadings at either incline, although the lateral and vertical displacements of the foot/skis were slightly altered at 12% incline with added weight. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that increased loading of the ski increases the metabolic cost and reduces gross efficiency during steep uphill roller skiing in G2 skating, whereas no significant effect was revealed when skating on relatively flat terrain in G3. Cycle characteristics remained unchanged across conditions at both inclines, whereas small adjustments in the displacement of the foot coincided with the efficiency changes in uphill terrain. The increased RPE values with added ski-weight at both inclines indicates that other factors than those measured here could have influenced effort and/or fatigue when lifting a heavier ski.

  19. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom H. J. A. Sleutels

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE. To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future.

  20. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutels, Tom H. J. A.; Molenaar, Sam D.; Heijne, Annemiek Ter; Buisman, Cees J. N.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE). To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future. PMID:27681899

  1. Low Substrate Loading Limits Methanogenesis and Leads to High Coulombic Efficiency in Bioelectrochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleutels, Tom H J A; Molenaar, Sam D; Heijne, Annemiek Ter; Buisman, Cees J N

    2016-01-05

    A crucial aspect for the application of bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) as a wastewater treatment technology is the efficient oxidation of complex substrates by the bioanode, which is reflected in high Coulombic efficiency (CE). To achieve high CE, it is essential to give a competitive advantage to electrogens over methanogens. Factors that affect CE in bioanodes are, amongst others, the type of wastewater, anode potential, substrate concentration and pH. In this paper, we focus on acetate as a substrate and analyze the competition between methanogens and electrogens from a thermodynamic and kinetic point of view. We reviewed experimental data from earlier studies and propose that low substrate loading in combination with a sufficiently high anode overpotential plays a key-role in achieving high CE. Low substrate loading is a proven strategy against methanogenic activity in large-scale reactors for sulfate reduction. The combination of low substrate loading with sufficiently high overpotential is essential because it results in favorable growth kinetics of electrogens compared to methanogens. To achieve high current density in combination with low substrate concentrations, it is essential to have a high specific anode surface area. New reactor designs with these features are essential for BESs to be successful in wastewater treatment in the future.

  2. Grinding efficiency improvement of hydraulic cylinders parts for mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to find out ways to improve parts treatment and components of mining equipment on the example of hydraulic cylinders parts, used as pillars for mine roof supports, and other actuator mechanisms. In the course of the research work methods of machine retaining devices design were used, the scientific approaches for the selection of progressive grinding schemes were applied; theoretical and practical experience in the design and production of new constructions of grinding tools was used. As a result of this work it became possible to create a progressive construction of a machine retaining device for grinding of large parts of hydraulic cylinders, to apply an effective scheme of rotary abrasive treatment, to create and implement new design of grinding tools by means of grains with controllable shape and orientation. Implementation of the results obtained in practice will improve the quality and performance of repairing and manufacturing of mining equipment.

  3. Numerical Simulation and Validation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine at Part Load Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rahul; Trivedi, Chirag; Kumar Gandhi, Bhupendra; Cervantes, Michel J.

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operated over an extended operating range to meet the real time electricity demand. Turbines operated at part load have flow parameters not matching the designed ones. This results in unstable flow conditions in the runner and draft tube developing low frequency and high amplitude pressure pulsations. The unsteady pressure pulsations affect the dynamic stability of the turbine and cause additional fatigue. The work presented in this paper discusses the flow field investigation of a high head model Francis turbine at part load: 50% of the rated load. Numerical simulation of the complete turbine has been performed. Unsteady pressure pulsations in the vaneless space, runner, and draft tube are investigated and validated with available experimental data. Detailed analysis of the rotor stator interaction and draft tube flow field are performed and discussed. The analysis shows the presence of a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube at the frequency of 0.3 times of the runner rotational frequency. The frequency of the vortex rope precession, which causes severe fluctuations and vibrations in the draft tube, is predicted within 3.9% of the experimental measured value. The vortex rope results pressure pulsations propagating in the system whose frequency is also perceive in the runner and upstream the runner.

  4. Behaviour of the RBMK-1000 plant during reactivity disturbances under part load reduction - completing investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, M.; Langenbuch, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes investigations of the behavior of a RBMK-1000 reactor core during reactivity initiated accidents and completes earlier studies of the Chernobyl accident. Special questions related to this accident are studied, e.g. the effect of Xenon dynamics during the delayed load reduction and the coarse of the experiment as planned with the coast-down of four main recirculaton pumps at nominal part load conditions. The main interest is the detailed analysis of reactivity initiated accidents in the low power range till 25% during start-up. In the calculations no reactor trip is taken into account. The results confirm the unfavourable effects of the positive void coefficient, which are amplified in the low power range. Finally the results are discussed in comparison to other positive reactivity effects. (orig.) [de

  5. Material Compressing Test of the High Polymer Part Used in Draft Gear of Heavy Load Locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yangang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the actual load cases of heavy load locomotive, the material compressing tests of the high polymer parts used in the locomotive are researched. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing are acquired by means of comparing the many results of the material compressing tests under different test condition. The relationship between stress and strain during the material compressing is nonlinear in large range of strain, but the relationship is approximately linear in small range of strain. The material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are compared through the tests. The results show that the compressing property of the material of the high polymer made in China and the material of the high polymer imported are almost same. The research offers the foundation to study the structure elasticity of the draft gear.

  6. Comparative assessment of characteristic part-load performances of screw compressors and turbo-compressors; Vergleich der charakteristischen Teillastwirkungsgrade von Schrauben- und Turboverdichtern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasz, J.J.; Hartmann, K. [Carrier Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)]|[Carrier Corp., Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The relative part-load performance of screw compressors and radial compressors is compared. Compressor part load is represented by a 2D characteristic field with the pressure on the vertical axis as a function of mass flow on the horizontal axis, with efficiencies given for any possible combination of pressure and mass flow. While this manner of representation is common for radial compressors, it is new for screw compressors. In the comparison of compression efficiencies, the focus is on vapour compression. For a valid comparative assessment of total compression, also the mechanical and/or electric loss through bearings, transmission, drive and (in case of variable-speed drives) frequency converters must be taken into account. (orig.)

  7. Investigation of the Flow Field and Performances of a Centrifugal Pump at Part Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunières, R.; Inoue, Y.; Nagahara, T.

    2016-11-01

    Centrifugal pump performance curve instability, characterized by a local dent at part load, can be the consequence of flow instabilities in rotating or stationary parts. Such flow instabilities often result in abnormal operating conditions which can damage both the pump and the system. In order for the pump to have reliable operation over a wide flow rate range, it is necessary to achieve a design free of instability. The present paper focuses on performance curve instability of a centrifugal pump of mid specific speed (ωs = 0.65) for which instability was observed at part load during tests. The geometry used for this research consist of the first stage of a multi-stage centrifugal pump and is composed of a suction bend, a closed-type impeller, a vaned diffuser and return guide vanes. In order to analyse the instability phenomenon, PIV and CFD analysis were performed. Both methods qualitatively agree relatively well. It appears that the main difference before and after head drop is an increase of reverse flow rate at the diffuser passage inlet on the hub side. This reverse flow decreases the flow passing area at the diffuser passage inlet, disallowing effective flow deceleration and impairing static pressure recovery.

  8. Efficient graph-based dynamic load-balancing for parallel large-scale agent-based traffic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.; Cai, W.; Aydt, H.; Lees, M.; Tolk, A.; Diallo, S.Y.; Ryzhov, I.O.; Yilmaz, L.; Buckley, S.; Miller, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the issues of parallelizing large-scale agent-based traffic simulations is partitioning and load-balancing. Traffic simulations are dynamic applications where the distribution of workload in the spatial domain constantly changes. Dynamic load-balancing at run-time has shown better efficiency

  9. Fully probabilistic seismic source inversion – Part 1: Efficient parameterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Stähler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seismic source inversion is a non-linear problem in seismology where not just the earthquake parameters themselves but also estimates of their uncertainties are of great practical importance. Probabilistic source inversion (Bayesian inference is very adapted to this challenge, provided that the parameter space can be chosen small enough to make Bayesian sampling computationally feasible. We propose a framework for PRobabilistic Inference of Seismic source Mechanisms (PRISM that parameterises and samples earthquake depth, moment tensor, and source time function efficiently by using information from previous non-Bayesian inversions. The source time function is expressed as a weighted sum of a small number of empirical orthogonal functions, which were derived from a catalogue of >1000 source time functions (STFs by a principal component analysis. We use a likelihood model based on the cross-correlation misfit between observed and predicted waveforms. The resulting ensemble of solutions provides full uncertainty and covariance information for the source parameters, and permits propagating these source uncertainties into travel time estimates used for seismic tomography. The computational effort is such that routine, global estimation of earthquake mechanisms and source time functions from teleseismic broadband waveforms is feasible.

  10. Checking transfer efficiency and equal loading via qualitative optical way in western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun-Hua; Gong, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Kai-Wen

    2017-11-01

    The ability to determine that successful transfer and equal loading occur prior to using primary antibodies is important. And total protein staining is commonly used to check transfer efficiency and normalization, which play a crucial role in western blotting. Ponceau S and coomassie blue are commonly used, but there are disadvantages reported in recent years. Therefore, we are interested in finding another method, which is cheap, easy and fast. As we know, protein binding region of PVDF membrane is still hydrophilic when carbinol volatilizes, however, the non-protein binding region of PVDF membrane became hydrophobic again. And this different wettability between non-protein binding region and protein binding region of Polyvinylidene difluoride membrane may be used to check transfer efficiency and equal loading in western blotting. Based on the principle above, we describe an optical approach where an experimenter can observe that the proteins have been transferred to the membrane without any staining within minutes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

    2010-04-14

    Efficiency (2007) presented commonly used definitions for EM&V in the context of energy efficiency programs: (1) Evaluation (E) - The performance of studies and activities aimed at determining the effects and effectiveness of EE programs; (2) Measurement and Verification (M&V) - Data collection, monitoring, and analysis associated with the calculation of gross energy and demand savings from individual measures, sites or projects. M&V can be a subset of program evaluation; and (3) Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) - This term is frequently seen in evaluation literature. EM&V is a catchall acronym for determining both the effectiveness of program designs and estimates of load impacts at the portfolio, program and project level. This report is a scoping study that assesses current practices and methods in the evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs, with a focus on methods and practices currently used for determining whether projected (ex-ante) energy and demand savings have been achieved (ex-post). M&V practices for privately-funded energy efficiency projects (e.g., ESCO projects) or programs where the primary focus is greenhouse gas reductions were not part of the scope of this study. We identify and discuss key purposes and uses of current evaluations of end-use energy efficiency programs, methods used to evaluate these programs, processes used to determine those methods; and key issues that need to be addressed now and in the future, based on discussions with regulatory agencies, policymakers, program administrators, and evaluation practitioners in 14 states and national experts in the evaluation field. We also explore how EM&V may evolve in a future in which efficiency funding increases significantly, innovative mechanisms for rewarding program performance are adopted, the role of efficiency in greenhouse gas mitigation is more closely linked, and programs are increasingly funded from multiple sources

  12. Onychomycosis: Sampling, diagnosing as efficiant part of hospital pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Vesna A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of one or more nails. Causes of onychomycosis are dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds, but the most common cause is Trichophytonrubrum (T. Rubrum from the group of dermatophyte fungi. The aims Using sampling determination of the most common clinical type of onychomycosis, lokalization and involvement of the nail plate, and monitoring the efficacy of methods/tests in the diagnosis of nail onychomycosis. Material and methods This paper is a part of academic IV phase study. The study included 30 patients with onychomycosis. Each sample was seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA and Diluted SDA (D-SDA at 28°C and 37°C, as well as the Dermatophyte Test Medium (DTM at 28°C. Identification of isolated fungi to the level of genus/species has been based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics by KOH and Blancophor fluorescent dye. PCR were performed to detect T. Rubrum-specific and pan-dermatophyte multiplex PCR product. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. Results The most common clinical form was subungual lateral distal onychomycosis (DLSOof the hands and feet pollex fingernails, while the size of the involvement of the nail plate was 1/2 - 1/3 in the majority of patients. Cultivation gave a positive result in 50% of cases and the most commonly isolated microorganism was the T. Rubrum. For negative cultures (50% the PCR was carried out which demonstrated high sensitivity and T. Rubrum remained the most frequently detected. Conclusions Using the methods of cultivation and PCR, onychomycosis was confirmed in 28 (93.3% patients. Cultivation gave a negative result in 50% of cases, while the PCR was positive in 86.6%. Our research shows the highest incidence of T. Rubrum (60%. In continuation of this study will be analyzed the choice and effectiveness of therapy.

  13. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, Aleksey Ivanovich

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  14. 76 FR 71354 - Certain Muzzle-Loading Firearms and Components Thereof Determination To Review in Part ALJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-777] Certain Muzzle-Loading Firearms and Components Thereof Determination To Review in Part ALJ Initial Determination; Denial of Temporary Relief... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain muzzle-loading firearms and...

  15. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheung, Iris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wardell, Bob [Infosys Technologies Limited; Deshpande, Manoj [Infosys Technologies Limited; Ugarkar, Jayraj [Infosys Technologies Limited

    2013-04-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of a collaborative research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) project that aims to address energy efficiency of Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads (MELs) (referred to as plug loads interchangeably in this report) using load monitoring and control devices. The goal s of this project are to identify and provide energy efficiency and building technologies to exemplary information technology (IT) office buildings, and to assist in transforming markets via technical assistance and engagement of Indian and U.S. stakeholders. This report describes the results of technology evaluation and United States – India collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Infosys Technologies Limited (India), and Smartenit, Inc. (U.S.) to address plug - load efficiency. The conclusions and recommendations focus on the larger benefits of such technologies and their impacts on both U.S. and Indian stakeholders.

  16. Efficient chemotherapy of rat glioblastoma using doxorubicin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with different stabilizers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wohlfart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy of glioblastoma is largely ineffective as the blood-brain barrier (BBB prevents entry of most anticancer agents into the brain. For an efficient treatment of glioblastomas it is necessary to deliver anti-cancer drugs across the intact BBB. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 hold great promise as drug carriers for brain delivery after their intravenous injection. In the present study the anti-tumour efficacy of the surfactant-coated doxorubicin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles against rat glioblastoma 101/8 was investigated using histological and immunohistochemical methods. METHODOLOGY: The particles were prepared by a high-pressure solvent evaporation technique using 1% polyvinylalcohol (PLGA/PVA or human serum albumin (PLGA/HSA as stabilizers. Additionally, lecithin-containing PLGA/HSA particles (Dox-Lecithin-PLGA/HSA were prepared. For evaluation of the antitumour efficacy the glioblastoma-bearing rats were treated intravenously with the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles coated with poloxamer 188 using the following treatment regimen: 3 × 2.5 mg/kg on day 2, 5 and 8 after tumour implantation; doxorubicin and poloxamer 188 solutions were used as controls. On day 18, the rats were sacrificed and the antitumour effect was determined by measurement of tumour size, necrotic areas, proliferation index, and expression of GFAP and VEGF as well as Isolectin B4, a marker for the vessel density. CONCLUSION: The results reveal a considerable anti-tumour effect of the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles. The overall best results were observed for Dox-Lecithin-PLGA/HSA. These data demonstrate that the poloxamer 188-coated PLGA nanoparticles enable delivery of doxorubicin across the blood-brain barrier in the therapeutically effective concentrations.

  17. TAF11 Assembles the RISC Loading Complex to Enhance RNAi Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chunyang; Wang, Yibing; Murota, Yukiko; Liu, Xiang; Smith, Dean; Siomi, Mikiko C; Liu, Qinghua

    2015-09-03

    Assembly of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) requires formation of the RISC loading complex (RLC), which contains the Dicer-2 (Dcr-2)-R2D2 complex and recruits duplex siRNA to Ago2 in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the precise composition and action mechanism of Drosophila RLC remain unclear. Here we identified the missing factor of RLC as TATA-binding protein-associated factor 11 (TAF11) by genetic screen. Although it is an annotated nuclear transcription factor, we found that TAF11 also associated with Dcr-2/R2D2 and localized to cytoplasmic D2 bodies. Consistent with defective RLC assembly in taf11(-/-) ovary extract, we reconstituted the RLC in vitro using the recombinant Dcr-2-R2D2 complex, TAF11, and duplex siRNA. Furthermore, we showed that TAF11 tetramer facilitates Dcr-2-R2D2 tetramerization to enhance siRNA binding and RISC loading activities. Together, our genetic and biochemical studies define the molecular nature of the Drosophila RLC and elucidate a cytoplasmic function of TAF11 in organizing RLC assembly to enhance RNAi efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Loaded with Baicalin: An Efficient Carrier for Enhanced Antidiabetic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wei, Zheng; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Ximing

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that baicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Baicalin is low hydrophilic and poorly absorbed after oral administration. Thus, a suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages of baicalin. The objective of this work was to prepare baicalin-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (B-NLCs) for enhanced antidiabetic effects. B-NLCs were prepared by high-pressure homogenization method using Precirol as the solid lipid and Miglyol as the liquid lipid. The properties of the NLCs, such as particle size, zeta potential (ZP), and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE), were investigated. The morphology of NLCs was observed by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, drug release and antidiabetic activity were also studied. The results revealed that B-NLCs particles were uniformly in the nanosize range and of spherical morphology with a mean size of 92 ± 3.1 nm, a ZP of -31.35 ± 3.08 mV, and an EE of 85.29 ± 3.42%. Baicalin was released from NLCs in a sustained manner. In addition, B-NLCs showed a significantly higher antidiabetic efficacy compared with baicalin. B-NLCs described in this study are well-suited for the delivery of baicalin. Currently, herbal medicines have attracted increasing attention as a complementary approach for type 2 diabetesBaicalin has antihyperglycemic effects by inhibiting lipid peroxidationA suitable formulation is highly desired to overcome the disadvantages (poor solubility and low bioavailability) of baicalinNanostructured lipid carriers could enhance the antidiabetic effects of baicalin. Abbreviations used: B-NLCs: Baicalin-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, B-SUS: Baicalin Water Suspension, EE: Encapsulation Efficiency, FBG: Fasting Blood Glucose, HbAlc: Glycosylated Hemoglobin, HPLC: High-performance Liquid Chromatography; NLCs: Nanostructured Lipid Carriers, PI: Polydispersity Index, SD: Sprague-Dawley, SLNs: Solid lipid nanoparticles, STZ

  19. Chitosan nanoparticles as non-viral gene delivery systems: determination of loading efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carolina; Suñé, Josep Maria; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García-Montoya, Encarna; Sarrate, Rocío; Fàbregas, Anna; Miñarro, Montserrat; Ticó, Josep Ramon

    2014-07-01

    Chitosan has been studied for use in particle delivery systems for therapeutic purposes, since one of its most important applications is as a non-viral vector in gene therapy. Due to its positive charge, it is capable of forming DNA complexes (polyplexes) obtained through several methods and with the property of protecting nucleic acids. Two methods for obtaining the nanoparticles of chitosan-nucleic acids are reported in this study: simple complexation (of depolymerized chitosan or of different chitosan salts with plasmid) and ionic gelation (by adsorption of plasmid in the nanoparticles or by encapsulation of plasmid into nanoparticles). The determination of the loading efficiency of chitosan nanoparticles with the plasmid is carried out by electrophoretic mobility of the samples on agarose gel. Furthermore, the nanoparticles have been characterized according to their morphology, size and surface charge using AFM, TEM, laser diffraction and dynamic light scattering techniques. The polyplexes obtained have been found to be spherical and nanometric in size (between 100-230nm) with a zeta potential between 37 and 48mV. Positive results have been obtained by agarose gel electrophoresis for all studied cases: a concentration of between 20 and 30μg/mL of chitosan salts is required while for the remaining chitosan samples studied, 100% loading efficiency does not occur until a concentration equal to 100μg/mL (regardless of previous depolymerisation and the method performed). Chitosan-plasmid nanocapsules have been obtained at the polymer concentrations worked with (between 0.025 and 0.2%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Structure in a Kaplan Draft Tube at Part Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddahian, R.; Cervantes, M. J.; Sotoudeh, N.

    2016-11-01

    This research presents numerical simulation of the unsteady flow field inside the draft tube of a Kaplan turbine at part load condition. Due to curvature of streamlines, the ordinary two-equations turbulence models fail to predict the flow features. Therefore, a modification of the Shear Stress Transport (SST-SAS) model is utilized to approximate the turbulent stresses. A guide vane, complete runner and draft tube are considered to insure the real boundary conditions at the draft tube inlet. The outlet boundary is assumed to discharge into the atmosphere. The obtained pressure fluctuations inside the draft tube are in good agreement with available experimental data. In order to further investigate the RVR formation and its movement, the λ2 criterion, relating the position of the vortex core and strength to the second largest Eigen value of the velocity gradient tensor, is employed. The method used for vortex identification shows the flow structure and vortex motion inside the draft tube accurately.

  1. An adaptive clustering approach to dynamic load balancing and energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherbi, Chirihane; Aliouat, Zibouda; Benmohammed, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Clustering is a well known approach to cope with large nodes density and efficiently conserving energy in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). Load balancing is an effective approach for optimizing resources like channel bandwidth, the main objective of this paper is to combine these two valuable approaches in order to significantly improve the main WSN service such as information routing. So, our proposal is a routing protocol in which load traffic is shared among cluster members in order to reduce the dropping probability due to queue overflow at some nodes. To this end, a novel hierarchical approach, called Hierarchical Energy-Balancing Multipath routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (HEBM) is proposed. The HEBM approach aims to fulfill the following purposes: decreasing the overall network energy consumption, balancing the energy dissipation among the sensor nodes and as direct consequence: extending the lifetime of the network. In fact, the cluster-heads are optimally determined and suitably distributed over the area of interest allowing the member nodes reaching them with adequate energy dissipation and appropriate load balancing utilization. In addition, nodes radio are turned off for fixed time duration according to sleeping control rules optimizing so their energy consumption. The performance evaluation of the proposed protocol is carried out through the well-known NS2 simulator and the exhibited results are convincing. Like this, the residual energy of sensor nodes was measured every 20 s throughout the duration of simulation, in order to calculate the total number of alive nodes. Based on the simulation results, we concluded that our proposed HEBM protocol increases the profit of energy, and prolongs the network lifetime duration from 32% to 40% compared to DEEAC reference protocol and from 25% to 28% compared to FEMCHRP protocol. The authors also note that the proposed protocol is 41.7% better than DEEAC with respect to FND (Fist node die), and 25

  2. Capillary electrophoresis to determine entrapment efficiency of a nanostructured lipid carrier loaded with piroxicam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Otarola

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast capillary electrophoresis method has been developed to determine the amount of piroxicam loaded in a drug delivery system based on nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs. The entrapment efficiency of the nanostructured lipid carrier was estimated by measuring the concentration of drug not entrapped in a suspension of NLC. The influence of different parameters on migration times, peak symmetry, efficiency and resolution was studied; these parameters included the pH of the electrophoretic buffer solution and the applied voltage. The piroxicam peak was obtained with a satisfactory resolution. The separation was carried out using a running buffer composed of 50 mM ammonium acetate and 13.75 mM ammonia at pH 9. The optimal voltage was 20 kV and the cartridge temperature was 20 °C. The corresponding calibration curve was linear over the range of 2.7–5.4 µg/mL of NLC suspension. The reproducibility of migration time and peak area were investigated, and the obtained RSD% values (n=5 were 0.99 and 2.13, respectively. Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis, Drug delivery system, Nanostructured lipid carrier, Piroxicam

  3. An Efficient Meta Heuristic Algorithm to Solve Economic Load Dispatch Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Subramanian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Economic Load Dispatch (ELD problems in power generation systems are to reduce the fuel cost by reducing the total cost for the generation of electric power. This paper presents an efficient Modified Firefly Algorithm (MFA, for solving ELD Problem. The main objective of the problems is to minimize the total fuel cost of the generating units having quadratic cost functions subjected to limits on generator true power output and transmission losses. The MFA is a stochastic, Meta heuristic approach based on the idealized behaviour of the flashing characteristics of fireflies. This paper presents an application of MFA to ELD for six generator test case system. MFA is applied to ELD problem and compared its solution quality and computation efficiency to Genetic algorithm (GA, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle swarm optimization (PSO, Artificial Bee Colony optimization (ABC, Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO, Bacterial Foraging optimization (BFO, Firefly Algorithm (FA techniques. The simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms previous optimization methods.

  4. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  5. Energy Efficient Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Distributed Dynamic Load Balanced Clustering Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukkumar R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Radio (CR is a promising and potential technique to enable secondary users (SUs or unlicenced users to exploit the unused spectrum resources effectively possessed by primary users (PUs or licenced users. The proven clustering approach is used to organize nodes in the network into the logical groups to attain energy efficiency, network scalability, and stability for improving the sensing accuracy in CR through cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS. In this paper, a distributed dynamic load balanced clustering (DDLBC algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, each member in the cluster is to calculate the cooperative gain, residual energy, distance, and sensing cost from the neighboring clusters to perform the optimal decision. Each member in a cluster participates in selecting a cluster head (CH through cooperative gain, and residual energy that minimises network energy consumption and enhances the channel sensing. First, we form the number of clusters using the Markov decision process (MDP model to reduce the energy consumption in a network. In this algorithm, CR users effectively utilize the PUs reporting time slots of unavailability. The simulation results reveal that the clusters convergence, energy efficiency, and accuracy of channel sensing increased considerably by using the proposed algorithm.

  6. Hydrothermal modeling for the efficient design of thermal loading in a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jin; Kim, Jin-Seop; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydrothermal modeling for HLW repository is performed. • The model reduces the peak temperature in the repository by about 10 °C. • Decreasing the tunnel distance is more efficient to improve the disposal density. • The EDZ surrounding the deposition hole increases the peak temperature. • The peak temperature for the double-layer repository remains below the limit. - Abstract: The thermal analysis of a geological repository for nuclear waste using the three-dimensional hydrothermal model is performed. The hydrothermal model reduces the maximum peak temperature in the repository by about 10 °C compared to the heat conduction model with constant thermal conductivities. Decreasing the tunnel distance is more efficient than decreasing the deposition hole spacing to improve the disposal density for a given thermal load. The annular excavation damaged zone surrounding the deposition hole has a considerable effect on the peak temperature. The possibility of double-layer repository is analyzed from the viewpoint of the thermal constraints of the repository. The maximum peak temperature for the double-layer repository is slightly higher than that for the single-layer repository, but remains below the temperature limit

  7. A tri-generation system based on polymer electrolyte fuel cell and desiccant wheel – Part A: Fuel cell system modelling and partial load analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Behzad; De Antonellis, Stefano; Intini, Manuel; Zago, Matteo; Rinaldi, Fabio; Casalegno, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model for a PEMFC based cogeneration system is developed. • Developed model is validated using the available experimental data. • Performance of the plant at full load conditions is investigated. • Performance indices while applying two different modifications are determined. • System’s performance with and without modifications at partial loads is investigated. - Abstract: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) based systems have recently received increasing attention as a viable alternative for meeting the residential electrical and thermal demands. However, as the intermittent demand profiles of a building can only be addressed by a tri-generative unit which can operate at partial loads, the variation of performance of the system at partial loads might affect its corresponding potential benefits significantly. Nonetheless, no previous study has been carried out on assessing the performance of this type of tri-generative systems in such conditions. The present paper is the first of a two part study dedicated to the investigation of the performance of a tri-generative system in which a PEMFC based system is coupled with a desiccant wheel unit. This study is focused on evaluating the performance of the PEMFC subsystem while operating at partial loads. Accordingly, a detailed mathematical model of the fuel cell subsystem is first developed and validated using the experimental data obtained from the plant’s and the fuel cell stack’s manufacturer. Next, in order to increase the performance of the plant, two modifications have been proposed and the resulting performance at partial load have been determined. The obtained results demonstrate that applying both modifications results in increasing the electrical efficiency of the plant by 5.5%. It is also shown that, while operating at partial loads, the electrical efficiency of the plant does not significantly change; the fact which corresponds to the trade-off between

  8. Distributed photovoltaic architecture powering a DC bus: Impact of duty cycle and load variations on the efficiency of the generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouache, Hadj; Zegaoui, Abdallah; Boutoubat, Mohamed; Bokhtache, Aicha Aissa; Kessaissia, Fatma Zohra; Charles, Jean-Pierre; Aillerie, Michel

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on a photovoltaic generator feeding a load via a boost converter in a distributed PV architecture. The principal target is the evaluation of the efficiency of a distributed photovoltaic architecture powering a direct current (DC) PV bus. This task is achieved by outlining an original way for tracking the Maximum Power Point (MPP) taking into account load variations and duty cycle on the electrical quantities of the boost converter and on the PV generator output apparent impedance. Thereafter, in a given sized PV system, we analyze the influence of the load variations on the behavior of the boost converter and we deduce the limits imposed by the load on the DC PV bus. The simultaneous influences of 1- the variation of the duty cycle of the boost converter and 2- the load power on the parameters of the various components of the photovoltaic chain and on the boost performances are clearly presented as deduced by simulation.

  9. Influence of the Encapsulation Efficiency and Size of Liposome on the Oral Bioavailability of Griseofulvin-Loaded Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Gim Ming Ong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of the encapsulation efficiency and size of liposome on the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes. Griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with desired characteristics were prepared from pro-liposome using various techniques. To study the effect of encapsulation efficiency, three preparations of griseofulvin, namely, griseofulvin aqueous suspension and two griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with different amounts of griseofulvin encapsulated [i.e., F1 (32% and F2(98%], were administered to rats. On the other hand, to study the effect of liposome size, the rats were given three different griseofulvin-loaded liposomes of various sizes, generated via different mechanical dispersion techniques [i.e., FTS (142 nm, MS (357 nm and NS (813 nm], but with essentially similar encapsulation efficiencies (about 93%. Results indicated that the extent of bioavailability of griseofulvin was improved 1.7–2.0 times when given in the form of liposomes (F1 compared to griseofulvin suspension. Besides that, there was an approximately two-fold enhancement of the extent of bioavailability following administration of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes with higher encapsulation efficiency (F2, compared to those of F1. Also, the results showed that the extent of bioavailability of liposomal formulations with smaller sizes were higher by approximately three times compared to liposomal formulation of a larger size. Nevertheless, a further size reduction of griseofulvin-loaded liposome (≤400 nm did not promote the uptake or bioavailability of griseofulvin. In conclusion, high drug encapsulation efficiency and small liposome size could enhance the oral bioavailability of griseofulvin-loaded liposomes and therefore these two parameters deserve careful consideration during formulation.

  10. Cellulose accessibility limits the effectiveness of minimum cellulase loading on the efficient hydrolysis of pretreated lignocellulosic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddler Jack N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A range of lignocellulosic feedstocks (including agricultural, softwood and hardwood substrates were pretreated with either sulfur dioxide-catalyzed steam or an ethanol organosolv procedure to try to establish a reliable assessment of the factors governing the minimum protein loading that could be used to achieve efficient hydrolysis. A statistical design approach was first used to define what might constitute the minimum protein loading (cellulases and β-glucosidase that could be used to achieve efficient saccharification (defined as at least 70% glucan conversion of the pretreated substrates after 72 hours of hydrolysis. The likely substrate factors that limit cellulose availability/accessibility were assessed, and then compared with the optimized minimum amounts of protein used to obtain effective hydrolysis. The optimized minimum protein loadings to achieve efficient hydrolysis of seven pretreated substrates ranged between 18 and 63 mg protein per gram of glucan. Within the similarly pretreated group of lignocellulosic feedstocks, the agricultural residues (corn stover and corn fiber required significantly lower protein loadings to achieve efficient hydrolysis than did the pretreated woody biomass (poplar, douglas fir and lodgepole pine. Regardless of the substantial differences in the source, structure and chemical composition of the feedstocks, and the difference in the pretreatment technology used, the protein loading required to achieve efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic substrates was strongly dependent on the accessibility of the cellulosic component of each of the substrates. We found that cellulose-rich substrates with highly accessible cellulose, as assessed by the Simons' stain method, required a lower protein loading per gram of glucan to obtain efficient hydrolysis compared with substrates containing less accessible cellulose. These results suggest that the rate-limiting step during hydrolysis is not the catalytic

  11. ANALYSIS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF OPERATING MODES OF ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS WITH THE TRACTION LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Bondarenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Innovative scenarios of reliable energy supply of transportation process aimed at reducing the specific energy consumption and increase energy efficiency of the systems of electric traction. The paper suggests innovative energy saving directions in traction networks of railways and new circuit solutions accessing traction substations in energy systems networks, ensure energy security of the transportation process. To ensure the energy security of rail transport special schemes were developed to propose the concept of external power traction substations, which would increase the number of connections to the networks of 220 – 330 kV, as well as the creation of transport and energy corridors, development of its own supply of electric networks of 110 kV substations and mobile RP-110 kV of next generation. Therefore, the investment program of the structures owned by the Ukrainian Railways (Ukrzaliznytsia need to be synchronized in their technological characteristics, as well as the criteria of reliability and quality of power supply with the same external energy investment programs. It is found that without any load on left or right supplying arm one of two less loaded phases of traction transformer begins generating specific modes in the supplying three-phase line. Thus, modes of mobile substation cause leakage in one of the phases of the supply line of traction transformers of active-capacitive current, and as a result generating energy in the main power line of 154 kV, which is fixed and calculated by electricity meters. For these three phase mode supply network is necessary to use 1st algorithm, i.e. taking into account the amount of electricity as the energy in all phases. For effective application of reactive power compensation devices in the AC traction power supply systems it is proposed to develop regulatory documentation on necessity of application and the order of choice of parameters and placement of compensation systems taking into

  12. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Nominal Full Load Efficiency of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency of Electric Motors B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Pt. 431... Efficiency of Electric Motors 1. Definitions. Definitions contained in §§ 431.2 and 431.12 are applicable to...

  13. Cadmium hydroxide nanowire loaded on activated carbon as efficient adsorbent for removal of Bromocresol Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Khajesharifi, Habibollah; Hemmati Yadkuri, Amin; Roosta, Mostafa; Sahraei, Reza; Daneshfar, Ali

    2012-02-01

    In the present research, cadmium hydroxide nanowire loaded on activated carbon (Cd(OH) 2-NW-AC) was synthesized and characterized. This new adsorbent was applied for the removal of Bromocresol Green (BCG) molecules from aqueous solutions. The influence of effective variables such as solution pH, contact time, initial BCG concentration, amount of Cd(OH) 2-NW-AC and temperature on the adsorption efficiency of BCG in batch system was examined. During all experiments BCG contents were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Fitting the experimental data to different kinetic models including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion kinetic models show the suitability of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model to interpret in the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherm studies were examined by application of different conventional models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin models to explain the experimental data. Based on considering R2 value as criterion the adsorption data well fitted to Langmuir model with maximum adsorption capacity of 108.7 mg g -1. Thermodynamic parameters (Gibb's free energy, entropy and enthalpy) of adsorption were calculated according to general procedure to take some information about the on-going adsorption process. The high negative value of Gibb's free energy and positive value of enthalpy show the feasibility and endothermic nature of adsorption process.

  14. [Great depth pneumatic caisson and its load work involved with the efficiency of respiratory protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, M; Oda, S; Takeuchi, J; Ikeda, Y; Yamamura, I; Mano, Y

    1989-07-01

    Pneumatic caisson work in Japan has been in operation since 1924. Afterward, this technique of compressed air work has been utilized in the constructions like as foundation works, the basements, and shafts of the bottom tunnel or shields for subway and so forth. While, it means for people to be exposed to hyperbaric environment that they use compressed air work, this technique has risks to be suffered from not only decompression sickness (DCS) but toxicity of poisonous gas or oxygen deficiency. However, this technique is necessary for urban civil engineering and recent compressed air works over than 1.0 kg/cm2 has been increased in 1.5 times more than in 1970's and the higher compressed air work more than 4.0 kg/cm2 will be actually planned in near future. So unmanned caisson work is considered as a better technique for such high pressure work, even though people must enter into hyperbaric working fields for maintenance or repair of unmanned operated machinery and materials. This research is to establish the safety work under hyperbaric environment within 7 kg/cm2. It is necessary for us to establish the system not only to keep safety but to maintain working efficiency. According to obtain the purpose, the effect of respiratory protection has been investigated and work load under hyperbaric caisson work has also been studied.

  15. Damping efficiency of the Tchamwa-Wielgosz explicit dissipative scheme under instantaneous loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahéo, Laurent; Grolleau, Vincent; Rio, Gérard

    2009-11-01

    To deal with dynamic and wave propagation problems, dissipative methods are often used to reduce the effects of the spurious oscillations induced by the spatial and time discretization procedures. Among the many dissipative methods available, the Tchamwa-Wielgosz (TW) explicit scheme is particularly useful because it damps out the spurious oscillations occurring in the highest frequency domain. The theoretical study performed here shows that the TW scheme is decentered to the right, and that the damping can be attributed to a nodal displacement perturbation. The FEM study carried out using instantaneous 1-D and 3-D compression loads shows that it is useful to display the damping versus the number of time steps in order to obtain a constant damping efficiency whatever the size of element used for the regular meshing. A study on the responses obtained with irregular meshes shows that the TW scheme is only slightly sensitive to the spatial discretization procedure used. To cite this article: L. Mahéo et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  16. Researches concerning the ultasonic energy influence on the resistence to the abrasive wear of loaded welded parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Amza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The researches presented in the paper refer to the effect of ultrasounds propagation in the liquid metal bath on the process of transferring the additive material through the electric arch and on the crystallization process, and all these effects are analyzed for loaded welded parts solicited at the abrasive wear. All these influences are conferred to these two basic phenomena due to the ultrasounds propagation in liquid environments, namely, ultra-acoustic cavitation and acceleration of the diffusion process. The results concerns the resistance to the wear obtained for the loaded parts through manual welding with electric arch and classically covered electrode and ultrasonically activated.

  17. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part III. Consumer Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fuel Efficient Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part III consists of studies and reviews on: consumer awareness of fuel efficiency issues; consumer acceptance of fuel efficient vehicles; car size ch...

  18. Non-linear hydrotectonic phenomena: Part I - fluid flow in open fractures under dynamical stress loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambeau, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    A fractured solid under stress loading (or unloading) can be viewed as behaving macroscopically as a medium with internal, hidden, degrees of freedom, wherein changes in fracture geometry (i.e. opening, closing and extension) and flow of fluid and gas within fractures will produce major changes in stresses and strains within the solid. Likewise, the flow process within fractures will be strongly coupled to deformation within the solid through boundary conditions on the fracture surfaces. The effects in the solid can, in part, be phenomenologically represented as inelastic or plastic processes in the macroscopic view. However, there are clearly phenomena associated with fracture growth and open fracture fluid flows that produce effects that can not be described using ordinary inelastic phenomenology. This is evident from the fact that a variety of energy release phenomena can occur, including seismic emissions of previously stored strain energy due to fracture growth, release of disolved gas from fluids in the fractures resulting in enhanced buoyancy and subsequent energetic flows of gas and fluids through the fracture system which can produce raid extension of old fractures and the creation of new ones. Additionally, the flows will be modulated by the opening and closing of fractures due to deformation in the solid, so that the flow process is strongly coupled to dynamical processes in the surrounding solid matrix, some of which are induced by the flow itself

  19. Theoretical Studying the Cyclic Loading of Electric Drive Parts of the Stand duo-160

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Maltsev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An electric drive of work rolls of the single-stand rolling mill duo-160 located in the laboratory of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU is selected as an object of the theoretical study. After the work rolls have gripped the work-piece the torsional vibrations occur in the drive; a 5-mass dynamic model is built to determine their forms and frequencies. Equations of torsionalvibration movement of masses with time are based on the Lagrange equations of type II. The paper identifies intrinsic moments of inertia and angular stiffness of parts and units of the electric drive. The graphs of the moments of elastic forces are built taking into consideration the dampers and backlashes. A revealed transition process has shown that given amplitudes of the cyclic shear stresses arising in dangerous section of the most loaded top spindle do not exceed the limit of its endurance in this section. In case of excess revealed, it would lead to accumulation of fatigue damage in the spindle metal and to formation of fatigue crack that most probably would appear near the shaft surface rather than in the metal mass. With further using the electric drive this micro-crack would be gradually evolved into macro-crack, the working cross-sectional area of the shaft would be reduced so that there would be a spindle failure and on the surface of a fatigue fracture of its shaft a strongly marked crack growth zone and a completely broken zone would be observed.

  20. Study of Copolymer Composition on Drug Loading Efficiency of Enalapril in Polymersomes and Cytotoxicity of Drug Loaded Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danafar, H; Manjili, H K; Najafi, M

    2016-09-01

    Enalapril was used for hypertension and congestive heart failure. Di-block mPEG-PCL copolymers were synthesized and used to prepare of polymersomes for controlled release of enalapril as a hydrophilic drug. The various methods such as HNMR, FTIR, GPC, DSC, PCS and AFM performed for characterization of the polymersomes. The results of AFM showed that the polymersomes had spherical structure and the size of nanoparticles was 97 nm. Drug-loading efficiency of nanoparticles from copolymers with compositions of mPEG1-PCL1, mPEG2-PCL2, and mPEG3-PCL3 were 14.43%, 19.8%, and 12.33% respectively. The release profile of enalapril for drug loaded nanoparticles prepared from mPEG3-PCL3 was very fast and release profile for the nanoparticles prepared from mPEG1-PCL1 and mPEG2-PCL2 was sustained. The IC 50 value of enalapril was determined to be 8 μM while EPM/m-PEG-PCL nanoparticles did not show significant toxicity at equal concentrations in comparison with enalapril drug. Therapeutic preparations of mPEG-PCL micelle are calibrated by the mouse LD 50 assay. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle showed a safe dose of mPEG-PCL micelles was approximately 330 mg/kg in mice. The relationship between the numbers of animals, number of doses, duration of the assay used to estimate the LD 50 and the precision of the assay were investigated. Overall, the results was showed that m-PEG-PCL polymersomes can be considered as a promising carrier for hydrophilic drugs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. High efficient multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite nanowires for water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yaling; Zhou, Hangyu; Zhu, Genxing; Shao, Changyu; Pan, Haihua; Xu, Xurong; Tang, Ruikang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires were synthesized via a facile in-situ precipitation method. • By optimizing the initial concentration of AgNO_3, the well-distributed Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites could be achieved. • The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites showed excellent photocatalytic performance for the decomposition of dyes under visible light irradiation. • The maximum absorption capacity of the Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites for Pb(II) was 250 mg/g, approximately three times as that of pure HAP. • The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites also exhibited excellent antibacterial activities even at relative low concentrations. - Abstract: Organic, inorganic, and biological pollutants are typical water contaminants and they seriously affect water quality. In this study, we suggested that a novel multifunctional Ag_3PO_4 loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) material can remove the typical pollutants from water. The Ag_3PO_4/HAP composites were synthesized facilely via in-situ precipitation of Ag_3PO_4 on the pre-existing HAP nanowires. By optimizing the composition of Ag_3PO_4 and HAP, the material could achieve an optimal photocatalytic activity to decompose rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiations with enhanced pH stability. Besides, the adsorption of Pb(II) on the Ag_3PO_4/HAP reached a maximum capacity of 250 mg/g and this value was approximately three times as that of pure HAP. Furthermore, the composite material exhibited excellent antibacterial activities towards gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacterium (Stphylococcus aureus). The results highlighted the cooperative effect between Ag_3PO_4 and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The simultaneous removals of dyes, toxic metal ions, and bacteria with a high efficiency followed an easy approach for the purification of contaminated water via the rationally designed material, in which the Ag_3PO_4/HAP composite might be developed

  2. Pressure measurements and high speed visualizations of the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition in a Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, K; Müller, A; Favrel, A; Landry, C; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    In a hydraulic power plant, it is essential to provide a reliable, sustainable and flexible energy supply. In recent years, in order to cover the variations of the renewable electricity production, hydraulic power plants are demanded to operate with more extended operating range. Under these off-design conditions, a hydraulic turbine is subject to cavitating swirl flow at the runner outlet. It is well-known that the helically/symmetrically shaped cavitation develops at the runner outlet in part load/full load condition, and it gives severe damage to the hydraulic systems under certain conditions. Although there have been many studies about partial and full load conditions, contributions reporting the deep part load condition are limited, and the cavitation behaviour at this condition is not yet understood. This study aims to unveil the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition by high speed visualizations focusing on the draft tube cone as well as the runner blade channel, and pressure fluctuations associated with the phenomena were also investigated

  3. Windows and glazing systems exposed to explosion loads: Part 2 – Safety improvement strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teich, M.; Gebbeken, N.; Lööf, A.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van

    2010-01-01

    International terrorism has increased the interest in the dynamic behavior of windows under explosion loads. Windows are usually the first elements exposed to blast loading causing serious secondary threats as they can break up in sharp shards which are accelerated inwards. The University of the

  4. Techno-economic comparison of combined cycle gas turbines with advanced membrane configuration and MEA solvent at part load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Spek, Mijndert; Bonalumi, Davide; Manzolini, Giampaolo; Ramirez, Andrea; Faaij, André P.C.

    2018-01-01

    This work compares the part load techno-economic performance of CO2 capture from a CCGT using a membrane configuration with selective CO2 recycle and using MEA solvent, under the assumption of flexible power plant dispatch. This is the first time that the techno-economic performance of CO2 capture

  5. Redirecting learners' attention during training: effects on cognitive load, transfer test performance and training efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merriënboer, J.J.G.; Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; de Croock, M.B.M.; Paas, F.G.W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive load theory provides guidelines for improving the training of complex cognitive skills and their transfer to new situations. One guideline states that extraneous cognitive load that is irrelevant to the construction of cognitive schemata should be minimised. Experiment 1 (N=26) compares

  6. Treatment efficiency of patients with shin fracture after intraosseous blocked osteosynthesis by using the load dispenser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Sukhin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research: еvaluation of the effectiveness of the device for determining the value of the load on the lower extremity while walking in real time with controlling and signalization of excessive and insufficient load. Materials and methods. Еlaborated and applied device, that allows to determine the load magnitude on the lower extremity in real time, and also to signal about excessive or weak load. The sensory block with the insole and the sensor is located in shoes, under patient's heel, and the main block is fixed on the shin with the help of the strap. Current value of the load on the leg is registered in real time. Received data is recorded in non-volatile memory. The system provides an opportunity to notify patient or doctor by email about the presence of a strong or weak load on the lower extremity, and also about the absence of load for a long period. Results. We used the loading batcher in 38 patients with the shin bones fractures, who were on inpatient treatment at the traumatology and orthopedics center in Odessa in the period from 1.5 to 12 months. The main group included patients, who used the load batcher on the lower extremity in rehabilitation period (transversal fracture of the shin bones diaphysis – 9 patients, oblique fracture – 11 patients. The control group consisted of patients, who didn't use the load batcher (10 patients with oblique fracture of the shin bones in the middle third, 8 patients with transversal fracture of both shin bones in the middle third. As a result of applying the device we succeeded to reduce the fracture fusion period for two weeks and avoid such complications as contracture of joint and fracture non-union. Conclusions. The device allows patients with traumatic consequences reaching the optimal load in rehabilitation period, avoiding excessive load on the lower extremity. The elaboration provides an opportunity to determine the statistics of the load and its transfer to the server

  7. Energy efficiency - The struggle for load management is raging. The French Riviera redoubles savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moragues, Manuel; Barla, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    A first article discusses the debate initiated by a decree on load management associated with the French Brottes law on energy. Load management is the possibility for consumers to reduce their consumption at peak hours. Electricity producers and suppliers are of course against, whereas new actors (load managers or aggregators) are for. The issue is then to determine who will pay this managed (and not consumed) energy. The article also evokes a controversy about the Brottes law which creates a bonus to subsidy load management, and comments the development of this load management market and its legal framework. A second article describes actions undertaken by industries of the French Riviera to manage their energy consumption

  8. Effect of humidity and particle hygroscopicity on the mass loading capacity of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Biswas, P.; Monson, P.R.; Novick, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity, and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber high efficiency particulate air filters was studied. Above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the filter increased nonlinearly with areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of a NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or nonhygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance K 2 was computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K 2 was found to decrease with increasing humidity for nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and for hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K 2 for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) was derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide, the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Part 1 : heavy axle load revenue service mega site testing 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Since 2005, the Federal Railroad Administration : and the Association of American Railroads have : jointly funded a heavy axle load (HAL) revenue : service testing program with several objectives. : One objective is to determine the effects of HAL : ...

  10. Part 2 : heavy axle load revenue service mega site testing 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Since 2005, the Federal Railroad Administration : and the Association of American Railroads have : jointly funded a heavy axle load (HAL) revenue : service testing program, with several objectives. : One objective is to determine the effects of HAL :...

  11. Physics Based Model for Cryogenic Chilldown and Loading. Part I: Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.; Brown, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    We report the progress in the development of the physics based model for cryogenic chilldown and loading. The chilldown and loading is model as fully separated non-equilibrium two-phase flow of cryogenic fluid thermally coupled to the pipe walls. The solution follow closely nearly-implicit and semi-implicit algorithms developed for autonomous control of thermal-hydraulic systems developed by Idaho National Laboratory. A special attention is paid to the treatment of instabilities. The model is applied to the analysis of chilldown in rapid loading system developed at NASA-Kennedy Space Center. The nontrivial characteristic feature of the analyzed chilldown regime is its active control by dump valves. The numerical predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental time traces. The obtained results pave the way to the development of autonomous loading operation on the ground and space.

  12. Cost-Effective Integration of Efficient Low-Lift Base Load Cooling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Wei; Winiarski, David W.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Armstrong, Peter R.

    2008-01-14

    The long-term goal of DOE’s Commercial Buildings Integration subprogram is to develop cost-effective technologies and building practices that will enable the design and construction of net Zero Energy Buildings — commercial buildings that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis — by 2025. To support this long-term goal, DOE further called for — as part of its FY07 Statement of Needs — the development by 2010 of “five cost-effective design technology option sets using highly efficient component technologies, integrated controls, improved construction practices, streamlined commissioning, maintenance and operating procedures that will make new and existing commercial buildings durable, healthy and safe for occupants.” In response, PNNL proposed and DOE funded a scoping study investigation of one such technology option set, low-lift cooling, that offers potentially exemplary HVAC energy performance relative to ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The primary purpose of the scoping study was to estimate the national technical energy savings potential of this TOS.

  13. Peptide-loaded dendritic cells prime and activate MHC-class I-restricted T cells more efficiently than protein-loaded cross-presenting DC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Met, Ozcan; Buus, Søren; Claesson, Mogens H

    2003-01-01

    -pulsed DC. Moreover, SIINFEKL-loaded DC were up to 50 times more efficient than DC-pulsed with OVA-protein for generation of an H-2K(b)-restricted response. Immunization of mice with SIINFEKL-loaded DC resulted in a much stronger H-2K(b)-restricted response than immunization with OVA-pulsed DC. These data......Undifferentiated and differentiated dendritic cells (uDC and dDC, respectively), derived from the bone marrow, were studied in vitro and in vivo. Ovalbumin (OVA) and two OVA-derived peptides binding to H-2K(b) and I-A(b), respectively, were used. Two IL-2 secreting T cell hybridomas specific...... for the OVA-derived epitopes were used in the in vitro read-out. The ability to cross-present the H-2K(b) binding OVA(257-264)-peptide (SIINFEKL) was restricted to dDC, which express CD11c(+), CD86(+), and MHC-II(+). In vitro, the antigenicity of SIINFEKL-loaded DC declined at a slower rate than that of OVA...

  14. Dependence of Seebeck coefficient on a load resistance and energy conversion efficiency in a thermoelectric composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Osamu; Odahara, Hirotaka; Ochi, Takahiro; Satou, Kouji

    2007-01-01

    The thermo-emf ΔV and current ΔI generated by imposing the alternating temperature gradients (ATG) at a period of T and the steady temperature gradient (STG) on a thermoelectric (TE) composite were measured as a function of t, where t is the lapsed time and T was varied from 60 to or ∞ s. The STG and ATG were produced by imposing steadily and alternatively a source voltage V in the range from 1.0 to 4.0 V on two Peltier modules sandwiching a composite. ΔT, ΔV, ΔI and V P oscillate at a period T and their waveforms vary significantly with a change of T, where ΔV and V P are the voltage drops in a load resistance R L and in resistance R P of two modules. The resultant Seebeck coefficient |α| = |ΔV|/ΔT of a composite under the STG was found to be expressed as |α| = |α 0 |(1 - R comp /R T ), where R T is the total resistance of a circuit for measuring the output signals and R comp is the resistance of a composite. The effective generating power ΔW eff has a local maximum at T = 960 s for the p-type composite and at T = 480 s for the n-type one. The maximum energy conversion efficiency η of the p- and n-type composites under the ATG produced by imposing a voltage of 4.0 V at an optimum period were 0.22 and 0.23% at ΔT eff = 50 K, respectively, which are 42 and 43% higher than those at ΔT = 42 K under the STG. These maximum η for a TE composite sandwiched between two Peltier modules, were found to be expressed theoretically in terms of R P , R T , R L , α P and α, where α P and α are the resultant Seebeck coefficients of Peltier modules and a TE composite

  15. Palladium Nanoparticle-Loaded Cellulose Paper: A Highly Efficient, Robust, and Recyclable Self-Assembled Composite Catalytic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangchao; Kaefer, Katharina; Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Vaz, Belén; Cartmell, Samantha E; Bouleghlimat, Azzedine; Buurma, Niklaas J; Yate, Luis; de Lera, Ángel R; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge

    2015-01-15

    We present a novel strategy based on the immobilization of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) on filter paper for development of a catalytic system with high efficiency and recyclability. Oleylamine-capped Pd nanoparticles, dispersed in an organic solvent, strongly adsorb on cellulose filter paper, which shows a great ability to wick fluids due to its microfiber structure. Strong van der Waals forces and hydrophobic interactions between the particles and the substrate lead to nanoparticle immobilization, with no desorption upon further immersion in any solvent. The prepared Pd NP-loaded paper substrates were tested for several model reactions such as the oxidative homocoupling of arylboronic acids, the Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, and nitro-to-amine reduction, and they display efficient catalytic activity and excellent recyclability and reusability. This approach of using NP-loaded paper substrates as reusable catalysts is expected to open doors for new types of catalytic support for practical applications.

  16. Biomechanical consequences of plantar fascial release or rupture during gait. Part II: alterations in forefoot loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, N A; Donahue, S W; Ferris, L

    1999-02-01

    With a model using feet from cadavers, we tested the hypothesis that plantar fascial release or rupture alters the loading environment of the forefoot during the latter half of the stance phase of gait. The model simulated the position and loading environment of the foot at two instants: early in terminal stance immediately after heel-off and late in terminal stance just preceding contralateral heel strike. Eight feet were loaded at both positions by simulated plantar flexor contraction, and the distribution of plantar pressure was measured before and after progressive release of the plantar fascia. Strain in the diaphysis of the second metatarsal was also measured, from which the bending moments and axial force imposed on the metatarsal were calculated. Cutting the medial half of the central plantar fascial band significantly increased peak pressure under the metatarsal heads but had little effect on pressures in other regions of the forefoot or on second metatarsal strain and loading. Dividing the entire central band or completely releasing the plantar fascia from the calcaneus had a much greater effect and caused significant shifts in plantar pressure and force from the toes to beneath the metatarsal heads. These shifts were accompanied by significantly increased strain and bending in the second metatarsal. Complete fasciotomy increased the magnitude of strain in the dorsal aspect of the second metatarsal by more than 80%, suggesting that plantar fascial release or rupture accelerates the accumulation of fatigue damage in these bones. Altered forefoot loading may be a potential complication of plantar fasciotomy.

  17. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yonghui; Wu, Qiuwei; Zhu, Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active...... power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model......Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP) optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject...

  18. Efficient approach for simulating response of multi-body structure in reactor core subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongkun; Cen Song; Wang Haitao; Cheng Huanyu

    2012-01-01

    An efficient 3D approach is proposed for simulating the complicated responses of the multi-body structure in reactor core under seismic loading. By utilizing the rigid-body and connector functions of the software Abaqus, the multi-body structure of the reactor core is simplified as a mass-point system interlinked by spring-dashpot connectors. And reasonable schemes are used for determining various connector coefficients. Furthermore, a scripting program is also complied for the 3D parametric modeling. Numerical examples show that, the proposed method can not only produce the results which satisfy the engineering requirements, but also improve the computational efficiency more than 100 times. (authors)

  19. Efficient Hybrid Genetic Based Multi Dimensional Host Load Aware Algorithm for Scheduling and Optimization of Virtual Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Thiruvenkadam, T; Karthikeyani, V

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the virtual machines to the physical machines cluster is called the VM placement. Placing the VM in the appropriate host is necessary for ensuring the effective resource utilization and minimizing the datacenter cost as well as power. Here we present an efficient hybrid genetic based host load aware algorithm for scheduling and optimization of virtual machines in a cluster of Physical hosts. We developed the algorithm based on two different methods, first initial VM packing is done by...

  20. Comparison of thermal, radical and chemical effects of EGR gases using availability analysis in dual-fuel engines at part loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseinzadeh, A.; Khoshbakhti Saray, R.; Seyed Mahmoudi, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual-fuel engines at part load inevitably suffer from lower thermal efficiency and higher emission of carbon monoxide and unburned fuel. A quasi-two-zone combustion model has been developed for studying the second-law analysis of a dual-fuel (diesel-gas) engine operating under part-load conditions. The model is composed of two divisions: a single-zone combustion model with chemical kinetics for combustion of natural gas fuel and a subsidiary zone for combustion of pilot fuel. In the latter zone, the pilot fuel is considered as a heat source derived from two superposed Wiebe's combustion functions to account for contribution of pilot fuel in ignition of gaseous fuel and the rest of the total released energy. This quasi-two-zone combustion model is able to establish the development of combustion process with time and associated important operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, heat release rate (HRR) and species concentration. The present work is an attempt to investigate the combustion phenomenon from second-law point of view at part load and using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to improve the aforementioned problems. Therefore, the availability analysis is applied to the engine from inlet valve closing (IVC) until exhaust valve opening (EVO). Various availability components are identified and calculated separately with crank position. In this paper, the various availability components are identified and calculated separately with crank position. Then the different cases of EGR (chemical, radical and thermal cases) are applied to the availability analysis in dual-fuel engines at part loads. It is found that the chemical case of EGR has negative effect and in this case the unburned chemical availability is increased and the work availability decreases in comparison with baseline engine (without EGR). While the thermal and radical cases have positive effects on the availability terms especially on the unburned chemical availability and work availability

  1. Full and part load exergetic analysis of a hybrid micro gas turbine fuel cell system based on existing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalis, Diamantis P.; Stamatis, Anastassios G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid SOFC/GT system based on existing components. ► Exergy analysis using AspenPlus™ software. ► Greenhouse gases emission is significantly affected by SOFC stack temperature. ► Comparison with a conventional GT of similar power. ► SOFC/GT is almost twice efficient in terms of second low efficiency and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The paper deals with the examination of a hybrid system consisting of a pre-commercially available high temperature solid oxide fuel cell and an existing recuperated microturbine. The irreversibilities and thermodynamic inefficiencies of the system are evaluated after examining the full and partial load exergetic performance and estimating the amount of exergy destruction and the efficiency of each hybrid system component. At full load operation the system achieves an exergetic efficiency of 59.8%, which increases during the partial load operation, as a variable speed control method is utilized. Furthermore, the effects of the various performance parameters such as fuel cell stack temperature and fuel utilization factor are assessed. The results showed that the components in which chemical reactions occur have the higher exergy destruction rates. The exergetic performance of the system is affected significantly by the stack temperature. Based on the exergetic analysis, suggestions are given for reducing the overall system irreversibility. Finally, the environmental impact of the operation of the hybrid system is evaluated and compared with a similarly rated conventional gas turbine plant. From the comparison it is apparent that the hybrid system obtains nearly double exergetic efficiency and about half the amount of greenhouse gas emissions compared with the conventional plant.

  2. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Martin F.; Madsen, Claus; Olsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) concept allows for a high efficiency of a heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept consists of two water storage tanks, one charged and one discharged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process, while the discharged tank...... is charging. The charging of the tank is done by recirculating water through the condenser and thereby gradually heating the water. The modelling of the system is described in Part I [1]. In this part, Part II, an experimental test setup of the tank system is reported, the results are presented and further...... modelling of the heat pump and tank system is performed (in continuation of Part I). The modelling is extended to include the system performance with different natural refrigerants and the influence of different types of compressors....

  3. The Impact of Wireless Technology on Loading Trucks at an Auto Parts Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    An intervention was introduced for truck loaders that used wireless vehicle mount computers that included auditory, visual feedback, and immediate data delivery. The implementation reliably reduced pallets from being loaded out of sequence for all outbound trucks in multistop routes. The role of the organizational behavior management (OBM)…

  4. The Shock and Vibration Bulletin. Part 4. Impact, Packaging and Shipping, Blast and Impulsive Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR DIGITAL CONTROL OF RANDOM VOIRATION TESTS J. D. Tebba and D. 0. Smallwood , Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque. New Mexico VIBRATION...for dynamic end quasi-static loading conditions. (14] Norman . Jaons, T. 0. Uran and S. A. Tekin. SM1210=1 "The Dynamic riastic Behavior of Fully

  5. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 23 - Simplified Design Load Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... used to determine the airplane structural operating limitations as specified in §§ 23.1501(c) through... edge of the elevator and rudder, respectively, to zero at the trailing edge according to the equation... § 23.459. A23.13Control system loads. (a) Primary flight controls and systems. Each primary flight...

  6. Optimizing the analysis of routing oversize/overweight loads to provide efficient freight corridors : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The subject of this report is limited specifically to Kansas highways. Current features of the State Highway System were looked at to determine corridors that do not limit Oversize/Overweight (OS/OW) vehicles, or that limit loads to varying degree...

  7. FeOOH-loaded MnO2 nano-composite: An efficient emergency material for thallium pollution incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiqing; Wu, Pingxiao; Yu, Langfeng; Liu, Shuai; Ruan, Bo; Hu, Haihui; Zhu, Nengwu; Lin, Zhang

    2017-05-01

    A FeOOH-loaded MnO 2 nano-composite was developed as an emergency material for Tl(I) pollution incident. Structural characterizations showed that FeOOH successfully loaded onto MnO 2 , the nanosheet-flower structure and high surface area (191 m 2  g -1 ) of material contributed to the excellent performance for Tl(I) removal. FeOOH-loaded MnO 2 with a Fe/Mn molar ratio of 1:2 exhibited a noticeable enhanced capacity for Tl(I) removal compared to that of pure MnO 2 . The outstanding performance for Tl(I) removal involves in extremely high efficiency (achieved equilibrium and drinking water standard within 4 min) and the large maximum adsorption capacity (450 mg g -1 ). Both the control-experiment and XPS characterization proved that the removal mechanism of Tl(I) on FeOOH-loaded MnO 2 included adsorption and oxidation: the oxidation of MnO 2 played an important role for Tl(I) removal, and the adsorption of FeOOH loaded on MnO 2 enhanced Tl(I) purification at the same time. In-depth purification of Tl(I) had reach drinking water standards (0.1 μg L -1 ) at pH above 7, and there wasn't security risk produced from the dissolution of Mn 2+ and Fe 2+ . Moreover, the as-prepared material could be utilized as a recyclable adsorbent regenerated by using NaOH-NaClO binary solution. Therefore, the synthesized FeOOH-loaded MnO 2 in this study has the potential to be applied as an emergency material for thallium pollution incident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nasopharyngeal Epstein-Barr Virus Load: An Efficient Supplementary Method for Population-Based Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Chen

    Full Text Available Serological detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV antibodies is frequently used in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC mass screening. However, the large number of seropositive subjects who require close follow-up is still a big burden. The present study aimed to detect the nasopharyngeal EBV load in a high-risk population seropositive for antibodies against EBV, as well as to examine whether assay for nasopharyngeal EBV DNA load might reduce the number of high-risk subjects for follow-up and improve early detection of NPC. A prospective and population-based cohort study was conducted in southern China from 2006 through 2013. Among 22,186 participants, 1045 subjects with serum immunoglobulin A (IgA antibodies against viral capsid antigen (VCA titers ≥ 1:5 were defined as high-risk group, and were then followed-up for NPC occurrence. Qualified nasopharyngeal swab specimens were available from 905 participants and used for quantitative PCR assay. Our study revealed that 89% (802/905 subjects showed positive EBV DNA in nasopharyngeal swab. The nasopharyngeal EBV load in females was higher than that in males. The nasopharyngeal EBV load increased with increasing serum VCA/IgA titers. Eight cases of newly diagnosed NPC showed an extremely elevated EBV load, and 87.5% (7 of 8 patients were early-stage NPCs. The EBV loads of 8 NPCs were significantly higher than those of 897 NPC-free subjects (mean, 2.8 × 10(6 copies/swab [range 4.8 × 10(4-1.1 × 10(8] vs. 5.6 × 10(3 [range 0-3.8 × 10(6]. Using mean EBV load in NPC-free population plus two standard deviations as cut-off value, a higher diagnostic performance was obtained for EBV load test than serum VCA/IgA test (area under ROC, 0.980 vs 0.895. In conclusion, in a prospective and population-based study we demonstrated that an additional assay of EBV load in the nasopharynx among high-risk individuals may reduce the number of subjects needed to be closely followed up and could serve as part of a NPC

  9. Comparison of calculated and measured spectral response and intrinsic efficiency for a boron-loaded plastic neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamykowski, E.A. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Bethpage, NY (United States))

    1992-07-15

    Boron-loaded scintillators offer the potential for neutron spectrometers with a simplified, peak-shaped response. The Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used to calculate the detector characteristics of a scintillator made of a boron-loaded plastic, BC454, for neutrons between 1 and 7 MeV. Comparisons with measurements are made of spectral response for neutron energies between 4 and 6 MeV and of intrinsic efficiencies for neutrons up to 7 MeV. In order to compare the calculated spectra with measured data, enhancements to MCNP were introduced to generate tallies of light output spectra for recoil events terminating in a final capture by {sup 10}B. The comparison of measured and calculated spectra shows agreement in response shape, full width at half maximum, and recoil energy deposition. Intrinsic efficiencies measured to 7 MeV are also in agreement with the MCNP calculations. These results validate the code predictions and affirm the value of MCNP as a useful tool for development of sensor concepts based on boron-loaded plastics. (orig.).

  10. Influence of Injector Location on Part-Load Performance Characteristics of Natural Gas Direct-Injection in a Spark Ignition Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevik, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pamminger, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallner, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scarcelli, Riccardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boyer, Brad [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Wooldridge, Steven [Ford Motor Co., Detroit, MI (United States); Hall, Carrie [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Miers, Scott [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Interest in natural gas as an alternative fuel source to petroleum fuels for light-duty vehicle applications has increased due to its domestic availability and stable price compared to gasoline. With its higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, natural gas has the potential to reduce engine out carbon dioxide emissions, which has shown to be a strong greenhouse gas contributor. For part-load conditions, the lower flame speeds of natural gas can lead to an increased duration in the inflammation process with traditional port-injection. Direct-injection of natural gas can increase in-cylinder turbulence and has the potential to reduce problems typically associated with port-injection of natural gas, such as lower flame speeds and poor dilution tolerance. A study was designed and executed to investigate the effects of direct-injection of natural gas at part-load conditions. Steady-state tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine representative of current gasoline direct-injection engines. Tests were performed with direct-injection in the central and side location. The start of injection was varied under stoichiometric conditions in order to study the effects on the mixture formation process. In addition, exhaust gas recirculation was introduced at select conditions in order to investigate the dilution tolerance. Relevant combustion metrics were then analyzed for each scenario. Experimental results suggest that regardless of the injector location, varying the start of injection has a strong impact on the mixture formation process. Delaying the start of injection from 300 to 120°CA BTDC can reduce the early flame development process by nearly 15°CA. While injecting into the cylinder after the intake valves have closed has shown to produce the fastest combustion process, this does not necessarily lead to the highest efficiency, due to increases in pumping and wall heat losses. When comparing the two injection configurations, the side location shows the best

  11. Part-Load Performance Prediction and Operation Strategy Design of Organic Rankine Cycles with a Medium Cycle Used for Recovering Waste Heat from Gaseous Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is regarded as a suitable way to recover waste heat from gaseous fuel internal combustion engines. As waste heat recovery systems (WHRS have always been designed based on rated working conditions, while engines often work under part-load conditions, it is quite significant to analyze the part-load performance and corresponding operation strategy of ORC systems. This paper presents a dynamic model of ORC with a medium cycle used for a large gaseous fuel engine and analyzes the effect of adjustable parameters on the system performance, giving effective control directions under various conditions. The results indicate that the intermediary fluid mass flow rate has nearly no effect on the output power and thermal efficiency of the ORC, while the mass flow rate of working fluid has a great effect on them. In order to get a better system performance under different working conditions, the system should be operated with the working fluid mass flow rate as large as possible, but with a slight degree of superheating. Then, with the control of constant superheat degree at the end of the heating process, the performance of the combined system that consists of ORC and the engine at steady state under seven typical working conditions is also analyzed. The results indicate that the energy-saving effect of WHRS becomes worse and worse as the working condition decreases. Especially at 40% working condition the WHRS nearly has no energy-saving effect anymore.

  12. Comparison of iodine, krypton, and xenon retention efficiencies for various silver loaded adsorption media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchton, R.L.; Tkachyk, J.W.; Taylor, J.T.; Motes, B.G.

    1985-03-01

    A comparison was made among various silver impregnated adsorption media to determine their iodine, krypton, and xenon retention efficiencies. The program consisted of three components. First, laboratory measurements of the noble gas retention efficiencies of commercially available adsorption media were determined as a function of relative humidity, sample duration, test cartridge geometry, and ambient air purge. Second, a literature survey was performed to evaluate the iodine species retention efficiencies of the selected media. Third, data associated with a media previously proposed for an emergency response air sampler were incorporated to enlarge the data base. 41 refs., 6 figs., 14 tabs

  13. An Efficient SDN Load Balancing Scheme Based on Variance Analysis for Massive Mobile Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional network, server load balancing is used to satisfy the demand for high data volumes. The technique requires large capital investment while offering poor scalability and flexibility, which difficultly supports highly dynamic workload demands from massive mobile users. To solve these problems, this paper analyses the principle of software-defined networking (SDN and presents a new probabilistic method of load balancing based on variance analysis. The method can be used to dynamically manage traffic flows for supporting massive mobile users in SDN networks. The paper proposes a solution using the OpenFlow virtual switching technology instead of the traditional hardware switching technology. A SDN controller monitors data traffic of each port by means of variance analysis and provides a probability-based selection algorithm to redirect traffic dynamically with the OpenFlow technology. Compared with the existing load balancing methods which were designed to support traditional networks, this solution has lower cost, higher reliability, and greater scalability which satisfy the needs of mobile users.

  14. Efficient production of nanoparticle-loaded orodispersible films by process integration in a stirred media mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Denise; Finke, Jan Henrik; Kwade, Arno

    2016-09-25

    Orodispersible films possess a great potential as a versatile platform for nanoparticle-loaded oral dosage forms. In this case, poorly water-soluble organic materials were ground in a stirred media mill and embedded into a polymer matrix. The aim of this study was the shortening of this manufacturing process by the integration of several process steps into a stirred media mill without facing disadvantages regarding the film quality. Furthermore, this process integration is time conserving due to the high stress intensities provided in the mill and applicable for high solids contents and high suspension viscosities. Two organic materials, the model compound Anthraquinone and the active pharmaceutical ingredient Naproxen were investigated in this study. Besides the impact of the film processing on the crystallinity of the particles in the orodispersible film, a particle load of up to 50% was investigated with the new developed processing route. Additionally, a disintegration test was developed, combining an appropriate amount of saliva substitute and a clear endpoint determination. In summary, high nanoparticle loads in orodispersible films with good particle size preservation after film redispersion in water as well as a manufacturing of the film casting mass within a few minutes in a stirred media mill was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of upstream disturbance on the draft-tube flow of Francis turbine under part-load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zheng, Xianghao; Zhang, Yu-ning; Li, Shengcai

    2018-02-01

    Owing to the part-load operations for the enhancement of grid flexibility, the Francis turbine often suffers from severe low-frequency and large-amplitude hydraulic instability, which is mostly pertinent to the highly unsteady swirling vortex rope in the draft tube. The influence of disturbances in the upstream (e.g., large-scale vortex structures in the spiral casing) on the draft-tube vortex flow is not well understood yet. In the present paper, the influence of the upstream disturbances on the vortical flow in the draft tube is studied based on the vortex identification method and the analysis of several important parameters (e.g., the swirl number and the velocity profile). For a small guide vane opening (representing the part-load condition), the vortices triggered in the spiral casing propagate downstream and significantly affect the swirling vortex-rope precession in the draft tube, leading to the changes of the intensity and the processional frequency of the swirling vortex rope. When the guide vane opening approaches the optimum one (representing the full-load condition), the upstream disturbance becomes weaker and thus its influences on the downstream flow are very limited.

  16. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests Part II:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Current formulations for acute tryptophan (Trp or tyrosine (Tyr plus phenylalanine (Phe depletion and loading cause undesirable decreases in ratios of Trp or Tyr + Phe to competing amino acids (CAA, thus undermining the specificities of these tests. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA cause these unintended decreases, and lowering their content in a new balanced control formulation in the present study led to normalization of all ratios. Four groups (n = 12 each of adults each received one of four 50 g control formulations, with 0% (traditional, 20%, 30%, or 40% less of the BCAA. The free and total [Trp]/[CAA] and [Phe + Tyr]/[BCAA+ Trp] ratios all decreased significantly during the first 5 h following the traditional formulation, but were fully normalized by the formulation containing 40% less of the BCAA. We recommend the latter as a balanced control formulation and propose adjustments in the depletion and loading formulations to enhance their specificities for 5-HT and the catecholamines.

  17. Measurements of ultimate accelerating gradients in the SLAC disk-loaded structure. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The work reported here describes measurements made to study the maximum attainable accelerating gradients in a conventional SLAC disk-loaded accelerator section of the constant-gradient type running at 2856 MHz. The objective was to reach an accelerating gradient of at least 100 MV/m. The accelerating gradient at which the SLAC disk-loaded waveguide runs routinely is approx. 9 MV/m (36 MW tubes without SLED) and approx. 12 MV/m with SLED I (2.5 μsec pulse). To reach 100 MV/m in a conventional 3 m constant-gradient section, one would need a klystron with a peak power output of 900 MW. since such a tube is not available, we decided to use a short standing-wave section in which the resonant fields would be allowed to build up. The design criteria for this section, the fabrication, matching and tuning, the experimental set-up and the results are described below

  18. Value of Lost Load: An Efficient Economic Indicator for Power Supply Security? A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schröder, Thomas, E-mail: t.schroeder@fz-juelich.de; Kuckshinrichs, Wilhelm [Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Systems Analysis and Technology Evaluation (IEK-STE), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)

    2015-12-24

    Security of electricity supply has become a fundamental requirement for well-functioning modern societies. Because of its central position in all sections of society, the present paper considers the economic consequences of a power supply interruption. The value of lost load (VoLL) is a monetary indicator expressing the costs associated with an interruption of electricity supply. This paper reviews different methods for calculating VoLL, provides an overview of recently published studies, and presents suggestions to increase the explanatory power and international comparability of VoLL.

  19. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part II. Changes in sampling efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Larry; Flemmer, Michael M; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This second, and concluding, part of this study evaluated changes in sampling efficiency of respirable size-selective samplers due to air pulsations generated by the selected personal sampling pumps characterized in Part I (Lee E, Lee L, Möhlmann C et al. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: Part I. Pulsation measurements. Ann Occup Hyg 2013). Nine particle sizes of monodisperse ammonium fluorescein (from 1 to 9 μm mass median aerodynamic diameter) were generated individually by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator from dilute solutions of fluorescein in aqueous ammonia and then injected into an environmental chamber. To collect these particles, 10-mm nylon cyclones, also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO) cyclones, were used with five medium volumetric flow rate pumps. Those were the Apex IS, HFS513, GilAir5, Elite5, and Basic5 pumps, which were found in Part I to generate pulsations of 5% (the lowest), 25%, 30%, 56%, and 70% (the highest), respectively. GK2.69 cyclones were used with the Legacy [pump pulsation (PP) = 15%] and Elite12 (PP = 41%) pumps for collection at high flows. The DO cyclone was also used to evaluate changes in sampling efficiency due to pulse shape. The HFS513 pump, which generates a more complex pulse shape, was compared to a single sine wave fluctuation generated by a piston. The luminescent intensity of the fluorescein extracted from each sample was measured with a luminescence spectrometer. Sampling efficiencies were obtained by dividing the intensity of the fluorescein extracted from the filter placed in a cyclone with the intensity obtained from the filter used with a sharp-edged reference sampler. Then, sampling efficiency curves were generated using a sigmoid function with three parameters and each sampling efficiency curve was compared to that of the reference cyclone by constructing bias maps. In general, no change in sampling efficiency (bias under ±10%) was observed until pulsations exceeded 25% for the

  20. Palladium Loaded on Magnetic Nanoparticles as Efficient and Recyclable Catalyst for the Suzuki- Miyaura Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khojasteh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Palladium is the best metal catalyst for Suzuki cross coupling reaction for synthesize of unsymmetrical biaryl compounds. But its high cost limits its application in wide scale. Using of nanoscale particles as active catalytic cites is a good approach for reducing needed noble metal. By loading precious nanoparticles on magnetic nanocores as a support, recycling and reusing of catalyst will be possible. Magnetic nanoparticles have super paramagnetic feature and applying an external magnetic field can collect the supported catalyst from reaction milieu simply. In this work new palladium catalyst immobilized on modified magnetic nanoparticles containing NNO donor atoms were synthesized. Then the catalyst characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction and ICP. Prepared catalyst showed high activity in the Suzuki– Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of phenylboronic acid with aryl halides. Activity, Pd loading, reusability and Pd leaching of catalyst were studied. Results showed that the supported catalyst has the advantage to be completely recoverable with the simple application of an external magnetic field.

  1. Еvaluation of biocompatibility and antioxidant efficiency of chitosan-alginate nanoparticles loaded with quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluani, Denitsa; Tzankova, Virginia; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Yordanov, Yordan; Nikolova, Elena; Odzhakov, Feodor; Apostolov, Alexandar; Markova, Tzvetanka; Yoncheva, Krassimira

    2017-10-01

    The present study deals with development and evaluation of the safety profile of chitosan/alginate nanoparticles as a platform for delivery of a natural antioxidant quercetin. The nanoparticles were prepared by varying the ratios between both biopolymers giving different size and charge of the formulations. The biocompatibility was explored in vitro in cells from different origin: cultivated HepG2 cells, isolated primary rat hepatocytes, isolated murine spleen lymphocytes and macrophages. In vivo toxicological evaluation was performed after repeated 14-day oral administration to rats. The study revealed that chitosan/alginate nanoparticles did not change body weight, the relative weight of rat livers, liver histology, hematology and biochemical parameters. The protective effects of quercetin-loaded nanoparticles were investigated in the models of iron/ascorbic acid (Fe 2+ /AA) induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes and tert-butyl hydroperoxide oxidative stress in isolated rat hepatocytes. Interesting finding was that the empty chitosan/alginate nanoparticles possessed protective activity themselves. The antioxidant effects of quercetin loaded into the nanoparticles formulated with higher concentration of chitosan were superior compared to quercetin encapsulated in nanoparticles with higher amount of sodium alginate. In conclusion, chitosan/alginate nanoparticles can be considered appropriate carrier for quercetin, combining safety profile and improved protective activity of the encapsulated antioxidant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Crack closure and growth behavior of short fatigue cracks under random loading (part I : details of crack closure behavior)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Shin Young; Song, Ji Ho

    2000-01-01

    Crack closure and growth behavior of physically short fatigue cracks under random loading are investigated by performing narrow-and wide-band random loading tests for various stress ratios. Artificially prepared two-dimensional, short through-thickness cracks are used. The closure behavior of short cracks under random loading is discussed, comparing with that of short cracks under constant-amplitude loading and also that of long cracks under random loading. Irrespective of random loading spectrum or block length, the crack opening load of short cracks is much lower under random loading than under constant-amplitude loading corresponding to the largest load cycle in a random load history, contrary to the behavior of long cracks that the crack opening load under random loading is nearly the same as or slightly higher than constant-amplitude results. This result indicates that the largest load cycle in a random load history has an effect to enhance crack opening of short cracks

  3. Tunable, Flexible and Efficient Optimization of Control Pulses for Superconducting Qubits, part II - Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsséMat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    In part I, we presented the theoretic foundations of the GOAT algorithm for the optimal control of quantum systems. Here in part II, we focus on several applications of GOAT to superconducting qubits architecture. First, we consider a control-Z gate on Xmons qubits with an Erf parametrization of the optimal pulse. We show that a fast and accurate gate can be obtained with only 16 parameters, as compared to hundreds of parameters required in other algorithms. We present numerical evidences that such parametrization should allow an efficient in-situ calibration of the pulse. Next, we consider the flux-tunable coupler by IBM. We show optimization can be carried out in a more realistic model of the system than was employed in the original study, which is expected to further simplify the calibration process. Moreover, GOAT reduced the complexity of the optimal pulse to only 6 Fourier components, composed with analytic wrappers.

  4. Physics Based Model for Cryogenic Chilldown and Loading. Part IV: Code Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinsky, D. G.; Smelyanskiy, V. N.; Brown, B.

    2014-01-01

    This is the fourth report in a series of technical reports that describe separated two-phase flow model application to the cryogenic loading operation. In this report we present the structure of the code. The code consists of five major modules: (1) geometry module; (2) solver; (3) material properties; (4) correlations; and finally (5) stability control module. The two key modules - solver and correlations - are further divided into a number of submodules. Most of the physics and knowledge databases related to the properties of cryogenic two-phase flow are included into the cryogenic correlations module. The functional form of those correlations is not well established and is a subject of extensive research. Multiple parametric forms for various correlations are currently available. Some of them are included into correlations module as will be described in details in a separate technical report. Here we describe the overall structure of the code and focus on the details of the solver and stability control modules.

  5. Indocyanine green loaded graphene oxide for high-efficient photoacoustic tumor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoyun Yan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic therapy, using the photoacoustic effect of agents for selectively killing tumor cells, has shown promising for treating tumor. Utilization of high optical absorption probes can help to effectively improve the photoacoustic therapy efficiency. Herein, we report a novel high-absorption photoacoustic probe that is composed of indocyanine green (ICG and graphene oxide (GO, entitled GO-ICG, for photoacoustic therapy. The attached ICG with narrow absorption spectral profile has strong optical absorption in the infrared region. The absorption spectrum of the GO-ICG solution reveals that the GO-ICG particles exhibited a 10-fold higher absorbance at 780nm (its peak absorbance as compared with GO. Importantly, ICG’s fluorescence is quenched by GO via fluorescence resonance energy transfer. As a result, GO-ICG can high-efficiently convert the absorbed light energy to acoustic wave under pulsed laser irradiation. We further demonstrate that GO-ICG can produce stronger photoacoustic wave than the GO and ICG alone. Moreover, we conjugate this contrast agent with integrin αvβ3 mono-clonal antibody to molecularly target the U87-MG human glioblastoma cells for selective tumor cell killing. Finally, our results testify that the photoacoustic therapy efficiency of GO-ICG is higher than the existing photoacoustic therapy agent. Our work demonstrates that GO-ICG is a high-efficiency photoacoustic therapy agent. This novel photoacoustic probe is likely to be an available candidate for tumor therapy.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF THE CRITERION FOR ESTIMATING THE TECHNOLOGY EFFICIENCY OF PACKING-CASE-PIECE LOADS DELIVERY

    OpenAIRE

    O. Severyn; O. Shulika

    2017-01-01

    The results of optimization of gravimetric coefficients for indexes included in the integral criterion of estimation of the efficiency of transport-technological charts of cargo delivery are resulted. The values of gravimetric coefficients are determined on the basis of two methods of experimental researches: questioning of respondents among the specialists of motor transport production and imitation design.

  7. Effect of solar loading on greenhouse containers used in transpiration efficiency screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier we described a simple high throughput method of screening sorghum for transpiration efficiency (TE). Subsequently it was observed that while results were consistent between lines exhibiting high and low TE, ranking between lines with similar TE was variable. We hypothesized that variable mic...

  8. High-Uranium-Loaded U3O8-Al fuel element development program. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    The High-Uranium-Loaded U 3 O 8 -Al Fuel Element Development Program supports Argonne National Laboratory efforts to develop high-uranium-density research and test reactor fuel to accommodate use of low-uranium enrichment. The goal is to fuel most research and test reactors with uranium of less than 20% enrichment for the purpose of lowering the potential for diversion of highly-enriched material for nonpeaceful usages. The specific objective of the program is to develop the technological and engineering data base for U 3 O 8 -Al plate-type fuel elements of maximal uranium content to the point of vendor qualification for full scale fabrication on a production basis. A program and management plan that details the organization, supporting objectives, schedule, and budget is in place and preparation for fuel and irradiation studies is under way. The current programming envisions a program of about four years duration for an estimated cost of about two million dollars. During the decades of the fifties and sixties, developments at Oak Ridge National Laboratory led to the use of U 3 O 8 -Al plate-type fuel elements in the High Flux Isotope Reactor, Oak Ridge Research Reactor, Puerto Rico Nuclear Center Reactor, and the High Flux Beam Reactor. Most of the developmental information however applies only up to a uranium concentration of about 55 wt % (about 35 vol % U 3 O 8 ). The technical issues that must be addressed to further increase the uranium loading beyond 55 wt % U involve plate fabrication phenomena of voids and dogboning, fuel behavior under long irradiation, and potential for the thermite reaction between U 3 O 8 and aluminum

  9. Development of a Dynamic Biomechanical Model for Load Carriage: Phase III Part B: Characterization of Load Control During a Human Trials Circuit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevenson, J. M; Good, J. A; Devenney, I. A; Morin, E. L; Reid, S. A; Bryant, J. T

    2005-01-01

    .... The goals of the study were to examine the relationships among aerobic demand, performance time and load as well as the relationships between posture, shoulder and lumbar reaction forces and load...

  10. Ag loaded WO_3 nanoplates for efficient photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide and their bactericidal effect under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenyu; Liu, Jincheng; Yu, Shuyan; Zhou, Yan; Yan, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • WO_3/Ag heterogeneous composites were fabricated with simply photo-reduction method. • Property changes due to Ag loading were systematically studied. • WO_3/Ag composites efficiently degraded sulfanilamide under visible light irradiation. • WO_3/Ag composites exhibited bactericidal effectS under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics and their residues in the water bodies propose potential threat to the public. In this study, degradation efficiency of sulfanilamide (SAM), which is the precursor of SAs, using WO_3 nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts was investigated. WO_3 nanoplates with uniform size were synthesized by a facile one step hydrothermal method. Different amount of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were loaded onto WO_3 nanoplates using a photo-reduction method to generate WO_3/Ag composites. The physio-chemical properties of synthesized nanomaterials were systematically characterized. Photodegradation of SAM by WO_3 and WO_3/Ag composites was conducted under visible light irradiation. The results show that WO_3/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO_3 where the highest removal rate was 96.2% in 5 h. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO_3, and 100% removal efficiency against Escherichia Coli and Bacillus subtilis could be achieved in 2 h under visible light irradiation for all three WO_3/Ag composites synthesized. The improved performance in terms of SAM degradation and antibacterial activity of WO_3/Ag can be attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate where Ag NPs act as effective electron trapper during the photocatalytic process.

  11. The effects of variable renewable electricity on energy efficiency and full load hours of fossil-fired power plants in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mats; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Harmsen, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on the effects of variable renewable electricity (VRE) on full load hours and energy efficiency of fossil-fired power generation in the European Union from 1990-2014. Member states were aggregated into three groups based on the level of VRE penetration. Average full load hours are

  12. Dynamic Contractility and Efficiency Impairments in Stretch-Shortening Cycle Are Stretch-Load-Dependent After Training-Induced Muscle Damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaczi, Mark; Racz, Levente; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    Vaczi, M, Racz, L, Hortobagyi, T, and Tihanyi, J. Dynamic contractility and efficiency impairments in stretch-shortening cycle are stretch-load-dependent after training-induced muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 27(8): 2171-2179, 2013To determine the acute task and stretch-load dependency of

  13. Efficient Finite Element Models for Calculation of the No-load losses of the Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Dawood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Different transformer models are examined for the calculation of the no-load losses using finite element analysis. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element analyses are used for the simulation of the transformer. Results of the finite element method are also compared with the experimental results. The Result shows that 3-dimensional provide high accuracy as compared to the 2 dimensional full and half model. However, the 2-dimensional half model is the less time-consuming method as compared to the 3 and 2-dimensional full model. Simulation time duration taken by the different models of the transformer is also compared. The difference between the 3-dimensional finite element method and experimental results are less than 3%. These numerical methods can help transformer designers to minimize the development of the prototype transformers.

  14. Effect of two heavy metals, cadmium and nickel, on the organic load removal efficiency in a laboratory UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, Luis Eduardo; Sierra, Jorge Humberto

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in three up flow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB, reactors each with 3 L capacity, four hours of hydraulic retention time, (HRT) and volumetric organic load of 4,8 g/L/d. After the initial start phase, which was of 4.000 hours for the three reactors, they were affected in the following way: the first reactor was continuously feed with 5 mg/L of cadmium chloride, the second one was continuously feed with 10 mg/L of nickel chloride and the last one was not affected and served as reference. Efficiency in organic load removal was measured as oxygen chemical demand (OCD), the first reactor changed from 60% in the start phase (phase one) to 18% in the cadmium-affected phase (phase two), efficiency in removal (OCI) in reactor two varied from 60 to 24% and the last one did not change in a noticeable manner. Reactor one accumulated cadmium in the mud, whereas reactor two did not do that with nickel

  15. Manganese Loading and Photosystem II Stability are Key Components of Manganese Efficiency in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency constitutes a major plant nutritional problem in commercial crop production of winter cereals. In plants, Mn has an indispensable role in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Hence, the consequences of Mn deficiency are reduced plant growth......, and eventually substantial yield losses. It is well known, that genotypes within plant species differ considerably in tolerance to growth under Mn limiting conditions, a phenomenon designated as Mn efficiency. However, the physiological responses reflecting the underlying mechanisms of Mn efficiency are still...... not fully understood. In this PhD study, a new method for determination and characterization of metal binding in size-fractionated photosynthetic protein complexes from barley thylakoids was established. The applicability of the method was shown by quantification of Mn binding in PSII from thylakoids of two...

  16. Surface-Adaptive, Antimicrobially Loaded, Micellar Nanocarriers with Enhanced Penetration and Killing Efficiency in Staphylococcal Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yong; Busscher, Henk J; Zhao, Bingran; Li, Yuanfeng; Zhang, Zhenkun; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin; Shi, Linqi

    Biofilms cause persistent bacterial infections and are extremely recalcitrant to antimicrobials, due in part to reduced penetration of antimicrobials into biofilms that allows bacteria residing in the depth of a biofilm to survive antimicrobial treatment. Here, we describe the preparation of

  17. Hierarchical Load Tracking Control of a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for Maximum Electrical Efficiency Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the benchmark solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC dynamic model for power system studies and the analysis of the SOFC operating conditions, the nonlinear programming (NLP optimization method was used to determine the maximum electrical efficiency of the grid-connected SOFC subject to the constraints of fuel utilization factor, stack temperature and output active power. The optimal operating conditions of the grid-connected SOFC were obtained by solving the NLP problem considering the power consumed by the air compressor. With the optimal operating conditions of the SOFC for the maximum efficiency operation obtained at different active power output levels, a hierarchical load tracking control scheme for the grid-connected SOFC was proposed to realize the maximum electrical efficiency operation with the stack temperature bounded. The hierarchical control scheme consists of a fast active power control and a slower stack temperature control. The active power control was developed by using a decentralized control method. The efficiency of the proposed hierarchical control scheme was demonstrated by case studies using the benchmark SOFC dynamic model.

  18. Potential of variable intake manifolds to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in part load; Potenziale von Schaltsaugrohren zur CO{sub 2}-Reduktion in der Teillast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehl, Heinz; Pietrowski, Herbert [Mann + Hummel GmbH, Ludwigsburg (Germany). Intake Manifolds; Kratzsch, Matthias [IAV GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Ottomotorenentwicklung; Guenther, Michael [IAV GmbH, Chemnitz (Germany). Abt. Verbrennung/Thermodynamik Ottomotoren

    2013-11-01

    Since the introduction of turbochargers the use of variable intake manifolds to increase performance has declined. In addition to influencing the full load characteristics, variable intake manifolds, however, offer advantages in part load. In a joint project, Mann + Hummel and IAV have examined the fuel saving potential of variable intake manifolds with two current gasoline engine concepts in the NEDC. (orig.)

  19. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  20. Accessibility of Enzymatically Delignified Bambusa bambos for Efficient Hydrolysis at Minimum Cellulase Loading: An Optimization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuila, Arindam; Mukhopadhyay, Mainak; Tuli, D K; Banerjee, Rintu

    2011-01-01

    In the present investigation, Bambusa bambos was used for optimization of enzymatic pretreatment and saccharification. Maximum enzymatic delignification achieved was 84%, after 8 h of incubation time. Highest reducing sugar yield from enzyme-pretreated Bambusa bambos was 818.01 mg/g dry substrate after 8 h of incubation time at a low cellulase loading (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and xylanase were 1.63 IU/mL, 1.28 IU/mL, 0.08 IU/mL, and 47.93 IU/mL, respectively). Enzyme-treated substrate of Bambusa bambos was characterized by analytical techniques such as Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FTIR spectrum showed that the absorption peaks of several functional groups were decreased after enzymatic pretreatment. XRD analysis indicated that cellulose crystallinity of enzyme-treated samples was increased due to the removal of amorphous lignin and hemicelluloses. SEM image showed that surface structure of Bambusa bambos was distorted after enzymatic pretreatment.

  1. Mesoporous silica nanorods toward efficient loading and intracellular delivery of siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijue; She, Xiaodong; Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2018-02-01

    The technology of RNA interference (RNAi) that uses small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence the gene expression with complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence has great potential for the treatment of cancer in which certain genes were usually found overexpressed. However, the carry and delivery of siRNA to the target site in the human body can be challenging for this technology to be used clinically to silence the cancer-related gene expression. In this work, rod shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were developed as siRNA delivery system for specific intracellular delivery. The rod MSNs with an aspect ratio of 1.5 had a high surface area of 934.28 m2/g and achieved a siRNA loading of more than 80 mg/g. With the epidermal growth factor (EGF) grafted on the surface of the MSNs, siRNA can be delivered to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpressed colorectal cancer cells with high intracellular concentration compared to MSNs without EGF and lead to survivin gene knocking down to less than 30%.

  2. Accessibility of Enzymatically Delignified Bambusa bambos for Efficient Hydrolysis at Minimum Cellulase Loading: An Optimization Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Kuila

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, Bambusa bambos was used for optimization of enzymatic pretreatment and saccharification. Maximum enzymatic delignification achieved was 84%, after 8 h of incubation time. Highest reducing sugar yield from enzyme-pretreated Bambusa bambos was 818.01 mg/g dry substrate after 8 h of incubation time at a low cellulase loading (endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and xylanase were 1.63 IU/mL, 1.28 IU/mL, 0.08 IU/mL, and 47.93 IU/mL, respectively. Enzyme-treated substrate of Bambusa bambos was characterized by analytical techniques such as Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The FTIR spectrum showed that the absorption peaks of several functional groups were decreased after enzymatic pretreatment. XRD analysis indicated that cellulose crystallinity of enzyme-treated samples was increased due to the removal of amorphous lignin and hemicelluloses. SEM image showed that surface structure of Bambusa bambos was distorted after enzymatic pretreatment.

  3. Design rules for piping: Plastic stability of straight parts under level D loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F.; Ben Djidia, M.; Acker, D.

    1989-01-01

    Design rules for piping, elaborated for Fast Breeder Reactors, are based on analysis performed for Pressure Water Reactors. Interpretation of largely diversified straight parts tests, enable us to validate and improve existing rules and to propose a more suitable formula. Design rules for piping appear to be non conservative for austenitic thin tubes in bending or torsion. By introducing a B 2 coefficient, geometrically dependent, the gap between thin and thick tubes may be withheld. Conservatism of rules can be ensured by considering the allowable stress defined by ASME, Section III, Appendix F

  4. High loading efficiency and sustained release of siRNA encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles: quality by design optimization and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Dongmei; Jensen, Ditte Krohn; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bunker, Matthew; Whiteside, Paul; Scurr, David; Foged, Camilla; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2011-01-01

    Poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) is an attractive polymer for delivery of biopharmaceuticals owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and outstanding controlled release characteristics. The purpose of this study was to understand and define optimal parameters for preparation of small interfering RNA (siRNA)-loaded PLGA nanoparticles by the double emulsion solvent evaporation method and characterize their properties. The experiments were performed according to a 2(5-1) fractional factorial design based on five independent variables: The volume ratio between the inner water phase and the oil phase, the PLGA concentration, the sonication time, the siRNA load and the amount of acetylated bovine serum albumin (Ac-BSA) in the inner water phase added to stabilize the primary emulsion. The effects on the siRNA encapsulation efficiency and the particle size were investigated. The most important factors for obtaining an encapsulation efficiency as high as 70% were the PLGA concentration and the volume ratio whereas the size was mainly affected by the PLGA concentration. The viscosity of the oil phase was increased at high PLGA concentration, which explains the improved encapsulation by stabilization of the primary emulsion and reduction of siRNA leakage to the outer water phase. Addition of Ac-BSA increased the encapsulation efficiency at low PLGA concentrations. The PLGA matrix protected siRNA against nuclease degradation, provided a burst release of surface-localized siRNA followed by a triphasic sustained release for two months. These results enable careful understanding and definition of optimal process parameters for preparation of PLGA nanoparticles encapsulating high amounts of siRNA with immediate and long-term sustained release properties. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanoparticle-neural stem cells for targeted ovarian cancer treatment: optimization of silica nanoparticles for efficient drug loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Z.; Berlin, J.; Abidi, W.

    2018-02-01

    One of the drugs used to treat ovarian cancer is cisplatin. However, cisplatin kills normal surrounding tissue in addition to cancer cells. To improve tumor targeting efficiency, our lab uses neural stem cells (NSCs), which migrate directly to ovarian tumors. If free cisplatin is loaded into NSCs for targeted drug delivery, it will kill the NSCs. To prevent the drug cisplatin from killing both the NSCs and normal surrounding tissue, our lab synthesizes silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) that act as a protective carrier. The big picture here is to maximize efficiency of tumor targeting using NSCs and minimize toxicity to these NSCs using SiNPs. The goal of this project is to optimize the stability of SiNPs, which is important for efficient drug loading. To do this, the concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), one of the main components of SiNPs, was varied. We hypothesized that more TEOS equates to more stable SiNPs because TEOS contributes carbon to SiNPs, and thus a tightly-packed chemical structure results in a stable particle. Then, the stability of the SiNPs were checked in cell media and phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Lastly, the SiNPs were analyzed for their porosity using the transmission electron microscope (TEM). TEM imaging showed white spots in the 200-800 μL TEOS batches and no white spots in the 1000-1800 μL TEOS batches. The white spots were pores, which indicate instability. We concluded that the ultimate factor that determines the stability of SiNPs (100 nm) is the concentration of organic substance.

  6. High-Uranium-Loaded U3O8-Al fuel element development program. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.

    1993-01-01

    Texas Instruments is a product intensive company that manufactures very high volumes of different products, and because of this, their technique in manufacturing is what we call hard tooling. So all of the tools we use at this site whether it is for HFIR, ORR or HFBR are hard tooling. A fuel plate never sees a lathe, milling machine, or any other tool of that nature. I have just a few viewgraphs here that will illustrate some of the types of tooling we use to keep away from machining and get high production at as low as possible cost. Figure I shows weighing aluminum powder. It's done in a glove box more to keep air flow away from the balance than any other reason. The weighing of the U 3 O 8 is similar and the glove box is for personnel protection. Figure 2 shows our blender, and I won't try to explain why it works. This is the only one we have ever found that really blends our powder and does a good job. Figure 3 shows our powder die on the press, and you can see the rectangular compact being extracted. Here is the way we make our frames in a blanking die Figure 4. You will notice there are two holes in the frame. We start off with two cores in a frame. Our lot size is 24, but twelve billets go into the furnace for preheating, at the seventh pass, we cut the two cores apart and at that point they become individual fuel plates. Figure 5 shows the loading of the compacts into the frame. We use a loose fit. We can just drop the cores into the frame with, I think, about 2 mils side clearance and it works very satisfactorily. Figure 6 shows a forming die. Once you make the investment for the fuel plate blanking die shown in Figure 7, you can blank out a fuel plate on the order of about one per minute, to size and to the tolerances required. Figure 8 shows a unique tool developed at Oak Ridge. It's a Homogeneity Scanner. It works on the principal of x-ray attenuation going through an electronic analysis

  7. Load Balancing Metric with Diversity for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moad, Sofiane; Hansen, Morten Tranberg; Jurdak, Raja

    2011-01-01

    The expected number of transmission (ETX) represents a routing metric that considers the highly variable link qualities for a specific radio in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). To adapt to these differences, radio diversity is a recently explored solution for WSNs. In this paper, we propose...... an energy balancing metric which explores the diversity in link qualities present at different radios. The goal is to effectively use the energy of the network and therefore extend the network lifetime. The proposed metric takes into account the transmission and reception costs for a specific radio in order...... to choose an energy efficient radio. In addition, the metric uses the remaining energy of nodes in order to regulate the traffic so that critical nodes are avoided. We show by simulations that our metric can improve the network lifetime up to 20%....

  8. Extremely efficient crystallization of HKUST-1 and Keggin-loaded related phases through the epoxide route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreicher, Víctor; Jobbágy, Matías

    2017-03-25

    Highly crystalline HKUST-1 and COK-16-like phases were obtained based on a mild in situ alkalinization one-pot epoxide driven method. A slurry composed of finely ground trimesic acid, H 3 BTC, dispersed in a CuCl 2 aqueous solution quantitatively developed well crystallized HKUST-1 after the addition of propylene oxide. The use of solid H 3 BTC ensures a low concentration of free linker, favoring crystalline growth over the precipitation of amorphous or metastable impurities. An extreme space-time yield of 2.1 × 10 5 kg m -3 day -1 was reached, with no linker excess and minimum use of solvent. The method was equally efficient in the achievement of pure NENU/COK-16 phases, containing [PW 12 O 40 ] 3- , [PMo 12 O 40 ] 3- and [SiMo 12 O 40 ] 4- polyoxometalates.

  9. EFFICIENCY OF LINEAR PULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTERS DESIGNED TO CREATE IMPACT LOADS AND HIGH SPEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Bolyukh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considered linear impulse electromechanical converters (LIEC are used to create a significant impact and high-acceleration actuators on a short active site. The most effective types of LIEC are induction-dynamic (IDC, electro-dynamic (EDC and electro-magnetic (EMC converters. In all these types of short-term excitement LIEC carried briefly of the inductor from a pulsed source. This occurs when the magnetic field of the inductor causes the electro-dynamic or electromagnetic forces, leading to a linear movement of the armature. However, the issue at evaluating the effects of IDC, EDC and EMC, for creating a shock simultaneously with high speed to the specified criteria in the presence of ferromagnetic core virtually unexplored. The paper presents the simulated computer-WIDE 2D model of LIEC of coaxial configuration with ferromagnetic core by using software package COMSOL Multiphysics 4.4, taking into account the related electro-magnetic, thermal, and magnetic fields. In addition a synthesis of high-performance IDC, EDC and EMC to ensure maximum impact and speed of the operating element, whereby the comparative analysis of the effectiveness of the IDC, EDC and EMC via an integral index, taking into account the maximum value and momentum of electro-dynamic or electromagnetic force acting on the armature, maximum and average speed armature, efficiency, mass and dimensions performance transducer stray field, the maximum current density in the inductor is carried out. On the basis of the eight selection policies set the most efficient types of power and speed LIEC. It is shown that any one of the strategies IDC selection is not the best. To ensure maximum impact force is the most effective EMC and to ensure the greatest speed – EDC.

  10. Power Swing Generated in Francis Turbines by Part Load and Overload Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Valentín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower plays a key role in the actual energy market due to its fast response and regulation capacity. In that way, hydraulic turbines are increasingly demanded to work at off-design conditions, where complex flow patterns and cavitation appear, especially in Francis turbines. The draft tube cavitation surge is a hydraulic phenomenon that appears in Francis turbines below and above its Best Efficiency Point (BEP. It is a low frequency phenomenon consisting of a vortex rope in the runner outlet and draft tube, which can become unstable when its frequency coincides with a natural frequency of the hydraulic circuit. At this situation, the output power can significantly swing, endangering the electrical grid stability. This study is focused on the detection of these instabilities in Francis turbines and their relationship with the output power swings. To do so, extensive experimental tests for different operating conditions have been carried out in a large prototype Francis turbine (444 MW of rated power within the frame of the European Project Hyperbole (FP7-ENERGY-2013-1. Several sensors have been installed in the hydraulic circuit (pressure sensors in the draft tube, spiral casing, and penstock, in the rotating and static structures (vibration sensors, proximity probes, and strain gauges in the runner and in the shaft, as well as in the electrical side (output power, intensity, and voltage. Moreover, a numerical Finite Element Method (FEM has been also used to relate the hydraulic excitation with the output power swing.

  11. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  12. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficient cycle jumping techniques for the modelling of materials and structures under cyclic mechanical and thermal loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, F.P.E.; Hayhurst, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    Highly efficient cycle jumping algorithms have been developed for the calculation of stress and damage histories for both cyclic mechanical and cycle thermal loading. The techniques have been shown to be suitable for cyclic plasticity; creep-cyclic plasticity interaction; and creep dominated material behaviour. The cycle jumping algorithms have been validated by comparison of the predictions made using both the cycle jumping technique, and the full calculation involving the integration of the equations around all cycles. Excellent agreement has been achieved, and significant reductions in computer processing time of up to 90% have been obtained by using the cycle jumping technique. A further cycle jumping technique has been developed for full component analysis, using a viscoplastic damage finite element solver, which enables stress redistribution to be modelled. The behaviour and lifetime of a slag tap component has been predicted when subjected to cyclic thermal loading. Cyclic plasticity damage and micro-crack initiation is predicted to occur at the water cooling duct after 2.974 cycles, with damage and micro-crack evolution arresting after 60.000. (author). 18 refs., 13 figs., 4 photos

  14. Transfer of lumbosacral load to iliac bones and legs Part 2: Loading of the sacroiliac joints when lifting in a stooped posture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Snijders (Chris); A. Vleeming (Andry); R. Stoeckart (Rob)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractWe developed a biomechanical model of load transfer by the sacroiliac joints in relation to posture. A description is given of two ways in which the transfer of lumbar load to the pelvis in a stooped posture can take place. One way concerns ligament and muscle forces that act on the

  15. Efficient Parallel Sorting for Migrating Birds Optimization When Solving Machine-Part Cell Formation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Soto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Machine-Part Cell Formation Problem (MPCFP is a NP-Hard optimization problem that consists in grouping machines and parts in a set of cells, so that each cell can operate independently and the intercell movements are minimized. This problem has largely been tackled in the literature by using different techniques ranging from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern nature-inspired metaheuristics. In this paper, we present an efficient parallel version of the Migrating Birds Optimization metaheuristic for solving the MPCFP. Migrating Birds Optimization is a population metaheuristic based on the V-Flight formation of the migrating birds, which is proven to be an effective formation in energy saving. This approach is enhanced by the smart incorporation of parallel procedures that notably improve performance of the several sorting processes performed by the metaheuristic. We perform computational experiments on 1080 benchmarks resulting from the combination of 90 well-known MPCFP instances with 12 sorting configurations with and without threads. We illustrate promising results where the proposal is able to reach the global optimum in all instances, while the solving time with respect to a nonparallel approach is notably reduced.

  16. PEG-lipid-PLGA hybrid nanoparticles loaded with berberine-phospholipid complex to facilitate the oral delivery efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Ao, Mingtao; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Nini; Xia, Junjie; Li, Yang; Li, Donghui; Hou, Zhenqing; Qi, Zhongquan; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2017-11-01

    The natural product berberine (BBR), present in various plants, arouses great interests because of its numerous pharmacological effects. However, the further development and application of BBR had been hampered by its poor oral bioavailability. In this work, we report on polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PEG-lipid-PLGA NPs) loaded with BBR phospholipid complex using a solvent evaporation method for enhancing the oral BBR efficiency. The advantage of this new drug delivery system is that the BBR-soybean phosphatidylcholine complex (BBR-SPC) could be used to enhance the liposolubility of BBR and improve the affinity with the biodegradable polymer to increase the drug-loading capacity and controlled/sustained release. The entrapment efficiency of the PEG-lipid-PLGA NPs/BBR-SPC was observed to approach approximately 89% which is more than 2.4 times compared with that of the PEG-lipid-PLGA NPs/BBR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on using polymer material for effective encapsulation of BBR to improve its oral bioavailability. The prepared BBR delivery systems demonstrated a uniform spherical shape, a well-dispersed core-shell structure and a small particle size (149.6 ± 5.1 nm). The crystallographic and thermal analysis has indicated that the BBR dispersed in the PEG-lipid-PLGA NPs matrix is in an amorphous form. More importantly, the enhancement in the oral relative bioavailability of the PEG-lipid-PLGA NPs/BBR-SPC was ∼343% compared with that of BBR. These positive results demonstrated that PEG-lipid-PLGA NPs/BBR-SPC may have the potential for facilitating the oral drug delivery of BBR.

  17. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part III. Determining which practices are most effective and installing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. A teacher guide and student workbook are available to supplement the basic manual. Subjects covered in Part III are: determining which practices are most efficient and economical; installing energy-saving materials; and improving efficiency of equipment.

  18. Experimental evidence of inter-blade cavitation vortex development in Francis turbines at deep part load condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Avellan, F.

    2017-10-01

    Francis turbines are subject to various types of cavitation flow depending on the operating condition. To enable a smooth integration of the renewable energy sources, hydraulic machines are now increasingly required to extend their operating range, especially down to extremely low discharge conditions called deep part load operation. The inter-blade cavitation vortex is a typical cavitation phenomenon observed at deep part load operation. However, its dynamic characteristics are insufficiently understood today. In an objective of revealing its characteristics, the present study introduces a novel visualization technique with instrumented guide vanes embedding the visualization devices, providing unprecedented views on the inter-blade cavitation vortex. The binary image processing technique enables the successful evaluation of the inter-blade cavitation vortex in the images. As a result, it is shown that the probability of the inter-blade cavitation development is significantly high close to the runner hub. Furthermore, the mean vortex line is calculated and the vortex region is estimated in the three-dimensional domain for the comparison with numerical simulation results. In addition, the on-board pressure measurements on a runner blade is conducted, and the influence of the inter-blade vortex on the pressure field is investigated. The analysis suggests that the presence of the inter-blade vortex can magnify the amplitude of pressure fluctuations especially on the blade suction side. Furthermore, the wall pressure difference between pressure and suction sides of the blade features partially low or negative values near the hub at the discharge region where the inter-blade vortex develops. This negative pressure difference on the blade wall suggests the development of a backflow region caused by the flow separation near the hub, which is closely related to the development of the inter-blade vortex. The development of the backflow region is confirmed by the numerical

  19. Numerical analysis of a downsized spark-ignition engine fueled by butanol/gasoline blends at part-load operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scala, F.; Galloni, E.; Fontana, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-fuels will reduce the overall CO_2 emission. • The properties of butanol/gasoline–air mixtures have been determined. • A 1-D model of a SI engine has been calibrated and validated. • The butanol content reduces the combustion duration. • The optimal ignition timing slightly changes. - Abstract: In this paper, the performance of a turbocharged SI engine, firing with butanol/gasoline blends, has been investigated by means of numerical simulations of the engine behavior. When engine fueling is switched from gasoline to alcohol/gasoline mixture, engine control parameters must be adapted. The main necessary modifications in the Electronic Control Unit have been highlighted in the paper. Numerical analyses have been carried out at partial load operation and at two different engine speeds (3000 and 4000 rpm). Several n-butanol/gasoline mixtures, differing for the alcohol contents, have been analyzed. Such engine performances as torque and indicated efficiency have been evaluated. Both these characteristics decrease with the alcohol contents within the mixtures. On the contrary, when the engine is fueled by neat n-butanol, torque and efficiency reach values about 2% higher than those obtained with neat gasoline. Furthermore, the optimal spark timing, for alcohol/gasoline mixture operation, must be retarded (up to 13%) in comparison with the correspondent values of the gasoline operation. In general, engine performance and operation undergo little variations when fuel supplying is switched from gasoline to alcohol/gasoline blends.

  20. Development of a Dynamic Biomechanical Model for Load Carriage: Phase 4, Parts A and B: Development of a Dynamic Biomechanical Model Version 2 of Human Load Carriage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reid, S. A; Bryant, J. T; Stevenson, J. M; Abdoli, M

    2005-01-01

    ... on human health and mobility. This research is directed at creating a method of determining several of the biomechanical factors to be used as inputs to the Load Conditions Limit model as described in DRDC report...

  1. Republic of Macedonia. Regular Review 2006. Part 1. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies, instruments and actors. Part 2. Indicators on Energy, Energy Efficiency, Economy and Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia has been an independent country since 1991. It is also a country with its economy in transition. Against this background, efforts dedicated towards implementing the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty (ECT) and of the Protocol on Energy Efficiency and Related Environmental Aspects (PEEREA) have to be noted. The country ratified the ECT and PEEREA in September 1998. The country is not rich in natural resources, with the exception of lignite and hydro. Fuel diversification and reducing dependence on imported resources are strong reasons for promoting energy savings. Increasing the penetration of natural gas and improving the interconnection with neighbouring countries are high priorities. The average total primary consumption of energy in the Republic of Macedonia is around 2.6 Mtoe annually. Within the primary energy supply, the share of crude oil is 30%, of coal 51%, of natural gas 3%, and the remaining around 15% are hydro energy, fire-wood and geothermal energy. The total consumption of energy is provided by around 60% of domestic production and 40% from import. The basic energy infrastructure in the Republic of Macedonia includes the following: electricity power system with 1524 MW installed capacity, lignite coal mines, gas pipeline system with annual capacity of 800 million m 3 , an oil refinery, an oil pipeline, five district heating systems with total capacity of 600 MW and small geothermal systems. The Ministry of Economy is the responsible government body for the energy issues. The regulation of the energy market is performed by the independent regulatory body, the Energy Regulatory Commission of the Republic of Macedonia. In 1999 the Government adopted a Programme on Efficient Energy Use in the Republic of Macedonia until 2020. The preparation of this programme was also a legal obligation stemming from the Energy Law adopted in 1997. This Programme includes measures for increasing the energy efficiency, among which

  2. Investigation of the compressor part-load behaviour and its effects on the per annum energy consumption of the air conditioner; Untersuchung des Kompressor-Teillastverhaltens im Hinblick auf den Jahresverbrauch der Klimaanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Klaus; Lechner, Bernhard [Virtual Vehicle. Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria); Rieberer, Rene [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria); Moenkediek, Thomas [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The air conditioning system is one of the most important ancillary units of a motor vehicle. Energetic optimization of air conditioners has been a key issue of research at AUDI AG during the past few years. As a rule, the cooling capacity of the air conditioner is controlled by adapting the compressor lift if the compressor is driven by the car engine and control via the rotational speed is not possible. As air conditioners ted to be designed for extreme conditions, the compressor will work at part load in most operating conditions. Optimization of the energetic efficiency of the air conditioner also means to look at the part-load behaviour of the compressor. Simulations have been used successfully by AUDI AG for many years now; the have helped to shorten development times and improve the product quality. The contribution describes an advanced model of a swivel plate compressor of a R134a cooling cycle with particular consideration of part-lift operation. The simulation model is based on measurements with continous recording of the piston lift. The focus is on the influence of reduced lift on the compressor efficiency. Another point of interest is the successful integration of the compressor model in the overall refrigerating cycle model which will be used for simulations of system performance and efficiency and for further optimization of the air conditioner. (orig.)

  3. A complex study on the reliability assessment of the containment of a PWR. Part III.- Structural reliability assessment under internal and external loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.; Schueller, G.I.

    1977-01-01

    The first part of the analysis is concerned with the determination of the failure probability of the steel hull under internal load conditions. Two independent failure criteria are the basis for this calculation; the first one being the ultimate yield which is actually an instability condition and the second one being the fracture condition as described in Part II of the paper. Both the global and the local failure probabilities are investigated. The second part of the analysis is concerned with the external load case of earthquake. As it has already been described in Part I the probability of occurrence of a LOCA, given an earthquake has been considered in connection with the probable damage which the steel hull might experience during the earthquake. In other words the survival probability of the hull with deteriorated resistance is calculated, taking into account the frequencies of occurrence of the various events. The third part of the analysis is concerned with the reliability determination of the reinforced concrete dome structure, which is supposed to protect, the steel hull against external load conditions such as airplane crash and external pressure waves (the latter covering the load case of tornado occurrence). The reliability analysis of the reinforced concrete structure under earthquake loading is performed by utilizing the time-history method. Some aspects of the drawbacks of the response spectra method -when used in a risk analysis- are pointed out. The probability distribution of the concrete strength as determined under intermediate strain rate as described in Part II is utilized in the analysis. Finally the remaining two external load cases are discussed in light of their use in a reliability analysis and with respect to their frequency of occurrence and the probability distribution of their load intensities. The reliability demonstration is performed using the containment structure of the PWR-plant 'Biblis B' which is locate

  4. The impact of preparation parameters on typical attributes of chitosan-heparin nanohydrogels: particle size, loading efficiency, and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2013-11-01

    Today, developing an optimized nanoparticle (NP) preparation procedure is of paramount importance in all nanoparticulate drug delivery researches, leading to expanding more operative and clinically validated nanomedicines. In this study, a one-at-a-time experimental approach was used for evaluating the effect of various preparation factors on size, loading, and drug release of hydrogel NPs prepared with ionotropic gelation between heparin and chitosan. The size, loading efficiency (LE) and drug release profile of the NPs were evaluated when the chitosan molecular weight, chitosan concentration, heparin addition time to chitosan solution, heparin concentration, pH value of chitosan solution, temperature, and mixing rate were changed separately while other factors were in optimum condition. The results displayed that size and LE are highly influenced by chitosan concentration, getting an optimum of 63 ± 0.57 and 75.19 ± 2.65, respectively, when chitosan concentration was 0.75 mg/ml. Besides, heparin addition time of 3 min leaded to 74.1 ± 0.79 % LE with no sensible effect on size and release profile. In addition, pH 5.5 showed a minimum size of 63 ± 1.87, maximum LE of 73.81 ± 3.13 and the slowest drug release with 63.71 ± 3.84 % during one week. Although LE was not affected by temperature, size and release reduced to 63 ± 0 and 74.21 ± 1.99% when temperature increased from 25°C to 55°C. Also, continuous increase of mixer rate from 500 to 3500 rpm resulted in constant enhancement of LE from 58.3 ± 3.6 to 74.4 ± 2.59 as well as remarkable decrease in size from 148 ± 4.88 to 63 ± 2.64.

  5. Part-load performance and emissions of a spark ignition engine fueled with RON95 and RON97 gasoline: Technical viewpoint on Malaysia’s fuel price debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, Taib Iskandar; How, Heoy Geok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent Malaysia’s gasoline price hike affects mass perception and vehicle sales. • Effects of RON95 and RON97 on a representative engine was experimentally studied. • RON95 produced better torque, power, fuel efficiency and lower NO x . • RON97 gasoline resulted in lower BSFC and lower emissions of CO 2 , CO and HC. • Performance-emission-price cross-analysis indicated RON95 as the better option. - Abstract: Due to world crude oil price hike in the recent years, many countries have experienced increase in gasoline price. In Malaysia, where gasoline are sold in two grades; RON95 and RON97, and fuel price are regulated by the government, gasoline price have been gradually increased since 2009. Price rise for RON97 is more significant. By 2014, its per liter price is 38% more than that of RON95. This has resulted in escalated dissatisfaction among the mass. People argued they were denied from using a better fuel (RON97). In order to evaluate the claim, there is a need to investigate engine response to these two gasoline grades. The effect of gasoline RON95 and RON97 on performance and exhaust emissions in spark ignition engine was investigated on a representative engine: 1.6L, 4-cylinder Mitsubishi 4G92 engine with CR 11:1. The engine was run at constant speed between 1500 and 3500 rpm with 500 rpm increment at various part-load conditions. The original engine ECU, a hydraulic dynamometer and control, a combustion analyzer and an exhaust gas analyzer were used to determine engine performance, cylinder pressure and emissions. Results showed that RON95 produced higher engine performance for all part-load conditions within the speed range. RON95 produced on average 4.4% higher brake torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure as compared to RON97. The difference in engine performance was more significant at higher engine speed and loads. Cylinder pressure and ROHR were evaluated and correlated with engine output. With RON95, the engine

  6. How much is too much? (Part 2) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H Paul; Gabbett, Tim J; Gleeson, Michael; Hutchinson, Mark R; Janse Van Rensburg, Christa; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W; Pluim, Babette M; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load—including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel—and health outcomes in sport. This paper summarises the results linking load to risk of illness and overtraining in athletes, and provides athletes, coaches and support staff with practical guidelines for appropriate load management to reduce the risk of illness and overtraining in sport. These include guidelines for prescription of training and competition load, as well as for monitoring of training, competition and psychological load, athlete well-being and illness. In the process, urgent research priorities were identified. PMID:27535991

  7. Development of electrical efficiency measurement techniques for 10 kW-class SOFC system: Part I. Measurement of electrical efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Momma, Akihiko; Kato, Ken; Negishi, Akira; Takano, Kiyonami; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Measurement techniques to estimate electrical efficiency of 10 kW-class SOFC systems fueled by town-gas were developed and demonstrated for a system developed by Kansai Electric Power Company and Mitsubishi Materials Corporation under a NEDO project. Higher heating value of the fuel was evaluated with a transportable gas sampling unit and conventional gas chromatography in AIST laboratory with thermal-conductivity and flame-ionization detectors, leading to mean value 44.69 MJ m -3 on a volumetric base for ideal-gas at the standard state (0 deg. C, 101.325 kPa). Mass-flow-rate of the fuel was estimated as 33.04 slm with a mass-flow meter for CH 4 , which was calibrated to correct CH 4 flow-rate and effect of sensitivity change and to obtain conversion factor from CH 4 to town-gas. Without calibration, systematic effect would occur by 8% in flow-rate measurement in the case for CH 4 . Power output was measured with a precision power analyzer, a virtual three phase starpoint adapter, and tri-axial shunts. Power of fundamental wave (60 Hz) was estimated as 10.14 kW, considering from total active power, total higher harmonic distortion factor, and power consumption at the starpoint adapter. The electrical efficiency was presumed to be 41.2% (HHV), though this mean value will be complete only when uncertainty estimation is accompanied

  8. Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential cracks under combined internal pressure, axial force and bending moment − Part II: Finite element validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuebing; Lei, Yuebao; Gao, Zengliang

    2014-01-01

    Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential internal/external surface and through-wall defects under combined positive/negative axial force, positive/negative global bending moment and internal pressure have been developed in Part I of this paper. In this Part II, elastic-perfectly plastic 3-D finite element (FE) analyses are performed for selected cases, covering a wide range of geometries and load combinations, to validate the developed limit load solutions. The results show that these limit load solutions can predict the FE data very well for the cases with shallow or deep and short cracks and are conservative. For the cases with very long and deep cracks, the predictions are reasonably accurate and more conservative. -- Highlights: • Elastic-perfectly plastic 3D finite element limiting analyses of cylinders. • Thin/thick-walled cylinders with circumferential surface defects. • Combined loading for pressure, end-force and global bending moment. • Totally 1458 cases analysed and tabulated normalised results provided. • Results used to validate the developed limit load solutions in Part I of this paper

  9. A Pilot Study to Increase the Efficiency of HIV Outreach Testing Through the Use of Timely and Geolocated HIV Viral Load Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Schumacher, Christina; Perin, Jamie; Myers, Tanya; Fields, Nathan; Greiner Safi, Amelia; Chaulk, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Background Eliminating HIV transmission in a population necessitates identifying population reservoirs of HIV infection and subgroups most likely to transmit. HIV viral load is the single most important predictor of HIV transmission. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate whether a public health practice pilot project based on community viral load resulted in increases in the proportion of time spent testing in high viral load areas (process measure) and 3 outcome measures—the number and percent of overall HIV diagnoses, new diagnoses, and high viral load positives—in one mid-Atlantic US city with a severe HIV epidemic. Methods The evaluation was conducted during three, 3-month periods for 3 years and included the use of community viral load, global positioning system tracking data, and statistical testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot project. Results The proportion of time spent outreach testing in high viral load areas (69%–84%, P the overall number and percent of HIV positives ((60 (3%) to 127 (6%), P The number and percent of new diagnoses (3 (0.1%) to 6 (0.2%)) and high viral load positives (5 (0.2%) to 9 (0.4%)) increased, but the numbers were too small for statistical testing. Discussion These results suggest that using community viral load to increase the efficiency of HIV outreach testing is feasible and may be effective in identifying more HIV positives. The pilot project provides a model for other public health practice demonstration projects. PMID:29420450

  10. Definition of Static Voltage Characteristics of the Motor Load for the Purpose of Increase in Energy Efficiency of Coal Mines of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepsha, Fedor; Efremenko, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    The task of determining the static load characteristics is one of the most important tasks, the solution of which is necessary for the correct development of measures to increase the energy efficiency of the Kuzbass coal mines. At present, the influence of electric receivers on the level of consumption of active and reactive power is not taken into account, therefore, the proposed measures to increase the energy efficiency are not optimal. The article analyzes the L-shaped and T-shaped circuit for the replacement of an asynchronous motor (AM), according to the results of which it is determined that the T-shaped replacement scheme is the most accurate for determination of static load characteristics. The authors proposed and implemented in the MATLAB Simulink environment an algorithm for determining the static voltage characteristics of the motor load.

  11. [Evaluation of the usefulness of laryngeal vocal efficiency tests during noise load for diagnosing occupational diseases of the larynx in teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loś-Spychalska, T

    1997-01-01

    A growing incidence of the voice organ occupational diseases has recently become one of major health problems. There is a need to objective diagnostic examinations performed in teachers who apply for occupational disease certification. The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of larynx vocal efficiency test during noise load in diagnosis of the voice organ occupational diseases in teachers.

  12. High efficient multifunctional Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} loaded hydroxyapatite nanowires for water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaling; Zhou, Hangyu; Zhu, Genxing [Center for Biomaterials and Biopathways, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Shao, Changyu; Pan, Haihua; Xu, Xurong [Center for Biomaterials and Biopathways, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University (China); Tang, Ruikang, E-mail: rtang@zju.edu.cn [Center for Biomaterials and Biopathways, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The multifunctional Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanowires were synthesized via a facile in-situ precipitation method. • By optimizing the initial concentration of AgNO{sub 3}, the well-distributed Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HAP composites could be achieved. • The Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HAP composites showed excellent photocatalytic performance for the decomposition of dyes under visible light irradiation. • The maximum absorption capacity of the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HAP composites for Pb(II) was 250 mg/g, approximately three times as that of pure HAP. • The Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HAP composites also exhibited excellent antibacterial activities even at relative low concentrations. - Abstract: Organic, inorganic, and biological pollutants are typical water contaminants and they seriously affect water quality. In this study, we suggested that a novel multifunctional Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} loaded hydroxyapatite (HAP) material can remove the typical pollutants from water. The Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HAP composites were synthesized facilely via in-situ precipitation of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the pre-existing HAP nanowires. By optimizing the composition of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and HAP, the material could achieve an optimal photocatalytic activity to decompose rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiations with enhanced pH stability. Besides, the adsorption of Pb(II) on the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/HAP reached a maximum capacity of 250 mg/g and this value was approximately three times as that of pure HAP. Furthermore, the composite material exhibited excellent antibacterial activities towards gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and gram-positive bacterium (Stphylococcus aureus). The results highlighted the cooperative effect between Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and hydroxyapatite (HAP). The simultaneous removals of dyes, toxic metal ions, and bacteria with a high efficiency followed an easy approach for the purification

  13. Performance of various types of containment support under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions, Part I.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuijpers, JS

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available deformations. In this project, the effects of dynamic loading are therefore specifically addressed. In order to monitor the effects of extreme dynamic loading conditions on various tunnel support systems, a real scale physical model has been used... systems and allow the identification of shortcomings and potential improvements. A conceptual, analytical model representing the load deformation behaviour of strings (lacing and mesh) has been developed. This model does allow for a quantification...

  14. On the Efficiency of Connection Charges---Part II: Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Alvarez, Daniel; Garcia-Franco, Juan F.; Tong, Lang

    2017-01-01

    This two-part paper addresses the design of retail electricity tariffs for distribution systems with distributed energy resources (DERs). Part I presents a framework to optimize an ex-ante two-part tariff for a regulated monopolistic retailer who faces stochastic wholesale prices on the one hand and stochastic demand on the other. In Part II, the integration of DERs is addressed by analyzing their endogenous effect on the optimal two-part tariff and the induced welfare gains. Two DER integrat...

  15. How much is too much? (Part 1) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H Paul; Gabbett, Tim; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R; Janse van Rensburg, Christa; Khan, Karim M; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W; Pluim, Babette M; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Athletes participating in elite sports are exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendars. Emerging evidence indicates that poor load management is a major risk factor for injury. The International Olympic Committee convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load (defined broadly to include rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel) and health outcomes in sport. We summarise the results linking load to risk of injury in athletes, and provide athletes, coaches and support staff with practical guidelines to manage load in sport. This consensus statement includes guidelines for (1) prescription of training and competition load, as well as for (2) monitoring of training, competition and psychological load, athlete well-being and injury. In the process, we identified research priorities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. How much is too much? (Part 2) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Martin; Soligard, Torbjørn; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H Paul; Gabbett, Tim J; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R; Janse Van Rensburg, Christa; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W; Pluim, Babette M; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-09-01

    The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load-including rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel-and health outcomes in sport. This paper summarises the results linking load to risk of illness and overtraining in athletes, and provides athletes, coaches and support staff with practical guidelines for appropriate load management to reduce the risk of illness and overtraining in sport. These include guidelines for prescription of training and competition load, as well as for monitoring of training, competition and psychological load, athlete well-being and illness. In the process, urgent research priorities were identified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Save-Odyssee project on EEI - final report - Part 2: energy efficiency in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators (EEI) was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. This report presents the status of the implementation of energy efficiency policies in European Union countries: institutional changes/context, measures and programmes, budget, pricing, subsidies and taxes. (J.S.)

  18. Improved bioavailability of targeted Curcumin delivery efficiently regressed cardiac hypertrophy by modulating apoptotic load within cardiac microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Aramita; Rana, Santanu; Banerjee, Durba; Mitra, Arkadeep; Datta, Ritwik; Naskar, Shaon; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis acts as a prime modulator of cardiac hypertrophy leading to heart failure, a major cause of human mortality worldwide. Recent therapeutic interventions have focussed on translational applications of diverse pharmaceutical regimes among which, Curcumin (from Curcuma longa) is known to have an anti-hypertrophic potential but with limited pharmacological efficacies due to low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. In this study, Curcumin encapsulated by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) nanoparticle conjugated to a myocyte specific homing peptide was successfully delivered in bioactive form to pathological myocardium for effective regression of cardiac hypertrophy in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) model. Targeted nanotization showed higher cardiac bioavailability of Curcumin at a low dose of 5 mg/kg body weight compared to free Curcumin at 35 mg/kg body weight. Moreover, Curcumin/CMC-peptide treatment during hypertrophy significantly improved cardiac function by downregulating expression of hypertrophy marker genes (ANF, β-MHC), apoptotic mediators (Bax, Cytochrome-c) and activity of apoptotic markers (Caspase 3 and PARP); whereas free Curcumin in much higher dose showed minimal improvement during compromised cardiac function. Targeted Curcumin treatment significantly lowered p53 expression and activation in diseased myocardium via inhibited interaction of p53 with p300-HAT. Thus attenuated acetylation of p53 facilitated p53 ubiquitination and reduced the apoptotic load in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes; thereby limiting cardiomyocytes' need to enter the regeneration cycle during hypertrophy. This study elucidates for the first time an efficient targeted delivery regimen for Curcumin and also attributes towards probable mechanistic insight into its therapeutic potential as a cardio-protective agent for regression of cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Cardiomyocyte targeted Curcumin/CMC-peptide increases bioavailability of the drug.

  19. How much is too much? (Part 2) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwellnus, Martin; Soligard, Torbjørn; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Gabbett, Tim J.; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Janse van Rensburg, Christa; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W.; Pluim, Babette M.; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The modern-day athlete participating in elite sports is exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendar. Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate load management is a significant risk factor for acute illness and the overtraining syndrome. The IOC convened an

  20. How much is too much? (Part 1) International Olympic Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soligard, Torbjørn; Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Gabbett, Tim; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Janse van Rensburg, Christa; Khan, Karim M.; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W.; Pluim, Babette M.; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Athletes participating in elite sports are exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendars. Emerging evidence indicates that poor load management is a major risk factor for injury. The International Olympic Committee convened an expert group to review the scientific

  1. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-II: combining the manufacturing process simulation with a subsequent loading scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Tutum, Cem Celal

    2015-01-01

    This paper in particular deals with the integrated modeling of a pultruded NACA0018 blade profile being a part of EU funded DeepWind project. The manufacturing aspects of the pultrusion process are associated with the preliminary subsequent service loading scenario. A 3D thermochemical analysis...

  2. Pultrusion of a vertical axis wind turbine blade part-II: combining the manufacturing process simulation with a subsequent loading scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Hattel, Jesper H.; Tutum, Cem C.; Akkerman, Remko

    2015-01-01

    This paper in particular deals with the integrated modeling of a pultruded NACA0018 blade profile being a part of EU funded DeepWind project. The manufacturing aspects of the pultrusion process are associated with the preliminary subsequent service loading scenario. A 3D thermo-chemical analysis of

  3. Resource Use Efficiency in Part-time Food Crop Production: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of inefficiency factors reveal the significant inefficiency variables to include; level of education, household size ... Economic efficiency is a product of technical and allocative ... the work of Chava and Aliber (1983) and Chava and Cox ...

  4. Large pollen loads of a South African asclepiad do not interfere with the foraging behaviour or efficiency of pollinating honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, G.; Dold, A. P.; Brassine, E. I.; Peter, C. I.

    2012-07-01

    The pollen of asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae, Apocynaceae) and most orchids (Orchidaceae) are packaged as large aggregations known as pollinaria that are removed as entire units by pollinators. In some instances, individual pollinators may accumulate large loads of these pollinaria. We found that the primary pollinator of Cynanchum ellipticum (Apocynaceae—Asclepiadoideae), the honey bee Apis mellifera, accumulate very large agglomerations of pollinaria on their mouthparts when foraging on this species. We tested whether large pollinarium loads negatively affected the foraging behaviour and foraging efficiency of honey bees by slowing foraging speeds or causing honey bees to visit fewer flowers, and found no evidence to suggest that large pollinarium loads altered foraging behaviour. C. ellipticum displayed consistently high levels of pollination success and pollen transfer efficiency (PTE). This may be a consequence of efficiently loading large numbers of pollinaria onto pollinators even when primary points of attachment on pollinators are already occupied and doing so in a manner that does not impact the foraging behaviour of pollinating insects.

  5. A critical overview of non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Part II: separation efficiency and analysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenndler, Ernst

    2014-03-28

    A survey of the literature on non-aqueous capillary zone electrophoresis leaves one with the impression of a prevailing notion that non-aqueous conditions are principally more favorable than conventional aqueous media. Specifically, the application of organic solvents in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is believed to provide the general advantages of superior separation efficiency, higher applicable electric field strength, and shorter analysis time. These advantages, however, are often claimed without providing any experimental evidence, or based on rather uncritical comparisons of limited sets of arbitrarily selected separation results. Therefore, the performance characteristics of non-aqueous vs. aqueous CZE certainly deserve closer scrutiny. The primary intention of Part II of this review is to give a critical survey of the literature on non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) that has emerged over the last five years. Emphasis is mainly placed on those studies that are concerned with the aspects of plate height, plate number, and the crucial mechanisms contributing to zone broadening, both in organic and aqueous conditions. To facilitate a deeper understanding, this treatment covers also the theoretical fundamentals of peak dispersion phenomena arising from wall adsorption; concentration overload (electromigration dispersion); longitudinal diffusion; and thermal gradients. Theoretically achievable plate numbers are discussed, both under limiting (at zero ionic strength) and application-relevant conditions (at finite ionic strength). In addition, the impact of the superimposed electroosmotic flow contributions to overall CZE performance is addressed, both for aqueous and non-aqueous media. It was concluded that for peak dispersion due to wall adsorption and due to concentration overload (electromigration dispersion, leading to peak triangulation) no general conjunction with the solvent can be deduced. This is in contrast to longitudinal diffusion: the

  6. The effectiveness of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and renewable power in support of holistic environmental goals: Part 2 - Design and operation implications for load-balancing resources on the electric grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, Brian; Eichman, Joshua D.; Zhang, Li; Brown, Tim M.; Samuelsen, Scott

    2015-03-01

    A study has been performed that analyzes the effectiveness of utilizing plug-in vehicles to meet holistic environmental goals across the combined electricity and transportation sectors. In this study, plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) penetration levels are varied from 0 to 60% and base renewable penetration levels are varied from 10 to 63%. The first part focused on the effect of installing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on the environmental performance of the combined electricity and transportation sectors. The second part addresses impacts on the design and operation of load-balancing resources on the electric grid associated with fleet capacity factor, peaking and load-following generator capacity, efficiency, ramp rates, start-up events and the levelized cost of electricity. PHEVs using smart charging are found to counteract many of the disruptive impacts of intermittent renewable power on balancing generators for a wide range of renewable penetration levels, only becoming limited at high renewable penetration levels due to lack of flexibility and finite load size. This study highlights synergy between sustainability measures in the electric and transportation sectors and the importance of communicative dispatch of these vehicles.

  7. Energy analysis of batteries in photovoltaic systems. Part II: Energy return factors and overall battery efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydh, Carl Johan; Sanden, Bjoern A.

    2005-01-01

    Energy return factors and overall energy efficiencies are calculated for a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV)-battery system. Eight battery technologies are evaluated: lithium-ion (nickel), sodium-sulphur, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid, vanadium-redox, zinc-bromine and polysulphide-bromide. With a battery energy storage capacity three times higher than the daily energy output, the energy return factor for the PV-battery system ranges from 2.2 to 10 in our reference case. For a PV-battery system with a service life of 30 yr, this corresponds to energy payback times between 2.5 and 13 yr. The energy payback time is 1.8-3.3 yr for the PV array and 0.72-10 yr for the battery, showing the energy related significance of batteries and the large variation between different technologies. In extreme cases, energy return factors below one occur, implying no net energy output. The overall battery efficiency, including not only direct energy losses during operation but also energy requirements for production and transport of the charger, the battery and the inverter, is 0.41-0.80. For some batteries, the overall battery efficiency is significantly lower than the direct efficiency of the charger, the battery and the inverter (0.50-0.85). The ranking order of batteries in terms of energy efficiency, the relative importance of different battery parameters and the optimal system design and operation (e.g. the use of air conditioning) are, in many cases, dependent on the characterisation of the energy background system and on which type of energy efficiency measure is used (energy return factor or overall battery efficiency)

  8. Topology optimization and laser additive manufacturing in design process of efficiency lightweight aerospace parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, K. V.; Maksimov, P. V.

    2018-05-01

    The paper presents the application of topology optimization and laser additive manufacturing in the design of lightweight aerospace parts. At the beginning a brief overview of the topology optimization algorithm SIMP is given, one of the most commonly used algorithm in FEA software. After that, methodology of parts design with using topology optimization is discussed as well as issues related to designing for additive manufacturing. In conclusion, the practical application of the proposed methodologies is presented using the example of one complex assembly unit. As a result of the new design approach, the mass of product was reduced five times, and twenty parts were replaced by one.

  9. Quantification of human polyomavirus JC virus load in urine and blood samples of healthy tribal populations of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaraj, S; Bera, N K; Dutta, C; Bhattacharjee, S

    2015-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) is a widespread human virus with profound pathogenic potential. A study was undertaken to quantify JCV load in urine and peripheral blood samples of immunocompetent, apparently healthy tribal individuals of North-Eastern part of West Bengal, India for the first time. One hundred and thirteen samples of urine or blood were collected from different tribal groups of this region. For the quantitative estimation of the viral load in each sample, real-time polymerase chain reaction method using the SYBR Green dye was employed. The viral load estimated was found in the range between 3.5 × 102 and 2.12 × 106 copies/ml of samples having a mean and median viral copy numbers of 8.67 × 105 and 9.19 × 105 copies/ml of sample respectively. The mean viral DNA load in urine samples of the studied immunocompetent population was found to be higher than that found in a study conducted in the USA, but lower than similar groups of Italy and healthy adult women in the USA. However when compared with median values of viral DNA loads in urine samples of immunocompetent human subjects of Kuwait, Portugal, and Switzerland the observed viral DNA load was found to be substantially higher.

  10. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  11. Toward Improved Rotor-Only Axial Fans—Part II: Design Optimization for Maximum Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dan Nørtoft; Thompson, M. C.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2000-01-01

    Numerical design optimization of the aerodynamic performance of axial fans is carried out, maximizing the efficiency in a designinterval of flow rates. Tip radius, number of blades, and angular velocity of the rotor are fixed, whereas the hub radius andspanwise distributions of chord length......, stagger angle, and camber angle are varied to find the optimum rotor geometry.Constraints ensure a pressure rise above a specified target and an angle of attack on the blades below stall. The optimizationscheme is used to investigate the dependence of maximum efficiency on the width of the design interval...

  12. Connected Lighting Systems Efficiency Study$-$ PoE Cable Energy Losses, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Karsten [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-11-30

    First report in a study of the efficiency of connected lighting systems. The report summarizes the results of an exploratory study investigating power losses in Ethernet cables used between PoE switches and luminaires in PoE connected lighting systems. Testing was conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Connected Lighting Test Bed in September 2017. The results were analyzed to explore the impact of cable selection on PoE lighting system energy efficiency, as well as the effectiveness of guidelines recently introduced by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C137 Lighting Systems Committee.

  13. Romania. Regular Review 2006. Part 1. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies, instruments and actors. Part 2. Indicators on Energy, Energy Efficiency, Economy and Environment. Based on national sources of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Although Romania has the largest oil and gas resources in Central Europe, it is nonetheless a net importer of hydrocarbons, and the efficient use of energy along the entire energy chain from production to consumption has been a consistent feature of Romanian policy in recent years. Romania's national energy strategy foresees an annual reduction of the energy intensity of the national economy of approximately 3%. Energy efficiency measures have concentrated on the industrial and residential sectors, where there is the clearest scope for improvements. Programmes for the services and transport sectors are now also being developed. As Romania prepares for accession to the European Union, the PEEREA review of Romania's energy efficiency policies and programmes provides a detailed overview of the transposition of the relevant parts of the EU acquis, as well as an insight into particular challenges for Romania - such as the modernisation of the district heating network, which accounts for a third of the country's heat and hot water demand

  14. Heavy vehicle simulator (HVS) evaluation of load transfer efficiency and continuously reinforced concrete inlays on the N3 near Pietermartizburg

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses two different heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) studies conducted on concrete: Load transfer through aggregate interlock and the use of dowels and the evaluation of the performance of an in-service continuously reinforced concrete...

  15. Vortical structures and pressure pulsations in draft tube of a Francis-99 turbine at part load: RANS and hybrid RANS/LES analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, A.A.; Sentyabov, A.V.; Dekterev, A.A.; Hanjalić, K.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulations showed the formation of spiralling coherent vortices in the draft tube. • Both hybrid RANS-LES and Re-stress models reproduced well the measured fluctuations. • Re-stress model resolved the precessing vortex core and coherent spiralling vortices. - Abstract: Recognizing the limitations of the conventional linear-eddy-viscosity (LEVM) Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models to reproduce complex three-dimensional unsteady flows in hydraulic machinery, we performed a comparative assessment of a second-moment (Re-stress model, RSM) RANS closure and a hybrid RANS/LES method in capturing the flow and vortical structures in the draft tube of a Francis hydroturbine at off-design conditions. Considered is a case of part load (PL) at a flow rate of only 35% of the best efficiency point (BEP) characterised by multiple unsteady vortex systems. Despite some remaining uncertainties in generating the inflow conditions, both approaches reproduced reasonably well the measured mean velocity and the rms of its fluctuations, as well as the pressure spectrum with peaks detecting the precessing vortex core. In contrast to the common LEVMs, the Re-stress closure showed sufficient receptivity to intrinsic unsteadiness and reproduced well the overall flow and vortical patterns as well as the associated pressure pulsations in accord with the experiments. The hybrid RANS/LES method gave similar predictions as the RSM, but resolving a wider range of scales, which however, showed no significant effect on the dynamics of the dominant processing vortex core and the pressure pulsations.

  16. Manufacturing of par-fried french-fries. Part 2: Modelling yield efficiency of peeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somsen, D.J.; Capelle, A.; Tramper, J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper outlines the yield efficiency of steam peeling. It was proven that peeling potatoes manually with sandpaper results in the lowest possible peel losses. These losses were desired or wanted losses. However, in practice steam peeling results not only in wanted losses but also in substantial

  17. Simulations of the vortex in the Dellenback abrupt expansion, resembling a hydro turbine draft tube operating at part-load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an OpenFOAM case-study, based on the experimental studies of the swirling flow in the abrupt expansion by Dellenback et al.[1]. The case yields similar flow conditions as those of a helical vortex rope in a hydro turbine draft tube working at part-load. The case-study is set up similar to the ERCOFTAC Conical Diffuser and Centrifugal Pump OpenFOAM case-studies [2,3], making all the files available and the results fully reproducable using OpenSource software. The mesh generation is done using m4 scripting and the OpenFOAM built-in blockMesh mesh generator. The swirling inlet boundary condition is specified as an axi-symmetric profile. The outlet boundary condition uses the zeroGradient condition for all variables except for the pressure, which uses the fixed mean value boundary condition. The wall static pressure is probed at a number of locations during the simulations, and post-processing of the time-averaged solution is done using the OpenFOAM sample utility. Gnuplot scripts are provided for plotting the results. The computational results are compared to one of the operating conditions studied by Dellenback, and measurements for all the experimentally studied operating conditions are available in the case-study. Results from five cases are here presented, based on the kEpsilon model, the kOmegaSST model, and a filtered version of the same kOmegaSST model, named kOmegaSSTF [4,5]. Two different inlet boundary conditions are evaluated. It is shown that kEpsilon and kOmegaSST give steady solutions, while kOmegaSSTF gives a highly unsteady solution. The time-averaged solution of the kOmegaSSTF model is much more accurate than the other models. The kEpsilon and kOmegaSST models are thus unable to accurately model the effect of the large-scale unsteadiness, while kOmegaSSTF resolves those scales and models only the smaller scales. The use of two different boundary conditions shows that the boundary conditions are more important than the choice between

  18. High efficient ammonia heat pump system for industrial process water using the ISEC concept. Part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Madsen, C.; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Isolated System Energy Charging (ISEC) is to provide a high-efficient ammonia heat pump system for hot water production. The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. The charged tank is used for the industrial process while the discharged...... tank, is charging. Charging is done by circulating the water in the tank through the condenser several times and thereby gradually heats the water. This result in a lower condensing temperature than if the water was heated in one step. A dynamic model of the system, implemented in Dymola, is used...... to investigate the performance of the ISEC system. The ISEC concept approaches the efficiency of a number of heat pumps in series and the COP of the system may reach 6.8, which is up to 25 % higher than a conventional heat pump heating water in one step....

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARMY STATIONARY AXLE TEST STAND FOR LUBRICANT EFFICIENCY EVALUATION-PART II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    electric AC motor , and the two outputs of the axle are coupled using speed increasing gear boxes and absorbed by an identically sized AC motor ...work using the stationary axle efficiency test stand was completed using hardware representative of light and medium duty tactical wheeled vehicles ... vehicle results. However for the results to be applicable to real world field use , the driving cycle being replicated should be representative of real

  20. Vulnerability assessment as a missing part of efficient regulatory emergency preparedness system for nuclear critical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, V.

    2007-01-01

    One introduces a new model to assess the vulnerability of the nuclear infrastructure critical facilities. The new procedure of the vulnerability assessment (the VA) aims to reevaluate the efficiency of the present-day safeguards. On the basis of deeper insight into the VA new strategy and of the elaborated procedure to analyze the hazards for the nuclear power facilities one recommends the key safeguards affecting the damage magnitude [ru

  1. Efficient computation of quasiperiodic oscillations in nonlinear systems with fast rotating parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Rübel, Jan; Starke, Jens

    2008-01-01

    We present a numerical method for the investigation of quasiperiodic oscillations in applications modeled by systems of ordinary differential equations. We focus on systems with parts that have a significant rotational speed. An important element of our approach is that it allows us to verify whe...

  2. Evaluation of energy efficiency opportunities of a typical Moroccan cement plant: Part I. Energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellaou, S.; Bounahmidi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analyzed the degree of freedom of the overall system. • We validated the redundant measurements by the Lagrange multipliers technique. • We have analyzed the mass and the energy balances by two approaches. • We identified the factors that penalize the energetic performance of the whole plant. • We assessed options to improve energy efficiency of the entire cement plant. - Abstract: The cement industry is one of Morocco’s most highly energy intensive economic sectors. It suffers from abnormally high cost of energy supplies, representing more than two thirds of the cost of cement; the first item of expenditure is electricity and fuel with 40% and 30% respectively. Herefor, much more effort is needed to make the cement sector reach energy saving targets set by the Moroccan energy efficiency strategy. The present work aims to evaluate energy performance of an existing Moroccan cement plant based on a detailed mass and energy balances analysis. Redundant measurements were validated by the Lagrange multipliers technique before being used for the calculation of unmeasured variables. The values for energy consumption and related losses through the whole production line are reported, and the results obtained have been used to assess the energy performance of the process. The evaluation was completed by both an analysis of possible energy loss sources and important solutions described in the international literature to improve the energy efficiency of the entire cement plant.

  3. Lipid-drug-conjugate (LDC) solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for the delivery of nicotine to the oral cavity - optimization of nicotine loading efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan; Nielsen, Kent A; Nielsen, Bruno P; Bøje, Niels W; Müller, Rainer H; Pyo, Sung Min

    2018-03-12

    Nicotine, obtained from tobacco leaves, has been used to promote the cessation of smoking and reduce the risk of COPD and lung cancer. Incorporating the active in lipid nanoparticles is an effective tool to minimize its irritation potential and to use the particles as intermediate to produce final products. However, as a hydrophilic active, it is a challenge to prepare nicotine loaded lipid nanoparticles with high drug loading. In this study, lipid-drug-conjugates (LDC) were formed by nicotine and different fatty acids to enable the production of sufficiently loaded nicotine lipid nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of nicotine in LDC-containing SLN was about 50%, which increased at least fourfold compared to the non-LDC formulations (around 10%) due to the increased lipophilicity of nicotine by strong interactions between positively charged nicotine and negatively charged fatty acids (formation of LDCs). The z-average of all formulations (150 to 350 nm) proved to be in the required submicron size range with a narrow size distribution. In summary, nicotine loaded LDC lipid nanoparticles with high drug loading were successfully developed with Kolliwax® S and stearic acid as counter-ion forming the LDC and hydrogenated sunflower oil (HSO) as lipid particle matrix. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Can storage reduce electricity consumption? A general equation for the grid-wide efficiency impact of using cooling thermal energy storage for load shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetjen, Thomas A.; Reimers, Andrew S.; Webber, Michael E.

    2018-02-01

    This study estimates changes in grid-wide, energy consumption caused by load shifting via cooling thermal energy storage (CTES) in the building sector. It develops a general equation for relating generator fleet fuel consumption to building cooling demand as a function of ambient temperature, relative humidity, transmission and distribution current, and baseline power plant efficiency. The results present a graphical sensitivity analysis that can be used to estimate how shifting load from cooling demand to cooling storage could affect overall, grid-wide, energy consumption. In particular, because power plants, air conditioners and transmission systems all have higher efficiencies at cooler ambient temperatures, it is possible to identify operating conditions such that CTES increases system efficiency rather than decreasing it as is typical for conventional storage approaches. A case study of the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area in Texas, USA shows that using CTES to shift daytime cooling load to nighttime cooling storage can reduce annual, system-wide, primary fuel consumption by 17.6 MWh for each MWh of installed CTES capacity. The study concludes that, under the right circumstances, cooling thermal energy storage can reduce grid-wide energy consumption, challenging the perception of energy storage as a net energy consumer.

  5. Design and modelling of fast switching efficient seat valves for digital displacement pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital Displacement Fluid Power Pumps/Motors are promising candidates for revolutionizing the efficiency of fluid power systems, which traditionally has suffered from poor efficiencies, especially at part load. The key to obtain efficient part load operation with digital displacement technology...

  6. EFFICIENCY OF PROSTHETIC TREATMENT WITH POST RESECTION PROSTHESES WITH SOLID SUBSTITUTE PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gerdzhikov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to track the effectiveness of prosthetic treatment with post resection dentures with solid substitute part and their role in the restoration of damaged functions. Materials and methods: The study included 14 patients (9 men and 5 women with different size and location of defects in the upper jaw treated in the period 2010-2016 with post resection prostheses with a solid substitute part. The impressions were taken with irreversible hydrocolloid impression material. The prostheses were completed by heat-curing acrylic with low quantity residual monomer. The effectiveness of prosthetics was evaluated by the method of Mihaylov for both oral-nasal examination of the pressure with the device "Oronasopneumotest." For objectifying and assess the occlusal-articulation ratios was held computerized occlusal analysis with the system T-SCAN 8. Results: The results showed successful obturation and sealing of defects in all patients. It was found satisfactory recovery of the speaking function and normalization of occlusal-articulation ratios. Conclusion: The prosthetic treatment with post resection prostheses with a solid substitute part allows successful recovery of the lost speech and chewing functions, helping to restore self esteem and social rehabilitation of patients.

  7. Metrological Array of Cyber-Physical Systems. Part 3. Smart Energy-Efficient House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihor HNES

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart energy-efficient houses as the components of Cyber-Physical Systems are developed intensively. The main stream of progress consists in the research of Smart houses’ energy supply. By this option the mentioned objects are advancing from passive houses through net-zero energy houses to active houses that are capable of sharing their own accumulated energy with other components of Cyber-Physical Systems. We consider the problems of studying the metrology models and measuring the heat dissipation in such houses trying to apply network and software achievements as well as the new types of devices with improved characteristics.

  8. Fatigue load considerations and use of high efficiency materials in the nuclear refurbishment projects: a structural engineering perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohee, F. M., E-mail: fmm_p@yahoo.com [Univ. of Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    For the Darlington refurbishment project in Canada, fatigue load consideration is a very crucial component in the analysis and design of different structures in the nuclear facilities. New and innovative structural materials having much higher ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity, that are free from corrosion, should be considered along with fatigue load during the analysis and design of the nuclear refurbishment projects. The structural analysis should include beam, column and slabs, vibrating, rotating and crane supporting structures, robotic structures, pipe supports, Serapid chain and associated automated gate structures, flask supporting structures, processing unit and lidding unit support structures. (author)

  9. Optimizing the gear efficiency under consideration of thermal optimisation strategies and customer-specific load conditions; Optimierung des Getriebewirkungsgrads unter Beruecksichtigung thermischer Optimierungsstrategien und kundenspezifischer Lastkollektive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inderwisch, Kathrien; Kuecuekay, Ferit [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, the automotive industry have been received more attention to improve the transmission efficiency. Most of the researches have been concentrated on development and optimisation on transmission actuators, shifting elements, bearings, lubricants or lightweight constructions. Due to the low load requirements and associated low efficiencies for transmissions in driving cycles the transmissions cause energy losses which cannot be neglected. Two main stategies can be followed up for the optimisation of transmission efficiency. At first the efficiency benefit of transmissions through optimisation of hardware components will be presented. The second possibility is the representation of an optimal thermal management especially at low temperatures. Warming-up the transmission oil or transmission components can increase the efficiency of transmissions significantly. Techniques like this become more important in the course of electrification of drive trains and therefore decreased availability of heat. A simulation tool for calculation and minimisation of power loss for manual and dual-clutch transmissions was developed at the Institute of Automotive Engineering and verified by measurements. The simulation tool calculates the total transmission efficiency as well as the losses of individual transmission components depending on various environmental conditions. In this paper, the results in terms of increasing the efficiency of transmissions by optimisation of hardware components will be presented. Furthermore, the effects of temperature distribution in the transmission as well as the potential of minimising loss at low temperatures through thermal management will be illustrated. (orig.)

  10. Iodine, krypton and xenon retention efficiencies of silver impregnated silica gel media with different silver loadings and under different test conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motes, B G; Fernandez, S J; Tkachyk, J W

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of an independent study conducted by Exxon Nuclear Idaho, Co. (ENICO) was to evaluate a silver impregnated silica gel adsorption medium associated with a radioiodine air sampler developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Specifically, ENICO's responsibility was to evaluate the iodine and noble gas retention efficiencies of the adsorption medium. The evaluation was comprised of a four-phase program: 1) test assemblies capable of challenging the silver silica gel filled adsorber canister with radioiodine species or noble gases at flow rates up to 10 scfm and relative humidities up to 83% were constructed; 2) more than 45 kgs of the 4 and 8% silver impregnated silica gel were prepared and characterized for particle size distribution, bulk silver content, bulk density, and silver content by particle size; 3) iodine species retention efficiencies of the silver silica gel were determined; and 4 krypton and xenon retention efficiencies were measured. The iodine species retention efficiencies were greater than 90% under most conditions. A combination of flow rates >5 scfm and 4% silver loaded silica gel reduced the methyl iodide retention efficiency to less than 90%. The retention efficiencies for both krypton and xenon were on the order of 8 x 10{sup -2}% and were not affected greatly by any test variable except test duration. A reduced retention efficiency with increased test durations indicates adsorption equilibrium may be established within five minutes. (author)

  11. Iodine, krypton and xenon retention efficiencies of silver impregnated silica gel media with different silver loadings and under different test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motes, B.G.; Fernandez, S.J.; Tkachyk, J.W.

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of an independent study conducted by Exxon Nuclear Idaho, Co. (ENICO) was to evaluate a silver impregnated silica gel adsorption medium associated with a radioiodine air sampler developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Specifically, ENICO's responsibility was to evaluate the iodine and noble gas retention efficiencies of the adsorption medium. The evaluation was comprised of a four-phase program: 1) test assemblies capable of challenging the silver silica gel filled adsorber canister with radioiodine species or noble gases at flow rates up to 10 scfm and relative humidities up to 83% were constructed; 2) more than 45 kgs of the 4 and 8% silver impregnated silica gel were prepared and characterized for particle size distribution, bulk silver content, bulk density, and silver content by particle size; 3) iodine species retention efficiencies of the silver silica gel were determined; and 4 krypton and xenon retention efficiencies were measured. The iodine species retention efficiencies were greater than 90% under most conditions. A combination of flow rates >5 scfm and 4% silver loaded silica gel reduced the methyl iodide retention efficiency to less than 90%. The retention efficiencies for both krypton and xenon were on the order of 8 x 10 -2 % and were not affected greatly by any test variable except test duration. A reduced retention efficiency with increased test durations indicates adsorption equilibrium may be established within five minutes. (author)

  12. Loads of green washing—can behavioural economics increase willingness-to-pay for efficient washing machines in the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, Joe

    2012-01-01

    The EU energy efficiency labelling scheme has successfully increased demand for efficient appliances by providing a prominent letter rating to consumers during their product search. Behavioural economics (BE) suggests the adoption of efficient appliances could be accelerated further by: (i) monetising efficiency, (ii) directly communicating the link between efficiency and carbon emissions, (iii) communicating the long-term (e.g., operational life) financial and environmental impact of product choices, and, (iv) framing the information as avoided losses (‘extra’) rather than gains (‘savings’). This study tested these hypotheses via an online, stated preference survey of 465 UK residents using actual market pricing and efficiency data for washing machines. The provision of information about either running costs or running emissions did encourage selection of more expensive and efficient products (strongly correlated variables in the choice set and actual market) (p<.001, r=.30–.41) with no statistically significant difference between their impact. Providing lifetime running cost information also nudged respondents towards more expensive, efficient products than annual information (p=.006–.027, r=.15–.18). Finally, loss-framed running emissions information encouraged selection of more expensive, efficient products than gain-framed information (p<.05, r=.13–.16). The EU label is an impracticable means of communication, but digital communication channels (e.g., price comparison websites) may offer potential for inexpensive localisation and personalisation of the information. The results suggest that successful communication could benefit the private sector whilst making a contribution to reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► 465 UK residents made a hypothetical washing machine purchase via an online survey. ► Respondents were exposed to either running cost or running emissions information. ► Running cost information increased willingness

  13. Efficient solar light-driven degradation of Congo red with novel Cu-loaded Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Priya; Fermah, Alisha; Rajput, Jaspreet Kaur; Singh, Harminder; Badhan, Jigyasa

    2017-08-01

    In this work, Cu-loaded Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 core shell nanoparticles were prepared in a single pot by coating of TiO 2 on Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles followed by Cu loading. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett- Teller (BET), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (VB XPS) techniques were used for characterization of as prepared nanoparticles. Synergism between copper and titania was evaluated by studying the solar light-driven photodegradation of Congo red dye solution in the presence of Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 nanoparticles on one side and Cu-loaded Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 nanoparticles on the other side. The latter performed better than the former catalyst, indicating the enhanced activity of copper-loaded catalyst. Further photodegradation was studied by three means, i.e., under ultraviolet (UV), refluxing, and solar radiations. Cu-loaded Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 enhanced the degradation efficiency of Congo red dye. Thus, Cu act possibly by reducing the band gap of TiO 2 and widening the optical response of semiconductor, as a result of which solar light could be used to carry out photocatalysis. Graphical abstract Photodegradation of congo red over Cu-loaded Fe 3 O 4 @TiO 2 nanoparticles.

  14. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 1, The proposed technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A general framework for solving the dynamic load distribution when two manipulators hold a rigid object is proposed. The underspecified problem of solving for the contact forces and torques based on the object`s equations of motion is transformed into a well specified problem. This is accomplished by augmenting the object`s equations of motion with additional equations which relate a new vector variable quantifying the internal contact force and torque degrees of freedom (DOF) as a linear function of the contact forces and torques. The resulting augmented system yields a well specified solution for the contact forces and torques in which they are separated into their motion inducing and internal components. A particular solution is suggested which enables the designer to conveniently specify what portion of the payload`s mass each manipulator is to bear. It is also shown that the results of the previous work are just a special case of the general load distribution framework described here.

  15. Proof of fatigue strength of nuclear components part II: Numerical fatigue analysis for transient stratification loading considering environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krätschmer, D.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Herter, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide detailed analysis procedures which guarantee a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. To consider effects of light water reactor coolant environments, new design curves included in report NUREG/CR-6909 for austenitic stainless steels and for low alloy steels have been presented. For the usage of these new design curves an environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating environmental effects has to be calculated and used. The application of this environmental correction factor to a fatigue analysis of a nozzle with transient stratification loads, derived by in-service monitoring, has been performed. The results are used to compare with calculated usage factors, based on design curves without taking environmental effects particularly into account. - Highlights: ► We model an nozzle for fatigue analysis und mechanical and thermal loading conditions. ► A simplified as well as a general elastic–plastic fatigue analysis considering environmental effects is performed. ► The influence of different factors calculating the environmental factor F en are shown. ► The presented numerical evaluation methodology allows the consideration of all relevant parameters to assess lifetime.

  16. ROLES AND EFFICIENCY OF PARTICIPANTS IN PIG MARKETING IN THE NORTHERN PART OF NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ajala

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the performance of market participants in pig marketing in Zango-Kataf Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to describe the organizational pattern of pig marketing; identify the major problems militating against the marketing efficiency and evaluate the marketing margins of pig at various levels of the marketing channel/chain. The study investigated the pig marketing practices in this area through interviews with producers, rural assemblers, wholesalers, commission agents and retailers. The data collected were analyzed using costs and marketing margins to assess market performance. Empirical findings indicated that the difference (margin between the price received by producers and the retail price of pork and butchers’ sales of by-products was N4,192.40 (US $32.75 per head of pigs. This margin expressed as percentage of the sum of the price paid by pork consumers and by-products merchants was 22% and was shared by the intermediate agents in the marketing chain. Several factors perceived by participants in the market as limiting constraints to pig production and marketing are inadequate abattoir, absence of refrigerators, absence of standard weights and measures, high cost of transportation, lack of access to formal credit sources and lack of good roads. The study recommends the provision of credit facilities, installation of processing plants, use of weights and infrastructural developments in order to increase overall volume of the market.

  17. INCREASED EFFICIENCY ECOLOGICAL - OBJECTIVE OF TOURISM POLICY - AN INTEGRAL PART OF NATIONAL AND WORLD SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanţa ENEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available When we talk of economic growth must take into account the natural environment and its resources, they become in current conditions, a limiting factor in ensuring respect for raw materials, fuel and energy, and in terms of damage to the environment. Economic growth so far has relied more on non-renewable resources or unlimited capacity of the natural environment to purify. Practice has shown that human activity has exceeded the regenerative capacity of nature, entering into conflict with natural cycles favorable economic and biological lifeToday, economic growth can only increase as economic - ecological based on manyenergy manners consumption and a higher recycling of matter and energy, in which man must respect the laws of nature, to know the breeding capacity of the natural environment.Protection and conservation of environment and tourism potential is emerging as a distinct activity, with specific problems which require specialists in various fields working. This action may have a satisfactory efficiency, but in terms of ensuring an ongoing legal and administrative framework appropriate to require administrative organization, the existence of economic resources, an effective legal support and educational activities supported by citizens.

  18. A Monte-Carlo code for neutron efficiency calculations for large volume Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lynen, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Pochodzalla, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports on a Monte-Carlo program, MSX, developed to evaluate the performance of large-volume, Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors used in neutron multiplicity measurements. The results of simulations are presented for the detector intended to count neutrons emitted by the excited target residue in coincidence with the charged products of the projectile fragmentation following relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The latter products could be detected with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at GSI-Darmstadt. (orig.) 61 refs.

  19. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Junaid

    2012-01-01

    The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

  20. Treatment Efficiency of Free and Nanoparticle-Loaded Mitoxantrone for Magnetic Drug Targeting in Multicellular Tumor Spheroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annkathrin Hornung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Major problems of cancer treatment using systemic chemotherapy are severe side effects. Magnetic drug targeting (MDT employing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION loaded with chemotherapeutic agents may overcome this dilemma by increasing drug accumulation in the tumor and reducing toxic side effects in the healthy tissue. For translation of nanomedicine from bench to bedside, nanoparticle-mediated effects have to be studied carefully. In this study, we compare the effect of SPION, unloaded or loaded with the cytotoxic drug mitoxantrone (MTO with the effect of free MTO, on the viability and proliferation of HT-29 cells within three-dimensional multicellular tumor spheroids. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that both free MTO, as well as SPION-loaded MTO (SPIONMTO are able to penetrate into tumor spheroids and thereby kill tumor cells, whereas unloaded SPION did not affect cellular viability. Since SPIONMTO has herewith proven its effectivity also in complex multicellular tumor structures with its surrounding microenvironment, we conclude that it is a promising candidate for further use in magnetic drug targeting in vivo.

  1. Chitosan-based dressings loaded with neurotensin--an efficient strategy to improve early diabetic wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Liane I F; Dias, Ana M A; Leal, Ermelindo C; Carvalho, Lina; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-02-01

    One important complication of diabetes mellitus is chronic, non-healing diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). This study aims to develop and use dressings based on chitosan derivatives for the sustained delivery of neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide that acts as an inflammatory modulator in wound healing. Three different derivatives, namely N-carboxymethyl chitosan, 5-methyl pyrrolidinone chitosan (MPC) and N-succinyl chitosan, are presented as potential biomaterials for wound healing applications. Our results show that MPC has the best fluid handling capacity and delivery profile, also being non-toxic to Raw 264.7 and HaCaT cells. NT-loaded and non-loaded MPC dressings were applied to control/diabetic wounds to evaluate their in vitro/in vivo performance. The results show that the former induced more rapid healing (50% wound area reduction) in the early phases of wound healing in diabetic mice. A NT-loaded MPC foam also reduced expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α (Pdiabetic skin (P<0.001), significantly increasing fibroblast migration and collagen (COL1A1, COL1A2 and COL3A1) expression and deposition. These results suggest that MPC-based dressings may work as an effective support for sustained NT release to reduce DFUs. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Numerical Tests of the Virtual Human Model Response Under Dynamic Load Conditions Defined in Federal Aviation Regulation Part 23.562 and 25.562 – Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindstedt Lukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the presented research was to check mechanical response of human body model under loads that can occur during airplane accidents and compare results of analysis with some results of experimental tests described in literature. In simulations, new multi-purpose human body model, the VIRTHUMAN, was used. The whole model, as well as its particular segments, was earlier validated based on experimental data, which proved its accuracy to simulate human body dynamic response under condition typical for car crashes, but it was not validated for loads with predominant vertical component (loads acting along spinal column, typical for airplane crashes. Due to limitation of available experimental data, the authors focused on conducting calculations for the case introduced in 14 CFR: Parts 23.562 and 25.562, paragraph (b(1, knowing as the 60° pitch test. The analysis consists in comparison of compression load measured in lumbar section of spine of the FAA HIII Dummy (experimental model and in the Virthuman (numerical model. The performed analyses show numerical stability of the model and satisfactory agreement between experimental data and simulated Virthuman responses. In that sense, the Virthuman model, although originally developed for automotive analyses, shows also great potential to become valuable tool for applications in aviation crashworthiness and safety analyses, as well.

  3. Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

  4. Eficiencia de los motores de inducción con carga cíclica; Efficiency of Induction Motors with Cyclic Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías de la Rosa Masdueño

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un nuevo método para determinar la eficiencia de trabajo de los motores de inducción queaccionan cargas cíclicas tales como bombas reciprocantes, martinetes, etc. El método se basa en lasegregación de pérdidas, y la determinación del gráfico de corriente y la energía total del ciclo. Se muestrauna comprobación experimental basada en un método de Monte Carlo.  A new method for finding the working efficiency of the induction motors moving cyclic loads is proposed.This type of loading is frequent in mechanism like piston pumps, hammers, etc. The method is based inthe losses segregation and the determination of the current graphic and the total energy in the cycle. Anexperimental proof based on Monte Carlo method is shown.

  5. Suspended-sediment loads, reservoir sediment trap efficiency, and upstream and downstream channel stability for Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous streamflow and turbidity data collected from October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2010, at streamgage sites upstream and downstream from Kanopolis and Tuttle Creek Lakes, Kansas, were used to compute the total suspended-sediment load delivered to and released from each reservoir as well as the sediment trap efficiency for each reservoir. Ongoing sedimentation is decreasing the ability of the reservoirs to serve several purposes including flood control, water supply, and recreation. River channel stability upstream and downstream from the reservoirs was assessed using historical streamgage information. For Kanopolis Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 600 million pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 31 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 95 percent. The mean annual suspended-sediment yield from the upstream basin was estimated to be 129,000 pounds per square mile per year. No pronounced changes in channel width were evident at five streamgage sites located upstream from the reservoir. At the Ellsworth streamgage site, located upstream from the reservoir, long-term channel-bed aggradation was followed by a period of stability. Current (2010) conditions at five streamgages located upstream from the reservoir were typified by channel-bed stability. At the Langley streamgage site, located immediately downstream from the reservoir, the channel bed degraded 6.15 feet from 1948 to 2010. For Tuttle Creek Lake, the total 2-year inflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 13.3 billion pounds. Most of the suspended-sediment load was delivered during short-term, high-discharge periods. The total 2-year outflow suspended-sediment load was computed to be 327 million pounds. Sediment trap efficiency for the reservoir was estimated to be 98 percent. The mean

  6. Comparison of Efficiencies and Mechanisms of Catalytic Ozonation of Recalcitrant Petroleum Refinery Wastewater by Ce, Mg, and Ce-Mg Oxides Loaded Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmao Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of catalytic ozonation processes (COPs for the advanced treatment of recalcitrant petroleum refinery wastewater (RPRW is rapidly expanding. In this study, magnesium (Mg, cerium (Ce, and Mg-Ce oxide-loaded alumina (Al2O3 were developed as cost efficient catalysts for ozonation treatment of RPRW, having performance metrics that meet new discharge standards. Interactions between the metal oxides and the Al2O3 support influence the catalytic properties, as well as the efficiency and mechanism. Mg-Ce/Al2O3 (Mg-Ce/Al2O3-COP reduced the chemical oxygen demand by 4.7%, 4.1%, 6.0%, and 17.5% relative to Mg/Al2O3-COP, Ce/Al2O3-COP, Al2O3-COP, and single ozonation, respectively. The loaded composite metal oxides significantly increased the hydroxyl radical-mediated oxidation. Surface hydroxyl groups (–OHs are the dominant catalytic active sites on Al2O3. These active surface –OHs along with the deposited metal oxides (Mg2+ and/or Ce4+ increased the catalytic activity. The Mg-Ce/Al2O3 catalyst can be economically produced, has high efficiency, and is stable under acidic and alkaline conditions.

  7. Statistically-Based Comparison of the Removal Efficiencies and Resilience Capacities between Conventional and Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems: A Peak Load Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging global threats, such as climate change, urbanization and water depletion, are driving forces for finding a feasible substitute for low cost-effective conventional activated sludge (AS technology. On the other hand, given their low cost and easy operation, nature-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs and waste stabilization ponds (WSPs appear to be viable options. To examine these systems, a 210-day experiment with 31 days of peak load scenario was performed. Particularly, we conducted a deliberate strategy of experimentation, which includes applying a preliminary study, preliminary models, hypothetical tests and power analysis to compare their removal efficiencies and resilience capacities. In contrast to comparable high removal efficiencies of organic matter—around 90%—both natural systems showed moderate nutrient removal efficiencies, which inferred the necessity for further treatment to ensure their compliance with environmental standards. During the peak period, the pond treatment systems appeared to be the most robust as they indicated a higher strength to withstanding the organic matter and nitrogen shock load and were able to recover within a short period. However, high demand of land—2.5 times larger than that of AS—is a major concern of the applicability of WSPs despite their lower operation and maintenance (O&M costs. It is also worth noting that initial efforts on systematic experimentation appeared to have an essential impact on ensuring statistically and practically meaningful results in this comparison study.

  8. Performances of synchrotron X-ray monochromators under heat load. Part 2. Application of the Takagi-Taupin diffraction theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mocella, V; Freund, A K; Hoszowska, J; Zhang, L; Epelboin, Y

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to generate the rocking curves of monochromators exposed to heat load in synchrotron radiation beams with a computer code performing diffraction calculations based on the theory of Takagi and Taupin. The model study starts with the calculation of deformation by finite element analysis and from an accurate characterization of the incident wave and includes the simulation of the wavefront propagation between the first and the second crystal (analyzer) of a double crystal monochromator. A monochromatic plane wave as well as a polychromatic spherical wave approach is described. The theoretical predictions of both methods are compared with experimental data measured in Bragg geometry and critically discussed.

  9. Performances of synchrotron X-ray monochromators under heat load. Part 2. Application of the Takagi-Taupin diffraction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mocella, V.; Ferrero, C.; Freund, A.K.; Hoszowska, J.; Zhang, L.; Epelboin, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to generate the rocking curves of monochromators exposed to heat load in synchrotron radiation beams with a computer code performing diffraction calculations based on the theory of Takagi and Taupin. The model study starts with the calculation of deformation by finite element analysis and from an accurate characterization of the incident wave and includes the simulation of the wavefront propagation between the first and the second crystal (analyzer) of a double crystal monochromator. A monochromatic plane wave as well as a polychromatic spherical wave approach is described. The theoretical predictions of both methods are compared with experimental data measured in Bragg geometry and critically discussed

  10. Empirical Model Development for Predicting Shock Response on Composite Materials Subjected to Pyroshock Loading. Volume 2, Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Ordway, David O.; Parsons, David S.; Garrison, Craig M.; Rodgers, C. Steven; Collins, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request to develop an analysis model based on both frequency response and wave propagation analyses for predicting shock response spectrum (SRS) on composite materials subjected to pyroshock loading. The model would account for near-field environment (approximately 9 inches from the source) dominated by direct wave propagation, mid-field environment (approximately 2 feet from the source) characterized by wave propagation and structural resonances, and far-field environment dominated by lower frequency bending waves in the structure. This document contains appendices to the Volume I report.

  11. Loading and fracture response of CFRP-to-steel adhesively bonded joints with thick adherents – Part II: Numerical simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.

    2013-01-01

    This work is focused on the numerical simulation of experimentally tested single lap joints, based on cohesive zone modeling techniques. Seven cases have been considered for analysis. The models were built in a 3-dimensional finite element space. The adherents were modeled with continuum elements...... the developed peel, in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses over the adhesive area. Thus, the global measured response of all cases was justified by examining the stress fields and their variation through the loading history. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Part-load operation of the boiler feedwater pumps for the new French PWR 1400 MW nuclear plants - a challenge for the designer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.; Canavelis, R.; Guilloiseau, P.

    1988-01-01

    The Boiler feedwater pumps in Electricite de France Power Stations have to work reliably for all flow rates between 33% and 134% of the flow corresponding to the best efficiency point (Q BEP ). Under transient conditions associated with load changing these limits increase to 33% to 147% Q BEP . Due to the high specific power of these pumps, the operating conditions heavily influence the hydraulic and mechanical dimensioning. This paper presents some particular aspects of their design and test results obtained on a pump model as well as on a full scale prototype concerning suction performance, head capacity curve stability, pressure pulsations and structural excitations. (author)

  13. The theory of dissipative structures of the kinetic system for defects of nonlinear physical system 'metal+loading+irradiation'. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.A.; Borikov, T.L.; Kryzhanovskaya, T.V.; Chernezhenko, S.A.; Rusov, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    The kinetic system for defects of physical nonlinear system 'metal + load + irradiation' is specified [1, 2, 3]. Developing the approaches offered in [4], where distinctions of mechanisms of radiating creep and areas of their applicability are formalized (depending on external parameters) for fuel and constructional metals, division of kinetic systems for defects of constructional and fuel metals is carrying out. Thus the accent on the autocatalytic features of kinetic system for defects of reactor fuel metals, resulting from the exoenergic autocatalytic character of nuclear fission reactions being the main point defect source is done. In this part of the article the basic attention is given to the kinetic of sink drains for point defects. For kinetic systems of sinks-sources new approaches for the task of boundary conditions are offered. The possible structure of the computer program modelling kinetic system for defects of nonlinear physical system 'metal + load + irradiation' is considered

  14. Efficient KF loaded on MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds in the transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Vargas, Ariel; Santos-Gutiérrez, Teresa; Lima, Enrique; Flores-Moreno, Jorge L.; Oliver-Tolentino, Miguel A.; Martínez-Ortiz, María de J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthetized. • After KF impregnation and calcination fluorinated species were detected. • Fluorinated species were stables and actives. • LDH composition and KF load effect were evaluated in biodiesel production. - Abstract: In this work a series of MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthetized by coprecipitation method at constant pH. In order to obtain the catalysts, the samples were modified with KF by incipient wetness impregnation at different wt%, after that, they were dried and calcined to obtain the mixed oxides. The effect of divalent cations ratio and KF load were studied in the transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil to obtain biodiesel employing an inedible oil. XRD analysis showed typical diffraction patterns of LDH, by nitrogen physisorption the LDH mesoporous structure was also confirmed, 27 Al NMR spectra showed bands at 10 and 88 ppm attributed to the Al coordination before and after thermal treatment. While for the impregnated samples after calcination the profiles exhibited the mixed oxide formation, in addition, another peaks appeared associated to the formation of various fluorinated species as shown by XRD, additionally, 19 F NMR showed a main signal at −180 ppm indicating the presence of active tetrahedral aluminum fluoride species. The reaction evolution was monitoring calculating the oil conversion to biodiesel by integration of the signal spectra using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The results of catalytic tests in transesterification reaction showed a direct correlation between Mg/Ca ratio and KF content in the oil conversion to biodiesel, the higher conversion was achieved (90%) when Mg/Ca = 1 and KF load was 30 wt%

  15. Efficient KF loaded on MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds in the transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzmán-Vargas, Ariel, E-mail: aguzmanv@ipn.mx [ESIQIE-IPN, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales Porosos, Catálisis Ambiental y Química Fina, UPALM Edif.7 P.B. Zacatenco, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Santos-Gutiérrez, Teresa [ESIQIE-IPN, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales Porosos, Catálisis Ambiental y Química Fina, UPALM Edif.7 P.B. Zacatenco, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico); Lima, Enrique [IIM-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito exterior s/n, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 México DF (Mexico); Flores-Moreno, Jorge L. [UAM-Azcapotzalco, Área de Química de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa Tamaulipas, 02200 México DF (Mexico); Oliver-Tolentino, Miguel A.; Martínez-Ortiz, María de J. [ESIQIE-IPN, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Laboratorio de Investigación en Materiales Porosos, Catálisis Ambiental y Química Fina, UPALM Edif.7 P.B. Zacatenco, México D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthetized. • After KF impregnation and calcination fluorinated species were detected. • Fluorinated species were stables and actives. • LDH composition and KF load effect were evaluated in biodiesel production. - Abstract: In this work a series of MgCaAl hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthetized by coprecipitation method at constant pH. In order to obtain the catalysts, the samples were modified with KF by incipient wetness impregnation at different wt%, after that, they were dried and calcined to obtain the mixed oxides. The effect of divalent cations ratio and KF load were studied in the transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil to obtain biodiesel employing an inedible oil. XRD analysis showed typical diffraction patterns of LDH, by nitrogen physisorption the LDH mesoporous structure was also confirmed, {sup 27}Al NMR spectra showed bands at 10 and 88 ppm attributed to the Al coordination before and after thermal treatment. While for the impregnated samples after calcination the profiles exhibited the mixed oxide formation, in addition, another peaks appeared associated to the formation of various fluorinated species as shown by XRD, additionally, {sup 19}F NMR showed a main signal at −180 ppm indicating the presence of active tetrahedral aluminum fluoride species. The reaction evolution was monitoring calculating the oil conversion to biodiesel by integration of the signal spectra using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The results of catalytic tests in transesterification reaction showed a direct correlation between Mg/Ca ratio and KF content in the oil conversion to biodiesel, the higher conversion was achieved (90%) when Mg/Ca = 1 and KF load was 30 wt%.

  16. Management of cesium loaded AMP- Part I preparation of 137Cesium concentrate and cementation of secondary wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.; Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2005-11-01

    Separation of 137 cesium from High Level Waste can be achieved by use of composite-AMP, an engineered form of Ammonium Molybdo-Phosphate(AMP). Direct vitrification of cesium loaded composite AMP in borosilicate glass matrix leads to separation of water soluble molybdate phase. A proposed process describes two different routes of selective separation of molybdates and phosphate to obtain solutions of cesium concentrates. Elution of 137 Cesium from composite-AMP by decomposing it under flow conditions using saturated barium hydroxide was investigated. This method leaves molybdate and phosphate embedded in the column but only 70% of total cesium loaded on column could be eluted. Alternatively composite-AMP was dissolved in sodium hydroxide and precipitation of barium molybdate-phosphate from the resultant solution, using barium nitrate was investigated by batch methods. The precipitation technique gave over 99.9% of 137 Cesium activity in solutions, free of molybdates and phosphates, which is ideally suited for immobilization in borosilicate glass matrix. Detailed studies were carried out to immobilize secondary waste of 137 Cesium contaminated barium molybdate-phosphate precipitates in the slag cement matrix using vermiculite and bentonite as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from the cement matrix blocks was 0.05 in 140 days while the 137 Cs leach rate was 0.001 gm/cm 2 /d. (author)

  17. Da-KGM based GO-reinforced FMBO-loaded aerogels for efficient arsenic removal in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shuxin; Jin, Weiping; Huang, Qing; Hu, Ying; Li, Yan; Li, Jing; Li, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Composites based on deacetylated konjac glucomannan (Da-KGM) and graphene oxide (GO) aerogels with iron and manganese oxides (FMBO) for effective removal of arsenic from contaminated water. Da-KGM, which was used as supporting composite matrix here, were firstly treated with GO and loaded FMBO. The obtained Da-KGM/GO/FMBO composite aerogels were characterized by compression test, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The characteristic results showed that addition of GO exhibited enhanced mechanical properties towards Da-KGM aerogels. What's more, results of FTIR indicated the strong intermolecular hydrogen bond interaction between KGM and GO. Batch adsorption tests were used to evaluate arsenic removal capacity. Da-KGM/GO loaded FMBO composite aerogels exhibited high adsorption ability for arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. The adsorption results showed that the arsenic for both arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] removal process followed a pseudo-second-order rate equation and Langmuir monolayer adsorption. The maximum As(III) and As(V) uptake capacity of Da-KGM/GO(10%)/FMBO composite aerogels reached 30.21mgg -1 and 12.08mgg -1 respectively according to Langmuir isotherm at pH 7 and 323K. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis and characterization of security regions in power systems. Part I. Load flow feasibility conditions in power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarjis, J; Galiana, F D

    1980-03-01

    A set theoretic analysis of loadflow feasibility of a general power network with arbitrary PQ, PV and slack buses is presented. Load-flow feasibility is that property of a power network defining the theoretical limitations on the bus injections under which a steady state equilibrium exists. The set theoretic analysis is based on the study of the conical loadflow feasibility region. This region is characterised by a set of supporting hyperplanes each of which defines an explicit necessary condition for loadflow feasibility on the bus injections. A quantitative measure of loadflow feasibility for an arbitrary given operating injection vector is defined through a computable scalar stability margin. This stability margin permits the loadflow feasibility of different injections and network structures to be quantitatively compared and analysed.

  19. Ag loaded WO{sub 3} nanoplates for efficient photocatalytic degradation of sulfanilamide and their bactericidal effect under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wenyu [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Liu, Jincheng, E-mail: JCLIU@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Current address: Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510009 (China); Yu, Shuyan; Zhou, Yan [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute (NEWRI), Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Yan, Xiaoli, E-mail: XLYAN@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Current address: Environmental and Water Technology Centre of Innovation, Ngee Ann Polytechnic, 535 Clementi Road, Singapore 599489 (Singapore)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • WO{sub 3}/Ag heterogeneous composites were fabricated with simply photo-reduction method. • Property changes due to Ag loading were systematically studied. • WO{sub 3}/Ag composites efficiently degraded sulfanilamide under visible light irradiation. • WO{sub 3}/Ag composites exhibited bactericidal effectS under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Sulfonamides (SAs) are extensively used antibiotics and their residues in the water bodies propose potential threat to the public. In this study, degradation efficiency of sulfanilamide (SAM), which is the precursor of SAs, using WO{sub 3} nanoplates and their Ag heterogeneous as photocatalysts was investigated. WO{sub 3} nanoplates with uniform size were synthesized by a facile one step hydrothermal method. Different amount of Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were loaded onto WO{sub 3} nanoplates using a photo-reduction method to generate WO{sub 3}/Ag composites. The physio-chemical properties of synthesized nanomaterials were systematically characterized. Photodegradation of SAM by WO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}/Ag composites was conducted under visible light irradiation. The results show that WO{sub 3}/Ag composites performed much better than pure WO{sub 3} where the highest removal rate was 96.2% in 5 h. Ag as excellent antibacterial agent also endows certain antibacterial efficiency to WO{sub 3}, and 100% removal efficiency against Escherichia Coli and Bacillus subtilis could be achieved in 2 h under visible light irradiation for all three WO{sub 3}/Ag composites synthesized. The improved performance in terms of SAM degradation and antibacterial activity of WO{sub 3}/Ag can be attributed to the improved electron-hole pair separation rate where Ag NPs act as effective electron trapper during the photocatalytic process.

  20. Valence of wind power, photovoltaic and peak-load power plants as a part of the entire electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüppel, A.

    2014-01-01

    The transition to a higher share of renewable energy sources in the electricity sector leads to a multitude of challenges for the current electricity system. Within this thesis, the development of wind power and photovoltaics generation capacities in Germany is analysed based on the evaluation of technical and economic criteria. In order to derive those criteria, different scenarios with a separated and combined increase of wind and photovoltaics capacity are simulated using the model ATLANTIS. The results are compared to a reference scenario without additional wind and PV capacities. Furthermore, the value and functionality of the energy only market based on economic methods, as well as the value of peak load power plants based on opportunity costs are determined. The results of this thesis show, that the current market system is able to gain an additional annual welfare of four to six billion Euro at the best. This result shows that the task of optimising the power plant dispatch is well fulfilled by the current market design. However, the effects, e.g. fuel costs, which may influence this margin. The value of wind power and photovoltaics within the overall electricity system can be derived from the effort which is necessary to integrate these generation technologies into the existing system, and the changes in total costs of electricity generation. Based on the evaluation of time dependencies (seasonality of energy yield from wind and PV) as well as the development of total generation costs, the conclusion can be drawn that wind power is the more suitable RES generation technology for Germany. However, when it comes to grid integration measures, PV shows better results due to a higher generation potential in Southern Germany, which leads to a higher degree of utilisation. Therefore, there is no need to transport electricity from Northern to Southern Germany as it is the case with wind power. A common expansion of wind power and photovoltaics even shows slight

  1. High Strength Concrete Columns under Axial Compression Load: Hybrid Confinement Efficiency of High Strength Transverse Reinforcement and Steel Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perceka, Wisena; Liao, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yo-de

    2016-01-01

    Addition of steel fibers to high strength concrete (HSC) improves its post-peak behavior and energy absorbing capability, which can be described well in term of toughness. This paper attempts to obtain both analytically and experimentally the efficiency of steel fibers in HSC columns with hybrid confinement of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. Toughness ratio (TR) to quantify the confinement efficiency of HSC columns with hybrid confinement is proposed through a regression analysis by involving sixty-nine TRs of HSC without steel fibers and twenty-seven TRs of HSC with hybrid of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. The proposed TR equation was further verified by compression tests of seventeen HSC columns conducted in this study, where twelve specimens were reinforced by high strength rebars in longitudinal and transverse directions. The results show that the efficiency of steel fibers in concrete depends on transverse reinforcement spacing, where the steel fibers are more effective if the spacing transverse reinforcement becomes larger in the range of 0.25–1 effective depth of the section column. Furthermore, the axial load–strain curves were developed by employing finite element software (OpenSees) for simulating the response of the structural system. Comparisons between numerical and experimental axial load–strain curves were carried out. PMID:28773391

  2. Influence of the Operational Wear of the Stator Parts of Shroud Seals on the Economic Efficiency of the Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Dmitriev, S. S.; Petrunin, B. N.; Gusev, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    During the operation of steam turbines under transient conditions, due to different thermal expansion of the stator and rotor parts in the radial and axial directions, the clearances fixed in the course of assembling the seals of the flow path change, which causes rubbing in the seals and the wear of the latter. This inevitably increases the leakages through the seals. A particularly large difference in the relative axial and radial displacements of the rotor and stator parts is observed during the turbine start-ups when the difference in their temperature expansion is maximal. Upon the turbine stops, the turbine shafting runs down freely, as a rule, passing through all critical speeds at which the amplitude of the shafting oscillations reach their peak values, which also leads to seizures in the seals and their wear and tear. The seizures in the seals may also be a consequence of the eccentricity between the rotor and stator caused by the thermal strain of the stator, incorrect choice of the clearances, floating-up of the rotor in the bearing, and many other factors. Recently, standard shroud labyrinth seals are being replaced in the steam turbines by seals with honeycomb stator inserts, the design of which allows the ridges to cut into the honeycomb surface without damaging the former, which allows fixing a radial clearance in the seals of 0.5 mm. On the honeycomb surface where the ridges touch it, grooves are cut through. The wear of the shroud seals reduces the efficiency of the steam turbines during the operation to the greatest degree. However, by the present there have been no exact quantitative data available on the change in the leakage through the worn-out honeycomb seals. The paper presents the results of comparative experimental studies on the flow and power characteristics of seal models with smooth and honeycomb stator parts for various degrees of their wear. The studies showed that the leakages through the worn-out stator parts of the honeycomb seals

  3. Stress Induced in Periodontal Ligament under Orthodontic Loading (Part II): A Comparison of Linear Versus Non-Linear Fem Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, M; Deoli, Shilpi; Raghuveer, H P; Rani, M S; Hegde, Chatura; Vedavathi, B

    2015-09-01

    Simulation of periodontal ligament (PDL) using non-linear finite element method (FEM) analysis gives better insight into understanding of the biology of tooth movement. The stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusion and lingual root torque using non-linear properties. A three-dimensional (3D) FEM model of the maxillary incisors was generated using Solidworks modeling software. Stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusive and lingual root torque movements by 3D FEM using ANSYS software. These stresses were compared with linear and non-linear analyses. For intrusive and lingual root torque movements, distribution of stress over the PDL was within the range of optimal stress value as proposed by Lee, but was exceeding the force system given by Proffit as optimum forces for orthodontic tooth movement with linear properties. When same force load was applied in non-linear analysis, stresses were more compared to linear analysis and were beyond the optimal stress range as proposed by Lee for both intrusive and lingual root torque. To get the same stress as linear analysis, iterations were done using non-linear properties and the force level was reduced. This shows that the force level required for non-linear analysis is lesser than that of linear analysis.

  4. Associations Between Medicare Part D and Out-of-Pocket Spending, HIV Viral Load, Adherence, and ADAP Use in Dual Eligibles With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Nadya; Pence, Brian W; Cole, Stephen R; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Edmonds, Andrew; Oberlander, Jonathan; Plankey, Michael W; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Cohen, Mardge H; Milam, Joel E; Golub, Elizabeth T; Adimora, Adaora A

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of Medicare part D on January 1, 2006 required all adults who were dually enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) to transition prescription drug coverage from Medicaid to Medicare part D. Changes in payment systems and utilization management along with the loss of Medicaid protections had the potential to disrupt medication access, with uncertain consequences for dual eligibles with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who rely on consistent prescription coverage to suppress their HIV viral load (VL). To estimate the effect of Medicare part D on self-reported out-of-pocket prescription drug spending, AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) use, antiretroviral adherence, and HIV VL suppression among dual eligibles with HIV. Using 2003-2008 data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, we created a propensity score-matched cohort and used a difference-in-differences approach to compare dual eligibles' outcomes pre-Medicare and post-Medicare part D to those enrolled in Medicaid alone. Transition to Medicare part D was associated with a sharp increase in the proportion of dual eligibles with self-reported out-of-pocket prescription drug costs, followed by an increase in ADAP use. Despite the increase in out-of-pocket costs, both adherence and HIV VL suppression remained stable. Medicare part D was associated with increased out-of-pocket spending, although the increased spending did not seem to compromise antiretroviral therapy adherence or HIV VL suppression. It is possible that increased ADAP use mitigated the increase in out-of-pocket spending, suggesting successful coordination between Medicare part D and ADAP as well as the vital role of ADAP during insurance transitions.

  5. Searching while loaded: Visual working memory does not interfere with hybrid search efficiency but hybrid search uses working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-02-01

    In "hybrid search" tasks, such as finding items on a grocery list, one must search the scene for targets while also searching the list in memory. How is the representation of a visual item compared with the representations of items in the memory set? Predominant theories would propose a role for visual working memory (VWM) either as the site of the comparison or as a conduit between visual and memory systems. In seven experiments, we loaded VWM in different ways and found little or no effect on hybrid search performance. However, the presence of a hybrid search task did reduce the measured capacity of VWM by a constant amount regardless of the size of the memory or visual sets. These data are broadly consistent with an account in which VWM must dedicate a fixed amount of its capacity to passing visual representations to long-term memory for comparison to the items in the memory set. The data cast doubt on models in which the search template resides in VWM or where memory set item representations are moved from LTM through VWM to earlier areas for comparison to visual items.

  6. Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles delivering enhanced dye-loading and charge transport for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Liang; Qin, Zhengfei; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jian; Yang, Jianping; Li, Xing’ao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The photoelectrodes of DSSCs consisted of mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles. The interconnected nanoparticles enhance dye-loading capacity and charge transport. - Highlights: • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were synthesized by a template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles have the advantages of large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer. • The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. - Abstract: Mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanostructures meet both large surface area and connected-structure for electron transfer as ideal nano/micromaterials for application in solar cells, energy storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing. In this work, mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres consisting of interconnected nanoparticles were synthesized by template-free, one-step fast solvothermal process, where urea was used as capping agent to control phase and promote oriented growth. The morphology was assembled by nucleation-growth-assembly-mechanism. The mesoporous anatase TiO_2 microspheres with interconnected nanoparticles were further utilized as efficient photoelectrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which were beneficial to capacity of dye loading and charge transfer. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on the optimized thickness of TiO_2 photoelectrodes was up to 7.13% under standard AM 1.5 G illumination (100 mW/cm"2).

  7. Full on-chip and area-efficient CMOS LDO with zero to maximum load stability using adaptive frequency compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Haifeng; Zhou Feng, E-mail: fengzhou@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2010-01-15

    A full on-chip and area-efficient low-dropout linear regulator (LDO) is presented. By using the proposed adaptive frequency compensation (AFC) technique, full on-chip integration is achieved without compromising the LDO's stability in the full output current range. Meanwhile, the use of a compact pass transistor (the compact pass transistor serves as the gain fast roll-off output stage in the AFC technique) has enabled the LDO to be very area-efficient. The proposed LDO is implemented in standard 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology and occupies an active area as small as 220 x 320 {mu}m{sup 2}, which is a reduction to 58% compared to state-of-the-art designs using technologies with the same feature size. Measurement results show that the LDO can deliver 0-60 mA output current with 54 {mu}A quiescent current consumption and the regulated output voltage is 1.8 V with an input voltage range from 2 to 3.3 V. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  8. Full on-chip and area-efficient CMOS LDO with zero to maximum load stability using adaptive frequency compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Haifeng; Zhou Feng

    2010-01-01

    A full on-chip and area-efficient low-dropout linear regulator (LDO) is presented. By using the proposed adaptive frequency compensation (AFC) technique, full on-chip integration is achieved without compromising the LDO's stability in the full output current range. Meanwhile, the use of a compact pass transistor (the compact pass transistor serves as the gain fast roll-off output stage in the AFC technique) has enabled the LDO to be very area-efficient. The proposed LDO is implemented in standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology and occupies an active area as small as 220 x 320 μm 2 , which is a reduction to 58% compared to state-of-the-art designs using technologies with the same feature size. Measurement results show that the LDO can deliver 0-60 mA output current with 54 μA quiescent current consumption and the regulated output voltage is 1.8 V with an input voltage range from 2 to 3.3 V. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  9. Doxorubicin-loaded micelles of reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers as efficient "active" chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambón, A; Rey-Rico, A; Mistry, D; Brea, J; Loza, M I; Attwood, D; Barbosa, S; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Taboada, P; Mosquera, V

    2013-03-10

    Five reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) block copolymers, BOnEOmBOn, with BO ranging from 8 to 21 units and EO from 90 to 411 were synthesized and evaluated as efficient chemotherapeutic drug delivery nanocarriers and inhibitors of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump in a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line. The copolymers were obtained by reverse polymerization of poly(butylene oxide), which avoids transfer reaction and widening of the EO block distribution, commonly found in commercial poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamers). BOnEOmBOn copolymers formed spherical micelles of 10-40 nm diameter at lower concentrations (one order of magnitude) than those of equivalent poloxamers. The influence of copolymer block lengths and BO/EO ratios on the solubilization capacity and protective environment for doxorubicin (DOXO) was investigated. Micelles showed drug loading capacity ranging from ca. 0.04% to 1.5%, more than 150 times the aqueous solubility of DOXO, and protected the cargo from hydrolysis for more than a month due to their greater colloidal stability in solution. Drug release profiles at various pHs, and the cytocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the DOXO-loaded micelles were assessed in vitro. DOXO loaded in the polymeric micelles accumulated more slowly inside the cells than free DOXO due to its sustained release. All copolymers were found to be cytocompatible, with viability extents larger than 95%. In addition, the cytotoxicity of DOXO-loaded micelles was higher than that observed for free drug solutions in a MDR ovarian NCI-ADR-RES cell line which overexpressed P-gp. The inhibition of the P-gp efflux pump by some BOnEOmBOn copolymers, similar to that measured for the common P-gp inhibitor verapamil, favored the retention of DOXO inside the cell increasing its cytotoxic activity. Therefore, poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers offer interesting features as cell

  10. Achieving clean and efficient engine operation up to full load by combining optimized RCCI and dual-fuel diesel-gasoline combustion strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benajes, Jesús; García, Antonio; Monsalve-Serrano, Javier; Boronat, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized dual-fuel strategy to cover the whole engine load-speed map. • EURO VI NOx levels up to 14 bar IMEP with fully and highly premixed RCCI strategies. • Dual-fuel provides up to 7% higher efficiency than CDC if urea consumption is considered. - Abstract: This experimental work investigates the capabilities of the reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion concept to be operated in the whole engine map and discusses its benefits when compared to conventional diesel combustion. The experiments were conducted using a single-cylinder medium-duty diesel engine fueled with regular gasoline and diesel fuels. The main modification on the stock engine architecture was the addition of a port fuel injector in the intake manifold. In addition, with the aim of extending the reactivity controlled compression ignition operating range towards higher loads, the piston bowl volume was increased to reduce the compression ratio of the engine from 17.5:1 (stock) down to 15.3:1. To allow the dual-fuel operation over the whole engine map without exceeding the mechanical limitations of the engine, an optimized dual-fuel combustion strategy is proposed in this research. The combustion strategy changes as the engine load increases, starting from a fully premixed reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion up to around 8 bar IMEP, then switching to a highly premixed reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion up to 15 bar IMEP, and finally moving to a mainly diffusive dual-fuel combustion to reach the full load operation. The engine mapping results obtained using this combustion strategy show that reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion allows fulfilling the EURO VI NOx limit up to 14 bar IMEP. Ultra-low soot emissions are also achieved when the fully premixed combustion is promoted, however, the soot levels rise notably as the combustion strategy moves to a less premixed pattern. Finally, the direct comparison of

  11. Damage and fatigue crack growth of Eurofer steel first wall mock-up under cyclic heat flux loads. Part 2: Finite element analysis of damage evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Jeong-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The surface heat flux load of 3.5 MW/m 2 produced substantial stresses and inelastic strains in the heat-loaded surface region, especially at the notch root. • The notch root exhibited a typical notch effect such as stress concentration and localized inelastic yield leading to a preferred damage development. • The predicted damage evolution feature agrees well with the experimental observation. • The smooth surface also experiences considerable stresses and inelastic strains. However, the stress intensity and the amount of inelastic deformation are not high enough to cause any serious damage. • The level of maximum inelastic strain is higher at the notch root than at the smooth surface. On the other hand, the amplitude of inelastic strain variation is comparable at both positions. • The amount of inelastic deformation is significantly affected by the length of pulse duration time indicating the important role of creep. - Abstract: In the preceding companion article (part 1), the experimental results of the high-heat-flux (3.5 MW/m 2 ) fatigue tests of a Eurofer bare steel first wall mock-up was presented. The aim was to investigate the damage evolution and crack initiation feature. The mock-up used there was a simplified model having only basic and generic structural feature of an actively cooled steel FW component for DEMO reactor. In that study, it was found that microscopic damage was formed at the notch root already in the early stage of the fatigue loading. On the contrary, the heat-loaded smooth surface exhibited no damage up to 800 load cycles. In this paper, the high-heat-flux fatigue behavior is investigated with a finite element analysis to provide a theoretical interpretation. The thermal fatigue test was simulated using the coupled damage-viscoplastic constitutive model developed by Aktaa. The stresses, inelastic deformation and damage evolution at the notch groove and at the smooth surface are compared. The different damage

  12. Silver-loaded nanotubular structures enhanced bactericidal efficiency of antibiotics with synergistic effect in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu N

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Xu,1,2,* Hao Cheng,3,4,* Jiangwen Xu,1 Feng Li,3 Biao Gao,1 Zi Li,3 Chenghao Gao,3 Kaifu Huo,5 Jijiang Fu,1,2 Wei Xiong3 1The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 2Institute of Biology and Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 3Orthopaedic Department, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a major issue due to the long-term use and abuse of antibiotics in treatments in clinics. The combination therapy of antibiotics and silver (Ag nanoparticles is an effective way of both enhancing the antibacterial effect and decreasing the usage of antibiotics. Although the method has been proved to be effective in vitro, no in vivo tests have been carried out at present. Herein, we described a combination therapy of local delivery of Ag and systemic antibiotics treatment in vitro in an infection model of rat. Ag nanoparticle-loaded TiO2 nanotube (NT arrays (Ag-NTs were fabricated on titanium implants for a customized release of Ag ion. The antibacterial properties of silver combined with antibiotics vancomycin, rifampin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin, respectively, were tested in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay, disk diffusion assay, and antibiofilm formation test. Enhanced antibacterial activity of combination therapy was observed for all the chosen bacterial strains, including gram-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, gram

  13. A Comparative Study on Energy and Exergy Analyses of a CI Engine Performed with Different Multiple Injection Strategies at Part Load: Effect of Injection Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Özkan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a four stroke four cylinder direct injection CI engine was run using three different injection pressures. In all measurements, the fuel quantity per cycle, the pre injection and main injection timing, the boost pressure and the engine speed were kept constant. The motor tests were performed under 130, 140 and 150 MPa rail pressure. During the theoretical part of the study, combustion, emission, energy and exergy analysis were made using the test results. An increase in the injection pressure increases combustion efficiency. The results show that combustion efficiency is not enough by itself, because the increase in the power need of the injection pump, decreases the thermal efficiency. The increase in the combustion temperature, increases the cooling loss and decreases the exergetic efficiency. In addition, the NOx emissions increased by 12% and soot emissions decreased 44% via increasing injection pressure by 17%. The thermal and exergetic efficiencies are found inversely proportional with injection pressure. Exergy destruction is found independent of the injection pressure and its value is obtained as ~6%.

  14. Hybrid coolers under part-load conditions - Optimisation of operating costs and energy consumption; Simulation und Berechnung von hybriden Trockenkuehlern imTeillastbereich - Optimierung von Betriebskosten und Energieverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, H.

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive article takes a look at new European guidelines on the energy performance of buildings in which the total efficiency of the buildings or heat-transportation systems under partial loading is considered. On the basis of a real-life example, the author examines the influence of various components such as compressors, pumps and ventilators on energy consumption. Hybrid coolers are looked at and the characteristics of refrigeration machines with respect to varying outside temperature are discussed. Combined cooling for computer centres is examined and switchable, redundant combined systems are looked at. Optimisation of cooling systems for falling outside temperatures and the operation of cold-water systems are looked at. Simulation topics are discussed and optimisation with respect to costs and energy consumption are examined.

  15. Effect of hydrogen addition on combustion and emissions performance of a gasoline rotary engine at part load and stoichiometric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changwei; Su, Teng; Wang, Shuofeng; Zhang, Bo; Yu, Menghui; Cong, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of a H_2-blended gasoline rotary engine was studied. • The p, Bmep, T_m_a_x and η_b increased after H_2 blending. • Both the CA0-10 and CA10-90 were shortened by the H_2 addition. • H_2 addition resulted in the reduced HC, CO and CO_2 emissions. - Abstract: The rotary engines may encounter high fuel consumption and emissions due to its narrow and long combustion chamber design. The low ignition energy and high flame speed of hydrogen may help improve the combustion of rotary engines. In this paper, a gasoline rotary engine equipped with gasoline and hydrogen injectors was developed to investigate the combustion and emissions of hydrogen-blended gasoline rotary engines. The engine was run at 3000 rpm and a manifolds absolute pressure of 37.5 kPa with the stoichiometric excess air ratio. The spark timing was set to be 25°CA before the top dead center. The engine was first fueled with the pure gasoline and then blended with the hydrogen. The hydrogen volume fractions in the intake were gradually increased from 0% to 5.2%. The results showed that the combustion pressure, brake mean effective pressure, cylinder temperature and thermal efficiency were simultaneously increased after the hydrogen blending. The crank angle of peak pressure was advanced with the hydrogen addition. The hydrogen enrichment was effective on reducing flame development and propagation periods. HC emissions were reduced by 44.8% when the hydrogen volume fraction in the intake was raised from 0% to 5.2%, CO and CO_2 emissions were also reduced after the hydrogen blending.

  16. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  17. Technical note: optimization for improved tube-loading efficiency in the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masatoshi

    2010-08-01

    This article describes the spectral optimization of dual-energy computed tomography using balanced filters (bf-DECT) to reduce the tube loadings and dose by dedicating to the acquisition of electron density information, which is essential for treatment planning in radiotherapy. For the spectral optimization of bf-DECT, the author calculated the beam-hardening error and air kerma required to achieve a desired noise level in an electron density image of a 50-cm-diameter cylindrical water phantom. The calculation enables the selection of beam parameters such as tube voltage, balanced filter material, and its thickness. The optimal combination of tube voltages was 80 kV/140 kV in conjunction with Tb/Hf and Bi/Mo filter pairs; this combination agrees with that obtained in a previous study [M. Saito, "Spectral optimization for measuring electron density by the dual-energy computed tomography coupled with balanced filter method," Med. Phys. 36, 3631-3642 (2009)], although the thicknesses of the filters that yielded a minimum tube output were slightly different from those obtained in the previous study. The resultant tube loading of a low-energy scan of the present bf-DECT significantly decreased from 57.5 to 4.5 times that of a high-energy scan for conventional DECT. Furthermore, the air kerma of bf-DECT could be reduced to less than that of conventional DECT, while obtaining the same figure of merit for the measurement of electron density and effective atomic number. The tube-loading and dose efficiencies of bf-DECT were considerably improved by sacrificing the quality of the noise level in the images of effective atomic number.

  18. An efficient scenario-based and fuzzy self-adaptive learning particle swarm optimization approach for dynamic economic emission dispatch considering load and wind power uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahmani-Firouzi, Bahman; Farjah, Ebrahim; Azizipanah-Abarghooee, Rasoul

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy resources such as wind power plants are playing an ever-increasing role in power generation. This paper extends the dynamic economic emission dispatch problem by incorporating wind power plant. This problem is a multi-objective optimization approach in which total electrical power generation costs and combustion emissions are simultaneously minimized over a short-term time span. A stochastic approach based on scenarios is suggested to model the uncertainty associated with hourly load and wind power forecasts. A roulette wheel technique on the basis of probability distribution functions of load and wind power is implemented to generate scenarios. As a result, the stochastic nature of the suggested problem is emancipated by decomposing it into a set of equivalent deterministic problem. An improved multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm is applied to obtain the best expected solutions for the proposed stochastic programming framework. To enhance the overall performance and effectiveness of the particle swarm optimization, a fuzzy adaptive technique, θ-search and self-adaptive learning strategy for velocity updating are used to tune the inertia weight factor and to escape from local optima, respectively. The suggested algorithm goes through the search space in the polar coordinates instead of the Cartesian one; whereby the feasible space is more compact. In order to evaluate the efficiency and feasibility of the suggested framework, it is applied to two test systems with small and large scale characteristics. - Highlights: ► Formulates multi-objective DEED problem under a stochastic programming framework. ► Considers uncertainties related to forecasted values of load demand and wind power. ► Proposes an interactive fuzzy satisfying method based on the novel FSALPSO. ► Presents a new self-adaptive learning strategy to improve original PSO algorithm

  19. Study of the efficiency of transplantation of human neural stem cells to rats with spinal trauma: the use of functional load tests and BBB test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S V; Karasev, A V; Chekhonin, V P; Savchenko, E A; Viktorov, I V; Chelyshev, Yu A; Shaimardanova, G F

    2010-09-01

    Human ensheating neural stem cells of the olfactory epithelium were transplanted to adult male rats immediately after contusion trauma of the spinal cord at T9 level rostrally and caudally to the injury. Voluntary movements (by a 21-point BBB scale), rota-rod performance, and walking along a narrowing beam were monitored weekly over 60 days. In rats receiving cell transplantation, the mean BBB score significantly increased by 11% by the end of the experiment. The mean parameters of load tests also regularly surpassed the corresponding parameters in controls. The efficiency of transplantation (percent of animals with motor function recovery parameters surpassing the corresponding mean values in the control groups) was 62% by the state of voluntary motions, 37% by the rota-rod test, and 32% by the narrowing beam test. Morphometry revealed considerable shrinking of the zone of traumatic damage in the spinal cord and activation of posttraumatic remyelination in animals receiving transplantation of human neural stem cells.

  20. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy and Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang, Ming-Yi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [Solar Fuels Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  1. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h−1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  2. Effects of Organic Load, pH, and EC Variations of Raw Wastewater and Weather Condition on the Efficiency of Yazd Stabilization Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Mozaheb

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of organic load, pH, and EC variations of raw wastewater as well as the effect of weather condition on organic removal in Yazd wastewater Stabilization Ponds (2007. During the course of this study, composite samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of the anaerobic pond and the final effluent to measure such quality parameters as BOD5, COD, TSS, EC, and pH.  BOD5, COD, TSS, and Fecal coliform removal efficiencies in the final effluent were found to be 64.9%, 44.9 %, 62.6 %, and 99.96%, respectively. No intestinal nematode egg was observed. Comparison of BOD5 and COD concentrations in the filtered and non-filtered samples showed that 52% of the BOD5 and 57% of the COD in the final effluent, respectively, were due to the presence of algal mass and organic suspended solids in the non-filtered samples. The results showed that variations in organic load, pH, EC as well as seasonal weather variations had no effects on organic removal and that the removal of BOD5 was almost constant. Effluent EC was higher than influent EC. This phenomenon can be related to the evaporation rate in wastewater stabilization ponds. The survey of algae in the final effluent showed that the major species of algae were Phytoconis, Chlorella, and Anabaena.

  3. A proposal to improve e-waste collection efficiency in urban mining: Container loading and vehicle routing problems - A case study of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), also known as e-waste, is one of the most important waste streams with high recycling potential. Materials used in these products are valuable, but some of them are hazardous. The urban mining approach attempts to recycle as many materials as possible, so efficiency in collection is vital. There are two main methods used to collect WEEE: stationary and mobile, each with different variants. The responsibility of WEEE organizations and waste collection companies is to assure all resources required for these activities - bins, containers, collection vehicles and staff - are available, taking into account cost minimization. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly determine the capacity of containers and number of collection vehicles for an area where WEEE need to be collected. There are two main problems encountered in collection, storage and transportation of WEEE: container loading problems and vehicle routing problems. In this study, an adaptation of these two models for packing and collecting WEEE is proposed, along with a practical implementation plan designed to be useful for collection companies' guidelines for container loading and route optimization. The solutions are presented in the case studies of real-world conditions for WEEE collection companies in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficient Transdermal Delivery of Alendronate, a Nitrogen-Containing Bisphosphonate, Using Tip-Loaded Self-Dissolving Microneedle Arrays for the Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Hidemasa; Tanaka, Yutaro; Hitomi, Kaori; Liu, Shu; Quan, Ying-Shu; Kamiyama, Fumio; Sakane, Toshiyasu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2017-08-17

    To improve the transdermal bioavailability and safety of alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, we developed self-dissolving microneedle arrays (MNs), in which ALN is loaded only at the tip portion of micron-scale needles by a dip-coating method (ALN(TIP)-MN). We observed micron-scale pores in rat skin just after application of ALN(TIP)-MN, indicating that transdermal pathways for ALN were created by MN. ALN was rapidly released from the tip of MNs as observed in an in vitro release study. The tip portions of MNs completely dissolved in the rat skin within 5 min after application in vivo. After application of ALN(TIP)-MN in mice, the plasma concentration of ALN rapidly increased, and the bioavailability of ALN was approximately 96%. In addition, the decrease in growth plate was effectively suppressed by this efficient delivery of ALN in a rat model of osteoporosis. Furthermore, no skin irritation was observed after application of ALN(TIP)-MN and subcutaneous injection of ALN, while mild skin irritation was induced by whole-ALN-loaded MN (ALN-MN)-in which ALN is contained in the whole of the micron-scale needles fabricated from hyaluronic acid-and intradermal injection of ALN. These findings indicate that ALN(TIP)-MN is a promising transdermal formulation for the treatment of osteoporosis without skin irritation.

  5. EFFECT OF OPTICAL FIBER HYDROGEN LOADING ON THE INSCRIPTION EFFICIENCY OF CHIRPED BRAGG GRATINGS BY MEANS OF KrF EXCIMER LASER RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Varzhel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present comparative results of the chirped Bragg gratings inscription efficiency in optical fiber of domestic production with and without low-temperature hydrogen loading. Method. Chirped fiber Bragg gratings inscription was made by the Talbot interferometer with chirped phase mask having a chirp rate of 2.3 nm/cm used for the laser beam amplitude separation. The excimer laser system Coherent COMPexPro 150T, working with the gas mixture KrF (248 nm, was used as the radiation source. In order to increase the UV photosensitivity, the optical fiber was placed in a chamber with hydrogen under a pressure of 10 MPa and kept there for 14 days at 40 °C. Main Results. The usage of the chirped phase mask in a Talbot interferometer scheme has made it possible to get a full width at half-maximum of the fiber Bragg grating reflection spectrum of 3.5 nm with induced diffraction structure length of 5 mm. By preliminary hydrogen loading of optical fiber the broad reflection spectrum fiber Bragg gratings with a reflectivity close to 100% has been inscribed. Practical Relevance. The resulting chirped fiber Bragg gratings can be used as dispersion compensators in optical fiber communications, as well as the reflective elements of distributed fiber-optic phase interferometric sensors.

  6. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) During Large-Scale Load Testing and Rod Push-Out Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) is a structural concept developed by the Boeing Company to address the complex structural design aspects associated with a pressurized hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft configuration. The HWB has long been a focus of NASA's environmentally responsible aviation (ERA) project, following a building block approach to structures development, culminating with the testing of a nearly full-scale multi-bay box (MBB), representing a segment of the pressurized, non-circular fuselage portion of the HWB. PRSEUS is an integral structural concept wherein skins, frames, stringers and tear straps made of variable number of layers of dry warp-knit carbon-fiber stacks are stitched together, then resin-infused and cured in an out-of-autoclave process. The PRSEUS concept has the potential for reducing the weight and cost and increasing the structural efficiency of transport aircraft structures. A key feature of PRSEUS is the damage-arresting nature of the stitches, which enables the use of fail-safe design principles. During the load testing of the MBB, ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) was used to monitor several sites of intentional barely-visible impact damage (BVID) as well as to survey the areas surrounding the failure cracks after final loading to catastrophic failure. The damage-arresting ability of PRSEUS was confirmed by the results of NDE. In parallel with the large-scale structural testing of the MBB, mechanical tests were conducted of the PRSEUS rod-to-overwrap bonds, as measured by pushing the rod axially from a short length of stringer.

  7. Study of connected system of automatic control of load and operation efficiency of a steam boiler with extremal controller on a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabanin, V. R.; Starostin, A. A.; Repin, A. I.; Popov, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The problems of operation effectiveness increase of steam boilers are considered. To maintain the optimum fuel combustion modes, it is proposed to use an extremal controller (EC) determining the value of airflow rate, at which the boiler generating the desired amount of heat will consume a minimum amount of fuel. EC sets the determined value of airflow rate to airflow rate controller (ARC). The test results of numerical simulation dynamic nonlinear model of steam boiler with the connected system of automatic control of load and combustion efficiency using EC are presented. The model is created in the Simulink modeling package of MATLAB software and can be used to optimize the combustion modes. Based on the modeling results, the conclusion was drawn about the possibility in principle of simultaneously boiler load control and optimizing by EC the combustion modes when changing the fuel combustion heat and the boiler characteristics and its operating mode. It is shown that it is possible to automatically control the operation efficiency of steam boilers when using EC without applying the standard flue gas analyzers. The article considers the numerical simulation dynamic model of steam boiler with the schemes of control of fuel consumption and airflow rate, the steam pressure and EC; the purpose of using EC in the scheme with linear controllers and the requirements to the quality of its operation; the results of operation of boiler control schemes without EC with estimation of influence of roughness of thermal mode maps on the nature of static and dynamic connection of the control units of fuel consumption and airflow rate; the phase trajectories and the diagrams of transient processes occurring in the control scheme with EC with stepped changing the fuel quality and boiler characteristics; analysis of modeling results and prospects for using EC in the control schemes of boilers.

  8. A combined loading system integrated with portable winch and polyethylene chutes for loading of timber products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hulusi Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Truck loading operation is an important task during timber production operations in forestry. In Turkey, approximately 50 million timbers/logs are being produced per year, and then they are loaded into the logging trucks. The timber/logs are transported over the forest roads with an average of one million roundtrips. However, the traditional loading methods using manpower are mostly performed while some part is done by using loading machines which can be very costly and risky. This study aims developing a combined loading system in which heavy logs are loaded into logging trucks by pulling them by a log-line powered by a portable crane within the chute system. The slope of the log-line from ground to logging truck varied between 1% and 25%. Within the each work cycle of loading operation, only one log was loaded by pulling with portable crane. The average loading time was found as 161.8 seconds per cycle, in which 67% of the time was spent on pulling the log into the logging truck. The results indicated that the average pulling speed with crane power was 840.4 m/hr and productivity was calculated as 4.94 m3/hr. The result on system speed and productivity indicated close relations with results from previous studies. The hydraulic grapple loader or cranes are widely used and common loading machines, but they cannot be efficiently used in forestry operations, especially ones having a low timber productivity rate or having low economic value timber. In these conditions, loading methods that are cost efficient and do not require higher production rate should be employed. Therefore, a combined loading system introduced in this study can be a feasible solution for loading operations in those cases. Furthermore, it is believed that this loading system integrated with a portable crane can be cost efficient and time saving solution, as well as ergonomic and safe method in the field.

  9. Simple quasi-analytical holonomic homogenization model for the non-linear analysis of in-plane loaded masonry panels: Part 2, structural implementation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, G.; Bertolesi, E.

    2017-07-01

    The simple quasi analytical holonomic homogenization approach for the non-linear analysis of in-plane loaded masonry presented in Part 1 is here implemented at a structural leveland validated. For such implementation, a Rigid Body and Spring Mass model (RBSM) is adopted, relying into a numerical modelling constituted by rigid elements interconnected by homogenized inelastic normal and shear springs placed at the interfaces between adjoining elements. Such approach is also known as HRBSM. The inherit advantage is that it is not necessary to solve a homogenization problem at each load step in each Gauss point, and a direct implementation into a commercial software by means of an external user supplied subroutine is straightforward. In order to have an insight into the capabilities of the present approach to reasonably reproduce masonry behavior at a structural level, non-linear static analyses are conducted on a shear wall, for which experimental and numerical data are available in the technical literature. Quite accurate results are obtained with a very limited computational effort.

  10. A new technique for dynamic load distribution when two manipulators mutually lift a rigid object. Part 2, Derivation of entire system model and control architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    A rigid body model for the entire system which accounts for the load distribution scheme proposed in Part 1 as well as for the dynamics of the manipulators and the kinematic constraints is derived in the joint space. A technique is presented for expressing the object dynamics in terms of the joint variables of both manipulators which leads to a positive definite and symmetric inertia matrix. The model is then transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations which govern the behavior of the internal contact forces. The control architecture is applied to the model which results in the explicit decoupling of the position and internal contact force-controlled degrees of freedom (DOF).

  11. Hydro-acoustic resonance behavior in presence of a precessing vortex rope: observation of a lock-in phenomenon at part load Francis turbine operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favrel, A; Landry, C; Müller, A; Yamamoto, K; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro

  12. Nifedipine-loaded polymeric nanocapsules: validation of a stability-indicating HPLC method to evaluate the drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granada, Andréa; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon; Soldi, Valdir; Silva, Marcos António Segatto; Zanetti-Ramos, Betina Ghiel; Fernandes, Daniel; Stulzer, Hellen Karine

    2013-01-01

    A simple stability-indicating analytical method was developed and validated to quantify nifedipine in polymeric nanocapsule suspensions; an in vitro drug release study was then carried out. The analysis was performed using an RP C18 column, UV-Vis detection at 262 nm, and methanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. The method was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and range, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The results obtained were within the acceptable ranges. The nanocapsules, made of poly(epsilon-caprolactone), were prepared by the solvent displacement technique and showed high entrapment efficiency. The entrapment efficiency was 97.6 and 98.2% for the nifedipine-loaded polymeric nanocapsules prepared from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Pluronic F68 (PF68), respectively. The particle size and zeta potential of nanocapsules were found to be influenced by the nature of the stabilizer used. The mean diameter and zeta potential for nanocapsules with PVA and PF68 were 290.9 and 179.9 nm, and -17.7 mV and -32.7 mV, respectively. The two formulations prepared showed a drug release of up to 70% over 4 days. This behavior indicates the viability of this drug delivery system for use as a controlled-release system.

  13. Kazakhstan. Regular Review 2006. Part 1. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies, instruments and actors. Part 2. Indicators on Energy, Energy Efficiency, Economy and Environment. Based on IEA data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Kazakhstan is one of the ten largest countries in the world with very important and large energy and mineral resources and also possesses significant renewable energy resources. Energy policy objectives are presented throughout a number of documents (strategies, concepts etc.). One of the most crucial is the Development Strategy of Kazakhstan until 2030, which focuses on energy as one of the priority areas and determines the necessity of a 'rapid increase of production and export of oil and gas in order to receive revenues that would contribute to sustained economic growth and an improvement of the living standard of the people'. 'Strategy 2030' is the strategy of the development of the fuel and energy sector of the country and has been developed for both the period until 2015 and the period up to 2030. This document contains sections concerning energy efficiency and energy saving. Kazakhstan has a substantial electric power industry - third largest in the former Soviet Union after Russia and Ukraine with installed capacity of around 18500 MW. The goal and the basic priorities of the development of the sector are presented in the 'Programme for the Development of the Electricity Sector up to 2030'. The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan ensures the implementation of the state policy, including the sphere of energy saving. Among the functions of the Ministry is the elaboration of programmes of the energy sector strategic development as a constituent part of the development strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan, implementation of the strategy and organisation of the implementation of the state energy saving policy. The main objective of the Committee for State Energy Supervision under the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan is supervision and control of the reliability, security and efficiency of energy generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. The special State Energy Saving

  14. The response of a simulated mesoscale convective system to increased aerosol pollution: Part I: Precipitation intensity, distribution, and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Michal; Cotton, William R.; van den Heever, Susan C.; Saleeby, Stephen M.; Pierce, Jeffery R.

    2018-01-01

    Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) are important contributors to rainfall in the High Plains of the United States and elsewhere in the world. It is therefore of interest to understand how different aerosols serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) may impact the total amount, rates and spatial distribution of precipitation produced by MCSs. In this study, different aerosol concentrations and their effects on precipitation produced by an MCS are examined by simulating the 8 May 2009 "Super-Derecho" MCS using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), a cloud-resolving model (CRM) with sophisticated aerosol and microphysical parameterizations. Three simulations were conducted that differed only in the initial concentration, spatial distribution, and chemical composition of aerosols. Aerosol fields were derived from the output of GEOS-Chem, a 3D chemical transport numerical model. Results from the RAMS simulations show that the total domain precipitation was not significantly affected by variations in aerosol concentrations, however, the pollution aerosols altered the precipitation characteristics. The more polluted simulations exhibited higher precipitation rates, higher bulk precipitation efficiency, a larger area with heavier precipitation, and a smaller area with lighter precipitation. These differences arose as a result of aerosols enhancing precipitation in the convective region of the MCS while suppressing precipitation from the MCS's stratiform-anvil. In the convective region, several processes likely contributed to an increase of precipitation. First, owing to the very humid environment of this storm, the enhanced amount of cloud water available to be collected overwhelmed the reduction in precipitation efficiency associated with the aerosol-induced production of smaller droplets which led to a net increase in the conversion of cloud droplets to precipitation. Second, higher aerosol concentrations led to invigoration of convective updrafts which

  15. Dynamic Stability of Cylindrical Shells under Moving Loads by Applying Advanced Controlling Techniques—Part II: Using Piezo-Stack Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Saadeldin Eldalil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The load acting on the actively controlled cylindrical shell under a transient pressure pulse propelling a moving mass (gun case has been experimentally studied. The concept of using piezoelectric stack and stiffener combination is utilized for damping the tube wall radial and circumferential deforming vibrations, in the correct meeting location timing of the moving mass. The experiment was carried out by using the same stiffened shell tube of the experimental 14 mm gun tube facility which is used in part 1. Using single and double stacks is tried at two pressure levels of low-speed modes, which have response frequencies adapted with the used piezoelectric stacks characteristics. The maximum active damping ratio is occurred at high-pressure level. The radial circumferential strains are measured by using high-frequency strain gage system in phase with laser beam detection system similar to which used in part 1. Time resolved strain measurements of the wall response were obtained, and both precursor and transverse hoop strains have been resolved. A complete comparison had been made between the effect of active controlled and stepped structure cases, which indicate a significant attenuation ratio especially at higher operating pressures.

  16. A fully integrated, wide-load-range, high-power-conversion-efficiency switched capacitor DC-DC converter with adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Hiroki; Hirose, Tetsuya; Kojima, Yuta; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present a wide-load-range switched-capacitor DC-DC buck converter with an adaptive bias comparator for ultra-low-power power management integrated circuit. The proposed converter is based on a conventional one and modified to operate in a wide load range by developing a load current monitor used in an adaptive bias comparator. Measurement results demonstrated that our proposed converter generates a 1.0 V output voltage from a 3.0 V input voltage at a load of up to 100 µA, which is 20 times higher than that of the conventional one. The power conversion efficiency was higher than 60% in the load range from 0.8 to 100 µA.

  17. Integrating Autonomous Load Controllers in Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James

    , but they are characterized by variable generation that is only partly predictable. Managing loads is already used in limited circumstances to improve security and efficiency of the power system. In power systems with a large penetration of variable generation, load management has large role to play in adapting consumption......Electric energy systems stand on the brink of radical change as the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions pushes more efficient utilization of energy resources and the adoption of renewable energy sources. New renewable sources such as wind and solar have a large potential......-sensitive load controller has been designed, implemented, and tested in real-life settings. Its performance demonstrated a large potential resource, in some cases greater than the average power consumption. The accuracy of load models was validated by comparison with field data. A voltage-sensitive controller...

  18. Development of methods for evaluation of electricity saving and load levelling measures. Part 2: The planning and implementation of a power conservation campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storm Soerensen, M.; Madsen, P.K. [NESA A/S, Research and Development Dept. (Denmark)

    1997-12-01

    In recent years many campaigns and projects have been carried out with the purpose of reducing the energy consumption. Simultaneously a lot of economic and structural changes are taking place in society in general; changes which also affect the size of the electricity consumption. Furthermore, there is a trend towards increased use of wind mills and decentral combined heating and power plants, which affects the electricity load of the local area. It is difficult to identify and separate the effect of each of these attitude-adjusting activities. The project `Development of methods for evaluation of the effect of electricity saving and load levelling measures` focuses on two different methods which, on different levels, can be used to determine the impact of different different activities on the electricity consumption. Both methods are based on mathematical statistics, and they consist of an analysis of historical data and a test campaign which will make it possible to test specific activities in a comparatively small scale. The historical part covers the years 1974 to 1994 and include such variables as: demography, economic factors, climatic conditions, periods of electricity saving campaigns, the start of billing according to time of day tariff etc. The wish to be able to measure the extent of these energy saving and load reducing initiatives resulted in a test campaign which was carried out under very restricted conditions starting in the fall of 1996. If the effect of the test campaign can be measured and as a consequence of this a method can be estimated, it will be possible to place models which can measure the effect of future campaigns. The primary object of the campaign is not the size of the electricity savings of the individual customer, but rather to obtain total savings for the entire group of customers. The test has been structured in a way which makes it possible to perform an analysis of the effect of the campaign by use of analysis of intervention

  19. Heat pump control method based on direct measurement of evaporation pressure to improve energy efficiency and indoor air temperature stability at a low cooling load condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Sung; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Ahn, Byoung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New heat pump control method was developed. • Experimental investigation on performance of heat pump with various control method. • New control method appeared to improve the stability of indoor air temperature. • New control method appeared to have a potential to reduce power consumption. - Abstract: The control systems of conventional heat pumps have an input of refrigerant temperature at the evaporator outlet to maintain superheat at proper level. In order to develop a control method that can be used to achieve better indoor thermal comfort and energy efficiency at a low cooling load condition than the current control method, a new method of the evaporation pressure control based on the evaporator outlet pressure reading (EPCP) was developed. The changes in the stability of indoor air temperature and power consumption were measured while changing the compressor frequency in accordance with the new control method. Compared with the evaporation pressure control based on the evaporator outlet temperature reading, the EPCP control method appeared to improve the stability of room air temperature or occupant thermal comfort significantly

  20. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Efficient techniques for the long time simulation of the disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skokos, Ch., E-mail: haris.skokos@uct.ac.za [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Gerlach, E. [Lohrmann Observatory, Technical University Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Bodyfelt, J.D., E-mail: J.Bodyfelt@massey.ac.nz [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University, Albany, Private Bag 102904, North Shore City, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Papamikos, G. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Eggl, S. [IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, 77 Avenue Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-01

    While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.

  1. High order three part split symplectic integrators: Efficient techniques for the long time simulation of the disordered discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokos, Ch.; Gerlach, E.; Bodyfelt, J.D.; Papamikos, G.; Eggl, S.

    2014-01-01

    While symplectic integration methods based on operator splitting are well established in many branches of science, high order methods for Hamiltonian systems that split in more than two parts have not been studied in great detail. Here, we present several high order symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian systems that can be split in exactly three integrable parts. We apply these techniques, as a practical case, for the integration of the disordered, discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DDNLS) and compare their efficiencies. Three part split algorithms provide effective means to numerically study the asymptotic behavior of wave packet spreading in the DDNLS – a hotly debated subject in current scientific literature.

  2. Estimation of energetic efficiency of heat supply in front of the aircraft at supersonic accelerated flight. Part II. Mathematical model of the trajectory boost part and computational results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, A. F.

    2009-03-01

    The fuel economy was estimated at boost trajectory of aerospace plane during energy supply to the free stream. Initial and final velocities of the flight were given. A model of planning flight above cold air in infinite isobaric thermal wake was used. The comparison of fuel consumption was done at optimal trajectories. The calculations were done using a combined power plant consisting of ramjet and liquid-propellant engine. An exergy model was constructed in the first part of the paper for estimating the ramjet thrust and specific impulse. To estimate the aerodynamic drag of aircraft a quadratic dependence on aerodynamic lift is used. The energy for flow heating is obtained at the sacrifice of an equivalent decrease of exergy of combustion products. The dependencies are obtained for increasing the range coefficient of cruise flight at different Mach numbers. In the second part of the paper, a mathematical model is presented for the boost part of the flight trajectory of the flying vehicle and computational results for reducing the fuel expenses at the boost trajectory at a given value of the energy supplied in front of the aircraft.

  3. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  4. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.; Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  5. Motor-operator gearbox efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, we compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators we tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer

  6. Without alternative. Oil-free piston compressor for foil production works with a half-load control system very efficiently; Ohne Alternative. Oelfreie Kolbenkompressoren fuer die Folienproduktion arbeiten mit Halblast-Steuerung sehr wirtschaftlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlmeyer, N. [Buero fuer Kommunikation, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2003-09-29

    Oil-free piston compressors save in comparision to oil free screw compressors up to 20% of energy costs. The half-load control system enables a half conveyor rate without loss of efficiency. (GL) [German] Oelfrei verdichtende Kolbenkompressoren sparen im Vergleich zu oelfreien Schraubenverdichtern bis zu 20% an Energiekosten. Die Halblast-Steuerung ermoeglicht die halbe Liefermenge ohne Wirkungsgradverlust. (orig.)

  7. Quantum-chemical prediction of the effects of Ni-loading on the hydrogenation and water-splitting efficiency of TiO2 nanoparticles with an experimental test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Kuo; Chuang, Chung-Ching; Raghunath, Putikam; Srinivasadesikan, V.; Wang, T. T.; Lin, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of Ni-loading on TiO2 nanoparticles can pronouncedly reduce the barriers for dissociation of H2 from 48 kcal/mol on the pure TiO2 to as low as 1-3 kcal/mol on the loaded samples facilitating the hydrogenation of NPs. Preliminary data of our test indicate that the hydrogenation of Ni-loaded TiO2 NPs results in a significant UV-visible absorption extending well beyond 750 nm with an increase in water splitting efficiency by as much as 67 times over those of pure and hydrogenated TiO2 NPs without Ni-loading under our mild hydrogenation condition using 800 Torr of H2 at 300 °C for 3 h.

  8. Growth, Metabolism and Yield of Rice Cultivated in Soils Amended with Fly Ash and Cyanobacteria and Metal Loads in Plant Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra N. Padhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment with fly ash (FA and combined supplementation with N2-fixing cyanobacteria masses as biofertilizer were done in field experiments with rice. Amendments with FA levels, 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kg/m2, caused increase in growth and yield of rice up to 8.0 kg/m2, monitored with several parameters. Pigment contents and enzyme activities of leaves were enhanced by FA, with the maximum level of FA at 10.0 kg/m2. Protein content of rice seeds was the highest in plants grown at FA level 4.0 kg/m2. Basic soil properties, pH value, percentage of silt, percentage of clay, water-holding capacity, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content increased due to the FA amendment. Parallel supplementation of FA amended plots with 1.0 kg/m2 N2-fixing cyanobacteria mass caused further significant increments of the most soil properties, and rice growth and yield parameters. 1000-grain weight of rice plants grown at FA level 4.0 kg/m2 along with cyanobacteria supplementation was the maximum. Cyanobacteria supplementation caused increase of important basic properties of soil including the total N-content. Estimations of elemental content in soils and plant parts (root and seed were done by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Accumulations of K, P, Fe and several plant micronutrients (Mn, Ni, Co, Zn and Cu and toxic elements (Pb, Cr and Cd increased in soils and plant parts as a function of the FA gradation, but Na content remained almost unchanged in soils and seeds. Supplementation of cyanobacteria had ameliorating effect on toxic metal contents of soils and plant parts. The FA level 4.0 kg/m2, with 1.0 kg/m2 cyanobacteria mass supplementation, could be taken ideal, since there would be recharging of the soil with essential micronutrients as well as toxic chemicals in comparative lesser proportions, and cyanobacteria mass would cause lessening toxic metal loads with usual N2-fixation.

  9. Load leveling total system. Part 2. Development of load leveling logic for residential customer; Fuka heijunka total system. 2. Kateiyo juyoka wo taisho to shita heijunka ronri no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asari, M.; Nanahara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    It is essential, in order to meet steadily increasing demands for electrical power, to develop techniques for effective utilization of energy and load leveling. Described herein is development, by the aid of linear programming, of logic for daily management of charge/discharge of load conditioners and reverse power flow, for predicted loads and patterns of power generated by photovoltaic cells installed at individual customers. It is aimed at minimizing power rate and leveling of load at distribution systems. Predicted loads, outputs by photovoltaic cell units and different power rates by time zone for the next day are inputted, to determine the charge/discharge schedules and power supply/reverse flow patterns for that day, in order to minimize power rates and level loads at higher hierarchical levels. The logic-aided daily simulation for various districts confirms the operational patterns that realize improved utilization of pole-mounted transformers while reducing costs at customers, and effects of prediction errors. 4 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Efficient phase contrast imaging in STEM using a pixelated detector. Part 1: Experimental demonstration at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennycook, Timothy J., E-mail: tpennycook@gmail.com [EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Lupini, Andrew R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Yang, Hao [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Murfitt, Matthew F. [Nion Co., 1102 8th St., Kirkland, WA 98033 (United States); Jones, Lewys [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Nellist, Peter D. [EPSRC SuperSTEM Facility, Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    We demonstrate a method to achieve high efficiency phase contrast imaging in aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a pixelated detector. The pixelated detector is used to record the Ronchigram as a function of probe position which is then analyzed with ptychography. Ptychography has previously been used to provide super-resolution beyond the diffraction limit of the optics, alongside numerically correcting for spherical aberration. Here we rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations, but use the pixelated detector data set to utilize the largest possible volume of Fourier space to create high efficiency phase contrast images. The use of ptychography to diagnose the effects of chromatic aberration is also demonstrated. Finally, the four dimensional dataset is used to compare different bright field detector configurations from the same scan for a sample of bilayer graphene. Our method of high efficiency ptychography produces the clearest images, while annular bright field produces almost no contrast for an in-focus aberration-corrected probe. - Highlights: • Ptychographic high efficiency phase contrast imaging is demonstrated in STEM. • We rely on a hardware aberration corrector to eliminate aberrations. • High efficiency is achieved by collecting all the relevant interference. • Use of a pixelated detector allows comparison of bright field modes post acquisition. • Ptychography provides the clearest images among the STEM bright field modes tested.

  11. Unified Analysis of Multi-Chamber Contact Tanks and Mixing Efficiency Based on Vorticity Field. Part I: Hydrodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Demirel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-chamber contact tanks have been extensively used in industry for water treatment to provide potable water to communities, which is essential for human health. To evaluate the efficiency of this treatment process, flow and tracer transport analysis have been used in the literature using Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS and large-eddy simulations (LES. The purpose of this study is two-fold. First a unifying analysis of the flow field is presented and similarities and differences in the numerical results that were reported in the literature are discussed. Second, the vorticity field is identified as the key parameter to use in separating the mean flow (jet zone and the recirculating zones. Based on the concepts of vorticity gradient and flexion product, it is demonstrated that the separation of the recirculation zone and the jet zone, fluid-fluid flow separation, is possible. The separation of the recirculation zones and vortex core lines are characterized using the definition of the Lamb vector. The separated regions are used to characterize the mixing efficiency in the chambers of the contact tank. This analysis indicates that the recirculation zone and jet zone formation are three-dimensional and require simulations over a long period of time to reach stability. It is recognized that the characteristics of the jet zones and the recirculation zones are distinct for each chamber and they follow a particular pattern and symmetry between the alternating chambers. Hydraulic efficiency coefficients calculated for each chamber show that the chambers having an inlet adjacent to the free surface may be designed to have larger volumes than the chambers having wall bounded inlets to improve the efficiency of the contact tank. This is a simple design alternative that would increase the efficiency of the system. Other observations made through the chamber analysis are also informative in redefining the characteristics of the efficiency of the

  12. A complex study on the reliability assessment of the containment of a PWR. Part I - Magnitude and probability of internal load behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, W.; Kafka, P.

    1977-01-01

    For evaluation of the reliability of the safety enclosure in the case of accidents the time-dependent loads by internal pressure and temperature on the spheric steel containment and the correspondent probabilities had to be calculated. Of the spectrum of possible accidents, e.g. large LOCA which leads to a maximum pressure of approximately 4.7 bar. working of all safety systems presumed, small LOCA or rupture of a primary steam pipe, only those have been selected which result in a considerable increase of internal pressure in the safety containment. The pressure buildup in the steel containment depends roughly on the radioactive decay energy produced in the containment, on the performance of the safety systems operative after the accident and on the energy absorbed and transferred by the structural parts of the containment. For simplification the analysis of system behavior was performed in separate steps. Analysis was started by evaluation of alternate possibilities of pressure buildup depending on the function of different safety systems. Then the time dependent changes of temperature and pressure in the containment were calculated as well as the probabilities of the occurrence of the different maximum pressures. Technical data and accident event sequences describing the system analysed were taken from the PWR Biblis B, which at this time is typical for the PWR-line construction in the FRG. In order to avoid event sequences leading to complicated physical phenomena such sequences were selected which allowed well-defined description of consequences as hydrogen production by reaction of water with the Zircalloy fuel cladding or pressure buildup by CO 2 or steam generated from concrete getting in contact with the core-melt. The computer code ZOCO VI was used to calculate pressure buildup for the different event sequences. This code calculates time dependence of pressure and temperature in a multiply segmented safety containment considering accumulation and

  13. An Improved Flexible Solar Thermal Energy Integration Process for Enhancing the Coal-Based Energy Efficiency and NOx Removal Effectiveness in Coal-Fired Power Plants under Different Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Han

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An improved flexible solar-aided power generation system (SAPG for enhancing both selective catalytic reduction (SCR de-NOx efficiency and coal-based energy efficiency of coal-fired power plants is proposed. In the proposed concept, the solar energy injection point is changed for different power plant loads, bringing about different benefits for coal-fired power generation. For partial/low load, solar energy is beneficially used to increase the flue gas temperature to guarantee the SCR de-NOx effectiveness as well as increase the boiler energy input by reheating the combustion air. For high power load, solar energy is used for saving steam bleeds from turbines by heating the feed water. A case study for a typical 1000 MW coal-fired power plant using the proposed concept has been performed and the results showed that, the SCR de-NOx efficiency of proposed SAPG could increase by 3.1% and 7.9% under medium load and low load conditions, respectively, as compared with the reference plant. The standard coal consumption rate of the proposed SAPG could decrease by 2.68 g/kWh, 4.05 g/kWh and 6.31 g/kWh for high, medium and low loads, respectively, with 0.040 USD/kWh of solar generated electricity cost. The proposed concept opens up a novel solar energy integration pattern in coal-fired power plants to improve the pollutant removal effectiveness and decrease the coal consumption of the power plant.

  14. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 2: Model development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint

  15. Enhancement of the efficiency of the automatic control system to control the thermal load of steam boilers fired with fuels of several types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismatkhodzhaev, S. K.; Kuzishchin, V. F.

    2017-05-01

    An automatic control system to control the thermal load (ACS) in a drum-type boiler under random fluctuations in the blast-furnace and coke-oven gas consumption rates and to control action on the natural gas consumption is considered. The system provides for use of a compensator by the basic disturbance, the blast-furnace gas consumption rate. To enhance the performance of the system, it is proposed to use more accurate mathematical second-order delay models of the channels of the object under control in combination with calculation by frequency methods of the controller parameters as well as determination of the structure and parameters of the compensator considering the statistical characteristics of the disturbances and using simulation. The statistical characteristics of the random blast-furnace gas consumption signal based on experimental data are provided. The random signal is presented in the form of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components. The models of the correlation functions and spectral densities are developed. The article presents the results of calculating the optimal settings of the control loop with the controlled variable in the form of the "heat" signal with the restricted frequency variation index using three variants of the control performance criteria, viz., the linear and quadratic integral indices under step disturbance and the control error variance under random disturbance by the blastfurnace gas consumption rate. It is recommended to select a compensator designed in the form of series connection of two parts, one of which corresponds to the operator inverse to the transfer function of the PI controller, i.e., in the form of a really differentiating element. This facilitates the realization of the second part of the compensator by the invariance condition similar to transmitting the compensating signal to the object input. The results of simulation under random disturbance by the blast-furnace gas consumption are reported

  16. Damage and fatigue crack growth of Eurofer steel first wall mock-up under cyclic heat flux loads. Part 1: Electron beam irradiation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, J.H., E-mail: you@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Höschen, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Pintsuk, G. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IEK2, Euratom Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Highlights: • Clear evidence of microscopic damage and crack formation at the notch root in the early stage of the fatigue loading (50–100 load cycles). • Propagation of fatigue crack at the notch root in the course of subsequent cyclic heat-flux loading followed by saturation after roughly 600 load cycles. • No sign of damage on the notch-free surface up to 800 load cycles. • No obvious effect of the pulse time duration on the crack extension. • Slight change in the grain microstructure due to the formation of sub-grain boundaries by plastic deformation. - Abstract: Recently, the idea of bare steel first wall (FW) is drawing attention, where the surface of the steel is to be directly exposed to high heat flux loads. Hence, the thermo-mechanical impacts on the bare steel FW will be different from those of the tungsten-coated one. There are several previous works on the thermal fatigue tests of bare steel FW made of austenitic steel with regard to the ITER application. In the case of reduced-activation steel Eurofer97, a candidate structural material for the DEMO FW, there is no report on high heat flux tests yet. The aim of the present study is to investigate the thermal fatigue behavior of the Eurofer-based bare steel FW under cyclic heat flux loads relevant to DEMO operation. To this end, we conducted a series of electron beam irradiation tests with heat flux load of 3.5 MW/m{sup 2} on water-cooled mock-ups with an engraved thin notch on the surface. It was found that the notch root region exhibited a marked development of damage and fatigue cracks whereas the notch-free surface manifested no sign of crack formation up to 800 load cycles. Results of extensive microscopic investigation are reported.

  17. Switzerland. Regular Review 2006. Part 1. Trends in energy and energy efficiency policies, instruments and actors. Part 2. Indicators on Energy, Energy Efficiency, Economy and Environment. Based on national data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Swiss energy policy is characterised by a number of specific factors, which are: (1) the federal structure of the country and its direct democracy; (2) the subsidiarity principle, which calls for state regulation as a last resort after private initiatives have failed; (3) its economic structure with a dominant services sector and little heavy industry; and finally (4) the growing influence of EU policymaking. Energy policy is a split responsibility between the federal state and the twenty-six cantons. Federal energy policymaking has been strengthened in recent years (in matters such as standards and labels), chiefly by means of the 1998 Energy Law and its subsequent amendments. In other domains such as buildings, cantons have clung to their prerogatives and merely consented to harmonised regulations and standards. In many instances, the federal state sets a minimum standard (like e.g. for feed-in tariffs), leaving it to cantons to pursue more generous policies. A sizeable portion of the federal SwissEnergy programme is allocated to co-financing cantonal programmes and projects. The efficiency of energy policies and programmes has improved over the last few years owing to stricter monitoring and harmonisation, but large disparities among cantonal policies prevail. Some indicators, such as per capita energy efficiency spending, highlight the scope for action in laggard cantons. Under Swiss direct democracy, any law, even those passed by parliament, may be subjected to a popular verdict. This has happened to seven energy-related items since 2000, including pro-renewable proposals, which were defeated. This underscores the importance of communication of energy policy matters. According to polls, Swiss people tend to have become less concerned with environmental issues in recent years. But climate change, as it manifests itself in receding glaciers, devastating floods and landslides, has sharpened the public's receptiveness for the cause of sustainable energy. This

  18. Unified Analysis of Multi-Chamber Contact Tanks and Mixing Efficiency Evaluation Based on Vorticity Field. Part II: Transport Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ender Demirel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mixing characteristics of multi-chambered contact tank are analyzed employing the validated three-dimensional numerical model developed in the companion paper. Based on the flow characterization, novel volumetric mixing efficiency definitions are proposed for the assessment of the hydrodynamic and chemical transport properties of the contact tank and its chambers. Residence time distribution functions are analyzed not only at the outlet of each chamber but also inside the chambers using the efficiency definitions for both Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS and large eddy simulation (LES results. A novel tracer mixing index is defined to characterize short circuiting and mixing effects of the contact system. Comparisons of the results of these indexes for RANS and LES solutions indicate that mixing characteristics are stronger in LES due to the unsteady turbulent eddy mixing even though short circuiting effects are also more prominent in LES results. This result indicates that the mixing analysis based on the LES results simulates the mixing characteristics instantaneously, which is more realistic than that in RANS. Since LES analysis can capture turbulent eddy mixing better than RANS analysis, the interaction of recirculation and jet zones are captured more effectively in LES, which tends to predict higher turbulent mixing in the contact system. The analysis also shows that the mixing efficiency of each chamber of the contact tank is different, thus it is necessary to consider distinct chemical release and volumetric designs for each chamber in order to maximize the mixing efficiency of the overall process in a contact tank system.

  19. Stiffness Matters: Part II - The Effects of Plate Stiffness on Load-Sharing and the Progression of Fusion Following ACDF In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joshua M; Chlebek, Carolyn; Clough, Ashley M; Wells, Alexandra K; Batzinger, Kathleen E; Houston, John M; Kradinova, Katerina; Glennon, Joseph C; DiRisio, Darryl J; Ledet, Eric H

    2018-03-19

    Real time in vivo measurement of forces in the cervical spine of goats following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). To measure interbody forces in the cervical spine during the time course of fusion following ACDF with plates of different stiffnesses. Following ACDF, the biomechanics of the arthrodesis is largely dictated by the plate. The properties of the plate prescribe the extent of load-sharing through the disc space versus the extent of stress-shielding. Load-sharing promotes interbody bone formation and stress-shielding can inhibit maturation of bone. However, these principles have never been validated in vivo. Measuring in vivo biomechanics of the cervical spine is critical to understanding the complex relationships between implant design, interbody loading, load-sharing, and the progression of fusion. Anterior cervical plates of distinct bending stiffnesses were placed surgically following ACDF in goats. A validated custom force-sensing interbody implant was placed in the disc space to measure load-sharing in the spine. Interbody loads were measured in vivo in real time during the course of fusion for each plate. Interbody forces during flexion/extension were highly dynamic. In animals that received high stiffness plates, maximum forces were in extension whereas in animals that received lower stiffness plates, maximum forces were in flexion. As fusion progressed, interbody load magnitude decreased. The magnitude of interbody forces in the cervical spine is dynamic and correlates to activity and posture of the head and neck. The magnitude and consistency of forces in the interbody space correlates to plate stiffness with more compliant plates resulting in more consistent load-sharing. The magnitude of interbody forces decreases as fusion matures suggesting that smart interbody implants may be used as a diagnostic tool to indicate the progression of interbody fusion. N/A.

  20. How Important Is the Organic Part of Lead Halide Perovskite Photovoltaic Cells? Efficient CsPbBr3 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbak, Michael; Cahen, David; Hodes, Gary

    2015-07-02

    Hybrid organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite photovoltaic cells have already surpassed 20% conversion efficiency in the few years that they have been seriously studied. However, many fundamental questions still remain unanswered as to why they are so good. One of these is "Is the organic cation really necessary to obtain high quality cells?" In this study, we show that an all-inorganic version of the lead bromide perovskite material works equally well as the organic one, in particular generating the high open circuit voltages that are an important feature of these cells.

  1. Distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, V.; Andonov, D.; Gagovski, I.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the interactive distribution load forecast application that performs the distribution load forecast with interactive correction of horizon loads. It consists of two major parts implemented in Fortran and Visual Basic. The Fortran part is used for the forecasts computations. It consists of two methods: Load Transfer Coupling Curve Fitting (LTCCF) and load Forecast Using Curve Shape Clustering (FUCSC). LTCCF is used to 'correct' the contaminated data because of load transfer among neighboring distribution areas. FUCSC uses curve shape clustering to forecast the distribution loads of small areas. The forecast for each small area is achieved by using the shape of corresponding cluster curve. The comparison of forecasted loads of the area with historical data will be used as a tool for the correction of the estimated horizon load. The Visual Basic part is used to provide flexible interactive user-friendly environment. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  2. FY 1999 Technical research and development for environmentally friendly and highly efficient energy utilization system. Technical research and development for highly efficient and effective energy utilization (Technical research and development for optimum system designs - Part 3); 1999 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 3. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Research and development program is conducted for the elementary techniques as part of the eco-energy urban project of New Sunshine Project. Described herein are the FY 1999 results for the (techniques for transportation and storage of energy (continued), energy supply and utilization, reducing environmental loads, and designing the optimum systems). The R and D on heat transfer system through the vacuum heat insulation pipes involves fabrication, on a trial basis, the vacuum insulation covers for the vacuum insulation tubes, joints, flanges and valves for the 80A pipes, and the heat loss evaluation test for each item. The R and D on the energy supply and utilization techniques involves the heat transfer systems for a variety of fuels by the highly functional heat pump, and compression/absorption hybrid type heat-utilization system. The hybrid type heat-utilization system simulation results suggest possibility of achieving exergy efficiency of 56% as the development target by use of the new medium. The R and D on the environmental load reduction involves the power-saving type heat pump systems which use a natural coolant. (NEDO)

  3. Development of electrical efficiency measurement techniques for 10 kW-class SOFC system: Part II. Uncertainty estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Momma, Akihiko; Kato, Ken; Negishi, Akira; Takano, Kiyonami; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainty of electrical efficiency measurement was investigated for a 10 kW-class SOFC system using town gas. Uncertainty of heating value measured by the gas chromatography method on a mole base was estimated as ±0.12% at 95% level of confidence. Micro-gas chromatography with/without CH 4 quantification may be able to reduce uncertainty of measurement. Calibration and uncertainty estimation methods are proposed for flow-rate measurement of town gas with thermal mass-flow meters or controllers. By adequate calibrations for flowmeters, flow rate of town gas or natural gas at 35 standard litters per minute can be measured within relative uncertainty ±1.0% at 95 % level of confidence. Uncertainty of power measurement can be as low as ±0.14% when a precise wattmeter is used and calibrated properly. It is clarified that electrical efficiency for non-pressurized 10 kW-class SOFC systems can be measured within ±1.0% relative uncertainty at 95% level of confidence with the developed techniques when the SOFC systems are operated relatively stably

  4. Settling of abutments into implants and changes in removal torque in five different implant-abutment connections. Part 1: Cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seong; Han, Jung-Suk; Lim, Young-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the settling of abutments into implants and the removal torque values (RTVs) before and after cyclic loading. Five different implant-abutment connections were tested: Ext = external butt joint + two-piece abutment; Int-H2 = internal hexagon + two-piece abutment; Int-H1 = internal hexagon + one-piece abutment; Int-O2 = internal octagon + two-piece abutment; and Int-O1 = internal octagon + one-piece abutment. Ten abutments from each group were secured to their corresponding implants (total n = 50). All samples were tested in a universal testing machine with a vertical load of 250 N for 100,000 cycles of 14 Hz. The amount of settling of the abutment into the implant was calculated from the change in the total length of the implant-abutment sample before and after loading, as measured with an electronic digital micrometer. The RTV after cyclic loading was compared to the initial RTV with a digital torque gauge. Statistical analysis was performed at a 5% significance level. A multiple-comparison test showed specific significant differences in settling values in each group after 250 N cyclic loading (Int-H1, Ext abutment type and related to the design characteristics of the implant-abutment connection.

  5. Modern State and Efficiency Analysis of Heat Recovery in Fuel Furnaces Using High Temperature Recuperators. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Soroka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes various factors that affect upon heat transfer in high temperature recuperators, namely: heat transfer enhancement, heat exchange surface increase and rise of temperature head between primary and secondary heat transfer fluids. Comparison of experimental data with the results of mathematical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling has been performed in the paper. The paper considers some new designs of high temperature heat recovery plants: tube recuperator equipped with internal inserts – secondary emitters inside tubes for metallurgical furnaces and high-efficient two-way radiative recuperators for machinery engineering furnaces.  Advantages of new recuperators in comparison with existing analogues have been estimated in the paper. These advantages are:  provision of additional fuel saving due to increase of preheating temperature of the combustion air and improvement of design stability by decrease of tube wall temperature.

  6. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  7. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  8. Cysteine-grafted nonwoven geotextile: a new and efficient material for heavy metals sorption--Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbossche, M; Vezin, H; Touati, N; Jimenez, M; Casetta, M; Traisnel, M

    2014-10-01

    The development of a new material designed to trap heavy metals from sediments or wastewater, based on a polypropylene non-woven covalently grafted with cysteine, has been reported in a previous paper (Part A). The non-woven was first functionalized with acrylic acid (AA) which is used as spacer, and then cysteine was immobilized on the substrate through covalent coupling in order to obtain the so-called PP-g-AA-cysteine. Some preliminary heavy metals adsorption tests gave interesting results: at 20 °C for 24 h and in a 1000 mg/L heavy metals solution, PP-g-AA-cysteine adsorbs 95 mg Cu/g PP (CuSO4 solution), 104 mg Cu/g PP (Cu(NO3)2 solution), 135 mg Pb/g PP (Pb(NO3)2 solution) and 21 mg Cr/g PP (Cr(NO3)3 solution). In this second part of the work, heavy metals sorption tests were carried out with Cu (II), Pb (II), and Cr (III) separately, in order to determine the sorption capacity of this new sorbent as a function of (i) the heavy metals concentration in the solution, (ii) the contact time with the solution, (iii) the pH and (iv) the ionic strength of the solution containing heavy metals. Moreover, the sorption capacity of PP-g-AA-Cysteine was studied using a polluted solution consisting of a mixture of these different heavy metals. An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance study was finally carried out in order to determine the coordination geometry in the environment of the copper trapped by the PP-g-AA-cysteine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part IV. Energy-efficient recreational travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disaggregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. This report contains the design of a specific policy that addresses energy conservation in recreational travel. The policy is denoted as an ''Information System for the National Park Service.'' This work is based on prior examination of the characteristics of the recreational trip and decision making for the recreational experience. The examination revealed which aspects of the recreational travel system needed to be addressed to encourage energy-efficient modal decisions for recreational travel. This policy is briefly described in Section 1, the ''Summary of Initiative.'' A more detailed discussion of the policy follows. The material which led to the policy's formation is developed in Section 2: Importance and Impact of the Recreational Trip; Weekend Travel; The Flowchart: Decision Making for the Recreational Experience; Policy Development for Phase 1 ''Planning the Trip;'' and Objectives and Strategies for ''Planning the Trip.'' (MCW)

  10. Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) for high-efficiency, precision grinding of ceramic parts: An experiment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, B.P.

    1995-08-01

    This report describes Electrolytic In-process Dressing (ELID) as applied to the efficient, high-precision grinding of structural ceramics, and describes work performed jointly by Dr. B.P. Bandyopadhyay, University of North Dakota, and Dr. R. Ohmori, of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RINEN), Tokyo, Japan, from June through August, 1994. Dr. Ohmori pioneered the novel ELID grinding technology which incorporates electrolytically enhanced, in-process dressing of metal bonded superabrasive wheels. The principle of ELID grinding technology is discussed in the report as will its application for rough grinding and precision grinding. Two types of silicon nitride based ceramics (Kyocerals Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and Eaton`s SRBSN) were ground under various conditions with ELID methods. Mirror surface finishes were obtained with {number_sign} 4000 mesh size wheel (average grain size = 4 {mu}m). Results of these investigations are presented in this report. These include the effects of wheel bond type, type of power supply, abrasive grit friability, and cooling fluid composition. The effects of various parameters are discussed in terms of the mechanisms of ELID grinding, and in particular, the manner of boundary layer formation on the wheels and abrasive grit protrusion.

  11. Transfer of lumbosacral load to iliac bones and legs Part 1: Biomechanics of self-bracing of the sacroiliac joints and its significance for treatment and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Snijders (Chris); A. Vleeming (Andry); R. Stoeckart (Rob)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis study deals primarily with the stability of the base of the spine. The sacroiliac joints are vulnerable to shear loading on account of their predominantly flat surfaces. This raises the question of what mechanisms are brought into action to prevent dislocation of the sacroiliac

  12. The French market of solutions for active energy efficiency. Energy, central home automation systems, consumption monitoring software, distributed load shedding, energy performance contract... which tools will stand out?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at proposing an overview of solutions for energy efficiency and at assessing their impact on energy consumption, at identifying the growth dynamics of three market segments (assisted efficiency, automated efficiency and contract-based efficiency), at comparing the posture and strategies of the different actors present on this market (energy providers, equipment manufacturers, pure players, NTIC...), at identifying actors who are in the best position to benefit market development, and at imagining tomorrow's supply for energy efficiency. The report addresses the definition of active energy efficiency, the rationale of its development, the European regulatory and legal context, the strengthening of regulatory and environmental constraints in France, the three different market segments (examples, opportunities), and the competition context

  13. Assessment of dissolved-selenium concentrations and loads in the lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, as part of the Selenium Management Program, from 2011 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Mark F.

    2018-04-23

    The Gunnison Basin Selenium Management Program implemented a water-quality monitoring network in 2011 in the lower Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Selenium is a trace element that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other harmful effects. This report presents the percentile values of selenium because regulatory agencies in Colorado make decisions based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Act Section 303(d) that uses percentile values of concentration. Also presented are dissolved-selenium loads at 18 sites in the lower Gunnison River Basin for water years (WYs) 2011–2016 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2016). Annual dissolved-selenium loads were calculated for five sites with continuous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations. Annual dissolved-selenium loads for WY 2011 through WY 2016 ranged from 179 and 391 pounds (lb) at Uncompahgre River at Colona to 11,100 and 17,300 lb at Gunnison River near Grand Junction (herein called Whitewater), respectively. Instantaneous loads were calculated for five sites with continuous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and 13 ancillary sites where discrete water-quality sampling also took place, using discrete water-quality samples and the associated discharge measurements collected during the period. Median instantaneous loads ranged from 0.01 pound per day (lb/d) at Smith Fork near Lazear to 33.0 lb/d at Whitewater. Mean instantaneous loads ranged from 0.06 lb/d at Smith Fork near Lazear to 36.2 lb/d at Whitewater. Most tributary sites in the basin had a median instantaneous dissolved-selenium load of less than 20.0 lb/day. In general, dissolved-selenium loads at Gunnison River main-stem sites showed an increase from upstream to downstream. The State of Colorado water-quality standard for dissolved selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter (µg/L) was compared to the 85th percentiles for dissolved

  14. Electricity Crisis and Load Management in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajib Kanti Das

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a densely populated country. Only a small part of her area is electrified which cover around 18% of total population. The people who are in the electrified area are suffering from severe load shedding. A systematic load management procedure related to demand side may improve the situation is the research problem. The major objectives serve by the research are to analyze contemporary electricity status with a view to drawing inference about demand supply gap and extracting benefits from load management. Data supplied by the Bangladesh Power Development Board, World Bank and outcome of survey are analyzed with some simple statistical tools to test the hypothesis. Analysis discloses that with properly managed uses of electricity with load switch and rotation week-end can improve the concurrent condition of electricity. Moreover, introducing smart distribution system, reducing system loss, shifting load to off-peak, large scale use of prepaid mete, observing energy week and using energy efficient home and office appliance are recommended to improve load through demand side management. Some other recommendations such as introducing alternative energy, public private partnership and using renewable energy development and producing energy locally are made for load management from the supply side.

  15. EFFICIENCY IN ORGANIZING TRANSPORT ROUTES AS PART OF THE CITY WASTE MANAGEMENT: PROPOSAL FOR INNOVATIVE WAY OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Novarlić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research presented in this paper is primarily focused on the theoretical model of transportation routes' optimization, by means of using an innovative approach, projected to countries in transition. This paper presents part of the research, whose main parameters are directly related to basic research hypothesis, and are result of author's stay in vocational training in the Japanese city of Osaka, in the period 12.01. - 07.03.2015. Based on the transport routes' calculations, we came to an answer set in the research problem of this paper, as well as to the optimization of costs and avoiding a "downtime" during the collection of waste conducted by utility companies, who will be the beneficiaries of this model. The primary goal of the work is to, on the base of knowledge and experience acquired in Japan, create an Optimization Model of Transport Routes adjusted to countries in transition (Bosnia and Herzegovina and others, which will, in the long run, be of benefit to these countries, in terms of a sustainable waste management.

  16. An efficient approach for electric load forecasting using distributed ART (adaptive resonance theory) and HS-ARTMAP (Hyper-spherical ARTMAP network) neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yuan; Wang, Jian-zhou; Tang, Yun; Yang, Yu-chen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network based on adaptive resonance theory, named distributed ART (adaptive resonance theory) and HS-ARTMAP (Hyper-spherical ARTMAP network), applied to the electric load forecasting problem. The distributed ART combines the stable fast learning capabilities of winner-take-all ART systems with the noise tolerance and code compression capabilities of multi-layer perceptions. The HS-ARTMAP, a hybrid of an RBF (Radial Basis Function)-network-like module which uses hyper-sphere basis function substitute the Gaussian basis function and an ART-like module, performs incremental learning capabilities in function approximation problem. The HS-ARTMAP only receives the compressed distributed coding processed by distributed ART to deal with the proliferation problem which ARTMAP (adaptive resonance theory map) architecture often encounters and still performs well in electric load forecasting. To demonstrate the performance of the methodology, data from New South Wales and Victoria in Australia are illustrated. Results show that the developed method is much better than the traditional BP and single HS-ARTMAP neural network. -- Research highlights: → The processing of the presented network is based on compressed distributed data. It's an innovation among the adaptive resonance theory architecture. → The presented network decreases the proliferation the Fuzzy ARTMAP architectures usually encounter. → The network on-line forecasts electrical load accurately, stably. → Both one-period and multi-period load forecasting are executed using data of different cities.

  17. Using multiple-accumulator CMACs to improve efficiency of the X part of an input-buffered FX correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshev, Stepan; Hasan, S. M. Rezaul

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the approach of using complex multiplier-accumulators (CMACs) with multiple accumulators to reduce the total number of memory operations in an input-buffered architecture for the X part of an FX correlator. A processing unit of this architecture uses an array of CMACs that are reused for different groups of baselines. The disadvantage of processing correlations in this way is that each input data sample has to be read multiple times from the memory because each input signal is used in many of these baseline groups. While a one-accumulator CMAC cannot switch to a different baseline until it is finished integrating the current one, a multiple-accumulator CMAC can. Thus, the array of multiple-accumulator CMACs can switch between processing different baselines that share some input signals at any moment to reuse the current data in the processing buffers. In this way significant reductions in the number of memory read operations are achieved with only a few accumulators per CMAC. For example, for a large number of input signals three-accumulator CMACs reduce the total number of memory operations by more than a third. Simulated energy measurements of four VLSI designs in a high-performance 28 nm CMOS technology are presented in this paper to demonstrate that using multiple accumulators can also lead to reduced power dissipation of the processing array. Using three accumulators as opposed to one has been found to reduce the overall energy of 8-bit CMACs by 1.4% through the reduction of the switching activity within their circuits, which is in addition to a more than 30% reduction in the memory.

  18. Comparative study on deformation and mechanical behavior of corroded pipe: Part I–Numerical simulation and experimental investigation under impact load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Man Ryu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments and a numerical simulation were conducted to investigate the deformation and impact behavior of a corroded pipe, as corrosion, fatigue, and collision phenomena frequently occur in subsea pipelines. This study focuses on the deformation of the corrosion region and the variation of the geometry of the pipe under impact loading. The experiments for the impact behavior of the corroded pipe were performed using an impact test apparatus to validate the results of the simulation. In addition, during the simulation, material tests were performed, and the results were applied to the simulation. The ABAQUS explicit finite element analysis program was used to perform numerical simulations for the parametric study, as well as experiment scenarios, to investigate the effects of defects under impact loading. In addition, the modified ASME B31.8 code formula was proposed to define the damage range for the dented pipe.

  19. Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area and hydraulic loading on the treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter. Sesshoku bakkiho no shori koritsu ni taisuru kishitsu nodo, hihyo menseki oyobi suiryo fuka no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyo, T; Ono, S; Yoshino, T [Kitasato University, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Science

    1991-06-10

    Effects of substrate concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading, which are major factors influencing treatment efficiency in a submerged biological filter, were analyzed through the test with a special apparatus. In the test, the wall of the submerged biological filter was regarded as the contact material, and the specific surface area was changed by adjusting the sectional form of the filter. Using specimens from actual plant reservoirs, treatment efficiency for each case of three kinds of substrate concentration and hydraulic loading was measured. BOD removal rate was lower with smaller specific surface area. It was conspicuous particularly with higher BOD concentration in influent water. After the multiple regression analysis of the test results, the multiple regression equation to estimate BOD residual rate from three variates such as BOD concentration, specific surface area, and hydraulic loading was obtained. When 200mg l as BOD concentration and 50m{sup 2} m{sup {minus}3} as specific surface area were applied in this equation, the result almost agreed with the tendency obtained from data of actual plants. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Simple quasi-analytical holonomic homogenization model for the non-linear analysis of in-plane loaded masonry panels: Part 1, meso-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, G.; Bertolesi, E.

    2017-07-01

    A simple quasi analytical holonomic homogenization approach for the non-linear analysis of masonry walls in-plane loaded is presented. The elementary cell (REV) is discretized with 24 triangular elastic constant stress elements (bricks) and non-linear interfaces (mortar). A holonomic behavior with softening is assumed for mortar. It is shown how the mechanical problem in the unit cell is characterized by very few displacement variables and how homogenized stress-strain behavior can be evaluated semi-analytically.

  1. Influence of surgical and prosthetic techniques on marginal bone loss around titanium implants. Part I: immediate loading in fresh extraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberi, Antoine N; Tehini, Georges E; Noujeim, Ziad F; Khairallah, Alexandre A; Abousehlib, Moustafa N; Salameh, Ziad A

    2014-10-01

    Delayed placement of implant abutments has been associated with peri-implant marginal bone loss; however, long-term results obtained by modifying surgical and prosthetic techniques after implant placement are still lacking. This study aimed to evaluate the marginal bone loss around titanium implants placed in fresh extraction sockets using two loading protocols after a 5-year follow-up period. A total of 36 patients received 40 titanium implants (Astra Tech) intended for single-tooth replacement. Implants were immediately placed into fresh extraction sockets using either a one-stage (immediate loading by placing an interim prosthesis into functional occlusion) or a two-stage prosthetic loading protocol (insertion of abutments after 8 weeks of healing time). Marginal bone levels relative to the implant reference point were evaluated at four time intervals using intraoral radiographs: at time of implant placement, and 1, 3, and 5 years after implant placement. Measurements were obtained from mesial and distal surfaces of each implant (α = 0.05). One-stage immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets resulted in a significant reduction in marginal bone loss (p sockets reduced marginal bone loss and did not compromise the success rate of the restorations. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. In situ growth of NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays on Ni foam for supercapacitors: Maximizing utilization efficiency at high mass loading to achieve ultrahigh areal pseudocapacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haichao; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li; Xia, Dandan; Zhao, Yuandong; Guo, Danqing; Qi, Tong; Wan, Houzhao

    2014-05-01

    Self-standing NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays have been in situ grown on Ni foam by the anion-exchange reaction and directly used as the electrode for supercapacitors. The NiCo2S4 nanotube in the arrays effectively reduces the inactive material and increases the electroactive surface area because of the ultrathin wall, which is quite competent to achieve high utilization efficiency at high electroactive materials mass loading. The NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays hybrid electrode exhibits an ultrahigh specific capacitance of 14.39 F cm-2 at 5 mA cm-2 with excellent rate performance (67.7% retention for current increases 30 times) and cycling stability (92% retention after 5000 cycles) at a high mass loading of 6 mg cm-2. High areal capacitance (4.68 F cm-2 at 10 mA cm-2), high energy density (31.5 Wh kg-1 at 156.6 W kg-1) and high power density (2348.5 W kg-1 at 16.6 Wh kg-1) can be achieved by assembling asymmetric supercapacitor with reduced graphene oxide at a total active material mass loading as high as 49.5 mg. This work demonstrates that NiCo2S4 nanotube arrays structure is a superior electroactive material for high-performance supercapacitors even at a mass loading of potential application-specific scale.

  3. Sustainable Catalysis: Rational Pd Loading on MIL-101Cr-NH2 for More Efficient and Recyclable Suzuki–Miyaura Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascanu, Vlad; Yao, Qingxia; Bermejo Gómez, Antonio; Gustafsson, Mikaela; Yun, Yifeng; Wan, Wei; Samain, Louise; Zou, Xiaodong; Martín-Matute, Belén

    2013-01-01

    Palladium nanoparticles have been immobilized into an amino-functionalized metal–organic framework (MOF), MIL-101Cr-NH2, to form Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2. Four materials with different loadings of palladium have been prepared (denoted as 4-, 8-, 12-, and 16 wt %Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2). The effects of catalyst loading and the size and distribution of the Pd nanoparticles on the catalytic performance have been studied. The catalysts were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), N2-sorption isotherms, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). To better characterize the palladium nanoparticles and their distribution in MIL-101Cr-NH2, electron tomography was employed to reconstruct the 3D volume of 8 wt %Pd@MIL-101Cr-NH2 particles. The pair distribution functions (PDFs) of the samples were extracted from total scattering experiments using high-energy X-rays (60 keV). The catalytic activity of the four MOF materials with different loadings of palladium nanoparticles was studied in the Suzuki–Miyaura cross-coupling reaction. The best catalytic performance was obtained with the MOF that contained 8 wt % palladium nanoparticles. The metallic palladium nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed, with an average size of 2.6 nm. Excellent yields were obtained for a wide scope of substrates under remarkably mild conditions (water, aerobic conditions, room temperature, catalyst loading as low as 0.15 mol %). The material can be recycled at least 10 times without alteration of its catalytic properties. PMID:24265270

  4. Research of thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load single screw refrigeration compressor with different capacity control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zengli; Wang, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Wenchun; Feng, Quanke

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical models of SSRC under part-load condition have been established. • The experiment of SSRC performance under part-load condition was conducted. • Thermal dynamic characteristic of SSRC under part-load condition was gained. • Economy and reliability of SSRC under part-load condition was analyzed. - Abstract: In the single screw refrigeration compressor (SSRC), the capacity control mechanism is normally employed to meet the actual required cooling capacity under different load conditions. In this paper, theoretical calculation models describing the working process of the SSRC with the single slide valve capacity control mechanism (SVCCM) and SSRC with the frequency conversion regulating mechanism (FCRM) are established to research the thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load SSRC under part-load conditions. Experimental investigation on a SSRC under part-load conditions is also carried out to verify the theoretical calculation models. By using these validated models, the thermodynamic performances and dynamic characteristics of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism under part-load conditions have been analyzed and compared. Through the comparison, the economical efficiency and reliability of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism were obtained. All of these works can provide the basis for the later optimization design for the variable load single screw refrigeration compressor.

  5. Contact-Free Cognitive Load Recognition Based on Eye Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive overload not only affects the physical and mental diseases, but also affects the work efficiency and safety. Hence, the research of measuring cognitive load has been an important part of cognitive load theory. In this paper, we proposed a method to identify the state of cognitive load by using eye movement data in a noncontact manner. We designed a visual experiment to elicit human’s cognitive load as high and low state in two light intense environments and recorded the eye movement data in this whole process. Twelve salient features of the eye movement were selected by using statistic test. Algorithms for processing some features are proposed for increasing the recognition rate. Finally we used the support vector machine (SVM to classify high and low cognitive load. The experimental results show that the method can achieve 90.25% accuracy in light controlled condition.

  6. Evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake efficiency of zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with Aloe Vera in glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshy, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, CMS College Kottayam, Kerala (India); International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Sharma, Chandra P. [Division of Biosurface Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Science and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); Kalarikkal, Nandakumar [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Sandeep, K. [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Thomas, Sabu, E-mail: sabuchathukulam@yahoo.co.uk [International and Inter University Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Pothen, Laly A. [Department of Chemistry, Bishop Moore College, Mavelikkara, Kerala (India)

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles of stearic acid modified with Aloe Vera (AV) have been prepared via simple emulsion solvent evaporation method which showed excellent stability at room temperature and refrigerated condition. The nanoparticles were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of modified stearic acid nanoparticles. The inclusion of AV to stearic acid decreased the crystallinity and improved the hydrophilicity of lipid nanoparticles and thereby improved the drug loading efficacy of lipid nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that, the average particle size of unmodified (bare) nanoparticles was 45.66 ± 12.22 nm and modified solid lipid nanoparticles showed an average size of 265.61 ± 80.44 nm. Solid lipid nanoparticles with well-defined morphology were tested in vitro for their possible application in drug delivery. Cell culture studies using C6 glioma cells on the nanoparticles showed enhanced growth and proliferation of cells without exhibiting any toxicity. In addition, normal cell morphology and improved uptake were observed by fluorescence microscopy images of rhodamine labeled modified solid lipid nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles. The cellular uptake study suggested that these nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery system to enhance the uptake of antiviral drug by brain cells and it could be a suitable drug carrier system for the treatment of HIV. - Highlights: • SLN of AZT-SA, AZT-SA-AV was developed • Better drug loading efficacy • Good uptake.

  7. Evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake efficiency of zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with Aloe Vera in glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshy, K.S.; Sharma, Chandra P.; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Sandeep, K.; Thomas, Sabu; Pothen, Laly A.

    2016-01-01

    Zidovudine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles of stearic acid modified with Aloe Vera (AV) have been prepared via simple emulsion solvent evaporation method which showed excellent stability at room temperature and refrigerated condition. The nanoparticles were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of modified stearic acid nanoparticles. The inclusion of AV to stearic acid decreased the crystallinity and improved the hydrophilicity of lipid nanoparticles and thereby improved the drug loading efficacy of lipid nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that, the average particle size of unmodified (bare) nanoparticles was 45.66 ± 12.22 nm and modified solid lipid nanoparticles showed an average size of 265.61 ± 80.44 nm. Solid lipid nanoparticles with well-defined morphology were tested in vitro for their possible application in drug delivery. Cell culture studies using C6 glioma cells on the nanoparticles showed enhanced growth and proliferation of cells without exhibiting any toxicity. In addition, normal cell morphology and improved uptake were observed by fluorescence microscopy images of rhodamine labeled modified solid lipid nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles. The cellular uptake study suggested that these nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery system to enhance the uptake of antiviral drug by brain cells and it could be a suitable drug carrier system for the treatment of HIV. - Highlights: • SLN of AZT-SA, AZT-SA-AV was developed • Better drug loading efficacy • Good uptake

  8. Efficient one-pot synthesis of Ag nanoparticles loaded on N-doped multiphase TiO2 hollow nanorod arrays with enhanced photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Min; Yang Beifang; Lv Yan; Fu Zhengping; Xu Jiao; Guo Ting; Zhao Yongxun

    2010-01-01

    The simultaneous Ag loaded and N-doped TiO 2 hollow nanorod arrays with various contents of silver (Ag/N-THNAs) were successfully synthesized on glass substrates by one-pot liquid phase deposition (LPD) method using ZnO nanorod arrays as template. The catalysts were characterized by Raman spectrum, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), ultraviolet-vis (UV-vis) absorption spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggest that AgNO 3 additive in the precursor solutions not only can promote the anatase-to-rutile phase transition, but also influence the amount of N doping in the samples. The photocatalytic activity of all the samples was evaluated by photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in aqueous solution. The sample exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity under UV light illumination when the AgNO 3 concentration in the precursor solution was 0.03 M, due to Ag nanoparticles acting as electron sinks; When the AgNO 3 concentration was 0.07 M, the sample performed best under visible light illumination, attributed to the synergetic effects of Ag loading, N doping, and the multiphase structure (anatase/rutile).

  9. Evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake efficiency of zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with Aloe Vera in glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K S, Joshy; Sharma, Chandra P; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Sandeep, K; Thomas, Sabu; Pothen, Laly A

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles of stearic acid modified with Aloe Vera (AV) have been prepared via simple emulsion solvent evaporation method which showed excellent stability at room temperature and refrigerated condition. The nanoparticles were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of modified stearic acid nanoparticles. The inclusion of AV to stearic acid decreased the crystallinity and improved the hydrophilicity of lipid nanoparticles and thereby improved the drug loading efficacy of lipid nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that, the average particle size of unmodified (bare) nanoparticles was 45.66±12.22nm and modified solid lipid nanoparticles showed an average size of 265.61±80.44nm. Solid lipid nanoparticles with well-defined morphology were tested in vitro for their possible application in drug delivery. Cell culture studies using C6 glioma cells on the nanoparticles showed enhanced growth and proliferation of cells without exhibiting any toxicity. In addition, normal cell morphology and improved uptake were observed by fluorescence microscopy images of rhodamine labeled modified solid lipid nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles. The cellular uptake study suggested that these nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery system to enhance the uptake of antiviral drug by brain cells and it could be a suitable drug carrier system for the treatment of HIV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 4: Testing of elastomers under a rotating load. [resonance testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, M. S.; Smalley, A. J.

    1977-01-01

    A test rig designed to measure stiffness and damping of elastomer cartridges under a rotating load excitation is described. The test rig employs rotating unbalance in a rotor which runs to 60,000 RPM as the excitation mechanism. A variable resonant mass is supported on elastomer elements and the dynamic characteristics are determined from measurements of input and output acceleration. Five different cartridges are considered: three of these are buttons cartridges having buttons located in pairs, with 120 between each pair. Two of the cartridges consist of 360 elastomer rings with rectangular cross-sections. Dynamic stiffness and damping are measured for each cartridge and compared with predictions at different frequencies and different strains.

  11. TRANSFORMATION AND SCATTERING OF SURFACE WAVES ON THE ACOUSTIC LOAD TO ULTRASONIC EVALUATION AND MEASUREMENTS. Part 1. The boundary of acoustic contact is sliding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Baev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available for the enhancement and improvement of ultrasonic methods evaluation and measurements. The purpose of this work is to determine the influence of the geometric parameters of the acoustic load body and its position on the coefficients of reflection and propagation of the Stoneley and Rayleigh waves and to identify the possibility of using the results of the study for practical applications.Based on the analysis of the acoustic path and the experimental data, the relationship between the measured amplitude parameters and the coefficients of the propagation and reflection of surface waves, as well as the reflectivity of the contact region of the load body in the form of a prism through the sliding boundary, which reaches up to ≈ 32–34 дБ, is established. For the first time, the dependence of these coefficients on the inclination angle of one of the prism lateral faces in the range of 0 ± 45°, dimensionless thickness of the contact layer (0–0,05 and its orientation relative to the acoustic axis.It is established that these coefficients are mainly maximal when the prism is rectangular. The coefficient of reflectivity in the hard contact of bodies is more than an order of magnitude less, and the coefficients of wave propagation – comparable in magnitude. The prospects of using the results of the study to evaluate the quality of adhesion of materials during welding, soldering, gluing, detection of defects in hardto-reach places, as well as to determine the physical and mechanical properties of metals by the proposed method of creating a reference signal are shown.

  12. Using Educational Neuroscience and Psychology to Teach Science. Part 1: A Case Study Review of Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) and Cognitive Acceleration through Science Education (CASE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rebecca Torrance

    2017-01-01

    This article is the first of a two-part series that explores science teachers' and their pupils' experiences of using different pedagogical approaches based on understandings of how brains learn. For this case-study research, nine science teachers were interviewed and four teachers self-selected to trial a pedagogical approach, new to them, from…

  13. Documentation of probabilistic fracture mechanics codes used for reactor pressure vessels subjected to pressurized thermal shock loading: Parts 1 and 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, K.; Witt, F.J.; Bishop, B.A.

    1995-06-01

    Significant attention has been focused on the issue of reactor vessel pressurized thermal shock (PTS) for many years. Pressurized thermal shock transient events are characterized by a rapid cooldown at potentially high pressure levels that could lead to a reactor vessel integrity concern for some pressurized water reactors. As a result of regulatory and industry efforts in the early 1980's, a probabilistic risk assessment methodology has been established to address this concern. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses are performed as part of this methodology to determine conditional probability of significant flaw extension for given pressurized thermal shock events. While recent industry efforts are underway to benchmark probabilistic fracture mechanics computer codes that are currently used by the nuclear industry, Part I of this report describes the comparison of two independent computer codes used at the time of the development of the original U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pressurized thermal shock rule. The work that was originally performed in 1982 and 1983 to compare the U.S. NRC - VISA and Westinghouse (W) - PFM computer codes has been documented and is provided in Part I of this report. Part II of this report describes the results of more recent industry efforts to benchmark PFM computer codes used by the nuclear industry. This study was conducted as part of the USNRC-EPRI Coordinated Research Program for reviewing the technical basis for pressurized thermal shock (PTS) analyses of the reactor pressure vessel. The work focused on the probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) analysis codes and methods used to perform the PTS calculations. An in-depth review of the methodologies was performed to verify the accuracy and adequacy of the various different codes. The review was structured around a series of benchmark sample problems to provide a specific context for discussion and examination of the fracture mechanics methodology

  14. The Practice of Using the Discriminant Analysis of the Efficiency of Processes of Functioning of Agricultural Enterprises on the Basis of Indicators of the Constituent Parts of Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burennikova Nataliia V.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the practice of using the method of discriminant analysis to study effectiveness of the processes of functioning of enterprises on the basis of indicators of the constituent parts of performance on the example of specific agricultural enterprises of the grain products subcomplex. It is underlined that when using benchmarking (as a method of competitive analysis in many cases when researching the processes of functioning and development of enterprises (in particular, agricultural there is a need to distribute the studied objects into individual groups according to the main strategic priorities. It is specified that one of the methods used for such distribution is the classic discriminant analysis, which allows to define the quantitative boundary that distinguishes the group of enterprises-leaders from all other enterprises. It has been found that the determining factor in the use of the specified method is the choice of a number of indicators characterizing the objects and processes allocated by using benchmarking. This choice, in turn, requires implementation of an appropriate algorithms based on simulation. As these indicators serve the authors’ indicators of efficiency and scale product, selected as the constituent parts of the performance indicator, characterizing any process and its results from both the qualitative and the quantitative points of view. The authors’ own approaches to the method of grouping of objects and allocation of strategically important groups among them have been proposed.

  15. Nitrogen metabolism in plants using 15N as tracer. Part of a coordinated programme on the use of isotopes in fertilizer efficiency studies on grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.; Atkins, C.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques are described for studying the economy of carbon and nitrogen in annual nodulated legumes. Budgets for utilization of net photosynthate are constructed for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.), including expenditure in respiration and dry matter accumulation of plant parts, carbon consumption in growth, respiration and export of fixed nitrogen by nodules, and the provision of recent photosynthate and earlier-fixed carbon to fruits. Sources of nitrogen to fruits are defined, and efficiencies of conversion of net photosynthate to protein of above-ground vegetative parts and of seeds are computed. Consideration is given to the timing of events associated with loss of symbiotic activity after flowering. Literature giving estimates of the respiratory requirements of nitrogen fixation by nodules is reviewed. Rates of respiration of nodules of cowpea, white lupin and pea (Pisum sativum L.) are assessed from a theoretical viewpoint, basing the estimates on ATP requirements for assimilation of N 2 into nitrogenous solutes, and published values for respiration costs in plant tissues. Expressed as CO 2 output per unit of nitrogen assimilated, these estimates greatly exceed the experimentally-observed CO 2 efflux of nodules of the species. This discrepancy is examined in relation to the capacity of nodules to fix CO 2 and the uncertainty of the in vivo requirement of nitrogenase for ATP

  16. An efficient probe for rapid detection of cyanide in water at parts per billion levels and naked-eye detection of endogenous cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Jha, Satadru; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2014-03-01

    A new molecular probe based on an oxidized bis-indolyl skeleton has been developed for rapid and sensitive visual detection of cyanide ions in water and also for the detection of endogenously bound cyanide. The probe allows the "naked-eye" detection of cyanide ions in water with a visual color change from red to yellow (Δλmax =80 nm) with the immediate addition of the probe. It shows high selectivity towards the cyanide ion without any interference from other anions. The detection of cyanide by the probe is ratiometric, thus making the detection quantitative. A Michael-type addition reaction of the probe with the cyanide ion takes place during this chemodosimetric process. In water, the detection limit was found to be at the parts per million level, which improved drastically when a neutral micellar medium was employed, and it showed a parts-per-billion-level detection, which is even 25-fold lower than the permitted limits of cyanide in water. The probe could also efficiently detect the endogenously bound cyanide in cassava (a staple food) with a clear visual color change without requiring any sample pretreatment and/or any special reaction conditions such as pH or temperature. Thus the probe could serve as a practical naked-eye probe for "in-field" experiments without requiring any sophisticated instruments. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A "ship in a bottle" strategy to load a hydrophilic anticancer drug in porous metal organic framework nanoparticles: efficient encapsulation, matrix stabilization, and photodelivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nunzio, Maria Rosaria; Agostoni, Valentina; Cohen, Boiko; Gref, Ruxandra; Douhal, Abderrazzak

    2014-01-23

    An essential challenge in the development of nanosized metal organic framework (nanoMOF) materials in biomedicine is to develop a strategy to stabilize their supramolecular structure in biological media while being able to control drug encapsulation and release. We have developed a method to efficiently encapsulate topotecan (TPT, 1), an important cytotoxic drug, in biodegradable nanoMOFs. Once inside the pores, 1 monomers aggregate in a "ship in a bottle" fashion, thus filling practically all of the nanoMOFs' available free volume and stabilizing their crystalline supramolecular structures. Highly efficient results have been found with the human pancreatic cell line PANC1, in contrast with free 1. We also demonstrate that one- and two-photon light irradiation emerges as a highly promising strategy to promote stimuli-dependent 1 release from the nanoMOFs, hence opening new standpoints for further developments in triggered drug delivery.

  18. Determinación IN-SITU del factor de potencia y la eficiencia de motores asincrónicos a cargas parciales; Induction motor power factor and efficiency IN-SITU determination under partial loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy Rafael Viego Felipe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los motores asincrónicos trifásicos no siempre operan a plena carga y por lo tanto, el factor de potencia y la eficiencia se ven afectados. Determinar estos valores a diferentes cargas, es la base para programas ahorro en la industria y los servicios. En este trabajo se presentan procedimientos para la estimación del factor de potencia y la eficiencia a cargas parciales, con una precisión acorde a los propósitos ingenieriles, baja invasividad y sin implicar para el usuario complejidades de equipamiento o de adquisición y procesamiento de datos. Se ofrecen distintas variantes para la estimación del factor de potencia y la eficiencia, según los datos con que se cuente. Se comparan los resultados de los métodos propuestos con la información de catálogos comerciales. Se realiza un análisis con motores de distinta potencia y velocidad, que demuestra que se logra buena precisión para los propósitos señalados. Three phase induction motors are rarely operating at full load and, in consequence, power factor and efficiency are affected. Determining these values for different partial loads is needed for energy saving programs in industrial and service enterprises. In this work, procedures are given for power factor and efficiency estimation at different loads. These procedures are low or not-invasive, have a good precision for engineering purposes, and do not require neither complex equipment nor complicated acquisition and processing data systems Different ways for estimating the before mentioned parameters, depending on the known data, are given. The results of the proposed procedures are compared with those of manufacturer catalogs. A comparative analysis considering motors of different output power and speed is done, and it shows that the results are enough accurate for the established purposes.

  19. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1993-01-01

    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  20. Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor Discharge-Flow Overexpansion and Limit-Loading Condition, Part I: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Cheng S.

    2017-01-01

    A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) investigation is conducted over a two-dimensional axial-flow turbine rotor blade row to study the phenomena of turbine rotor discharge flow overexpansion at subcritical, critical, and supercritical conditions. Quantitative data of the mean-flow Mach numbers, mean-flow angles, the tangential blade pressure forces, the mean-flow mass flux, and the flow-path total pressure loss coefficients, averaged or integrated across the two-dimensional computational domain encompassing two blade-passages, are obtained over a series of 14 inlet-total to exit-static pressure ratios, from 1.5 (un-choked; subcritical condition) to 10.0 (supercritical with excessively high pressure ratio.) Detailed flow features over the full domain-of-computation, such as the streamline patterns, Mach contours, pressure contours, blade surface pressure distributions, etc. are collected and displayed in this paper. A formal, quantitative definition of the limit loading condition based on the channel flow theory is proposed and explained. Contrary to the comments made in the historical works performed on this subject, about the deficiency of the theoretical methods applied in analyzing this phenomena, using modern CFD method for the study of this subject appears to be quite adequate and successful. This paper describes the CFD work and its findings.

  1. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  2. Efficiency improvement of a spark-ignition engine at full load conditions using exhaust gas recirculation and variable geometry turbocharger – Numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjerić, Momir; Taritaš, Ivan; Tomić, Rudolf; Blažić, Mislav; Kozarac, Darko; Lulić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A cylinder model was calibrated according to experimental results. • A full cycle simulation model of turbocharged spark-ignition engine was made. • Engine performance with high pressure exhaust gas recirculation was studied. • Cooled exhaust gas recirculation lowers exhaust temperature and knock occurrence. • Leaner mixtures enable fuel consumption improvement of up to 11.2%. - Abstract: The numerical analysis of performance of a four cylinder highly boosted spark-ignition engine at full load is described in this paper, with the research focused on introducing high pressure exhaust gas recirculation for control of engine limiting factors such as knock, turbine inlet temperature and cyclic variability. For this analysis the cycle-simulation model which includes modeling of the entire engine flow path, early flame kernel growth, mixture stratification, turbulent combustion, in-cylinder turbulence, knock and cyclic variability was applied. The cylinder sub-models such as ignition, turbulence and combustion were validated by using the experimental results of a naturally aspirated multi cylinder spark-ignition engine. The high load operation, which served as a benchmark value, was obtained by a standard procedure used in calibration of engines, i.e. operation with fuel enrichment and without exhaust gas recirculation. By introducing exhaust gas recirculation and by optimizing other engine operating parameters, the influence of exhaust gas recirculation on engine performance is obtained. The optimum operating parameters, such as spark advance, intake pressure, air to fuel ratio, were found to meet the imposed requirements in terms of fuel consumption, knock occurrence, exhaust gas temperature and variation of indicated mean effective pressure. By comparing the results of the base point with the results that used exhaust gas recirculation the improvement in fuel consumption of 8.7%, 11.2% and 1.5% at engine speeds of 2000 rpm, 3500 rpm and 5000

  3. Preparation and anti-tumor efficiency evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded bacterial magnetosomes: magnetic nanoparticles as drug carriers isolated from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian-Bo; Duan, Jin-Hong; Dai, Shun-Ling; Ren, Jun; Guo, Lin; Jiang, Wei; Li, Ying

    2008-12-15

    Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) are commonly used as vehicles for certain enzymes, nucleic acids and antibodies, although they have never been considered drug carriers. To evaluate the clinical potential of BMs extracted from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in cancer therapy, doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded onto the purified BMs at a ratio of 0.87 +/- 0.08 mg/mg using glutaraldehyde. The DOX-coupled BMs (DBMs) and BMs exhibited uniform sizes and morphology evaluated by TEM. The diameters of DBMs and BMs obtained by AFM were 71.02 +/- 6.73 and 34.93 +/- 8.24 nm, respectively. The DBMs released DOX slowly into serum and maintained at least 80% stability following 48 h of incubation. In vitro cytotoxic tests showed that the DBMs were cytotoxic to HL60 and EMT-6 cells, manifested as inhibition of cell proliferation and suppression in c-myc expression, consistent with DOX. These observations depicted in vitro antitumor property of DBMs similar to DOX. The approach of coupling DOX to magnetosomes may have clinical potential in anti-tumor drug delivery.

  4. The effect of temperature on the efficiency of aerobic biodegradation of sugar beet distillery stillage: Removal of pollution load and biogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lutosławski

    Full Text Available Abstract Beet stillage is a high-strength effluent from the production of ethanol from sugar beet. A large annual volume of sugar beet stillage requires finding new effective ways for its utilization. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of temperature on the efficiency of aerobic biodegradation of beet stillage. Biodegradation was carried out for 168 hours in a stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 5 L at 27°C, 36°C, 45°C, 54°C and 63°C. All experiments were performed at uncontrolled pH, aeration of 1.0 vvm and of 900 rpm. The effectiveness of biodegradation was determined by the extent of removal of SCODsum (COD determined after suspended solids separation and theoretical COD of betaine, BOD5 and TOC. Studies have shown that, under mesophilic conditions, the extents of reduction of SCODsum, BOD5 and TOC were statistically significantly (p≤0.05 higher than under thermophilic conditions. Within the range of 27-36°C, the highest reduction in SCODsum (79.2-79.9%, BOD5 (98.4-99% and TOC (76.1-77.3% was obtained. Additionally, at the temperature of 36°C, the highest reduction in total nitrogen (56.4% and total phosphorus (58% was achieved. Aerobic biodegradation allows for efficient treatment of sugar beet distillery stillage (preferably at 36°C.

  5. Enhancing Macrophage Drug Delivery Efficiency via Co-Localization of Cells and Drug-Loaded Microcarriers in 3D Resonant Ultrasound Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel synthetic 3D molecular transfer system which involved the use of model drug calcein-AM-encapsulated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres (CAPMs) and resonant ultrasound field (RUF) with frequency of 1 MHz and output intensity of 0.5 W/cm2 for macrophage drug delivery was explored. We hypothesized that the efficiency of CAPMs-mediated drug delivery aided by RUF can be promoted by increasing the contact opportunities between cells and the micrometer-sized drug carriers due to effects of acoustic radiation forces generated by RUF. Through the fluoromicroscopic and flow cytometric analyses, our results showed that both DH82 macrophages and CAPMs can be quickly brought to acoustic pressure nodes within 20 sec under RUF exposure, and were consequently aggregated throughout the time course. The efficacy of cellular uptake of CAPMs was enhanced with increased RUF exposure time where a 3-fold augmentation (P CAPM delivery efficiency was mainly contributed by the co-localization of cells and CAPMs resulting from the application of the RUF, rather than from sonoporation. In summary, the developed molecular delivery approach provides a feasible means for macrophage drug delivery.

  6. Formation of Load Parameters of Destroyed Massife in Explosion of Multicharge Composition with Separation of its Parts by Profile Inert Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, G. P.; Mysin, A. V.; Babkin, R. S.

    2017-10-01

    The paper introduces construction of multicharge composition with separation of parts by the profile inert interval. On the basis of the previous researches, the pulse-forming process at explosion of the borehole multicharge taking into account the offered design is considered. The physical model for definition of reflected wavelet taking into account an increment of radius of cross section of a charging cavity and the expiration of detonation products is offered. A technique is developed for numerical modeling of gas-dynamic processes in a borehole with a change in the axial channel of a profile inert interval caused by a high-temperature flow of gaseous products of an explosion. The authors obtained the dependence of the change in mean pressure on the borehole wall on time for each of the parts of the multicharge. To blast a series of charges of the proposed design, taking into account optimization of the stress fields of neighboring charges, the delay interval is determined for a short-delayed explosion.

  7. Computationally efficient analysis of particle transport and deposition in a human whole-lung-airway model. Part I: Theory and model validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanjiyil, Arun V; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2016-12-01

    Computational predictions of aerosol transport and deposition in the human respiratory tract can assist in evaluating detrimental or therapeutic health effects when inhaling toxic particles or administering drugs. However, the sheer complexity of the human lung, featuring a total of 16 million tubular airways, prohibits detailed computer simulations of the fluid-particle dynamics for the entire respiratory system. Thus, in order to obtain useful and efficient particle deposition results, an alternative modeling approach is necessary where the whole-lung geometry is approximated and physiological boundary conditions are implemented to simulate breathing. In Part I, the present new whole-lung-airway model (WLAM) represents the actual lung geometry via a basic 3-D mouth-to-trachea configuration while all subsequent airways are lumped together, i.e., reduced to an exponentially expanding 1-D conduit. The diameter for each generation of the 1-D extension can be obtained on a subject-specific basis from the calculated total volume which represents each generation of the individual. The alveolar volume was added based on the approximate number of alveoli per generation. A wall-displacement boundary condition was applied at the bottom surface of the first-generation WLAM, so that any breathing pattern due to the negative alveolar pressure can be reproduced. Specifically, different inhalation/exhalation scenarios (rest, exercise, etc.) were implemented by controlling the wall/mesh displacements to simulate realistic breathing cycles in the WLAM. Total and regional particle deposition results agree with experimental lung deposition results. The outcomes provide critical insight to and quantitative results of aerosol deposition in human whole-lung airways with modest computational resources. Hence, the WLAM can be used in analyzing human exposure to toxic particulate matter or it can assist in estimating pharmacological effects of administered drug-aerosols. As a practical

  8. Load Balancing Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Olga Tkachyshyn [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The largest supercomputers have millions of independent processors, and concurrency levels are rapidly increasing. For ideal efficiency, developers of the simulations that run on these machines must ensure that computational work is evenly balanced among processors. Assigning work evenly is challenging because many large modern parallel codes simulate behavior of physical systems that evolve over time, and their workloads change over time. Furthermore, the cost of imbalanced load increases with scale because most large-scale scientific simulations today use a Single Program Multiple Data (SPMD) parallel programming model, and an increasing number of processors will wait for the slowest one at the synchronization points. To address load imbalance, many large-scale parallel applications use dynamic load balance algorithms to redistribute work evenly. The research objective of this dissertation is to develop methods to decide when and how to load balance the application, and to balance it effectively and affordably. We measure and evaluate the computational load of the application, and develop strategies to decide when and how to correct the imbalance. Depending on the simulation, a fast, local load balance algorithm may be suitable, or a more sophisticated and expensive algorithm may be required. We developed a model for comparison of load balance algorithms for a specific state of the simulation that enables the selection of a balancing algorithm that will minimize overall runtime.

  9. Canopy uptake of atmospheric N deposition at a conifer forest: part I -canopy N budget, photosynthetic efficiency and net ecosystem exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievering, H.; Tomaszewski, T.; Torizzo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Global carbon cycle assessments of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition influences on carbon sequestration often assume enhanced sequestration results. This assumption was evaluated at a Rocky Mountains spruce-fir forest. Forest canopy N uptake (CNU) of atmospheric N deposition was estimated by combining event wet and throughfall N fluxes with gradient measured HNO 3 and NH 3 as well as inferred (NO x and particulate N) dry fluxes. Approximately 80% of the growing-season 3 kg N/ha total deposition is retained in canopy foliage and branches. This CNU constitutes ∼1/3 of canopy growing season new N supply at this conifer forest site. Daytime net ecosystem exchange (NEE) significantly (P = 0.006) and negatively (CO 2 uptake) correlated with CNU. Multiple regression indicates ∼20% of daytime NEE may be attributed to CNU (P < 0.02); more than soil water content. A wet deposition N-amendment study (Tomaszewski and Sievering), at canopy spruce branches, increased their growing-season CNU by 40-50% above ambient. Fluorometry and gas exchange results show N-amended spruce branches had greater photosynthetic efficiency and higher carboxylation rates than control and untreated branches. N-amended branches had 25% less photoinhibition, with a 5-9% greater proportion of foliar-N-in-Rubisco. The combined results provide, partly, a mechanistic explanation for the NEE dependence on CNU

  10. Fabrication of AgX-loaded Ag2CO3 (X = Cl, I) composites and their efficient visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Zhu, Jiaxiang; Song, Yongxiu; Zhu, Tingting; Zhao, Wenkai; Song, Yanhua; Da, Zulin; Liu, Chengbao; Li, Huaming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The novel AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 composites have been synthesized by ion exchange reaction. • AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 exhibit higher photoactivity and stability than that of Ag 2 CO 3 . • The band structure of AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 is beneficial to improve the photoactivity. - Abstract: The novel visible-light-driven AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 (X = Cl, I) hybrid materials were synthesized by ion exchange reaction. The physical and chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse-reflection spectra (DRS) and photocurrent techniques. The as-prepared AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 (X = Cl, I) composites showed higher photocatalytic activity than that of the pure Ag 2 CO 3 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation (λ ⩾ 400 nm) in the process of methylene blue (MB) degradation. The optimal mass percentage of AgCl and AgI in the AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 (X = Cl, I) composite was 20.54 wt% and 40 wt%, respectively. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity was attributed to the suitable band potential between AgX and Ag 2 CO 3 , which was beneficial to increase the separation efficiency of electrons and holes. Besides, the photocatalytic mechanism of AgX/Ag 2 CO 3 (X = Cl, I) composites was also proposed

  11. Engineering of small interfering RNA-loaded lipidoid-poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid nanoparticles for highly efficient and safe gene silencing: A quality by design-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Zeng, Xianghui; Justesen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    used and poorly tolerated cationic lipids might be replaced with more efficacious and safe lipidoids as the lipid component of siRNA-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) for achieving more efficient gene silencing at lower and safer doses. However, formulation design of such a complex...... formulation is highly challenging due to a strong interplay between several contributing factors. Hence, critical formulation variables, i.e. the lipidoid content and siRNA:lipidoid ratio, were initially identified, followed by a systematic quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space (OOS......), eventually resulting in the identification of a robust, highly efficacious and safe formulation. A 17-run design of experiment with an I-optimal approach was performed to systematically assess the effect of selected variables on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e. physicochemical properties...

  12. Mechanistic evaluation of the pros and cons of digital RT-LAMP for HIV-1 viral load quantification on a microfluidic device and improved efficiency via a two-step digital protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Shen, Feng; McCalla, Stephanie E; Kreutz, Jason E; Karymov, Mikhail A; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2013-02-05

    Here we used a SlipChip microfluidic device to evaluate the performance of digital reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dRT-LAMP) for quantification of HIV viral RNA. Tests are needed for monitoring HIV viral load to control the emergence of drug resistance and to diagnose acute HIV infections. In resource-limited settings, in vitro measurement of HIV viral load in a simple format is especially needed, and single-molecule counting using a digital format could provide a potential solution. We showed here that when one-step dRT-LAMP is used for quantification of HIV RNA, the digital count is lower than expected and is limited by the yield of desired cDNA. We were able to overcome the limitations by developing a microfluidic protocol to manipulate many single molecules in parallel through a two-step digital process. In the first step we compartmentalize the individual RNA molecules (based on Poisson statistics) and perform reverse transcription on each RNA molecule independently to produce DNA. In the second step, we perform the LAMP amplification on all individual DNA molecules in parallel. Using this new protocol, we increased the absolute efficiency (the ratio between the concentration calculated from the actual count and the expected concentration) of dRT-LAMP 10-fold, from ∼2% to ∼23%, by (i) using a more efficient reverse transcriptase, (ii) introducing RNase H to break up the DNA:RNA hybrid, and (iii) adding only the BIP primer during the RT step. We also used this two-step method to quantify HIV RNA purified from four patient samples and found that in some cases, the quantification results were highly sensitive to the sequence of the patient's HIV RNA. We learned the following three lessons from this work: (i) digital amplification technologies, including dLAMP and dPCR, may give adequate dilution curves and yet have low efficiency, thereby providing quantification values that underestimate the true concentration. Careful

  13. System efficiency for two-step metal oxide solar thermochemical hydrogen production – Part 2: Impact of gas heat recuperation and separation temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Ehrhart, Brian D.; Muhich, Christopher L.; Al-Shankiti, Ibraheam; Weimer, Alan W.

    2016-01-01

    . The hydrogen and water separation temperature was also varied and the effect on STH efficiency quantified. This study shows that gas heat recuperation is critical for high efficiency cycles, especially at conditions that require high steam and inert gas

  14. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  15. Engineering of small interfering RNA-loaded lipidoid-poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid nanoparticles for highly efficient and safe gene silencing: A quality by design-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanki, Kaushik; Zeng, Xianghui; Justesen, Sarah; Tejlmann, Sarah; Falkenberg, Emily; Van Driessche, Elize; Mørck Nielsen, Hanne; Franzyk, Henrik; Foged, Camilla

    2017-11-01

    Safety and efficacy of therapeutics based on RNA interference, e.g., small interfering RNA (siRNA), are dependent on the optimal engineering of the delivery technology, which is used for intracellular delivery of siRNA to the cytosol of target cells. We investigated the hypothesis that commonly used and poorly tolerated cationic lipids might be replaced with more efficacious and safe lipidoids as the lipid component of siRNA-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) for achieving more efficient gene silencing at lower and safer doses. However, formulation design of such a complex formulation is highly challenging due to a strong interplay between several contributing factors. Hence, critical formulation variables, i.e. the lipidoid content and siRNA:lipidoid ratio, were initially identified, followed by a systematic quality-by-design approach to define the optimal operating space (OOS), eventually resulting in the identification of a robust, highly efficacious and safe formulation. A 17-run design of experiment with an I-optimal approach was performed to systematically assess the effect of selected variables on critical quality attributes (CQAs), i.e. physicochemical properties (hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, siRNA encapsulation/loading) and the biological performance (in vitro gene silencing and cell viability). Model fitting of the obtained data to construct predictive models revealed non-linear relationships for all CQAs, which can be readily overlooked in one-factor-at-a-time optimization approaches. The response surface methodology further enabled the identification of an OOS that met the desired quality target product profile. The optimized lipidoid-modified LPNs revealed more than 50-fold higher in vitro gene silencing at well-tolerated doses and approx. a twofold increase in siRNA loading as compared to reference LPNs modified with the commonly used cationic lipid dioleyltrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP). Thus, lipidoid-modified LPNs show highly

  16. Computationally efficient analysis of particle transport and deposition in a human whole-lung-airway model. Part II: Dry powder inhaler application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanjiyil, Arun V; Kleinstreuer, Clement; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2017-05-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery is becoming a favored route for administering drugs to treat both lung and systemic diseases. Examples of lung diseases include asthma, cystic fibrosis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis. Special respiratory drugs are administered to the lungs, using an appropriate inhaler device. Next to the pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI), the dry powder inhaler (DPI) is a frequently used device because of the good drug stability and a minimal need for patient coordination. Specific DPI-designs and operations greatly affect drug-aerosol formation and hence local lung deposition. Simulating the fluid-particle dynamics after use of a DPI allows for the assessment of drug-aerosol deposition and can also assist in improving the device configuration and operation. In Part I of this study a first-generation whole lung-airway model (WLAM) was introduced and discussed to analyze particle transport and deposition in a human respiratory tract model. In the present Part II the drug-aerosols are assumed to be injected into the lung airways from a DPI mouth-piece, forming the mouth-inlet. The total as well as regional particle depositions in the WLAM, as inhaled from a DPI, were successfully compared with experimental data sets reported in the open literature. The validated modeling methodology was then employed to study the delivery of curcumin aerosols into lung airways using a commercial DPI. Curcumin has been implicated to possess high therapeutic potential as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agent. However, efficacy of curcumin treatment is limited because of the low bioavailability of curcumin when ingested. Hence, alternative drug administration techniques, e.g., using inhalable curcumin-aerosols, are under investigation. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that use of a DPI leads to low lung deposition efficiencies because large amounts of

  17. Building energy efficiency in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Wan, Kevin K.W.; Tsang, C.L.; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Energy simulation was conducted for office buildings in the five major climate zones - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild, and hot summer and warm winter - in China using DOE-2.1E. The primary aim was to investigate the thermal and energy performance of office buildings with centralised heating, ventilation and air conditioning plants in the major climatic zones in China. The computed results were analysed in three aspects - heating load, cooling load and the corresponding building energy consumption. The building peak monthly heating load varied from 142 MW h (1033 MW h cooling) in Hong Kong to 447 MW h (832 MW h cooling) in Harbin. It was also found that passive solar designs could have large energy savings potential in the severe cold and cold climates. In Harbin, the window solar component helped lower the annual building heating load by 650 MW h. Internal loads (lighting and office equipment) and part load operations of fans and pumps also played a significant role in the overall building energy efficiency. This paper presents the work, its findings and energy efficiency implications

  18. Flexible Carbon-Use Efficiency across Litter Types and during Decomposition Partly Compensates Nutrient Imbalances-Results from Analytical Stoichiometric Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models involving explicit representations of microbial processes have been developed to infer microbial community properties from laboratory and field measurements. While this approach has been used to estimate the kinetic constants related to microbial activity, it has not been fully exploited for inference of stoichiometric traits, such as carbon-use efficiency (CUE). Here, a hierarchy of analytically-solvable mass-balance models of litter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics is developed, to infer decomposer CUE from measured C and N contents during litter decomposition. The models are solved in the phase space-expressing litter remaining N as a function of remaining C-rather than in time, thus focusing on the stoichiometric relations during decomposition rather than the kinetics of degradation. This approach leads to explicit formulas that depend on CUE and other microbial properties, which can then be treated as model parameters and retrieved via nonlinear regression. CUE is either assumed time-invariant or as a function of the fraction of remaining litter C as a substitute for time. In all models, CUE tends to increase with increasing litter N availability across a range of litter types. When temporal trends in CUE are considered, CUE increases during decomposition of N-poor litter cohorts, in which decomposers are initially N-limited, but decreases in N-rich litter possibly due to C-limitation. These patterns of flexible CUE that partly compensate stoichiometric imbalances are robust to moderate shifts in decomposer C:N ratio and hold across wide climatic gradients.

  19. Flexible Carbon-Use Efficiency across Litter Types and during Decomposition Partly Compensates Nutrient Imbalances—Results from Analytical Stoichiometric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models involving explicit representations of microbial processes have been developed to infer microbial community properties from laboratory and field measurements. While this approach has been used to estimate the kinetic constants related to microbial activity, it has not been fully exploited for inference of stoichiometric traits, such as carbon-use efficiency (CUE). Here, a hierarchy of analytically-solvable mass-balance models of litter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics is developed, to infer decomposer CUE from measured C and N contents during litter decomposition. The models are solved in the phase space—expressing litter remaining N as a function of remaining C—rather than in time, thus focusing on the stoichiometric relations during decomposition rather than the kinetics of degradation. This approach leads to explicit formulas that depend on CUE and other microbial properties, which can then be treated as model parameters and retrieved via nonlinear regression. CUE is either assumed time-invariant or as a function of the fraction of remaining litter C as a substitute for time. In all models, CUE tends to increase with increasing litter N availability across a range of litter types. When temporal trends in CUE are considered, CUE increases during decomposition of N-poor litter cohorts, in which decomposers are initially N-limited, but decreases in N-rich litter possibly due to C-limitation. These patterns of flexible CUE that partly compensate stoichiometric imbalances are robust to moderate shifts in decomposer C:N ratio and hold across wide climatic gradients. PMID:28491054

  20. Flexible Carbon-Use Efficiency across Litter Types and during Decomposition Partly Compensates Nutrient Imbalances—Results from Analytical Stoichiometric Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Manzoni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical models involving explicit representations of microbial processes have been developed to infer microbial community properties from laboratory and field measurements. While this approach has been used to estimate the kinetic constants related to microbial activity, it has not been fully exploited for inference of stoichiometric traits, such as carbon-use efficiency (CUE. Here, a hierarchy of analytically-solvable mass-balance models of litter carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics is developed, to infer decomposer CUE from measured C and N contents during litter decomposition. The models are solved in the phase space—expressing litter remaining N as a function of remaining C—rather than in time, thus focusing on the stoichiometric relations during decomposition rather than the kinetics of degradation. This approach leads to explicit formulas that depend on CUE and other microbial properties, which can then be treated as model parameters and retrieved via nonlinear regression. CUE is either assumed time-invariant or as a function of the fraction of remaining litter C as a substitute for time. In all models, CUE tends to increase with increasing litter N availability across a range of litter types. When temporal trends in CUE are considered, CUE increases during decomposition of N-poor litter cohorts, in which decomposers are initially N-limited, but decreases in N-rich litter possibly due to C-limitation. These patterns of flexible CUE that partly compensate stoichiometric imbalances are robust to moderate shifts in decomposer C:N ratio and hold across wide climatic gradients.

  1. Highly efficient gene delivery by mRNA electroporation in human hematopoietic cells: superiority to lipofection and passive pulsing of mRNA and to electroporation of plasmid cDNA for tumor antigen loading of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, V F; Ponsaerts, P; Lardon, F; Nijs, G; Lenjou, M; Van Broeckhoven, C; Van Bockstaele, D R; Berneman, Z N

    2001-07-01

    Designing effective strategies to load human dendritic cells (DCs) with tumor antigens is a challenging approach for DC-based tumor vaccines. Here, a cytoplasmic expression system based on mRNA electroporation to efficiently introduce tumor antigens into DCs is described. Preliminary experiments in K562 cells using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter gene revealed that mRNA electroporation as compared with plasmid DNA electroporation showed a markedly improved transfection efficiency (89% versus 40% EGFP(+) cells, respectively) and induced a strikingly lower cell toxicity (15% death rate with mRNA versus 51% with plasmid DNA). Next, mRNA electroporation was applied for nonviral transfection of different types of human DCs, including monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs), CD34(+) progenitor-derived DCs (34-DCs) and Langerhans cells (34-LCs). High-level transgene expression by mRNA electroporation was obtained in more than 50% of all DC types. mRNA-electroporated DCs retained their phenotype and maturational potential. Importantly, DCs electroporated with mRNA-encoding Melan-A strongly activated a Melan-A-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone in an HLA-restricted manner and were superior to mRNA-lipofected or -pulsed DCs. Optimal stimulation of the CTL occurred when Mo-DCs underwent maturation following mRNA transfection. Strikingly, a nonspecific stimulation of CTL was observed when DCs were transfected with plasmid DNA. The data clearly demonstrate that Mo-DCs electroporated with mRNA efficiently present functional antigenic peptides to cytotoxic T cells. Therefore, electroporation of mRNA-encoding tumor antigens is a powerful technique to charge human dendritic cells with tumor antigens and could serve applications in future DC-based tumor vaccines.

  2. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  3. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  4. Novel toggle-rate based energy-efficient scheme for heavy load real-time IM-DD OFDM-PON with ONU LLID identification in time-domain using amplitude decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Youxiang; Zhang, Junjie

    2017-07-10

    A novel low complexity and energy-efficient scheme by controlling the toggle-rate of ONU with time-domain amplitude identification is proposed for a heavy load downlink in an intensity-modulation and direct-detection orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (IM-DD OFDM-PON). In a conventional OFDM-PON downlink, all ONUs have to perform demodulation for all the OFDM frames in a broadcast way no matter whether the frames are targeted to or not, which causes a huge energy waste. However, in our scheme, the optical network unit (ONU) logical link identifications (LLIDs) are inserted into each downlink OFDM frame in time-domain at the optical line terminal (OLT) side. At the ONU side, the LLID is obtained with a low complexity and high precision amplitude identification method. The ONU sets the toggle-rate of demodulation module to zero when the frames are not targeted to, which avoids unnecessary digital signal processing (DSP) energy consumption. Compared with the sleep-mode methods consisting of clock recovery and synchronization, toggle-rate shows its advantage in fast changing, which is more suitable for the heavy load scenarios. Moreover, for the first time to our knowledge, the characteristics of the proposed scheme are investigated in a real-time IM-DD OFDM system, which performs well at the received optical power as low as -21dBm. The experimental results show that 25.1% energy consumption can be saved in the receiver compared to the conventional configurations.

  5. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  6. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  7. Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2004-10-01

    As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

  8. Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-04-15

    Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. The Mine Technology Group of Flanders Electric has pioneered an effort to offer open architecture for shovel electrics by installing Power Performance Digital Drive controls to motors to ensure peak power is provided during the digging process. The new system also has a Smart Fault Recognition system to power down in a controlled fashion. The upgrades have been fitted to Asarco's shovel for use in coal mining operations. 1 fig., 1 photos. 4 figs.

  9. Smarter shovels dig and load more efficiently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-03-15

    Digital drive upgrades allow older shovels to power through the bank smoothly while improving safety and reliability. Flanders Electric is currently working on the third of five electric shovel upgrades which consists of Flandex Electric manufactured motors, Allen-Bradley PLCs and the Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. With an open system, or open architecture, mine operators can service and maintain machines where a close system would limit the electricians to work with the OEMs exclusively. Typically, upgrades replace the old analog or an older digital drive with a new Power Performance Digital Drive upgrade. 1 fig., 2 photos.

  10. Load variation effects on the pressure fluctuations exerted on a Kaplan turbine runner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, K; Cervantes, M J; Mulu, B; Raisee, M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind power and solar systems to electricity market together with the consumption-based electricity production resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. The hydropower systems suffer from the varying loads exerted on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbines during load variations which they are not designed for. On the other hand, investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces oscillating flow both in plunging and rotating modes which results in oscillating force with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variation conditions to check the runner performance under unsteady condition. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load happens in a smooth way while transitions to/from the part load, where rotating vortex rope (RVR) forms in the draft tube induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode of the RVR

  11. Load variation effects on the pressure fluctuations exerted on a Kaplan turbine runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, K.; Mulu, B.; Raisee, M.; Cervantes, M. J.

    2014-03-01

    Introduction of intermittent electricity production systems like wind power and solar systems to electricity market together with the consumption-based electricity production resulted in numerous start/stops, load variations and off-design operation of water turbines. The hydropower systems suffer from the varying loads exerted on the stationary and rotating parts of the turbines during load variations which they are not designed for. On the other hand, investigations on part load operation of single regulated turbines, i.e., Francis and propeller, proved the formation of rotating vortex rope (RVR) in the draft tube. The RVR induces oscillating flow both in plunging and rotating modes which results in oscillating force with two different frequencies on the runner blades, bearings and other rotating parts of the turbine. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of transient operations on the pressure fluctuations on the runner and mechanism of the RVR formation/mitigation. Draft tube and runner blades of the Porjus U9 model, a Kaplan turbine, were equipped with pressure sensors. The model was run in off-cam mode during different load variation conditions to check the runner performance under unsteady condition. The results showed that the transients between the best efficiency point and the high load happens in a smooth way while transitions to/from the part load, where rotating vortex rope (RVR) forms in the draft tube induces high level of fluctuations with two frequencies on the runner; plunging and rotating mode of the RVR.

  12. Printing graphene-carbon nanotube-ionic liquid gel on graphene paper: Towards flexible electrodes with efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenshan; Sun, Yimin; Xi, Jiangbo; Abdurhman, Abduraouf Alamer Mohamed; Ren, Jinghua; Duan, Hongwei

    2016-01-15

    The increasing demands for portable, wearable, and implantable sensing devices have stimulated growing interest in innovative electrode materials. In this work, we have demonstrated that printing a conductive ink formulated by blending three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene-carbon nanotube (CNT) assembly with ionic liquid (IL) on two-dimensional (2D) graphene paper (GP), leads to a freestanding GP supported graphene-CNT-IL nanocomposite (graphene-CNT-IL/GP). The incorporation of highly conductive CNTs into graphene assembly effectively increases its surface area and improves its electrical and mechanical properties. The graphene-CNT-IL/GP, as freestanding and flexible substrates, allows for efficient loading of PtAu alloy nanoparticles by means of ultrasonic-electrochemical deposition. Owing to the synergistic effect of PtAu alloy nanoparticles, 3D porous graphene-CNT scaffold, IL binder and 2D flexible GP substrate, the resultant lightweight nanohybrid paper electrode exhibits excellent sensing performances in nonenzymatic electrochemical detection of glucose in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and mechanical properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly efficient simultaneous ultrasonic assisted adsorption of brilliant green and eosin B onto ZnS nanoparticles loaded activated carbon: Artificial neural network modeling and central composite design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, M.; Ghaedi, M.; Dashtian, K.; Ghaedi, A. M.; Hajati, S.; Goudarzi, A.; Alipanahpour, E.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) and desirability function approach (DFA) gives useful information about operational condition and also to obtain useful information about interaction and main effect of variables concerned to simultaneous ultrasound-assisted removal of brilliant green (BG) and eosin B (EB) by zinc sulfide nanoparticles loaded on activated carbon (ZnS-NPs-AC). Spectra overlap between BG and EB dyes was extensively reduced and/or omitted by derivative spectrophotometric method, while multi-layer artificial neural network (ML-ANN) model learned with Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was used for building up a predictive model and prediction of the BG and EB removal. The ANN efficiently was able to forecast the simultaneous BG and EB removal that was confirmed by reasonable numerical value i.e. MSE of 0.0021 and R2 of 0.9589 and MSE of 0.0022 and R2 of 0.9455 for testing data set, respectively. The results reveal acceptable agreement among experimental data and ANN predicted results. Langmuir as the best model for fitting experimental data relevant to BG and EB removal indicates high, economic and profitable adsorption capacity (258.7 and 222.2 mg g- 1) that supports and confirms its applicability for wastewater treatment.

  14. Part two

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Korsgaard, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A novel micro combined heat and power system and a dynamic model thereof were presented in part one of the publication. In the following, the control system and dynamic performance of the system are presented. The model is subjected to a measured consumption pattern of 25 Danish single family...... houses with measurements of heat, power and hot water consumption every 15th minute during one year. Three scenarios are analyzed ranging from heat following only (grid compensation for electricity) to heat and power following with net export of electricity during high and peak load hours. Average...

  15. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  16. Analysis of Valve Requirements for High-Efficiency Digital Displacement Fluid Power Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer, Daniel; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power motors have been shown to enable high-efficiency operation in a wide operation range, including the part load range where conventional fluid power motors suffers from poor efficiencies. The use of these digital displacement motors set new requirements for the valve...... transition time and flow-pressure coefficient are normalized, leading to a presentation of the general efficiency map of the digital displacement motor. Finally the performance of existing commercial valves with respect to digital motors is commented....

  17. Mapping critical loads in Europe in the framework of the UN/CEE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettelingh, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    Critical loads for acidity, sulphur and nitrogen have been computed and geographically mapped in Europe. Critical loads are compared to actual deposition of acidity and of sulphur. Results show that parts of central and north-west Europe receive 20 times or more acidity than the ecosystems' critical loads, thus affecting the long-term sustainability. The Regional Acidification INformation and Simulation model (RAINS) is used to assess 2 scenarios of emission reduction. The first scenario describes currently applied reductions whereas the second assesses the application of maximum feasible reductions to SO 2 and NO x . The latter scenario significantly reduces the area of Europe where critical loads are exceeded. In general, it is shown that a pan-european policy is of highest necessity for obtaining an efficient reduction of acidic emissions throughout Europe. For France, in particular, it is concluded that the excess of critical loads for acidity is largely due to ammonia

  18. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrko, Jurek; Sernhed, Kerstin; Abaravicius, Juozas

    2003-01-01

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  19. Co-encapsulation of human serum albumin and superparamagnetic iron oxide in PLGA nanoparticles: Part II. Effect of process variables on protein model drug encapsulation efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shubhra, Q. T. H.; Feczkó, T.; Kardos, A. F.; Tóth, J.; Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Dósa, G.; Gyenis, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 2 (2014), s. 156-165 ISSN 0265-2048 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN401220801 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : encapsulation efficiency * experimental design * human serum albumin Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 1.585, year: 2014

  20. Experimental demonstration of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor concept for energy efficient syngas production. Part 1: Influence of operating conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; Bekink, G.J.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution the technical feasibility of the reverse flow catalytic membrane reactor (RFCMR) concept with porous membranes for energy efficient syngas production is investigated. In earlier work an experimental proof of principle was already provided [Smit, J., Bekink, G.J., van Sint

  1. System efficiency for two-step metal oxide solar thermochemical hydrogen production – Part 2: Impact of gas heat recuperation and separation temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Ehrhart, Brian D.

    2016-09-22

    The solar-to-hydrogen (STH) efficiency is calculated for various operating conditions for a two-step metal oxide solar thermochemical hydrogen production cycle using cerium(IV) oxide. An inert sweep gas was considered as the O2 removal method. Gas and solid heat recuperation effectiveness values were varied between 0 and 100% in order to determine the limits of the effect of these parameters. The temperature at which the inert gas is separated from oxygen for an open-loop and recycled system is varied. The hydrogen and water separation temperature was also varied and the effect on STH efficiency quantified. This study shows that gas heat recuperation is critical for high efficiency cycles, especially at conditions that require high steam and inert gas flowrates. A key area for future study is identified to be the development of ceramic heat exchangers for high temperature gas-gas heat exchange. Solid heat recuperation is more important at lower oxidation temperatures that favor temperature-swing redox processing, and the relative impact of this heat recuperation is muted if the heat can be used elsewhere in the system. A high separation temperature for the recycled inert gas has been shown to be beneficial, especially for cases of lower gas heat recuperation and increased inert gas flowrates. A higher water/hydrogen separation temperature is beneficial for most gas heat recuperation effectiveness values, though the overall impact on optimal system efficiency is relatively small for the values considered. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.

  2. Efficient pricing of Asian options under Lévy processes based on Fourier cosine expansions Part I : European-style products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an efficient pricing method for arithmetic, and geometric, Asian options under Levy processes, based on Fourier cosine expansions and Clenshaw–Curtis quadrature. The pricing method is developed for both European–style and American–style Asian options, and for discretely and continuously

  3. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam [KEPCO ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies.

  4. Scaling structure loads for SMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Song, Jeong Guk; Jeon, Sang Ho; Lim, Hak Kyu; Lee, Kwang Nam

    2012-01-01

    When the Seismic Margin Analysis(SMA) is conducted, the new structural load generation with Seismic Margin Earthquake(SME) is the time consuming work. For the convenience, EPRI NP 6041 suggests the scaling of the structure load. The report recommend that the fixed base(rock foundation) structure designed using either constant modal damping or modal damping ratios developed for a single material damping. For these cases, the SME loads can easily and accurately be calculated by scaling the spectral accelerations of the individual modes for the new SME response spectra. EPRI NP 6041 provides two simple methodologies for the scaling structure seismic loads which are the dominant frequency scaling methodology and the mode by mode scaling methodology. Scaling of the existing analysis to develop SME loads is much easier and more efficient than performing a new analysis. This paper is intended to compare the calculating results of two different methodologies

  5. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel Part II: Proposal of a method to use shell element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woong Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I-core sandwich panel that has been used more widely is assembled using high power CO2 laser welding. Kim et al. (2013 proposed a circular cone type heat source model for the T-joint laser welding between face plate and core. It can cover the negative defocus which is commonly adopted in T-joint laser welding to provide deeper penetration. In part I, a volumetric heat source model is proposed and it is verified thorough a comparison of melting zone on the cross section with experiment results. The proposed model can be used for heat transfer analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation that occurs during laser welding. In terms of computational time, since the thermal elasto-plastic analysis using 3D solid elements is quite time consuming, shell element model with multi-layers have been employed instead. However, the conventional layered approach is not appropriate for the application of heat load at T-Joint. This paper, Part II, suggests a new method to arrange different number of layers for face plate and core in order to impose heat load only to the face plate.

  6. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel Part II : Proposal of a method to use shell element model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jae Woong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I-core sandwich panel that has been used more widely is assembled using high power CO₂laser welding. Kim et al. (2013 proposed a circular cone type heat source model for the T-joint laser welding between face plate and core. It can cover the negative defocus which is commonly adopted in T-joint laser welding to provide deeper penetration. In part I, a volumetric heat source model is proposed and it is verified thorough a comparison of melting zone on the cross section with experiment results. The proposed model can be used for heat transfer analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation that occurs during laser welding. In terms of computational time, since the thermal elasto-plastic analysis using 3D solid elements is quite time consuming, shell element model with multi-layers have been employed instead. However, the conventional layered approach is not appropriate for the application of heat load at T-Joint. This paper, Part II, suggests a new method to arrange different number of layers for face plate and core in order to impose heat load only to the face plate.

  7. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system. Part 2. Study of the effective utilization technology of high efficiency energy (Study of the optimum system design technology); 2000 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu energy riyo system kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 2. Kokoritsu energy yuko riyo gijutsu no kenkyu (saiteki system sekkei gijutsu no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    The paper conducted the development of the environmentally friendly type high efficiency energy utilization system and the R and D of the high efficiency energy effective utilization technology, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. As to the energy transportation/storage technology, the R and D were made on the following: methanol/energy system, non-equilibrium high efficiency methanol decomposition reaction technology, development of multiple functions of catalyst, high efficiency heat pump technology using hydrogen storage alloys, heat-hydrogen recovery/transportation/utilization technology, vacuum insulated heat transport piping system, surfactant used for high density heat transport, high density latent heat transportation technology, etc. Concerning the energy supply/utilization technology, the R and D were made of the heat supply system using high efficient heat pump corresponding to multiple fuels. Relating to the environmental load reduction technology, the energy conserved heat pump system using natural coolant. As to the optimum system design technology, the comprehensive preparation of element technology, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Selection of the motor train of vehicles of load and passengers service with energy efficiency; Seleccion del tren motriz de vehiculos del servicio de carga y pasajeros con eficiencia energetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Morales, Mercedes [Instituto Mexicano del Transporte (MExico)

    2003-07-01

    The companies of motor transport in Mexico are affected in their economy mainly by the low efficiency in the fuel consumption, specially the one dedicated to heavy service. Despite the outpost technology that is becoming available and adopted by the vehicular park to vehicular in relation to the energy efficiency, the cost per transported ton has not diminished in any substantial way. In this paper, a study is presented on the influence that it has within this problem, the selection of the components of the motor train in the fuel consumption and the capacity of ascent of the vehicle in relation to the weight of the transported load. As result of the study was developed in the Mexican Institute of Transport a computer program based on the real tests of performance that a vehicle can be subjected to, taking into consideration the optimum regime of the motor with the minimum fuel consumption. The program helps the carrier to select the most suitable motor train for the vehicle that is intended to acquire considering the operations to which it will be subjected to in a certain service, also evaluates the motor train of the existing vehicles in the vehicular fleet of the transport companies. [Spanish] Las empresas de autotransporte en Mexico se ven afectadas en su economia principalmente por la baja eficiencia en el consumo de combustible, especialmente las destinadas al servicio pesado. No obstante la avanzada tecnologia de que se va disponiendo y adoptando en el parque vehicular con relacion a la eficiencia energetica, el costo por tonelada transportada no ha disminuido de manera importante. En este trabajo, se presenta un estudio sobre la influencia que tiene dentro de esta problematica, la seleccion de los componentes del tren motriz en el consumo de combustible y en la capacidad de ascenso del vehiculo en relacion con el peso de la carga transportada. Como resultado del estudio se desarrollo en el Instituto Mexicano del Transporte un programa de computo basado en

  9. Perspectives d'amélioration du rendement à très faible charge des moteurs d'automobile Prospects for Lmprovinq the Very-Low-Load Efficiency of Automotive Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le mauvais rendement énergétique des véhicules utilisés à très faible charge (circulation urbaine, vitesses limitées provient entre autres des combustions non optimales. Celles-ci sont de plusieurs types : combustion lente et/ou tardive, ratés de propagation. L'acquisition de cycles de pression au moyen du système DIGITAP développé à l'In-titut Français du Pétrole (IFP est décrite et le calcul instantané du travail cycle-à-cycle permet de définir un critère de stabilité de fonctionnement du moteur. L'analyse thermodynamique des cycles montre que la composition du mélange air + carburant + gaz résiduels, trop proche des limites de propagabilité de flamme, est à l'origine des phénomènes observés. Des voies d'action portant sur les gaz résiduels, la turbulence et les paramètres du système d'allumage sont dégagées et permettent des améliorations importantes du rendement. The poor energy efficiency of vehicles used at very low engine load (urban traffic, limited speeds comes from non-optimum combustion, among other causes. Such combustion may be of several types, i. e. slow and/or late combustion, propagation misfiring. The recording of pressure cycles by the DIGITAP system developed at Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP is described, and the instantaneous computing of the cycle-to-cycle work enables a stability criterion for engine operating to be described. The thermodynamic analysis of the cycles shows that the composition of the air + fuel + residuel gas mixture which is too close to flame propagation limits is at the origin of the phenomena observed. Methods of action concerning residual gases, turbulence and the parameters of the ignition system are determined and make for great improvements in efficiency and stability for such types of running.

  10. Comparative study of trusses to determine the influence of the geometry in the structural efficiency, according to the directions of the principal stresses : Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Señís, Roger; Brufau, Robert; Sastre, Ramón; Carbajal, Eusebio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. This study compares flat lattice girders mounted on two supports, based on various design parameters, to determine which have better structural performance and what geometries are more efficient. The fundamental goal is to determine the relationship of performance and structural behaviour of each type of framework structure, with respect to the principle of optimization a...

  11. How much do incentives affect car purchase? Agent-based microsimulation of consumer choice of new cars. Part 2. Forecasting effects of feebates based on energy-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, Peter de; Mueller, Michel G.; Scholz, Roland W.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we simulate the car market in order to forecast the effects of feebate systems based on an energy-labeling scheme using categories A to G. Very fuel-efficient (A) cars receive a cash incentive, highly inefficient (G) cars pay additional fees. Consumers have different price elasticities and behavioral options to react to feebates. They can switch to a smaller sized car, but as energy-efficiency varies widely within size segments, they can also stick to the preferred size class and choose a more efficient (smaller) engine. In addition, previously owned cars influence the next car to be chosen. We use an agent-based microsimulation approach particularly suited to predict environmental and market effects of feebates. Heteorogeneous agents choose from a choice set drawn from a detailed fleet of new cars. Incentives of EUR2000 for A-labeled cars induce an additional rated CO 2 emission decrease of new car registrations between 3.4% and 4.3%, with CO 2 abatement costs between EUR6 and EUR13 per ton, and otherwise little undesired market disturbance. The risk of rebound effects is estimated to be low. After adopting the frequencies of consumer segments to a given country, the model presented is applicable to all European car markets. (author)

  12. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy and Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Gillian; Greene, Ciara M.

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995, 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e., the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The ...

  13. Perceptual Load Affects Eyewitness Accuracy & Susceptibility to Leading Questions

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Murphy; Ciara Mary Greene

    2016-01-01

    Load Theory (Lavie, 1995; 2005) states that the level of perceptual load in a task (i.e. the amount of information involved in processing task-relevant stimuli) determines the efficiency of selective attention. There is evidence that perceptual load affects distractor processing, with increased inattentional blindness under high load. Given that high load can result in individuals failing to report seeing obvious objects, it is conceivable that load may also impair memory for the scene. The c...

  14. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph [QM Power, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  15. Development of Aircraft Sandwich Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Křena

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper shows the design and development process of sandwich parts. A spoiler plate and a main landing gear door are developed. Sandwich parts are made of C/E composite facings and a foam core. FE models have been used for optimization of structures. Emphasis has been placed on deformations of parts under a few load cases. Experimental tests have been used for a verification of structure parts loaded by concentrated forces.

  16. A multi-center randomized controlled trial to compare a self-ligating bracket with a conventional bracket in a UK population: Part 1: Treatment efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dywer, Lian; Littlewood, Simon J; Rahman, Shahla; Spencer, R James; Barber, Sophy K; Russell, Joanne S

    2016-01-01

    To use a two-arm parallel trial to compare treatment efficiency between a self-ligating and a conventional preadjusted edgewise appliance system. A prospective multi-center randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in three hospital orthodontic departments. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive treatment with either a self-ligating (3M SmartClip) or conventional (3M Victory) preadjusted edgewise appliance bracket system using a computer-generated random sequence concealed in opaque envelopes, with stratification for operator and center. Two operators followed a standardized protocol regarding bracket bonding procedure and archwire sequence. Efficiency of each ligation system was assessed by comparing the duration of treatment (months), total number of appointments (scheduled and emergency visits), and number of bracket bond failures. One hundred thirty-eight subjects (mean age 14 years 11 months) were enrolled in the study, of which 135 subjects (97.8%) completed treatment. The mean treatment time and number of visits were 25.12 months and 19.97 visits in the SmartClip group and 25.80 months and 20.37 visits in the Victory group. The overall bond failure rate was 6.6% for the SmartClip and 7.2% for Victory, with a similar debond distribution between the two appliances. No significant differences were found between the bracket systems in any of the outcome measures. No serious harm was observed from either bracket system. There was no clinically significant difference in treatment efficiency between treatment with a self-ligating bracket system and a conventional ligation system.

  17. Use of low-cost heat sources to improve the efficiency of heap leaching of uranium ores. Part of a coordinated programme on bacterial leaching of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajuria, S.

    1977-12-01

    Basic technical parameters are given of two solar heaters designed for use in heap leaching of uranium ores. Inexpensive and easily available materials such as flat glass panes, glass tubing and corrugated metal sheets were used in the construction of the heaters. Under optimum conditions, the heaters can produce temperature differentials of 52 0 C (50 0 C) at the flow rate of 30ml/min. The dependence of percent recovery on the temperature of solutions in heap leaching of ore from 'El Nopal' was studied. Even though no precise correlation was found, an increase in the temperature of solutions seems to improve the efficiency of heap leaching

  18. An efficient method for evaluation of post-dynamic quasi-stationary states during the island operation of power system parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, D P; Mijailovic, S V [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the development and practical examples of an efficient method for the simultaneous solution of post-dynamic quasi-stationary states in each of the islands, using a unique numerical procedure, retaining the same node numeration which existed in the power system before its disintegration. At the same time, the developed method enables a simple incorporation of the effects of primary frequency and voltage control, emergency control devices and a series of possible dispatch actions, both during the monitoring of the disintegration process and during power system restoration with island synchronization, if the necessary conditions are met. 9 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Identification of Influence of Part Tolerances of 3PWR-SE Pump On Its Total Efficiency Taking Into Consideration Multi-Valued Logic Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deptuła Adam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the way of identifying the influence of the tolerance of model pumps (TYPE 3PWR-SE construction on the total efficiency. The identification of sensitive control dimensions (Value/Tolerance of examined pumps has been made by means of the multi-valued logic and inductive decision trees. In order to confirm the obtained results, multiple-valued logic trees have been used in the paper according to algorithms for the minimization of individual logic functions. What is more, a specific monotonicity of values of the most key parameters has been determined for the investigated set of pumps having individual specification numbers.

  20. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors elaborate the economical efficiency evaluation technique that could be universal and applied for technical-and-economic feasibility study of the ball-cleaning system installation on the steam turbines of the electric power plants. Besides the effect from reducing the exhaust steam pressure in the condenser by means of the ball-cleaning system implementation, this technique also accounts for the effect of lowering the condenser hydraulic pressure.The article refers to the practical results of the ball-cleaning system introduction on the steam turbines of Gomel CHP-2. As a result of regular application of the ball-cleaning system the temperature difference of the condensers of all blocks Т-180/210-130-1 confined into the regulatory values and the cleanness coefficient of all three turbine units reached 0,85. The authors consider the working results, implementation experience of the ball-cleaning system at Gomel CHP-2 and its efficiency evaluation technique to be worth disseminating when introducing the analogous systems at the plants of Belarusian power network.The authors suggest measures on the condenser automatic-cleaning system improvement with the turbine mathematical-simulation model employment that will make it possible to optimize the condenser cleaning regimes and to increase the ball-cleaning system effectiveness with the condenser cleanness coefficient growing up to 0,90–0,92.

  1. DESIGNING AND EFFICIENCY EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC BALL-CLEANING SYSTEM FOR CONDENSER 180-KTsS-1 OF TURBINE Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Zenovich-Leshkevich-Ol’pinskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce losses in the cooling source (condenser and to increase effectiveness of fuel-and-power resources utilization, the authors present a modern automatic ball-cleaning system for the pipes of condenser 180-KTsS-1 of turbine unit Т-180/210-130-1 LMZ of Gomel CHP-2. The article examines exploitation challenges of the steam turbine condensers and methods of clearing them from sedimentations. Depending on the sedimentation character and composition, and the quality of cooling water at the power plant, they apply various methods of the condenser tubes clearing: heat drying, vacuum dehydration, acid-washing, pipes-shooting with water and water-air pistols, ablution with high-pressure water jet etc. All the applied cleaning methods are the periodical means to fight the sedimentations and require the turbine halting or unloading, predetermine the equipment operating between clearings with constantly smearing cooling surfaces of the condensers, i.e. with reduced efficiency of equipment operation.The installation of the ball-cleaning system practically excludes defects of the chemical and mechanical cleaning methods, which leads to the condenser pipes life-in-service increase, the full-flow condensate quality improvement, reliability and efficient performance enhancement of the steam turbines equipment. The authors consider developed algorithms of data processing and designed system control of the condenser cleaning that allowed realizing its operation in automatic mode.

  2. Non-destructive observation of damage in mortar and concrete during mechanical loading for the evaluation of moisture transfer profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouchier, Simon; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Coupled heat and mass transfer modelling in building materials now plays an important part in the design of energy-efficient buildings. However, concrete and other construction materials subjected to mechanical loading and atmospheric excitation inevitably develop fractures patterns during...... characterization with a hygric modelling can provide an appropriate prediction of the water infiltration in fractured porous building materials....

  3. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  4. High efficient heat pump system using storage tanks to increase COP by means of the ISEC concept - Part 1: Model validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the ISEC concept is to provide a high-efficient heat pump system for hot water production.The ISEC concept uses two storage tanks for the water, one discharged and one charged. Hot water for theindustrial process is tapped from the charged tank, while the other tank is charging....... This result in a lower condensingtemperature than if the water was heated in one step. Two test setups were built, one to test the performanceof the heat pump gradually heating the water and one to investigate the stratification in the storage tanks.Furthermore, a dynamic model of the system was implemented....... Charging is done bycirculating the water in the tank through the condenser of a heat pump several times and thereby graduallyheating the water. The charging is done with a higher mass flow rate than the discharging to reach severalcirculations of the water during the time frame of one discharging...

  5. Efficient, long term production of monocyte-derived macrophages from human pluripotent stem cells under partly-defined and fully-defined conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie van Wilgenburg

    Full Text Available Human macrophages are specialised hosts for HIV-1, dengue virus, Leishmania and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet macrophage research is hampered by lack of appropriate cell models for modelling infection by these human pathogens, because available myeloid cell lines are, by definition, not terminally differentiated like tissue macrophages. We describe here a method for deriving monocytes and macrophages from human Pluripotent Stem Cells which improves on previously published protocols in that it uses entirely defined, feeder- and serum-free culture conditions and produces very consistent, pure, high yields across both human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC and multiple human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC lines over time periods of up to one year. Cumulatively, up to ∼3×10(7 monocytes can be harvested per 6-well plate. The monocytes produced are most closely similar to the major blood monocyte (CD14(+, CD16(low, CD163(+. Differentiation with M-CSF produces macrophages that are highly phagocytic, HIV-1-infectable, and upon activation produce a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile similar to blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Macrophages are notoriously hard to genetically manipulate, as they recognise foreign nucleic acids; the lentivector system described here overcomes this, as pluripotent stem cells can be relatively simply genetically manipulated for efficient transgene expression in the differentiated cells, surmounting issues of transgene silencing. Overall, the method we describe here is an efficient, effective, scalable system for the reproducible production and genetic modification of human macrophages, facilitating the interrogation of human macrophage biology.

  6. Pollen loads and specificity of native pollinators of lowbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan-Deserres, J; Girard, M; Chagnon, M; Fournier, V

    2014-06-01

    The reproduction of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) is closely tied to insect pollination, owing to self-incompatibility. Many species are known to have greater pollination efficiency than the introduced Apis mellifera L., commonly used for commercial purposes. In this study, we measured the pollen loads of several antophilous insect species, mostly Apoidea and Syrphidae, present in four lowbush blueberry fields in Lac-St-Jean, Québec. To measure pollen loads and species specificity toward V. angustifolium, we net-collected 627 specimens of pollinators, retrieved their pollen loads, identified pollen taxa, and counted pollen grains. We found that the sizes of pollen loads were highly variable among species, ranging from a few hundred to more than 118,000 pollen grains per individual. Bombus and Andrena species in particular carried large amounts of Vaccinium pollen and thus may have greater pollination efficiency. Also, two species (Andrena bradleyi Viereck and Andrena carolina Viereck) showed nearly monolectic behavior toward lowbush blueberry. Finally, we identified alternative forage plants visited by native pollinators, notably species of Acer, Rubus, Ilex mucronata, Ledum groenlandicum, and Taraxacum. Protecting these flowering plants should be part of management practices to maintain healthy pollinator communities in a lowbush blueberry agroecosystem.

  7. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel PART I : Proposal of a heat source model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woong Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of I-Core sandwich panel has increased in cruise ship deck structure since it can provide similar bending strength with conventional stiffened plate while keeping lighter weight and lower web height. However, due to its thin plate thickness, i.e. about 4~6 mm at most, it is assembled by high power CO2 laser welding to minimize the welding deformation. This research proposes a volumetric heat source model for T-joint of the I-Core sandwich panel and a method to use shell element model for a thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation. This paper, Part I, focuses on the heat source model. A circular cone type heat source model is newly suggested in heat transfer analysis to realize similar melting zone with that observed in experiment. An additional suggestion is made to consider negative defocus, which is commonly applied in T-joint laser welding since it can provide deeper penetration than zero defocus. The proposed heat source is also verified through 3D thermal elasto-plastic analysis to compare welding deformation with experimental results. A parametric study for different welding speeds, defocus values, and welding powers is performed to investigate the effect on the melting zone and welding deformation. In Part II, focuses on the proposed method to employ shell element model to predict welding deformation in thermal elasto-plastic analysis instead of solid element model.

  8. Geometrically Flexible and Efficient Flow Analysis of High Speed Vehicles Via Domain Decomposition, Part 1: Unstructured-Grid Solver for High Speed Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeffery A.; Baurle, Robert A.; Passe, Bradley J.; Spiegel, Seth C.; Nishikawa, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    The ability to solve the equations governing the hypersonic turbulent flow of a real gas on unstructured grids using a spatially-elliptic, 2nd-order accurate, cell-centered, finite-volume method has been recently implemented in the VULCAN-CFD code. This paper describes the key numerical methods and techniques that were found to be required to robustly obtain accurate solutions to hypersonic flows on non-hex-dominant unstructured grids. The methods and techniques described include: an augmented stencil, weighted linear least squares, cell-average gradient method, a robust multidimensional cell-average gradient-limiter process that is consistent with the augmented stencil of the cell-average gradient method and a cell-face gradient method that contains a cell skewness sensitive damping term derived using hyperbolic diffusion based concepts. A data-parallel matrix-based symmetric Gauss-Seidel point-implicit scheme, used to solve the governing equations, is described and shown to be more robust and efficient than a matrix-free alternative. In addition, a y+ adaptive turbulent wall boundary condition methodology is presented. This boundary condition methodology is deigned to automatically switch between a solve-to-the-wall and a wall-matching-function boundary condition based on the local y+ of the 1st cell center off the wall. The aforementioned methods and techniques are then applied to a series of hypersonic and supersonic turbulent flat plate unit tests to examine the efficiency, robustness and convergence behavior of the implicit scheme and to determine the ability of the solve-to-the-wall and y+ adaptive turbulent wall boundary conditions to reproduce the turbulent law-of-the-wall. Finally, the thermally perfect, chemically frozen, Mach 7.8 turbulent flow of air through a scramjet flow-path is computed and compared with experimental data to demonstrate the robustness, accuracy and convergence behavior of the unstructured-grid solver for a realistic 3-D geometry on

  9. Loads and loads and loads: The influence of prospective load, retrospective load, and ongoing task load in prospective memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In prospective memory tasks different kinds of load can occur. Adding a prospective memory task can impose a load on ongoing task performance. Adding ongoing task load can affect prospective memory performance. The existence of multiple target events increases prospective load and adding complexity to the to-be-remembered action increases retrospective load. In two experiments, we systematically examined the effects of these different types of load on prospective memory performance. Results showed an effect of prospective load on costs in the ongoing task for categorical targets (Experiment 2, but not for specific targets (Experiment 1. Retrospective load and ongoing task load both affected remembering the retrospective component of the prospective memory task. We suggest that prospective load can enhance costs in the ongoing task due to additional monitoring requirements. Retrospective load and ongoing task load seem to impact the division of resources between the ongoing task and retrieval of the retrospective component, which may affect disengagement from the ongoing task. In general, the results demonstrate that the different types of load affect prospective memory differentially.

  10. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  11. New energy technologies 4. Energy management and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Caire, R.; Raison, B.; Quenard, D.; Verneau, G.; Zissis, G.

    2007-01-01

    This forth tome of the new energy technologies handbook is devoted to energy management and to the improvement of energy efficiency. The energy management by decentralized generation insertion and network-driven load control, analyzes the insertion and management means of small power generation in distribution networks and the means for load management by the network with the aim of saving energy and limiting peak loads. The second part, devoted to energy efficiency presents in a detailed way the technologies allowing an optimal management of energy in buildings and leading to the implementation of positive energy buildings. A special chapter treats of energy saving using new lighting technologies in the private and public sectors. Content: 1 - decentralized power generation - impacts and solutions: threat or opportunity; deregulation; emerging generation means; impact of decentralized generation on power networks; elements of solution; 2 - mastery of energy demand - loads control by the network: stakes of loads control; choice of loads to be controlled; communication needs; measurements and controls for loads control; model and algorithm needs for loads control. A better energy efficiency: 3 - towards positive energy buildings: key data for Europe; how to convert fossil energy consuming buildings into low-energy consuming and even energy generating buildings; the Minergie brand; the PassivHaus or 'passive house' label; the zero-energy house/zero-energy home (ZEH); the zero-energy building (ZEB); the positive energy house; comparison between the three Minergie/PassivHaus/ZEH types of houses; beyond the positive energy building; 4 - light sources and lighting systems - from technology to energy saving: lighting yesterday and today; light sources and energy conversion; energy saving in the domain of lighting: study of some type-cases; what future for light sources. (J.S.)

  12. Cognitive Load of Learner Control: Extraneous or Germane Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Vandewaetere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning environments become more tailored when learners can exert control over one or more parts of the learning process. Learner control (LC demands additional efforts of learners because, in addition to learning, they also have to monitor that learning. As a consequence, LC may cause additional cognitive load and even cognitive overload. The central question in this study is what type of cognitive load is induced by LC and whether the experienced load is related to learning outcomes. For this study, half of the students had control over task selection, while the other half had not. Within each condition, students were assigned to a single treatment, with the primary task to solely focus on the learning content, and a dual treatment, comprising a primary task and a secondary task. The results indicate that LC did not impose higher cognitive load as measured by secondary task scores and mental effort ratings.

  13. AUTOMATIC LOAD SHARING OF TRANSFORMERS USING MICROCONTROLLER

    OpenAIRE

    Vidhun M; Akshara Shanmughan; Liya Immanual; Sreelakshmi V G

    2017-01-01

    The transformer is a static device, which converts power from one level to another level. The aim of the project is to protect the transformer under overload condition by load sharing. Due to overload on transformer, the efficiency drops and windings get overheated and may get burnt. Thus by sharing load on transformer, the transformer is protected. This will be done by connecting another transformer in parallel through a micro-controller. The micro controller compares the load on the first t...

  14. Deterministic chaos in the processor load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbiniak, Zbigniew; Jozwiak, Ireneusz J.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present the results of research whose purpose was to identify the phenomenon of deterministic chaos in the processor load. We analysed the time series of the processor load during efficiency tests of database software. Our research was done on a Sparc Alpha processor working on the UNIX Sun Solaris 5.7 operating system. The conducted analyses proved the presence of the deterministic chaos phenomenon in the processor load in this particular case

  15. Twenty years of load theory-Where are we now, and where should we go next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Groeger, John A; Greene, Ciara M

    2016-10-01

    Selective attention allows us to ignore what is task-irrelevant and focus on what is task-relevant. The cognitive and neural mechanisms that underlie this process are key topics of investigation in cognitive psychology. One of the more prominent theories of attention is perceptual load theory, which suggests that the efficiency of selective attention is dependent on both perceptual and cognitive load. It is now more than 20 years since the proposal of load theory, and it is a good time to evaluate the evidence in support of this influential model. The present article supplements and extends previous reviews (Lavie, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 75-82. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.004 , 2005, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 143-148. doi: 10.1177/0963721410370295 , 2010) by examining more recent research in what appears to be a rapidly expanding area. The article comprises five parts, examining (1) evidence for the effects of perceptual load on attention, (2) cognitive load, (3) individual differences under load, (4) alternative theories and criticisms, and (5) the future of load theory. We argue that the key next step for load theory will be the application of the model to real-world tasks. The potential benefits of applied attention research are numerous, and there is tentative evidence that applied research would provide strong support for the theory itself, as well as real-world benefits related to activities in which attention is crucial, such as driving and education.

  16. Proposal and analysis of a high-efficiency combined desalination and refrigeration system based on the LiBr-H2O absorption cycle-Part 1: System configuration and mathematical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongqing; Lior, Noam

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous production of fresh water and refrigeration are often required, e.g. in warm-climate water-deficient regions, and this study is a proposal and analysis of an efficient way of producing both of them by consuming mainly low-grade heat. After introducing the configuration choice methodology, a combined refrigeration and water system, ARHP-MEE (absorption refrigeration heat pump and multi-effect evaporation desalter), which is the integration of a LiBr-H 2 O refrigeration unit, a LiBr-H 2 O heat pump, and a low-temperature multi-effect evaporation desalination unit, is proposed, and the mathematical model is presented and validated. The model serves for conducting a performance analysis of the combined system, reported in Part 2 of this two-part paper.

  17. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheppy, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  18. Turbulence and turbulence-generated structural loading in wind turbine clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs

    2007-01-01

    of the model is that it became part of the Danish standard for wind turbine design DS 472 (2001) in August 2001 and it is part of the corresponding international standard, IEC61400-1 (2005). Also, extreme loading under normal operation for wake conditions and the efficiency of very large wind farms......Turbulence - in terms of standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations - and other flow characteristics are different in the interior of wind farms relative to the free flow and action must be taken to ensure sufficient structural sustainability of the wind turbines exposed to “wind farm flow......”. The standard deviation of wind speed fluctuations is a known key parameter for both extreme- and fatigue loading, and it is argued and found to be justified that a model for change in turbulence intensity alone may account for increased fatigue loading in wind farms. Changes in scale of turbulence...

  19. Experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of the high performance cooling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    This work deal with experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. The work contain description of cooling device, working principle of cooling device, construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method of device cooling efficiency evaluation. The work results are presented in graphic visualization of temperature dependence of the contact area surface between cooling device evaporator and electronic components on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W and temperature dependence of the loop thermosiphon condenser surface on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W.

  20. Experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of the high performance cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk; Malcho, Milan, E-mail: milan.malcho@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    This work deal with experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. The work contain description of cooling device, working principle of cooling device, construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method of device cooling efficiency evaluation. The work results are presented in graphic visualization of temperature dependence of the contact area surface between cooling device evaporator and electronic components on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W and temperature dependence of the loop thermosiphon condenser surface on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W.

  1. RF Loads for Energy Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Federmann, S; Caspers, F

    2012-01-01

    Different conceptional designs for RF high power loads are presented. One concept implies the use of solid state rectifier modules for direct RF to DC conversion with efficiencies beyond 80%. In addition, robust metallic low-Q resonant structures, capable of operating at high temperatures (>150 ◦C) are discussed. Another design deals with a very high temperature (up to 800 ◦C) air cooled load using a ceramic foam block inside a metal enclosure. This porous ceramic block is the microwave absorber and is not brazed to the metallic enclosure.

  2. Distribution load estimation (DLE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A; Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The load research has produced customer class load models to convert the customers` annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models applied from a nation-wide sample is limited in any specific network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to find improvements to the load models or, in general, improvements to the load estimates. In Distribution Load Estimation (DLE) the measurements from the network are utilized to improve the customer class load models. The results of DLE will be new load models that better correspond to the loading of the distribution network but are still close to the original load models obtained by load research. The principal data flow of DLE is presented

  3. Environmental Aspects of Load Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-02-01

    This study approaches load management from an environmental perspective. It identifies and discusses the possible environmental benefits of load management and evaluates their significance, primary focusing on CO 2 emissions reduction. The analysis is carried out on two levels: national - the Swedish electricity market, and local - one electric utility in southern Sweden. Our results show the importance of considering the influence of site-specific or level-specific conditions on the environmental effects of load management. On the national level, load management measures can hardly provide significant environmental benefits, due to the high hydropower production in Sweden, which is the demand following production source. Emission reductions will rather be the result of energy efficiency measures, which will cut the load demand as well as the energy demand. However, when it comes to a local (utility) level, where load management is considered as an alternative to an installation of peak diesel power plant, the benefits are clear. It is demonstrated that significant CO 2 emissions savings can be achieved due to avoided peak diesel power production

  4. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  5. Distribution load estimation - DLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seppaelae, A [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The load research project has produced statistical information in the form of load models to convert the figures of annual energy consumption to hourly load values. The reliability of load models is limited to a certain network because many local circumstances are different from utility to utility and time to time. Therefore there is a need to make improvements in the load models. Distribution load estimation (DLE) is the method developed here to improve load estimates from the load models. The method is also quite cheap to apply as it utilises information that is already available in SCADA systems

  6. Comprehensive Review on Divisible Load Theory: Concepts, Strategies, and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsollah Ghanbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature concerning the divisible load theory. The divisible load theory is mainly applied for scheduling in the area of distributed computing. It is based on the fact that the load can be divided into some arbitrarily independent parts, in which each part can be processed independently by a processor. This paper reviews the literature concerning the divisible load theory, while focusing on the details of the basic concepts, approaches, strategies, typologies, and open problems.

  7. Efficient boiler operations sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, F.W. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This book emphasizes the practical aspects of industrial and commercial boiler operations. It starts with a comprehensive review of general combustion and boiler fundamentals and then deals with specific efficiency improvement methods, and the cost savings which result. The book has the following chapter headings: boiler combustion fundamentals; boiler efficiency goals; major factors controlling boiler efficiency; boiler efficiency calculations; heat loss; graphical solutions; preparation for boiler testing; boiler test procedures; efficiency-related boiler maintenance procedures; boiler tune-up; boiler operational modifications; effect of water side and gas side scale deposits; load management; auxillary equipment to increase boiler efficiency; air preheaters and economizers; other types of auxillary equipment; combustion control systems and instrumentation; boiler O/sub 2/ trim controls; should you purchase a new boiler.; financial evaluation procedures; case studies. The last chapter includes a case study of a boiler burning pulverized coal and a case study of stoker-fired coal.

  8. Java technology for implementing efficient numerical analysis in intranet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hee Yong; Ko, Sung Ho

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces some useful Java technologies for utilizing the internet in numerical analysis, and suggests one architecture performing efficient numerical analysis in the intranet by using them. The present work has verified it's possibility by implementing some parts of this architecture with two easy examples. One is based on Servlet-Applet communication, JDBC and swing. The other is adding multi-threads, file transfer and Java remote method invocation to the former. Through this work it has been intended to make the base for the later advanced and practical research that will include efficiency estimates of this architecture and deal with advanced load balancing

  9. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  10. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  11. Diagnostic system for process control at NPP Dukovany load follow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubek, J.; Petruzela, I.

    1998-01-01

    The NPP Dukovany is being operated in the frequency control since 1996. In last year a project for the plant load follow has been developed. One part of the project is to install a diagnostic system for process control. At present the main control loops of the plant control system are regular tested after unit refuelling only. The functionality and control system parameter adjusting is tested by certificated procedures. This state is unsuitable in view of the plan load follow operation. The relevant operational modes are based on minimisation of influence on plant component life time and on achievement of planned unit parameters. Therefore it is necessary to provide testing of main control system parts in shorter time period. Mainly at time when the unit is really in load follow operation. The paper describes the diagnostic system for process control which will be at NPP Dukovany implemented. The principal of the system will be evaluation of real and expected changes