WorldWideScience

Sample records for part diverging results

  1. Numerical simulation of the divergence of a wind turbine airfoil : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdenee, D.; Minea, I.S.; Tardiff d' Hamonville, T.; Illinca, A. [Quebec Univ., Rimouski, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de Recherche en Energie Eolienne

    2010-07-01

    The development of larger, more flexible wind turbine blades is creating the need for an improved understanding of the mechanisms surrounding unsteady flow-structure interactions. This 2-part study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to identify and model the aerodynamic and aeroelastic phenomena around wind turbine blades. Aeroelastic divergence was modelled using coupled aerodynamic and elastic models with an ANSYS software program. The fluid-structure interactions of an NACA0012 airfoil were simulated in order to determine the divergence phenomenon created by aerodynamic loads and transient fluid flow. The airfoil profile was fixed and exempted from all rotational degrees of liberty while being subjected to a constant flow of velocity. The fixing was then removed and the constant flow was compared with a shock wave on the airfoil profile. The profile then oscillated with damped amplitude due to the aerodynamic damping imposed. Results of the analysis will be compared with results obtained in future studies. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Diverging diamond interchange, results from the right transportation solution survey : staff summary, January 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the results from this research, MoDOT can confidently state that the diverging diamond was the right transportation solution for the Interstate 44 and Route 13 intersection. The overall results show: Most Springfield area residents were ...

  3. Experimental results on the MOX fuel. Study of the calculus/measures divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.

    1997-01-01

    For each nuclear plant unit restart, all safety criterion have to be respected. Various parameters as boron concentration, temperature coefficient, worth or power and activity distributions related to fuel assemblies, have to be calculated. To compute these parameters Framatome uses the neutronic channel Science. Before the validation they are compare to experimental measures. For UO 2 fuel the divergence calculus/measures are correct. But for MOX fuels the divergence worsening. This paper discusses tis divergence and research the origin. (A.L.B.)

  4. Finite Divergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Pandya, P. K.; Chaochen, Zhou

    1995-01-01

    the framework of duration calculus. Axioms and proof rules are given. Patterns of occurrence of divergence are classified into dense divergence, accumulative divergence and discrete divergence by appropriate axioms. Induction rules are given for reasoning about discrete divergence...

  5. Reconciling divergent results of the latest parenteral nutrition studies in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Pierre; Pichard, Claude

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies on the optimal modalities to feed patients during the ICU stay show divergent results. The level and the timing of energy provision is a critical issue, associated with the clinical outcome. These results questioned the clinical relevance of the recent guidelines issued by American, Canadian and European academic societies. Four recent prospective randomized studies enrolled critically ill patients who received various nutritional regimens and tested the effect of nutritional support on outcome. The Tight Calorie balance Control Study (TICACOS) targeted on calorie administration according to measured energy expenditure and found increased ICU morbidity but improved hospital mortality. The large EpaNIC study compared 'early' with 'late' (parenteral nutrition) nutrition, mostly in patients after cardiac surgery, and found an increased morbidity associated with early parenteral nutrition. The supplemental parenteral nutrition (SPN) study randomized the patients after 3 days and targeted the calories administered by parenteral nutrition as a complement to unsuccessful enteral nutrition using indirect calorimetry. The SPN resulted in less nosocomial infections and shorter duration of mechanical ventilation. Finally, a recent Australian study enrolled patients unable to be early fed enterally to receive, or not, parenteral nutrition targeted at 1500 kcal. No complications were noted in the parenteral nutrition group. Lessons from all these studies are summarized and should help in designing better studies and guidelines. The critical analysis of recent prospective studies comparing various levels of calorie administration, enteral versus parenteral nutrition and enteral versus SPN confirms the recommendations to avoid underfeeding and overfeeding. Parenteral nutrition, required if enteral feeding is failing, and if adjusted up to a measured optimal level, may improve outcome. More studies on the optimal level of energy and protein administration to

  6. Computational results for the control of a divergent N-echelon inventory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, E.B.; Kok, de A.G.

    1996-01-01

    Consider a divergent multi-echelon inventory system, e.g., a distribution system or a production system. At every facility in the system orders are placed (or production is initiated) periodically. The order arrives after a fixed lead time. At the end of each period linear costs are incurred at each

  7. Some experimental results on flow in a diverging 2D channel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antoš, Pavel; Hladík, Ondřej; Jonáš, Pavel; Uruba, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2013), s. 297-298 ISSN 1617-7061. [Annual Meeting of the International Association of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics /84./. Novi Sad, 18.03.2013-22.03.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1271 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : free stream turbulence * negative pressure gradient * diverging 2D channel Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pamm.201310144/pdf

  8. Compact tokamak reactors. Part 1 (analytic results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.; Wiley, J.C.; Edmonds, P.H.; Ross, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the possible use of tokamaks for thermonuclear power plants, in particular tokamaks with low aspect ratio and copper toroidal field coils. Three approaches are presented. First we review and summarize the existing literature. Second, using simple analytic estimates, the size of the smallest tokamak to produce an ignited plasma is derived. This steady state energy balance analysis is then extended to determine the smallest tokamak power plant, by including the power required to drive the toroidal field, and considering two extremes of plasma current drive efficiency. The analytic results will be augmented by a numerical calculation which permits arbitrary plasma current drive efficiency; the results of which will be presented in Part II. Third, a scaling from any given reference reactor design to a copper toroidal field coil device is discussed. Throughout the paper the importance of various restrictions is emphasized, in particular plasma current drive efficiency, plasma confinement, plasma safety factor, plasma elongation, plasma beta, neutron wall loading, blanket availability and recirculating electric power. We conclude that the latest published reactor studies, which show little advantage in using low aspect ratio unless remarkably high efficiency plasma current drive and low safety factor are combined, can be reproduced with the analytic model

  9. Compact tokamak reactors part 2 (numerical results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.C.; Wootton, A.J.; Ross, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe a numerical optimization scheme for fusion reactors. The particular application described is to find the smallest copper coil spherical tokamak, although the numerical scheme is sufficiently general to allow many other problems to be solved. The solution to the steady state energy balance is found by first selecting the fixed variables. The range of all remaining variables is then selected, except for the temperature. Within the specified ranges, the temperature which satisfies the power balance is then found. Tests are applied to determine that remaining constraints are satisfied, and the acceptable results then stored. Results are presented for a range of auxiliary current drive efficiencies and different scaling relationships; for the range of variables chosen the machine encompassing volume increases or remains approximately unchanged as the aspect ratio is reduced

  10. Adaptive radiation along a thermal gradient: preliminary results of habitat use and respiration rate divergence among whitefish morphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Kalevi Kahilainen

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiation is considered an important mechanism for the development of new species, but very little is known about the role of thermal adaptation during this process. Such adaptation should be especially important in poikilothermic animals that are often subjected to pronounced seasonal temperature variation that directly affects metabolic function. We conducted a preliminary study of individual lifetime thermal habitat use and respiration rates of four whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L. morphs (two pelagic, one littoral and one profundal using stable carbon and oxygen isotope values of otolith carbonate. These morphs, two of which utilized pelagic habitats, one littoral and one profundal recently diverged via adaptive radiation to exploit different major niches in a deep and thermally stratified subarctic lake. We found evidence that the morphs used different thermal niches. The profundal morph had the most distinct thermal niche and consistently occupied the coldest thermal habitat of the lake, whereas differences were less pronounced among the shallow water pelagic and littoral morphs. Our results indicated ontogenetic shifts in thermal niches: juveniles of all whitefish morphs inhabited warmer ambient temperatures than adults. According to sampling of the otolith nucleus, hatching temperatures were higher for benthic compared to pelagic morphs. Estimated respiration rate was the lowest for benthivorous profundal morph, contrasting with the higher values estimated for the other morphs that inhabited shallower and warmer water. These preliminary results suggest that physiological adaptation to different thermal habitats shown by the sympatric morphs may play a significant role in maintaining or strengthening niche segregation and divergence in life-history traits, potentially contributing to reproductive isolation and incipient speciation.

  11. The Patchwork Divergence Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Dray, Tevian; Hellaby, Charles

    1994-01-01

    The divergence theorem in its usual form applies only to suitably smooth vector fields. For vector fields which are merely piecewise smooth, as is natural at a boundary between regions with different physical properties, one must patch together the divergence theorem applied separately in each region. We give an elegant derivation of the resulting "patchwork divergence theorem" which is independent of the metric signature in either region, and which is thus valid if the signature changes. (PA...

  12. Diverging Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    – which we define here as a combination of impartial bureaucratic practices, corruption and the rule of law – limits, and in some cases reverses the tendency towards greater divergence linked to trade. Countries with high levels of state capacity – that is, those that have greater government effectiveness......, stronger rule of law and lower corruption – experience lower levels of divergence, as they have the mechanisms to counterbalance the strong centripetal forces linked to openness. This claim is tested on countries that have experienced relatively high levels of increases in levels of economic and political......Why do increases in globalisation in the face of European expansion lead to sharp levels of regional divergences in wealth in some countries but not in others? The central crux of this paper is that convergence/divergence trends in European states are conditioned by ‘state capacity’. State capacity...

  13. Loss of laminin alpha 1 results in multiple structural defects and divergent effects on adhesion during vertebrate optic cup morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Chase D.; Chien, Chi-Bin; Kwan, Kristen M.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate eye forms via a complex set of morphogenetic events. The optic vesicle evaginates and undergoes transformative shape changes to form the optic cup, in which neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium enwrap the lens. It has long been known that a complex, glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix layer surrounds the developing optic cup throughout the process, yet the functions of the matrix and its specific molecular components have remained unclear. Previous work established a role for laminin extracellular matrix in particular steps of eye development, including optic vesicle evagination, lens differentiation, and retinal ganglion cell polarization, yet it is unknown what role laminin might play in the early process of optic cup formation subsequent to the initial step of optic vesicle evagination. Here, we use the zebrafish lama1 mutant (lama1UW1) to determine the function of laminin during optic cup morphogenesis. Using live imaging, we find, surprisingly, that loss of laminin leads to divergent effects on focal adhesion assembly in a spatiotemporally-specific manner, and that laminin is required for multiple steps of optic cup morphogenesis, including optic stalk constriction, invagination, and formation of a spherical lens. Laminin is not required for single cell behaviors and changes in cell shape. Rather, in lama1UW1 mutants, loss of epithelial polarity and altered adhesion lead to defective tissue architecture and formation of a disorganized retina. These results demonstrate that the laminin extracellular matrix plays multiple critical roles regulating adhesion and polarity to establish and maintain tissue structure during optic cup morphogenesis. PMID:27339294

  14. The divergence theorem for unbounded vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, Thierry; Pfeffer, Washek F.

    2007-01-01

    In the context of Lebesgue integration, we derive the divergence theorem for unbounded vector. elds that can have singularities at every point of a compact set whose Minkowski content of codimension greater than two is. nite. The resulting integration by parts theorem is applied to removable sets of holomorphic and harmonic functions.

  15. Cross-Sequential Results on Creativity Development in Childhood Within two Different School Systems: Divergent Performances in Luxembourg Versus German Kindergarten and Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Krampen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is conducting methodologically sound, cross-sequential analyses of the creativity development of children attending different school systems. Culture-free tests of creativity (ideational fluency and flexibility and intelligence were administered in 5 cohorts (two kindergarten and first three elementary school years, which were retested in three consecutive years. Samples include 244 Luxembourg and 312 German children enrolled in educational systems with obligatory kindergarten and 6-year comprehensive elementary school versus optional kindergarten, 4-year comprehensive elementary school and educational placement thereafter. Results demonstrate (1 linear increases in intelligence, (2 declines of divergent performances after school enrollment in both samples, (3 increases in divergent performances up to the 5th elementary school year in Luxembourg and up to the 3rd elementary school year in Germany (i.e., the next to last school year before educational placement followed by a second creativity slump. Cross-sequential results confirm discontinuities in the development of divergent productions in childhood.

  16. Regularization of divergent integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Giovanni; Kazhdan, David

    2016-01-01

    We study the Hadamard finite part of divergent integrals of differential forms with singularities on submanifolds. We give formulae for the dependence of the finite part on the choice of regularization and express them in terms of a suitable local residue map. The cases where the submanifold is a complex hypersurface in a complex manifold and where it is a boundary component of a manifold with boundary, arising in string perturbation theory, are treated in more detail.

  17. Systems reliability Benchmark exercise part 1-Description and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.

    1986-01-01

    The report describes aims, rules and results of the Systems Reliability Benchmark Exercise, which has been performed in order to assess methods and procedures for reliability analysis of complex systems and involved a large number of European organizations active in NPP safety evaluation. The exercise included both qualitative and quantitative methods and was structured in such a way that separation of the effects of uncertainties in modelling and in data on the overall spread was made possible. Part I describes the way in which RBE has been performed, its main results and conclusions

  18. Hyperreal Numbers for Infinite Divergent Series

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Treating divergent series properly has been an ongoing issue in mathematics. However, many of the problems in divergent series stem from the fact that divergent series were discovered prior to having a number system which could handle them. The infinities that resulted from divergent series led to contradictions within the real number system, but these contradictions are largely alleviated with the hyperreal number system. Hyperreal numbers provide a framework for dealing with divergent serie...

  19. Effects of a chelating resin on metal bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine invertebrates: Divergent results of field and laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, Emma M.; Roach, Anthony C.; Micevska, Tina; Kelaher, Brendan P.; Bishop, Melanie J.

    2010-01-01

    Benthic invertebrates can uptake metals through diffusion of free ion solutes, or ingestion of sediment-bound forms. This study investigated the efficacy of the metal chelating resin SIR 300 TM in adsorbing porewater metals and isolating pathways of metal exposure. A field experiment (Botany Bay, Sydney, Australia) and a laboratory toxicity test each manipulated the availability of porewater metals within contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was predicted that within contaminated sediments, the resin would adsorb porewater metals and reduce toxicity to invertebrates, but in uncontaminated sediments, the resin would not significantly affect these variables. Whereas in the laboratory, the resin produced the predicted results, in the field the resin increased porewater metal concentrations of contaminated sediments for at least 34 days and decreased abundances of four macroinvertebrate groups, and richness in all sediments. These contrasting findings highlight the limits of extrapolating the results of laboratory experiments to the field environment. - Laboratory experiments do not predict the effects on porewater metals or macroinvertebrates of adding a chelating resin to metal-contaminated field sediments.

  20. Effects of a chelating resin on metal bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine invertebrates: Divergent results of field and laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkie, Emma M., E-mail: ewilkie@bio.mq.edu.a [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants Section, Department of Environment and Climate Change, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Roach, Anthony C. [Ecotoxicology and Environmental Contaminants Section, Department of Environment and Climate Change, Lidcombe, NSW 1825 (Australia); Micevska, Tina [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Kelaher, Brendan P.; Bishop, Melanie J. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    Benthic invertebrates can uptake metals through diffusion of free ion solutes, or ingestion of sediment-bound forms. This study investigated the efficacy of the metal chelating resin SIR 300{sup TM} in adsorbing porewater metals and isolating pathways of metal exposure. A field experiment (Botany Bay, Sydney, Australia) and a laboratory toxicity test each manipulated the availability of porewater metals within contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was predicted that within contaminated sediments, the resin would adsorb porewater metals and reduce toxicity to invertebrates, but in uncontaminated sediments, the resin would not significantly affect these variables. Whereas in the laboratory, the resin produced the predicted results, in the field the resin increased porewater metal concentrations of contaminated sediments for at least 34 days and decreased abundances of four macroinvertebrate groups, and richness in all sediments. These contrasting findings highlight the limits of extrapolating the results of laboratory experiments to the field environment. - Laboratory experiments do not predict the effects on porewater metals or macroinvertebrates of adding a chelating resin to metal-contaminated field sediments.

  1. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  2. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based

  3. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R; de Vries Reilingh, G; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K; Savelkoul, H F J

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based differential immune competence. The parental line of these hens was randomly bred as the control line and was used as well. Recently, we showed that these selection lines differ in their stress reactivity; the low line birds show a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. To examine maternal effects and neonatal nutritional exposure on nutrient sensitivity, we studied 2 subsequent generations. This also created the opportunity to examine egg production in these birds. The 3 lines were fed 2 different nutritionally complete layer feeds for a period of 22 wk in the first generation. The second generation was fed from hatch with the experimental diets. At several time intervals, parameters reflecting humoral immunity were determined such as specific antibody to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease vaccines; levels of natural antibodies binding lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin; and classical and alternative complement activity. The most pronounced dietary-induced effects were found in the low line birds of the first generation: specific antibody titers to Newcastle disease vaccine were significantly elevated by 1 of the 2 diets. In the second generation, significant differences were found in lipoteichoic acid natural antibodies of the control and low line hens. At the end of the observation period of egg parameters, a significant difference in egg weight was found in birds of the high line. Our results suggest that nutritional differences have immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive humoral immune parameters in birds with high HPA axis reactivity and affect egg production in birds with low HPA axis reactivity.

  4. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.

    2014-10-28

    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  5. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    KAUST Repository

    Trippanera, D.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults). Key Points Contraction along divergent plate boundaries results from dike emplacementContraction generates extensional structures along divergent plate boundariesSurface deformation along divergent plate boundaries may be magma induced

  6. Convergence from divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costin, Ovidiu; Dunne, Gerald V.

    2018-01-01

    We show how to convert divergent series, which typically occur in many applications in physics, into rapidly convergent inverse factorial series. This can be interpreted physically as a novel resummation of perturbative series. Being convergent, these new series allow rigorous extrapolation from an asymptotic region with a large parameter, to the opposite region where the parameter is small. We illustrate the method with various physical examples, and discuss how these convergent series relate to standard methods such as Borel summation, and also how they incorporate the physical Stokes phenomenon. We comment on the relation of these results to Dyson’s physical argument for the divergence of perturbation theory. This approach also leads naturally to a wide class of relations between bosonic and fermionic partition functions, and Klein-Gordon and Dirac determinants.

  7. Results of the 2017 Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Pedro; Loera-Gonzalez, Pablo; Olguin, Lorenzo; Saucedo-Morales, Julio C.; Ayala-Gómez, Sandra A.; Garza, Jaime R.

    2018-04-01

    We report the results for the first semester of the 2017 Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign. Asteroid 1218 Aster (synodic period of 3.1581 ± 0.0002 h and amplitude of 0.35 mag) was well observed and showed slight variations of its lightcurve at the end of the seven week observing window. An uncertain, but long, period of 93.23 ± 0.02 h and amplitude of 0.36 mag were estimated for 2733 Hamina from sparse data. Asteroid 8443 Svecica was also well observed and yielded a period of 20.9905 ± 0.0015 h and amplitude of 0.65 mag. Observations of NEA (143404) 2003 BD44 also resulted in an uncertain and long period of 78.617 ± 0.009 h and amplitude of 0.66 mag with a sparsely covered lightcurve.

  8. Results of the benchmark for blade structural models, part A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekou, D.J.; Chortis, D.; Belen Fariñas, A.

    2013-01-01

    A benchmark on structural design methods for blades was performed within the InnWind.Eu project under WP2 “Lightweight Rotor” Task 2.2 “Lightweight structural design”. The present document is describes the results of the comparison simulation runs that were performed by the partners involved within...... Task 2.2 of the InnWind.Eu project. The benchmark is based on the reference wind turbine and the reference blade provided by DTU [1]. "Structural Concept developers/modelers" of WP2 were provided with the necessary input for a comparison numerical simulation run, upon definition of the reference blade...

  9. Metal fire implications for advanced reactors. Part 2, PIRT results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Dion, Jeanne A.; Radel, Ross F.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents the results of a Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) exercise performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as well as the experimental and modeling program that have been designed based on the PIRT results. A PIRT exercise is a structured and facilitated expert elicitation process. In this case, the expert panel was comprised of nine recognized fire science and aerosol experts. The objective of a PIRT exercise is to identify phenomena associated with the intended application and to then rank the current state of knowledge relative to each identified phenomenon. In this particular PIRT exercise the intended application was sodium fire modeling related to sodium-cooled advanced reactors. The panel was presented with two specific fire scenarios, each based on a hypothetical sodium leak in an Advanced Breeder Test Reactor (ABTR) design. For both scenarios the figure of merit was the ability to predict the thermal and aerosol insult to nearby equipment (i.e. heat exchangers and other electrical equipment). When identifying phenomena of interest, and in particular when ranking phenomena importance and the adequacy of existing modeling tools and data, the panel was asked to subjectively weigh these factors in the context of the specified figure of merit. Given each scenario, the panel identified all those related phenomena that are of potential interest to an assessment of the scenario using fire modeling tools to evaluate the figure of merit. Each phenomenon is then ranked relative to its importance in predicting the figure of merit. Each phenomenon is then further ranked for the existing state of knowledge with respect to the ability of existing modeling tools to predict that phenomena, the underlying base of data associated with the phenomena, and the potential for developing new data to support improvements to the existing modeling tools. For this PIRT two hypothetical sodium leak scenarios were evaluated for the ABTR design. The

  10. Diverging Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevang, Thilde; Gough, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Shrinking public sectors and limited opportunities for gaining formal wage employment in the private sector have resulted in entrepreneurship being promoted as a means of generating youth employment. This discourse is being widely promoted within sub-Saharan Africa despite little being known about...... of young women to enter the professions and the experiences of those that do. As the paper shows, geographers potentially have much to contribute to employment and entrepreneurship debates by providing more contextualised studies which recognise the complex interplay between globalisation, institutions...

  11. Atmospheric horizontal divergence and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castans, M.

    1981-01-01

    The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)

  12. String perturbation theory diverges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Periwal, V.

    1988-01-01

    We prove that perturbation theory for the bosonic string diverges for arbitrary values of the coupling constant and is not Borel summable. This divergence is independent of the existence of the infinities that occur in the theory due to the presence of tachyons and dilaton tadpoles. We discuss the physical implications of such a divergence

  13. Segmenting the human genome based on states of neutral genetic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppumullage Don, Prabhani; Ananda, Guruprasad; Chiaromonte, Francesca; Makova, Kateryna D

    2013-09-03

    Many studies have demonstrated that divergence levels generated by different mutation types vary and covary across the human genome. To improve our still-incomplete understanding of the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon, we analyze several mutation types simultaneously, anchoring their variation to specific regions of the genome. Using hidden Markov models on insertion, deletion, nucleotide substitution, and microsatellite divergence estimates inferred from human-orangutan alignments of neutrally evolving genomic sequences, we segment the human genome into regions corresponding to different divergence states--each uniquely characterized by specific combinations of divergence levels. We then parsed the mutagenic contributions of various biochemical processes associating divergence states with a broad range of genomic landscape features. We find that high divergence states inhabit guanine- and cytosine (GC)-rich, highly recombining subtelomeric regions; low divergence states cover inner parts of autosomes; chromosome X forms its own state with lowest divergence; and a state of elevated microsatellite mutability is interspersed across the genome. These general trends are mirrored in human diversity data from the 1000 Genomes Project, and departures from them highlight the evolutionary history of primate chromosomes. We also find that genes and noncoding functional marks [annotations from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE)] are concentrated in high divergence states. Our results provide a powerful tool for biomedical data analysis: segmentations can be used to screen personal genome variants--including those associated with cancer and other diseases--and to improve computational predictions of noncoding functional elements.

  14. Divergent Cumulative Cultural Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Chris; Chebib, Jobran

    2016-01-01

    Divergent cumulative cultural evolution occurs when the cultural evolutionary trajectory diverges from the biological evolutionary trajectory. We consider the conditions under which divergent cumulative cultural evolution can occur. We hypothesize that two conditions are necessary. First that genetic and cultural information are stored separately in the agent. Second cultural information must be transferred horizontally between agents of different generations. We implement a model with these ...

  15. Divergence Palsy due to Divalproex and Oxcarbazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marc Albert; Caplan, Louis R; Torun, Nurhan

    This case series is the first to describe divergence palsy as an adverse effect of antiepileptic drug use. Diplopia is a common adverse effect of antiepileptic drugs, but no explanatory motility deficit has ever been reported. We present 2 patients, 1 on oxcarbazepine and 1 on divalproex, each with a normal examination result between spells and divergency palsy when symptomatic. Discontinuation of the antiepileptic medication led to resolution of the episodes in both cases. Rechallenge with the offending agent after washout in one patient resulted in recurrence of diplopia and divergence palsy, both resolving after subsequent withdrawal of the antiepileptic. Antiepileptic drugs may cause divergence palsy.

  16. Semantic search during divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Richard W

    2017-09-01

    Divergent thinking, as a method of examining creative cognition, has not been adequately analyzed in the context of modern cognitive theories. This article casts divergent thinking responding in the context of theories of memory search. First, it was argued that divergent thinking tasks are similar to semantic fluency tasks, but are more constrained, and less well structured. Next, response time distributions from 54 participants were analyzed for temporal and semantic clustering. Participants responded to two prompts from the alternative uses test: uses for a brick and uses for a bottle, for two minutes each. Participants' cumulative response curves were negatively accelerating, in line with theories of search of associative memory. However, results of analyses of semantic and temporal clustering suggested that clustering is less evident in alternative uses responding compared to semantic fluency tasks. This suggests either that divergent thinking responding does not involve an exhaustive search through a clustered memory trace, but rather that the process is more exploratory, yielding fewer overall responses that tend to drift away from close associates of the divergent thinking prompt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. On infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, G.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of infrared divergences is studied in superrenormalizable interactions. It is conjectured that there is an extension of the Bogoliubov-Parasiuk-Hepp theorem which copes also with infrared divergences. The consequences of this conjecture on the singularities of the Borel transform in a massless asymptotic free field theory are discussed. The application of these ideas to gauge theories is briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  18. Divergent Thinking and Age-Related Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Di Giacomo, Dina; Passafiume, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Aging can affect cognition in different ways. The extent to which aging affects divergent thinking is unclear. In this study, younger and older adults were compared at the performance on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in visual and verbal form. Results showed that older adults can think divergently as younger participants, although they…

  19. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events: Expert judgment elicitation. Part 1: Expert panel results. Part 2: Project staff results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, T A; Cramond, W R [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S C [University of Hawii at Hilo (United States); Unwin, S D [Brookhaven National Laboratory (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Quantitative modeling techniques have limitations as to the resolution of important issues in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Not all issues can be resolved via the existing set of methods such as fault trees, event trees, statistical analyses, data collection, and computer simulation. Therefore, an expert judgment process was developed to address issues perceived as important to risk in the NUREG-1150 analysis but which could not be resolved with existing techniques. This process was applied to several issues that could significantly affect the internal event core damage frequencies of the PRAs performed on six light water reactors. Detailed descriptions of these issues and the results of the expert judgment elicitation are reported here, as well as an explanation of the methodology used and the procedure followed in performing the overall elicitation task. The process is time-consuming and expensive. However, the results are very useful, and represent an improvement over the draft NUREG-1150 analysis in the areas of expert selection, elicitation training, issue selection and presentation, elicitation of judgment and aggregation of results. The results are presented in two parts. Part documents the expert panel elicitations, where the most important issues were presented to a panel of experts convened from throughout the nuclear power risk assessment community. Part 2 documents the process by which the project staff performed expert judgment on other important issues, using the project staff as panel members. (author)

  20. Quantum skew divergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R., E-mail: koenraad.audenaert@rhul.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, S9, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  1. Phenotypic Divergence in the Reproductive Traits of Marbled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, the results indicated some level of phenotypic divergence of the fish ... divergence cannot be partitioned between fishing mortality, genetic .... female fish was estimated from the egg counts ..... that greatly improved the quality of the.

  2. Design of analog networks in the control theory formulation. Part 2: Numerical results

    OpenAIRE

    Zemliak, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents numerical results of design of nonlinear electronic networks based on the problem formulation in terms of the control theory. Several examples illustrate the prospects of the approach suggested in the first part of the work.

  3. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    we use the theory developed in Part I to design a convergent nonlinear branch-and-bound method tailored to solve large-scale instances of the original discrete problem. The problem formulation and the needed theoretical results from Part I are repeated such that this paper is self-contained. We focus...... the largest discrete topology design problems solved by means of global optimization....

  4. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...On July 7, 2010, the United States Court of International Trade (CIT) sustained the Department of Commerce's (the Department) results of redetermination on remand concerning the final results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010). The Department is amending the final results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany covering the period of review May 1, 2006, through April 30, 2007, to reflect the CIT's order.

  5. Verbal and visual divergent thinking in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Piccardi, Laura

    2017-04-01

    According to the peak and decline model divergent thinking declines at a specific age (in or after middle age). However, if divergent thinking declines steadily in aging still has to be clarified. In order to explore the age-related changes in verbal and visual divergent thinking, in the present study a sample of 159 participants was divided in five age groups: young adults (18-35 years), middle-aged adults (36-55), young old (56-74), old (75-85) and the oldest-old (86-98). Two divergent thinking tasks were administered: the alternative uses for cardboard boxes, aimed at assessing verbal ideational fluency, flexibility and originality; the completion drawing task, aimed at assessing visual ideational fluency, flexibility and originality. Results showed that after peaking in the young adult group (20-35 years) all components of verbal and visual divergent thinking stabilized in the middle-aged adult group (36-55 years) and then started declining in the young old group (56-75). Interestingly, all components were found to be preserved after declining. Yet, verbal and visual divergent thinking were found at the same extent across age groups, with the exception of visual ideational fluency, that was higher in the young old group, the old group and the oldest-old group than verbal ideational fluency. These results support the idea that divergent thinking does not decline steadily in the elderly. Given that older people can preserve to some extent verbal and visual divergent thinking, these findings have important implications for active aging, that is, divergent thinking might be fostered in aging in order to prevent the cognitive decline.

  6. Converging or Diverging Lens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Why does a lens magnify? Why does it shrink objects? Why does this happen? The activities that we propose here are useful in helping us to understand how lenses work, and they show that the same lens can have different magnification capabilities. A converging lens can also act as a diverging lens. (Contains 4 figures.)

  7. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  8. Local divergence and curvature divergence in first order optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafusire, Cosmas; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.

    2018-06-01

    The far-field divergence of a light beam propagating through a first order optical system is presented as a square root of the sum of the squares of the local divergence and the curvature divergence. The local divergence is defined as the ratio of the beam parameter product to the beam width whilst the curvature divergence is a ratio of the space-angular moment also to the beam width. It is established that the beam’s focusing parameter can be defined as a ratio of the local divergence to the curvature divergence. The relationships between the two divergences and other second moment-based beam parameters are presented. Their various mathematical properties are presented such as their evolution through first order systems. The efficacy of the model in the analysis of high power continuous wave laser-based welding systems is briefly discussed.

  9. 78 FR 29702 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...On February 11, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results and partial rescission of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through September 14, 2011.\\1\\ We received no comments from interested parties. Accordingly, for the final results we continue to find that subject merchandise has not been sold at less than normal value. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  10. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew; Wodaje Kebede, Worku

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

  11. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: gwollel@yahoo.com; Wodaje Kebede, Worku [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2008-11-15

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels.

  12. Decoding divergent series in nonparaxial optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Riccardo; Gori, Franco; Guattari, Giorgio; Santarsiero, Massimo

    2011-03-15

    A theoretical analysis aimed at investigating the divergent character of perturbative series involved in the study of free-space nonparaxial propagation of vectorial optical beams is proposed. Our analysis predicts a factorial divergence for such series and provides a theoretical framework within which the results of recently published numerical experiments concerning nonparaxial propagation of vectorial Gaussian beams find a meaningful interpretation in terms of the decoding operated on such series by the Weniger transformation.

  13. What Accounts for the Divergence between Ranchers' WTA and WTP for Public Forage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Kooten, van G.C.; Voss, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Results from a 2002 survey of Nevada ranchers that asked about willingness to pay for public forage and willingness to accept compensation to part with grazing rights provide empirical support for the contention of large divergence between WTA and WTP. WTA and WTP are estimated simultaneously,

  14. Collinearity, convergence and cancelling infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David

    2006-01-01

    The Lee-Nauenberg theorem is a fundamental quantum mechanical result which provides the standard theoretical response to the problem of collinear and infrared divergences. Its argument, that the divergences due to massless charged particles can be removed by summing over degenerate states, has been successfully applied to systems with final state degeneracies such as LEP processes. If there are massless particles in both the initial and final states, as will be the case at the LHC, the theorem requires the incorporation of disconnected diagrams which produce connected interference effects at the level of the cross-section. However, this aspect of the theory has never been fully tested in the calculation of a cross-section. We show through explicit examples that in such cases the theorem introduces a divergent series of diagrams and hence fails to cancel the infrared divergences. It is also demonstrated that the widespread practice of treating soft infrared divergences by the Bloch-Nordsieck method and handling collinear divergences by the Lee-Nauenberg method is not consistent in such cases

  15. Ultraviolet divergences of Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goroff, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    The author discuss a two-loop calculation showing that the S matrix of Einstein's theory of gravity contains nonrenormalizable ultraviolet divergences in four dimension. The author discusses the calculation in both background field and normal field theory. The author describes a new method for dealing with ghost fields in gauge theories by combining them with suitable extensions of the gauge fields in higher dimensions. The author shows how using subtracted integrals in the calculation of higher loop graphs simplifies the calculation in the background field method by eliminating the need for mixed counterterms. Finally, the author makes some remarks about the implications of the result for supergravity theories

  16. FORMATION OF TOILET HABITS IN CHILDREN IN MOSCOW. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY RESULTS. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Karkashadze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first Russian study of toilet habits formation in children have been obtained. The article was planned to be published in 2 subsequent parts due to the extensiveness of the material. This article is the 2nd part*. It presents and comments on the remaining part of results in the form of the connection between main parameters and characteristics of toilet habits training processes and physiological, psychological and social factors; it also presents the discussion and conclusions. Comparative data (with foreign studies is given. A multitude of both physiological and social factors affect the process of children’s toilet habits training. The following physiological factors have been revealed: stool frequency, physiological involuntary night urination, peculiarities of falling asleep and pernicious habits – processes, which reflect the intestinal motility regulation and defecation states, urination control and neuropsychic activity. The selected training strategy and tactics, style of communication with a child also affect the training process. The most influential family-social factors in terms of toilet habits training processes are: two- or one-parent family, mother’s education and twins in the family. 

  17. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part II. Results of two Swiss soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of adding solutions with different potassium and sodium concentrations on dispersible clay, water retention characteristics, air permeability, and soil shrinkage behaviour using two agricultural soils from Switzerland with different clay content but similar organic carbon to clay ratio. Three different solutions (including only Na, only K, and the combination of both) were added to soil samples at three different cation ratio of soil structural stability levels, and the soil samples were incubated for one month. Our findings showed that the amount of readily dispersible clay increased with increasing Na concentrations and with increasing cation ratio of soil structural stability. The treatment with the maximum Na concentration resulted in the highest water retention and in the lowest shrinkage capacity. This was was associated with high amounts of readily dispersible clay. Air permeability generally increased during incubation due to moderate wetting and drying cycles, but the increase was negatively correlated with readily dispersible clay. Readily dispersible clay decreased with increasing K, while readily dispersible clay increased with increasing K in Iranian soil (Part I of our study). This can be attributed to the different clay mineralogy of the studied soils (muscovite in Part I and illite in Part II).

  18. Ink dating part II: Interpretation of results in a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Agnès; Weyermann, Céline

    2018-01-01

    The development of an ink dating method requires an important investment of resources in order to step from the monitoring of ink ageing on paper to the determination of the actual age of a questioned ink entry. This article aimed at developing and evaluating the potential of three interpretation models to date ink entries in a legal perspective: (1) the threshold model comparing analytical results to tabulated values in order to determine the maximal possible age of an ink entry, (2) the trend tests that focusing on the "ageing status" of an ink entry, and (3) the likelihood ratio calculation comparing the probabilities to observe the results under at least two alternative hypotheses. This is the first report showing ink dating interpretation results on a ballpoint be ink reference population. In the first part of this paper three ageing parameters were selected as promising from the population of 25 ink entries aged during 4 to 304days: the quantity of phenoxyethanol (PE), the difference between the PE quantities contained in a naturally aged sample and an artificially aged sample (R NORM ) and the solvent loss ratio (R%). In the current part, each model was tested using the three selected ageing parameters. Results showed that threshold definition remains a simple model easily applicable in practice, but that the risk of false positive cannot be completely avoided without reducing significantly the feasibility of the ink dating approaches. The trend tests from the literature showed unreliable results and an alternative had to be developed yielding encouraging results. The likelihood ratio calculation introduced a degree of certainty to the ink dating conclusion in comparison to the threshold approach. The proposed model remains quite simple to apply in practice, but should be further developed in order to yield reliable results in practice. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Some relations between asymptotic results for dead-time-distorted processes. Part I. The expectation values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. On the one hand, it should provide us with a deeper insight into the mechanism of these processes. On the other hand, we shall arrive at some new forms of asymptotic results not commonly known, in particular those pertaining to an extended dead time. In addition, the novel approach permits independent checking of earlier results (some of which had been at variance with previous claims). In view of the usually quite cumbersome arithmetic involved, such controls are certainly most welcome. In this first part all the relations concerning the asymptotic expectation values will be discussed; the second part will do the same for the variances. A more elegant treatment of these problems, based on some general asymptotic results for renewal processes of the type first derived by Smith must be postponed for the moment since the corresponding formulae for a modified process are not yet readily available. We hope to be able to fill this gap in a near future

  20. Divergent Perturbation Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various perturbation series are factorially divergent. The behavior of their high-order terms can be determined by Lipatov's method, which involves the use of instanton configurations of appropriate functional integrals. When the Lipatov asymptotic form is known and several lowest order terms of the perturbation series are found by direct calculation of diagrams, one can gain insight into the behavior of the remaining terms of the series, which can be resummed to solve various strong-coupling problems in a certain approximation. This approach is demonstrated by determining the Gell-Mann-Low functions in φ 4 theory, QED, and QCD with arbitrary coupling constants. An overview of the mathematical theory of divergent series is presented, and interpretation of perturbation series is discussed. Explicit derivations of the Lipatov asymptotic form are presented for some basic problems in theoretical physics. A solution is proposed to the problem of renormalon contributions, which hampered progress in this field in the late 1970s. Practical perturbation-series summation schemes are described both for a coupling constant of order unity and in the strong-coupling limit. An interpretation of the Borel integral is given for 'non-Borel-summable' series. Higher order corrections to the Lipatov asymptotic form are discussed

  1. IR divergences in QCD and Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Ikuo

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the infrared divergences in quark-quark scattering process with a hard photon in the final state vanish in the cross section summed over degenerate initial states as well as final ones. All the diagrams with an arbitrary number of disconnected soft gluons must be taken into account, but the contributions of disconnected parts can be factored out by a rearrangement of the infinite series. A finite number of connected diagrams are added to give an infrared finite result. (author)

  2. Beam Angular Divergence Effects in Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsky, T. N.; Hahto, S. K.; Bilbrough, D. G.; Jacobson, D. C.; Krull, W. A.; Goldberg, R. D.; Current, M. I.; Hamamoto, N.; Umisedo, S.

    2008-01-01

    An important difference between monomer ion beams and heavy molecular beams is a significant reduction in beam angular divergence and increased on-wafer angular accuracy for molecular beams. This advantage in beam quality stems from a reduction in space-charge effects within the beam. Such improved angular accuracy has been shown to have a significant impact on the quality and yield of transistor devices [1,12]. In this study, B 18 H x + beam current and angular divergence data collected on a hybrid scanned beam line that magnetically scans the beam across the wafer is presented. Angular divergence is kept below 0.5 deg from an effective boron energy of 200 eV to 3000 eV. Under these conditions, the beam current is shown analytically to be limited by space charge below about 1 keV, but by the matching of the beam emittance to the acceptance of the beam line above 1 keV. In addition, results of a beam transport model which includes variable space charge compensation are presented, in which a drift mode B 18 H x + beam is compared to an otherwise identical boron beam after deceleration. Deceleration is shown to introduce significant space-charge blow up resulting in a large on-wafer angular divergence. The divergence effects introduced by wafer charging are also discussed.

  3. Lean and Virginia's wood industry - Part II: Results and need for support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F. Fricke

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This two-part publication about Lean practices by Viriginia’s wood products and furniture manufacturing industries reports results from researching the awareness, the implementation status, the business results, and the need for external implementation support of Virginian companies. This second manuscript focuses on business results and the need for external implementation support. Except for “sales per employee,” where less than half of respondents reported an improvement due to the implementation of Lean in their operation, a majority of respondents indicated improved business results for “lead time,” “on-time delivery,” “inventory turnover,” and “cost per unit.” With respect to the need for external Lean implementation support, only 23 percent of respondents answered in the affirmative. “Training management,” “training shop floor employees,” and “implementing [Lean] with extensive employee involvement” were, with 67, 58, and 48 percent frequencies, the most often named forms of Lean implementation support requested. Results from this study seem to indicate an opportunity to support the well-being of Virginia’s wood products and furniture manufacturing industries through improved communication of the benefits of Lean and offering specific types of training to companies.

  4. [The external patello-tibial transfixation (EPTT). Part II: Clinical application and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, B; Gotzen, L; Ziring, E; Petermann, J

    1999-07-01

    In part I of the paper the biomechanical and technical background of the EPTT using the MPT fixator and the indications for this procedure have been described. In part II we report about the clinical application of the EPTT in 67 patients with a wide spectrum of repairs and reconstructions of the extensor mechanism. 48 patients had fresh injuries, 18 of them with severe concomitant knee lesions and 19 patients had neglected rsp. unsuccessfully operated injuries. There were 4 deep infections, two of them related to the MPT fixator. In the patients with uneventful healing the fixator remained in place for 7.3 weeks in average. The clinical, isokinetic and radiological results were reviewed in 17 patients with an average follow-up time of 37.3 months. There were 5 patients with partial patellectomy and tendon reattachment because of lower patella pole comminution and 12 patients with tendon reattachment ruptured at the inferior patella pole or suture repair in midsubstance rupture. The clinical results according to the IKDC score were rated in 3 patients as normal, in 10 patients as nearly normal and in 4 patients as abnormal. This rating was highly dependend on the subjective judgement by the patients who considered their operated knees not as normal as the contralateral knees. From our clinical experiences and results we can derive that the EPTT enables the surgical management of extensor mechanism disruptions with a minimum of internal fixation material and provides a safe protection of the repairs and reconstructions during the healing period. The EPTT allows immediate unrestricted functional rehabilitation and early walking without crutches. Thus the EPTT represents an effective alternative to the patello-tibial cerclage with a wire or synthetic ligaments.

  5. Prediction of 222 Rn exhalation rates from phosphogypsum based stacks. Part II: preliminary numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabi, Jose A.; Mohamad, Abdulmajeed A.

    2004-01-01

    The first part of this paper proposes a steady-state 2-D model for 222 Rn transport in phosphogypsum stacks. In this second part, the dimensionless model equations are solved numerically with the help of an existing finite-volume simulator that has been successfully used to solve heat and mass transfer problems in porous media. As a test case, a rectangular shaped stack is considered in order to verify the ability of the proposed parametric approach to account for concurrent effects on the 222 Rn exhalation into the local atmosphere. Air flow is supposed to be strictly buoyancy driven and the ground is assumed to be impermeable to 222 Rn and at a higher temperature under the stack base. Dimensionless controlling parameters are set to representative values and results are presented for Grashof number in the range 10 6 ≤Gr≤ 10 8 , corresponding to very small to small temperature differences between incoming air and ground underneath the stack base. For the particular set of parameters and inasmuch as Gr increases, streamlines presented basically the same pattern while internal isotherms and iso concentration lines remained almost unchanged. Total average Sherwood number proved to be rather insensitive to Gr while total average Nusselt increased slightly with Gr. (author)

  6. A Separation between Divergence and Holevo Information for Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Rahul; Nayak, Ashwin; Su, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The notion of divergence information of an ensemble of probability distributions was introduced by Jain, Radhakrishnan, and Sen in the context of the ``substate theorem''. Since then, divergence has been recognized as a more natural measure of information in several situations in quantum and classical communication. We construct ensembles of probability distributions for which divergence information may be significantly smaller than the more standard Holevo information. As a result, we establ...

  7. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 2. More results and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-05-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. The survey methods for this study and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling, facilities and

  8. Survey of sterile admixture practices in canadian hospital pharmacies: part 1. Methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Travis; Nishi, Cesilia; Checkowski, Ryan; Hall, Kevin W

    2009-03-01

    The 1996 Guidelines for Preparation of Sterile Products in Pharmacies of the Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists (CSHP) represent the current standard of practice for sterile compounding in Canada. However, these guidelines are practice recommendations, not enforceable standards. Previous surveys of sterile compounding practices have shown that actual practice deviates markedly from voluntary practice recommendations. In 2004, the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) published its "General Chapter Pharmaceutical Compounding-Sterile Preparations", which set a more rigorous and enforceable standard for sterile compounding in the United States. To assess sterile compounding practices in Canadian hospital pharmacies and to compare them with current CSHP recommendations and USP chapter standards. An online survey, based on previous studies of sterile compounding practices, the CSHP guidelines, and the chapter standards, was created and distributed to 193 Canadian hospital pharmacies. A total of 133 pharmacies completed at least part of the survey, for a response rate of 68.9%. All respondents reported the preparation of sterile products. Various degrees of deviation from the practice recommendations were noted for virtually all areas of the CSHP guidelines and the USP standards. Low levels of compliance were most notable in the areas of facilities and equipment, process validation, and product testing. Availability in the central pharmacy of a clean room facility meeting or exceeding the criteria of International Organization for Standardization (ISO) class 8 is a requirement of the chapter standards, but more than 40% of responding pharmacies reported that they did not have such a facility. Higher levels of compliance were noted for policies and procedures, garbing requirements, aseptic technique, and handling of hazardous products. Part 1 of this series reports the survey methods and results relating to policies, personnel, raw materials, storage and handling

  9. Divergence operator and related inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    This Brief is mainly devoted to two classical and related results: the existence of a right inverse of the divergence operator and the so-called Korn Inequalities. It is well known that both results are fundamental tools in the analysis of some classic differential equations, particularly in those arising in fluid dynamics and elasticity. Several connections between these two topics and improved Poincaré inequalities are extensively treated. From simple key ideas the book is growing smoothly in complexity. Beginning with the study of these problems on star-shaped domains the arguments are extended first to John domains and then to Hölder α domains where the need of weighted spaces arises naturally. In this fashion, the authors succeed in presenting in an unified and concise way several classic and recent developments in the field. These features certainly makes this Brief useful for students, post-graduate students, and researchers as well.

  10. Divergent plate motion drives rapid exhumation of (ultra)high pressure rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jie; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Gerya, Taras

    2018-06-01

    Exhumation of (ultra)high pressure [(U)HP] rocks by upper-plate divergent motion above an unbroken slab, first proposed in the Western Alps, has never been tested by numerical methods. We present 2D thermo-mechanical models incorporating subduction of a thinned continental margin beneath either a continental or oceanic upper plate, followed by upper-plate divergent motion away from the lower plate. Results demonstrate how divergent plate motion may trigger rapid exhumation of large volumes of (U)HP rocks directly to the Earth's surface, without the need for significant overburden removal by erosion. Model exhumation paths are fully consistent with natural examples for a wide range of upper-plate divergence rates. Exhumation rates are systematically higher than the divergent rate imposed to the upper plate, and the modeled size of exhumed (U)HP domes is invariant for different rates of upper-plate divergence. Major variations are instead predicted at depth for differing model scenarios, as larger amounts of divergent motion may allow mantle-wedge exhumation to shallow depth under the exhuming domes. The transient temperature increase, due to ascent of mantle-wedge material in the subduction channel, has a limited effect on exhumed continental (U)HP rocks already at the surface. We test two examples, the Cenozoic (U)HP terranes of the Western Alps (continental upper plate) and eastern Papua New Guinea (oceanic upper plate). The good fit between model predictions and the geologic record in these terranes encourages the application of these models globally to pre-Cenozoic (U)HP terranes where the geologic record of exhumation is only partly preserved.

  11. Continuous integrity evaluation of corroded pipelines using complemented FEA resultsPart II: Procedure application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, László; Fekete, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    The general objective of this paper is to execute the continuous integrity evaluation of corroded pipelines with the developed procedure has been presented in the Part I. This aim was performed with a large dataset of complemented finite element analysis (FEA) results and burst test values can be found in the References. The numerical investigations have been done with an assumed sample-case taking spherical and spheroid shaped characteristic and mobile defects into account. The most important achievements are the supplemented ductile failure analysis, the continuous suitability of the weak link, the strain-based design criteria and the continuous integrity assessment diagrams. - Highlights: • Finite Element Analysis (FEA) examinations are performed for selection of a sample-case to investigate corrosion defects. • Serial calculations are carried out to determine the continuous suitability of the corroded pipeline sections. • We investigate the shape and size effects of corrosion defects on load carrying capacities (LCCs) of defective pipelines. • Continuous integrity assessment diagram (CIAD) showing the decreasing competent LCCs in the operation time is introduced. • Verification of the proposed method is performed by comparing the FEA results with burst pressure values measured.

  12. The fossilized birth–death process for coherent calibration of divergence-time estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Tracy A.; Huelsenbeck, John P.; Stadler, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Time-calibrated species phylogenies are critical for addressing a wide range of questions in evolutionary biology, such as those that elucidate historical biogeography or uncover patterns of coevolution and diversification. Because molecular sequence data are not informative on absolute time, external data—most commonly, fossil age estimates—are required to calibrate estimates of species divergence dates. For Bayesian divergence time methods, the common practice for calibration using fossil information involves placing arbitrarily chosen parametric distributions on internal nodes, often disregarding most of the information in the fossil record. We introduce the “fossilized birth–death” (FBD) process—a model for calibrating divergence time estimates in a Bayesian framework, explicitly acknowledging that extant species and fossils are part of the same macroevolutionary process. Under this model, absolute node age estimates are calibrated by a single diversification model and arbitrary calibration densities are not necessary. Moreover, the FBD model allows for inclusion of all available fossils. We performed analyses of simulated data and show that node age estimation under the FBD model results in robust and accurate estimates of species divergence times with realistic measures of statistical uncertainty, overcoming major limitations of standard divergence time estimation methods. We used this model to estimate the speciation times for a dataset composed of all living bears, indicating that the genus Ursus diversified in the Late Miocene to Middle Pliocene. PMID:25009181

  13. Hemispheric connectivity and the visual-spatial divergent-thinking component of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dana W; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A; Billings, Rebecca L; Fulwiler, Carl; Heilman, Kenneth M; Rood, Kenneth M J; Gansler, David A

    2009-08-01

    Divergent thinking is an important measurable component of creativity. This study tested the postulate that divergent thinking depends on large distributed inter- and intra-hemispheric networks. Although preliminary evidence supports increased brain connectivity during divergent thinking, the neural correlates of this characteristic have not been entirely specified. It was predicted that visuospatial divergent thinking would correlate with right hemisphere white matter volume (WMV) and with the size of the corpus callosum (CC). Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) were completed among 21 normal right-handed adult males. TTCT scores correlated negatively with the size of the CC and were not correlated with right or, incidentally, left WMV. Although these results were not predicted, perhaps, as suggested by Bogen and Bogen (1988), decreased callosal connectivity enhances hemispheric specialization, which benefits the incubation of ideas that are critical for the divergent-thinking component of creativity, and it is the momentary inhibition of this hemispheric independence that accounts for the illumination that is part of the innovative stage of creativity. Alternatively, decreased CC size may reflect more selective developmental pruning, thereby facilitating efficient functional connectivity.

  14. Quadratic divergences and dimensional regularisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, I.; Jones, D.R.T.

    1990-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of quadratic and quartic divergences in dimensionally regulated renormalisable theories. We perform explicit three-loop calculations for a general theory of scalars and fermions. We find that the higher-order quartic divergences are related to the lower-order ones by the renormalisation group β-functions. (orig.)

  15. The Results of Hemoglobinopathy Screening in Hatay, the Southern Part of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonul Oktay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: %u03B2-Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are common genetic disorders in Turkey. Because of this reason, either anemic people or couples before marriage are investigated for hemoglobinopathies routinly. In this retrospective study, our aim was to determine the frequency of %u03B2-thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Hatay, which is located in the southern part of Turkey. Material and Method: In this study, data from 70226 individuals, admitted to Antakya State Hospital Hemoglobinopathy Center in Hatay, both for the reason of anemia and before marriage investigations, were evaluated between January 2006 and October 2012. The blood samples were collected into EDTA-containing tubes and hematological parameters were analyzed using a Sysmex XT-2000i Hematology Analyzer. High performance liquid chromatography technique was used to determine the type of hemoglobin. Results: The frequency of hemoglobinopaties were 6% %u03B2-Thalassemia trait, 6.3% sickle cell trait, 12.9% %u03B1-thalassaemia trait? and 4.2 % other abnormal hemoglobinopaties variants. We detected 49 cases with homozygot %u03B2-thalassaemia, 60 cases with homozygot haemoglobin S, 33 cases with HbH disease (thalassaemia intermedia among all. Discussion: The frequency of %u03B2-thalassemia trait and other haemoglobinopathies in Hatay is found to be quite high as compared with other provinces in Turkey.

  16. Divergent Priors and well Behaved Bayes Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Strachan (Rodney); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDivergent priors are improper when defined on unbounded supports. Bartlett's paradox has been taken to imply that using improper priors results in ill-defined Bayes factors, preventing model comparison by posterior probabilities. However many improper priors have attractive properties

  17. Enhancing Divergent Search through Extinction Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    for the capacity to evolve. This hypothesis is tested through experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains. The results show that combining extinction events with divergent search increases evolvability, while combining them with convergent search offers no similar benefit. The conclusion is that extinction...

  18. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part II. Results and discussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and thermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t, gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov equation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter

  19. Inspection of the coupling part material degradation. Some experiences and results from SKODA JS related to internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynda, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation some experiences and results from SKODA JS, related to internals, are reported. Sketches of the construction of WWER 440 RPV and internal's materials, including chemical composition are given. The results of hardness tests on internal parts are reported as well as some changes in the construction of internal parts which were made to improve their crack and fracture properties

  20. On the divergences of inflationary superhorizon perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enqvist, K; Nurmi, S [Physics Department, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland); Podolsky, D; Rigopoulos, G I, E-mail: kari.enqvist@helsinki.fi, E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi, E-mail: dmitry.podolsky@helsinki.fi, E-mail: gerasimos.rigopoulos@helsinki.fi [Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, Helsinki, FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2008-04-15

    We discuss the infrared divergences that appear to plague cosmological perturbation theory. We show that, within the stochastic framework, they are regulated by eternal inflation so that the theory predicts finite fluctuations. Using the {Delta}N formalism to one loop, we demonstrate that the infrared modes can be absorbed into additive constants and the coefficients of the diagrammatic expansion for the connected parts of two-and three-point functions of the curvature perturbation. As a result, the use of any infrared cutoff below the scale of eternal inflation is permitted, provided that the background fields are appropriately redefined. The natural choice for the infrared cutoff would, of course, be the present horizon; other choices manifest themselves in the running of the correlators. We also demonstrate that it is possible to define observables that are renormalization-group-invariant. As an example, we derive a non-perturbative, infrared finite and renormalization point-independent relation between the two-point correlators of the curvature perturbation for the case of the free single field.

  1. Channel flow and trichloroethylene treatment in a partly iron-filled fracture: Experimental and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zuansi; Merly, Corrine; Thomson, Neil R.; Wilson, Ryan D.; Lerner, David N.

    2007-08-01

    Technical developments have now made it possible to emplace granular zero-valent iron (Fe 0) in fractured media to create a Fe 0 fracture reactive barrier (Fe 0 FRB) for the treatment of contaminated groundwater. To evaluate this concept, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated water was flushed through a single uniform fracture created between two sandstone blocks. This fracture was partly filled with what was intended to be a uniform thickness of iron. Partial treatment of TCE by iron demonstrated that the concept of a Fe 0 FRB is practical, but was less than anticipated for an iron layer of uniform thickness. When the experiment was disassembled, evidence of discrete channelised flow was noted and attributed to imperfect placement of the iron. To evaluate the effect of the channel flow, an explicit Channel Model was developed that simplifies this complex flow regime into a conceptualised set of uniform and parallel channels. The mathematical representation of this conceptualisation directly accounts for (i) flow channels and immobile fluid arising from the non-uniform iron placement, (ii) mass transfer from the open fracture to iron and immobile fluid regions, and (iii) degradation in the iron regions. A favourable comparison between laboratory data and the results from the developed mathematical model suggests that the model is capable of representing TCE degradation in fractures with non-uniform iron placement. In order to apply this Channel Model concept to a Fe 0 FRB system, a simplified, or implicit, Lumped Channel Model was developed where the physical and chemical processes in the iron layer and immobile fluid regions are captured by a first-order lumped rate parameter. The performance of this Lumped Channel Model was compared to laboratory data, and benchmarked against the Channel Model. The advantages of the Lumped Channel Model are that the degradation of TCE in the system is represented by a first

  2. Cladding oxidation during air ingress. Part II: Synthesis of modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzet, E.; Haurais, F.; Bals, C.; Coindreau, O.; Fernandez-Moguel, L.; Vasiliev, A.; Park, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A state-of-the-art for air oxidation modelling in the frame of severe accident is done. • Air oxidation models from main severe accident codes are detailed. • Simulations from main severe accident codes are compared against experimental results. • Perspectives in terms of need for further model development and experiments are given. - Abstract: Air ingress is a potential risk in some low probable situations of severe accidents in a nuclear power plant. Air is a highly oxidizing atmosphere that can lead to an enhanced Zr-based cladding oxidation and core degradation affecting the release of fission products. This is particularly true speaking about ruthenium release, due to its high radiotoxicity and its ability to form highly volatile oxides in a significant manner in presence of air. The oxygen affinity is decreasing from the Zircaloy cladding, fuel and ruthenium inclusions. It is consequently of great need to understand the phenomena governing cladding oxidation by air as a prerequisite for the source term issues in such scenarios. In the past years, many works have been done on cladding oxidation by air under severe accident conditions. This paper with in addition the paper “Cladding oxidation during air ingress – Part I: Synthesis of experimental results” of this journal issue aim at assessing the state of the art on this phenomenon. In this paper, the modelling of air ingress phenomena in the main severe accident codes (ASTEC, ATHLET-CD, MAAP, MELCOR, RELAP/SCDAPSIM, SOCRAT) is described in details, as well as the validation against the integral experiments QUENCH-10, QUENCH-16 and PARAMETER-SF4. A full review of cladding oxidation by air is thus established.

  3. Divergent Geophysical Evolution of Vesta and Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, C. A.; Ermakov, A.; Castillo, J. C.; Fu, R. R.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; McCord, T. B.; Park, R. S.; Russell, C. T.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Jaumann, R.; Konopliv, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Dawn mission explored two massive protoplanets in the main asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres, that are fossils from the earliest epoch of solar system formation. Dawn's data provide evidence that these bodies formed very early, within the first few million years after CAIs, yet they followed divergent evolutionary paths. Vesta formed globally homogeneous distribution of minerals across the surface indicates that Ceres' interior experienced pervasive alteration. Topography and morphology of the surface reveals smoother, apparently resurfaced areas, generally at lower elevation, and rougher areas with greater relief. Local morphology such as crater floor deposits, isolated mountains, and enigmatic bright areas indicate recently active processes on Ceres, likely driven by brine cryovolcanism. Causes of the divergent evolution of these bodies include their accretionary environment, timing of accretion and size. Acknowledgements: Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. Behavioural divergence, interfertility and speciation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Neville; Rymer, Tasmin L

    2012-11-01

    Behavioural compatibility between mates is fundamental for maintaining species boundaries and is achieved through appropriate communication between males and females. A breakdown in communication will lead to behavioural divergence and reduced interfertility. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on male signals and female perception of these signals, integrating the literature from several taxa. We advocate that signaller-perceiver coevolution, which is usually under strong stabilising selection to enable mating, forms the basis of species-specific mate recognition systems. The mechanisms (phylogeny, geography, ecology, biology) shaping signaller-perceiver systems are briefly discussed to demonstrate the factors underpinning the evolution of signaller-perceiver couplings. Since divergence and diversification of communication systems is driven by changes in the mechanical properties of sensory pathways and morphology of sensory organs, we highlight signal modalities (auditory, olfactory, visual, tactile) and their importance in communication, particularly in mate selection. Next, using available examples and generating a stylised model, we suggest how disruption (biological, ecological, stochastic) of signaller-perceiver systems drives behavioural divergence and consequently results in reduced interfertility and speciation. Future studies should adopt an integrative approach, combining multiple parameters (phylogeny, adaptive utility of communication systems, genetics and biomechanical/biochemical properties of signals and perception) to explore how disruption of signaller-perceiver systems results in behavioural divergence and reduced interfertility. Finally, we question the impact that rapid environmental change will have on disruption of communication systems, potentially interfering with signaller-perceiver couplings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptome-wide patterns of divergence during allopatric evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Barreto, Felipe S; Pierce, N Tessa; Carneiro, Miguel; Burton, Ronald S

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have revealed repeated patterns of genomic divergence associated with species formation. Such patterns suggest that natural selection tends to target a set of available genes, but is also indicative that closely related taxa share evolutionary constraints that limit genetic variability. Studying patterns of genomic divergence among populations within the same species may shed light on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we examine transcriptome-wide divergence and polymorphism in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, a species where allopatric evolution has led to replicate sets of populations with varying degrees of divergence and hybrid incompatibility. Our analyses suggest that relatively small effective population sizes have resulted in an exponential decline of shared polymorphisms during population divergence and also facilitated the fixation of slightly deleterious mutations within allopatric populations. Five interpopulation comparisons at three different stages of divergence show that nonsynonymous mutations tend to accumulate in a specific set of proteins. These include proteins with central roles in cellular metabolism, such as those encoded in mtDNA, but also include an additional set of proteins that repeatedly show signatures of positive selection during allopatric divergence. Although our results are consistent with a contribution of nonadaptive processes, such as genetic drift and gene expression levels, generating repeatable patterns of genomic divergence in closely related taxa, they also indicate that adaptive evolution targeting a specific set of genes contributes to this pattern. Our results yield insights into the predictability of evolution at the gene level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Linear energy divergences in Coulomb gauge QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Andrasi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of linear energy divergences is analysed on the example of one graph to 3-loop order. Such dangerous divergences do cancel when all graphs are added, but next to leading divergences do not cancel out.

  7. An artificial vision solution for reusing discarded parts resulted after a manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohal, V.; Cohal, A.

    2016-08-01

    The profit of a factory can be improved by reusing the discarded components produced. This paper is based on the case of a manufacturing process where rectangular metallic sheets of different sizes are produced. Using an artificial vision system, the shapes and the sizes of the produced parts can be determined. Those sheets which do not respect the requirements imposed are labeled as discarded. Instead of throwing these parts, a decision algorithm can analyze if another metallic sheet with smaller dimensions can be obtained from these. Two methods of decision are presented in this paper, considering the restriction that the sides of the new sheet has to be parallel with the axis of the coordinate system. The coordinates of each new part obtained from a discarded sheet are computed in order to be delivered to a milling machine. Details about implementing these algorithms (image processing and decision respectively) in the MATLAB environment using Image Processing Toolbox are given.

  8. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  9. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T. [School of Engineering of Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  10. Escort entropies and divergences and related canonical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercher, J.-F.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss two families of two-parameter entropies and divergences, derived from the standard Renyi and Tsallis entropies and divergences. These divergences and entropies are found as divergences or entropies of escort distributions. Exploiting the nonnegativity of the divergences, we derive the expression of the canonical distribution associated to the new entropies and a observable given as an escort-mean value. We show that this canonical distribution extends, and smoothly connects, the results obtained in nonextensive thermodynamics for the standard and generalized mean value constraints. -- Highlights: → Two-parameter entropies are derived from q-entropies and escort distributions. → The related canonical distribution is derived. → This connects and extends known results in nonextensive statistics.

  11. 78 FR 9674 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through September 14, 2011.\\1\\ We preliminarily find that subject merchandise has not been sold at less than normal value. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  12. Temperature programmed retention indices : calculation from isothermal data Part 2: Results with nonpolar columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvers, J.M.P.M.; Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Knauss, K.; Larson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The procedure for calculating linear temperature programmed indices as described in part 1 has been evaluated using five different nonpolar columns, with OV-1 as the stationary phase. For fourty-three different solutes covering five different classes of components, including n-alkanes and

  13. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  14. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymeric Nanocomposites. Part 1. Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    Sugiyama, T. Kurashi, O. Kamigaito., U.S. 4,739,007 (1998). UNCLASSIFIED 22 [4] Nguyen Q. T., Process for Improving Exfoliation and Dispersion of...polyethylene/ Kaolin composites. Part II. Thermoelastic behavior of blow-molded samples. J Mater Sci 34 (1999), pp. 497–508. [22] J.S. Bergman, H

  15. Boiling flow through diverging microchannel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    such systems, for small pressure drop penalty and with good flow stability. .... ied the effect of divergence angle on mean and transient pressure/temperature distribution and .... supplying a fixed voltage and current using a power source meter.

  16. Fast algorithms for computing phylogenetic divergence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Ralph W; Williams, Tiffani L

    2017-12-06

    The inference of species divergence time is a key step in most phylogenetic studies. Methods have been available for the last ten years to perform the inference, but the performance of the methods does not yet scale well to studies with hundreds of taxa and thousands of DNA base pairs. For example a study of 349 primate taxa was estimated to require over 9 months of processing time. In this work, we present a new algorithm, AncestralAge, that significantly improves the performance of the divergence time process. As part of AncestralAge, we demonstrate a new method for the computation of phylogenetic likelihood and our experiments show a 90% improvement in likelihood computation time on the aforementioned dataset of 349 primates taxa with over 60,000 DNA base pairs. Additionally, we show that our new method for the computation of the Bayesian prior on node ages reduces the running time for this computation on the 349 taxa dataset by 99%. Through the use of these new algorithms we open up the ability to perform divergence time inference on large phylogenetic studies.

  17. [Homicides in East Berlin from 1980 to 1989. Part II: results of investigations and legal consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ingo; Strauch, Hansjürg

    2007-01-01

    The second part of the study on homicides in East Berlin from 1980 to 1989 describes the solving of crimes, the usual features of offenders and the legal assessment according to East German law. Of the 139 homicides 126 crimes (= 90.6%) could be solved. Most of the offenders had a low social background and often belonged to the victim's circle of friends or family. Situational homicides and elimination crimes were the most common crimes. In the legal assessment sentences for murder were predominant.

  18. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  19. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  20. Waiting is the hardest part: anticipating medical test results affects processing and recall of important information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, David B

    2010-07-01

    Waiting for medical test results that signal physical harm can be a stressful and potentially psychologically harmful experience. Despite this, interventionists and physicians often use this wait time to deliver behavior change messages and other important information about the test, possible results and its implications. This study examined how "bracing" for a medical test result impacts cognitive processing, as well as recall of information delivered during this period. Healthy U.S. university students (N = 150) were tested for a deficiency of a fictitious saliva biomarker that was said to be predictive of long-term health problems using a 2 (Test Result) x 2 (Expected immediacy of result: 10 min, 1 month) factorial design. Participants expecting to get the test result shortly should have been bracing for the result. While waiting for the test results participants completed measures of cognitive processing. After participants received the test result, recall of information about the biomarker was tested in addition to cognitive measures. One week later, participants who were originally told they did not have the deficiency had their recall assessed again. Results showed that anticipating an imminent test result increased cognitive distraction in the processing of information and lowered recall of information about the test and the biomarker. These results suggest that delivering critical information to patients after administering a test and immediately before giving the results may not be optimal.

  1. String loop divergences and effective lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, W.; Klebanov, I.; Susskind, L.

    1988-01-01

    We isolate logarithmic divergences from bosonic string amplitudes on a disc. These divergences are compared with 'tadpole' divergences in the effective field theory, with a covariant cosmological term implied by the counting of string coupling constants. We find an inconsistency between the two. This might be a problem in eliminating divergences from the bosonic string. (orig.)

  2. Chained Kullback-Leibler Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlichin, Dmitri S.; Weissman, Tsachy

    2017-01-01

    We define and characterize the “chained” Kullback-Leibler divergence minw D(p‖w) + D(w‖q) minimized over all intermediate distributions w and the analogous k-fold chained K-L divergence min D(p‖wk−1) + … + D(w2‖w1) + D(w1‖q) minimized over the entire path (w1,…,wk−1). This quantity arises in a large deviations analysis of a Markov chain on the set of types – the Wright-Fisher model of neutral genetic drift: a population with allele distribution q produces offspring with allele distribution w, which then produce offspring with allele distribution p, and so on. The chained divergences enjoy some of the same properties as the K-L divergence (like joint convexity in the arguments) and appear in k-step versions of some of the same settings as the K-L divergence (like information projections and a conditional limit theorem). We further characterize the optimal k-step “path” of distributions appearing in the definition and apply our findings in a large deviations analysis of the Wright-Fisher process. We make a connection to information geometry via the previously studied continuum limit, where the number of steps tends to infinity, and the limiting path is a geodesic in the Fisher information metric. Finally, we offer a thermodynamic interpretation of the chained divergence (as the rate of operation of an appropriately defined Maxwell’s demon) and we state some natural extensions and applications (a k-step mutual information and k-step maximum likelihood inference). We release code for computing the objects we study. PMID:29130024

  3. Demonstrations in Solute Transport Using Dyes: Part I. Procedures and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Greg; Bandaranayake, Wije

    1993-01-01

    Presents the general theory to explain chemical movement in soil. Describes classroom demonstrations with visually stimulating results that show the effects of soil structure, soil texture, soil pH, and soluble organic matter on that movement. (MDH)

  4. Surgical treatment of brain metastases - a review. Part 2. Results of treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronski, M.; Czernicki, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Results of treatment of most frequent brain metastases from nonsmall cell lung cancer, breast cancer, malignant melanoma and kidney tumors are discussed. Also efficacy of surgical treatment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and radiosurgery is analyzed

  5. Image restoration by the method of convex projections: part 2 applications and numerical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezan, M I; Stark, H

    1982-01-01

    The image restoration theory discussed in a previous paper by Youla and Webb [1] is applied to a simulated image and the results compared with the well-known method known as the Gerchberg-Papoulis algorithm. The results show that the method of image restoration by projection onto convex sets, by providing a convenient technique for utilizing a priori information, performs significantly better than the Gerchberg-Papoulis method.

  6. Enquiry time as part of turnaround time: when do our clinicians really consult our results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Borja, Enrique; Villalba-Martínez, C; Carratalá-Calvo, A

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, laboratories' turnaround times (TAT) have been calculated by only considering analytical or intralaboratory steps. The measure of the postanalytical impact in TAT has barely been studied and, more specifically, the running time from when finalised results are available to when clinicians make their first enquiry with an electronic medical record. During May-June of 2013, two 'Times' were collected from our laboratory information system for all the priority requests coming from our day hospitals: 'Validation time' (TV), as the request report time with full verified results and 'Enquiry time' (TQ), as the time when the first consult was made via electronic medical record. We classified requests in groups depending on time results, and TQ-TV (percentiles) were calculated for each group. 654 (69%) requests were consulted by clinicians before 15 : 00 on the same day with available results. 191 (20%) were consulted after 15 : 00 and had complete results as well (p50 (TQ-TV): 5 days) while 61 (7%) were never consulted (up to 31/12/2013). 39 (4%) requests were finally consulted before 15 : 00 h with no available results, but the average time difference between validation and enquiry was 31 min. The results obtained lead us to reconsider the TAT established with our day hospitals in order to know if priority has to be reviewed or if there are failures in follow-up results. 'Enquiry time' appears to be a powerful tool in detecting these issues and shows that TATs are no longer just a 'laboratory problem'. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. The estimation of genetic divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, R.; Conroy, T.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the criticism of Nei and Tateno (1978) of the REH (random evolutionary hits) theory of genetic divergence in nucleic acids and proteins, and to their proposed alternative estimator of total fixed mutations designated X2. It is argued that the assumption of nonuniform amino acid or nucleotide substitution will necessarily increase REH estimates relative to those made for a model where each locus has an equal likelihood of fixing mutations, thus the resulting value will not be an overestimation. The relative values of X2 and measures calculated on the basis of the PAM and REH theories for the number of nucleotide substitutions necessary to explain a given number of observed amino acid differences between two homologous proteins are compared, and the smaller values of X2 are attributed to (1) a mathematical model based on the incorrect assumption that an entire structural gene is free to fix mutations and (2) the assumptions of different numbers of variable codons for the X2 and REH calculations. Results of a repeat of the computer simulations of Nei and Tateno are presented which, in contrast to the original results, confirm the REH theory. It is pointed out that while a negative correlation is observed between estimations of the fixation intensity per varion and the number of varions for a given pair of sequences, the correlation between the two fixation intensities and varion numbers of two different pairs of sequences need not be negative. Finally, REH theory is used to resolve a paradox concerning the high rate of covarion turnover and the nature of general function sites as permanent covarions.

  8. Structure of rapidity divergences in multi-parton scattering soft factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, Alexey

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the structure of rapidity divergences that are presented in the soft factors of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization theorems. To provide the discussion on the most general level we consider soft factors for multi-parton scattering. We show that the rapidity divergences are result of the gluon exchanges with the distant transverse plane, and are structurally equivalent to the ultraviolet divergences. It allows to formulate and to prove the renormalization theorem for rapidity divergences. The proof is made with the help the conformal transformation which maps rapidity divergences to ultraviolet divergences. The theorem is the systematic form of the factorization of rapidity divergences, which is required for the definition of TMD parton distributions. In particular, the definition of multi parton distributions is presented. The equivalence of ultraviolet and rapidity divergences leads to the exact relation between soft and rapidity anomalous dimensions. Using this relation we derive the rapidity anomalous dimension at the three-loop order.

  9. A divergence theorem for pseudo-Finsler spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study the divergence theorem on pseudo-Finsler spaces and obtain a completely Finslerian version for spaces having a vanishing mean Cartan torsion. This result helps to clarify the problem of energy-momentum conservation in Finsler gravity theories.

  10. Predictors for reproductive isolation in a ring species complex following genetic and ecological divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Monahan, William B; Wake, David B

    2011-07-06

    Reproductive isolation (RI) is widely accepted as an important "check point" in the diversification process, since it defines irreversible evolutionary trajectories. Much less consensus exists about the processes that might drive RI. Here, we employ a formal quantitative analysis of genetic interactions at several stages of divergence within the ring species complex Ensatina eschscholtzii in order to assess the relative contribution of genetic and ecological divergence for the development of RI. By augmenting previous genetic datasets and adding new ecological data, we quantify levels of genetic and ecological divergence between populations and test how they correlate with a restriction of genetic admixture upon secondary contact. Our results indicate that the isolated effect of ecological divergence between parental populations does not result in reproductively isolated taxa, even when genetic transitions between parental taxa are narrow. Instead, processes associated with overall genetic divergence are the best predictors of reproductive isolation, and when parental taxa diverge in nuclear markers we observe a complete cessation of hybridization, even to sympatric occurrence of distinct evolutionary lineages. Although every parental population has diverged in mitochondrial DNA, its degree of divergence does not predict the extent of RI. These results show that in Ensatina, the evolutionary outcomes of ecological divergence differ from those of genetic divergence. While evident properties of taxa may emerge via ecological divergence, such as adaptation to local environment, RI is likely to be a byproduct of processes that contribute to overall genetic divergence, such as time in geographic isolation, rather than being a direct outcome of local adaptation.

  11. A visual study of forced convection boiling. Part I: Results for a flat vertical heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, G.J.; Staniforth, R.; Kinneir, J.H.

    1965-03-01

    This report presents the first results of a visual study of the hydrodynamics of boiling in channels and of burnout. It was found that the bubbles formed did not diffuse into the main stream at high heat fluxes, but remained close to the heater. Consequently severe coalescence took place, resulting in the formation of large regularly shaped bubbles. An analysis of the forces acting on these bubbles is given; this accounts qualitatively for the observed behaviour. The above bubble formations result from the addition of heat at a wall so that clearly isothermal models, such as those using air-water mixtures, cannot give a true representation of the flow pattern. Attempts to view the heater surface at burnout were frustrated by poor visibility through the boiling mixture. (author)

  12. High temperature phase transitions without infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetradis, N.; Wetterich, C.

    1993-09-01

    The most commonly used method for the study of high temperature phase transitions is based on the perturbative evaluation of the temperature dependent effective potential. This method becomes unreliable in the case of a second order or weakly first order phase transition, due to the appearance of infrared divergences. These divergences can be controlled through the method of the effective average action which employs renormalization group ideas. We report on the study of the high temperature phase transition for the N-component φ 4 theory. A detailed quantitative picture of the second order phase transition is presented, including the critical exponents for the behaviour in the vicinity of the critical temperature. An independent check of the results is obtained in the large N limit, and contact with the perturbative approach is established through the study of the Schwinger-Dyson equations. (orig.)

  13. A 10-Year Mechatronics Curriculum Development Initiative: Relevance, Content, and Results--Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Yost, S. A.; Krishnan, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of a Mechatronics Curriculum Development effort--the design of an "Introduction to Mechatronics" course, the infusion of mechatronics activities throughout the curriculum and in outreach activities, and assessment results. In addition, the relevance and impact of such a curriculum on the education of engineers…

  14. UAS Integration in the NAS Project: Part Task 6 V & V Simulation: Primary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, Conrad; Fern, Lisa; Shively, Jay; Santiago, Confesor

    2016-01-01

    This is a presentation of the preliminary results on final V and V (Verification and Validation) activity of [RTCA (Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics)] SC (Special Committee)-228 DAA (Detect and Avoid) HMI (Human-Machine Interface) requirements for display alerting and guidance.

  15. Estimation of energetic efficiency of heat supply in front of the aircraft at supersonic accelerated flight. Part II. Mathematical model of the trajectory boost part and computational results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latypov, A. F.

    2009-03-01

    The fuel economy was estimated at boost trajectory of aerospace plane during energy supply to the free stream. Initial and final velocities of the flight were given. A model of planning flight above cold air in infinite isobaric thermal wake was used. The comparison of fuel consumption was done at optimal trajectories. The calculations were done using a combined power plant consisting of ramjet and liquid-propellant engine. An exergy model was constructed in the first part of the paper for estimating the ramjet thrust and specific impulse. To estimate the aerodynamic drag of aircraft a quadratic dependence on aerodynamic lift is used. The energy for flow heating is obtained at the sacrifice of an equivalent decrease of exergy of combustion products. The dependencies are obtained for increasing the range coefficient of cruise flight at different Mach numbers. In the second part of the paper, a mathematical model is presented for the boost part of the flight trajectory of the flying vehicle and computational results for reducing the fuel expenses at the boost trajectory at a given value of the energy supplied in front of the aircraft.

  16. Ink dating part II: Interpretation of results in a legal perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Agnès; Weyermann, Céline

    2018-01-01

    The development of an ink dating method requires an important investment of resources in order to step from the monitoring of ink ageing on paper to the determination of the actual age of a questioned ink entry. This article aimed at developing and evaluating the potential of three interpretation models to date ink entries in a legal perspective: (1) the threshold model comparing analytical results to tabulated values in order to determine the maximal possible age of an ink entry, (2) the tre...

  17. Performance of Charcoal Cookstoves for Haiti, Part 2: Results from the Controlled Cooking Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lask, Kathleen; Jones, Jennifer; Booker, Kayje; Ceballos, Cristina; Yang, Nina; Gadgil, Ashok

    2011-11-30

    Five charcoal cookstoves were tested using a Controlled Cooking Test (CCT) developed from cooking practices in Haiti. Cookstoves were tested for total burn time, specific fuel consumption, and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and the ratio of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide (CO/CO2). These results are presented in this report along with LBNL testers’ observations regarding the usability of the stoves.

  18. Precision attachment-retained removable partial dentures. Part 3. General practitioner results up to 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owall, B; Jönsson, L

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the techniques, production problems, and 2-year results of attachment-retained removable partial denture (RPD) treatment provided by general practitioners in Sweden. At a major dental laboratory, consecutive cases involving new production of crowns, or of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and RPDs retained with precision attachments, were studied. Parameters of the dentition, crown or FPD, type and brand of attachment, etc, as well as early satisfaction by dentist and patient, were recorded using specially designed forms at the dental laboratory and questionnaires for the dentists. After 2 years, questionnaires were again sent out to the dentists to record complications and patients' and dentists' opinions of the results. The sample gathered totaled 83 constructions. After 2 years, responses for 57 patients, all of whom had distal-extension RPDs, were received. Most drop-outs in the study were explicable. The most frequently cited reasons for using attachments were esthetics and need for crowning the teeth abutting the RPD. McCollum rigid slide attachment was the predominant brand used (43% of constructions). Dentists and patients were dissatisfied with 6% of the constructions. During the first 2 years, 22 of 57 constructions were complication-free. Seventeen had attachment complications and 9 had serious complications related to the abutment teeth or RPDs. A comparison between these 2 groups revealed that those with complications had every second abutment root-canal treated and a root post, while the group without complications had every fifth abutment root-canal treated. There were many technical and biotechnical complications and failures; the exact ratio, however, depended on the definition of "complications" and "failure." The 2-year results also deviated considerably from the dentists' opinions of the early results.

  19. Medical application of radionuclides and the resulting radiation exposure of parts of the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, K.D.; Gloebel, B.; Andres, C.

    1985-01-01

    In a big hospital an investigation was made to find out to what extent the radionuclides used there contribute to the radiation exposure of the population living in the vicinity. The hospital used about 100 Ci of short-lived radionuclides a year. By applying the calculation basis stipulated by the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the radiation exposure was calculated for unfavourable cases. As a result, up to 30 mrem/a can theoretically be reached. (orig.) [de

  20. Total Bregman Divergence and its Applications to Shape Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meizhu; Vemuri, Baba C; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Nielsen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Shape database search is ubiquitous in the world of biometric systems, CAD systems etc. Shape data in these domains is experiencing an explosive growth and usually requires search of whole shape databases to retrieve the best matches with accuracy and efficiency for a variety of tasks. In this paper, we present a novel divergence measure between any two given points in [Formula: see text] or two distribution functions. This divergence measures the orthogonal distance between the tangent to the convex function (used in the definition of the divergence) at one of its input arguments and its second argument. This is in contrast to the ordinate distance taken in the usual definition of the Bregman class of divergences [4]. We use this orthogonal distance to redefine the Bregman class of divergences and develop a new theory for estimating the center of a set of vectors as well as probability distribution functions. The new class of divergences are dubbed the total Bregman divergence (TBD). We present the l 1 -norm based TBD center that is dubbed the t-center which is then used as a cluster center of a class of shapes The t-center is weighted mean and this weight is small for noise and outliers. We present a shape retrieval scheme using TBD and the t-center for representing the classes of shapes from the MPEG-7 database and compare the results with other state-of-the-art methods in literature.

  1. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. These are main results of the research «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride»: technological recommendations on the use of multilayer carbon nanotubes, silicagel functionalized with the sulfur and silica sol in receipts of shape-moulded PVC-products for construction industry which allow increasing strength by 12–25%, thermal stability by 35–50% and decreasing melt viscosity (the factor increases 2–5 times; receipts and technology for production of high-filled construction composites based on PVC functionalized with silica sol and wood flour with population up to 68 mass.% when molding index is increased 12 times and thermal stability is increased by 60%. The specialists may be interested in the results of the following research: – I.S. Maeva «Modification of anhydride compositions with ultra- and nanodispersed additives»; – E.G. Chebotareva «Nanomodified composites of construction purpose with the use of epoxy resin»; – A.A. Volodchenko «Non-autoclave silicate materials with the use of natural nanodispersed raw materials»; – O.V. Popkova «Production and properties of metal-containing nanoparticles (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Ce, Cd, Pd, Ag, Mo, stabilized by nanodiamond of denotational synthesis and high pressure polyethylene»; – M.A. Fronya «Complex study of mechanical properties and structure of polymer composite materials with carbon modification fillers: nanotubes and ultradispersed diamonds»; – M.S. Babaeva «Production and study of nanoparticles of polymer-colloid complexes based on polymers of N,N-diallyl-N,N-chloride dimethylammonium and natrium dodecylsulfate». Published materials can be used by the specialists in their scientific and practical activities in construction, housing and communal services as well as in the joint economical

  2. The JESSICA experiment. Part II. Results from the JESSICA-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Ch.; Conrad, H.; Filges, D.; Goldenbaum, F.; Neef, R.D.; Nuenighoff, K.; Schaal, H.; Stelzer, H.; Tietze-Jaensch, H.; Paul, N.; Wohlmuther, W.; Ninaus, W.; Smirnov, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this article we like to report on the latest results of the JESSICA experiment. We focus on the experiments with an ice moderator at 20 K and 70 K. The measured time of flight spectra and the derived energy spectra will be presented. For the ice moderator we will show also the time of flight spectra for specific wavelengths. For the first time we investigated the moderation properties of a methane-hydrate moderator in a realistic environment. We compared this new data with the previous obtained ice data. (orig.)

  3. Resultant geometric variation of a fixtured workpiece Part I: a simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supapan Sangnui Chaiprapat

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available When a workpiece is fixtured for a machining or inspection operation, the accuracy of an operation is mainly determined by the efficiency of the fixturing method. Variability in manufactured workpiece is hardly inevitable. When such variability is found at contact areas between the workpiece and the fixture, errors in location are expected. The errors will affect quality of features to be produced. This paper developed an algorithm to determine variant final locations of a displaced workpiece given normally distributed errorsat contact points. Resultant geometric variation of workpiece location reveals interesting information which is beneficial in tolerance planning.

  4. Generation of thermonuclear fusion neutrons by means of a pure explosion. Part 2. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derentowicz, H.; Kaliski, S.; Wolski, J.; Ziolkowski, Z.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of the generation of a thermonuclear fusion neutrons by means of explosion. The experimental set is based on a quasi-spherical experiment in which a polyethylene layer is shot into a conic region hollowed out in a golden target and filled with deuterium gas. The speeding-up system is based on shooting the conic liner onto the surface of the Cu cone in which the Mach wave is generated and propagates along the cone axis leading to an implosion velocity of the polyethylene layer of the order of (4 - 5).10 6 cm/s. This affords a 10 3 -multiple compression of the D 2 gas (p 0 approximately 1.2 atm) and a neutron emission of the order of 3.10 7 from a mass of about 10 -7 g. This result is in full agreement with theoretical estimates. This is the first published and documented experiment in which a neutron stream of thermonuclear fusion was obtained by means of a pure explosion. (author)

  5. Allowable residual contamination levels for decommissioning. Part 2. A summary of example results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper contains a description of the results of a study sponsored by UNC Nuclear Industries to determine Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for decommissioning facilities in the 100 Areas of the Hanford Site. ARCL results are presented both for surface contamination remaining in facilities (in dpm/100 cm 2 ) and for unconfined surface and confined subsurface soil conditions (in pCi/g). Two confined soil conditions are considered: contamination at depths between 1 and 4 m, and contamination at depths greater than or equal to 5 m. A set of worksheets are discussed for modifying the ARCL values to accommodate changes in the radionuclide mixture or concentrations, to consider the impacts of radioactive decay, and to predict instrument responses. Finally, a comparison is made between the unrestricted release ARCL values for the 100 Area facilities and existing decommissioning and land disposal regulations. For surface contamination, the comparison shows good agreement for a selected annual dose limit. For soil contamination, the comparison shows good agreement if reasonable modification factors are applied to account for the differences in modeling soil contamination and licensed low-level waste. 6 references, 1 figures, 4 tables

  6. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The result of research «Cement composites with additives of multi-layer carbon nanotubes (MLCN» is a new production technology and optimal compositions for complex nanomodified additives (CNMA. Introduction of such additives in the quantity of 12 mass.% of cement mass provides within 8–12 hours early stripping strength more than 15–40 Mpa, water impermeability more than W20 and frost resistance F60–F700. The technology provides double increase of work performance and metalriging turnover. The difference between the new production technology and the traditional one is that the line of production of chemical additives contains a new unit designed for manufacture of CNMA based on MLCN. The unit consists of precision feeder (the size of dose is 5 g., ultrasound dispersant with power 4 kW and frequency of operation 22 kHz and turbulent mixer with power 7,5 kW. The developed technology provides precise dose and even distribution of CNMA in mixture. The author developed technical conditions № 5745-111-02069622-2013 for manufacture of CNMA based on MLCN of different refinement purity and dispersiveness for high strength reinforced-concrete blocks used as finishing materials in subway tunnels. The specialists may be also interested in results of the research «Nanostructured perlite binder and foam concrete based on it» by Miroshnikov E.V., «Constructional steel fiber concretes modified with complex carbon micro- and nanosize additives» by Alatorceva U.V., «Physical and chemical study of nanocomposite template-assembled materials produced with the controlled sol-gel synthesis» by Krekoten' A.V., «Production and study of nanoparticles of polymer-colloid complexes based on polymers of chloride N,N-diallyl-N,N-dimethylammonio and dodecylsulfate sodium» by Babaeva M.S.,

  7. Characterization of Tank 16H Annulus Samples Part II: Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-01-01

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO 2 ) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na 8 (Al 6 Si 6 O 24 )(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ), sodium nitrite (NaNO 2 ), gibbsite (Al(OH) 3 ), hydrated sodium bicarbonate (Na 3 H(CO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O), and muscovite (KAl 2 (AlSi 3 O 10 )(OH) 2 ). Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and approximately 1/3 of the 99 Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The oxalic acid leaching test result indicate approximately 34-47% of the solids in the four annulus samples will dissolve after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of acid to solids at 45 C. The same sodium salts found in the water leaching test comprise the majority of dissolved material in the oxalic acid leaching test. However, the oxalic acid was somewhat more effective in dissolving radionuclides than the water leach. In

  8. Ground penetrating radar results at the Box Canyon Site - 1996 survey as part of infiltration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.E. Jr.; Williams, K.H.

    1997-08-01

    This data report presents a discussion of the borehole radar tomography experiment conducted at Box Canyon, Idaho. Discussion concentrates on the survey methodology, data acquisition procedures, and the resulting tomographic images and interpretations. The entire geophysics field effort for FY96 centered around the collection of the borehole radar data within the inclined boreholes R1, R2, R3, and R4 before, during, and after the ponded infiltration experiment. The well pairs R1-R2, R2-R4, and R3-R4 comprised the bulk of the field survey; however, additional data were collected between vertical boreholes within and around the infiltration basin. The intent of the inclined boreholes was to allow access beneath the infiltration basin and to enhance the ability of the radar method to image both vertical and horizontal features where flow may dominate. This data report will concentrate on the inclined borehole data and the resulting tomograms. The borehole radar method is one in which modified ground penetrating radar antennas are lowered into boreholes and high frequency electromagnetic signals are transmitted through subsurface material to a receiving antenna. The transmitted signals may be represented as multiple raypaths crossing through the zone of interest. If sufficient raypaths are recorded, a tomographic image may be obtained through computer processing. The data normally recorded are signal amplitude versus time. The information extracted from such data includes the following: (a) the transit time which depends on the wave velocity, (b) the amplitude which depends on the wave attenuation, the dispersion which indicates a change in velocity and attenuation with frequency

  9. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  10. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part I. Results of an Iranian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas; Fotovat, Amir; Khorassani, Reza

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of monovalent cations on clay dispersion, aggregate stability, soil pore size distribution, and saturated hydraulic conductivity on agricultural soil in Iran. The soil was incubated with treatment solutions containing different concentrations (0-54.4 mmol l-1) of potassium and sodium cations. The treatment solutions included two levels of electrical conductivity (EC=3 or 6 dS m-1) and six K:Na ratios per electrical conductivity level. At both electrical conductivity levels, spontaneously dispersible clay increased with increasing K concentration, and with increasing K:Na ratio. A negative linear relationship between percentage of water-stable aggregates and spontaneously dispersible clay was observed. Clay dispersion generally reduced the mean pore size, presumably due to clogging of pores, resulting in increased water retention. At both electrical conductivity levels, hydraulic conductivity increased with increasing exchangeable potassium percentage at low exchangeable potassium percentage values, but decreased with further increases in exchangeable potassium percentage at higher exchangeable potassium percentage. This is in agreement with earlier studies, but seems in conflict with our data showing increasing spontaneously dispersible clay with increasing exchangeable potassium percentage. Our findings show that clay dispersion increased with increasing K concentration and increasing K:Na ratio, demonstrating that K can have negative impacts on soil structure.

  11. Results of research in the area of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements in construction the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. Within the investigation «Obtaining and research of physical and chemical properties of nanosized system nickel–copper» experimentally proved model of synthesis of nanosized powders of system nickel–copper based on the method of reduction of metal salts from water solution has been offered; optimal conditions for obtaining radiographic pure powders have been determined. The paper also deals with conditions for obtaining and phase composition of mixed nickel and copper hydroxides including those which are stable when stored in wet conditions. The copper hydroxide stabilization method has been proposed. The practical value of performed investigation «Research of electron structure functionalized carbon nanotubes by spectographic methods with synchronous radiation» is that it developed one of the areas of physical chemistry: complex research of electron structure of carbon nanotubes including functionalized ones was carried out by the method of experimental (spectographic with synchrotron radiation of different energies and theoretical methods; the general methods of the modern applied plasmonics aimed at identification of characteristics of defects formation in carbon nanosystems of low dimension have been developed.

  12. Study of a scanning HIFU therapy protocol, Part II: Experiment and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Marilee A.; Kaczkowski, Peter; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Brayman, Andrew A.; Kargl, Steven G.

    2003-04-01

    Instrumentation and protocols for creating scanned HIFU lesions in freshly excised bovine liver were developed in order to study the in vitro HIFU dose response and validate models. Computer-control of the HIFU transducer and 3-axis positioning system provided precise spatial placement of the thermal lesions. Scan speeds were selected in the range of 1 to 8 mm/s, and the applied electrical power was varied from 20 to 60 W. These parameters were chosen to hold the thermal dose constant. A total of six valid scans of 15 mm length were created in each sample; a 3.5 MHz single-element, spherically focused transducer was used. Treated samples were frozen, then sliced in 1.27 mm increments. Digital photographs of slices were downloaded to computer for image processing and analysis. Lesion characteristics, including the depth within the tissue, axial length, and radial width, were computed. Results were compared with those generated from modified KZK and BHTE models, and include a comparison of the statistical variation in the across-scan lesion radial width. [Work supported by USAMRMC.

  13. The Impact of the Proposed delta Gp Limits on Glass Formulation Efforts: Part II. Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEELER, DAVID

    2004-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has initiated studies to assess alternative durability options that may provide access to compositional regions of interest in support of the accelerated cleanup mission at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). One of the options being pursued is the redefinition of the durability model acceptability limits. Some of the conservative steps used in establishing the current limits without compromising the high confidence required for meeting the specification on the waste form quality were identified and eliminated. The results led to a set of three new Property Acceptability Region (PAR) values for the preliminary glass dissolution estimator that has the potential to allow access to compositional regions of interest to improve melt rate or waste loading. Although these limits are available for implementation, there is no driving force to do so with the current sludge batch (i.e., the current Frit 418 - Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) system is TL limited). The objectives of this task were to investigate (and generate) the incentive of applying the proposed durability limits in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) from a glass formulation perspective. Glass compositions were identified or developed to transition into and through the region of GP acceptability as defined by the current and proposed durability limits. The progression through the newly defined acceptability region was accomplished by increasing the total alkali in the glass via higher alkali frits and/or waste loading (WL). The focus of this report is on the measured durability response as it compares to model predictions to assess the applicability and/or potential conservatism of the various limits or durability approaches. The normalized boron release values (NL [B] g/L) for the study glasses ranged from approximately 1.0 g/L to 2.0 g/L. The Product Consistency Test (PCT) responses provide evidence that implementation of the proposed GP limits will

  14. 75 FR 11120 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review... the People's Republic of China (PRC) pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended... section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009...

  15. The investigation of the FM heavy forging process by the Moiré method. Part II: Consecutive reduction results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.L.; Cao, Q.X.

    1994-01-01

    In part I of this work (preceding paper), single-reduction results on the FM forging process were reported. In the work reported in this paper, the cavity closing laws of the consecutive reduction process were investigated, the appropriate turn-over and feed procedure being obtained, along with the

  16. 77 FR 75973 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews; 2010-2011 Correction In notice document 2012-29770, appearing on pages 73415-73417 in the issue of Monday, December 10, 2012, make...

  17. 76 FR 58768 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended Final Results of Antidumping Administrative Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce EFFECTIVE DATE: September 22, 2011. FOR...

  18. 75 FR 29314 - Hand Trucks and Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... thereof from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The review covers one exporter. The period of review... Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... review of the antidumping duty order on hand trucks and certain parts thereof from the People's Republic...

  19. Results of the IRIS UV Burst Survey, Part I: Active Regions Tracked Limb to Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C. A.; DeLuca, E.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from the first phase of an effort to thoroughly characterize UV bursts within the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data catalogue. The observational signatures of these phenomena include dramatically intensified and broadened NUV/FUV emission line profiles with absorption features from cool metallic ions. These properties suggest that UV bursts originate from plasma at transition region temperatures (≥ 80,000 K) which is deeply embedded in the cool lower chromosphere ( 5,000 K). Rigorously characterizing the energetic and dynamical properties of UV bursts is crucial since they have considerable potential to heat active region chromospheres and could provide critical constraints for models of magnetic reconnection in these regions. The survey first focuses on IRIS observations of active regions tracked from limb to limb. All observations consist of large field-of-view raster scans of 320 or 400 steps each, which allow for widespread detection of many burst profiles at the expense of having limited short-term time evolution information. We detect bursts efficiently by applying a semi-automated single-Gaussian fitting technique to Si IV 1393.8 Å emission profiles that isolates the distinct burst population in a 4-D parameter space. The robust sample of NUV/FUV burst spectra allows for precise constraints of properties critical for modeling reconnection in the chromosphere, including outflow kinetic energy, density estimates from intensity ratios of Si IV 1402.8 Å and O IV 1401.2 Å emission lines, and coincident measures of emission in other wavelengths. We also track burst properties throughout the lifetimes of their host active regions, noting changes in detection rate and preferential location as the active regions evolve. Finally, the tracked active region observations provide a unique opportunity to investigate line-of-sight effects on observed UV burst spectral properties, particularly the strength of Ni II 1393.3 Å absorption

  20. Metal fires and their implications for advanced reactors. Part 3: Experimental and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Figueroa, Victor G.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-01-01

    This report details the primary results of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project (LDRD 08-0857) Metal Fires and Their Implications for Advance Reactors. Advanced reactors may employ liquid metal coolants, typically sodium, because of their many desirable qualities. This project addressed some of the significant challenges associated with the use of liquid metal coolants, primary among these being the extremely rapid oxidation (combustion) that occurs at the high operating temperatures in reactors. The project has identified a number of areas for which gaps existed in knowledge pertinent to reactor safety analyses. Experimental and analysis capabilities were developed in these areas to varying degrees. In conjunction with team participation in a DOE gap analysis panel, focus was on the oxidation of spilled sodium on thermally massive surfaces. These are spills onto surfaces that substantially cool the sodium during the oxidation process, and they are relevant because standard risk mitigation procedures seek to move spill environments into this regime through rapid draining of spilled sodium. While the spilled sodium is not quenched, the burning mode is different in that there is a transition to a smoldering mode that has not been comprehensively described previously. Prior work has described spilled sodium as a pool fire, but there is a crucial, experimentally-observed transition to a smoldering mode of oxidation. A series of experimental measurements have comprehensively described the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. A new physics-based model has been developed that also predicts the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. The model introduces smoldering oxidation through porous oxide layers to go beyond traditional pool fire analyses that have been carried out previously in order to predict experimentally observed trends. Combined, these developments add significantly to the safety

  1. 77 FR 73415 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...On June 5, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. On October 16, 2012, the Department released its post-preliminary analysis in these reviews. For these final results, we continue to find that sales of the subject merchandise have not been made at prices below normal value.

  2. [Part-time Work and Men's Health : Results based on Routine Data of a Statutory Health Insurance Scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Thomas G

    2016-08-01

    With the introduction of a new occupational classification at the end of 2011, employment characteristics are reported by employees to social insurance agencies in Germany in more detail than in previous years. In addition to other changes, the new classification allows a distinction between full- and part-time work to be made. This provided a reason to consider the health-related aspects of part-time work on the basis of data from a statutory health insurance scheme. Our analysis is based on the data of 3.8 million employees insured with the Techniker Krankenkasse (TK), a statutory health insurance scheme, in 2012. In addition to daily information on employment situations, details of periods and diagnoses of sick leave and the drugs prescribed were available. Although approximately 50 % of women of middle to higher working age worked part-time in 2012, the corresponding percentage of men employed in part-time work was less than 10 %. Overall, part-time employees were on sick leave for fewer days than full-time employees, but among men, sick leave due to mental disorders was longer for part-time employees than for full-time employees, whereas women working part time were affected to a lesser extent by corresponding periods of absence than those working full time. The results provide indications for the assertion that men in gender-specifically atypical employment situations are more frequently affected by mental disorders. Further evidence supports this assertion. With the long-term availability of these new employment characteristics, longitudinal analyses could help to clarify this cause-effect relationship.

  3. Riverscape genetics identifies replicated ecological divergence across an Amazonian ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Georgina M; Landguth, Erin L; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2014-07-01

    Ecological speciation involves the evolution of reproductive isolation and niche divergence in the absence of a physical barrier to gene flow. The process is one of the most controversial topics of the speciation debate, particularly in tropical regions. Here, we investigate ecologically based divergence across an Amazonian ecotone in the electric fish, Steatogenys elegans. We combine phylogenetics, genome scans, and population genetics with a recently developed individual-based evolutionary landscape genetics approach that incorporates selection. This framework is used to assess the relative contributions of geography and divergent natural selection between environments as biodiversity drivers. We report on two closely related and sympatric lineages that exemplify how divergent selection across a major Amazonian aquatic ecotone (i.e., between rivers with markedly different hydrochemical properties) may result in replicated ecologically mediated speciation. The results link selection across an ecological gradient with reproductive isolation and we propose that assortative mating based on water color may be driving the divergence. Divergence resulting from ecologically driven selection highlights the importance of considering environmental heterogeneity in studies of speciation in tropical regions. Furthermore, we show that framing ecological speciation in a spatially explicit evolutionary landscape genetics framework provides an important first step in exploring a wide range of the potential effects of spatial dependence in natural selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Role of mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Iaffaldano, G.; Calais, E.

    2015-01-01

    Present-day continental extension along the East African Rift System (EARS) has often been attributed to diverging sublithospheric mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. This implies a degree of viscous coupling between mantle and lithosphere that remains poorly constrained. Recent advances in estimating present-day opening rates along the EARS from geodesy offer an opportunity to address this issue with geodynamic modeling of the mantle-lithosphere system. Here we use numerical models of the global mantle-plates coupled system to test the role of present-day mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence across the EARS. The scenario yielding the best fit to geodetic observations is one where torques associated with gradients of gravitational potential energy stored in the African highlands are resisted by weak continental faults and mantle basal drag. These results suggest that shear tractions from diverging mantle flow play a minor role in present-day Nubia-Somalia divergence.

  5. Safeguards Analytical Laboratory evaluation program. Part 1. Resin bead mass spectrometry. Part 2. Results of a resin bead field experiment-Tastex-J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.L.; Smith, D.H.; Carter, J.A.; Musick, W.R.; Donohue, D.L.; Deron, S.; Asakura, Y.; Kagami, K.; Irinouchi, S.; Masui, J.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this report covers background of resin bead spectrometry and the new batch resin bead method. In the original technique, about ten anion resin beads in the nitrate form were exposed to the diluted sample solution. The solution was adjusted to be a 8 M HNO 3 and to have about 1 μg U per bead. Up to 48 hours of static contact between beads and solution was required for adsorption of 1 to 3 ng Pu and U per bead to be achieved. Under these conditions, contamination was a problem at reprocessing facilities. The new batch techniques reduces the risk of contamination by handling one hundred times more U in the final diluted sample which is exposed to a proportionately larger number of beads. Moreover, it only requires ten minutes adsorption time to provide about 1000 purified samples for mass spectrometry. The amounts of Pu and U adsorbed versus time were determined and results are tabulated. The second part of this report briefly summarizes results of resin bead field tests completed at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) reprocessing plant in Tokai-mura, Japan. Both methods, the original small-sample resin bead and the batch technique, were investigated on spent fuel solutions. Beads were prepared at PNC and distributed to IAEA and ORNL along with dried residues for conventional mass spectrometric analysis at IAEA. Parallel measurements were made at PNC using their normal measuring routines. The U and Pu measurements of all resin and those of PNC are in excellent agreement for the batch method. Discrepancies were noted in the U measurements by the original method

  6. On Hölder Projective Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-03-16

    We describe a framework to build distances by measuring the tightness of inequalities and introduce the notion of proper statistical divergences and improper pseudo-divergences. We then consider the Holder ordinary and reverse inequalities and present two novel classes of Holder divergences and pseudo-divergences that both encapsulate the special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. We report closed-form formulas for those statistical dissimilarities when considering distributions belonging to the same exponential family provided that the natural parameter space is a cone (e.g., multivariate Gaussians) or affine (e.g., categorical distributions). Those new classes of Holder distances are invariant to rescaling and thus do not require distributions to be normalized. Finally, we show how to compute statistical Holder centroids with respect to those divergences and carry out center-based clustering toy experiments on a set of Gaussian distributions which demonstrate empirically that symmetrized Holder divergences outperform the symmetric Cauchy-Schwarz divergence.

  7. On Hölder Projective Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank; Sun, Ke; Marchand-Maillet, Stephane

    2017-01-01

    We describe a framework to build distances by measuring the tightness of inequalities and introduce the notion of proper statistical divergences and improper pseudo-divergences. We then consider the Holder ordinary and reverse inequalities and present two novel classes of Holder divergences and pseudo-divergences that both encapsulate the special case of the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence. We report closed-form formulas for those statistical dissimilarities when considering distributions belonging to the same exponential family provided that the natural parameter space is a cone (e.g., multivariate Gaussians) or affine (e.g., categorical distributions). Those new classes of Holder distances are invariant to rescaling and thus do not require distributions to be normalized. Finally, we show how to compute statistical Holder centroids with respect to those divergences and carry out center-based clustering toy experiments on a set of Gaussian distributions which demonstrate empirically that symmetrized Holder divergences outperform the symmetric Cauchy-Schwarz divergence.

  8. Data from: Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island Southeast Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantz, L.A.F.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.; Lohse, H.

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here,

  9. Testing models of speciation from genome sequences: divergence and asymmetric admixture in Island Southeast Asian Sus species during the Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantz, L.A.F.; Madsen, O.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Groenen, M.; Lohse, H.

    2014-01-01

    In many temperate regions, ice ages promoted range contractions into refugia resulting in divergence (and potentially speciation), while warmer periods led to range expansions and hybridization. However, the impact these climatic oscillations had in many parts of the tropics remains elusive. Here,

  10. Genetic Divergence in Sugarcane Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Mohammad; Rahman, Hidayatur; Gul, Rahmani; Ali, Amjad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    To assess genetic divergence of sugarcane germplasm, an experiment comprising 25 sugarcane genotypes was conducted at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in quadruple lattice design during 2008-09. Among the 14 parameters evaluated, majority exhibited significant differences while some showed nonsignificant mean squares. The initial correlation matrix revealed medium to high correlations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that there were two pr...

  11. Computer recognition of divergences in Feynman graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, J

    1973-05-01

    The program described recognizes whether or not a graph is divergent. It determines the kind of the divergences found: vacuum polarizations, electron self energies and vertices. it does not consider infrared divergences. The programming language used is REDUCE. A LISP version is also available. The nature of the divergences and their counter terms was extensively used to write down this program, therefore it is limited to the case of quantum electrodynamics. (auth)

  12. Influence of shock waves as a result of assumed vessel failure on parts of the plant relevant to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Graubner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The shock wave induced rupture is of subordinate importance for the laying out of the parts of the plant relevant to safety. It is covered by the precautions for maximum potential earthquakes, aircraft crashes and chemical explosions. The failure of vessels in the power house (WAZUe, SPWB) as the result of a maximum potential earthquake is extremely improbable. If a combination of the stresses resulting from maximum potential earthquakes with the hypothetical stresses resulting from vessel failure is undertaken, it can be seen that the total stresses are only increased by a minimal amount, due to the quadratic averaging of less than 3%. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Impact of urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation on tumor stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Chalise

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary bladder cancer is classified as urothelial or non-urothelial. Ninenty percent of bladder cancer are urothelial and has propensity for divergent differentiation. Squamous differentiation is associated with unfavourable prognostic features. The aim of this study is to determine the significance of urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation in relation to tumor stage and lymphovascular as well as perineural invasion in radical cystectomy and partial cystectomy specimen.Materials and methods: This prospective study was done among 51 patients who underwent radical cystectomy or partial cystectomy at Bhaktapur Cancer Hospital from 1st August 2013 to 31st December 2015. Received specimen was grossed following standard protocol and histopathological evaluation was done in relation to tumor type, depth of invasion, Lymphovascular and perineural invasion.Results: Pure urothelial carcinoma comprises 47.1% of cases. Among the divergent differentiation, urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation was the commonest one (39.2% followed by glandular differentiation (5.9%, sarcomatoid differentiation (3.9%, clear cell variant (2.0% and squamous along with sarcomatoid variant (2.0%. Statistical significant correlation was found between urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation and tumor stage (p<0.012. Statistically significant correlation was also found between urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation and lymphovascular invasion (p=0.012 as well as perineural invasion (p=0.037.Conclusion:  Most common divergent differentiation was squamous differentiation. Urothelial carcinoma with divergent differentiation was associated with higher stage and lymphovascular as well as perineural invasion. So it is mandatory to search for the divergent differentiation in urothelial carcinoma as this may be associated with unfavourable prognosis.

  14. Neural Mechanisms of Episodic Retrieval Support Divergent Creative Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Kevin P; Thakral, Preston P; Beaty, Roger E; Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2017-11-17

    Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking. Following a manipulation that facilitates detailed episodic retrieval, we observed greater neural activity in the hippocampus and stronger connectivity between a core brain network linked to episodic processing and a frontoparietal brain network linked to cognitive control during divergent thinking relative to an object association control task that requires little divergent thinking. Stronger coupling following the retrieval manipulation extended to a subsequent resting-state scan. Neural effects of the episodic manipulation were consistent with behavioral effects of enhanced idea production on divergent thinking but not object association. The results indicate that conceptual frameworks should accommodate the idea that episodic retrieval can function as a component process of creative idea generation, and highlight how the brain flexibly utilizes the retrieval of episodic details for tasks beyond simple remembering. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Information Security of Children and Adolescents According to Parents and Teachers (Part 2: The Results of an Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budykin S.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a second part of the study on information security of children and adolescents according to parents and teachers. This part of the study focuses at empirical research results aimed in studying the so-called "naive theories" about information security. 136 people (aged 21 to 62 years attended the study. We based on the following hypotheses : 1 the group of parents and teachers understand similarly the issue of information threat for children and adolescents, yet they have different understandings of the dangerous effects of information on children and adolescents: parents underestimate the seriousness of the effects compared with teachers; 2 according to parents and teachers, the formers are primarily responsible for information security of children; while teachers expect parents to monitor, prohibit, restrict the access to information for children and adolescents. Parents, in turn, expect teachers to train children and teenagers to observe the safety procedures, as well as use Internet safely. Our assumptions are confirmed partly, and study results are discussed in terms of the theory of social representations.

  16. Statistical inference based on divergence measures

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    The idea of using functionals of Information Theory, such as entropies or divergences, in statistical inference is not new. However, in spite of the fact that divergence statistics have become a very good alternative to the classical likelihood ratio test and the Pearson-type statistic in discrete models, many statisticians remain unaware of this powerful approach.Statistical Inference Based on Divergence Measures explores classical problems of statistical inference, such as estimation and hypothesis testing, on the basis of measures of entropy and divergence. The first two chapters form an overview, from a statistical perspective, of the most important measures of entropy and divergence and study their properties. The author then examines the statistical analysis of discrete multivariate data with emphasis is on problems in contingency tables and loglinear models using phi-divergence test statistics as well as minimum phi-divergence estimators. The final chapter looks at testing in general populations, prese...

  17. Perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED with infrared divergences regularized by residual gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawaki, Yuji; McCartor, Gary

    2006-01-01

    We construct a new perturbative formulation of pure space-like axial gauge QED in which the inherent infrared divergences are regularized by residual gauge fields. For this purpose, we carry out our calculations in the coordinates x μ =(x + , x - , x 1 , x 2 ), where x + =x 0 sinθ + x 3 cosθ and x - = x 0 cosθ - x 3 sinθ. Here, A=A 0 cosθ + A 3 sinθ = n·A=0 is taken as the gauge fixing condition. We show in detail that, in perturbation theory, infrared divergences resulting from the residual gauge fields cancel infrared divergences resulting from the physical parts of the gauge field. As a result, we obtain the gauge field propagator proposed by Mandelstam and Leibbrandt. By taking the limit θ→π/4, we are able to construct a light-cone formulation that is free from infrared divergences. With that analysis complete, we next calculate the one-loop electron self-energy, something not previously done in the light-cone quantization and light-cone gauge. (author)

  18. Extending market activities for a distribution company in hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets-Part II: Numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhour, M.; Golkar, M.A.; Moghaddas-Tafreshi, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is to show the application and implementation of the algorithms and models proposed in part I. It also represents the simulation results of (a) extracting a lumped financial model (the aggregated model) of the distribution system with distributed generations (DGs) and interruptible loads (ILs), (b) distribution company's (DISCO's) process of decision-making, based on the created financial model, on allocating its generating capability for internal usage and proposing to the hourly-ahead energy and reserve markets, and (c) a profit-based network reconfiguration methodology that increases the DISCO's technical ability and directs its financial affairs towards more profitable transactions in the upcoming markets. The function of the algorithms used for detecting unfeasible configurations, namely loop path and/or isolated part in the network are shown and well exemplified. Influential factors in DISCO's generating capability and in the coefficients of DISCO's internal cost function (ICF) are investigated. The present study substantiates the ICF-based optimization method by comparing the relevant results with the results obtained based on the use of total cost function (TCF). Several scenarios on market prices of energy and reserve and on the contingency probability factor pertaining to the real-time generation in reserve market are considered. Simulation results indicate that getting more economical benefits, DISCO may necessarily play different roles in the market and change the network configuration, at different hours.

  19. Ultraviolet divergences and supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagnotti, A.

    1984-09-01

    This article is closely related to the one by Ferrara in these same Proceedings. It deals with what is perhaps the most fascinating property of supersymmetric theories, their improved ultraviolet behavior. My aim here is to present a survey of the state of the art as of August, 1984, and a somewhat more detailed discussion of the breakdown of the superspace power-counting beyond N = 2 superfields. A method is also described for simplifying divergence calculations that uses the locality of subtracted Feynman integrals. 74 references

  20. Active Control of Low-Speed Fan Tonal Noise Using Actuators Mounted in Stator Vanes: Part III Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Remington, Paul J.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2003-01-01

    A test program to demonstrate simplification of Active Noise Control (ANC) systems relative to standard techniques was performed on the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan from May through September 2001. The target mode was the m = 2 circumferential mode generated by the rotor-stator interaction at 2BPF. Seven radials (combined inlet and exhaust) were present at this condition. Several different error-sensing strategies were implemented. Integration of the error-sensors with passive treatment was investigated. These were: (i) an in-duct linear axial array, (ii) an induct steering array, (iii) a pylon-mounted array, and (iv) a near-field boom array. The effect of incorporating passive treatment was investigated as well as reducing the actuator count. These simplified systems were compared to a fully ANC specified system. Modal data acquired using the Rotating Rake are presented for a range of corrected fan rpm. Simplified control has been demonstrated to be possible but requires a well-known and dominant mode signature. The documented results here in are part III of a three-part series of reports with the same base title. Part I and II document the control system and error-sensing design and implementation.

  1. Results of Paleomagnetic Investigation of Angara - Taseeva Depression and Central Part of Tunguska Syncline (Siberian Trap Province, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Pavlov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Results of paleomagnetic investigation of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and central part of Tunguska syncline) are performed here. Our work was dedicated to the estimation of dynamics and duration of magmatic activity during Siberian Traps emplacement. The conclusions are based on paleomagnetic study of large dolerite sills in the periphery of Siberian Trap province, tuffaceous deposits, small intrusions and lava flows of Tunguska syncline, and on geochronological data (Ivanov et al., 2013; Reichow et al., 2009). The presented data show that formation of Siberian Traps in these regions took place as several short bursts of magmatic activity led to large sill intrusions and eruptions of tuffs. This data are in agreement with the pulsating character of magmatic activity in the Northern part of Siberian platform (Pavlov et al., 2014). The most powerful burst of magmatic activity in Angara-Taseeva syncline is supposed to be synchronous to the main phase of volcanic eruptions in the Northern part of Siberian platform and emplacement of ore-bearing intrusions in Noril'sk district. This study was funded by grant RFBR # 14-05-31447.

  2. Logarithmic divergences in the k-inflationary power spectra computed through the uniform approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alinea, Allan L.; Kubota, Takahiro; Naylor, Wade, E-mail: alinea@het.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kubota@celas.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: naylor@phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    We investigate a calculation method for solving the Mukhanov-Sasaki equation in slow-roll k-inflation based on the uniform approximation (UA) in conjunction with an expansion scheme for slow-roll parameters with respect to the number of e-folds about the so-called turning point. Earlier works on this method have so far gained some promising results derived from the approximating expressions for the power spectra among others, up to second order with respect to the Hubble and sound flow parameters, when compared to other semi-analytical approaches (e.g., Green's function and WKB methods). However, a closer inspection is suggestive that there is a problem when higher-order parts of the power spectra are considered; residual logarithmic divergences may come out that can render the prediction physically inconsistent. Looking at this possibility, we map out up to what order with respect to the mentioned parameters several physical quantities can be calculated before hitting a logarithmically divergent result. It turns out that the power spectra are limited up to second order, the tensor-to-scalar ratio up to third order, and the spectral indices and running converge to all orders. This indicates that the expansion scheme is incompatible with the working equations derived from UA for the power spectra but compatible with that of the spectral indices. For those quantities that involve logarithmically divergent terms in the higher-order parts, existing results in the literature for the convergent lower-order parts calculated in the equivalent fashion should be viewed with some caution; they do not rest on solid mathematical ground.

  3. Sufficient Statistics for Divergence and the Probability of Misclassification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirein, J.

    1972-01-01

    One particular aspect is considered of the feature selection problem which results from the transformation x=Bz, where B is a k by n matrix of rank k and k is or = to n. It is shown that in general, such a transformation results in a loss of information. In terms of the divergence, this is equivalent to the fact that the average divergence computed using the variable x is less than or equal to the average divergence computed using the variable z. A loss of information in terms of the probability of misclassification is shown to be equivalent to the fact that the probability of misclassification computed using variable x is greater than or equal to the probability of misclassification computed using variable z. First, the necessary facts relating k-dimensional and n-dimensional integrals are derived. Then the mentioned results about the divergence and probability of misclassification are derived. Finally it is shown that if no information is lost (in x = Bz) as measured by the divergence, then no information is lost as measured by the probability of misclassification.

  4. Long term effects of preventive activities of youth health care in The Netherlands: results of a four-part study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter A. Wiegersma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. In this article the results are presented of a four part study on the effect of screening for scoliosis and (repeated well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools, on the incidence and prevalence of (parasuicide, mental health, adolescent health compromising behaviour and lastly obesity.

    Methods. An ecologic case-referent study design was used with data from the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Defence, the 1992 High-School Student Study, all of the youth health care departments in The Netherlands and relevant censuses.

    Results. Attention to mental and physical health and health compromising behaviour, either during screening, open consultation hours or during well-care visits seems to be ineffective and in some instances even detrimental to youth health.

    Of the 18 different outcome measurements, 5 were significantly negative and none were significantly positive.

    Conclusions. This four part study does not support the hypothesis that on a population level, the preventive activities of youth health care departments such as screening for scoliosis, (more frequent well-care visits or offering open consultation hours at secondary schools, have a beneficial effect on prevention of (parasuicide, poor mental health, health compromising behaviour or obesity.

  5. Clinical picture and treatment of complications of lower part of large intestine resulting from radiotherapy for intra-pelvic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshihito; Sunagawa, Keishin; Matsumura, Shigejiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Masaoka, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    The authors described clinical pictures and those treatments of 40 patients with complications of the lower part of the large intestine resulting from radiotherapy for cancer of the uterus, ovarium or the penis. As the radiotherapy, 60 Co-telecobalt (6,000-16,000R) and 60 Co-needle (1,000-8,568 mch) intracavitary irradiation were used alone or in combination. Findings in the complications of the lower part of the large intestine were classified into Grade I (13 cases), II (14), III (14), and IV (4) according to Sherman. The prodromal symptoms of the complications appeared in 2-6 months following the irradiation in more than a half of the patients, and it appeared within a year in most of the patients. Most of the patients complained about melena, anemia, proctagra, tenesmus and diarrhea. In the cases of Grade III, the symptoms of ileus such as constipation, abdominal distention, and abdominal pain appeared. Internal treatment was given principally, and preternal anus was made when frequent blood transfusion was required. Fourteen cases of those in Grade I and II recovered within 1-3 years. The cases which received proctostomy, including those who had bleeding, stricture and fistulation, had favorable prognosis. This result suggested that the radiotherapy for intra-pelvic cancer should be controlled to prevent further development of the complications in the rectum beyond Grade I. (Serizawa, K.)

  6. Using Dendritic Heat Maps to Simultaneously Display Genotype Divergence with Phenotype Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellom, Matthew; Raymond, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of techniques to visualize and analyze large-scale sequencing datasets is an area of active research and is rooted in traditional techniques such as heat maps and dendrograms. We introduce dendritic heat maps that display heat map results over aligned DNA sequence clusters for a range of clustering cutoffs. Dendritic heat maps aid in visualizing the effects of group differences on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance of sampled sequences. Here, we artificially generate two separate datasets with simplified mutation and population growth procedures with GC content group separation to use as example phenotypes. In this work, we use the term phenotype to represent any feature by which groups can be separated. These sequences were clustered in a fractional identity range of 0.75 to 1.0 using agglomerative minimum-, maximum-, and average-linkage algorithms, as well as a divisive centroid-based algorithm. We demonstrate that dendritic heat maps give freedom to scrutinize specific clustering levels across a range of cutoffs, track changes in phenotype inequity across multiple levels of sequence clustering specificity, and easily visualize how deeply rooted changes in phenotype inequity are in a dataset. As genotypes diverge in sample populations, clusters are shown to break apart into smaller clusters at higher identity cutoff levels, similar to a dendrogram. Phenotype divergence, which is shown as a heat map of relative abundance bin response, may or may not follow genotype divergences. This joined view highlights the relationship between genotype and phenotype divergence for treatment groups. We discuss the minimum-, maximum-, average-, and centroid-linkage algorithm approaches to building dendritic heat maps and make a case for the divisive "top-down" centroid-based clustering methodology as being the best option visualize the effects of changing factors on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance.

  7. Using Dendritic Heat Maps to Simultaneously Display Genotype Divergence with Phenotype Divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kellom

    Full Text Available The advancement of techniques to visualize and analyze large-scale sequencing datasets is an area of active research and is rooted in traditional techniques such as heat maps and dendrograms. We introduce dendritic heat maps that display heat map results over aligned DNA sequence clusters for a range of clustering cutoffs. Dendritic heat maps aid in visualizing the effects of group differences on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance of sampled sequences. Here, we artificially generate two separate datasets with simplified mutation and population growth procedures with GC content group separation to use as example phenotypes. In this work, we use the term phenotype to represent any feature by which groups can be separated. These sequences were clustered in a fractional identity range of 0.75 to 1.0 using agglomerative minimum-, maximum-, and average-linkage algorithms, as well as a divisive centroid-based algorithm. We demonstrate that dendritic heat maps give freedom to scrutinize specific clustering levels across a range of cutoffs, track changes in phenotype inequity across multiple levels of sequence clustering specificity, and easily visualize how deeply rooted changes in phenotype inequity are in a dataset. As genotypes diverge in sample populations, clusters are shown to break apart into smaller clusters at higher identity cutoff levels, similar to a dendrogram. Phenotype divergence, which is shown as a heat map of relative abundance bin response, may or may not follow genotype divergences. This joined view highlights the relationship between genotype and phenotype divergence for treatment groups. We discuss the minimum-, maximum-, average-, and centroid-linkage algorithm approaches to building dendritic heat maps and make a case for the divisive "top-down" centroid-based clustering methodology as being the best option visualize the effects of changing factors on clustering hierarchy and relative abundance.

  8. Emission factors from road traffic from a tunnel study (Gubrist tunnel, Switzerland). Part 1 Concept and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehelin, Johannes; Brunner, Dominik; Baumle, Martin [Atmospheric Science, ETH-Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland); Schlapfer, Kurt [Carbotech AG, Basel (Switzerland); Burgin, Toni; Meier, Markus [Amt fuer Technische Anlagen und Lufthygiene Kanton Zuerich ATAL, Zuerich (Switzerland); Steinemann, Urs [Ingenieurbuero Steinemann, Wollerau (Switzerland); Schneider, Stefan; Zahner, Christoph; Keiser, Stephan [Planungsbuero Jud AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Stahel, Werner; Keller, Christian [Sem. for Statistics, ETH-Z, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1995-06-22

    In the industrialized world a large part of the emission of the primary air pollutants (NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and CO) originates from road traffic. Here we present the concept and first results of a tunnel study which took place from September 20th to September 26th, 1993, at the Gubrist tunnel (close to Zuerich, Switzerland) in which the emission factors of a large number of individual VOCs, total hydrocarbons (t-HC), CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} are determined. The first tentative results of the emission factors of NO{sub x}, CO, t-HC and 26 individual hydrocarbons (alkanes and aromatics in the volatility range from n-heptane to n-decane) for the average of all vehicles and the light duty vehicles at an average speed of 90 km/h are given

  9. Conceptual Divergence - Canons and Taboos - and Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2004-01-01

    of notational imperfection versus conceptual divergence is none the less too simplistic, since differences may also be due to deliberate choices and exclusions on the part of the authors of the ancient texts—for instance because such a choice helps to fence off a profession, because it expresses appurtenance...... to a real or imagined tradition, or as a result of a critique in the Kantian sense, an elimination of expressions and forms of reasoning that are found theoretically incoherent. The argument is based throughout on historical examples....

  10. Divergent thinking and constructing episodic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addis, Donna Rose; Pan, Ling; Musicaro, Regina; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    Divergent thinking likely plays an important role in simulating autobiographical events. We investigated whether divergent thinking is differentially associated with the ability to construct detailed imagined future and imagined past events as opposed to recalling past events. We also examined whether age differences in divergent thinking might underlie the reduced episodic detail generated by older adults. The richness of episodic detail comprising autobiographical events in young and older adults was assessed using the Autobiographical Interview. Divergent thinking abilities were measured using the Alternative Uses Task. Divergent thinking was significantly associated with the amount of episodic detail for imagined future events. Moreover, while age was significantly associated with imagined episodic detail, this effect was strongly related to age-related changes in episodic retrieval rather than divergent thinking.

  11. Bubble Divergences: Sorting out Topology from Cell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzom, Valentin; Smerlak, Matteo

    2012-02-01

    We conclude our analysis of bubble divergences in the flat spinfoam model. In [arXiv:1008.1476] we showed that the divergence degree of an arbitrary two-complex Gamma can be evaluated exactly by means of twisted cohomology. Here, we specialize this result to the case where Gamma is the two-skeleton of the cell decomposition of a pseudomanifold, and sharpen it with a careful analysis of the cellular and topological structures involved. Moreover, we explain in detail how this approach reproduces all the previous powercounting results for the Boulatov-Ooguri (colored) tensor models, and sheds light on algebraic-topological aspects of Gurau's 1/N expansion.

  12. Genetic divergence analysis in pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quamruzzaman, A.M.; Moniruzzaman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic divergence among 18 punpkin genotypes was estimated using Mahalanohis's 1) statistic. Altogether lour clusters were formed where cluster I contained the highest number of genotypes (8) and cluster II contained the lowest (I). The highest intra-cluster distance was observed h.ir cluster I (0.83 I) and the lowest for clustcr IV (0.65 I). The highest inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster I and 11(24.346). Cluster II recorded the highest mean for fruit number/plant, TSS, fruit yield and niinitnuiii III cavity length and cavity diameter. Cluster III had the second highest mean for fruit diameter, fruit number/plant, individual unit weight, fruit yield and the fewest number of days to 1st Female flowering, earliness being a desirable trait. These crosses may produce new recombinants with desirable traits. (author)

  13. Ramanujan summation of divergent series

    CERN Document Server

    Candelpergher, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to give a detailed exposition of the summation method that Ramanujan uses in Chapter VI of his second Notebook. This method, presented by Ramanujan as an application of the Euler-MacLaurin formula, is here extended using a difference equation in a space of analytic functions. This provides simple proofs of theorems on the summation of some divergent series. Several examples and applications are given. For numerical evaluation, a formula in terms of convergent series is provided by the use of Newton interpolation. The relation with other summation processes such as those of Borel and Euler is also studied. Finally, in the last chapter, a purely algebraic theory is developed that unifies all these summation processes. This monograph is aimed at graduate students and researchers who have a basic knowledge of analytic function theory.

  14. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  15. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchiglia, A.L., E-mail: adriano@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vieira, A.R., E-mail: arvieira@fisica.ufmg.br [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte@teor.fis.uc.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Baêta Scarpelli, A.P., E-mail: scarpelli.apbs@dpf.gov.br [Setor Técnico-Científico, Departamento de Polícia Federal, Rua Hugo D’Antola, 95 - Lapa, São Paulo (Brazil); Sampaio, Marcos, E-mail: marcos.sampaio@durham.ac.uk [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  16. Job Satisfaction of American Part-Time College Faculty: Results from a National Study a Decade Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, James Soto; Hayden, Ruby A.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research published in this journal examined factors associated with various forms of job satisfaction among part-time faculty, both at four-year institutions and community colleges. This research forwarded conclusions at odds with popular accounts regarding part-time faculty. Specifically, it was demonstrated that part-time faculty were…

  17. Does niche divergence accompany allopatric divergence in Aphelocoma jays as predicted under ecological speciation? Insights from tests with niche models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, John E; Zellmer, Amanda J; Knowles, L Lacey

    2010-05-01

    The role of ecology in the origin of species has been the subject of long-standing interest to evolutionary biologists. New sources of spatially explicit ecological data allow for large-scale tests of whether speciation is associated with niche divergence or whether closely related species tend to be similar ecologically (niche conservatism). Because of the confounding effects of spatial autocorrelation of environmental variables, we generate null expectations for niche divergence for both an ecological-niche modeling and a multivariate approach to address the question: do allopatrically distributed taxa occupy similar niches? In a classic system for the study of niche evolution--the Aphelocoma jays--we show that there is little evidence for niche divergence among Mexican Jay (A. ultramarina) lineages in the process of speciation, contrary to previous results. In contrast, Aphelocoma species that exist in partial sympatry in some regions show evidence for niche divergence. Our approach is widely applicable to the many cases of allopatric lineages in the beginning stages of speciation. These results do not support an ecological speciation model for Mexican Jay lineages because, in most cases, the allopatric environments they occupy are not significantly more divergent than expected under a null model.

  18. Earth, Wind and Fire. Natural air conditioning. Part 2. Research results; Earth, Wind and Fire. Natuurlijke airconditioning. Deel 2. Onderzoeksresultaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronsema, B. [Afdeling Architectural Engineering en Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    The Earth, Wind and Fire concept transforms a building into a 'climate machine' which is powered by the natural forces and energy of the sun, wind, the mass of the earth and gravity. This second part provides a brief overview of the research. The full results are included in the thesis of the author [Dutch] Het Earth, Wind en Fire-concept voor natuurlijke airconditioning biedt meer zekerheid voor het realiseren van energieneutrale kantoorgebouwen dan mogelijk zou zijn door verbetering van bestaande technieken. Het concept maakt gebruik van de omgevingsenergie van aardmassa, wind en zon. In deel 1 worden de onderzoeksdoelen en -methoden van dit concept besproken. Dit deel 2 geeft een kort overzicht van de onderzoeksresultaten. De volledige resultaten van de basale en gedetailleerde modellen, de simulaties, de metingen in de fysieke modellen en het validatieproces zijn opgenomen in het proefschrift van de auteur.

  19. Sandwiched Rényi divergence satisfies data processing inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigi, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Sandwiched (quantum) α-Rényi divergence has been recently defined in the independent works of Wilde et al. [“Strong converse for the classical capacity of entanglement-breaking channels,” preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1306.1586 (2013)] and Müller-Lennert et al. [“On quantum Rényi entropies: a new definition, some properties and several conjectures,” preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1306.3142v1 (2013)]. This new quantum divergence has already found applications in quantum information theory. Here we further investigate properties of this new quantum divergence. In particular, we show that sandwiched α-Rényi divergence satisfies the data processing inequality for all values of α > 1. Moreover we prove that α-Holevo information, a variant of Holevo information defined in terms of sandwiched α-Rényi divergence, is super-additive. Our results are based on Hölder's inequality, the Riesz-Thorin theorem and ideas from the theory of complex interpolation. We also employ Sion's minimax theorem

  20. IS WAITING THE HARDEST PART? A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN AWAITING BREAST BIOPSY RESULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, T; Govender, C; Rayne, S

    2017-06-01

    Most previous research efforts have focused on the psychological effects of receiving a cancer diagnosis rather than the period of waiting for definitive Results. Early detection of cancer is directly linked to successful treatment regimes, yet these procedures evoke significant anxiety in patients. The long wait for medical test Results in state health institutions, with one of the possible outcomes being a cancer diagnosis, means that the days of waiting can induce emotional distress before the diagnosis has even been given. Eight research collaborators were invited to, in their own voice, shed light on their individual experiences while waiting for their biopsy Results to gain an understanding of the experiences of each collaborator by letting her tell her story and to explore the possibility of shared experience between collaborators. Research collaborators at a local, government hospital kept a journal for the two-week waiting period for their biopsy Results. Shortly before receiving their Results, they took part in a short semi-structured interview to inquire about their waiting. The theoretical framework used for data interpretation is critical theory focusing on the structures within society and healthcare systems that impact on the experience of waiting. The undercurrent of critical commentary about the roles of the gender, economic, political and cultural factors that contribute to the screening experience for women in South Africa helps to shed light on the complex forces at play within the procedures. The Results indicate that for some women waiting provokes significant psychological stress which manifests in multiple psychological processes including the psychological bracing phenomenon, denial, suppression and negation of their emotional experience all perpetuated by the structures of power within the health care system. More understanding of the psychological experience of awaiting a cancer diagnosis is required and there is an important place for

  1. Genomic islands of divergence are not affected by geography of speciation in sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaut, S; Grassa, C J; Yeaman, S; Moyers, B T; Lai, Z; Kane, N C; Bowers, J E; Burke, J M; Rieseberg, L H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic divergence is lower in sympatric and parapatric comparisons, consistent with a role for gene flow in eroding neutral differences. However, genomic islands of divergence are numerous and small in all comparisons, and contrary to expectations, island number and size are not significantly affected by levels of interspecific gene flow. Rather, island formation is strongly associated with reduced recombination rates. Overall, our results indicate that the functional architecture of genomes plays a larger role in shaping genomic divergence than does the geography of speciation.

  2. Structure of UV divergences in maximally supersymmetric gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. I.; Borlakov, A. T.; Tolkachev, D. M.; Vlasenko, D. E.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the UV divergences up to sub-subleading order for the four-point on-shell scattering amplitudes in D =8 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the planar limit. We trace how the leading, subleading, etc divergences appear in all orders of perturbation theory. The structure of these divergences is typical for any local quantum field theory independently on renormalizability. We show how the generalized renormalization group equations allow one to evaluate the leading, subleading, etc. contributions in all orders of perturbation theory starting from one-, two-, etc. loop diagrams respectively. We focus then on subtraction scheme dependence of the results and show that in full analogy with renormalizable theories the scheme dependence can be absorbed into the redefinition of the couplings. The only difference is that the role of the couplings play dimensionless combinations like g2s2 or g2t2, where s and t are the Mandelstam variables.

  3. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  4. The U. S. transportation sector in the year 2030: results of a two-part Delphi survey.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.; Stephens, T.S. (Energy Systems); (Univ. of California at Davis); (ES)

    2011-10-11

    A two-part Delphi Survey was given to transportation experts attending the Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy in August, 2011. The survey asked respondents about trends in the US transportation sector in 2030. Topics included: alternative vehicles, high speed rail construction, rail freight transportation, average vehicle miles traveled, truck versus passenger car shares, vehicle fuel economy, and biofuels in different modes. The survey consisted of two rounds -- both asked the same set of seven questions. In the first round, respondents were given a short introductory paragraph about the topic and asked to use their own judgment in their responses. In the second round, the respondents were asked the same questions, but were also given results from the first round as guidance. The survey was sponsored by Argonne National Lab (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), and implemented by University of California at Davis, Institute of Transportation Studies. The survey was part of the larger Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project run by the Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Of the 206 invitation letters sent, 94 answered all questions in the first round (105 answered at least one question), and 23 of those answered all questions in the second round. 10 of the 23 second round responses were at a discussion section at Asilomar, while the remaining were online. Means and standard deviations of responses from Round One and Two are given in Table 1 below. One main purpose of Delphi surveys is to reduce the variance in opinions through successive rounds of questioning. As shown in Table 1, the standard deviations of 25 of the 30 individual sub-questions decreased between Round One and Round Two, but the decrease was slight in most cases.

  5. An international marine-atmospheric 222Rn measurement intercomparison in Bermuda. Part 2: Results for the participating laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colle, R.; Unterweger, M.P.; Hutchinson, J.M.R.

    1996-01-01

    As part of an international measurement intercomparison of instruments used to measure atmospheric 222 Rn, four participating laboratories made nearly simultaneous measurements of 222 Rn activity concentration in commonly sampled, ambient air over approximately a 2 week period, and three of these four laboratories participated in the measurement comparison of 14 introduced samples with known, but undisclosed (blind) 222 Rn activity concentration. The exercise was conducted in Bermuda in October 1991. The 222 Rn activity concentrations in ambient Bermudian air over the course of the intercomparison ranged from a few hundredths of a Bq · m -3 to about 2 Bq · m -3 , while the standardized sample additions covered a range from approximately 2.5 Bq · m -3 to 35 Bq · m -3 . The overall uncertainty in the latter concentrations was in the general range of 10%, approximating a 3 standard deviation uncertainty interval. The results of the intercomparison indicated that two of the laboratories were within very good agreement with the standard additions, and almost within expected statistical variations. These same two laboratories, however, at lower ambient concentrations, exhibited a systematic difference with an averaged offset of roughly 0.3 Bq · m -3 . The third laboratory participating in the measurement of standardized sample additions was systematically low by about 65% to 70%, with respect to the standard addition which was also confirmed in their ambient air concentration measurements. The fourth laboratory, participating in only the ambient measurement part of the intercomparison, was also systematically low by at least 40% with respect to the first two laboratories

  6. k-Means Clustering with Hölder Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank; Sun, Ke; Marchand-Maillet, Sté phane

    2017-01-01

    We introduced two novel classes of Hölder divergences and Hölder pseudo-divergences that are both invariant to rescaling, and that both encapsulate the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence and the skew Bhattacharyya divergences. We review the elementary concepts of those parametric divergences, and perform a clustering analysis on two synthetic datasets. It is shown experimentally that the symmetrized Hölder divergences consistently outperform significantly the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence in clustering tasks.

  7. k-Means Clustering with Hölder Divergences

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-10-24

    We introduced two novel classes of Hölder divergences and Hölder pseudo-divergences that are both invariant to rescaling, and that both encapsulate the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence and the skew Bhattacharyya divergences. We review the elementary concepts of those parametric divergences, and perform a clustering analysis on two synthetic datasets. It is shown experimentally that the symmetrized Hölder divergences consistently outperform significantly the Cauchy-Schwarz divergence in clustering tasks.

  8. Robust Covariance Estimators Based on Information Divergences and Riemannian Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiang Hua

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a class of covariance estimators based on information divergences in heterogeneous environments. In particular, the problem of covariance estimation is reformulated on the Riemannian manifold of Hermitian positive-definite (HPD matrices. The means associated with information divergences are derived and used as the estimators. Without resorting to the complete knowledge of the probability distribution of the sample data, the geometry of the Riemannian manifold of HPD matrices is considered in mean estimators. Moreover, the robustness of mean estimators is analyzed using the influence function. Simulation results indicate the robustness and superiority of an adaptive normalized matched filter with our proposed estimators compared with the existing alternatives.

  9. Zimmermann's forest formula, infrared divergences and the QCD beta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Herzog

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We review Zimmermann's forest formula, which solves Bogoliubov's recursive R-operation for the subtraction of ultraviolet divergences in perturbative Quantum Field Theory. We further discuss a generalisation of the R-operation which subtracts besides ultraviolet also Euclidean infrared divergences. This generalisation, which goes under the name of the R⁎-operation, can be used efficiently to compute renormalisation constants. We will discuss several results obtained by this method with focus on the QCD beta function at five loops as well as the application to hadronic Higgs boson decay rates at N4LO. This article summarizes a talk given at the Wolfhart Zimmermann Memorial Symposium.

  10. Divergence of gene body DNA methylation and evolution of plant duplicate genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available It has been shown that gene body DNA methylation is associated with gene expression. However, whether and how deviation of gene body DNA methylation between duplicate genes can influence their divergence remains largely unexplored. Here, we aim to elucidate the potential role of gene body DNA methylation in the fate of duplicate genes. We identified paralogous gene pairs from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica genomes and reprocessed their single-base resolution methylome data. We show that methylation in paralogous genes nonlinearly correlates with several gene properties including exon number/gene length, expression level and mutation rate. Further, we demonstrated that divergence of methylation level and pattern in paralogs indeed positively correlate with their sequence and expression divergences. This result held even after controlling for other confounding factors known to influence the divergence of paralogs. We observed that methylation level divergence might be more relevant to the expression divergence of paralogs than methylation pattern divergence. Finally, we explored the mechanisms that might give rise to the divergence of gene body methylation in paralogs. We found that exonic methylation divergence more closely correlates with expression divergence than intronic methylation divergence. We show that genomic environments (e.g., flanked by transposable elements and repetitive sequences of paralogs generated by various duplication mechanisms are associated with the methylation divergence of paralogs. Overall, our results suggest that the changes in gene body DNA methylation could provide another avenue for duplicate genes to develop differential expression patterns and undergo different evolutionary fates in plant genomes.

  11. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Compliance Based on Poroelastic Theory - Part II: Results of Numerical and Experimental Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ding; Ding, Pin-bo; Ba, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In Part I, a dynamic fracture compliance model (DFCM) was derived based on the poroelastic theory. The normal compliance of fractures is frequency-dependent and closely associated with the connectivity of porous media. In this paper, we first compare the DFCM with previous fractured media theories in the literature in a full frequency range. Furthermore, experimental tests are performed on synthetic rock specimens, and the DFCM is compared with the experimental data in the ultrasonic frequency band. Synthetic rock specimens saturated with water have more realistic mineral compositions and pore structures relative to previous works in comparison with natural reservoir rocks. The fracture/pore geometrical and physical parameters can be controlled to replicate approximately those of natural rocks. P- and S-wave anisotropy characteristics with different fracture and pore properties are calculated and numerical results are compared with experimental data. Although the measurement frequency is relatively high, the results of DFCM are appropriate for explaining the experimental data. The characteristic frequency of fluid pressure equilibration calculated based on the specimen parameters is not substantially less than the measurement frequency. In the dynamic fracture model, the wave-induced fluid flow behavior is an important factor for the fracture-wave interaction process, which differs from the models at the high-frequency limits, for instance, Hudson's un-relaxed model.

  12. Performance specifications for health physics instrumentation: portable instrumentation for use in normal work environments. Part 2. Test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenoyer, J.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Selby, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated a draft American National Standards Institute Standard N42.17 (ANSI N42.17) on performance specifications for health physics instrumentation through a project jointly funded by the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The evaluation involved testing a representative cross section of instruments against criteria in the standard. This report presents results of the testing program. A brief history of the project is included in the introduction. The instrumentation tested is described in general terms (i.e., types, ranges); however, no direct relationship between the results and a specific instrument model is made in this report. Testing requirements in ANSI N42.17D4, Revision 1 (May 1985) are summarized and the methods by which the tests are performed are discussed. Brief descriptions of the testing equipment are included in the methods section of the report. More detailed information about the draft standard, testing requirements and procedures, and the test equipment is included in ''Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation - Portable Instrumentation for Use in Normal Work Environments, Part 1: Manual of Testing Procedures.'' Results of testing are given in two formats: test-by-test and instrument-by-instrument. Discussion is included on significant and interesting findings, on comparisons of results from the same type of instruments from same and different manufacturers, and on data grouped by manufacturer. Conclusions are made on the applicability and practicality of the proposed standard and on instrument performance. Changes that have been made to the proposed standard based on findings of the testing program are listed and discussed. 22 refs., 11 figs., 77 tabs

  13. Lexicographic presentation of grammatical divergence in Sesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relying on existing insights from the field of theoretical lexicography this article gives an innovative application to the relation of divergence by introducing the notion of grammatical divergence. In bilingual dictionaries with English and Sesotho sa Leboa as language pair lexicographers are confronted with a real challenge ...

  14. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissy, A. Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J. H.; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M. G.; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K.; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L.; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J. L.; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L.; Lee, John J. Y.; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C.; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K. A.; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y.; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D.; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C.; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E.; Fults, Daniel W.; Walter, Andrew W.; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V. Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Garvin, James H.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E.; Tirapelli, Daniela P. C.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R.; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Clifford, Steven C.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Cooper, Michael K.; Packer, Roger J.; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Weiss, William A.; Collier, Lara S.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T. W.; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Largaespada, David A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A.; Taylor, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon–driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with ‘humanized’ in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213

  15. When probabilistic seismic hazard climbs volcanoes: the Mt. Etna case, Italy - Part 2: Computational implementation and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzza, Laura; Azzaro, Raffaele; Gee, Robin; D'Amico, Salvatore; Langer, Horst; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Pace, Bruno; Pagani, Marco; Panzera, Francesco; Ordaz, Mario; Suarez, Miguel Leonardo; Tusa, Giuseppina

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the model implementation and presents results of a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) for the Mt. Etna volcanic region in Sicily, Italy, considering local volcano-tectonic earthquakes. Working in a volcanic region presents new challenges not typically faced in standard PSHA, which are broadly due to the nature of the local volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the cone shape of the volcano and the attenuation properties of seismic waves in the volcanic region. These have been accounted for through the development of a seismic source model that integrates data from different disciplines (historical and instrumental earthquake datasets, tectonic data, etc.; presented in Part 1, by Azzaro et al., 2017) and through the development and software implementation of original tools for the computation, such as a new ground-motion prediction equation and magnitude-scaling relationship specifically derived for this volcanic area, and the capability to account for the surficial topography in the hazard calculation, which influences source-to-site distances. Hazard calculations have been carried out after updating the most recent releases of two widely used PSHA software packages (CRISIS, as in Ordaz et al., 2013; the OpenQuake engine, as in Pagani et al., 2014). Results are computed for short- to mid-term exposure times (10 % probability of exceedance in 5 and 30 years, Poisson and time dependent) and spectral amplitudes of engineering interest. A preliminary exploration of the impact of site-specific response is also presented for the densely inhabited Etna's eastern flank, and the change in expected ground motion is finally commented on. These results do not account for M > 6 regional seismogenic sources which control the hazard at long return periods. However, by focusing on the impact of M risk reduction.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus and the oral part of the upper jaw. Comparison of treatment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hoshina, Masao; Shagdarsuren, M.; Hoshi, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Soji; Amagasa, Teruo

    1994-01-01

    The treatment results were compared in 77 patients with maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma (MC) and 53 patients with squamous cell carcinoma arising from the oral part of the upper law (OC). Both sets of patients received radiotherapy alone, or radiotherapy combined with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Computerized tomography was useful for the definition of the treatment volume. Intraarterial chemotherapy was given in 89 of 130 patients and in these patients the total radiation dose was reduced by about 10 Gy. No difference was found in the 5-year survival rate between the MC (65%) and the OC (66%) groups. The cumulative incidence of local failure was higher in MC (36%) than in OC (26%), whereas the ultimate incidence of neck node metastasis was higher in OC (43%) than in MC patients (18%). Half of the inoperable patients (9/18) were older than 80 years and had contraindications to anaesthesia and major surgery. The local recurrence rate was high in the inoperable MC patients (6/8). Contralateral simus cancers occurred in 4 patients in the MC group. (orig.)

  17. Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel; Garcia, Daniel; Dalcin, Lisandro; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.

  18. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Crispin Y.; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce ...

  19. First Things First...Our Children. Alberta Education's 93rd Annual Report and 4th Annual Results Report, 1997/1998--Part 1 and Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the Government Accountability Act. This annual report of the Ministry of Education contains the audited, consolidated financial statements of the ministry and offers a comparison of actual performance results with desired results set out in the…

  20. Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part II. Performance study and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Mistretta, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    reduction of ≈4 times relative to flat field CT. The dynamic range for the DBA prototype was 3.7 compared to 84.2 for the flat field scan. Conclusions: Based on the results presented in this paper and the companion paper [T. Szczykutowicz and C. Mistretta, “Design of a digital beam attenuation system for computed tomography. Part I. System design and simulation framework,” Med. Phys. 40, 021905 (2013)], FFMCT implemented via the DBA device seems feasible and should result in both a dose reduction and an improvement in image quality as judged by noise uniformity and scatter reduction. In addition, the dynamic range reduction achievable using the DBA may allow photon counting imaging to become a clinical reality. This study may allow for yet another step to be taken in the field of patient specific dose modulation.

  1. 78 FR 48414 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-900] Diamond Sawblades and Parts... Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY..., Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and...

  2. Limit sets and global dynamic for 2-D divergence-free vector fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzougui, H.

    2004-08-01

    T. Ma and S. Wang studied the global structure of regular divergence-free vector fields on compact surfaces with or without boundary. This paper extends their study to the general case of divergence-free vector fields (regular or not) on closed surfaces and gives as a consequence a simple proof of their results. (author)

  3. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  4. Removal of divergences in the problem of scattering of a particle beam by a medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'min, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    Scattering of a beam of particles (neutrons) by a medium is considered. After the averaging according to the statistical mechanics rules, the cross-section of the process is represented in the form of the series including many-particle distribution functions. The series describes the scattering processes of arbitrary multiplicity. Disconnected parts of the distribution functions give rise to divergences. A method of the re-summation of the original series is proposed, which removes all the divergences completely

  5. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 1. Building and sustaining capacity in laboratory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Ernst, Hiba; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Smith, Terry; Hedrick, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents, such as natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and industrial accidents, can occur suddenly and have high impact. However, they often occur at such a low frequency and in unpredictable locations that planning for the management of the consequences of a catastrophe can be difficult. For those catastrophes that result in the release of contaminants, the ability to analyze environmental samples is critical and contributes to the resilience of affected communities. Analyses of environmental samples are needed to make appropriate decisions about the course of action to restore the area affected by the contamination. Environmental samples range from soil, water, and air to vegetation, building materials, and debris. In addition, processes used to decontaminate any of these matrices may also generate wastewater and other materials that require analyses to determine the best course for proper disposal. This paper summarizes activities and programs the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has implemented to ensure capability and capacity for the analysis of contaminated environmental samples following catastrophic incidents. USEPA's focus has been on building capability for a wide variety of contaminant classes and on ensuring national laboratory capacity for potential surges in the numbers of samples that could quickly exhaust the resources of local communities. USEPA's efforts have been designed to ensure a strong and resilient laboratory infrastructure in the United States to support communities as they respond to contamination incidents of any magnitude. The efforts include not only addressing technical issues related to the best-available methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants, but also include addressing the challenges of coordination and administration of an efficient and effective response. Laboratory networks designed for responding to large scale contamination incidents can be sustained by applying

  6. Speciation in rapidly diverging systems: lessons from Lake Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, P D; Kocher, T D

    2001-05-01

    Rapid evolutionary radiations provide insight into the fundamental processes involved in species formation. Here we examine the diversification of one such group, the cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, which have radiated from a single ancestor into more than 400 species over the past 700 000 years. The phylogenetic history of this group suggests: (i) that their divergence has proceeded in three major bursts of cladogenesis; and (ii) that different selective forces have dominated each cladogenic event. The first episode resulted in the divergence of two major lineages, the sand- and rock-dwellers, each adapted to a major benthic macrohabitat. Among the rock-dwellers, competition for trophic resources then drove a second burst of cladogenesis, which resulted in the differentiation of trophic morphology. The third episode of cladogenesis is associated with differentiation of male nuptial colouration, most likely in response to divergent sexual selection. We discuss models of speciation in relation to this observed pattern. We advocate a model, divergence with gene flow, which reconciles the disparate selective forces responsible for the diversification of this group and suggest that the nonadaptive nature of the tertiary episode has significantly contributed to the extraordinary species richness of this group.

  7. Transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) enhances divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; Ritter, Simone M; Steenbergen, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Creativity is one of the most important cognitive skills in our complex and fast-changing world. Previous correlative evidence showed that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in divergent but not convergent thinking. In the current study, a placebo/sham-controlled, randomized between-group design was used to test a causal relation between vagus nerve and creativity. We employed transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), a novel non-invasive brain stimulation technique to stimulate afferent fibers of the vagus nerve and speculated to increase GABA levels, in 80 healthy young volunteers. Creative performance was assessed in terms of divergent thinking (Alternate Uses Task) and convergent thinking tasks (Remote Associates Test, Creative Problem Solving Task, Idea Selection Task). Results demonstrate active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation, enhanced divergent thinking. Bayesian analysis reported the data to be inconclusive regarding a possible effect of tVNS on convergent thinking. Therefore, our findings corroborate the idea that the vagus nerve is causally involved in creative performance. Even thought we did not directly measure GABA levels, our results suggest that GABA (likely to be increased in active tVNS condition) supports the ability to select among competing options in high selection demand (divergent thinking) but not in low selection demand (convergent thinking). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A

    2015-12-01

    Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce consistent flowering time responses among species; for example, how often do water restriction and herbivory both delay flowering? We focus on the direction of change in flowering time, which affects the potential for divergence in heterogeneous environments. We also tested whether these stressors influenced time to flowering and nonphenology traits using Mimulus guttatus. The literature review suggests that water restriction has variable effects on flowering time, whereas herbivory delays flowering with exceptional consistency. In the Mimulus experiment, low water and herbivory advanced and delayed flowering, respectively. Overall, our results temper theoretical predictions for evolutionary divergence due to habitat-induced changes in flowering time; in particular, we discuss how accounting for variation in the direction of change in flowering time can either increase or decrease the potential for divergence. In addition, we caution against adaptive interpretations of stress-induced phenology shifts.

  9. Two New Measures of Fuzzy Divergence and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Parkash

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Several measures of directed divergence and their corresponding measures of fuzzy divergence are available in the exiting literature. Two new measures of fuzzy divergence have been developed and their desirable properties have been discussed.

  10. 76 FR 57019 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results of Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...On August 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 45778 (August 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). Because no domestic interested party filed a notice of intent to participate in response to the notice of initiation of the sunset reviews by the applicable deadline, the Department is revoking the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy.

  11. GENDER-BASED DIFFERENCES IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S DIVERGENT THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Roue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the shortage of females in science and engineering is linked to possible gender-based differences in school-aged children’s divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a direct measure of creativity and an important characteristic in science and engineering. A survey instrument designed to measure divergent thinking was administered to 8th and 11th graders in a mid-western United States school district. Results showed that there were no difference between girls and boys on the three measures of divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, and originality. These results indicate little reason as to why participation in science and engineering is male dominated, and support the notion that additional exposure to science and engineering through divergent-thinking activities will provide girls with the self-knowledge that they are capable of solving open-ended problems and engineering tasks.

  12. A New Study of Two Divergence Metrics for Change Detection in Data Streams

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim Ali Ali; Wang, Suojin; Carroll, Raymond; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    Streaming data are dynamic in nature with frequent changes. To detect such changes, most methods measure the difference between the data distributions in a current time window and a reference window. Divergence metrics and density estimation are required to measure the difference between the data distributions. Our study shows that the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, the most popular metric for comparing distributions, fails to detect certain changes due to its asymmetric property and its dependence on the variance of the data. We thus consider two metrics for detecting changes in univariate data streams: a symmetric KL-divergence and a divergence metric measuring the intersection area of two distributions. The experimental results show that these two metrics lead to more accurate results in change detection than baseline methods such as Change Finder and using conventional KL-divergence.

  13. A New Study of Two Divergence Metrics for Change Detection in Data Streams

    KAUST Repository

    Qahtan, Abdulhakim Ali Ali

    2014-08-01

    Streaming data are dynamic in nature with frequent changes. To detect such changes, most methods measure the difference between the data distributions in a current time window and a reference window. Divergence metrics and density estimation are required to measure the difference between the data distributions. Our study shows that the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence, the most popular metric for comparing distributions, fails to detect certain changes due to its asymmetric property and its dependence on the variance of the data. We thus consider two metrics for detecting changes in univariate data streams: a symmetric KL-divergence and a divergence metric measuring the intersection area of two distributions. The experimental results show that these two metrics lead to more accurate results in change detection than baseline methods such as Change Finder and using conventional KL-divergence.

  14. Useful life test results of compact fluorescent lamps. Part 1; Resultados de las pruebas de vida til a lamparas fluorescentes compactas del proyecto Ilumex. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, A.; Vargas Nieto, E. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained in the Laboratory in testing the useful life of the compact fluorescent lights supplied by the winners of the first bidding called for the project ILUMEX, and offered to users in the domestic sector of the Jalisco and Nuevo Leon states. Also, the lightning flux in different stages of the lamp`s useful life is shown. It is worthwhile to mention that this is the first time tests of this type are conducted in the Federal District`s Laboratory of Public Lightning. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos del laboratorio de pruebas de vida util a las lamparas fluorescentes compactas ganadoras de la primera licitacion del proyecto ILUMEX, ofrecidas a los usuarios del sector domstico de los estados de Jalisco y Nuevo Leon. Asimismo, se indican los flujos luminosos a diferentes etapas de la vida util de las lamparas. Cabe hacer notar que es la primera ocasion que se realizan este tipo de pruebas en el Laboratorio de Alumbrado Publico del Departamento del Distrito Federal.

  15. Useful life test results of compact fluorescent lamps. Part 1; Resultados de las pruebas de vida til a lamparas fluorescentes compactas del proyecto Ilumex. Parte 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera Negrete, A; Vargas Nieto, E [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the results obtained in the Laboratory in testing the useful life of the compact fluorescent lights supplied by the winners of the first bidding called for the project ILUMEX, and offered to users in the domestic sector of the Jalisco and Nuevo Leon states. Also, the lightning flux in different stages of the lamp`s useful life is shown. It is worthwhile to mention that this is the first time tests of this type are conducted in the Federal District`s Laboratory of Public Lightning. [Espanol] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos del laboratorio de pruebas de vida util a las lamparas fluorescentes compactas ganadoras de la primera licitacion del proyecto ILUMEX, ofrecidas a los usuarios del sector domstico de los estados de Jalisco y Nuevo Leon. Asimismo, se indican los flujos luminosos a diferentes etapas de la vida util de las lamparas. Cabe hacer notar que es la primera ocasion que se realizan este tipo de pruebas en el Laboratorio de Alumbrado Publico del Departamento del Distrito Federal.

  16. Treatment of divergent expansions in scattering theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersten, A.; Malin, S.

    1978-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles in applying quantum field theory to realistic scattering problems are the divergencies of pertubation expansions for large coupling constants and the divergencies of partial wave expansions for massless particles exchanges. There exist, however, methods of summation of the divergent expansions which can lead to significant application in physics. In this paper we treat the problem of summing such expansions using three methods: (i) a generalization of the Pade approximation to the multivariable case. The suggested definition is unique and preserves unitarity. (ii) The summation of divergent partial waves for arbitrary spins. (iii) A successful application of a series inversion to the 3 P 1 nucleon-nucleon phase shift up to 200 MeV. (orig./WL) [de

  17. Divergence and convergence in nutrition science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penders, Bart; Spruit, Shannon L.; Sikkema, Jan; Maat, Jan; Schuurbiers, Daan

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we

  18. Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biern, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: sgbiern@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-01

    Measurements of the luminosity distance have played a key role in discovering the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, when accounting for inhomogeneities in the Universe, its interpretation has been plagued with infrared divergences in its theoretical predictions, which are in some cases used to explain the cosmic acceleration without dark energy. The infrared divergences in most calculations are artificially removed by imposing an infrared cut-off scale. We show that a gauge-invariant calculation of the luminosity distance is devoid of such divergences and consistent with the equivalence principle, eliminating the need to impose a cut-off scale. We present proper numerical calculations of the luminosity distance using the gauge-invariant expression and demonstrate that the numerical results with an ad hoc cut-off scale in previous calculations have negligible systematic errors as long as the cut-off scale is larger than the horizon scale. We discuss the origin of infrared divergences and their cancellation in the luminosity distance.

  19. Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biern, Sang Gyu; Yoo, Jaiyul

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the luminosity distance have played a key role in discovering the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, when accounting for inhomogeneities in the Universe, its interpretation has been plagued with infrared divergences in its theoretical predictions, which are in some cases used to explain the cosmic acceleration without dark energy. The infrared divergences in most calculations are artificially removed by imposing an infrared cut-off scale. We show that a gauge-invariant calculation of the luminosity distance is devoid of such divergences and consistent with the equivalence principle, eliminating the need to impose a cut-off scale. We present proper numerical calculations of the luminosity distance using the gauge-invariant expression and demonstrate that the numerical results with an ad hoc cut-off scale in previous calculations have negligible systematic errors as long as the cut-off scale is larger than the horizon scale. We discuss the origin of infrared divergences and their cancellation in the luminosity distance.

  20. Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel

    2014-06-06

    We discretized the two-dimensional linear momentum, microrotation, energy and mass conservation equations from micropolar fluids theory, with the finite element method, creating divergence conforming spaces based on B-spline basis functions to obtain pointwise divergence free solutions [8]. Weak boundary conditions were imposed using Nitsche\\'s method for tangential conditions, while normal conditions were imposed strongly. Once the exact mass conservation was provided by the divergence free formulation, we focused on evaluating the differences between micropolar fluids and conventional fluids, to show the advantages of using the micropolar fluid model to capture the features of complex fluids. A square and an arc heat driven cavities were solved as test cases. A variation of the parameters of the model, along with the variation of Rayleigh number were performed for a better understanding of the system. The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.

  1. Island biology and morphological divergence of the Skyros wall lizard Podarcis gaigeae: a combined role for local selection and genetic drift on color morph frequency divergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runemark Anna

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of spatial variation in discrete phenotypic traits can be used to draw inferences about the adaptive significance of traits and evolutionary processes, especially when compared to patterns of neutral genetic variation. Population divergence in adaptive traits such as color morphs can be influenced by both local ecology and stochastic factors such as genetic drift or founder events. Here, we use quantitative color measurements of males and females of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae, to demonstrate that this species is polymorphic with respect to throat color, and the morphs form discrete phenotypic clusters with limited overlap between categories. We use divergence in throat color morph frequencies and compare that to neutral genetic variation to infer the evolutionary processes acting on islet- and mainland populations. Results Geographically close islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard exhibit strong divergence in throat color morph frequencies. Population variation in throat color morph frequencies between islets was higher than that between mainland populations, and the effective population sizes on the islets were small (Ne:s ST for throat color morph frequencies fell within the neutral FST-distribution estimated from microsatellite markers, and genetic drift could thus not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern. Moreover, for both comparisons among mainland-mainland population pairs and between mainland-islet population pairs, morph frequency divergence was significantly correlated with neutral divergence, further pointing to some role for genetic drift in divergence also at the phenotypic level of throat color morphs. Conclusions Genetic drift could not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern of population divergence in morph frequencies. In spite of an expected stabilising selection, throat color frequencies diverged in the islet populations. These results suggest that

  2. Site characterization and validation - Tracer migration experiment in the validation drift, report 2, part 1: performed experiments, results and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birgersson, L.; Widen, H.; Aagren, T.; Neretnieks, I.; Moreno, L.

    1992-01-01

    This report is the second of the two reports describing the tracer migration experiment where water and tracer flow has been monitored in a drift at the 385 m level in the Stripa experimental mine. The tracer migration experiment is one of a large number of experiments performed within the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project. The upper part of the 50 m long validation drift was covered with approximately 150 plastic sheets, in which the emerging water was collected. The water emerging into the lower part of the drift was collected in short boreholes, sumpholes. Sex different tracer mixtures were injected at distances between 10 and 25 m from the drift. The flowrate and tracer monitoring continued for ten months. Tracer breakthrough curves and flowrate distributions were used to study flow paths, velocities, hydraulic conductivities, dispersivities, interaction with the rock matrix and channelling effects within the rock. The present report describes the structure of the observations, the flowrate measurements and estimated hydraulic conductivities. The main part of this report addresses the interpretation of the tracer movement in fractured rock. The tracer movement as measured by the more than 150 individual tracer curves has been analysed with the traditional advection-dispersion model and a subset of the curves with the advection-dispersion-diffusion model. The tracer experiments have permitted the flow porosity, dispersion and interaction with the rock matrix to be studied. (57 refs.)

  3. On the absence of large-order divergences in superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.

    2003-01-01

    The genus-dependence of multi-loop superstring amplitudes is estimated at large orders in perturbation theory using the super-Schottky group parameterization of supermoduli space. Restriction of the integration region to a subset of supermoduli space and a single fundamental domain of the super-modular group suggests an exponential dependence on the genus. Upper bounds for these estimates are obtained for arbitrary N-point superstring scattering amplitudes and are shown to be consistent with exact results obtained for special type II string amplitudes for orbifold or Calabi-Yau compactifications. The genus-dependence is then obtained by considering the effect of the remaining contribution to the superstring amplitudes after the coefficients of the formally divergent parts of the integrals vanish as a result of a sum over spin structures. The introduction of supersymmetry therefore leads to the elimination of large-order divergences in string perturbation theory, a result which is based only on the supersymmetric generalization of the Polyakov measure and not the gauge group of the string model. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Adaptation to different climates results in divergent phenotypic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The phenotypic plasticity of wing size and wing shape of Zaprionus indianus was ... C) in two natural populations living under different climates, equatorial and ... size and shape in an invasive drosophilid. J. Genet. 87, 209–217]. Introduction.

  5. Remarkable ancient divergences amongst neglected lorisiform primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekaris, K. Anne‐Isola; Perkin, Andrew; Bearder, Simon K.; Pimley, Elizabeth R.; Schulze, Helga; Streicher, Ulrike; Nadler, Tilo; Kitchener, Andrew; Zischler, Hans; Zinner, Dietmar; Roos, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Lorisiform primates (Primates: Strepsirrhini: Lorisiformes) represent almost 10% of the living primate species and are widely distributed in sub‐Saharan Africa and South/South‐East Asia; however, their taxonomy, evolutionary history, and biogeography are still poorly understood. In this study we report the largest molecular phylogeny in terms of the number of represented taxa. We sequenced the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene for 86 lorisiform specimens, including ∼80% of all the species currently recognized. Our results support the monophyly of the Galagidae, but a common ancestry of the Lorisinae and Perodicticinae (family Lorisidae) was not recovered. These three lineages have early origins, with the Galagidae and the Lorisinae diverging in the Oligocene at about 30 Mya and the Perodicticinae emerging in the early Miocene. Our mitochondrial phylogeny agrees with recent studies based on nuclear data, and supports Euoticus as the oldest galagid lineage and the polyphyletic status of Galagoides. Moreover, we have elucidated phylogenetic relationships for several species never included before in a molecular phylogeny. The results obtained in this study suggest that lorisiform diversity remains substantially underestimated and that previously unnoticed cryptic diversity might be present within many lineages, thus urgently requiring a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this primate group. © 2015 The Linnean Society of London PMID:26900177

  6. RECONCILIATION OF LANGUAGE VERSIONS WITH DIVERGING MEANINGS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura-Cristiana SPĂTARU-NEGURĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As emphasized in a study published last year, when multiple legal orders and languages co-exist within a single legal regime, there is potential for divergences between the legal texts. The European Union gives rise to such divergences, having in mind that it integrates 28 Member States and 24 official languages. After discovering how the multilingual and multicultural environment of the European Union affects its legislative and judicial processes and arguing the problem of translation divergences between the authentic texts of the European Union, it is nowadays our concern to analyse the reconciliation of language versions with diverging meanings in the EU legal order. The present study is part of a more complex research on this theme and it is meant to approach certain important points of the master thesis prepared in Switzerland for a LL.M. program.

  7. PHIPS-HALO: the airborne particle habit imaging and polar scattering probe - Part 2: Characterization and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaiter, Martin; Järvinen, Emma; Abdelmonem, Ahmed; Leisner, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The novel aircraft optical cloud probe PHIPS-HALO has been developed to establish clarity regarding the fundamental link between the microphysical properties of single atmospheric ice particles and their appropriated angular light scattering function. After final improvements were implemented in the polar nephelometer part and the acquisition software of PHIPS-HALO, the instrument was comprehensively characterized in the laboratory and was deployed in two aircraft missions targeting cirrus and Arctic mixed-phase clouds. This work demonstrates the proper function of the instrument under aircraft conditions and highlights the uniqueness, quality, and limitations of the data that can be expected from PHIPS-HALO in cloud-related aircraft missions.

  8. Propagation of whistler-mode chorus to low altitudes: divergent ray trajectories and ground accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chum

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ray trajectories of nonductedly propagating lower-band chorus waves with respect to their initial angle θ0, between the wave vector and ambient magnetic field. Although we consider a wide range of initial angles θ0, in order to be consistent with recent satellite observations, we pay special attention to the intervals of initial angles θ0, for which the waves propagate along the field lines in the source region, i.e. we mainly focus on waves generated with &theta0 within an interval close to 0° and on waves generated within an interval close to the Gendrin angle. We demonstrate that the ray trajectories of waves generated within an interval close to the Gendrin angle with a wave vector directed towards the lower L-shells (to the Earth significantly diverge at the frequencies typical for the lower-band chorus. Some of these diverging trajectories reach the topside ionosphere having θ close to 0°; thus, a part of the energy may leak to the ground at higher altitudes where the field lines have a nearly vertical direction. The waves generated with different initial angles are reflected. A small variation of the initial wave normal angle thus very dramatically changes the behaviour of the resulting ray. Although our approach is rather theoretical, based on the ray tracing simulation, we show that the initial angle θ0 of the waves reaching the ionosphere (possibly ground is surprisingly close - differs just by several degrees from the initial angles which fits the observation of magnetospherically reflected chorus revealed by CLUSTER satellites. We also mention observations of diverging trajectories on low altitude satellites.

  9. Properties of classical and quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Briët (Jop); P. Harremoës (Peter)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractJensen-Shannon divergence (JD) is a symmetrized and smoothed version of the most important divergence measure of information theory, Kullback divergence. As opposed to Kullback divergence it determines in a very direct way a metric; indeed, it is the square of a metric. We consider a

  10. Divergence with gene flow across a speciation continuum of Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supple, Megan A; Papa, Riccardo; Hines, Heather M; McMillan, W Owen; Counterman, Brian A

    2015-09-24

    A key to understanding the origins of species is determining the evolutionary processes that drive the patterns of genomic divergence during speciation. New genomic technologies enable the study of high-resolution genomic patterns of divergence across natural speciation continua, where taxa pairs with different levels of reproductive isolation can be used as proxies for different stages of speciation. Empirical studies of these speciation continua can provide valuable insights into how genomes diverge during speciation. We examine variation across a handful of genomic regions in parapatric and allopatric populations of Heliconius butterflies with varying levels of reproductive isolation. Genome sequences were mapped to 2.2-Mb of the H. erato genome, including 1-Mb across the red color pattern locus and multiple regions unlinked to color pattern variation. Phylogenetic analyses reveal a speciation continuum of pairs of hybridizing races and incipient species in the Heliconius erato clade. Comparisons of hybridizing pairs of divergently colored races and incipient species reveal that genomic divergence increases with ecological and reproductive isolation, not only across the locus responsible for adaptive variation in red wing coloration, but also at genomic regions unlinked to color pattern. We observe high levels of divergence between the incipient species H. erato and H. himera, suggesting that divergence may accumulate early in the speciation process. Comparisons of genomic divergence between the incipient species and allopatric races suggest that limited gene flow cannot account for the observed high levels of divergence between the incipient species. Our results provide a reconstruction of the speciation continuum across the H. erato clade and provide insights into the processes that drive genomic divergence during speciation, establishing the H. erato clade as a powerful framework for the study of speciation.

  11. Study on strength of thick reinforced concrete slab with opening - Part 2: Evaluation of the test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, T.; Itoh, M.; Takei, K.; Kanazu, T.; Abe, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Hayashi, N.; Sasaki, N.

    1993-01-01

    In comparing the strength of the partial models obtained from the test and the strength calculated by the various formulas for short span cantilevers based on recent research, it was found that the strength of the partial models coincided well with the calculated bending strength. It was confirmed that bending failure also preceded in the overall model from the tests. However various strengths such as the cracking strength and the yielding strength of rebars were larger, and displacements and strains in various parts were smaller than those in the partial models. It was attributed to the effects of circumferential distribution of the load. A convenient method was proposed for evaluation of the strength of the overall model. In this method, the overall model is divided into corbels, and the strength of the model is calculated as the sum of these corbels' strength. This method estimated the strength conveniently and conservatively. (author)

  12. Ion divergence in magnetically insulated diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutz, S.A.; Lemke, R.W.; Pointon, T.D.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Johnson, D.J.; Mehlhorn, T.A.; Filuk, A.; Bailey, J.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetically insulated ion diodes are being developed to drive inertial confinement fusion. Ion beam microdivergence must be reduced to achieve the very high beam intensities required to achieve this goal. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations indicate that instability induced fluctuations can produce significant ion divergence during acceleration. These simulations exhibit a fast growing mode early in time, which has been identified as the diocotron instability. The divergence generated by this mode is modest due to the relatively high frequency (>1GHz). Later, a low-frequency low-phase-velocity instability develops. This instability couples effectively to the ions, since the frequency is approximately the reciprocal of the ion transit time, and can generate unacceptably large ion divergences (>30 mrad). Linear stability theory reveals that this mode requires perturbations parallel to the applied magnetic field and is related to the modified two stream instability. Measurements of ion density fluctuations and energy-momentum correlations have confirmed that instabilities develop in ion diodes and contribute to the ion divergence. In addition, spectroscopic measurements indicate that the ions have a significant transverse temperature very close to the emission surface. Passive lithium fluoride (LiF) anodes have larger transverse beam temperatures than laser irradiated active sources. Calculations of source divergence expected from the roughness of LiF surfaces and the possible removal of this layer is presented

  13. Diverging responses of tropical Andean biomes under future climate conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Tovar

    Full Text Available Observations and projections for mountain regions show a strong tendency towards upslope displacement of their biomes under future climate conditions. Because of their climatic and topographic heterogeneity, a more complex response is expected for biodiversity hotspots such as tropical mountain regions. This study analyzes potential changes in the distribution of biomes in the Tropical Andes and identifies target areas for conservation. Biome distribution models were developed using logistic regressions. These models were then coupled to an ensemble of 8 global climate models to project future distribution of the Andean biomes and their uncertainties. We analysed projected changes in extent and elevational range and identified regions most prone to change. Our results show a heterogeneous response to climate change. Although the wetter biomes exhibit an upslope displacement of both the upper and the lower boundaries as expected, most dry biomes tend to show downslope expansion. Despite important losses being projected for several biomes, projections suggest that between 74.8% and 83.1% of the current total Tropical Andes will remain stable, depending on the emission scenario and time horizon. Between 3.3% and 7.6% of the study area is projected to change, mostly towards an increase in vertical structure. For the remaining area (13.1%-17.4%, there is no agreement between model projections. These results challenge the common believe that climate change will lead to an upslope displacement of biome boundaries in mountain regions. Instead, our models project diverging responses, including downslope expansion and large areas projected to remain stable. Lastly, a significant part of the area expected to change is already affected by land use changes, which has important implications for management. This, and the inclusion of a comprehensive uncertainty analysis, will help to inform conservation strategies in the Tropical Andes, and to guide similar

  14. The divergence theorem for divergence measure vectorfields on sets with fractal boundaries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 5 (2009), s. 445-455 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : divergence measure vectorfields * fractal s * divergence theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.065, year: 2009

  15. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  16. Divergence of Cs-137 sources fluence used in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianello, E.A.; Almeida, C.E. de

    1998-01-01

    In this work the experimental determination of correction factor for fluence divergence (kln) of linear Cs-137 sources CDCS J4, with Farmer ionization chamber model 2571 in a central and perpendicular plan to source axis, for distances range from 1 to 7 cm., has been presented. The experimental results were compared to calculating by Kondo and Randolph (1960) isotropic theory and Bielajew (1990) anisotropic theory. (Author)

  17. Divergence, recombination and retention of functionality during protein evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Yanlong O

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have only a vague idea of precisely how protein sequences evolve in the context of protein structure and function. This is primarily because structural and functional contexts are not easily predictable from the primary sequence, and evaluating patterns of evolution at individual residue positions is also difficult. As a result of increasing biodiversity in genomics studies, progress is being made in detecting context-dependent variation in substitution processes, but it remains unclear exactly what context-dependent patterns we should be looking for. To address this, we have been simulating protein evolution in the context of structure and function using lattice models of proteins and ligands (or substrates. These simulations include thermodynamic features of protein stability and population dynamics. We refer to this approach as 'ab initio evolution' to emphasise the fact that the equilibrium details of fitness distributions arise from the physical principles of the system and not from any preconceived notions or arbitrary mathematical distributions. Here, we present results on the retention of functionality in homologous recombinants following population divergence. A central result is that protein structure characteristics can strongly influence recombinant functionality. Exceptional structures with many sequence options evolve quickly and tend to retain functionality -- even in highly diverged recombinants. By contrast, the more common structures with fewer sequence options evolve more slowly, but the fitness of recombinants drops off rapidly as homologous proteins diverge. These results have implications for understanding viral evolution, speciation and directed evolutionary experiments. Our analysis of the divergence process can also guide improved methods for accurately approximating folding probabilities in more complex but realistic systems.

  18. 78 FR 36744 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... management, production facilities, supplier relationships, and customer base.\\5\\ While no single factor or... significant changes to management, production facilities, supplier relationships, and customers. As a result..., production facilities, and customer/ supplier relationships have not changed as a result of the name change...

  19. 76 FR 36083 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... financial statement of Rexello Castors Private, Ltd., for calculating financial ratios; We revised our... (January 14, 2011) (Preliminary Results). Based upon our analysis of the comments, we made changes to the margin calculations for the final results. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Fred Baker, Scott Hoefke, or...

  20. Vibhakti Divergence between Sanskrit and Hindi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Preeti; Shukl, Devanand; Kulkarni, Amba

    Translation divergence at various levels between languages arises due to the different conventions followed by different languages for coding the information of grammatical relations. Though Sanskrit and Hindi belong to the same Indo-Aryan family and structurally as well as lexically Hindi inherits a lot from Sanskrit, yet divergences are observed at the level of function words such as vibhaktis. Pāṇini in his Aṣṭādhyāyī has assigned a default vibhakti to kārakas alongwith many scopes for exceptions. He handles these exceptions either by imposing a new kāraka role or by assigning a special vibhakti. However, these methods are not acceptable in Hindi in toto. Based on the nature of deviation, we propose seven cases of divergences in this paper.

  1. Factor Structure and Validity of the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale: Results from the 1972 Psychology Today Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Frederick

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, the first major national study on body image was conducted under the auspices of Psychology Today. Body image was assessed with the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, which examined the dissatisfaction people experienced with 24 aspects of their bodies. Despite the continued reliance on this scale and reference to the study, data on the factor structure of this measure in a sample of adults have never been published, and citations of the original scale have relied on an unpublished manuscript (Bohrnstedt, 1977. An exploratory factor analysis conducted on 2,013 adults revealed factors for men (Face, Sex Organ, Height, Lower Body, Mid Torso, Upper Torso, Height and women (Face, Sex Organ, Height, Lower Torso, Mid Torso, Extremities, Breast. The factors were weakly to moderately intercorrelated, suggesting the scale can be analyzed by items, by subscales, or by total score. People who reported more dissatisfaction with their body also tended to report lower self-esteem and less comfort interacting with members of the other sex. The analyses provide a useful comparison point for researchers looking to examine gender differences in dissatisfaction with specific aspects of the body, as well as the factor structures linking these items.

  2. [Phylogeny and divergence time estimation of Schizothoracinae fishes in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayelhan, Haysa; Guo, Yan; Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Ma, Yanwu

    2014-10-01

    Based on combined data of mitochondrial COI, ND4 and 16S RNA genes, molecular phylogeny of 4 genera, 10 species or subspecies of Schizothoracinae fishes distributed in Xinjiang were analyzed. The molecular clock was calibrated by divergence time of Cyprininae and geological segregation event between the upper Yellow River and Qinghai Lake. Divergence time of Schizothoracinae fishes was calculated, and its relationship with the major geological events and the climate changes in surrounding areas of Tarim Basin was discussed. The results showed that genus Aspiorhynchus did not form an independent clade, but clustered with Schizothorax biddulphi and S. irregularis. Kimura 2-parameter model was used to calculate the genetic distance of COI gene, the genetic distance between genus Aspiorhynchus and Schizothorax did not reach genus level, and Aspiorhynchus laticeps might be a specialized species of genus Schizothorax. Cluster analysis showed a different result with morphological classification method, and it did not support the subgenus division of Schizothorax fishes. Divergence of two groups of primitive Schizothoracinae (8.18Ma) and divergence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Diptychus maculates (7.67Ma) occurred in late Miocene, which might be related with the separation of Kunlun Mountain and north Tianshan Mountain River system that was caused by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountain, and the aridification of Tarim Basin. The terrain of Tarim Basin that was affected by Quaternary Himalayan movement was high in west but low in east, as a result, Lop Nor became the center of surrounding mountain rivers in Tarim Basin, which shaped the distribution pattern of genus Schizothorax.

  3. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...

  4. Universal portfolios generated by the Bregman divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Choon Peng; Kuang, Kee Seng

    2017-04-01

    The Bregman divergence of two probability vectors is a stronger form of the f-divergence introduced by Csiszar. Two versions of the Bregman universal portfolio are presented by exploiting the mean-value theorem. The explicit form of the Bregman universal portfolio generated by a function of a convex polynomial is derived and studied empirically. This portfolio can be regarded as another generalized of the well-known Helmbold portfolio. By running the portfolios on selected stock-price data sets from the local stock exchange, it is shown that it is possible to increase the wealth of the investor by using the portfolios in investment.

  5. A measure of mutual divergence among a number of probability distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Kapur

    1987-01-01

    major inequalities due to Shannon, Renyi and Holder. The inequalities are then used to obtain some useful results in information theory. In particular measures are obtained to measure the mutual divergence among two or more probability distributions.

  6. Influence of Hydraulic Design on Stability and on Pressure Pulsations in Francis Turbines at Overload, Part Load and Deep Part Load based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Model Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnoli, M V; Maiwald, M

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines have been running more and more frequently in part load conditions, in order to satisfy the new market requirements for more dynamic and flexible energy generation, ancillary services and grid regulation. The turbines should be able to be operated for longer durations with flows below the optimum point, going from part load to deep part load and even speed-no-load. These operating conditions are characterised by important unsteady flow phenomena taking place at the draft tube cone and in the runner channels, in the respective cases of part load and deep part load. The current expectations are that new Francis turbines present appropriate hydraulic stability and moderate pressure pulsations at overload, part load, deep part load and speed-no-load with high efficiency levels at normal operating range. This study presents series of investigations performed by Voith Hydro with the objective to improve the hydraulic stability of Francis turbines at overload, part load and deep part load, reduce pressure pulsations and enlarge the know-how about the transient fluid flow through the turbine at these challenging conditions. Model test measurements showed that distinct runner designs were able to influence the pressure pulsation level in the machine. Extensive experimental investigations focused on the runner deflector geometry, on runner features and how they could reduce the pressure oscillation level. The impact of design variants and machine configurations on the vortex rope at the draft tube cone at overload and part load and on the runner channel vortex at deep part load were experimentally observed and evaluated based on the measured pressure pulsation amplitudes. Numerical investigations were employed for improving the understanding of such dynamic fluid flow effects. As example for the design and experimental investigations, model test observations and pressure pulsation curves for Francis machines in mid specific speed range, around n qopt = 50

  7. Convergence and divergence, a concept for explaining drug actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takehiko; Kamisaki, Yoshinori; Timmerman, Henk

    2004-10-01

    For the teaching and/or learning about drug actions and for the discovery and development of new drugs, it is important to understand how drugs act on living bodies. So far, there has been no clear description on the general principle of drug action in pharmacology textbooks. We propose two principles to depict the action mechanism of drugs. The first is that most, if not all, drugs act on proteins at the molecular level, that is, enzymes, receptors, ion channels, and transporters. The second is that a drug may cause divergent or convergent responses, resulting in changes of a physiological or pathological function of the human body. The concept of divergence and convergence can be used to explain the complex individuality of drug actions.

  8. 77 FR 73417 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011... have been calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because the PRC is a nonmarket economy...

  9. 78 FR 28801 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Integration (Xiamen) Co., Ltd. (New-Tec), and Cosco submitted rebuttal briefs. \\3\\ Cosco Home and Office... continues to find that New-Tec meets the criteria for a separate rate. Final Results of the Review The..., through November 30, 2011: Weighted- average Manufacturer/exporter margin (percent) New-Tec Integration...

  10. 76 FR 64898 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... Memorandum at Comment 7. \\6\\ See Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Final Results of Changed... percent solely under the assumption that the Department has policy concerns regarding large companies... B. Policy Concerns Regarding Large Companies Acquiring Smaller Companies C. Analysis of the Four...

  11. 77 FR 41744 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... calculation for New-Tec in these final results. We made the following changes: We used the 2009-10 financial statements of Office Thai Online Co., Ltd., and Jenbunjerd Co. Ltd. for calculating financial ratios; and We... 351.212(b)(1), we calculated importer-specific per unit duty assessment rates based on the ratio of...

  12. 76 FR 52937 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... programming and other errors in the margin calculations. Therefore, the final results are different from the... certain companies. We have corrected programming and other errors in the margins we included in the... Technologies GmbH; Italy--Schaeffler Italia S.r.l./WPB Water Pump Bearing GmbH & Co. KG/The Schaeffler Group...

  13. 78 FR 36524 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... conversions for expenses reported by Ehwa, adjusted certain programming language related to Ehwa's level of trade (LOT), and recalculated Ehwa's variable cost of manufacturing and production interest expense.\\6... Production As discussed in the Preliminary Results, we conducted an investigation to determine whether Ehwa...

  14. 75 FR 49467 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Taiwan: Preliminary Results and Rescission in Part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the product and produces useful combinations of hardness, strength, stiffness, and ductility... in the United States, including direct selling expenses (i.e., imputed credit expenses and bank fees... entire period). We recognize that distortions may result if we use our normal annual-average cost method...

  15. Development of a wind energy converter and investigation of its operational function. Part 4: Test setup and results of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, S.; Molly, J. P.

    1982-12-01

    Measurements made during test operations at the MODA.10 plant as well as at a 25 years old 6 kW wind energy converter are presented. The test arrangements, measurement results of both wind energy converters, and the experience gained are described.

  16. Flutter and divergence instability of supported piezoelectric nanotubes conveying fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaadini, Reza; Hosseini, Mohammad; Jamali, Behnam

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, divergence and flutter instabilities of supported piezoelectric nanotubes containing flowing fluid are investigated. To take the size effects into account, the nonlocal elasticity theory is implemented in conjunction with the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory incorporating surface stress effects. The Knudsen number is applied to investigate the slip boundary conditions between the flow and wall of nanotube. The nonlocal governing equations of nanotube are obtained using Newtonian method, including the influence of piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, Knudsen number and nonlocal parameter. Applying Galerkin approach to transform resulting equations into a set of eigenvalue equations under the simple-simple (S-S) and clamped-clamped (C-C) boundary conditions. The effects of the piezoelectric voltage, surface effects, Knudsen number, nonlocal parameter and boundary conditions on the divergence and flutter boundaries of nanotubes are discussed. It is observed that the fluid-conveying nanotubes with both ends supported lose their stability by divergence first and then by flutter with increase in fluid velocity. Results indicate the importance of using piezoelectric voltage, nonlocal parameter and Knudsen number in decrease of critical flow velocities of system. Moreover, the surface effects have a significant role on the eigenfrequencies and critical fluid velocity.

  17. Does bisphenol A induce superfeminization in Marisa cornuarietis? Part II: toxicity test results and requirements for statistical power analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Aufderheide, John; Warbritton, Ryan; van der Hoeven, Nelly; Caspers, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    This study presents results of the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on adult egg production, egg hatchability, egg development rates and juvenile growth rates in the freshwater gastropod, Marisa cornuarietis. We observed no adult mortality, substantial inter-snail variability in reproductive output, and no effects of BPA on reproduction during 12 weeks of exposure to 0, 0.1, 1.0, 16, 160 or 640 microg/L BPA. We observed no effects of BPA on egg hatchability or timing of egg hatching. Juveniles showed good growth in the control and all treatments, and there were no significant effects of BPA on this endpoint. Our results do not support previous claims of enhanced reproduction in Marisa cornuarietis in response to exposure to BPA. Statistical power analysis indicated high levels of inter-snail variability in the measured endpoints and highlighted the need for sufficient replication when testing treatment effects on reproduction in M. cornuarietis with adequate power.

  18. Defense Financial and Investment Review. Appendix 4. Part 1. Survey of Defense Procurement Personnel Results and Findings,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    133 Flexible Progress Payment Model ...................... 146 Flow Down of Financing Provisions .................... 155 Use of...34 . . .. . -- .. . .. * "." . .. . . .. .. .. ". .’ . . Flexible Progress Payment Model A plurality (45%) of all respondents agreed that the flexible progress payment model is too...would result in higher prices to DoD. -; Flexible Progress Payment Model In addition to the standard progress payment approach to contract financing, DoD

  19. Natural and sexual selection giveth and taketh away reproductive barriers: models of population divergence in guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonne, Jacques; Hendry, Andrew P

    2010-07-01

    The standard predictions of ecological speciation might be nuanced by the interaction between natural and sexual selection. We investigated this hypothesis with an individual-based model tailored to the biology of guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We specifically modeled the situation where a high-predation population below a waterfall colonizes a low-predation population above a waterfall. Focusing on the evolution of male color, we confirm that divergent selection causes the appreciable evolution of male color within 20 generations. The rate and magnitude of this divergence were reduced when dispersal rates were high and when female choice did not differ between environments. Adaptive divergence was always coupled to the evolution of two reproductive barriers: viability selection against immigrants and hybrids. Different types of sexual selection, however, led to contrasting results for another potential reproductive barrier: mating success of immigrants. In some cases, the effects of natural and sexual selection offset each other, leading to no overall reproductive isolation despite strong adaptive divergence. Sexual selection acting through female choice can thus strongly modify the effects of divergent natural selection and thereby alter the standard predictions of ecological speciation. We also found that under no circumstances did divergent selection cause appreciable divergence in neutral genetic markers.

  20. ATOP - The Advanced Taiwan Ocean Prediction System Based on the mpiPOM. Part 1: Model Descriptions, Analyses and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Oey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A data-assimilated Taiwan Ocean Prediction (ATOP system is being developed at the National Central University, Taiwan. The model simulates sea-surface height, three-dimensional currents, temperature and salinity and turbulent mixing. The model has options for tracer and particle-tracking algorithms, as well as for wave-induced Stokes drift and wave-enhanced mixing and bottom drag. Two different forecast domains have been tested: a large-grid domain that encompasses the entire North Pacific Ocean at 0.1° × 0.1° horizontal resolution and 41 vertical sigma levels, and a smaller western North Pacific domain which at present also has the same horizontal resolution. In both domains, 25-year spin-up runs from 1988 - 2011 were first conducted, forced by six-hourly Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP and NCEP reanalysis Global Forecast System (GSF winds. The results are then used as initial conditions to conduct ocean analyses from January 2012 through February 2012, when updated hindcasts and real-time forecasts begin using the GFS winds. This paper describes the ATOP system and compares the forecast results against satellite altimetry data for assessing model skills. The model results are also shown to compare well with observations of (i the Kuroshio intrusion in the northern South China Sea, and (ii subtropical counter current. Review and comparison with other models in the literature of ¡§(i¡¨ are also given.

  1. Analysis of environmental contamination resulting from catastrophic incidents: part 2. Building laboratory capability by selecting and developing analytical methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew; Campisano, Romy; Griggs, John; Fitz-James, Schatzi; Hall, Kathy; Mapp, Latisha; Mullins, Marissa; Nichols, Tonya; Shah, Sanjiv; Silvestri, Erin; Smith, Terry; Willison, Stuart; Ernst, Hiba

    2014-11-01

    Catastrophic incidents can generate a large number of samples of analytically diverse types, including forensic, clinical, environmental, food, and others. Environmental samples include water, wastewater, soil, air, urban building and infrastructure materials, and surface residue. Such samples may arise not only from contamination from the incident but also from the multitude of activities surrounding the response to the incident, including decontamination. This document summarizes a range of activities to help build laboratory capability in preparation for sample analysis following a catastrophic incident, including selection and development of fit-for-purpose analytical methods for chemical, biological, and radiological contaminants. Fit-for-purpose methods are those which have been selected to meet project specific data quality objectives. For example, methods could be fit for screening contamination in the early phases of investigation of contamination incidents because they are rapid and easily implemented, but those same methods may not be fit for the purpose of remediating the environment to acceptable levels when a more sensitive method is required. While the exact data quality objectives defining fitness-for-purpose can vary with each incident, a governing principle of the method selection and development process for environmental remediation and recovery is based on achieving high throughput while maintaining high quality analytical results. This paper illustrates the result of applying this principle, in the form of a compendium of analytical methods for contaminants of interest. The compendium is based on experience with actual incidents, where appropriate and available. This paper also discusses efforts aimed at adaptation of existing methods to increase fitness-for-purpose and development of innovative methods when necessary. The contaminants of interest are primarily those potentially released through catastrophes resulting from malicious activity

  2. Particle analysis on concentrated particle suspensions by transmission fluctuation spectrometry with band-pass filters: part 2. Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yamin; Shen, Jianqi; Cai, Xiaoshu; Riebel, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Transmission fluctuation spectrometry (TFS), as a new method of online and real-time particle analysis developed in recent years, can measure the particle size distribution and particle concentration simultaneously. In the preceding paper, high concentration effects on the TFS using band-pass filters were investigated by numerical simulation, and empirical expressions to correct the effects were obtained. This paper presents a study on the TFS measurements in which the particle concentration varies in a very wide dynamic range. Finally, reasonable results on both the particle size distribution and particle concentration are obtained by introducing empirical corrections into the inversion algorithm

  3. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  4. Taming infrared divergences in the effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias-Miro, J. [IFAE, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Fisica; Espinosa, J.R. [IFAE, Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain); Konstandin, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective theory.

  5. Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k...

  6. Hamiltonian representation of divergence-free fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1984-11-01

    Globally divergence-free fields, such as the magnetic field and the vorticity, can be described by a two degree of freedom Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian function provides a complete topological description of the field lines. The formulation also separates the dissipative and inertial time scale evolution of the magnetic and the vorticity fields

  7. Viewpoint Environmental Slogans: Memes with Diverging ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental slogans can be seen as memes, i.e. cultural constructs that, not unlike genes, replicate themselves from one generation to the next. Memes may, however, be divergently interpreted and some memes can even have unwanted side-effects. We wanted to find out how supporters of an environmental ...

  8. The Harmonic Series Diverges Again and Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifowit, Steven J.; Stamps, Terra A.

    2006-01-01

    The harmonic series is one of the most celebrated infinite series of mathematics. A quick glance at a variety of modern calculus textbooks reveals that there are two very popular proofs of the divergence of the harmonic series. In this article, the authors survey these popular proofs along with many other proofs that are equally simple and…

  9. Design of a divergence and alignment indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenizer, J.S. Jr.; Raine, D.A.; Gao, J.; Chen, J.

    1996-01-01

    The divergence and alignment indicator (DAI) is an extension of the ASTM E803 L/D thermal neutron radiography L/D device that allows the user to determine both the beam centerline and the beam divergence. The DAI was made using aluminium plate and rods, and incorporated cadmium wire for contrast. Circular symmetry was utilized to simplify manufacture. The DAI was placed with the five posts against the film cassette or radioscopic imaging device in the physical center of the beam. The DAI was perpendicular to the selected beam radius when the front and back center Cd wire images overlap. The degree of misalignment was indicated by their image positions. After the DAI was aligned, analysis of the cadmium wire ''+'' image spacing yielded the beam divergence. The DAI was tested in a neutron beam which has an L/D of 30 but a small degree of divergence. The DAI was also imaged using an X-ray source. The point source predictions of Cd wire image locations showed good agreement with those measured from the X-ray radiograph. The neutron radiographic locations could be predicted using the point source equations, even though the neutron beam was a complex distributed source. (orig.)

  10. Taming infrared divergences in the effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias-Miro, J.; Konstandin, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective theory.

  11. Global atmospheric response to specific linear combinations of the main SST modes. Part I: numerical experiments and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trzaska

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates through numerical experiments the controversial question of the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phenomena on climate according to large-scale and regional-scale interhemispheric thermal contrast. Eight experiments (two considering only inversed Atlantic thermal anomalies and six combining ENSO warm phase with large-scale interhemispheric contrast and Atlantic anomaly patterns were performed with the Météo-France atmospheric general circulation model. The definition of boundary conditions from observed composites and principal components is presented and preliminary results concerning the month of August, especially over West Africa and the equatorial Atlantic are discussed. Results are coherent with observations and show that interhemispheric and regional scale sea-surface-temperature anomaly (SST patterns could significantly modulate the impact of ENSO phenomena: the impact of warm-phase ENSO, relative to the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP climatology, seems stronger when embedded in global and regional SSTA patterns representative of the post-1970 conditions [i.e. with temperatures warmer (colder than the long-term mean in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere]. Atlantic SSTAs may also play a significant role.

  12. AN ATTEMPT TO DETERMINE THE RELATION BETWEEN HUCUL HORSES CONFORMATION ASSESSMENT, MOVEMENT AND COURAGE TEST RESULTS PART II. MARE FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga TOPCZEWSKA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine the relationship between evaluation of conformation and motion indicators and results of the Huculs’ path and also to ascertain the courage (basic and elimination of Hucul horses with their classification into mare families being taken account of. The scores of 116 horses presented for the evaluation of their exterior (championship breeding were analyzed. The assessment covered the type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot as well as overall impression and preparedness for the exhibition. Measurements of length of steps, frequency and rate of the walk and trot were performed during the tests for courage. The estimated correlation coefficients exhibited the existence of some interesting trends i.e., there was positive correlation between values for type, body conformation, movement in walk and trot and the length of steps in walk and trot in individuals representing most of mare families. The reverse was the case with horses from the Sroczka and Wyderka families. Amongst the Wrona, however, negative correlations between the grade for walk and frequency of steps in walk was observed while that of between the result of path and utility tests was positive.

  13. Vacuum evaporation of KCl-NaCl salts. Part 2: Vaporization-rate model and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.L.; Wallace, T.C. Sr.; Hampel, F.G.; Steele, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Separation of chloride salts from the actinide residue by vacuum evaporation is a promising method of treating wastes from the pyrochemical plutonium processes. A model based on the Hertz-Langmuir relation is used to describe how evaporation rates of the binary KCl-NaCl system change with time. The effective evaporation coefficient (α), which is a ratio of the actual evaporation rate to the theoretical maximum, was obtained for the KCl-NaCl system using this model. In the temperature range of 640 C to 760 C, the effective evaporation coefficient ranges from ∼0.4 to 0.1 for evaporation experiments conducted at 0.13 Pa. At temperatures below the melting point, the lower evaporation coefficients are suggested to result from the more complex path that a molecule needs to follow before escaping to the gas phase. At the higher liquid temperatures, the decreasing evaporation coefficients result from a combination of the increasing vapor-flow resistances and the heat-transfer effects at the evaporation surface and the condensate layer. The microanalysis of the condensate verified that composition of the condensate changes with time, consistent with the model calculation. The microstructural examination revealed that the vaporate may have condensed as a single solution phase, which upon cooling forms fine lamellar structures of the equilibrium KCl and NaCl phases. In conclusion, the optimum design of the evaporation process and equipment must take the mass and heat transfer factors and equipment materials issues into consideration

  14. One-loop divergences in chiral perturbation theory and right-invariant metrics on SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito-Farese, G.

    1991-01-01

    In the framework of chiral perturbation theory, we compute the one-loop divergences of the effective Lagrangian describing strong and non-leptonic weak interactions of pseudoscalar mesons. We use the background field method and the heat-kernel expansion, and underline the geometrical meaning of the different terms, showing how the right-invariance of the metrics on SU(3) allows to clarify and simplify the calculations. Our results are given in terms of a minimal set of independent counterterms, and shorten previous ones of the literature, in the particular case where the electromagnetic field is the only external source which is considered. We also show that a geometrical construction of the effective Lagrangian at order O(p 4 ) allows to derive some relations between the finite parts of the coupling constants. These relations do not depend on the scale μ used to renormalize. (orig.)

  15. Divergence Measures as Diversity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Moustafa, Karim T.

    2014-01-01

    Entropy measures of probability distributions are widely used measures in ecology, biology, genetics, and in other fields, to quantify species diversity of a community. Unfortunately, entropy-based diversity indices, or diversity indices for short, suffer from three problems. First, when computing the diversity for samples withdrawn from communities with different structures, diversity indices can easily yield non-comparable and hard to interpret results. Second, diversity indices impose weig...

  16. KOH concentration effect on the cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells. Part 4: Results of failure analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.; Verzwyvelt, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    KOH concentration effects on cycle life of a Ni/H2 cell have been studied by carrying out a cycle life test of ten Ni/H2 boiler plate cells which contain electrolytes of various KOH concentrations. Failure analyses of these cells were carried out after completion of the life test which accumulated up to 40,000 cycles at an 80 percent depth of discharge over a period of 3.7 years. These failure analyses included studies on changes of electrical characteristics of test cells and component analyses after disassembly of the cell. The component analyses included visual inspections, dimensional changes, capacity measurements of nickel electrodes, scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area measurements, and chemical analyses. Results have indicated that failure mode and change in the nickel electrode varied as the concentration was varied, especially, when the concentration was changed from 31 percent or higher to 26 percent or lower.

  17. Complex patterns of genetic and phenotypic divergence in an island bird and the consequences for delimiting conservation units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, A B; Owens, I P F; Black, R A; Chittock, J; Burke, T; Clegg, S M

    2008-06-01

    Substantial phenotypic and genetic variation is often found below the species level and this may be useful in quantifying biodiversity and predicting future diversification. However, relatively few studies have tested whether different aspects of intraspecific variation show congruent patterns across populations. Here, we quantify several aspects of divergence between 13 insular populations of an island endemic bird, the Vanuatu white-eye (Zosterops flavifrons). The components of divergence studied are mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), nuclear DNA microsatellites and morphology. These different aspects of divergence present subtly different scenarios. For instance, an mtDNA phylogenetic tree reveals a potential cryptic species on the most southerly island in Vanuatu and considerable divergence between at least two other major phylogroups. Microsatellite loci suggest that population genetic divergence between insular populations, both between and within phylogroups, is substantial, a result that is consistent with a low level of interisland gene flow. Finally, most populations were found to be strongly morphologically divergent, but no single population was morphologically diagnosable from all others. Taken together, our results show that, although many measures of divergence are concordant in this system, the number of divergent units identified varies widely depending on the characters considered and approach used. A continuum of divergence and a degree of discordance between different characters are both to be expected under simple models of evolution, but they present problems in terms of delimiting conservation units.

  18. A limit of the quantum Rényi divergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Nilanjana; Leditzky, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an interesting quantity called the quantum Rényi divergence (or ‘sandwiched’ Rényi relative entropy) was defined for pairs of positive semi-definite operators ρ and σ. It depends on a parameter α and acts as a parent quantity for other relative entropies which have important operational significance in quantum information theory: the quantum relative entropy and the min- and max-relative entropies. There is, however, another relative entropy, called the 0-relative Rényi entropy, which plays a key role in the analysis of various quantum information-processing tasks in the one-shot setting. We prove that the 0-relative Rényi entropy is obtainable from the quantum Rényi divergence only if ρ and σ have equal supports. This, along with existing results in the literature, suggests that it suffices to consider two essential parent quantities from which operationally relevant entropic quantities can be derived—the quantum Rényi divergence with parameter α ⩾ 1/2, and the α-relative Rényi entropy with α ∈ [0, 1). (paper)

  19. Phylogeography of speciation: allopatric divergence and secondary contact between outcrossing and selfing Clarkia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, James B; Moeller, David A

    2012-09-01

    The origins of hybrid zones between parapatric taxa have been of particular interest for understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation and the geographic context of species divergence. One challenge has been to distinguish between allopatric divergence (followed by secondary contact) versus primary intergradation (parapatric speciation) as alternative divergence histories. Here, we use complementary phylogeographic and population genetic analyses to investigate the recent divergence of two subspecies of Clarkia xantiana and the formation of a hybrid zone within the narrow region of sympatry. We tested alternative phylogeographic models of divergence using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) and found strong support for a secondary contact model and little support for a model allowing for gene flow throughout the divergence process (i.e. primary intergradation). Two independent methods for inferring the ancestral geography of each subspecies, one based on probabilistic character state reconstructions and the other on palaeo-distribution modelling, also support a model of divergence in allopatry and range expansion leading to secondary contact. The membership of individuals to genetic clusters suggests geographic substructure within each taxon where allopatric and sympatric samples are primarily found in separate clusters. We also observed coincidence and concordance of genetic clines across three types of molecular markers, which suggests that there is a strong barrier to gene flow. Taken together, our results provide evidence for allopatric divergence followed by range expansion leading to secondary contact. The location of refugial populations and the directionality of range expansion are consistent with expectations based on climate change since the last glacial maximum. Our approach also illustrates the utility of combining phylogeographic hypothesis testing with species distribution modelling and fine-scale population genetic analyses for inferring

  20. Approaches to the summability of divergent multidimensional integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainikko, G M; Lifanov, I K

    2003-01-01

    Under discussion are various approaches to the concept of summability (finding the finite part - (f.p.)) of divergent integrals with integrand represented as a product of two functions, one with a parameter-dependent non-integrable singularity at one point of the integration and the other absolutely integrable. A study is made of summability methods which are based on the expansion of the absolutely integrable function in a Taylor series with centre at the singular point (f.p.), on the analytic continuation with respect to the parameter of the singularity (a.f.p.), and on integration by parts (f.p.p.). Formulae of changes of variables in such integrals are presented

  1. Divergent series, summability and resurgence I monodromy and resurgence

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschi, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Providing an elementary introduction to analytic continuation and monodromy, the first part of this volume applies these notions to the local and global study of complex linear differential equations, their formal solutions at singular points, their monodromy and their differential Galois groups. The Riemann-Hilbert problem is discussed from Bolibrukh’s point of view. The second part expounds 1-summability and Ecalle’s theory of resurgence under fairly general conditions. It contains numerous examples and presents an analysis of the singularities in the Borel plane via “alien calculus”, which provides a full description of the Stokes phenomenon for linear or non-linear differential or difference equations. The first of a series of three, entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence, this volume is aimed at graduate students, mathematicians and theoretical physicists interested in geometric, algebraic or local analytic properties of dynamical systems. It includes useful exercises with solution...

  2. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Aerated concrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier» has the following results: 1. The practicability of the use of the additives based on melamine-formaldehyde for plasticization of nanostructured silica modifier was proved. The optimal content of plasticizer is 0,1%. 2. The compositions of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening for construction and thermal insulation with quality classes D350–D500 and durability classes ВО,75; В2,5–В5 were proposed. 3. The technology for production of aerated concrete of autoclave hardening which comprises the use of nanostructured modifier. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Vindizheva A.S. «Nanocomposite cabel elastrons based on polyvinylchloride and aluminum silicates », Ashrapov A.Kh. «Polymer construction nanocomposites based on polyvinylchloride », Dyatlov A.K. «Fine-grained self-compacting concrete with complex nanocontaining additive», Khuzin A.F. «Cement composites with additives of multilayer carbon nanotubes», Ermolin M.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating spiral columns for the analysis of polydispersed samples», Yukhaeva G.R. «Nanocomposite materials based on polyethylene and graphite nanoplates: synthesis, structure, properties», Shepelev D.S. «Energy exchange and localization of energy in carbon nanotubes», Nelyubova V.V. «Compressed silicate autoclave materials with the use of nanostructured modifier», Mironova A.S. «Nanofilled plaster compositions to increase durability of building facades», Goncharova M.A. «Structure formation and technology of construction and special composites based on little used metallurgy wastes», Maiorova L.A. «Controlled self-organization of azaporphyrins into 2D and 3D-nanostructures in Langmuir layers and

  3. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The result of the research «Nanomodified sulphurous binders for construction materials of general and special purpose» is the new methodological principles for development nanomodified sulphurous binders which are based on the consistent decomposition of quality criteria system of such materials, identification of elementary controlling receipt and technological factors through classification properties by phenomena, processes and components, scientific justification of material components choice, and then definition of experiment and statistic dependencies of influence of controlling factors on the material properties and performance of multicriterion optimization of receipt and technology for production of the material. The decomposition of quality criteria system of nanomodified sulphurous binders is based on the data about the possible application areas (chemically resistant concretes, capsulating of high toxic and radioactive wastes, seal of joints in chemically resistant coatings, etc. and requirements of GOST 4.200-78 «Quality criteria system for products. Construction. Basic regulations». Decomposition of a property (or a set of the properties by phenomena, processes and phases with identification of elementary factors is the base for identification of and ranking of controlling receipt and technological factors. Dispersed phase of nanomodified sulphurous binders has been grounded. It was shown thatit’s necessary to consider the possibility of formation of sulfide in the structure of obtained material and perform selection of raw mix taking into account the properties of forming sulfides and operation conditions of these construction materials and structures (first of all such as humidity, temperature and presence of any aggressive environments. The specialists may be also interested in the

  4. Radioiodine therapy for combined disseminated and nodular thyroid autonomy. Results after using a correction term for the disseminated part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.; Dorn, R.; Otto, I.; Sciuk, J.; Wengenmair, H.; Kopp, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: in combined focal and disseminated thyroid autonomy a variety of concepts in the treatment with radioiodine are used. The difference lies mainly in the calculation of the autonomous volume. This retrospective study shows a new method of calculating the autonomous volume. Patients and methods: in 398 patients with combined thyroid autonomy and good correlation of scintigraphically hot nodules and lesions defined by ultrasound the volume of the nodules is ascertained from scintigraphic and ultrasound parameters and the volume of the disseminated autonomous tissue is assessed with a weighting factor (VF). This factor is the ratio of impulse density in a ROI over the disseminated volume divided by the corresponding impulse density over the nodular volume of the thyroid scintigraphy. The sum of nodular volume and weighted perinodular volume gives the total autonomous volume. A standard radioiodine test gives the maximum iodine-131-uptake and effective half-life to calculate the activity to obtain a treatment dose of 400 Gy. Results: the rate of success with and without thyrostatic medication was 97% with an 18.6% rate of hypothyroidism observed from 4 months post therapy onwards. Conclusion: the use of the weighting factor VF in the treatment of combined autonomy leads to an excellent rate of success in patients with good correlation of functional imaging and ultrasound findings. (orig.)

  5. Fouling tendency of ash resulting from burning mixtures of biofuels. Part 3. Influence of probe surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischa Theis; Bengt-Johan Skrifvars; Maria Zevenhoven; Mikko Hupa; Honghi Tran [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo (Finland). Combustion and Materials Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    Mixtures of peat with bark and peat with straw were burned in a large lab-scale entrained flow reactor under controlled conditions, and deposits were collected on an air-cooled probe controlled at four to six different probe surface temperatures between 475 and 625{sup o}C. The results show that the probe surface temperature has no effect on the deposition rate when peat is burned. When burning bark, either alone or in mixtures with peat, the deposition rate decreases with increasing probe surface temperature. When burning straw, either alone or in mixtures with peat, the deposition rate increases with increasing probe surface temperature up to 550{sup o}C and remains constant at higher temperatures. The Cl content in the deposits decreases with increasing probe surface temperature, regardless of the mixture composition. In deposits obtained from burning peat-bark mixtures, K appears as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} when the deposition rate is low and as KCl when the deposition rate is high. In deposits obtained from burning peat-straw mixtures, no clear relationship is found between the deposition rate and the contents of Cl, S and K in the deposits. 21 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Heat Transfer and Flow on the First Stage Blade Tip of a Power Generation Gas Turbine. Part 1; Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunker, Ronald S.; Bailey, Jeremy C.; Ameri, Ali A.

    1999-01-01

    A combined computational and experimental study has been performed to investigate the detailed distribution of convective heat transfer coefficients on the first stage blade tip surface for a geometry typical of large power generation turbines(>100MW). This paper is concerned with the design and execution of the experimental portion of the study. A stationary blade cascade experiment has been run consisting of three airfoils, the center airfoil having a variable tip gap clearance. The airfoil models the aerodynamic tip section of a high pressure turbine blade with inlet Mach number of 0.30, exit Mach number of 0.75, pressure ratio of 1.45, exit Reynolds number based on axial chord of 2.57 x 10(exp 6), and total turning of about 110 degrees. A hue detection based liquid crystal method is used to obtain the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution on the blade tip surface for flat, smooth tip surfaces with both sharp and rounded edges. The cascade inlet turbulence intensity level took on values of either 5% or 9%. The cascade also models the casing recess in the shroud surface ahead of the blade. Experimental results are shown for the pressure distribution measurements on the airfoil near the tip gap, on the blade tip surface, and on the opposite shroud surface. Tip surface heat transfer coefficient distributions are shown for sharp-edge and rounded-edge tip geometries at each of the inlet turbulence intensity levels.

  7. Early results for treatment of two- and three-part fractures of the proximal humerus using Contours PHP (proximal humeral plate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazzo, Alessio; Cardile, Carlo; Brunelli, Luca; Ragni, Paolo; Clementi, Daniele

    2017-04-28

    The management of displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus is controversial, both in younger and in elderly patients. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the functional results of the Contours Proximal Humerus Plate (OrthofixR, Bussolengo,Verona, Italy), for the treatment of displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus. We retrospectively reviewed 55 patients with proximal humerus fractures, who underwent osteosynthesis with Contours Proximal Humerus Plate from December 2011 to March 2015. We had 21 patients with 2-part fractures and with an average age of 67.1 years and 34 patients with 3-part fractures, with average age of 63.6 years. The average union time was 3 months. The mean Constant score was 67 for 2-part fracture group and 64.9 for 3-part fracture group. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.18). The overall complication rate was 14.5 %. Six patients underwent additional surgery (10.9%). The most frequent major complication was secondary loss of reduction following varus collapse of the fracture (2 cases). In these patients, there was loss of medial hinge integrity due to impaction and osteoporosis. The placement of the main locking screw in the calcar area to provide inferomedial support is the rational of the Contours Proximal Humerus Plate. Osteosynthesis with Contours Proximal Humerus Plate is a safe system for treating displaced 2- and 3-part fractures of the proximal humerus, with good functional results and complication rates comparable to those reported in the literature.

  8. Genetic divergence among pumpkin landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Lourenço de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the genetic variability in germplasm collections is important not only for conserving genetic resources, but also for plant breeding purposes. However, generating a large number of different categories data (qualitative and quantitative often complicate the analysis and results interpretation, resulting in an incomplete distinction of accessions. This study reports the characterization and evaluation of 14 pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata accessions collected from farms in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro state. Genetic diversity among accessions was also estimated using qualitative and quantitative variables considering joint analysis. The plants were grown under field conditions in a randomized block design with three replications and six plants per plot. Eight qualitative traits (leaf size; seed shape; seed color; color of the fruit pulp; hollow; fruit shape; skin color, and fruit skin texture and eight quantitative traits (fruit weight; fruit length; fruit diameter; soluble solids, 100 seed weight, and wall thickness measured in the middle and in the lower stem were evaluated. The data were analyzed considering the Gower distance, and cluster analysis was performed using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA. Variability among accessions was observed considering morphoagronomic data. The Gower distance together with UPGMA cluster allowed for good discrimination between accessions in the groups, demonstrating that the simultaneous analysis of qualitative and quantitative data is feasible and may increase the understanding of the variation among accessions.

  9. Extensive behavioural divergence following colonisation of the freshwater environment in threespine sticklebacks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Di-Poi

    Full Text Available Colonisation of novel environments means facing new ecological challenges often resulting in the evolution of striking divergence in phenotypes. However, little is known about behavioural divergence following colonisation, despite the predicted importance of the role of behavioural phenotype-environment associations in adaptive divergence. We studied the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, a model system for postglacial colonisation of freshwater habitats largely differing in ecological conditions from the ones faced by the descendants of the marine ancestor. We found that common-environment reared freshwater juveniles were less social, more active and more aggressive than their marine counterparts. This behavioural divergence could represent the result of natural selection that acted on individuals following freshwater colonisation, with predation as a key selection agent. Alternatively, the behavioural profile of freshwater juveniles could represent the characteristics of individuals that preferentially invaded freshwater after the glacial retreat, drawn from the standing variation present in the marine population.

  10. Gray Matter Volume of the Lingual Gyrus Mediates the Relationship between Inhibition Function and Divergent Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Although previous research provides converging evidence for the role of posterior regions of the brain (including temporal, occipital, and parietal regions involved in inhibition on creative thinking, it remains unclear as to how these regions influence individual differences in creative thinking. Thus, we explored the relationship between posterior regions (i.e., hippocampal, parahippocampal, lingual gyrus, precuneus, and cuneus , inhibition function, and divergent thinking in 128 healthy college students. The results revealed that lower inhibition was associated with larger gray matter volume (GMV in the lingual gyrus, which in turn was associated with higher divergent thinking. In addition, GMV in the lingual gyrus mediated the association between inhibition and divergent thinking. These results provide new evidence for the role of inhibition in creative thinking. Inhibition may affect the amount of information stored in long-term memory, which, in turn influences divergent thinking.

  11. [Mobile geriatric rehabilitation in statutory health insurance: Conceptual strategy and results of a nationwide treatment documentation (Part 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Matthias; Pippel, K; Lübke, N

    2017-04-01

    Insurants have a statutory right to mobile rehabilitation in which a multidisciplinary team carries out treatment in the familiar home environment. Framework recommendations in geriatric medicine were presented by the statutory health insurance (SHI) and a standardized treatment documentation was implemented nationwide. This article presents the conceptual design and selected results from this treatment documentation and reports on the established practice. A total of 1879 anonymized cases of mobile geriatric rehabilitation carried out between 2011 and 2014 from 11 participating institutions were analyzed with respect to patient and process-related features. The patients were on average 81 years old and 61 % were female. The mobile rehabilitation was provided on average over 22 treatment days over a period of 8 weeks and in 84 % of cases following hospital treatment. Of the rehabilitation patients 27 % lived in a care home prior to treatment and 73 % were already allocated to a care level. The statistically significant gain in capacity for self-sufficiency was 18 points on the Barthel index at the end of the rehabilitation. The majority of treatment was provided by physiotherapists and occupational therapists followed by speech therapists and nursing personnel. Relevant differences were detected between the institutions regarding the indications, access route, therapy combinations, treatment frequency, scope and duration. At the same time individual requirements from the framework recommendations were sometimes not met. Even though the treatment documentation does not replace any external mobile rehabilitation quality assurance, it provides transparency in a still very limited range of services that are sometimes differently implemented at institutions. It therefore provides the basis for further development of mobile out-patient rehabilitation in SHI.

  12. Assimilation of Altimeter Data into a Quasigeostrophic Model of the Gulf Stream System. Part 2; Assimilation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capotondi, Antonietta; Holland, William R.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    1995-01-01

    The improvement in the climatological behavior of a numerical model as a consequence of the assimilation of surface data is investigated. The model used for this study is a quasigeostrophic (QG) model of the Gulf Stream region. The data that have been assimilated are maps of sea surface height that have been obtained as the superposition of sea surface height variability deduced from the Geosat altimeter measurements and a mean field constructed from historical hydrographic data. The method used for assimilating the data is the nudging technique. Nudging has been implemented in such a way as to achieve a high degree of convergence of the surface model fields toward the observations. Comparisons of the assimilation results with available in situ observations show a significant improvement in the degree of realism of the climatological model behavior, with respect to the model in which no data are assimilated. The remaining discrepancies in the model mean circulation seem to be mainly associated with deficiencies in the mean component of the surface data that are assimilated. On the other hand, the possibility of building into the model more realistic eddy characteristics through the assimilation of the surface eddy field proves very successful in driving components of the mean model circulation that are in relatively good agreement with the available observations. Comparisons with current meter time series during a time period partially overlapping the Geosat mission show that the model is able to 'correctly' extrapolate the instantaneous surface eddy signals to depths of approximately 1500 m. The correlation coefficient between current meter and model time series varies from values close to 0.7 in the top 1500 m to values as low as 0.1-0.2 in the deep ocean.

  13. Cancellation of soft and collinear divergences in noncommutative QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, B.; Zarei, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the behavior of noncommutative IR divergences and will also discuss their cancellation in the physical cross sections. The commutative IR (soft) divergences existing in the nonplanar diagrams will be examined in order to prove an all-order cancellation of these divergences using the Weinberg's method. In noncommutative QED, collinear divergences due to triple photon splitting vertex, were encountered, which are shown to be canceled out by the noncommutative version of KLN theorem. This guarantees that there is no mixing between the Collinear, soft divergences and noncommutative IR divergences

  14. The Feasibility of Administering a Practical Clinical Examination in Podiatry at a College of Podiatric Medicine: Results of a Field Trial Under Simulated Part III Test Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Valletta, Michael

    1978-01-01

    The results of a practical clinical examination in podiatric medicine administered to fourth-year students are presented. The examination could become the prototype of a Part III practical clinical examination under the auspices of the National Board of Podiatry Examiners. Its feasibility is established and problems and issues are discussed.…

  15. Numerical resolution of the time-domain three-dimensional Maxwell equations by a conform finite element approximation. Part II: numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintze, E.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this report is to validate the program MAX3D built up from the discretization of the formulation (FB) established in part 1. A qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out on numerical results obtained with various test cases of which, for most of them, analytical solutions are known. 32 figs., 3 refs

  16. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Increasing of concrete strength with carbon nanotubes by means of hydrodynamic cavitation» contains the calculation of prime cost of the main raw components which are necessary to produce fine-grained concrete with strength class B55, that demonstrates the economic efficiency of application of CNT as modifying additive for cement composites. Modification of concrete matrix with CNT leads to higher breaking point of compressive strength and that makes it possible to reduce discharge intensity of cement by the strength unit of the material. In this case introduction of 0,05% initial CNT of binder mass into concrete led to 1,5 times increased strength-to-weight ratio. The amount of saved resources was determined as the cost difference between amount of raw materials which are necessary to produce concrete B55 class of traditional composition and the concrete similar by the class obtained due to introduction of carbon nanomodifier into it. The choice of the cost of 1 gram of multilayer CNT was based on the analysis of commercial offers of Russian and foreign companies that are specilized in manufacture and realization of carbon nanomaterials. The specialists may be also interested in the research held by Podgorny I.I. «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content», Satjukov А.B. «Nanomodified composite binder for special construction mortars», Hammadi Mustafa Abdul Madzhid Hamid «The method to nanomodify cement concretes with nanomortar», Altynnik N.I. «Aeroconcrete of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier», Volkov D.S. «Complex approaches to characterization of nanodiamonds of detonation synthesis and their colloid solutions», Ermolin М.S. «Rectification of nano- and microparticles in rotating

  17. An overview of the results of dissertation research in the field of nanotechnology and nanomaterials. Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARPOV Alexey Ivanovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To popularize scientific achievements the main results of Russian and foreign scientists’ research are published in the form of abstract. The research «Materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier based on magnetic rock of acid content» set the theory and experimentally proves the opportunity to use magma rock of acid composition for production of nanostructured modifier of the materials of autoclave hardening. Activity of nanostructured modifier is provided by its composition and production technology: high specific surface with formation of nanodispersed polymineral; surface amorphization of rock-forming minerals; processes of mechanical and chemical dissolution of quartz and feldspar components with formation of active silica and alumina silica acids. The research has determined the character of the influence of nanostructured modifier in the sand blend on the gas formation, expansion of concrete mix and finally on the structure formation of the materials during preautoclave period. The authors proposed the compositions for the materials of autoclave hardening with the use of nanostructured modifier made of granite to produce: pressed articles (silicate brick of density 1835–1950 kg/m², ultimate compressive strength – 17,8–23,3 МPа, thermal conductivity – 0,56–0,6 W/m°С., frost resistance – 40–55 cycles, water absorption – 11,4–12,2%. The developed articles meet the requirements of the existing codes: strength grade М150–М200 and frost resistance grade F35–F50. The specialists may be also interested in the following research: «Physical and chemical properties and structure of monomeric and polymer acetylenecarboxylated metals and nanocomposites based on them», «Nanomodified sulphuric binders for the construction materials of general and specific purpose», «Synthesis and catalytic properties of mesoporous nanomaterials based on СеО₂», «Synthesis and properties of

  18. "All Types of Inequality are Not Created Equal: Divergent Impacts of Inequality on Economic Growth"

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Seguino

    2005-01-01

    Evidence of an increase in various forms of inequality since the 1970s has motivated research on its relationship to growth and development. The findings of that research are contradictory and inconclusive. One source of these divergent results is that researchers rely on different group measures of inequality. Inequality by gender, household, class, and ethnicity may produce divergent effects on growth since they operate on macroeconomic outcomes via alternative pathways. Further, even withi...

  19. Processes of convergence and divergence in the policy formulation of policing strategies for European metropolises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.; Edwards, A.M.; Ponsaers, P.

    2017-01-01

    This edited collection forms part of a broader, ongoing, research project, ‘The Policing European Metropolises Project’ (‘PEMP’). The Project has its origins in a network of researchers interested in the significance of sub-national policing for understanding processes of convergence and divergence

  20. Endemic infrared divergences in QED3 at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Pok Man; Swanson, Eric S.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that massless QED in three dimensions contains endemic infrared divergences. It is argued that these divergences do not affect observables; furthermore, it is possible to choose a gauge that renders the theory finite.

  1. PUBLIC INTEGRITY AND THE DIVERGENCE FROM IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona‐Roxana ULMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public Integrity is one of the public sector’s essential objectives to attain. In contradiction, as a divergence from it, corruption is one of the persistent problems of the societies over years and it affects the credibility of public institutions and its ambassadors in front of the citizens and of the other related countries. All nations complain of corruption and, as it is observed in the Corruption Perception Index 2012, no country has a maximum score which shows that a country is totally clean. In this context, the study of the most important elements of the public integrity concept, the identification of what causes the divergence from it and the solutions detection become a relevant option for economic literature. In this context, the main objective of this paper is to emphasize the public integrity concept and its main aspects and to make a comparison between countries to achieve a large perspective of the world’s public integrity juncture.

  2. Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)

  3. Gluon mass generation without seagull divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Arlene C.; Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2010-01-01

    Dynamical gluon mass generation has been traditionally plagued with seagull divergences, and all regularization procedures proposed over the years yield finite but scheme-dependent gluon masses. In this work we show how such divergences can be eliminated completely by virtue of a characteristic identity, valid in dimensional regularization. The ability to trigger the aforementioned identity hinges crucially on the particular Ansatz employed for the three-gluon vertex entering into the Schwinger-Dyson equation governing the gluon propagator. The use of the appropriate three-gluon vertex brings about an additional advantage: one obtains two separate (but coupled) integral equations, one for the effective charge and one for the gluon mass. This system of integral equations has a unique solution, which unambiguously determines these two quantities. Most notably, the effective charge freezes in the infrared, and the gluon mass displays power-law running in the ultraviolet, in agreement with earlier considerations.

  4. Increasing interpersonal trust through divergent thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eSellaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal trust is an essential ingredient of many social relationships but how stable is it actually, and how is it controlled? There is evidence that the degree of trust into others might be rather volatile and can be affected by manipulations like drawing attention to personal interdependence or independence. Here we investigated whether the degree of interpersonal trust can be biased by inducing either a more integrative or a more cognitive-control mode by means of a creativity task requiring divergent or convergent thinking, respectively. Participants then performed the Trust Game, which provides an index of interpersonal trust by assessing the money units one participant (the trustor transfers to another participant (the trustee. As expected, participants transferred significantly more money to the trustee after engaging in divergent thinking as compared to convergent thinking. This observation provides support for the idea that interpersonal trust is controlled by domain-general (i.e., not socially dedicated cognitive states.

  5. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Quin Kelly E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73% occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the

  6. Happy creativity: Listening to happy music facilitates divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Simone M; Ferguson, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Creativity can be considered one of the key competencies for the twenty-first century. It provides us with the capacity to deal with the opportunities and challenges that are part of our complex and fast-changing world. The question as to what facilitates creative cognition-the ability to come up with creative ideas, problem solutions and products-is as old as the human sciences, and various means to enhance creative cognition have been studied. Despite earlier scientific studies demonstrating a beneficial effect of music on cognition, the effect of music listening on creative cognition has remained largely unexplored. The current study experimentally tests whether listening to specific types of music (four classical music excerpts systematically varying on valance and arousal), as compared to a silence control condition, facilitates divergent and convergent creativity. Creativity was higher for participants who listened to 'happy music' (i.e., classical music high on arousal and positive mood) while performing the divergent creativity task, than for participants who performed the task in silence. No effect of music was found for convergent creativity. In addition to the scientific contribution, the current findings may have important practical implications. Music listening can be easily integrated into daily life and may provide an innovative means to facilitate creative cognition in an efficient way in various scientific, educational and organizational settings when creative thinking is needed.

  7. One-loop divergences in 6D, N=(1,0) SYM theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchbinder, I.L. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tomsk State Pedagogical University,634061, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University,634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ivanov, E.A. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Merzlikin, B.S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tomsk State Pedagogical University,634061, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Department of Higher Mathematics and Mathematical Physics,Tomsk Polytechnic University,634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Stepanyantz, K.V. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University,119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-30

    We consider, in the harmonic superspace approach, the six-dimensional N=(1,0) supersymmetric Yang-Mills gauge multiplet minimally coupled to a hypermultiplet in an arbitrary representation of the gauge group. Using the superfield proper-time and background-field techniques, we compute the divergent part of the one-loop effective action depending on both the gauge multiplet and the hypermultiplet. We demonstrate that in the particular case of N=(1,1) SYM theory, which corresponds to the hypermultiplet in the adjoint representation, all one-loop divergencies vanish, so that N=(1,1) SYM theory is one-loop finite off shell.

  8. COMPARATIVE FINANCIAL STATEMENTS. CONVERGENCE VERSUS DIVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.

  9. Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    role of dendritic cells in pancreatitis. Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells which initiate innate and adaptive immune... Lymphoid -tissue-specific homing of bone- marrow-derived dendritic cells . Blood. 113:6638–6647. http://dx.doi .org/10.1182/blood-2009-02-204321 Dapito...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0313 TITLE: Divergent Effects of Dendritic Cells on Pancreatitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. George Miller

  10. Initial States: IR and Collinear Divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavelle, Martin; McMullan, David

    2007-01-01

    The standard approach to the infra-red problem is to use the Bloch-Nordsieck trick to handle soft divergences and the Lee-Nauenberg (LN) theorem for collinear singularities. We show that this is inconsistent in the presence of massless initial particles. Furthermore, we show that using the LN theorem with such initial states introduces a non-convergent infinite series of diagrams at any fixed order in perturbation theory

  11. Carnot efficiency at divergent power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2017-05-01

    The widely debated feasibility of thermodynamic machines achieving Carnot efficiency at finite power has been convincingly dismissed. Yet, the common wisdom that efficiency can only be optimal in the limit of infinitely slow processes overlooks the dual scenario of infinitely fast processes. We corroborate that efficient engines at divergent power output are not theoretically impossible, framing our claims within the theory of Stochastic Thermodynamics. We inspect the case of an electronic quantum dot coupled to three particle reservoirs to illustrate the physical rationale.

  12. Ecological Divergence and the Origins of Intrinsic Postmating Isolation with Gene Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneil F. Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of intrinsic postmating isolation has received much attention, both historically and in recent studies of speciation genes. Intrinsic isolation often stems from between-locus genetic incompatibilities, where alleles that function well within species are incompatible with one another when brought together in the genome of a hybrid. It can be difficult for such incompatibilities to originate when populations diverge with gene flow, because deleterious genotypic combinations will be created and then purged by selection. However, it has been argued that if genes underlying incompatibilities are themselves subject to divergent selection, then they might overcome gene flow to diverge between populations, resulting in the origin of incompatibilities. Nonetheless, there has been little explicit mathematical exploration of such scenarios for the origin of intrinsic incompatibilities during ecological speciation with gene flow. Here we explore theoretical models for the origin of intrinsic isolation where genes subject to divergent natural selection also affect intrinsic isolation, either directly or via linkage disequilibrium with other loci. Such genes indeed overcome gene flow, diverge between populations, and thus result in the evolution of intrinsic isolation. We also examine barriers to neutral gene flow. Surprisingly, we find that intrinsic isolation sometimes weakens this barrier, by impeding differentiation via ecologically based divergent selection.

  13. Two families of astrophysical diverging lens models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Xinzhong; Rogers, Adam

    2018-03-01

    In the standard gravitational lensing scenario, rays from a background source are bent in the direction of a foreground lensing mass distribution. Diverging lens behaviour produces deflections in the opposite sense to gravitational lensing, and is also of astrophysical interest. In fact, diverging lensing due to compact distributions of plasma has been proposed as an explanation for the extreme scattering events that produce frequency-dependent dimming of extragalactic radio sources, and may also be related to the refractive radio wave phenomena observed to affect the flux density of pulsars. In this work we study the behaviour of two families of astrophysical diverging lenses in the geometric optics limit, the power law, and the exponential plasma lenses. Generally, the members of these model families show distinct behaviour in terms of image formation and magnification, however the inclusion of a finite core for certain power-law lenses can produce a caustic and critical curve morphology that is similar to the well-studied Gaussian plasma lens. Both model families can produce dual radial critical curves, a novel distinction from the tangential distortion usually produced by gravitational (converging) lenses. The deflection angle and magnification of a plasma lens vary with the observational frequency, producing wavelength-dependent magnifications that alter the amplitudes and the shape of the light curves. Thus, multiwavelength observations can be used to physically constrain the distribution of the electron density in such lenses.

  14. Parapatric genetic divergence among deep evolutionary lineages in the Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Brachyura, Portunoidea, Carcinidae), accounts for a sharp phylogeographic break in the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Temim; Kalkan, Evrim; Karhan, Selahattin Ünsal; Uzunova, Sonya; Keikhosravi, Alireza; Bilgin, Raşit; Schubart, Christoph D

    2018-04-11

    Recently, population genetic studies of Mediterranean marine species highlighted patterns of genetic divergence and phylogeographic breaks, due to the interplay between impacts of Pleistocene climate shifts and contemporary hydrographical barriers. These factors markedly shaped the distribution of marine organisms and their genetic makeup. The present study is part of an ongoing effort to understand the phylogeography and evolutionary history of the highly dispersive Mediterranean green crab, Carcinus aestuarii (Nardo, 1847), across the Mediterranean Sea. Recently, marked divergence between two highly separated haplogroups (genetic types I and II) of C. aestuarii was discerned across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait, suggesting an Early Pleistocene vicariant event. In order to better identify phylogeographic patterns in this species, a total of 263 individuals from 22 Mediterranean locations were analysed by comparing a 587 basepair region of the mitochondrial gene Cox1 (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1). The examined dataset is composed of both newly generated sequences (76) and previously investigated ones (187). Our results unveiled the occurrence of a highly divergent haplogroup (genetic type III) in the most north-eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Divergence between the most distinct type III and the common ancestor of both types I and II corresponds to the Early Pleistocene and coincides with the historical episode of separation between types I and II. Our results also revealed strong genetic divergence among adjacent regions (separating the Aegean and Marmara seas from the remaining distribution zone) and confirmed a sharp phylogeographic break across the Eastern Mediterranean. The recorded parapatric genetic divergence, with the potential existence of a contact zone between both groups in the Ionian Sea and notable differences in the demographic history, suggest the likely impact of paleoclimatic events, as well as past and contemporary oceanographic processes

  15. Para-petroleum industry: international context. Results of the 2002 inquiry carried out by GEP, CEP and M and IFP (part. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Fraysse, S.; Saniere, A.

    2003-01-01

    This article is the 2. part of the presentation of the inquiry about the 2002 economic results of the world para-petroleum industry: 1 - exploration-production: investments, geophysical activity (number of seismic survey teams, geophysical services market), drilling activity, construction of offshore production facilities (platforms construction, production equipments engineering), regional analysis (North America, North Sea, Latin America, Africa, Commonwealth of Independent States, Middle-East, Asia-Pacific). 2 - Refining and petrochemistry: economic context, refining industry expenses, fusions and results of refining companies, world petrochemical expenses, fusion and results of petrochemical companies. (J.S.)

  16. The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered...... we apply the key instrumental concepts and verify the various steps towards this alternative proof of the divergence theorem....

  17. Sympatric and allopatric divergence of MHC genes in threespine stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake Matthews

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can strongly affect the evolution of their hosts, but their effects on host diversification are less clear. In theory, contrasting parasite communities in different foraging habitats could generate divergent selection on hosts and promote ecological speciation. Immune systems are costly to maintain, adaptable, and an important component of individual fitness. As a result, immune system genes, such as those of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, can change rapidly in response to parasite-mediated selection. In threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus, as well as in other vertebrates, MHC genes have been linked with female mating preference, suggesting that divergent selection acting on MHC genes might influence speciation. Here, we examined genetic variation at MHC Class II loci of sticklebacks from two lakes with a limnetic and benthic species pair, and two lakes with a single species. In both lakes with species pairs, limnetics and benthics differed in their composition of MHC alleles, and limnetics had fewer MHC alleles per individual than benthics. Similar to the limnetics, the allopatric population with a pelagic phenotype had few MHC alleles per individual, suggesting a correlation between MHC genotype and foraging habitat. Using a simulation model we show that the diversity and composition of MHC alleles in a sympatric species pair depends on the amount of assortative mating and on the strength of parasite-mediated selection in adjacent foraging habitats. Our results indicate parallel divergence in the number of MHC alleles between sympatric stickleback species, possibly resulting from the contrasting parasite communities in littoral and pelagic habitats of lakes.

  18. Genetic surfing, not allopatric divergence, explains spatial sorting of mitochondrial haplotypes in venomous coralsnakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Jeffrey W; McEntee, Jay P; Drzich, Laura C; Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Smart, Utpal; Parkinson, Christopher L; Jezkova, Tereza; Smith, Eric N; Castoe, Todd A

    2016-07-01

    Strong spatial sorting of genetic variation in contiguous populations is often explained by local adaptation or secondary contact following allopatric divergence. A third explanation, spatial sorting by stochastic effects of range expansion, has been considered less often though theoretical models suggest it should be widespread, if ephemeral. In a study designed to delimit species within a clade of venomous coralsnakes, we identified an unusual pattern within the Texas coral snake (Micrurus tener): strong spatial sorting of divergent mitochondrial (mtDNA) lineages over a portion of its range, but weak sorting of these lineages elsewhere. We tested three alternative hypotheses to explain this pattern-local adaptation, secondary contact following allopatric divergence, and range expansion. Collectively, near panmixia of nuclear DNA, the signal of range expansion associated sampling drift, expansion origins in the Gulf Coast of Mexico, and species distribution modeling suggest that the spatial sorting of divergent mtDNA lineages within M. tener has resulted from genetic surfing of standing mtDNA variation-not local adaptation or allopatric divergence. Our findings highlight the potential for the stochastic effects of recent range expansion to mislead estimations of population divergence made from mtDNA, which may be exacerbated in systems with low vagility, ancestral mtDNA polymorphism, and male-biased dispersal. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Kernel and divergence techniques in high energy physics separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouř, Petr; Kůs, Václav; Franc, Jiří

    2017-10-01

    Binary decision trees under the Bayesian decision technique are used for supervised classification of high-dimensional data. We present a great potential of adaptive kernel density estimation as the nested separation method of the supervised binary divergence decision tree. Also, we provide a proof of alternative computing approach for kernel estimates utilizing Fourier transform. Further, we apply our method to Monte Carlo data set from the particle accelerator Tevatron at DØ experiment in Fermilab and provide final top-antitop signal separation results. We have achieved up to 82 % AUC while using the restricted feature selection entering the signal separation procedure.

  20. Variational divergence in wave scattering theory with Kirchhoffean trial functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent study of variational improvement of the Kirchhoff approximation for electromagnetic scattering by rough surfaces, a key ingredient in the variational principle was found to diverge for important configurations (e.g., backscatter) if the polarization had any vertical component. The cause and a cure of this divergence are discussed here. The divergence is demonstrated to occur for arbitrary perfectly conducting scatterers and its universal characterstics are determined, by means of a general divergence criterion that is derived. A variational cure for the divergence is prescribed, and it is tested successfully on a standard scattering model.

  1. Toxic hydrogen sulfide and dark caves: phenotypic and genetic divergence across two abiotic environmental gradients in Poecilia mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Michael; Dewitt, Thomas J; Schlupp, Ingo; García de León, Francisco J; Herrmann, Roger; Feulner, Philine G D; Tiedemann, Ralph; Plath, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Divergent natural selection drives evolutionary diversification. It creates phenotypic diversity by favoring developmental plasticity within populations or genetic differentiation and local adaptation among populations. We investigated phenotypic and genetic divergence in the livebearing fish Poecilia mexicana along two abiotic environmental gradients. These fish typically inhabit nonsulfidic surface rivers, but also colonized sulfidic and cave habitats. We assessed phenotypic variation among a factorial combination of habitat types using geometric and traditional morphometrics, and genetic divergence using quantitative and molecular genetic analyses. Fish in caves (sulfidic or not) exhibited reduced eyes and slender bodies. Fish from sulfidic habitats (surface or cave) exhibited larger heads and longer gill filaments. Common-garden rearing suggested that these morphological differences are partly heritable. Population genetic analyses using microsatellites as well as cytochrome b gene sequences indicate high population differentiation over small spatial scale and very low rates of gene flow, especially among different habitat types. This suggests that divergent environmental conditions constitute barriers to gene flow. Strong molecular divergence over short distances as well as phenotypic and quantitative genetic divergence across habitats in directions classic to fish ecomorphology suggest that divergent selection is structuring phenotypic variation in this system.

  2. The genomic distribution of intraspecific and interspecific sequence divergence of human segmental duplications relative to human/chimpanzee chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Evan E

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that chromosomal rearrangements harbor the molecular footprint of the biological phenomena which they induce, in the form, for instance, of changes in the sequence divergence rates of linked genes. So far, all the studies of these potential associations have focused on the relationship between structural changes and the rates of evolution of single-copy DNA and have tried to exclude segmental duplications (SDs. This is paradoxical, since SDs are one of the primary forces driving the evolution of structure and function in our genomes and have been linked not only with novel genes acquiring new functions, but also with overall higher DNA sequence divergence and major chromosomal rearrangements. Results Here we take the opposite view and focus on SDs. We analyze several of the features of SDs, including the rates of intraspecific divergence between paralogous copies of human SDs and of interspecific divergence between human SDs and chimpanzee DNA. We study how divergence measures relate to chromosomal rearrangements, while considering other factors that affect evolutionary rates in single copy DNA. Conclusion We find that interspecific SD divergence behaves similarly to divergence of single-copy DNA. In contrast, old and recent paralogous copies of SDs do present different patterns of intraspecific divergence. Also, we show that some relatively recent SDs accumulate in regions that carry inversions in sister lineages.

  3. The Eurozone Dynamic Cohesion: Convergence or Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Rusek

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The long term economic dynamics of the Eurozone’s original 12 countries (Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Finland, France is analyzed and compared. It is today increasingly recognized that the diverging competitiveness between the Eurozone members is at the root of the current crisis. But the competitiveness dynamics and its impact on the crucial fiscal and financial variables during the common currency existence is seldom analyzed and compared, especially as far as the different groups of countries (and/or different areas within the Eurozone are concerned.

  4. Diverging patterns with endogenous labor migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichlin, P; Rustichini, A

    1998-05-05

    "The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility." excerpt

  5. Projection Pursuit Through ϕ-Divergence Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Touboul

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In his 1985 article (“Projection pursuit”, Huber demonstrates the interest of his method to estimate a density from a data set in a simple given case. He considers the factorization of density through a Gaussian component and some residual density. Huber’s work is based on maximizing Kullback–Leibler divergence. Our proposal leads to a new algorithm. Furthermore, we will also consider the case when the density to be factorized is estimated from an i.i.d. sample. We will then propose a test for the factorization of the estimated density. Applications include a new test of fit pertaining to the elliptical copulas.

  6. Divergence-based tests for model diagnostic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hobza, Tomáš; Esteban, M. D.; Morales, D.; Marhuenda, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 13 (2008), s. 1702-1710 ISSN 0167-7152 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (ES) MTM2006-05693 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : goodness of fit * devergence statistics * GLM * model checking * bootstrap Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/SI/hobza-divergence-based%20tests%20for%20model%20diagnostic.pdf

  7. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Many firms assume that outsourcing partnerships may allow them to strengthen their overall competitiveness. Lured by its intuitive appeal, several enter into such partnerships, only to realize that they represent a marginal rather than a magical solution to their quest for increasing market...... SMEs. We discuss four relational expectations derived from the B2B literature on relational norms for addressing these divergences: Quality, frequency and scope of communication, role specifications and coordination of work nature of planning horizons, and trustworthiness and link these to relationship...

  8. SU-F-T-504: Non-Divergent Planning Method for Craniospinal Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, N; Bogue, J; Parsai, E [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Traditional Craniospinal Irradiation (CSI) planning techniques require careful field placement to allow optimal divergence and field overlap at depth, and measurement of skin gap. The result of this is a necessary field overlap resulting in dose heterogeneity in the spinal canal. A novel, nondivergent field matching method has been developed to allow simple treatment planning and delivery without the need to measure skin gap. Methods: The CSI patient was simulated in the prone, and a plan was developed. Bilateral cranial fields were designed with couch and collimator rotation to eliminate divergence with the upper spine field and minimize anterior divergence into the lenses. Spinal posterior-to-anterior fields were designed with the couch rotated to 90 degrees to allow gantry rotation to eliminate divergence at the match line, and the collimator rotated to 90 degrees to allow appropriate field blocking with the MLCs. A match line for the two spinal fields was placed and the gantry rotated to equal angles in opposite directions about the match line. Jaw positions were then defined to allow 1mm overlap at the match line to avoid cold spots. A traditional CSI plan was generated using diverging spinal fields, and a comparison between the two techniques was generated. Results: The non-divergent treatment plan was able to deliver a highly uniform dose to the spinal cord with a cold spot of only 95% and maximum point dose of 115.8%, as compared to traditional plan cold spots of 87% and hot spots of 132% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: A non-divergent method for planning CSI patients has been developed and clinically implemented. Planning requires some geometric manipulation in order to achieve an adequate dose distribution, however, it can help to manage cold spots and simplify the shifts needed between spinal fields.

  9. SU-F-T-504: Non-Divergent Planning Method for Craniospinal Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sperling, N; Bogue, J; Parsai, E

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Traditional Craniospinal Irradiation (CSI) planning techniques require careful field placement to allow optimal divergence and field overlap at depth, and measurement of skin gap. The result of this is a necessary field overlap resulting in dose heterogeneity in the spinal canal. A novel, nondivergent field matching method has been developed to allow simple treatment planning and delivery without the need to measure skin gap. Methods: The CSI patient was simulated in the prone, and a plan was developed. Bilateral cranial fields were designed with couch and collimator rotation to eliminate divergence with the upper spine field and minimize anterior divergence into the lenses. Spinal posterior-to-anterior fields were designed with the couch rotated to 90 degrees to allow gantry rotation to eliminate divergence at the match line, and the collimator rotated to 90 degrees to allow appropriate field blocking with the MLCs. A match line for the two spinal fields was placed and the gantry rotated to equal angles in opposite directions about the match line. Jaw positions were then defined to allow 1mm overlap at the match line to avoid cold spots. A traditional CSI plan was generated using diverging spinal fields, and a comparison between the two techniques was generated. Results: The non-divergent treatment plan was able to deliver a highly uniform dose to the spinal cord with a cold spot of only 95% and maximum point dose of 115.8%, as compared to traditional plan cold spots of 87% and hot spots of 132% of the prescription dose. Conclusion: A non-divergent method for planning CSI patients has been developed and clinically implemented. Planning requires some geometric manipulation in order to achieve an adequate dose distribution, however, it can help to manage cold spots and simplify the shifts needed between spinal fields.

  10. Tomographic retrieval of cloud liquid water fields from a single scanning microwave radiometer aboard a moving platform – Part 1: Field trial results from the Wakasa Bay experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Huang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomographic methods offer great potential for retrieving three-dimensional spatial distributions of cloud liquid water from radiometric observations by passive microwave sensors. Fixed tomographic systems require multiple radiometers, while mobile systems can use just a single radiometer. Part 1 (this paper examines the results from a limited cloud tomography trial with a single-radiometer airborne system carried out as part of the 2003 AMSR-E validation campaign over Wakasa Bay of the Sea of Japan. During this trial, the Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR and Microwave Imaging Radiometer (MIR aboard the NASA P-3 research aircraft provided a useful dataset for testing the cloud tomography method over a system of low-level clouds. We do tomographic retrievals with a constrained inversion algorithm using three configurations: PSR, MIR, and combined PSR and MIR data. The liquid water paths from the PSR retrieval are consistent with those from the MIR retrieval. The retrieved cloud field based on the combined data appears to be physically plausible and consistent with the cloud image obtained by a cloud radar. We find that some vertically-uniform clouds appear at high altitudes in the retrieved field where the radar shows clear sky. This is likely due to the sub-optimal data collection strategy. This sets the stage for Part 2 of this study that aims to define optimal data collection strategies using observation system simulation experiments.

  11. The effect of potential upon the high-temperature fatigue crack growth response of low-alloy steels. Part 1: Crack growth results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Moshier, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion-fatigue crack propagation experiments were conducted on several low-alloy steels in elevated temperature aqueous environments, and experimental parameters included temperature, sulfur content of the steel, applied potential level, and dissolved hydrogen (and in one case, dissolved oxygen) concentration in the water. Specimen potentials were controlled potentiostatically, and the observation (or non-observation) of accelerated fatigue crack growth rates was a complex function of the above parameters. Electrochemical results and the postulated explanation for the complex behavior are given in Part II

  12. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART B : Results and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Petitdidier, M.; Soula, S.; Masson, F.; Davila, J.; Doherty, P.; Elias, A.; Gadimova, S.; Makela, J.; Nava, B.; Radicella, S.; Richardson, J.; Touzani, A.; Girgea Team

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern solar terrestrial physics, atmospheric physics and space weather. This part B is devoted to the results and capacity building. Our network began in 1991, in solar terrestrial physics, by our participation in the two projects: International Equatorial Electrojet Year IEEY [1992-1993] and International Heliophysical Year IHY [2007-2009]. These two projects were mainly focused on the equatorial ionosphere in Africa. In Atmospheric physics our research focused on gravity waves in the framework of the African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis project n°1 [2005-2009 ], on hydrology in the Congo river basin and on lightning in Central Africa, the most lightning part of the world. In Vietnam the study of a broad climate data base highlighted global warming. In space weather, our results essentially concern the impact of solar events on global navigation satellite system GNSS and on the effects of solar events on the circulation of electric currents in the earth (GIC). This research began in the framework of the international space weather initiative project ISWI [2010-2012]. Finally, all these scientific projects have enabled young scientists from the South to publish original results and to obtain positions in their countries. These projects have also crossed disciplinary boundaries and defined a more diversified education which led to the training of specialists in a specific field with knowledge of related scientific fields.

  13. Reduction of angular divergence of laser-driven ion beams during their acceleration and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakova, M.; Pšikal, Jan; Margarone, Daniele; Maggiore, Mario; Korn, G.

    2015-05-01

    Laser plasma physics is a field of big interest because of its implications in basic science, fast ignition, medicine (i.e. hadrontherapy), astrophysics, material science, particle acceleration etc. 100-MeV class protons accelerated from the interaction of a short laser pulse with a thin target have been demonstrated. With continuing development of laser technology, greater and greater energies are expected, therefore projects focusing on various applications are being formed, e.g. ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser-Ion Acceleration). One of the main characteristic and crucial disadvantage of ion beams accelerated by ultra-short intense laser pulses is their large divergence, not suitable for the most of applications. In this paper two ways how to decrease beam divergence are proposed. Firstly, impact of different design of targets on beam divergence is studied by using 2D Particlein-cell simulations (PIC). Namely, various types of targets include at foils, curved foil and foils with diverse microstructures. Obtained results show that well-designed microstructures, i.e. a hole in the center of the target, can produce proton beam with the lowest divergence. Moreover, the particle beam accelerated from a curved foil has lower divergence compared to the beam from a flat foil. Secondly, another proposed method for the divergence reduction is using of a magnetic solenoid. The trajectories of the laser accelerated particles passing through the solenoid are modeled in a simple Matlab program. Results from PIC simulations are used as input in the program. The divergence is controlled by optimizing the magnetic field inside the solenoid and installing an aperture in front of the device.

  14. Quantum networks in divergence-free circuit QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rodriguez, A.; Rico, E.; Solano, E.; Egusquiza, I. L.

    2018-04-01

    Superconducting circuits are one of the leading quantum platforms for quantum technologies. With growing system complexity, it is of crucial importance to develop scalable circuit models that contain the minimum information required to predict the behaviour of the physical system. Based on microwave engineering methods, divergent and non-divergent Hamiltonian models in circuit quantum electrodynamics have been proposed to explain the dynamics of superconducting quantum networks coupled to infinite-dimensional systems, such as transmission lines and general impedance environments. Here, we study systematically common linear coupling configurations between networks and infinite-dimensional systems. The main result is that the simple Lagrangian models for these configurations present an intrinsic natural length that provides a natural ultraviolet cutoff. This length is due to the unavoidable dressing of the environment modes by the network. In this manner, the coupling parameters between their components correctly manifest their natural decoupling at high frequencies. Furthermore, we show the requirements to correctly separate infinite-dimensional coupled systems in local bases. We also compare our analytical results with other analytical and approximate methods available in the literature. Finally, we propose several applications of these general methods to analogue quantum simulation of multi-spin-boson models in non-perturbative coupling regimes.

  15. Experimental study and theoretical modelling of two-phase flow in a converging diverging nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmer-Olsen, Stale

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of high quality two-phase flows in converging-diverging nozzles is presented. The main objectives are the prediction of critical (choked) flow rates and the evolution of characteristic parameters towards the nozzle outlet. First, a thorough analysis of available models shows the importance of a correct modelling of the mechanical and thermal interactions between the gas and liquid phases. As a second step, a purely dispersed flow model is considered. The solution algorithm which is utilized describes accurately the critical (choked) flow conditions as well as the topology of the solutions. The dispersed flow model accounts for effects on the gas flow rate of the upstream and the downstream pressures, the liquid flow rate and the nozzle geometry. The pressure profile along the nozzle and the location of the critical cross-section are also well predicted. The flow is shown to switch from critical to sub-critical when the liquid flow rate is increased, all other control parameters at the inlet and the outlet maintained. This new finding is interpreted as a result of the possible location of the critical cross-section anywhere in the diverging part of the nozzle. Moreover, the experiments show that the critical (choked) gas flow rate depends on the inlet configuration of gas/liquid. In the third step, a careful analysis of the data is used as a basis for proposing a new dispersed-annular flow model. This model accounts for the liquid flowing both as a liquid film and as entrained droplets in the core, non-developed flow is accounted for as well as flow separation in the diffuser. Finally, advanced local measuring techniques of pressure, film thickness and film velocity have been developed in the course of the work. In particular film thickness measurements allowed the development of the flow structure to be understood. (author) [fr

  16. World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2011-02-01

    Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of selection, gene flow and demographic history on heterogeneous genomic divergence: three-spine sticklebacks in divergent environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Hansen, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous genomic divergence between populations may reflect selection, but should also be seen in conjunction with gene flow and drift, particularly population bottlenecks. Marine and freshwater three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations often exhibit different lateral armour plate morphs. Moreover, strikingly parallel genomic footprints across different marine-freshwater population pairs are interpreted as parallel evolution and gene reuse. Nevertheless, in some geographic regions like the North Sea and Baltic Sea, different patterns are observed. Freshwater populations in coastal regions are often dominated by marine morphs, suggesting that gene flow overwhelms selection, and genomic parallelism may also be less pronounced. We used RAD sequencing for analysing 28 888 SNPs in two marine and seven freshwater populations in Denmark, Europe. Freshwater populations represented a variety of environments: river populations accessible to gene flow from marine sticklebacks and large and small isolated lakes with and without fish predators. Sticklebacks in an accessible river environment showed minimal morphological and genomewide divergence from marine populations, supporting the hypothesis of gene flow overriding selection. Allele frequency spectra suggested bottlenecks in all freshwater populations, and particularly two small lake populations. However, genomic footprints ascribed to selection could nevertheless be identified. No genomic regions were consistent freshwater-marine outliers, and parallelism was much lower than in other comparable studies. Two genomic regions previously described to be under divergent selection in freshwater and marine populations were outliers between different freshwater populations. We ascribe these patterns to stronger environmental heterogeneity among freshwater populations in our study as compared to most other studies, although the demographic history involving bottlenecks should also be considered in the

  18. Sustainable gasification–biochar systems? A case-study of rice-husk gasification in Cambodia, Part II: Field trial results, carbon abatement, economic assessment and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackley, Simon; Carter, Sarah; Knowles, Tony; Middelink, Erik; Haefele, Stephan; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In part I we described the gasification technology and characterised the physio-chemical properties and environmental impacts of the rice husk char (RHC) by-product. In part II we present summary results from field trials using the RHC, and provide an estimate of the carbon abatement and economic evaluation of the system. Statistically significant yield increases are demonstrated for RHC addition in irrigated rice cultivation (33% increase in paddy rice yield for a 41.5 t (dry weight) RHC application per hectare). The carbon abatement from the RHC addition is approximately 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk; including energy generation from gasification this increases to ca. 0.86 tCO 2 t −1 . Assuming a carbon value of $5 t CO 2 t −1 , and agronomic value of $3 t −1 RHC based on the field trials, the economic value of the RHC varies from $9 t −1 (including only recalcitrant carbon) to $15 t −1 (including avoided emissions from energy production). We summarise results from parts I and II, concluding that the gasification–biochar system meets many of the criteria of sustainability, but requires better waste water management and more field trials to demonstrate repeatable agronomic efficacy of RHC application. - Highlights: ► Field trials show statistically significant rice yield increases using rice husk char (RHC). ► Carbon abatement of 0.42 t CO 2 t −1 rice husk from RHC production. ► Bioenergy generation via gasification gives carbon abatement of 0.44 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Total carbon abatement is therefore ca. 0.86 t CO 2 t −1 husk. ► Agronomic value from trials is $3 t −1 char; assuming $5 CO 2 t −1 , the total value of RHC is $9–$15 t −1 .

  19. Monoparametric family of metrics derived from classical Jensen-Shannon divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osán, Tristán M.; Bussandri, Diego G.; Lamberti, Pedro W.

    2018-04-01

    Jensen-Shannon divergence is a well known multi-purpose measure of dissimilarity between probability distributions. It has been proven that the square root of this quantity is a true metric in the sense that, in addition to the basic properties of a distance, it also satisfies the triangle inequality. In this work we extend this last result to prove that in fact it is possible to derive a monoparametric family of metrics from the classical Jensen-Shannon divergence. Motivated by our results, an application into the field of symbolic sequences segmentation is explored. Additionally, we analyze the possibility to extend this result into the quantum realm.

  20. Homo sapiens-Specific Binding Site Variants within Brain Exclusive Enhancers Are Subject to Accelerated Divergence across Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehra, Rabail; Abbasi, Amir Ali

    2018-03-01

    Empirical assessments of human accelerated noncoding DNA frgaments have delineated presence of many cis-regulatory elements. Enhancers make up an important category of such accelerated cis-regulatory elements that efficiently control the spatiotemporal expression of many developmental genes. Establishing plausible reasons for accelerated enhancer sequence divergence in Homo sapiens has been termed significant in various previously published studies. This acceleration by including closely related primates and archaic human data has the potential to open up evolutionary avenues for deducing present-day brain structure. This study relied on empirically confirmed brain exclusive enhancers to avoid any misjudgments about their regulatory status and categorized among them a subset of enhancers with an exceptionally accelerated rate of lineage specific divergence in humans. In this assorted set, 13 distinct transcription factor binding sites were located that possessed unique existence in humans. Three of 13 such sites belonging to transcription factors SOX2, RUNX1/3, and FOS/JUND possessed single nucleotide variants that made them unique to H. sapiens upon comparisons with Neandertal and Denisovan orthologous sequences. These variants modifying the binding sites in modern human lineage were further substantiated as single nucleotide polymorphisms via exploiting 1000 Genomes Project Phase3 data. Long range haplotype based tests laid out evidence of positive selection to be governing in African population on two of the modern human motif modifying alleles with strongest results for SOX2 binding site. In sum, our study acknowledges acceleration in noncoding regulatory landscape of the genome and highlights functional parts within it to have undergone accelerated divergence in present-day human population.

  1. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 3, Results, Variability, and Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is part three of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. The radionuclides of interest are the 238 U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235 U; 11 nuclides), and the 232 Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87 Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14 C and 3 H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137 Cs- 137m Ba, 129 I and 90 Sr- 90 Y. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222 Rn, 220 Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Part two described the methods used to organize the data collected in part one and segregate it into the ages and genders defined by the study, imputed missing values from the existing data, apportioned activity in bone, and imputed activity in hollow organ contents and the remainder of the body. This paper estimates equivalent doses to target tissues from source regions and maps target tissues to lists of tissues with International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) tissue-weighting factors or to surrogate tissue regions when there is no direct match. Effective doses, using ICRP tissue-weighting factors recommended in 1977, 1990, and 2007, are then calculated, and an upper bound of variability of the effective dose is estimated by calculating the average coefficients of variation (CV), assuming all variance is due to variability. Most of the data were for adult males, whose average annual effective dose is estimated to be 337 (micro)Sv y -1 (CV = 0.65, geometric mean

  2. Minimization and parameter estimation for seminorm regularization models with I-divergence constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teuber, T; Steidl, G; Chan, R H

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the minimization of seminorms ‖L · ‖ on R n under the constraint of a bounded I-divergence D(b, H · ) for rather general linear operators H and L. The I-divergence is also known as Kullback–Leibler divergence and appears in many models in imaging science, in particular when dealing with Poisson data but also in the case of multiplicative Gamma noise. Often H represents, e.g., a linear blur operator and L is some discrete derivative or frame analysis operator. A central part of this paper consists in proving relations between the parameters of I-divergence constrained and penalized problems. To solve the I-divergence constrained problem, we consider various first-order primal–dual algorithms which reduce the problem to the solution of certain proximal minimization problems in each iteration step. One of these proximation problems is an I-divergence constrained least-squares problem which can be solved based on Morozov’s discrepancy principle by a Newton method. We prove that these algorithms produce not only a sequence of vectors which converges to a minimizer of the constrained problem but also a sequence of parameters which converges to a regularization parameter so that the corresponding penalized problem has the same solution. Furthermore, we derive a rule for automatically setting the constraint parameter for data corrupted by multiplicative Gamma noise. The performance of the various algorithms is finally demonstrated for different image restoration tasks both for images corrupted by Poisson noise and multiplicative Gamma noise. (paper)

  3. Study of the Effect of Temporal Sampling Frequency on DSCOVR Observations Using the GEOS-5 Nature Run Results. Part II; Cloud Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdaway, Daniel; Yang, Yuekui

    2016-01-01

    This is the second part of a study on how temporal sampling frequency affects satellite retrievals in support of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission. Continuing from Part 1, which looked at Earth's radiation budget, this paper presents the effect of sampling frequency on DSCOVR-derived cloud fraction. The output from NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) Nature Run is used as the "truth". The effect of temporal resolution on potential DSCOVR observations is assessed by subsampling the full Nature Run data. A set of metrics, including uncertainty and absolute error in the subsampled time series, correlation between the original and the subsamples, and Fourier analysis have been used for this study. Results show that, for a given sampling frequency, the uncertainties in the annual mean cloud fraction of the sunlit half of the Earth are larger over land than over ocean. Analysis of correlation coefficients between the subsamples and the original time series demonstrates that even though sampling at certain longer time intervals may not increase the uncertainty in the mean, the subsampled time series is further and further away from the "truth" as the sampling interval becomes larger and larger. Fourier analysis shows that the simulated DSCOVR cloud fraction has underlying periodical features at certain time intervals, such as 8, 12, and 24 h. If the data is subsampled at these frequencies, the uncertainties in the mean cloud fraction are higher. These results provide helpful insights for the DSCOVR temporal sampling strategy.

  4. Divergence in technical efficiency of electric utilities: Evidence from the SAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunky, Vishal Chandr

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the convergence pattern of technical efficiency of the South Africa Power Pool (SAPP) utilities over the period April 2003–March 2010 by means of parametric and non-parametric techniques. Technical efficiency scores are computed via both stochastic frontier analysis and data envelopment analysis. Mixed results are obtained from the neoclassical convergence approaches. In addition, distribution dynamics methods reveal some evidence of club-formation and this result is supported with the occurrence of γ-divergence. Taken as a whole, technical efficiency is found to diverge among the utilities operating in the power pool. -- Highlights: •The technical efficiency convergence pattern within the South Africa Power Pool is assessed. •Mixed results are obtained from the parametric neoclassical convergence approaches. •Evidence of divergence is revealed by the non-parametric convergence approaches

  5. Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross

  6. The relation between gray matter morphology and divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    Full Text Available Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted.

  7. Results of triple muscle (sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius pedicle bone grafting in neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fractures are notorious for complications like avascular necrosis and nonunion. In developing countries, various factors such as illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, ignorance are responsible for the delay in surgery. Neglected fracture neck femur always poses a formidable challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of triple muscle pedicle bone grafting using sartorius, tensor fasciae latae and part of gluteus medius in neglected femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study with medical record of 50 patients, who were operated by open reduction, internal fixation along with muscle pedicle bone grafting by the anterior approach. After open reduction, two to three cancellous screws (6.5 mm were used for internal fixation in all cases. A bony chunk of the whole anterior superior iliac spine of 1 cm thickness, 1 cm width and 4.5 cm length, taken from the iliac crest comprised of muscle pedicle of sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius. Then the graft with all three muscles mobilized and put in the trough made over the anterior or anterosuperior aspect of the femoral head. The graft was fixed with one or two 4.5 mm self-tapping cortical screw in anterior to posterior direction. Results: 14 patients were lost to followup. The results were based on 36 patients. We observed that in our series, there was union in 34, out of 36 (94.4% patients. All patients were within the age group of 15-51 years (average 38 years with displaced neglected femoral neck fracture of ≥30 days. Mean time taken for full clinicoradiological union was 14 weeks (range-10-24 weeks. Conclusion: Triple muscle pedicle bone grafting gives satisfactory results for neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

  8. Adaptive divergence in resistance to herbivores in Datura stramonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Castillo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Defensive traits exhibited by plants vary widely across populations. Heritable phenotypic differentiation is likely to be produced by genetic drift and spatially restricted gene flow between populations. However, spatially variable selection exerted by herbivores may also give rise to differences among populations. To explore to what extent these factors promote the among-population differentiation of plant resistance of 13 populations of Datura stramonium, we compared the degree of phenotypic differentiation (PST of leaf resistance traits (trichome density, atropine and scopolamine concentration against neutral genetic differentiation (FST at microsatellite loci. Results showed that phenotypic differentiation in defensive traits among-population is not consistent with divergence promoted by genetic drift and restricted gene flow alone. Phenotypic differentiation in scopolamine concentration was significantly higher than FST across the range of trait heritability values. In contrast, genetic differentiation in trichome density was different from FST only when heritability was very low. On the other hand, differentiation in atropine concentration differed from the neutral expectation when heritability was less than or equal to 0.3. In addition, we did not find a significant correlation between pair-wise neutral genetic distances and distances of phenotypic resistance traits. Our findings reinforce previous evidence that divergent natural selection exerted by herbivores has promoted the among-population phenotypic differentiation of defensive traits in D. stramonium.

  9. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. WORMHOLE: Novel Least Diverged Ortholog Prediction through Machine Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George L Sutphin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs between 6 eukaryotic species-humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at http://wormhole.jax.org/.

  11. WORMHOLE: Novel Least Diverged Ortholog Prediction through Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, George L.; Mahoney, J. Matthew; Sheppard, Keith; Walton, David O.; Korstanje, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs) between 6 eukaryotic species—humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at http://wormhole.jax.org/. PMID:27812085

  12. Vertical divergence of fogwater fluxes above a spruce forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, R.; Eugster, W.; Wrzesinsky, T.; Klemm, O.

    Two almost identical eddy covariance measurement setups were used to measure the fogwater fluxes to a forest ecosystem in the "Fichtelgebirge" mountains (Waldstein research site, 786 m a.s.l.) in Germany. During the first experiment, an intercomparison was carried out with both setups running simultaneously at the same measuring height on a meteorological tower, 12.5 m above the forest canopy. The results confirmed a close agreement of the turbulent fluxes between the two setups, and allowed to intercalibrate liquid water content (LWC) and gravitational fluxes. During the second experiment, the setups were mounted at a height of 12.5 and 3 m above the canopy, respectively. For the 22 fog events, a persistent negative flux divergence was observed with a greater downward flux at the upper level. To extrapolate the turbulent liquid water fluxes measured at height z to the canopy of height hc, a conversion factor 1/[1+0.116( z- hc)] was determined. For the fluxes of nonvolatile ions, no such correction is necessary since the net evaporation of the fog droplets appears to be the primary cause of the vertical flux divergence. Although the net evaporation reduces the liquid water flux reaching the canopy, it is not expected to change the absolute amount of ions dissolved in fogwater.

  13. Divergent primary moult-A rare moult sequence among Western Palaearctic passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Kiat

    Full Text Available Wing morphology strongly affects flight performance which may consequently decline during feather moult due to the creation of feather gaps in the wing. Hence, the size and shape of moult-related wing gap may directly affect flight capacity. Here I examined the rare divergent primary moult sequence compared to the more common descendant moult sequence. In the divergent moult, the focus of primary moult is shifted from P1 (primary feather numbered descendantly to another primary between P2 and P5, and then primaries are moulted in two concurrent waves, one descendant and the other ascendant. The result of this rare moult sequence is the splitting of the wing gap to two smaller gaps. Using a large moult database including 6,763 individuals of 32 Western Palaearctic passerine species, I found evidence of divergent moult only among 27 individuals of 12 species. I examined the speed of wing-feather moult for each individual that moulted divergently compared to a control group of individuals at the same moult stage which moulted following the common descending sequence. The results indicate that the sequence of primary moult and moult speed are correlated. Individuals which moulted divergently moulted their primaries with higher moult speed than descendant moulters. The applicability of this study is weakened by the dearth of moult data, thus making it difficult to draw conclusions for a large range of species. Ornithologists and bird ringers are therefore encouraged to collect more basic moult data during their field study.

  14. Growth divergence: a challenging opportunity for dendrochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Wilmking, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Dendrochronology is an essential cornerstone of paleoclimatology and the evaluation of climate change impacts on forest ecosystems. However, a growing body of literature indicates that the standard dendrochronological approach may too rigorously neglect individualistic tree-growth (e.g. Wilmking et al., 2004, Buras et al., 2016). Amongst others, these studies showed convincing evidence that individual trees of the same species sampled at one site expressed different long-term growth patterns and therefore differing climate-growth relationships. This phenomenon is commonly termed growth divergence (GD) and possibly weakens our ability to correctly estimate past climate variability as discussed in the context of the so-called divergence phenomenon (D'Arrigo et al., 2008). In this context, climate change may naturally select for trees on the stand-level which are better adapted to future conditions. Although GD has been reported for several sites, the standard dendrochronological approach yet does not consider the existence of GD. A possible reason for this methodological persistence is the lack of detailed information on the frequency, magnitude, and impact of GD occurrence. To assess GD occurrence and related tree-individual variations in climate-growth response we conducted a global GD study by using 134 ring-width data representing 52 tree species and 16 genera distributed over 115 sites across 22 countries. Our analyses clearly reveal GD to be a common phenomenon as occurring in 85 % of all sites. GD was clearly related to the degree of tree-individual differences in climate-growth response. Respective transfer functions which appropriately accounted for GD by selection of tree-cohorts with a high share of long-term variance on average increased the precision and stability of tree-ring based climate reconstructions. Concluding, incorporation of GD assessments into the dendrochronological approach has a strong potential to improve the precision of our predictions

  15. Exact cancellation of quadratic divergences in top condensation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumhofer, A.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the hierarchy problem and the corresponding quadratic divergences in the top mode Standard Model. Quadratic divergences appear at each order 1/N c since fermionic and bosonic contributions are of different order 1/N c . It is shown that the full dynamical system to all orders in 1/N c admits a solution, where the sum of all quadratic divergent contributions disappears. ((orig.))

  16. Pollinator Competition as a Driver of Floral Divergence: An Experimental Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan J Temeles

    Full Text Available Optimal foraging models of floral divergence predict that competition between two different types of pollinators will result in partitioning, increased assortative mating, and divergence of two floral phenotypes. We tested these predictions in a tropical plant-pollinator system using sexes of purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Anthracothorax jugularis as the pollinators, red and yellow inflorescence morphs of Heliconia caribaea as the plants, and fluorescent dyes as pollen analogs in an enclosed outdoor garden. When foraging alone, males exhibited a significant preference for the yellow morph of H. caribaea, whereas females exhibited no preference. In competition, males maintained their preference for the yellow morph and through aggression caused females to over-visit the red morph, resulting in resource partitioning. Competition significantly increased within-morph dye transfer (assortative mating relative to non-competitive environments. Competition and partitioning of color morphs by sexes of purple-throated caribs also resulted in selection for floral divergence as measured by dye deposition on stigmas. Red and yellow morphs did not differ significantly in dye deposition in the competition trials, but differences in dye deposition and preferences for morphs when sexes of purple-throated caribs foraged alone implied fixation of one or the other color morph in the absence of competition. Competition also resulted in selection for divergence in corolla length, with the red morph experiencing directional selection for longer corollas and the yellow morph experiencing stabilizing selection on corolla length. Our results thus support predictions of foraging models of floral divergence and indicate that pollinator competition is a viable mechanism for divergence in floral traits of plants.

  17. Involution-dependent constants and the cancellation of divergences in the 1-loop open string amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, G.

    1987-12-01

    We recalculate the bosonic 1-loop open string scattering amplitude using the results of the bosonic 1-loop closed string amplitude. The results show explicitly how the cancellation of divergences depends upon of a set of involution-dependent constants which relate the torus to the cylinder and Moebius strip. Such a set of involution-dependent constants exists at each loop level and thus provides a means with which to study the cancellation of divergences and the connection between the world-sheet and internal symmetries. 14 refs., 3 figs

  18. All roads lead to weediness: Patterns of genomic divergence reveal extensive recurrent weedy rice origins from South Asian Oryza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongyun; Young, Nelson D; Reagon, Michael; Hyma, Katie E; Olsen, Kenneth M; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-06-01

    Weedy rice (Oryza spp.), a weedy relative of cultivated rice (O. sativa), infests and persists in cultivated rice fields worldwide. Many weedy rice populations have evolved similar adaptive traits, considered part of the 'agricultural weed syndrome', making this an ideal model to study the genetic basis of parallel evolution. Understanding parallel evolution hinges on accurate knowledge of the genetic background and origins of existing weedy rice groups. Using population structure analyses of South Asian and US weedy rice, we show that weeds in South Asia have highly heterogeneous genetic backgrounds, with ancestry contributions both from cultivated varieties (aus and indica) and wild rice. Moreover, the two main groups of weedy rice in the USA, which are also related to aus and indica cultivars, constitute a separate origin from that of Asian weeds. Weedy rice populations in South Asia largely converge on presence of red pericarps and awns and on ease of shattering. Genomewide divergence scans between weed groups from the USA and South Asia, and their crop relatives are enriched for loci involved in metabolic processes. Some candidate genes related to iconic weedy traits and competitiveness are highly divergent between some weed-crop pairs, but are not shared among all weed-crop comparisons. Our results show that weedy rice is an extreme example of recurrent evolution, and suggest that most populations are evolving their weedy traits through different genetic mechanisms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Culturally divergent responses to mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma-Kellams, Christine; Blascovich, Jim

    2011-08-01

    Two experiments compared the effects of death thoughts, or mortality salience, on European and Asian Americans. Research on terror management theory has demonstrated that in Western cultural groups, individuals typically employ self-protective strategies in the face of death-related thoughts. Given fundamental East-West differences in self-construal (i.e., the independent vs. interdependent self), we predicted that members of Eastern cultural groups would affirm other people, rather than defend and affirm the self, after encountering conditions of mortality salience. We primed European Americans and Asian Americans with either a death or a control prime and examined the effect of this manipulation on attitudes about a person who violates cultural norms (Study 1) and on attributions about the plight of an innocent victim (Study 2). Mortality salience promoted culturally divergent responses, leading European Americans to defend the self and Asian Americans to defend other people.

  20. Process model simulations of the divergence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Evans, M. N.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Hughes, M. K.; Kaplan, A.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2007-12-01

    We explore the extent to which the Vaganov-Shashkin (VS) model of conifer tree-ring formation can explain evidence for changing relationships between climate and tree growth over recent decades. The VS model is driven by daily environmental forcing (temperature, soil moisture, and solar radiation), and simulates tree-ring growth cell-by-cell as a function of the most limiting environmental control. This simplified representation of tree physiology allows us to examine using a selection of case studies whether instances of divergence may be explained in terms of changes in limiting environmental dependencies or transient climate change. Identification of model-data differences permits further exploration of the effects of tree-ring standardization, atmospheric composition, and additional non-climatic factors.

  1. Hamiltonian mechanics and divergence-free fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1986-08-01

    The field lines, or integral curves, of a divergence-free field in three dimensions are shown to be topologically equivalent to the trajectories of a Hamiltonian with two degrees of freedom. The consideration of fields that depend on a parameter allow the construction of a canonical perturbation theory which is valid even if the perturbation is large. If the parametric dependence of the magnetic, or the vorticity field is interpreted as time dependence, evolution equations are obtained which give Kelvin's theorem or the flux conservation theorem for ideal fluids and plasmas. The Hamiltonian methods prove especially useful for study of fields in which the field lines must be known throughout a volume of space

  2. Some Divergence Properties of Asset Price Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stummer

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We consider asset price processes Xt which are weak solutions of one-dimensional stochastic differential equations of the form (equation (2 Such price models can be interpreted as non-lognormally-distributed generalizations of the geometric Brownian motion. We study properties of the Iα-divergence between the law of the solution Xt and the corresponding drift-less measure (the special case α=1 is the relative entropy. This will be applied to some context in statistical information theory as well as to arbitrage theory and contingent claim valuation. For instance, the seminal option pricing theorems of Black-Scholes and Merton appear as a special case.

  3. DIVERGING DISCOURSES ON THE SYR DARYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke Kraak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic mission of the Soviet Union has transformed Central Asia’s Syr Darya River into a governable entity. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the river system disintegrated and conflict arose over the operation of the main dam and reservoir of the river: the Toktogul. Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have widely different and diverging sanctioned discourses on how the dam should be operated and on the nature of the water itself. These discourses have had a significant impact on the hydro-politics of the river basin and the operation of the dam. The central argument of this paper is that both the decline of the Aral Sea, and the potential conflict between the states are driven by the same modernist governmentality of the river.

  4. Evaluation of 5-year-old children with complete cleft lip and palate: Multicenter study. Part 1: Lip and nose aesthetic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissaux, Caroline; Bodin, Frédéric; Grollemund, Bruno; Picard, Arnaud; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Morand, Béatrice; James, Isabelle; Kauffmann, Isabelle; Bruant-Rodier, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Cleft surgery is marked by all the controversies and the multiplication of protocols, as it has been shown by the Eurocleft study. The objective of this pilot study is to start a comparison and analyzing procedure between primary surgical protocols in French centers. Four French centers with different primary surgical protocols for cleft lip and palate repair, have accepted to be involved in this retrospective study. In each center, 20 consecutive patients with complete cleft lip and palate (10 UCLP and 10 BCLP per center), non syndromic, have been evaluated at a mean age of 5 [4,6]. In this first part, the aesthetic results of nose and lip repair were assessed based on the scale established by Mortier et al. (1997). Considering nose outcome, primary cleft repair surgery including a nasal dissection gives a statistically significant benefit in terms of septum deviation. Considering lip result, muscular dehiscence rate is significantly higher in BCLP patients with a two-stage lip closure. The centers using Millard one-stage lip closure do not have uniform results. For UCLP patients, the quality of scar is not statistically different between Skoog and Millard techniques. Primary results based on a simple, reproducible evaluation protocol. Extension to other centers required. Therapeutic study. Level III/retrospective multicenter comparative study. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Part-Time Community-College Faculty and the Desire for Full-Time Tenure-Track Positions: Results of a Single Institution Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Dan

    2005-01-01

    According to data derived from a community-college survey in the state of Washington, the majority of part-time faculty prefer full-time work. Using a logit regression analysis, the study reported in this paper suggests that typical part-timers enter their part-time teaching situations with the intent of becoming full-time, but gradually become…

  6. DAST in Flight Showing Diverging Wingtip Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    normal stiffness. This was done because stiffness requires structural weight but ensures freedom from flutter-an uncontrolled, divergent oscillation of the structure, driven by aerodynamic forces and resulting in structural failure. The program used refined theoretical tools to predict at what speed flutter would occur. It then designed a high-response control system to counteract the motion and permit a much lighter wing structure. The wing had, in effect, 'electronic stiffness.' Flight research with this concept was extremely hazardous because an error in either the flutter prediction or control system implementation would result in wing structural failure and the loss of the vehicle. Because of this, flight demonstration of a sub-scale vehicle made sense from the standpoint of both safety and cost. The program anticipated structural failure during the course of the flight research. The Firebee II was a supersonic drone selected as the DAST testbed because its wing could be easily replaced, it used only tail-mounted control surfaces, and it was available as surplus from the U. S. Air Force. It was capable of 5-g turns (that is, turns producing acceleration equal to 5 times that of gravity). Langley outfitted a drone with an aeroelastic, supercritical research wing suitable for a Mach 0.98 cruise transport with a predicted flutter speed of Mach 0.95 at an altitude of 25,000 feet. Dryden and Langley, in conjunction with Boeing, designed and fabricated a digital flutter suppression system (FSS). Dryden developed an RPRV (remotely piloted research vehicle) flight control system; integrated the wing, FSS, and vehicle systems; and conducted the flight program. In addition to a digital flight control system and aeroelastic wings, each DAST drone had research equipment mounted in its nose and a mid-air retrieval system in its tail. The drones were originally launched from the NASA B-52 bomber and later from a DC-130. The DAST vehicle's flight was monitored from the sky by an F

  7. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li; Ho, Chuan-Wen; Chiang, Yu-Chung; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Hwang, Chi-Chuan; Ge, Xue-Jun; Chen, Charles; Wu, Tai-Han; Chou, Chang-Hung; Huang, Hao-Jen; Gojobori, Takashi; Osada, Naoki; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  8. Genetic divergence is decoupled from ecological diversification in the Hawaiian Nesosydne planthoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch Goodman, Kari; Welter, Stephen C; Roderick, George K

    2012-09-01

    Adaptive radiation involves ecological shifts coupled with isolation of gene pools. However, we know little about what drives the initial stages of divergence. We study a system in which ecological diversification is found within a chronologically well-defined geological matrix to provide insight into this enigmatic phase of radiation. We tested the hypothesis that a period of geographic isolation precedes ecological specialization in an adaptive radiation of host-specialized Hawaiian planthoppers. We examined population structure and history using mitochondrial and multiple independent microsatellite loci in a species whose geographic distribution on the island of Hawaii enabled us to observe the chronology of divergence in its very earliest stages. We found that genetic divergence is associated with geographic features but not different plant hosts and that divergence times are very recent and on the same timescales as the dynamic geology of the island. Our results suggest an important role for geography in the dynamics of the early stages of divergence. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Wetlands explain most in the genetic divergence pattern of Oncomelania hupensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lu; Liu, Yang; Liao, Jishan; Gong, Peng

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the divergence patterns of hosts could shed lights on the prediction of their parasite transmission. No effort has been devoted to understand the drivers of genetic divergence pattern of Oncomelania hupensis, the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum. Based on a compilation of two O. hupensis gene datasets covering a wide geographic range in China and an array of geographical distance and environmental dissimilarity metrics built from earth observation data and ecological niche modeling, we conducted causal modeling analysis via simple, partial Mantel test and local polynomial fitting to understand the interactions among isolation-by-distance, isolation-by-environment, and genetic divergence. We found that geography contributes more to genetic divergence than environmental isolation, and among all variables involved, wetland showed the strongest correlation with the genetic pairwise distances. These results suggested that in China, O. hupensis dispersal is strongly linked to the distribution of wetlands, and the current divergence pattern of both O. hupensis and schistosomiasis might be altered due to the changed wetland pattern with the accomplishment of the Three Gorges Dam and the South-to-North water transfer project. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Divergence in sex steroid hormone signaling between sympatric species of Japanese threespine stickleback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kitano

    Full Text Available Sex steroids mediate the expression of sexually dimorphic or sex-specific traits that are important both for mate choice within species and for behavioral isolation between species. We investigated divergence in sex steroid signaling between two sympatric species of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus: the Japan Sea form and the Pacific Ocean form. These sympatric forms diverge in both male display traits and female mate choice behaviors, which together contribute to asymmetric behavioral isolation in sympatry. Here, we found that plasma levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol differed between spawning females of the two sympatric forms. Transcript levels of follicle-stimulating hormone-β (FSHβ gene were also higher in the pituitary gland of spawning Japan Sea females than in the pituitary gland of spawning Pacific Ocean females. By contrast, none of the sex steroids examined were significantly different between nesting males of the two forms. However, combining the plasma sex steroid data with testis transcriptome data suggested that the efficiency of the conversion of testosterone into 11-ketotestosterone has likely diverged between forms. Within forms, plasma testosterone levels in males were significantly correlated with male body size, a trait important for female mate choice in the two sympatric species. These results demonstrate that substantial divergence in sex steroid signaling can occur between incipient sympatric species. We suggest that investigation of the genetic and ecological mechanisms underlying divergence in hormonal signaling between incipient sympatric species will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of speciation in animals.

  11. Sensible and latent heat forced divergent circulations in the West African Monsoon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagos, S.; Zhang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Field properties of divergent circulation are utilized to identify the roles of various diabatic processes in forcing moisture transport in the dynamics of the West African Monsoon and its seasonal cycle. In this analysis, the divergence field is treated as a set of point sources and is partitioned into two sub-sets corresponding to latent heat release and surface sensible heat flux at each respective point. The divergent circulation associated with each set is then calculated from the Poisson's equation using Gauss-Seidel iteration. Moisture transport by each set of divergent circulation is subsequently estimated. The results show different roles of the divergent circulations forced by surface sensible and latent heating in the monsoon dynamics. Surface sensible heating drives a shallow meridional circulation, which transports moisture deep into the continent at the polar side of the monsoon rain band and thereby promotes the seasonal northward migration of monsoon precipitation during the monsoon onset season. In contrast, the circulation directly associated with latent heating is deep and the corresponding moisture convergence is within the region of precipitation. Latent heating also induces dry air advection from the north. Neither effect promotes the seasonal northward migration of precipitation. The relative contributions of the processes associated with latent and sensible heating to the net moisture convergence, and hence the seasonal evolution of monsoon precipitation, depend on the background moisture.

  12. Evidence for Divergent Evolution of Growth Temperature Preference in Sympatric Saccharomyces Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Paula; Valério, Elisabete; Correia, Cláudia; de Almeida, João M. G. C. F.; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The genus Saccharomyces currently includes eight species in addition to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most of which can be consistently isolated from tree bark and soil. We recently found sympatric pairs of Saccharomyces species, composed of one cryotolerant and one thermotolerant species in oak bark samples of various geographic origins. In order to contribute to explain the occurrence in sympatry of Saccharomyces species, we screened Saccharomyces genomic data for protein divergence that might be correlated to distinct growth temperature preferences of the species, using the dN/dS ratio as a measure of protein evolution rates and pair-wise species comparisons. In addition to proteins previously implicated in growth at suboptimal temperatures, we found that glycolytic enzymes were among the proteins exhibiting higher than expected divergence when one cryotolerant and one thermotolerant species are compared. By measuring glycolytic fluxes and glycolytic enzymatic activities in different species and at different temperatures, we subsequently show that the unusual divergence of glycolytic genes may be related to divergent evolution of the glycolytic pathway aligning its performance to the growth temperature profiles of the different species. In general, our results support the view that growth temperature preference is a trait that may have undergone divergent selection in the course of ecological speciation in Saccharomyces. PMID:21674061

  13. Adaptive divergence with gene flow in incipient speciation of Miscanthus floridulus / sinensis complex (Poaceae)

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chao-Li

    2014-11-11

    Young incipient species provide ideal materials for untangling the process of ecological speciation in the presence of gene flow. The Miscanthus floridulus/sinensis complex exhibits diverse phenotypic and ecological differences despite recent divergence (approximately 1.59million years ago). To elucidate the process of genetic differentiation during early stages of ecological speciation, we analyzed genomic divergence in the Miscanthus complex using 72 randomly selected genes from a newly assembled transcriptome. In this study, rampant gene flow was detected between species, estimated as M=3.36x10(-9) to 1.20x10(-6), resulting in contradicting phylogenies across loci. Nevertheless, beast analyses revealed the species identity and the effects of extrinsic cohesive forces that counteracted the non-stop introgression. As expected, early in speciation with gene flow, only 3-13 loci were highly diverged; two to five outliers (approximately 2.78-6.94% of the genome) were characterized by strong linkage disequilibrium, and asymmetrically distributed among ecotypes, indicating footprints of diversifying selection. In conclusion, ecological speciation of incipient species of Miscanthus probably followed the parapatric model, whereas allopatric speciation cannot be completely ruled out, especially between the geographically isolated northern and southern M.sinensis, for which no significant gene flow across oceanic barriers was detected. Divergence between local ecotypes in early-stage speciation began at a few genomic regions under the influence of natural selection and divergence hitchhiking that overcame gene flow.

  14. Summation of all-loop UV divergences in maximally supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlakov, A.T.; Kazakov, D.I.; Tolkachev, D.M.; Vlasenko, D.E.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the leading and subleading UV divergences for the four-point on-shell scattering amplitudes in D=6,8,10 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in the planar limit. These theories belong to the class of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories and presumably possess distinguished properties beyond perturbation theory. In the previous works, we obtained the recursive relations that allow one to get the leading and subleading divergences in all loops in a pure algebraic way. The all loop summation of the leading divergences is performed with the help of the differential equations which are the generalization of the RG equations for non-renormalizable theories. Here we mainly focus on solving and analyzing these equations. We discuss the properties of the obtained solutions and interpretation of the results. The key issue is that the summation of infinite series for the leading and the subleading divergences does improve the situation and does not allow one to remove the regularization and obtain the finite answer. This means that despite numerous cancellations of divergent diagrams these theories remain non-renormalizable.

  15. Genetic divergence among interspecific Paspalum hybrids based on seed production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramos Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of genetic divergence as a basis for identifying superior individuals, with greater heterozygosity, is important in view of the difficulty when selecting of dissimilar genotypes exhibiting high average for interest traits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic divergence and the expression of seed production traits in seventeen apomictic Paspalum plicatulum × Paspalum guenoarum hybrids and two male parents (P. guenoarum. A randomized block design was used, with genotypes individually arranged into ten blocks. The following traits were assessed: total number of tillers/plant (TT, reproductive tiller/plant (RT, number of racemes per inflorescence (NRI, reproductive tiller height (RTH, inflorescence rachis length (IRL, number of seeds/inflorescence (NSI, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS and seed production (SP. Genetic divergence among the genotypes was estimated using the Tocher method and UPGMA clustering, based on the generalized Mahalanobis distance (D2 ii’. The Tocher and UPGMA optimization methods showed high concordance. The traits that most contributed to genetic divergence were RTH (23.59%, IRL (21.63%, WTS (16.67% and SP (14.23%. The presence of genetic diversity made it possible to identify divergent genotypes and those with high means for the traits studied, allowing the selection of genotypes with significant breeding potential. Repeated cross-breeding of female superior plants with the genotypes Azulão and H20 can result in a high heterosis effect on seed production characteristics.

  16. Summation of all-loop UV divergences in maximally supersymmetric gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borlakov, A.T. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Kazakov, D.I. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,Dubna (Russian Federation); Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics,Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Tolkachev, D.M. [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research,Dubna (Russian Federation); Stepanov Institute of Physics,Minsk (Belarus); Vlasenko, D.E. [Department of Physics, South Federal State University,Rostov-Don (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-29

    We consider the leading and subleading UV divergences for the four-point on-shell scattering amplitudes in D=6,8,10 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories in the planar limit. These theories belong to the class of maximally supersymmetric gauge theories and presumably possess distinguished properties beyond perturbation theory. In the previous works, we obtained the recursive relations that allow one to get the leading and subleading divergences in all loops in a pure algebraic way. The all loop summation of the leading divergences is performed with the help of the differential equations which are the generalization of the RG equations for non-renormalizable theories. Here we mainly focus on solving and analyzing these equations. We discuss the properties of the obtained solutions and interpretation of the results. The key issue is that the summation of infinite series for the leading and the subleading divergences does improve the situation and does not allow one to remove the regularization and obtain the finite answer. This means that despite numerous cancellations of divergent diagrams these theories remain non-renormalizable.

  17. Molecular Evolution and Expression Divergence of HMT Gene Family in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine methyltransferase (HMT converts homocysteine to methionine using S-methylmethionine (SMM or S-adenosylmethionine (SAM as methyl donors in organisms, playing an important role in supplying methionine for the growth and the development of plants. To better understand the functions of the HMT genes in plants, we conducted a wide evolution and expression analysis of these genes. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationship showed that the HMT gene family was divided into Class 1 and Class 2. In Class 1, HMTs were only found in seed plants, while Class 2 presented in all land plants, which hinted that the HMT genes might have diverged in seed plants. The analysis of gene structures and selection pressures showed that they were relatively conserved during evolution. However, type I functional divergence had been detected in the HMTs. Furthermore, the expression profiles of HMTs showed their distinct expression patterns in different tissues, in which some HMTs were widely expressed in various organs, whereas the others were highly expressed in some specific organs, such as seeds or leaves. Therefore, according to our results in the evolution, functional divergence, and expression, the HMT genes might have diverged during evolution. Further analysis in the expression patterns of AthHMTs with their methyl donors suggested that the diverged HMTs might be related to supply methionine for the development of plant seeds.

  18. Genetic Coupling of Female Mate Choice with Polygenic Ecological Divergence Facilitates Stickleback Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Rachael A; Arnegard, Matthew E; Conte, Gina L; Best, Jacob; Bedford, Nicole L; McCann, Shaugnessy R; Dubin, Matthew E; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Jones, Felicity C; Kingsley, David M; Schluter, Dolph; Peichel, Catherine L

    2017-11-06

    Ecological speciation with gene flow is widespread in nature [1], but it presents a conundrum: how are associations between traits under divergent natural selection and traits that contribute to assortative mating maintained? Theoretical models suggest that genetic mechanisms inhibiting free recombination between loci underlying these two types of traits (hereafter, "genetic coupling") can facilitate speciation [2-4]. Here, we perform a direct test for genetic coupling by mapping both divergent traits and female mate choice in a classic model of ecological speciation: sympatric benthic and limnetic threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). By measuring mate choice in F2 hybrid females, we allowed for recombination between loci underlying assortative mating and those under divergent ecological selection. In semi-natural mating arenas in which females had access to both benthic and limnetic males, we found that F2 females mated with males similar to themselves in body size and shape. In addition, we found two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with female mate choice that also predicted female morphology along the benthic-limnetic trait axis. Furthermore, a polygenic genetic model that explains adaptation to contrasting benthic and limnetic feeding niches [5] also predicted F2 female mate choice. Together, these results provide empirical evidence that genetic coupling of assortative mating with traits under divergent ecological selection helps maintain species in the face of gene flow, despite a polygenic basis for adaptation to divergent environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Positive selection and propeptide repeats promote rapid interspecific divergence of a gastropod sperm protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, M E; Moy, G W; Vacquier, V D

    2000-03-01

    Male-specific proteins have increasingly been reported as targets of positive selection and are of special interest because of the role they may play in the evolution of reproductive isolation. We report the rapid interspecific divergence of cDNA encoding a major acrosomal protein of unknown function (TMAP) of sperm from five species of teguline gastropods. A mitochondrial DNA clock (calibrated by congeneric species divided by the Isthmus of Panama) estimates that these five species diverged 2-10 MYA. Inferred amino acid sequences reveal a propeptide that has diverged rapidly between species. The mature protein has diverged faster still due to high nonsynonymous substitution rates (> 25 nonsynonymous substitutions per site per 10(9) years). cDNA encoding the mature protein (89-100 residues) shows evidence of positive selection (Dn/Ds > 1) for 4 of 10 pairwise species comparisons. cDNA and predicted secondary-structure comparisons suggest that TMAP is neither orthologous nor paralogous to abalone lysin, and thus marks a second, phylogenetically independent, protein subject to strong positive selection in free-spawning marine gastropods. In addition, an internal repeat in one species (Tegula aureotincta) produces a duplicated cleavage site which results in two alternatively processed mature proteins differing by nine amino acid residues. Such alternative processing may provide a mechanism for introducing novel amino acid sequence variation at the amino-termini of proteins. Highly divergent TMAP N-termini from two other tegulines (Tegula regina and Norrisia norrisii) may have originated by such a mechanism.

  20. Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation, and size in an endemic lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runemark, Anna; Sagonas, Kostas; Svensson, Erik I

    2015-08-01

    Although rapid evolution of body size on islands has long been known, the ecological mechanisms behind this island phenomenon remain poorly understood. Diet is an important selective pressure for morphological divergence. Here we investigate if selection for novel diets has contributed to the multiple independent cases of island gigantism in the Skyros wall lizard (Podarcis gaigeae) and if diet, predation, or both factors best explain island gigantism. We combined data on body size, shape, bite force, and realized and available diets to address this. Several lines of evidence suggest that diet has contributed to the island gigantism. The larger islet lizards have relatively wider heads and higher bite performance in relation to mainland lizards than would be expected from size differences alone. The proportions of consumed and available hard prey are higher on islets than mainland localities, and lizard body size is significantly correlated with the proportion of hard prey. Furthermore, the main axis of divergence in head shape is significantly correlated with dietary divergence. Finally, a model with only diet and one including diet and predation regime explain body size divergence equally well. Our results suggest that diet is an important ecological factor behind insular body size divergence, but could be consistent with an additional role for predation.

  1. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Héquet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m3 and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10−3 m3. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm2 and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm−2; (ii air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s−1; and (iii initial toluene concentration C0 (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv. The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m3·h−1, were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I, the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  2. Experimental study of the vapour-liquid equilibria of HI-I-2-H2O ternary mixtures, Part 2: Experimental results at high temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousse, B.; Lovera, P.; Borgard, J.M.; Roehrich, G.; Mokrani, N.; Maillault, C.; Doizi, D.; Dauvois, V.; Roujou, J.L.; Lorin, V.; Fauvet, P.; Carles, P.; Hartmann, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    In order to assess the choice of the sulphur-iodine thermochemical cycle for massive hydrogen production, a precise knowledge of the concentrations of the gaseous species (HI, I 2 , and H 2 O) in thermodynamic equilibrium with the liquid phase of the HI-I 2 -H 2 O ternary mixture is required, in a wide range of concentrations and for temperatures and pressures up to 300 degrees C and 50 bar. In the companion paper (Part 1) the experimental device was described, which enables the measurement of the total pressure and concentrations of the vapour phase (and thus the knowledge of the partial pressures of the different gaseous species) for the HI-I 2 -H 2 O mixture in the 20-140 degrees C range and up to 2 bar. This (Part 2) article describes the experimental device which enables similar measurements but now in the process domain. The results concerning concentrations in the vapour phase for the HI-I 2 -H 2 O initial mixture (with a global composition) in the 120-270 degrees C temperature range and up to 30 bar are presented. As previously, optical online diagnostics are used, based on recordings of infrared transmission spectra for HI and H 2 O and on UV/visible spectrometry for I 2 . The concentrations measured in the vapour phase are the first to describe the vapour composition under thermophysical conditions close to those of the distillation column. The experimental results are compared with a thermodynamic model and will help us to scale up and optimize the reactive distillation column we promote for the HI section of the sulphur-iodine cycle. (authors)

  3. Fuel and fission product behaviour in early phases of a severe accident. Part II: Interpretation of the experimental results of the PHEBUS FPT2 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubourg, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Barrachin, M., E-mail: marc.barrachin@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Ducher, R. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, B.P. 3, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Gavillet, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); De Bremaecker, A. [Institute for Nuclear Materials Sciences, SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2014-10-15

    One objective of the FPT2 test of the PHEBUS FP Program was to study the degradation of an irradiated UO{sub 2} fuel bundle and the fission product behaviour under conditions of low steam flow. The results of the post-irradiation examinations (PIE) at the upper levels (823 mm and 900 mm) of the test section previously reported are interpreted in the present paper. Solid state interactions between fuel and cladding have been compared with the characteristics of interaction identified in the previous separate-effect tests. Corium resulting from the interaction between fuel and cladding was formed. The uranium concentration in the corium is compared to analytical tests and a scenario for the corium formation is proposed. The analysis showed that, despite the rather low fuel burn up, the conditions of temperature and oxygen potential reached during the starvation phase are able to give an early very significant release fraction of caesium. A significant part (but not all) of the molybdenum was segregated at grain boundaries and trapped in metallic inclusions from which they were totally removed in the final part of the experiment. During the steam starvation phase, the conditions of oxygen potential were favourable for the formation of simple Ba and BaO chemical forms but the temperature was too low to provoke their volatility. This is one important difference with out-of-pile experiments such as VERCORS for which only a combination of high temperature and low oxygen potential induced a significant barium release. Finally another significant difference with analytical out-of-pile experiments comes from the formation of foamy zones due to the fission gas presence in FPT2-type experiments which give an additional possibility for the formation of stable fission product compounds.

  4. Little Divergence Among Mitochondrial Lineages of Prochilodus (Teleostei, Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F. Melo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that migration prevents population structure among Neotropical characiform fishes has been reported recently but the effects upon species diversification remain unclear. Migratory species of Prochilodus have complex species boundaries and intrincate taxonomy representing a good model to address such questions. Here, we analyzed 147 specimens through barcode sequences covering all species of Prochilodus across a broad geographic area of South America. Species delimitation and population genetic methods revealed very little genetic divergence among mitochondrial lineages suggesting that extensive gene flow resulted likely from the highly migratory behavior, natural hybridization or recent radiation prevent accumulation of genetic disparity among lineages. Our results clearly delimit eight genetic lineages in which four of them contain a single species and four contain more than one morphologically problematic taxon including a trans-Andean species pair and species of the P. nigricans group. Information about biogeographic distribution of haplotypes presented here might contribute to further research on the population genetics and taxonomy of Prochilodus.

  5. The constancy of gene conservation across divergent bacterial orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes are frequently presumed to perform similar functions. However, outside of model organisms, this is rarely tested. One means of inferring changes in function is if there are changes in the level of gene conservation and selective constraint. Here we compare levels of gene conservation across three bacterial groups to test for changes in gene functionality. Findings The level of gene conservation for different orthologous genes is highly correlated across clades, even for highly divergent groups of bacteria. These correlations do not arise from broad differences in gene functionality (e.g. informational genes vs. metabolic genes, but instead seem to result from very specific differences in gene function. Furthermore, these functional differences appear to be maintained over very long periods of time. Conclusion These results suggest that even over broad time scales, most bacterial genes are under a nearly constant level of purifying selection, and that bacterial evolution is thus dominated by selective and functional stasis.

  6. Evaluating the relationship between evolutionary divergence and phylogenetic accuracy in AFLP data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pereira, María Jesús; Caballero, Armando; Quesada, Humberto

    2010-05-01

    Using in silico amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints, we explore the relationship between sequence similarity and phylogeny accuracy to test when, in terms of genetic divergence, the quality of AFLP data becomes too low to be informative for a reliable phylogenetic reconstruction. We generated DNA sequences with known phylogenies using balanced and unbalanced trees with recent, uniform and ancient radiations, and average branch lengths (from the most internal node to the tip) ranging from 0.02 to 0.4 substitutions per site. The resulting sequences were used to emulate the AFLP procedure. Trees were estimated by maximum parsimony (MP), neighbor-joining (NJ), and minimum evolution (ME) methods from both DNA sequences and virtual AFLP fingerprints. The estimated trees were compared with the reference trees using a score that measures overall differences in both topology and relative branch length. As expected, the accuracy of AFLP-based phylogenies decreased dramatically in the more divergent data sets. Above a divergence of approximately 0.05, AFLP-based phylogenies were largely inaccurate irrespective of the distinct topology, radiation model, or phylogenetic method used. This value represents an upper bound of expected tree accuracy for data sets with a simple divergence history; AFLP data sets with a similar divergence but with unbalanced topologies and short ancestral branches produced much less accurate trees. The lack of homology of AFLP bands quickly increases with divergence and reaches its maximum value (100%) at a divergence of only 0.4. Low guanine-cytosine (GC) contents increase the number of nonhomologous bands in AFLP data sets and lead to less reliable trees. However, the effect of the lack of band homology on tree accuracy is surprisingly small relative to the negative impact due to the low information content of AFLP characters. Tree-building methods based on genetic distance displayed similar trends and outperformed parsimony

  7. Ecological divergence and conservatism: spatiotemporal patterns of niche evolution in a genus of livebearing fishes (Poeciliidae: Xiphophorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culumber, Zachary W; Tobler, Michael

    2016-02-19

    Ecological factors often have a strong impact on spatiotemporal patterns of biodiversity. The integration of spatial ecology and phylogenetics allows for rigorous tests of whether speciation is associated with niche conservatism (constraints on ecological divergence) or niche divergence. We address this question in a genus of livebearing fishes for which the role of sexual selection in speciation has long been studied, but in which the potential role of ecological divergence during speciation has not been tested. By combining reconstruction of ancestral climate tolerances and disparity indices, we show that the earliest evolutionary split in Xiphophorus was associated with significant divergence for temperature variables. Niche evolution and present day niches were most closely associated with each species' geographic distribution relative to a biogeographic barrier, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Tests for similarity of the environmental backgrounds of closely related species suggested that the relative importance of niche conservatism and divergence during speciation varied among the primary clades of Xiphophorus. Closely related species in the two swordtail clades exhibited higher levels of niche overlap than expected given environmental background similarity indicative of niche conservatism. In contrast, almost all species of platyfish had significantly divergent niches compared to environmental backgrounds, which is indicative of niche divergence. The results suggest that the relative importance of niche conservatism and divergence differed among the clades of Xiphophorus and that traits associated with niche evolution may be more evolutionarily labile in the platyfishes. Our results ultimately suggest that the taxonomic scale of tests for conservatism and divergence could greatly influence inferences of their relative importance in the speciation process.

  8. Consequences of Secondary Calibrations on Divergence Time Estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Schenk

    Full Text Available Secondary calibrations (calibrations based on the results of previous molecular dating studies are commonly applied in divergence time analyses in groups that lack fossil data; however, the consequences of applying secondary calibrations in a relaxed-clock approach are not fully understood. I tested whether applying the posterior estimate from a primary study as a prior distribution in a secondary study results in consistent age and uncertainty estimates. I compared age estimates from simulations with 100 randomly replicated secondary trees. On average, the 95% credible intervals of node ages for secondary estimates were significantly younger and narrower than primary estimates. The primary and secondary age estimates were significantly different in 97% of the replicates after Bonferroni corrections. Greater error in magnitude was associated with deeper than shallower nodes, but the opposite was found when standardized by median node age, and a significant positive relationship was determined between the number of tips/age of secondary trees and the total amount of error. When two secondary calibrated nodes were analyzed, estimates remained significantly different, and although the minimum and median estimates were associated with less error, maximum age estimates and credible interval widths had greater error. The shape of the prior also influenced error, in which applying a normal, rather than uniform, prior distribution resulted in greater error. Secondary calibrations, in summary, lead to a false impression of precision and the distribution of age estimates shift away from those that would be inferred by the primary analysis. These results suggest that secondary calibrations should not be applied as the only source of calibration in divergence time analyses that test time-dependent hypotheses until the additional error associated with secondary calibrations is more properly modeled to take into account increased uncertainty in age estimates.

  9. Numerical simulation of divergent rocket-based-combined-cycle performances under the flight condition of Mach 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Xu, WanWu; Li, Qinglian

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the upper operating limit of the turbine engine is Mach 2+, and the lower limit of the dual-mode scramjet is Mach 4. Therefore no single power systems can operate within the range between Mach 2 + and Mach 4. By using ejector rockets, Rocket-based-combined-cycle can work well in the above scope. As the key component of Rocket-based-combined-cycle, the ejector rocket has significant influence on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performance. Research on the influence of rocket parameters on Rocket-based-combined-cycle in the speed range of Mach 2 + to Mach 4 is scarce. In the present study, influences of Mach number and total pressure of the ejector rocket on Rocket-based-combined-cycle were analyzed numerically. Due to the significant effects of the flight conditions and the Rocket-based-combined-cycle configuration on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performances, flight altitude, flight Mach number, and divergence ratio were also considered. The simulation results indicate that matching lower altitude with higher flight Mach numbers can increase Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust. For another thing, with an increase of the divergent ratio, the effect of the divergent configuration will strengthen and there is a limit on the divergent ratio. When the divergent ratio is greater than the limit, the effect of divergent configuration will gradually exceed that of combustion on supersonic flows. Further increases in the divergent ratio will decrease Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust.

  10. Testing evolutionary hypotheses for phenotypic divergence using landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, W Chris; Murphy, Melanie A

    2010-02-01

    Understanding the evolutionary causes of phenotypic variation among populations has long been a central theme in evolutionary biology. Several factors can influence phenotypic divergence, including geographic isolation, genetic drift, divergent natural or sexual selection, and phenotypic plasticity. But the relative importance of these factors in generating phenotypic divergence in nature is still a tantalizing and unresolved problem in evolutionary biology. The origin and maintenance of phenotypic divergence is also at the root of many ongoing debates in evolutionary biology, such as the extent to which gene flow constrains adaptive divergence (Garant et al. 2007) and the relative importance of genetic drift, natural selection, and sexual selection in initiating reproductive isolation and speciation (Coyne & Orr 2004). In this issue, Wang & Summers (2010) test the causes of one of the most fantastic examples of phenotypic divergence in nature: colour pattern divergence among populations of the strawberry poison frog (Dendrobates pumilio) in Panama and Costa Rica (Fig. 1). This study provides a beautiful example of the use of the emerging field of landscape genetics to differentiate among hypotheses for phenotypic divergence. Using landscape genetic analyses, Wang & Summers were able to reject the hypotheses that colour pattern divergence is due to isolation-by-distance (IBD) or landscape resistance. Instead, the hypothesis left standing is that colour divergence is due to divergent selection, in turn driving reproductive isolation among populations with different colour morphs. More generally, this study provides a wonderful example of how the emerging field of landscape genetics, which has primarily been applied to questions in conservation and ecology, now plays an essential role in evolutionary research.

  11. Design and testing of low-divergence elliptical-jet nozzles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouly, Etienne; Warkentin, Andrew; Bauer, Robert [Dalhousie University, Halifax (China)

    2015-05-15

    A novel approach was developed to design and fabricate nozzles to produce high-pressure low-divergence fluid jets. Rapid-prototype fabrication allowed for myriad experiments investigating effects of different geometric characteristics of nozzle internal geometry on jet divergence angle and fluid distribution. Nozzle apertures were elliptical in shape with aspect ratios between 1.00 and 2.45. The resulting nozzle designs were tested and the lowest elliptical jet divergence angle was 0.4 degrees. Nozzle pressures and flowrates ranged from 0.32 to 4.45 MPa and 13.6 to 37.9 LPM, respectively. CimCool CimTech 310 machining fluid was used in all experiments at a Brix concentration of 6.6 percent.

  12. The effects of medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Limborg, Morten; Ferchaud, A.-L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River......, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally...... genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Results: Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence...

  13. Interplay of infrared divergences and gauge-dependence of the effective potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, J.R.; Garny, M.; Konstandin, T.

    2016-07-01

    The perturbative effective potential suffers infrared (IR) divergences in gauges with massless Goldstones in their minima (like Landau or Fermi gauges) but the problem can be fixed by a suitable resummation of the Goldstone propagators. When the potential minimum is generated radiatively, gauge-independence of the potential at the minimum also requires resummation and we demonstrate that the resummation that solves the IR problem also cures the gauge-dependence issue, showing this explicitly in the Abelian Higgs model in Fermi gauge. In the process we find an IR divergence (in the location of the minimum) specific to Fermi gauge and not appreciated in recent literature. We show that physical observables can still be computed in this gauge and we further show how to get rid of this divergence by a field redefinition. All these results generalize to the Standard Model case.

  14. New hybrid non-linear transformations of divergent perturbation series for quadratic Zeeman effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkic, D.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of hydrogen atoms in an external uniform magnetic field (quadratic Zeeman effect) is studied by means of perturbation theory. The power series for the ground-state energy in terms of magnetic-field strength B is divergent. Nevertheless, it is possible to induce convergence of this divergent series by applying various non-linear transformations. These transformations of originally divergent perturbation series yield new sequences, which then converge. The induced convergence is, however, quite slow. A new hybrid Shanks-Levin non-linear transform is devised here for accelerating these slowly converging series and sequences. Significant improvement in the convergence rate is obtained. Agreement with the exact results is excellent. (author)

  15. Measurements of the divergence of fast electrons in laser-irradiated spherical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaakobi, B.; Solodov, A. A.; Myatt, J. F.; Delettrez, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Froula, D. H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent experiments using directly driven spherical targets on the OMEGA laser system, the energy in fast electrons was found to reach ∼1% of the laser energy at an irradiance of ∼1.1 × 10 15 W/cm 2 . The fraction of these fast electrons absorbed in the compressed fuel shell depends on their angular divergence. This paper describes measurements of this divergence deduced from a series of shots where Mo-coated shells of increasing diameter (D) were suspended within an outer CH shell. The intensity of the Mo–Kα line and the hard x-ray radiation were found to increase approximately as ∼D 2 , indicating wide divergence of the fast electrons. Alternative interpretations of these results (electron scattering, radiation excitation of Kα, and an electric field due to return current) are shown to be unimportant

  16. Interplay of Infrared Divergences and Gauge-Dependence of the Effective Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, J.R.; Konstandin, T.

    2016-01-01

    The perturbative effective potential suffers infrared (IR) divergences in gauges with massless Goldstones in their minima (like Landau or Fermi gauges) but the problem can be fixed by a suitable resummation of the Goldstone propagators. When the potential minimum is generated radiatively, gauge-independence of the potential at the minimum also requires resummation and we demonstrate that the resummation that solves the IR problem also cures the gauge-dependence issue, showing this explicitly in the Abelian Higgs model in Fermi gauge. In the process we find an IR divergence (in the location of the minimum) specific to Fermi gauge and not appreciated in recent literature. We show that physical observables can still be computed in this gauge and we further show how to get rid of this divergence by a field redefinition. All these results generalize to the Standard Model case.

  17. Assessment of SFR reactor safety issues: Part II: Analysis results of ULOF transients imposed on a variety of different innovative core designs with SAS-SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruessmann, R., E-mail: regina.kruessmann@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Ponomarev, A.; Pfrang, W.; Struwe, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology INR, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Champigny, J.; Carluec, B. [AREVA, 10, rue J. Récamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Schmitt, D.; Verwaerde, D. [EDF R& D, 1 avenue du général de Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of different core designs for a sodium-cooled fast reactor. • Safety assessment with the code system SAS-SFR. • Unprotected Loss of Flow (ULOF) scenario. • Sodium boiling and core melting cannot be avoided. • A net negative Na void effect provides more grace time prior to local SA destruction. - Abstract: In the framework of cooperation agreements between KIT-INR and AREVA SAS NP as well as between KIT-INR and EDF R&D in the years 2008–2013, the evaluation of severe transient behavior in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) was investigated. In Part I of this contribution, the efficiency of newly conceived prevention and mitigation measures was investigated for unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS) and the unprotected transient-overpower (UTOP) transients. In this second part, consequence analyses were performed for the initiation phase of different unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) scenarios imposed on a variety of different core design options of SFRs. The code system SAS-SFR was used for this purpose. Results of analyses for cases postulating unavailability of prevention measures as shut-down systems, passive and/or active additional devices show that entering into an energetic power excursion as a consequence of the initiation phase of a ULOF cannot be avoided for those core designs with a cumulative void reactivity feedback larger than zero. However, even for core designs aiming at values of the void reactivity less than zero it is difficult to find system design characteristics which prevent the transient entering into partial core destruction. Further studies of the transient core and system behavior would require codes dedicated to specific aspects of transition phase analyses and of in-vessel material relocation analyses.

  18. Differential divergences of obligately insect-pathogenic Entomophthora species from fly and aphid hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen; López Lastra, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    Three DNA regions (ITS 1, LSU rRNA and GPD) of isolates from the insect-pathogenic fungus genus Entomophthora originating from different fly (Diptera) and aphid (Hemiptera) host taxa were sequenced. The results documented a large genetic diversity among the fly-pathogenic Entomophthora and only minor differences among aphid-pathogenic Entomophthora. The evolutionary time of divergence of the fly and the aphid host taxa included cannot account for this difference. The host-driven divergence of Entomophthora, therefore, has been much greater in flies than in aphids. Host-range differences or a recent host shift to aphid are possible explanations.

  19. Conformal anomaly and elimination of infrared divergences in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grib, A.A.; Nesteruk, A.V.; Pritomanov, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The relation between the problem of eliminating the infrared divergences and the conformal anomaly of the regularized energy-momentum tensor is studied in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic spacetime. It is shown that elimination of the infrared divergence by means of a cutoff or the introduction of a conformally invariant mass of the field leads to the absence of the conformal anomaly

  20. Performance analysis of alpha divergence in nonnegative matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is achieved by using a suitable cost function to determine the optimal factorization. Most work in this field has focused on the use of Euclidean and Kullback-Liebler (KL) divergence. This study looks into the use of α-divergence based non negative factorization in the context of single channel musical sound separation.

  1. Convergent and Divergent Thinking in the Context of Narrative Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, William G.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    This project demonstrates how narrative mysteries provide a context in which readers engage in creative cognition. Drawing on the concepts of convergent and divergent thinking, we wrote stories that had either convergent or divergent outcomes. For example, one story had a character give his girlfriend a ring (a convergent outcome), whereas the…

  2. Ultraviolet divergences in 1/N expansions of quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, C.

    1984-01-01

    For asymptotically free theories, ultraviolet divergencies computed in 1/N expansion with dimensional regularization reduces to simple poles plus powers of Inelement of or finite terms. All divergences are determined by the two loop perturbative renormalization group functions. In an infrared free theory, however, element of = 0 becomes an essential singularity in the 1/N expansion

  3. Multiloop divergences in the closed bosonic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, E.; Iengo, R.; Jayaraman, T.; Ramachandran, R.

    1985-12-01

    We discuss the structure of the divergences in the multiloop vacuum diagrams for the closed bosonic strings in the framework of the Polyakov covariant formalism. We find, by an explicit computation, that all the divergences in the theory may be interpreted as due to tadpole diagrams in which the dilation goes into the vacuum. (author)

  4. Evidence of multiple divergent mitochondrial lineages within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On this basis, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) was used to reconstruct the phylogeny of Bicoxidens and reveal divergent lineages within the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses recovered a paraphyletic Bicoxidens phylogram with divergent lineages present in three species ...

  5. Site Effect Assessment of the Gros-Morne Hill Area in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Part A: Geophysical-Seismological Survey Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Ulysse

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After the M = 7.0 Haiti earthquake in 2010, many teams completed seismic risk studies in Port-au-Prince to better understand why this not extraordinarily strong event had induced one of the most severe earthquake disasters in history (at least in the Western World. Most highlighted the low construction quality as the main cause for the disaster, but some also pointed to possible soil and topographic amplification effects, especially in the lower and central parts of Port-au-Prince (e.g., close to the harbor. However, very detailed local studies of such site effects have not been completed yet. A Belgian-Haitian collaboration project was established in order to develop a detailed local seismic hazard study for Gros-Morne hill located in the district of Pétion-Ville, southeast of Port-au-Prince. In order to have a better understanding of the amplification on the Gros-Morne hill, in the southeastern part of Port-au-Prince, site effects were investigated by using near surface geophysical methods. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio technique was applied to ambient vibrations and earthquake data, and multichannel analysis of surface waves and P-wave refraction tomography calculation were applied to seismic data. Standard spectral ratios were computed for the S-wave windows of the earthquake data recorded by a small temporary seismic network. Electrical resistivity tomography profiles were also performed in order to image the structure of the subsurface and detect the presence of water, if any. The spectral ratio results generally show low to medium (1.5–6 resonance amplitudes at one or several different resonance frequencies (for the same site, between 0.5 and 25 Hz. At most of the investigated sites, the fundamental resonance frequency varies between 7 and 10 Hz. By using the multichannel surface wave analyses of the seismic data, we were able to determine shear wave velocities ranging between 200 and 850 m/s, up to a depth of about 15–20

  6. Kullback-Leibler divergence and the Pareto-Exponential approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, G V

    2016-01-01

    Recent radar research interests in the Pareto distribution as a model for X-band maritime surveillance radar clutter returns have resulted in analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of this clutter model. In particular, it is of interest to understand when the Pareto distribution is well approximated by an Exponential distribution. The justification for this is that under the latter clutter model assumption, simpler radar detection schemes can be applied. An information theory approach is introduced to investigate the Pareto-Exponential approximation. By analysing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the two distributions it is possible to not only assess when the approximation is valid, but to determine, for a given Pareto model, the optimal Exponential approximation.

  7. Increasing self-other integration through divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that people may cognitively represent themselves and others just like any other, nonsocial event. Here, we provide evidence that the degree of self-other integration (as reflected by the joint Simon effect; JSE) is systematically affected by the control characteristics of temporally overlapping but unrelated and nonsocial creativity tasks. In particular, the JSE was found to be larger in the context of a divergent-thinking task (alternate uses task) than in the context of a convergent-thinking task (remote association task). This suggests that self-other integration and action corepresentation are controlled by domain-general cognitive-control parameters that regulate the integrativeness (strong vs. weak top-down control and a resulting narrow vs. broad attentional focus) of information processing irrespective of its social implications.

  8. Vorticity and divergence in the high-latitude upper thermosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, J.P.; Killeen, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements made from the Dynamics Explorer-2 satellite in November 1981 through January 1982 and November 1982 through January 1983 have been analyzed to determine the divergence and vertical component of vorticity of the high-latitude neutral wind field in the upper thermosphere for quiet (kp≤6) geomagnetic conditions and for both northern (winter) and southern (summer) hemispheres in the polar thermosphere and provides insight into the relative strengths of the different sources of momentum and energy responsible for driving the winds. The principal findings from this work include the following: The mean neutral wind pattern is dominated by rotational flow rather than by divergent flow, with a typical vorticity: divergence ratio of ∼ 2:1 for active conditions and ∼ 4:1 for quiet conditions. Comparison of the divergence and vorticity patterns for quiet and active conditions indicates that the divergent component of the neutral flow intensifies more significantly with increasing geomagnetic activity than does the rotational component

  9. One-loop divergences in the quantum theory of supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, P. van; Vermaseren, J.A.M.

    1976-01-01

    Supergravity does not lead to a finite quantum theory of gravitation when coupled to the spin 1, 1/2 matter multiplet. The S-matrix of photon-photon scattering diverges; its divergences are proportional to the square of the photon energy-momentum tensor, in agreement with electro-magnetic duality and chiral invariance. The graviton self-energy corrections are divergent in pure supergravity as well as in the coupled Maxwell-Einstein system and satisfy their Ward identity because the supersymmetry ghost field is commuting. The photon-graviton vertex corrections diverge, as expected from the non-invariance of the action under local scale transformations, and satisfy the equivalence principle at the quantum level. The photon self-energy is divergent. (Auth.)

  10. Active learning for noisy oracle via density power divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Tsuyoshi; Kawahara, Yoshinobu; Washio, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    The accuracy of active learning is critically influenced by the existence of noisy labels given by a noisy oracle. In this paper, we propose a novel pool-based active learning framework through robust measures based on density power divergence. By minimizing density power divergence, such as β-divergence and γ-divergence, one can estimate the model accurately even under the existence of noisy labels within data. Accordingly, we develop query selecting measures for pool-based active learning using these divergences. In addition, we propose an evaluation scheme for these measures based on asymptotic statistical analyses, which enables us to perform active learning by evaluating an estimation error directly. Experiments with benchmark datasets and real-world image datasets show that our active learning scheme performs better than several baseline methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Divergent mortality trends by ethnicity in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard; Carter, Karen; Naidu, Shivnay; Linhart, Christine; Azim, Syed; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D

    2013-12-01

    To examine trends in infant mortality rate (IMR), adult mortality and life expectancy (LE) in the two major Fijian ethnic groups since 1975. Estimates of IMR, adult mortality (15-59 years) and LE by ethnicity are calculated from previously unreported Fiji Ministry of Health data and extracted from published sources. Over 1975-2008: IMR decreased from 33 to 20 deaths/1,000 live births in i-Taukei (Fiji Melanesians); and 38 to 18 in Fijians of Indian descent. Increased adult male mortality among i-Taukei and decline among Fijians of Indian descent led to an equal probability of dying in 2007 of 29%; while in female adults the probability trended upwards in i-Taukei to 25%, and declined in Fijians of Indian descent to 17%. Life expectancy in both ethnicities increased until 1985 (to 64 years for males; 68 for females) then forming a plateau in males of both ethnicities, and Fijian females of Indian descent, but declining in i-Taukei females to 66 years in 2007. Despite IMR declines over 1975-2008, LE for i-Taukei and Fijians of Indian descent has not increased since 1985, and has actually decreased in i-Taukei women, consistent with trends in adult mortality (15-59 years). Mortality analyses in Fiji that consider the entire population mask divergent trends in the major ethnic groups. This situation is most likely a consequence of non-communicable disease mortality, requiring further assessment and a strengthened response.

  12. Divergence in function and expression of the NOD26-like intrinsic proteins in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Ying

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs that belong to the aquaporin superfamily are plant-specific and exhibit a similar three-dimensional structure. Experimental evidences however revealed that functional divergence should have extensively occurred among NIP genes. It is therefore intriguing to further investigate the evolutionary mechanisms being responsible for the functional diversification of the NIP genes. To better understand this process, a comprehensive analysis including the phylogenetic, positive selection, functional divergence, and transcriptional analysis was carried out. Results The origination of NIPs could be dated back to the primitive land plants, and their diversification would be no younger than the emergence time of the moss P. patens. The rapid proliferation of NIPs in plants may be primarily attributed to the segmental chromosome duplication produced by polyploidy and tandem duplications. The maximum likelihood analysis revealed that NIPs should have experienced strong selective pressure for adaptive evolution after gene duplication and/or speciation, prompting the formation of distinct NIP groups. Functional divergence analysis at the amino acid level has provided strong statistical evidence for shifted evolutionary rate and/or radical change of the physiochemical properties of amino acids after gene duplication, and DIVERGE2 has identified the critical amino acid sites that are thought to be responsible for the divergence for further investigation. The expression of plant NIPs displays a distinct tissue-, cell-type-, and developmental specific pattern, and their responses to various stress treatments are quite different also. The differences in organization of cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoter regions may partially explain their distinction in expression. Conclusion A number of analyses both at the DNA and amino acid sequence levels have provided strong evidences that plant NIPs have

  13. Enhancing divergent thinking in visual arts education: Effects of explicit instruction of meta-cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, M.-T.; Admiraal, W.; van Drie, J.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students’ creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product.

  14. Gender Divergence in Academics' Representation and Research Productivity: A Nigerian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opesade, Adeola Omobola; Famurewa, Kofoworola Folakemi; Igwe, Ebelechukwu Gloria

    2017-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly seen as an indicator of development and global acceptance in networks of higher education. Despite this, gender divergence in research productivity of academics coupled with under-representation of women in science has been reported to beset female's scholarly activities. Previous studies provide differing results,…

  15. Identification of a divergent genotype of equine arteritis virus from South American donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, J; Neira, V; Mena, J; Brito, B; Garcia, A; Gutierrez, C; Sandoval, D; Ortega, R

    2017-12-01

    A novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated and sequenced from feral donkeys in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new virus and South African asinine strains diverged at least 100 years from equine EAV strains. The results indicate that asinine strains belonged to a different EAV genotype. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. CD24 tracks divergent pluripotent states in mouse and human cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakiba, Nika; White, Carl A; Lipsitz, Yonatan Y; Yachie-Kinoshita, Ayako; Tonge, Peter D; Hussein, Samer M I; Puri, Mira C; Elbaz, Judith; Morrissey-Scoot, James; Li, Mira; Munoz Peralta, Javier; Benevento, Marco; Rogers, Ian M; Hanna, Jacob H; Heck, Albert J R; Wollscheid, Bernd; Nagy, Andras; Zandstra, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming is a dynamic process that can result in multiple pluripotent cell types emerging from divergent paths. Cell surface protein expression is a particularly desirable tool to categorize reprogramming and pluripotency as it enables robust quantification and enrichment of live cells. Here we

  17. Enhancing Divergent Thinking in Visual Arts Education: Effects of Explicit Instruction of Meta-Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Drie, Jannet; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students' creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product. Aims: This study aims to examine the effects…

  18. The effect of global-scale divergent circulation on the atmospheric water vapor transport and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsing-Chang

    1988-01-01

    The detection, distribution, and dynamics of atmospheric water on Earth was examined. How the high levels of water vapor and precipitation that occur over the tropics during the monsoon season result from the development of a strong divergent atmospheric circulation is discussed.

  19. On the infrared divergences of the CP sup(n-1) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobra, B.B.; Gomes, M.

    1982-07-01

    Some properties of the two-dimensional SU(n) non-linear sigma models, i.e., the CP (sub n-1) models are discussed. They are 1/n expandable and ultraviolet renormalizable. The main result is a proof that the infrared divergences associated with the topological gauge field are cancelled in the case of Green functions of gauge invariant operators. (Author) [pt

  20. Joint project of the international network of agencies for health technology assessment--Part 1: Survey results on diffusion, assessment, and clinical use of positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, John; Adams, Elizabeth J

    2006-01-01

    The International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) has been tracking activities associated with the clinical use of positron emission tomography (PET) in its members' healthcare systems since 1997 and published its first Joint Project report on PET in 1999. Part 1 of this Joint Project report presents survey results on diffusion, assessment activities, and policy for clinical use related to PET among INAHTA members since 1999. INAHTA members were surveyed in 2003-2004. Twenty-seven INAHTA agencies (69 percent response rate) from nineteen countries responded to the survey. Dedicated PET systems are the most universally installed systems to date. Mobile scanners and modified gamma cameras are used occasionally as lower cost alternatives, and interest in PET-computed tomography hybrid models is rising despite limited assessment of impact on service planning. PET was used and assessed most commonly for managing patients with cancer. All respondents reported having some form of public funding for clinical PET frequently linked to data collection for the purpose of gathering evidence to refine clinical use and guide resource allocation toward indications that maximize clinical and cost-effectiveness. The use of HTA within a continuous quality improvement framework can help optimize scarce resources for evaluation and use of high cost diagnostic technologies such as PET, particularly where potential clinical or cost-effectiveness is considerable but conclusive evidence is lacking.

  1. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: Trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 2: Results for future energy market scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Johanna; Svensson, Inger-Lise; Berntsson, Thore; Moshfegh, Bahram

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the trade-off between internal and external use of excess heat from a kraft pulp mill is investigated for four different future energy market scenarios. The work follows the methodology described in Svensson et al. [2008. Excess heat from kraft pulp mills: trade-offs between internal and external use in the case of Sweden-Part 1: methodology. Energy Policy, submitted for publication], where a systematic approach is proposed for investigating the potential for profitable excess heat cooperation. The trade-off is analyzed by economic optimization of an energy system model consisting of a pulp mill and an energy company (ECO). In the model, investments can be made, which increase the system's energy efficiency by utilization of the mill's excess heat, as well as investments that increase the electricity production. The results show that the trade-off depends on energy market prices, the district heating demand and the type of existing heat production. From an economic point of view, external use of the excess heat is preferred for all investigated energy market scenarios if the mill is studied together with an ECO with a small heat load. For the cases with medium or large district heating loads, the optimal use of excess heat varies with the energy market price scenarios. However, from a CO 2 emissions perspective, external use is preferred, giving the largest reduction of global emissions in most cases

  2. Indicative properties on snow cover based on the results of experimental studies in the winter 2011/12 in the central part of the East European Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kitaev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and regional differences in the snow formation were studied in different landscapes of the central part of the East European Plain – within reserves in the Moscow and Tver’ regions (south-north direction; the study period is the winter 2011/12. The observed increase of snow storage in 1.3–1.5 times in the direction south-north is connected, apparently. The difference in the five-day appearance of snow cover maximum is related to differences in regional winter air temperature. Throughout the snow depth and snow storage in spruce are smaller than in deciduous forest – in the ratio of 0.81 in south area and 0.93 in north area; in spruce the large part of solid precipitation is intercepted by the crowns pine trees. Snow stratigraphy at south areas has four layers, six layers at the north area are more variable in snow density and snow storage. Perhaps, gravitational conversion is more noticeable due to larger snow depth. Snow density and snow storage at the open areas are more heterogeneous than in the forest. This is due to sharp fluctuations in air temperature, wind transport and compaction of snow, evaporation from the snow surface. The stratigraphy of snow also reflects the history of winter changes of air temperature and snow accumulation. Common feature for reserves at south and north is the availability of layers with maximum snow storage in the middle of the snow thickness, which were formed during the air temperature drops to the lowest seasonal values in period with increase of snow depth to maximum. Formation of depth hoar in snow thickness are touched everywhere the bottom and middle layers, respectively, it was formed both before and during the period with minimal air temperature. Thus, the results of experimental studies confirm the significance of the differences of individual components of the landscape setting. Analytical conclusions are largely qualitative in nature due to the lack to date of initial information, and

  3. [Study of self-reported health of people living near point sources of environmental pollution: a review. Second part: analysis of results and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniau, C; Dor, F; Eilstein, D; Lefranc, A; Empereur-Bissonnet, P; Dab, W

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have investigated the health impacts of local sources of environmental pollution using as an outcome variable self-reported health, reflecting the overall perception interviewed people have of their own health. This work aims at analyzing the advantages and the results of this approach. This second part presents the results of the studies. Based on a literature review (51 papers), this article presents an analysis of the contribution of self-reported health to epidemiological studies investigating local sources of environmental pollution. It discusses the associations between self-reported health and exposure variables, and other risk factors that can influence health reporting. Studies using self-reported health showed that local sources can be associated with a wide range of health outcomes, including an impact on mental health and well-being. The perception of pollution, especially sensory information such as odors, affects self-reported health. Attitudes referring to beliefs, worries and personal behaviors concerning the source of pollution have a striking influence on reported health. Attitudes can be used to estimate the reporting bias in a biomedical approach, and also constitute the main explanatory factors in biopsychosocial studies taking into account not only the biological, physical, and chemical factors but also the psychological and social factors at stake in a situation of environmental exposure. Studying self-reported health enables a multifactorial approach to health in a context of environmental exposure. This approach is most relevant when conducted within a multidisciplinary framework involving human and social sciences to better understand psychosocial factors. The relevance of this type of approach used as an epidemiological surveillance tool to monitor local situations should be assessed with regard to needs for public health management of these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Divergence and Conservative Evolution of XTNX Genes in Land Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Mei Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and Nucleotide-binding site (NBS domains are two major components of the TIR-NBS-leucine-rich repeat family plant disease resistance genes. Extensive functional and evolutionary studies have been performed on these genes; however, the characterization of a small group of genes that are composed of atypical TIR and NBS domains, namely XTNX genes, is limited. The present study investigated this specific gene family by conducting genome-wide analyses of 59 green plant genomes. A total of 143 XTNX genes were identified in 51 of the 52 land plant genomes, whereas no XTNX gene was detected in any green algae genomes, which indicated that XTNX genes originated upon emergence of land plants. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the ancestral XTNX gene underwent two rounds of ancient duplications in land plants, which resulted in the formation of clades I/II and clades IIa/IIb successively. Although clades I and IIb have evolved conservatively in angiosperms, the motif composition difference and sequence divergence at the amino acid level suggest that functional divergence may have occurred since the separation of the two clades. In contrast, several features of the clade IIa genes, including the absence in the majority of dicots, the long branches in the tree, the frequent loss of ancestral motifs, and the loss of expression in all detected tissues of Zea mays, all suggest that the genes in this lineage might have undergone pseudogenization. This study highlights that XTNX genes are a gene family originated anciently in land plants and underwent specific conservative pattern in evolution.

  5. Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Jared E.; McKay, Stephanie D.; Rolf, Megan M.; Kim, JaeWoo; Molina Alcalá, Antonio; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Hanotte, Olivier; Götherström, Anders; Seabury, Christopher M.; Praharani, Lisa; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Correia de Almeida Regitano, Luciana; Yildiz, Mehmet Ali; Heaton, Michael P.; Liu, Wan-Sheng; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Reecy, James M.; Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.

    2014-01-01

    The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds and populations have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns of geographic dispersal resulting from co-migration with humans and exportation are recognizable in phylogenetic networks. All analytical methods reveal patterns of hybridization which occurred after divergence. Using 19 breeds, we map the cline of indicine introgression into Africa. We infer that African taurine possess a large portion of wild African auroch ancestry, causing their divergence from Eurasian taurine. We detect exportation patterns in Asia and identify a cline of Eurasian taurine/indicine hybridization in Asia. We also identify the influence of species other than Bos taurus taurus and B. t. indicus in the formation of Asian breeds. We detect the pronounced influence of Shorthorn cattle in the formation of European breeds. Iberian and Italian cattle possess introgression from African taurine. American Criollo cattle originate from Iberia, and not directly from Africa with African ancestry inherited via Iberian ancestors. Indicine introgression into American cattle occurred in the Americas, and not Europe. We argue that cattle migration, movement and trading followed by admixture have been important forces in shaping modern bovine genomic variation. PMID:24675901

  6. ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison - Part 2: Intercomparison of ME-2 organic source apportionment results from 15 individual, co-located aerosol mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, R.; Crenn, V.; Setyan, A.; Belis, C. A.; Canonaco, F.; Favez, O.; Riffault, V.; Slowik, J. G.; Aas, W.; Aijälä, M.; Alastuey, A.; Artiñano, B.; Bonnaire, N.; Bozzetti, C.; Bressi, M.; Carbone, C.; Coz, E.; Croteau, P. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Esser-Gietl, J. K.; Green, D. C.; Gros, V.; Heikkinen, L.; Herrmann, H.; Jayne, J. T.; Lunder, C. R.; Minguillón, M. C.; Močnik, G.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Petralia, E.; Poulain, L.; Priestman, M.; Ripoll, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; Wiedensohler, A.; Baltensperger, U.; Sciare, J.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-06-01

    Chemically resolved atmospheric aerosol data sets from the largest intercomparison of the Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitors (ACSMs) performed to date were collected at the French atmospheric supersite SIRTA. In total 13 quadrupole ACSMs (Q-ACSM) from the European ACTRIS ACSM network, one time-of-flight ACSM (ToF-ACSM), and one high-resolution ToF aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) were operated in parallel for about 3 weeks in November and December~2013. Part 1 of this study reports on the accuracy and precision of the instruments for all the measured species. In this work we report on the intercomparison of organic components and the results from factor analysis source apportionment by positive matrix factorisation (PMF) utilising the multilinear engine 2 (ME-2). Except for the organic contribution of mass-to-charge ratio m/z 44 to the total organics (f44), which varied by factors between 0.6 and 1.3 compared to the mean, the peaks in the organic mass spectra were similar among instruments. The m/z 44 differences in the spectra resulted in a variable f44 in the source profiles extracted by ME-2, but had only a minor influence on the extracted mass contributions of the sources. The presented source apportionment yielded four factors for all 15 instruments: hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), cooking-related organic aerosol (COA), biomass burning-related organic aerosol (BBOA) and secondary oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA). ME-2 boundary conditions (profile constraints) were optimised individually by means of correlation to external data in order to achieve equivalent / comparable solutions for all ACSM instruments and the results are discussed together with the investigation of the influence of alternative anchors (reference profiles). A comparison of the ME-2 source apportionment output of all 15 instruments resulted in relative standard deviations (SD) from the mean between 13.7 and 22.7 % of the source's average mass contribution depending on the

  7. ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison – Part 2: Intercomparison of ME-2 organic source apportionment results from 15 individual, co-located aerosol mass spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fröhlich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemically resolved atmospheric aerosol data sets from the largest intercomparison of the Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitors (ACSMs performed to date were collected at the French atmospheric supersite SIRTA. In total 13 quadrupole ACSMs (Q-ACSM from the European ACTRIS ACSM network, one time-of-flight ACSM (ToF-ACSM, and one high-resolution ToF aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS were operated in parallel for about 3 weeks in November and December~2013. Part 1 of this study reports on the accuracy and precision of the instruments for all the measured species. In this work we report on the intercomparison of organic components and the results from factor analysis source apportionment by positive matrix factorisation (PMF utilising the multilinear engine 2 (ME-2. Except for the organic contribution of mass-to-charge ratio m/z 44 to the total organics (f44, which varied by factors between 0.6 and 1.3 compared to the mean, the peaks in the organic mass spectra were similar among instruments. The m/z 44 differences in the spectra resulted in a variable f44 in the source profiles extracted by ME-2, but had only a minor influence on the extracted mass contributions of the sources. The presented source apportionment yielded four factors for all 15 instruments: hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA, cooking-related organic aerosol (COA, biomass burning-related organic aerosol (BBOA and secondary oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA. ME-2 boundary conditions (profile constraints were optimised individually by means of correlation to external data in order to achieve equivalent / comparable solutions for all ACSM instruments and the results are discussed together with the investigation of the influence of alternative anchors (reference profiles. A comparison of the ME-2 source apportionment output of all 15 instruments resulted in relative standard deviations (SD from the mean between 13.7 and 22.7 % of the source's average mass contribution depending on

  8. Dynamical renormalization group resummation of finite temperature infrared divergences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de; Boyanovsky, D.; Simionato, M.; Holman, R.; Simionato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce the method of dynamical renormalization group to study relaxation and damping out of equilibrium directly in real time and apply it to the study of infrared divergences in scalar QED. This method allows a consistent resummation of infrared effects associated with the exchange of quasistatic transverse photons and leads to anomalous logarithmic relaxation of the form e -αampersandhthinsp;Tampersandhthinsp;tampersandhthinsp;ln[t/t 0 ] for hard momentum charged excitations. This is in contrast with the usual quasiparticle interpretation of charged collective excitations at finite temperature in the sense of exponential relaxation of a narrow width resonance for which the width is the imaginary part of the self-energy on shell. In the case of narrow resonances away from thresholds, this approach leads to the usual exponential relaxation. The hard thermal loop resummation program is incorporated consistently into the dynamical renormalization group yielding a picture of relaxation and damping phenomena in a plasma in real time that transcends the conceptual limitations of the quasiparticle picture and other types of resummation schemes. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  9. Natriuretic Peptides as Biomarkers for Congestive States: The Cardiorenal Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Koratala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congestion represents the primary reason for hospitalization of patients with heart failure and is associated with adverse outcomes. Fluid overload has been shown to be inadequately addressed in a significant subset of these patients in part due to lack of robust, reliable, and readily available biomarkers for objective assessment and monitoring of therapy. Natriuretic peptides have long been used in this setting, often in conjunction with other assessment tools such as imaging studies. Patients presenting with concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunction represent a unique population with regard to congestion in that the interactions between the heart and the kidney can affect the utility and performance of biomarkers of fluid overload. Herein, we provide an overview of the currently available evidence on the utility of natriuretic peptides in these patients and discuss the clinical conundrum associated with their use in the setting of renal dysfunction. We highlight the potential divergence in the role of natriuretic peptides for assessment of volume status in a subset of patients with renal dysfunction who receive renal replacement therapy and call for future research to elucidate the utility of the biomarkers in this setting.

  10. Divergent Selection and Then What Not: The Conundrum of Missing Reproductive Isolation in Misty Lake and Stream Stickleback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Räsänen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In ecological speciation, reproductive isolation evolves as a consequence of adaptation to different selective environments. A frequent contributor to this process is the evolution of positive assortative mate choice between ecotypes. We tested this expectation for lake and inlet stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus from the Misty system (Vancouver Island, Canada, which show strong genetically based adaptive divergence and little genetic exchange in nature. This, and work on other stickleback systems, led us to expect positive assortative mating. Yet, our standard “no-choice” laboratory experiment on common-garden fish revealed no evidence for this—despite divergence in traits typically mediating assortative mating in stickleback. These results remind us that divergent natural selection may not inevitably lead to the evolution of positive assortative mate choice. The apparent lack of strong and symmetric reproductive barriers in this system presents a conundrum: why are such barriers not evident despite strong adaptive divergence and low gene flow in nature?

  11. Effect of flow field with converging and diverging channels on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehtabiyan-Rezaie, Navid; Arefian, Amir; Kermani, Mohammad J.; Noughabi, Amir Karimi; Abdollahzadeh, M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of converging and diverging channels on fuel cell performance. • Over rib flow is observed from converging channels to neighbors. • Proposed flow field enriches oxygen level and current density in catalyst layer. • Net output power is enhanced more than 16% in new flow field. - Abstract: In this study, a novel bipolar flow field design is proposed. This new design consists of placed sequentially converging and diverging channels. Numerical simulation of cathode side is used to investigate the effects of converging and diverging channels on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Two models of constant and variable sink/source terms were implemented to consider species consumption and production. The distribution of oxygen mole fraction in gas diffusion and catalyst layers as a result of transverse over rib velocity is monitored. The results indicate that the converging channels feed two diverging neighbors. This phenomenon is a result of the over rib velocity which is caused by the pressure difference between the neighboring channels. The polarization curves show that by applying an angle of 0.3° to the channels, the net electrical output power increases by 16% compared to the base case.

  12. Jensen divergence based on Fisher’s information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Moreno, P; Zarzo, A; Dehesa, J S

    2012-01-01

    The measure of Jensen–Fisher divergence between probability distributions is introduced and its theoretical grounds set up. This quantity, in contrast to the remaining Jensen divergences, grasps the fluctuations of the probability distributions because it is controlled by the (local) Fisher information, which is a gradient functional of the distribution. So it is appropriate and informative when studying the similarity of distributions, mainly for those having oscillatory character. The new Jensen–Fisher divergence shares with the Jensen–Shannon divergence the following properties: non-negativity, additivity when applied to an arbitrary number of probability densities, symmetry under exchange of these densities, vanishing under certain conditions and definiteness even when these densities present non-common zeros. Moreover, the Jensen–Fisher divergence is shown to be expressed in terms of the relative Fisher information as the Jensen–Shannon divergence does in terms of the Kullback–Leibler or relative Shannon entropy. Finally, the Jensen–Shannon and Jensen–Fisher divergences are compared for the following three large, non-trivial and qualitatively different families of probability distributions: the sinusoidal, generalized gamma-like and Rakhmanov–Hermite distributions, which are closely related to the quantum-mechanical probability densities of numerous physical systems. (paper)

  13. Classification and evaluation of the functional results of replanted parts of the hand at the Prince of Wales Hospital and the Prince of Wales Children's Hospital: 1984 to 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milroy, B C; Sackelariou, R P; Lendvay, P G; Baldwin, M R; McGlynn, M

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a simple method of classification and evaluation of the functional results of replanted and revascularized parts in the hand. The results are presented in graphic form and have been analyzed to correlate various factors: injured part, cause, and zone (level) of injury. The type of injury, ischemic time and age have been studied in more detail to determine their influence of the final functional result. The series contains 187 amputated and devascularized parts of the hand in 119 patients who have undergone surgery at the Prince of Wales Hospital from 1984 through 1988. The length of cold or warm ischemic times, up to 16 hours in this series, while not affecting survival of the amputated part, does adversely affect the functional result. The survival rate of replanted parts in children was significantly less favorable than in adults, but the functional results were uniformly superior.

  14. When probabilistic seismic hazard climbs volcanoes: the Mt. Etna case, Italy – Part 2: Computational implementation and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Peruzza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the model implementation and presents results of a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA for the Mt. Etna volcanic region in Sicily, Italy, considering local volcano-tectonic earthquakes. Working in a volcanic region presents new challenges not typically faced in standard PSHA, which are broadly due to the nature of the local volcano-tectonic earthquakes, the cone shape of the volcano and the attenuation properties of seismic waves in the volcanic region. These have been accounted for through the development of a seismic source model that integrates data from different disciplines (historical and instrumental earthquake datasets, tectonic data, etc.; presented in Part 1, by Azzaro et al., 2017 and through the development and software implementation of original tools for the computation, such as a new ground-motion prediction equation and magnitude–scaling relationship specifically derived for this volcanic area, and the capability to account for the surficial topography in the hazard calculation, which influences source-to-site distances. Hazard calculations have been carried out after updating the most recent releases of two widely used PSHA software packages (CRISIS, as in Ordaz et al., 2013; the OpenQuake engine, as in Pagani et al., 2014. Results are computed for short- to mid-term exposure times (10 % probability of exceedance in 5 and 30 years, Poisson and time dependent and spectral amplitudes of engineering interest. A preliminary exploration of the impact of site-specific response is also presented for the densely inhabited Etna's eastern flank, and the change in expected ground motion is finally commented on. These results do not account for M  >  6 regional seismogenic sources which control the hazard at long return periods. However, by focusing on the impact of M  <  6 local volcano-tectonic earthquakes, which dominate the hazard at the short- to mid-term exposure times considered

  15. Cenozoic Evolution of the Central Part of the Mexican Subduction Zone From Geologic and Geophysical Data - In the Eve of the Result From the "Mase" Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, L.

    2006-12-01

    The Meso America Subduction Experiments (MASE), carried out jointly by Caltech, UCLA and UNAM (Institute of Geophysics and Center for Geoscience) is about to provide a detailed image of the crust and upper mantle in the central part of the Mexican subduction zone (Acapulco, Gro. Huejutla, Hgo.). Preliminary results show that the Cocos plate between the coast and the volcanic front is horizontal and placed just beneath the upper plate Moho. Further north, beneath the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), seismicity is scarce or absent and the geometry of the subducted plate is poorly defined. This part of the TMVB also displays a large geochemical variability, including lavas with scarce to none evidence of fluids from the subducting plate (OIB in Sierra Chichinautzin) and lavas with slab melting signature (adakites of Nevado de Toluca and Apan area) that coexist with the more abundant products showing clear evidence of fluids from the subduting plate. These peculiarities led several workers to formulate models that depart from a classic subduction scenario for the genesis of the TMVB. These include the presence of a rootless mantle plume, the development of a continental rift, a more or less abrupt increase of the subduction angle and a detached slab. While waiting from the final results of the MASE project the data available from potential methods, thermal modeling and the geologic record of the TMVB provide some constraints to evaluate these models. Gravimetric and magnetotelluric data consistently indicate that beneath the TMVB the upper mantle has a relatively low density and high temperatures/conductivity. Thermal modeling also indicates a low viscosity and high temperature mantle beneath the arc. All the above seems to indicate that the slab must increase rapidly its dip beneath the volcanic front leaving space for a hot asthenospheric mantle. The fate of the slab further to the north is unclear from geophysical data alone. Global and regional tomographic

  16. The genomic landscape at a late stage of stickleback speciation: High genomic divergence interspersed by small localized regions of introgression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ravinet

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation. However, attention has largely focused on young postglacial species pairs, with little knowledge of the genomic signatures of divergence and introgression in older stickleback systems. The Japanese stickleback species pair, composed of the Pacific Ocean three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus and the Japan Sea stickleback (G. nipponicus, which co-occur in the Japanese islands, is at a late stage of speciation. Divergence likely started well before the end of the last glacial period and crosses between Japan Sea females and Pacific Ocean males result in hybrid male sterility. Here we use coalescent analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation to show that the two species split approximately 0.68-1 million years ago but that they have continued to exchange genes at a low rate throughout divergence. Population genomic data revealed that, despite gene flow, a high level of genomic differentiation is maintained across the majority of the genome. However, we identified multiple, small regions of introgression, occurring mainly in areas of low recombination rate. Our results demonstrate that a high level of genome-wide divergence can establish in the face of persistent introgression and that gene flow can be localized to small genomic regions at the later stages of speciation with gene flow.

  17. The genomic landscape at a late stage of stickleback speciation: High genomic divergence interspersed by small localized regions of introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Mark; Yoshida, Kohta; Shigenobu, Shuji; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kitano, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Speciation is a continuous process and analysis of species pairs at different stages of divergence provides insight into how it unfolds. Previous genomic studies on young species pairs have revealed peaks of divergence and heterogeneous genomic differentiation. Yet less known is how localised peaks of differentiation progress to genome-wide divergence during the later stages of speciation in the presence of persistent gene flow. Spanning the speciation continuum, stickleback species pairs are ideal for investigating how genomic divergence builds up during speciation. However, attention has largely focused on young postglacial species pairs, with little knowledge of the genomic signatures of divergence and introgression in older stickleback systems. The Japanese stickleback species pair, composed of the Pacific Ocean three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the Japan Sea stickleback (G. nipponicus), which co-occur in the Japanese islands, is at a late stage of speciation. Divergence likely started well before the end of the last glacial period and crosses between Japan Sea females and Pacific Ocean males result in hybrid male sterility. Here we use coalescent analyses and Approximate Bayesian Computation to show that the two species split approximately 0.68-1 million years ago but that they have continued to exchange genes at a low rate throughout divergence. Population genomic data revealed that, despite gene flow, a high level of genomic differentiation is maintained across the majority of the genome. However, we identified multiple, small regions of introgression, occurring mainly in areas of low recombination rate. Our results demonstrate that a high level of genome-wide divergence can establish in the face of persistent introgression and that gene flow can be localized to small genomic regions at the later stages of speciation with gene flow.

  18. The Stable Isotopes of Carbon and Nitrogen in the Bones of Domestic Animals from three Cities of the European Part of Russia: First Results and Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavorskaya Liliya Vyacheslavovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the results of first purposeful research on isotopic composition (carbon 13С and nitrogen 15N in the bones collagen of domestic and wild animals from medieval towns at the European part of Russia. The published information about δ 13С и δ 15N was obtained from 61 samples of osteological collections of Yaroslavl, Rostov and Bolgar. The average values of carbon isotope in cattle bones are almost the same in all three cities. By contrast, these values for horses and pigs from Rostov and Bolgar are higher than for Yaroslavl animals. Unusual similarity for δ13С in the bones of sheep, camels and dogs among themselves from the Bolgar collection were fixed. The comparative analysis of the values δ13С in bones of domestic and wild animals allowed us to propose the hypothesis that sheep, camels and dogs appeared in Bolgar from the southern arid areas. The data on δ15N showed the inexplicably high accumulation of the nitrogen stable isotope in sheep and camel bones from the collection of Bolgar and in beaver bones from Rostov samples. This is probably due to the peculiarities of the diet of these dogs, enriched by the entrails of domestic ungulates or fish. The minimum values of δ15N in the bones of dogs from Bolgar reflect the specific diet of herding dogs with a minimal volume of meat. Simultaneously the data of 15N in sheep and camel bones from Bolgar collection and in beaver bones from Rostov samples howed the inexplicably high level of nitrogen stable isotope accumulation.

  19. Contrasting patterns of genetic divergence in two sympatric pseudo-metallophytes: Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of genetic divergence between populations of facultative metallophytes have been investigated extensively. However, most previous investigations have focused on a single plant species making it unclear if genetic divergence shows common patterns or, conversely, is species-specific. The herbs Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L. are two pseudo-metallophytes thriving in both normal and cupriferous soils along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Their non-metallicolous and metallicolous populations are often sympatric thus providing an ideal opportunity for comparative estimation of genetic structures and divergence under the selective pressure derived from copper toxicity. Results In the present study, patterns of genetic divergence of R. acetosa and C. communis , including metal tolerance, genetic structure and genetic relationships between populations, were investigated and compared using hydroponic experiments, AFLP, ISSR and chloroplast genetic markers. Our results show a significant reduction in genetic diversity in metallicolous populations of C. communis but not in R. acetosa . Moreover, genetic differentiation is less in R. acetosa than in C. communis , the latter species also shows a clustering of its metallicolous populations. Conclusions We propose that the genetic divergences apparent in R. acetosa and C. communis , and the contrasting responses of the two species to copper contamination, might be attributed to the differences in their intrinsic physiological and ecological properties. No simple and generalised conclusions on genetic divergence in pseudo-metallophytes can thus be drawn.

  20. Part 1. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: results from a time-series analysis in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ganguli, Bhaswati; Ghosh, Santu; Sankar, S; Thanasekaraan, Vijaylakshmi; Rayudu, V N; Caussy, Harry

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the results of a time-series analysis of the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter part of its Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) initiative. The study involved integration and analysis of retrospective data for the years 2002 through 2004. The data were obtained from relevant government agencies in charge of routine data collection. Data on meteorologic confounders (including temperature, relative humidity, and dew point) were available on all days of the study period. Data on mortality were also available on all days, but information on cause-of-death (including accidental deaths) could not be reliably ascertained. Hence, only all-cause daily mortality was used as the major outcome for the time-series analyses. Data on PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were limited to a much smaller number of days, but spanned the full study period. Data limitations resulting from low sensitivity of gaseous pollutant measurements led to using only PM10 in the main analysis. Of the eight operational ambient air quality monitor (AQM) stations in the city, seven met the selection criteria set forth in the common protocol developed for the three PAPA studies in India. In addition, all raw data used in the analysis were subjected to additional quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) criteria to ensure the validity of the measurements. Two salient features of the PM10 data set in Chennai were a high percentage of missing readings and a low correlation among daily data recorded by the AQMs. The latter resulted partly because each AQM had a small footprint (approximate area over which the air pollutant measurements recorded in the AQM are considered valid), and partly because of differences in source profiles among the 10 zones within the city. The zones were defined by the Chennai Corporation based on population density. Alternative exposure series were developed to control for

  1. Metabolic Rate and Climatic Fluctuations Shape Continental Wide Pattern of Genetic Divergence and Biodiversity in Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Julien; Hanner, Robert H.; Mayden, Richard L.; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomically exhaustive and continent wide patterns of genetic divergence within and between species have rarely been described and the underlying evolutionary causes shaping biodiversity distribution remain contentious. Here, we show that geographic patterns of intraspecific and interspecific genetic divergence among nearly all of the North American freshwater fish species (>750 species) support a dual role involving both the late Pliocene-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and metabolic rate in determining latitudinal gradients of genetic divergence and very likely influencing speciation rates. Results indicate that the recurrent glacial cycles caused global reduction in intraspecific diversity, interspecific genetic divergence, and species richness at higher latitudes. At the opposite, longer geographic isolation, higher metabolic rate increasing substitution rate and possibly the rapid accumulation of genetic incompatibilities, led to an increasing biodiversity towards lower latitudes. This indicates that both intrinsic and extrinsic factors similarly affect micro and macro evolutionary processes shaping global patterns of biodiversity distribution. These results also indicate that factors favouring allopatric speciation are the main drivers underlying the diversification of North American freshwater fishes. PMID:23922969

  2. GENETIC DIVERGENCE AMONG COTTON GENOTYPES GROWN IN THE MAIN SEASON AND OFF SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THIAGO ALEXANDRE SANTANA GILIO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance and estimate the genetic divergence of 18 cotton genotypes grown in the main season (sowed in December, 2012 and off season (sowed in January, 2013, considering their agronomic characteristics and resistance to Ramularia leaf spot. A randomized block experimental design was used, with five replications. The characteristics evaluated were plant height, first branch height, position of first fruiting branch, height of first fruiting branch, length between nodes, number of nodes, average number of bolls per plant, average boll weight, area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC related to the Ramularia leaf spot severity, weight of 100 - seed from the plant middle third, fiber percentage, average production per plant, yield and cotton fiber quality. The results were subjected to individual and joint analysis of variance and the genetic divergence was estimated according to multivariate procedures (Mahalanobis' generalized distance and Tocher's optimization method. The dissimilarity matrices were summed to estimate the genetic divergence, considering both growing periods. Genetic variability was found among the genotypes evaluated, in both the main season and off season. The characteristic that most contributed to the genetic divergence in the main season was the production per plant and, in the off season, was the fiber percentage. According to the results of the present work, the crosses between the genotypes BRS - 335 and FMT - 707; FM - 910 and FMT - 707; and IMA - 08 - 12427 and FMT - 707 are recommended.

  3. Early gene expression divergence between allopatric populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Jarosław; Somel, Mehmet; Lorenc, Anna; Teschke, Meike

    2013-03-01

    Divergence of gene expression is known to contribute to the differentiation and separation of populations and species, although the dynamics of this process in early stages of population divergence remains unclear. We analyzed gene expression differences in three organs (brain, liver, and testis) between two natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus that have been separated for at most 3000 years. We used two different microarray platforms to corroborate the results at a large scale and identified hundreds of genes with significant expression differences between the populations. We find that although the three tissues have similar number of differentially expressed genes, brain and liver have more tissue-specific genes than testis. Most genes show changes in a single tissue only, even when expressed in all tissues, supporting the notion that tissue-specific enhancers act as separable targets of evolution. In terms of functional categories, in brain and to a smaller extent in liver, we find transcription factors and their targets to be particularly variable between populations, similar to previous findings in primates. Testis, however, has a different set of differently expressed genes, both with respect to functional categories and overall correlation with the other tissues, the latter indicating that gene expression divergence of potential importance might be present in other datasets where no differences in fraction of differentially expressed genes were reported. Our results show that a significant amount of gene expression divergence quickly accumulates between allopatric populations.

  4. A Cluster of Paralytic Poliomyelitis Cases Due to Transmission of Slightly Diverged Sabin 2 Vaccine Poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkova, Ekaterina A; Gmyl, Anatoly P; Yakovenko, Maria L; Ivanova, Olga E; Eremeeva, Tatyana P; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Shakaryan, Armen K; Lipskaya, Galina Y; Parshina, Irina L; Loginovskikh, Nataliya V; Morozova, Nadezhda S; Agol, Vadim I

    2016-07-01

    Four cases of acute flaccid paralysis caused by slightly evolved (Sabin-like) vaccine polioviruses of serotype 2 were registered in July to August 2010 in an orphanage of Biysk (Altai Region, Russia). The Biysk cluster of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) had several uncommon, if not unique, features. (i) Until this outbreak, Sabin-like viruses (in distinction to more markedly evolved vaccine-derived polioviruses [VDPVs]) were reported to cause only sporadic cases of VAPP. Consequently, VAPP cases were not considered to require outbreak-type responses. However, the Biysk outbreak completely blurred the borderline between Sabin-like viruses and VDPVs in epidemiological terms. (ii) The outbreak demonstrated a very high disease/infection ratio, apparently exceeding even that reported for wild polioviruses. The viral genome structures did not provide any substantial hints as to the underlying reason(s) for such pathogenicity. (iii) The replacement of intestinal poliovirus lineages by other Sabin-like lineages during short intervals after the disease onsets was observed in two patients. Again, the sequences of the respective genomes provided no clues to explain these events. (iv) The polioviruses isolated from the patients and their contacts demonstrated a striking heterogeneity as well as rapid and uneven evolution of the whole genomes and their parts, apparently due to extensive interpersonal contacts in a relatively small closed community, multiple bottlenecking, and recombination. Altogether, the results demonstrate several new aspects of pathogenicity, epidemiology, and evolution of vaccine-related polioviruses and underscore several serious gaps in understanding these problems. The oral poliovirus vaccine largely contributed to the nearly complete disappearance of poliovirus-caused poliomyelitis. Being generally safe, it can, in some cases, result in a paralytic disease. Two types of such outcomes are distinguished: those caused by slightly

  5. Wet deposition and atmospheric mercury monitoring in Sisal, Yucatán, México, as part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) Part 1 - Report of 2013 Results

    OpenAIRE

    SENA Fabrizio; UMLAUF Gunther; ALONSO RUIZ AGUSTIN; RAMÍREZ ISLAS Martha; VELASCO Juan Antonio; ARCEGA CABRERA Flor; OCEGUERA VARGAS Ismael

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the occurrence and tends of mercury in ambient air and precipitation worldwide, the European Commission supported the creation of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS), a 5-year project, from 2011 to 2015. GMOS combines monitoring ground stations in different parts of the world, measurements in the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, and airborne measurements. GMOS aims providing a temporal and spatial distribution of mercury levels in ambient air ...

  6. Divergent immunological responses following glutaraldehyde exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadi, Shahla; Klink, Kimberly J.; Meade, B. Jean

    2004-01-01

    Although Glutaraldehyde (Glut) has been demonstrated to be a moderate contact sensitizer, numerous cases of occupational asthma related to Glut exposure have been reported. The purpose of these studies was to examine the dose-response relationship between Glut exposure and the development of T cell-mediated vs. IgE- mediated responses. Initial evaluation of the sensitization potential was conducted using the local lymph node assay (LLNA) at concentrations ranging from 0.75% to 2.5%. A concentration-dependent increase in lymphocyte proliferation was observed with EC3 values of 0.072% and 0.089% in CBA and BALB/c mice, respectively. The mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was used to evaluate the potential for Glut to elicit IgE (1/2 h post challenge) and contact hypersensitivity (24 and 48 h post challenge) responses. An immediate response was observed in animals induced and challenged with 2.5% Glut, whereas animals induced with 0.1% or 0.75% and challenged with 2.5% exhibited a delayed response 48 h post challenge. IgE-inducing potential was evaluated by phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells and measurement of total serum IgE levels. Only the 2.5% exposed group demonstrated a significant increase (P + B220 + cells and serum IgE. Following 3 days of dermal exposure, a significant increase in IL-4 mRNA in the draining lymph nodes was observed only in the 2.5% exposed group. These results indicate that the development of an immediate vs. a delayed hypersensitivity response following dermal exposure to Glut is at least in part mediated by the exposure concentration

  7. Investigations on the radioactive contamination of crop plants as a result of hydrogen-bomb detonation. Part II. Root and foliage uptake of Bikini ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsui, S; Aso, S; Tensho, K; Kumazawa, K

    1955-01-01

    Bikini ash (I) was prepared by igniting the heavily contaminated substances on board No. 5 Fukuryu Maru at 650/sup 0/. The I was extracted with H/sub 2/O, concentrated HCl, and 2% citric acid. The acid extracts were neutralized to pH 5.0 to 5.5 with NaOH. Squash-plant leaves were painted with these extracts, after 6 days the plant parts were assayed for radioactivity. Uptake and translocation of radioactive fission products to all plant parts was found, but with the major portion in above ground parts. Wheat seeds grown in natural and synthetic soil mixtures showed a much depressed uptake of fission materials. Most of the radioactivity was found in the roots. About 10% was translocated to aerial portions of plants.

  8. Creativity and sensory gating indexed by the P50: selective versus leaky sensory gating in divergent thinkers and creative achievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelina, Darya L; O'Leary, Daniel; Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Nusslock, Robin; Beeman, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Creativity has previously been linked with atypical attention, but it is not clear what aspects of attention, or what types of creativity are associated. Here we investigated specific neural markers of a very early form of attention, namely sensory gating, indexed by the P50 ERP, and how it relates to two measures of creativity: divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement. Data from 84 participants revealed that divergent thinking (assessed with the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking) was associated with selective sensory gating, whereas real-world creative achievement was associated with "leaky" sensory gating, both in zero-order correlations and when controlling for academic test scores in a regression. Thus both creativity measures related to sensory gating, but in opposite directions. Additionally, divergent thinking and real-world creative achievement did not interact in predicting P50 sensory gating, suggesting that these two creativity measures orthogonally relate to P50 sensory gating. Finally, the ERP effect was specific to the P50 - neither divergent thinking nor creative achievement were related to later components, such as the N100 and P200. Overall results suggest that leaky sensory gating may help people integrate ideas that are outside of focus of attention, leading to creativity in the real world; whereas divergent thinking, measured by divergent thinking tests which emphasize numerous responses within a limited time, may require selective sensory processing more than previously thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thrust characteristics of a series of convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles at subsonic and supersonic flight speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradenburgh, Evan A; Gorton, Gerald C; Beke, Andrew

    1954-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a series of four convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles was conducted in the Lewis 8-by-6 foot supersonic wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.1, 0.6, 1.6, and 2.0 over a range of nozzle pressure ratios. The thrust characteristics of these nozzles were determined by a pressure-integration technique. From a thrust standpoint, a nozzle designed to give uniform parallel flow at the exit had no advantage over the simple geometric design with conical convergent and divergent sections. The rapid-divergent nozzles might be competitive with the more gradual-divergent nozzles since the relatively short length of these nozzles would be advantageous from a weight standpoint and might result in smaller thrust losses due to friction. The thrusts, with friction losses neglected, were predicted satisfactorily by one-dimensional theory for the nozzles with relatively gradual divergence. The thrusts of the rapid-divergent designs were several percentages below the theoretical values at the design pressure ratio or above, while at low pressure ratios there was a considerable effect of free-stream Mach number, with thrusts considerably above theoretical values at subsonic speeds and somewhat above theoretical values at supersonic speeds. This Mach numb effect appeared to be related to the variation of the model base pressure with free-stream Mach number.

  10. Interspecific genetic divergence in grey mullets from the Goa region

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.; Martins, M.; Naik, S.

    Genetic divergence and phylogenetic relationships among Mugil cephalus, Liza subviridis and Valamugil cunnesius were investigated by examining the electrophoretic patterns of ten enzymes and sarcoplasmic proteins. Among the 19 loci detected, eight...

  11. Diverging diamond interchange performance evaluation (I-44 and Route 13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Performance evaluation was conducted on the first diverging diamond interchange (DDI) or double : crossover interchange (DCD) constructed in the United States. This evaluation assessed traffic operations, safety and : public perceptions t...

  12. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Várilly, Joseph C.; Gracia-Bondía, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  13. Principal Curves for Statistical Divergences and an Application to Finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia P. Rodrigues

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the beta pricing model under the consideration of non-Gaussian returns by means of a generalization of the mean-variance model and the use of principal curves to define a divergence model for the optimization of the pricing model. We rely on the q-exponential model so consider the properties of the divergences which are used to describe the statistical model and fully characterize the behavior of the assets. We derive the minimum divergence portfolio, which generalizes the Markowitz’s (mean-divergence approach and relying on the information geometrical aspects of the distributions the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM is then derived under the geometrical characterization of the distributions which model the data, all by the consideration of principal curves approach. We discuss the possibility of integration of our model into an adaptive procedure that can be used for the search of optimum points on finance applications.

  14. NATO Technology: From Gap to Divergence? (Defense Horizons, July 2004)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... Over several decades, great disparities in the funding of defense research and technology by NATO members has produced a widening technological gap that threatens to become a divergence a condition...

  15. Camouflage target detection via hyperspectral imaging plus information divergence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuheng; Chen, Xinhua; Zhou, Jiankang; Ji, Yiqun; Shen, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Target detection is one of most important applications in remote sensing. Nowadays accurate camouflage target distinction is often resorted to spectral imaging technique due to its high-resolution spectral/spatial information acquisition ability as well as plenty of data processing methods. In this paper, hyper-spectral imaging technique together with spectral information divergence measure method is used to solve camouflage target detection problem. A self-developed visual-band hyper-spectral imaging device is adopted to collect data cubes of certain experimental scene before spectral information divergences are worked out so as to discriminate target camouflage and anomaly. Full-band information divergences are measured to evaluate target detection effect visually and quantitatively. Information divergence measurement is proved to be a low-cost and effective tool for target detection task and can be further developed to other target detection applications beyond spectral imaging technique.

  16. GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND MORPHO - AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. CLONES FOR SELECTION OF CLONAL VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA QUEIROZ DE ALMEIDA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about genetic diversity of jatropha crop is important for genetic conservation resources and breeding of this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and performance of jatropha clones through morphological characterization to selection of clonal varieties for biofuels production. The clones were obtained through shoot cuttings from previous selection in a population of half - sibs progenies. The morphoagronomic analyses of clones was carried out at 180 days after transplantation and were evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of primary branches and number of secondary branches, number of bunches and number of fruits per plant. Evaluating clones performance, significant results were found for the number of secondary branches. About analysis of genetic diversity, the measures of dissimilarity genetic varied from 0.62 to 13.11, this way, the UFRBPR14 and UFRBPR15 clones were more divergent. The Tocher method was efficient to verify formation of four groups. The characteristics that most contributed to the divergence among clones were branches number, height and number of bunches, and, stem diameter had lower contribution. The jatropha clones differed only in the secondary branches number and multivariate analysis showed divergence among the jatropha clones with formation of four groups. Also, branches number, plant height and number of bunches were characteristic that contributed to genetic divergence.

  17. Divergence and evolution of assortative mating in a polygenic trait model of speciation with gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Himani; Barton, Nicholas H

    2017-06-01

    Assortative mating is an important driver of speciation in populations with gene flow and is predicted to evolve under certain conditions in few-locus models. However, the evolution of assortment is less understood for mating based on quantitative traits, which are often characterized by high genetic variability and extensive linkage disequilibrium between trait loci. We explore this scenario for a two-deme model with migration, by considering a single polygenic trait subject to divergent viability selection across demes, as well as assortative mating and sexual selection within demes, and investigate how trait divergence is shaped by various evolutionary forces. Our analysis reveals the existence of sharp thresholds of assortment strength, at which divergence increases dramatically. We also study the evolution of assortment via invasion of modifiers of mate discrimination and show that the ES assortment strength has an intermediate value under a range of migration-selection parameters, even in diverged populations, due to subtle effects which depend sensitively on the extent of phenotypic variation within these populations. The evolutionary dynamics of the polygenic trait is studied using the hypergeometric and infinitesimal models. We further investigate the sensitivity of our results to the assumptions of the hypergeometric model, using individual-based simulations. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Enhancing divergent thinking in visual arts education: Effects of explicit instruction of meta-cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; van Drie, Jannet; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2015-03-01

    The main purposes of visual arts education concern the enhancement of students' creative processes and the originality of their art products. Divergent thinking is crucial for finding original ideas in the initial phase of a creative process that aims to result in an original product. This study aims to examine the effects of explicit instruction of meta-cognition on students' divergent thinking. A quasi-experimental design was implemented with 147 secondary school students in visual arts education. In the experimental condition, students attended a series of regular lessons with assignments on art reception and production, and they attended one intervention lesson with explicit instruction of meta-cognition. In the control condition, students attended a series of regular lessons only. Pre-test and post-test instances tests measured fluency, flexibility, and originality as indicators of divergent thinking. Explicit instruction of meta-cognitive knowledge had a positive effect on fluency and flexibility, but not on originality. This study implies that in the domain of visual arts, instructional support in building up meta-cognitive knowledge about divergent thinking may improve students' creative processes. This study also discusses possible reasons for the demonstrated lack of effect for originality. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Genome-Wide Divergence in the West-African Malaria Vector Anopheles melas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Deitz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles melas is a member of the recently diverged An. gambiae species complex, a model for speciation studies, and is a locally important malaria vector along the West-African coast where it breeds in brackish water. A recent population genetic study of An. melas revealed species-level genetic differentiation between three population clusters. An. melas West extends from The Gambia to the village of Tiko, Cameroon. The other mainland cluster, An. melas South, extends from the southern Cameroonian village of Ipono to Angola. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea An. melas populations are genetically isolated from mainland populations. To examine how genetic differentiation between these An. melas forms is distributed across their genomes, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of genetic differentiation and selection using whole genome sequencing data of pooled individuals (Pool-seq from a representative population of each cluster. The An. melas forms exhibit high levels of genetic differentiation throughout their genomes, including the presence of numerous fixed differences between clusters. Although the level of divergence between the clusters is on a par with that of other species within the An. gambiae complex, patterns of genome-wide divergence and diversity do not provide evidence for the presence of pre- and/or postmating isolating mechanisms in the form of speciation islands. These results are consistent with an allopatric divergence process with little or no introgression.

  20. Body ownership: When feeling and knowing diverge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Daniele; Sedda, Anna; Brugger, Peter; Bottini, Gabriella

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with the peculiar disturbance of 'overcompleteness' experience an intense desire to amputate one of their healthy limbs, describing a sense of disownership for it (Body Integrity Identity Disorder - BIID). This condition is similar to somatoparaphrenia, the acquired delusion that one's own limb belongs to someone else. In ten individuals with BIID, we measured skin conductance response to noxious stimuli, delivered to the accepted and non-accepted limb, touching the body part or simulating the contact (stimuli approach the body without contacting it), hypothesizing that these individuals have responses like somatoparaphrenic patients, who previously showed reduced pain anticipation, when the threat was directed to the disowned limb. We found reduced anticipatory response to stimuli approaching, but not contacting, the unwanted limb. Conversely, stimuli contacting the non-accepted body-part, induced stronger SCR than those contacting the healthy parts, suggesting that feeling of ownership is critically related to a proper processing of incoming threats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Relocation of the carboxyterminal part of CAN from the nuclear envelope to the nucleus as a result of leukemia-specific chromosome rearrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fornerod, M.; Boer, J.; van Baal, S.; Jaeglé, M.; von Lindern, M.; Murti, K. G.; Davis, D.; Bonten, J.; Buijs, A.; Grosveld, G.

    1995-01-01

    Fusion genes encoding the 3' part of the can gene are implicated in two types of leukemia. The dek-can fusion gene is present in t(6;9) acute myeloid leukemia and the set-can fusion gene is present in one case of acute undifferentiated leukemia. In order to obtain leads towards the molecular basis

  2. Analysis of a native whitefly transcriptome and its sequence divergence with two invasive whitefly species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic divergence between invasive and native species may provide insight into the molecular basis underlying specific characteristics that drive the invasion and displacement of closely related species. In this study, we sequenced the transcriptome of an indigenous species, Asia II 3, of the Bemisia tabaci complex and compared its genetic divergence with the transcriptomes of two invasive whiteflies species, Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1 and Mediterranean (MED, respectively. Results More than 16 million reads of 74 base pairs in length were obtained for the Asia II 3 species using the Illumina sequencing platform. These reads were assembled into 52,535 distinct sequences (mean size: 466 bp and 16,596 sequences were annotated with an E-value above 10-5. Protein family comparisons revealed obvious diversification among the transcriptomes of these species suggesting species-specific adaptations during whitefly evolution. On the contrary, substantial conservation of the whitefly transcriptomes was also evident, despite their differences. The overall divergence of coding sequences between the orthologous gene pairs of Asia II 3 and MEAM1 is 1.73%, which is comparable to the average divergence of Asia II 3 and MED transcriptomes (1.84% and much higher than that of MEAM1 and MED (0.83%. This is consistent with the previous phylogenetic analyses and crossing experiments suggesting these are distinct species. We also identified hundreds of highly diverged genes and compiled sequence identify data into gene functional groups and found the most divergent gene classes are Cytochrome P450, Glutathione metabolism and Oxidative phosphorylation. These results strongly suggest that the divergence of genes related to metabolism might be the driving force of the MEAM1 and Asia II 3 differentiation. We also analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms within the orthologous gene pairs of indigenous and invasive whiteflies which are helpful for

  3. The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered only much later in more advanced math courses - is comprehensible with only a little extension of the first year curriculum. Moreover, it is more intuitive than the static proof. We support this intuit...

  4. Dimensional regularization and infrared divergences in quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marculescu, S.

    1979-01-01

    Dimensional continuation was devised as a powerful regularization method for ultraviolet divergences in quantum field theories. Recently it was clear, at least for quantum electrodynamics, that such a method could be employed for factorizing out infrared divergences from the on-shell S-matrix elements. This provides a renormalization scheme on the electron mass-shell without using a gauge violating ''photon mass''. (author)

  5. Diverging Trade Strategies in Latin America: An Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Vinod K.; Espach, Ralph H.

    2003-01-01

    Although there is increasing divergence among the trade policies of various Latin American nations, overall the last twenty years have seen a dramatic shift away from protectionism towards liberalization. Focusing on case studies of four Latin American nations — Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Argentina — the authors use an analytical framework to explain the rationales behind divergent policies. The analytical approach used considers the combination of economic, political and strategic objectives ...

  6. Robust bounds on risk-sensitive functionals via Renyi divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Atar, Rami; Chowdhary, Kamaljit; Dupuis, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We extend the duality between exponential integrals and relative entropy to a variational formula for exponential integrals involving the Renyi divergence. This formula characterizes the dependence of risk-sensitive functionals and related quantities determined by tail behavior to perturbations in the underlying distributions, in terms of the Renyi divergence. The characterization gives rise to upper and lower bounds that are meaningful for all values of a large deviation scaling parameter, a...

  7. DNA barcoding of recently diverged species: relative performance of matching methods.

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    Robin van Velzen

    Full Text Available Recently diverged species are challenging for identification, yet they are frequently of special interest scientifically as well as from a regulatory perspective. DNA barcoding has proven instrumental in species identification, especially in insects and vertebrates, but for the identification of recently diverged species it has been reported to be problematic in some cases. Problems are mostly due to incomplete lineage sorting or simply lack of a 'barcode gap' and probably related to large effective population size and/or low mutation rate. Our objective was to compare six methods in their ability to correctly identify recently diverged species with DNA barcodes: neighbor joining and parsimony (both tree-based, nearest neighbor and BLAST (similarity-based, and the diagnostic methods DNA-BAR, and BLOG. We analyzed simulated data assuming three different effective population sizes as well as three selected empirical data sets from published studies. Results show, as expected, that success rates are significantly lower for recently diverged species (∼75% than for older species (∼97% (P<0.00001. Similarity-based and diagnostic methods significantly outperform tree-based methods, when applied to simulated DNA barcode data (P<0.00001. The diagnostic method BLOG had highest correct query identification rate based on simulated (86.2% as well as empirical data (93.1%, indicating that it is a consistently better method overall. Another advantage of BLOG is that it offers species-level information that can be used outside the realm of DNA barcoding, for instance in species description or molecular detection assays. Even though we can confirm that identification success based on DNA barcoding is generally high in our data, recently diverged species remain difficult to identify. Nevertheless, our results contribute to improved solutions for their accurate identification.

  8. Natural selection on MHC IIβ in parapatric lake and stream stickleback: Balancing, divergent, both or neither?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, William E; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2017-09-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that play a central role in vertebrates' adaptive immunity to parasites. MHC loci are among the most polymorphic in vertebrates' genomes, inspiring many studies to identify evolutionary processes driving MHC polymorphism within populations and divergence between populations. Leading hypotheses include balancing selection favouring rare alleles within populations, and spatially divergent selection. These hypotheses do not always produce diagnosably distinct predictions, causing many studies of MHC to yield inconsistent or ambiguous results. We suggest a novel strategy to distinguish balancing vs. divergent selection on MHC, taking advantage of natural admixture between parapatric populations. With divergent selection, individuals with immigrant alleles will be more infected and less fit because they are susceptible to novel parasites in their new habitat. With balancing selection, individuals with locally rare immigrant alleles will be more fit (less infected). We tested these contrasting predictions using three-spine stickleback from three replicate pairs of parapatric lake and stream habitats. We found numerous positive and negative associations between particular MHC IIβ alleles and particular parasite taxa. A few allele-parasite comparisons supported balancing selection, and others supported divergent selection between habitats. But, there was no overall tendency for fish with immigrant MHC alleles to be more or less heavily infected. Instead, locally rare MHC alleles (not necessarily immigrants) were associated with heavier infections. Our results illustrate the complex relationship between MHC IIβ allelic variation and spatially varying multispecies parasite communities: different hypotheses may be concurrently true for different allele-parasite combinations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal deep divergences among Anopheles punctulatus sibling species in Papua New Guinea

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    Logue Kyle

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Anopheles punctulatus group (AP group are the primary vectors of human malaria in Papua New Guinea. The AP group includes 13 sibling species, most of them morphologically indistinguishable. Understanding why only certain species are able to transmit malaria requires a better comprehension of their evolutionary history. In particular, understanding relationships and divergence times among Anopheles species may enable assessing how malaria-related traits (e.g. blood feeding behaviours, vector competence have evolved. Methods DNA sequences of 14 mitochondrial (mt genomes from five AP sibling species and two species of the Anopheles dirus complex of Southeast Asia were sequenced. DNA sequences from all concatenated protein coding genes (10,770 bp were then analysed using a Bayesian approach to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and date the divergence of the AP sibling species. Results Phylogenetic reconstruction using the concatenated DNA sequence of all mitochondrial protein coding genes indicates that the ancestors of the AP group arrived in Papua New Guinea 25 to 54 million years ago and rapidly diverged to form the current sibling species. Conclusion Through evaluation of newly described mt genome sequences, this study has revealed a divergence among members of the AP group in Papua New Guinea that would significantly predate the arrival of humans in this region, 50 thousand years ago. The divergence observed among the mtDNA sequences studied here may have resulted from reproductive isolation during historical changes in sea-level through glacial minima and maxima. This leads to a hypothesis that the AP sibling species have evolved independently for potentially thousands of generations. This suggests that the evolution of many phenotypes, such as insecticide resistance will arise independently in each of the AP sibling species studied here.

  10. Recent Experiments Leading to the Characterization of the Performance of Portable (He-Ne)/CH4 Lasers: Part II: Results of the 1986 LPTF Absolute Frequency Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clairon, A.; Dahmani, B.; Acef, O.; Granveaud, M.; Domnin, Yu S.; Pouchkine, S. B.; Tatarenkov, V. M.; Felder, R.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the VNIIFTRI and LPTF frequency multiplication chains has been carried out through the measurement of the frequency of a portable VNIIFTRI (He-Ne)/CH4 laser. Agreement is within 100 Hz (1.1 parts in 1012) and is secured by the very good medium-term frequency repeatability of the (He-Ne)/CH4 VNIIFTRI portable laser (a few parts in 1013). On the same occasion a measurement of the frequency of the BIPM (He-Ne)/CH4 reference laser (B.3) has been performed at LPTF. Other experiments carried out on the BIPM laser show that the reproducibility of the (He-Ne)/CH4 system could be improved by a systematic study and then by a better control of the various perturbing factors which influence the shape of the methane-saturated absorption peak.

  11. Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: A study across three reptile clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alan H; Pritchard, Adam C; Matzke, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS) at a constant rate through time. We compare BEAST results to those from the traditional maximum parsimony (MP) and undated Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Three overlapping datasets were used that span 250 million years of archosauromorph evolution leading to crocodylians. The first dataset focuses on early Sauria (31 taxa, 240 chars.), the second on early Archosauria (76 taxa, 400 chars.) and the third on Crocodyliformes (101 taxa, 340 chars.). For each dataset three time-calibrated trees (timetrees) were calculated: a minimum-age timetree with node ages based on earliest occurrences in the fossil record; a 'smoothed' timetree using a range of time added to the root that is then averaged over zero-length internodes; and a tip-dated timetree. Comparisons within datasets show that the smoothed and tip-dated timetrees provide similar estimates. Only near the root node do BEAST estimates fall outside the smoothed timetree range. The BEAST model is not able to overcome limited sampling to correctly estimate divergences considerably older than sampled fossil occurrence dates. Conversely, the smoothed timetrees consistently provide node-ages far older than the strict dates or BEAST estimates for morphologically conservative sister-taxa when they sit on long ghost lineages. In this latter case, the relaxed-clock model appears to

  12. Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: A study across three reptile clades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Turner

    Full Text Available Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS at a constant rate through time. We compare BEAST results to those from the traditional maximum parsimony (MP and undated Bayesian inference (BI methods. Three overlapping datasets were used that span 250 million years of archosauromorph evolution leading to crocodylians. The first dataset focuses on early Sauria (31 taxa, 240 chars., the second on early Archosauria (76 taxa, 400 chars. and the third on Crocodyliformes (101 taxa, 340 chars.. For each dataset three time-calibrated trees (timetrees were calculated: a minimum-age timetree with node ages based on earliest occurrences in the fossil record; a 'smoothed' timetree using a range of time added to the root that is then averaged over zero-length internodes; and a tip-dated timetree. Comparisons within datasets show that the smoothed and tip-dated timetrees provide similar estimates. Only near the root node do BEAST estimates fall outside the smoothed timetree range. The BEAST model is not able to overcome limited sampling to correctly estimate divergences considerably older than sampled fossil occurrence dates. Conversely, the smoothed timetrees consistently provide node-ages far older than the strict dates or BEAST estimates for morphologically conservative sister-taxa when they sit on long ghost lineages. In this latter case, the relaxed

  13. Divergent Patterns of Mitochondrial and Nuclear Ancestry Are Associated with the Risk for Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Nicholas; Prendergast, D'Arcy; Oehlert, John W; Shaw, Gary M; Stevenson, David K; Rappaport, Nadav; Sirota, Marina; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Sondheimer, Neal

    2018-03-01

    To examine linkages between mitochondrial genetics and preterm birth by assessing the risk for preterm birth associated with the inheritance of nuclear haplotypes that are ancestrally distinct from mitochondrial haplogroup. Genome-wide genotyping studies of cohorts of preterm and term individuals were evaluated. We determined the mitochondrial haplogroup and nuclear ancestry for individuals and developed a scoring for the degree to which mitochondrial ancestry is divergent from nuclear ancestry. Infants with higher degrees of divergent mitochondrial ancestry were at increased risk for preterm birth (0.124 for preterm vs 0.105 for term infants; Pancestry correlated with earlier delivery within the primary study population, but this finding was not replicated in secondary cohorts born preterm. Individuals with divergent patterns of mitochondrial and nuclear ancestry are at increased risk for preterm birth. These findings may in part explain the higher rates of preterm birth in African Americans and in individuals with a matrilineal family history of preterm birth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecological divergence in the yellow-bellied kingsnake (Lampropeltis calligaster) at two North American biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvy, A D; Burbrink, F T

    2017-01-01

    Several biogeographic barriers in the Eastern Nearctic appear to reduce gene flow among populations of many species in predictable ways, however these patterns used to infer process of divergence may be deceiving if alternative modes of diversification are not considered. By using a multilocus statistical phylogeographic approach to examine diversity within a North American snake, Lampropeltis calligaster, we find that mode and timing of speciation near the Mississippi River embayment and peninsular Florida, two main biodiversity hotspots in eastern North America, challenge previously held notions of strict vicariance as the causal factor behind patterns of divergence seen among taxa at these locations. We found three species inhabiting distinct ecological niches with divergences dating to the mid- and early-Pleistocene with subsequently stable or increasing effective population sizes, further supporting the idea that the Pleistocene was an important driver of diversification in North America. Our results lead to a revised hypothesis that ecological divergence has occurred in this group across environments associated with the Mississippi River and at the Florida peninsula. Importantly, in their western distributions, we show that species divergence is associated with the ecological transition from distinct forested habitats to grasslands, rather than the nearby Mississippi River, a barrier often implicated for many other organisms. Additionally, we stress the importance of examining each delimited lineage with respect to conservation, since ecological niche models suggest that by the end of the century changes in climate may negatively alter habitat suitability and, barring adaptation, substantially reduce the suitable range of two of the three species we identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Deep phylogeographic divergence and cytonuclear discordance in the grasshopper Oedaleus decorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Eveline; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Heckel, Gerald

    2012-11-01

    The grasshopper Oedaleus decorus is a thermophilic insect with a large, mostly south-Palaearctic distribution range, stretching from the Mediterranean regions in Europe to Central-Asia and China. In this study, we analyzed the extent of phylogenetic divergence and the recent evolutionary history of the species based on 274 specimens from 26 localities across the distribution range in Europe. Phylogenetic relationships were determined using sequences of two mitochondrial loci (ctr, ND2) with neighbour-joining and Bayesian methods. Additionally, genetic differentiation was analyzed based on mitochondrial DNA and 11 microsatellite markers using F-statistics, model-free multivariate and model-based Bayesian clustering approaches. Phylogenetic analyses detected consistently two highly divergent, allopatrically distributed lineages within O. decorus. The divergence among these Western and Eastern lineages meeting in the region of the Alps was similar to the divergence of each lineage to the sister species O. asiaticus. Genetic differentiation for ctr was extremely high between Western and Eastern grasshopper populations (F(ct)=0.95). Microsatellite markers detected much lower but nevertheless very significant genetic structure among population samples. The nuclear data also demonstrated a case of cytonuclear discordance because the affiliation with mitochondrial lineages was incongruent in Northern Italy. Taken together these results provide evidence of an ancient separation within Oedaleus and either historical introgression of mtDNA among lineages and/or ongoing sex-specific gene flow in this grasshopper. Our study stresses the importance of multilocus approaches for unravelling the history and status of taxa of uncertain evolutionary divergence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of Medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael M; Limborg, Morten T; Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Pujolar, José-Martin

    2014-06-05

    Habitat fragmentation has accelerated within the last century, but may have been ongoing over longer time scales. We analyzed the timing and genetic consequences of fragmentation in two isolated lake-dwelling brown trout populations. They are from the same river system (the Gudenå River, Denmark) and have been isolated from downstream anadromous trout by dams established ca. 600-800 years ago. For reference, we included ten other anadromous populations and two hatchery strains. Based on analysis of 44 microsatellite loci we investigated if the lake populations have been naturally genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence times ca. 600-800 years bp, providing strong evidence for establishment of dams in the Medieval as the factor causing divergence. Bayesian cluster analysis showed influence of stocked trout in several reference populations, but not in the focal lake and anadromous populations. Estimates of effective population size using a linkage disequilibrium method ranged from 244 to > 1,000 in all but one anadromous population, but were lower (153 and 252) in the lake populations. We show that genetic divergence of lake-dwelling trout in two Danish lakes reflects establishment of water mills and impassable dams ca. 600-800 years ago rather than a natural genetic population structure. Although effective population sizes of the two lake populations are not critically low they may ultimately limit response to selection and thereby future adaptation. Our results demonstrate that populations may have been affected by anthropogenic disturbance over longer time scales than normally assumed.

  17. Three Types of Flower Structures in a Divergent-Wrench Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang

    2017-12-01

    Flower structures are typical features of wrench fault zones. In conventional studies, two distinct kinds of flower structures have been identified based on differences in their internal structural architecture: (1) negative flower structures characterized by synforms and normal separations and (2) positive flower structures characterized by antiforms and reverse separations. In addition to negative and positive flower structures, in this study, a third kind of flower structure was identified in a divergent-wrench fault zone, a hybrid characterized by both antiforms and normal separations. Negative flower structures widely occur in divergent-wrench fault zones, and their presence indicates the combined effects of extensional and strike-slip motion. In contrast, positive and hybrid flower structures occur only in fault restraining bends and step overs. A hybrid flower structure can be considered as product of a kind of structural deformation typical of divergent-wrench zones; it is the result of the combined effects of extensional, compressional, and strike-slip strains under a locally appropriate compressional environment. The strain situation in it represents the transition stage that in between positive and negative flower structures. Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the hybrid flower structures indicate the salient features of structural deformation in restraining bends and step overs along divergent-wrench faults, including the coexistence of three kinds of strains (i.e., compression, extension, and strike-slip) and synchronous presence of compressional (i.e., typical fault-bend fold) and extensional (normal faults) deformation in the same place. Hybrid flower structures are also favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons because of their special structural configuration in divergent-wrench fault zones.

  18. Nonparametric Information Geometry: From Divergence Function to Referential-Representational Biduality on Statistical Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Divergence functions are the non-symmetric “distance” on the manifold, Μθ, of parametric probability density functions over a measure space, (Χ,μ. Classical information geometry prescribes, on Μθ: (i a Riemannian metric given by the Fisher information; (ii a pair of dual connections (giving rise to the family of α-connections that preserve the metric under parallel transport by their joint actions; and (iii a family of divergence functions ( α-divergence defined on Μθ x Μθ, which induce the metric and the dual connections. Here, we construct an extension of this differential geometric structure from Μθ (that of parametric probability density functions to the manifold, Μ, of non-parametric functions on X, removing the positivity and normalization constraints. The generalized Fisher information and α-connections on M are induced by an α-parameterized family of divergence functions, reflecting the fundamental convex inequality associated with any smooth and strictly convex function. The infinite-dimensional manifold, M, has zero curvature for all these α-connections; hence, the generally non-zero curvature of M can be interpreted as arising from an embedding of Μθ into Μ. Furthermore, when a parametric model (after a monotonic scaling forms an affine submanifold, its natural and expectation parameters form biorthogonal coordinates, and such a submanifold is dually flat for α = ± 1, generalizing the results of Amari’s α-embedding. The present analysis illuminates two different types of duality in information geometry, one concerning the referential status of a point (measurable function expressed in the divergence function (“referential duality” and the other concerning its representation under an arbitrary monotone scaling (“representational duality”.

  19. Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus Mitochondrial Population Genomics Reveals Structure, Divergence, and Evidence for Heteroplasmy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Herein, we evaluated the concordance of population inferences and conclusions resulting from the analysis of short mitochondrial fragments (i.e., partial or complete D-Loop nucleotide sequences versus complete mitogenome sequences for 53 bobwhites representing six ecoregions across TX and OK (USA. Median joining (MJ haplotype networks demonstrated that analyses performed using small mitochondrial fragments were insufficient for estimating the true (i.e., complete mitogenome haplotype structure, corresponding levels of divergence, and maternal population history of our samples. Notably, discordant demographic inferences were observed when mismatch distributions of partial (i.e., partial D-Loop versus complete mitogenome sequences were compared, with the reduction in mitochondrial genomic information content observed to encourage spurious inferences in our samples. A probabilistic approach to variant prediction for the complete bobwhite mitogenomes revealed 344 segregating sites corresponding to 347 total mutations, including 49 putative nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (SNVs distributed across 12 protein coding genes. Evidence of gross heteroplasmy was observed for 13 bobwhites, with 10 of the 13 heteroplasmies involving one moderate to high frequency SNV. Haplotype network and phylogenetic analyses for the complete bobwhite mitogenome sequences revealed two divergent maternal lineages (dXY = 0.00731; FST = 0.849; P < 0.05, thereby supporting the potential for two putative subspecies. However, the diverged lineage (n = 103 variants almost exclusively involved bobwhites geographically classified as Colinus virginianus texanus, which is discordant with the expectations of previous geographic subspecies designations. Tests of adaptive evolution for functional divergence (MKT, frequency distribution tests (D, FS and phylogenetic analyses (RAxML provide no evidence for positive selection or hybridization with the sympatric scaled quail

  20. On sets of convergence and divergence of multiple orthogonal series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yachenko, M I; Kazaryan, K S

    2002-01-01

    Multiple Fourier series with respect to uniformly bounded orthonormal systems (ONSs) are studied. The following results are obtained. Theorem 1. Let Φ={φ n (x)} n=1 ∞ be a complete orthonormal system on [0,1] that is uniformly bounded by M on this interval, assume that m≥2, and let Φ(m)={φ n (x)} nelement ofN m , where φ n (n)=φ n 1 (x 1 )...φ n m (x m ). Then there exists a function f(x) element of L([0,1] m ) cubically diverges on some measurable subset H of [0,1] m with μ m (H)≥1-(1-1/M 2 ) m . Theorem 3. For M>1 and an integer m≥2 let E be an arbitrary measurable subset of [0,1] such that μ(E)=1-1/M 2 . Then there exists a complete orthonormal system Φ on [0,1] uniformly bounded by M there such that the multiple Fourier series of each function f(x) element of L([0,1] m ) with respect to the product system Φ(m) cubically converges to f(x) a.e. on E m . Definitive results in this direction are established also for incomplete uniformly bounded ONSs

  1. Meiotic Consequences of Genetic Divergence Across the Murine Pseudoautosomal Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L

    2017-03-01

    The production of haploid gametes during meiosis is dependent on the homology-driven processes of pairing, synapsis, and recombination. On the mammalian heterogametic sex chromosomes, these key meiotic activities are confined to the pseudoautosomal region (PAR), a short region of near-perfect sequence homology between the X and Y chromosomes. Despite its established importance for meiosis, the PAR is rapidly evolving, raising the question of how proper X / Y segregation is buffered against the accumulation of homology-disrupting mutations. Here, I investigate the interplay of PAR evolution and function in two interfertile house mouse subspecies characterized by structurally divergent PARs, Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. castaneus Using cytogenetic methods to visualize the sex chromosomes at meiosis, I show that intersubspecific F 1 hybrids harbor an increased frequency of pachytene spermatocytes with unsynapsed sex chromosomes. This high rate of asynapsis is due, in part, to the premature release of synaptic associations prior to completion of prophase I. Further, I show that when sex chromosomes do synapse in intersubspecific hybrids, recombination is reduced across the paired region. Together, these meiotic defects afflict ∼50% of spermatocytes from F 1 hybrids and lead to increased apoptosis in meiotically dividing cells. Despite flagrant disruption of the meiotic program, a subset of spermatocytes complete meiosis and intersubspecific F 1 males remain fertile. These findings cast light on the meiotic constraints that shape sex chromosome evolution and offer initial clues to resolve the paradox raised by the rapid evolution of this functionally significant locus. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. Divergent evolution in the cytoplasmic domains of PRLR and GHR genes in Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng-Hua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR belong to the large superfamily of class 1 cytokine receptors. Both of them have been identified as candidate genes affecting key quantitative traits, like growth and reproduction in livestock. We have previously studied the molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR in different cattle breeds and artiodactyl species. In this study we have analysed the corresponding cytoplasmic signalling region of PRLR. Results We sequenced PRLR gene exon 10, coding for the major part of the cytoplasmic domain, from cattle, American bison, European bison, yak, sheep, pig and wild boar individuals. We found different patterns of variation in the two receptors within and between ruminants and pigs. Pigs and bison species have no variation within GHR exon 10, but show high haplotype diversity for the PRLR exon 10. In cattle, PRLR shows lower diversity than GHR. The Bovinae PRLR haplotype network fits better the known phylogenetic relationships between the species than that of the GHR, where differences within cattle breeds are larger than between the different species in the subfamily. By comparison with the wild boar haplotypes, a high number of subsequent nonsynonymous substitutions seem to have accumulated in the pig PRLR exon 10 after domestication. Conclusion Both genes affect a multitude of traits that have been targets of selection after domestication. The genes seem to have responded differently to different selection pressures imposed by human artificial selection. The results suggest possible effects of selective sweeps in GHR before domestication in the pig lineage or species divergence in the Bison lineage. The PRLR results may be explained by strong directional selection in pigs or functional switching.

  3. Medical and surgical treatment of primary divergent strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, H; Castiella Acha, J C; Anguiano Jimenez, M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of different therapies applied in the past 30 years, both medical and surgical, and results, with the ultimate aim of determining which are the most appropriate criteria to indicate when and how to perform medical and surgical treatment in these patients. A retrospective randomized study was conducted on 198 patients with primary divergent strabismus first seen in our clinic (IOC) in the last 36 years (1976-2012), with a mean follow-up of 8.38 years. Demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as the various treatments performed, and motor and sensory outcome were collected. They were finally divided into 3 groups of 70, 71 and 56 patients, respectively, according to their first visit, in order to compare the therapies applied. Half (50%) of our patients debuted before 2 years of age (P50=24 months), and 26.3% had optimal binocular vision at the beginning of the study. Medical treatment was used as exclusive therapy in 29.3% of cases (occlusion therapy, applying negative lenses, botulinum toxin), and 70.7% required surgery (61.2% by double retro-insertion of lateral rectus, and 38.8% monolateral retro-resection). There was a recurrence in 26.7% of patients, and 40 re-interventions were performed (70% due to recurrence of divergent strabismus, 12.5% due to surgical over-correction, and 17.5% for other reasons). In the end, 61.1% of patients had perfect binocular vision (TNO=60"), and the proportion was higher in patients who showed proper control of their strabismus at the beginning (P=.003). However, no differences were found in the other variables studied. When the patients were divided into 3 groups (which are demographically comparable), an increased number of patients in Group 3 were found to be treated using negative lenses and botulinum toxin (P<.001 and P=.003). This group was found to have had a higher proportion of bilateral surgery (P=.032), seeking greater immediate postoperative over-correction, thus

  4. Associations between contractual status, part-time work, and intent to leave among professional caregivers for older people: results of a national cross-sectional survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Yuko; Inoue, Kazuo; Toyokawa, Satoshi

    2010-08-01

    Despite a growing number of studies on leaving the organization or long-term care among professional caregivers for older people, little is known about the impact of types of employment on leaving. To examine the association between the type of employment and intent to leave among Japanese professional caregivers. Secondary analysis of data from the 2006 Working Conditions Survey in Long-term Care, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey done in Japan. 10,107 professional caregivers aged 18 years and older. Predictor of intent to leave was type of employment (full-time permanent, full-time precarious, and part-time precarious). Precarious work was defined as employment that failed to meet the standard of full-time permanent employment, including fixed-term, temporary agency, and part-time work. Covariates included demographics, home or facility care, tenure in the profession, national qualification for caregivers, having other jobs, overtime work, and night shift work. We used multinomial logit models to estimate the strength of the association between the type of employment and intent to leave and to explore the possible mechanisms explaining this association. In the unadjusted model, when compared to part-time precarious workers, full-time permanent workers (OR=2.37; 95% CI=2.06, 2.72) and full-time precarious workers (OR=2.41; 95% CI=2.01, 2.88) were more likely to report intent to leave. After adjustment for covariates, these odds ratios were attenuated, but nevertheless remained significant. Overtime work greatly attenuated these odds ratios in both full-time precarious and full-time permanent workers, and having national qualification for caregivers only did in the case of full-time permanent workers. In contrast to people in other professions, full-time caregivers are more likely to have intent to leave than part-time caregivers. This study highlights the importance of policy strategies for retaining full-time workers by reducing their overtime

  5. Water vapour flux divergence over the Arabian Sea during 1987 summer monsoon using satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    the AS or the southern Indian Ocean. Another question which remains unanswered is whether all the NFD over AS is utilized only for precipitation over the Indian subcontinent or part of it is utilized for precipitation over the other southeast Asian countries. Only a... detailed and systematic surface and upper air data collection programme over the tropical Indian Ocean can throw light on the above questions. WATER VAPOUR FLUX DIVERGENCE OVER THE ARABIAN SEA 207 500 60’ 700 80” 500 60” 70” 500 60’ 70” 60” 700 Fig. 7...

  6. Identifying the principal coefficient of parabolic equations with non-divergent form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, L S; Bian, B J

    2005-01-01

    We deal with an inverse problem of determining a coefficient a(x, t) of principal part for second order parabolic equations with non-divergent form when the solution is known. Such a problem has important applications in a large fields of applied science. We propose a well-posed approximate algorithm to identify the coefficient. The existence, uniqueness and stability of such solutions a(x, t) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and a parabolic variational inequality is deduced. Our numerical simulations show that the coefficient is recovered very well

  7. Identifying the principal coefficient of parabolic equations with non-divergent form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. S.; Bian, B. J.

    2005-01-01

    We deal with an inverse problem of determining a coefficient a(x, t) of principal part for second order parabolic equations with non-divergent form when the solution is known. Such a problem has important applications in a large fields of applied science. We propose a well-posed approximate algorithm to identify the coefficient. The existence, uniqueness and stability of such solutions a(x, t) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and a parabolic variational inequality is deduced. Our numerical simulations show that the coefficient is recovered very well.

  8. When goals diverge: Staff consensus and the organizational climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Gerald; Ulaszek, Wendy R; Lin, Hsiu-Ju; Wexler, Harry K

    2009-08-01

    A sample of correctional officers and prison substance abuse treatment staff collected by the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey is used to provide an exploratory study of an aspect of organizational culture consisting of consensus (agreement) among prison personnel regarding their beliefs about rehabilitation in the presence of conflicting organizational goals and aspects of the organizational climate important to change. Findings show that among those staff members responding to the survey, the belief in rehabilitation scale mean score was associated with higher levels of organizational commitment, and interdepartmental coordination. However, an hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis that used an index score derived from the standard deviation for staff consensus regarding these same beliefs about rehabilitation produced a different pattern of results, showing that high levels of consensus were associated with job frustration, cynicism towards the ability of the institution to change, and lower levels of organizational commitment. The authors conclude that, although the sample may not express the beliefs of corrections officers or prison-based treatment staff at large, within the sample, consensus appeared to play a unique role in evaluating the effect of divergent goals on organizational climate as it relates to change, and warrants consideration when considering the effects of organizational climate.

  9. Event-Driven Contrastive Divergence for Spiking Neuromorphic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre eNeftci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs and Deep Belief Networks have been demonstrated to perform efficiently in variety of applications, such as dimensionality reduction, feature learning, and classification. Their implementation on neuromorphic hardware platforms emulating large-scale networks of spiking neurons can have significant advantages from the perspectives of scalability, power dissipation and real-time interfacing with the environment. However the traditional RBM architecture and the commonly used training algorithm known as Contrastive Divergence (CD are based on discrete updates and exact arithmetics which do not directly map onto a dynamical neural substrate. Here, we present an event-driven variation of CD to train a RBM constructed with Integrate & Fire (I&F neurons, that is constrained by the limitations of existing and near future neuromorphic hardware platforms. Our strategy is based on neural sampling, which allows us to synthesize a spiking neural network that samples from a target Boltzmann distribution. The reverberating activity of the network replaces the discrete steps of the CD algorithm, while Spike Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP carries out the weight updates in an online, asynchronous fashion.We demonstrate our approach by training an RBM composed of leaky I&F neurons with STDP synapses to learn a generative model of the MNIST hand-written digit dataset, and by testing it in recognition, generation and cue integration tasks. Our results contribute to a machine learning-driven approach for synthesizing networks of spiking neurons capable of carrying out practical, high-level functionality.

  10. Model parameter learning using Kullback-Leibler divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chungwei; Marks, Tim K.; Pajovic, Milutin; Watanabe, Shinji; Tung, Chih-kuan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we address the following problem: For a given set of spin configurations whose probability distribution is of the Boltzmann type, how do we determine the model coupling parameters? We demonstrate that directly minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence is an efficient method. We test this method against the Ising and XY models on the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) lattices, and provide two estimators to quantify the model quality. We apply this method to two types of problems. First, we apply it to the real-space renormalization group (RG). We find that the obtained RG flow is sufficiently good for determining the phase boundary (within 1% of the exact result) and the critical point, but not accurate enough for critical exponents. The proposed method provides a simple way to numerically estimate amplitudes of the interactions typically truncated in the real-space RG procedure. Second, we apply this method to the dynamical system composed of self-propelled particles, where we extract the parameter of a statistical model (a generalized XY model) from a dynamical system described by the Viscek model. We are able to obtain reasonable coupling values corresponding to different noise strengths of the Viscek model. Our method is thus able to provide quantitative analysis of dynamical systems composed of self-propelled particles.

  11. Event-driven contrastive divergence for spiking neuromorphic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftci, Emre; Das, Srinjoy; Pedroni, Bruno; Kreutz-Delgado, Kenneth; Cauwenberghs, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs) and Deep Belief Networks have been demonstrated to perform efficiently in a variety of applications, such as dimensionality reduction, feature learning, and classification. Their implementation on neuromorphic hardware platforms emulating large-scale networks of spiking neurons can have significant advantages from the perspectives of scalability, power dissipation and real-time interfacing with the environment. However, the traditional RBM architecture and the commonly used training algorithm known as Contrastive Divergence (CD) are based on discrete updates and exact arithmetics which do not directly map onto a dynamical neural substrate. Here, we present an event-driven variation of CD to train a RBM constructed with Integrate & Fire (I&F) neurons, that is constrained by the limitations of existing and near future neuromorphic hardware platforms. Our strategy is based on neural sampling, which allows us to synthesize a spiking neural network that samples from a target Boltzmann distribution. The recurrent activity of the network replaces the discrete steps of the CD algorithm, while Spike Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP) carries out the weight updates in an online, asynchronous fashion. We demonstrate our approach by training an RBM composed of leaky I&F neurons with STDP synapses to learn a generative model of the MNIST hand-written digit dataset, and by testing it in recognition, generation and cue integration tasks. Our results contribute to a machine learning-driven approach for synthesizing networks of spiking neurons capable of carrying out practical, high-level functionality.

  12. Sex differences in emotional perception: Meta analysis of divergent activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkowski, Megan M; Olsen, Rachel M; Duda, Bryant; Wanger, Timothy J; Sabatinelli, Dean

    2017-02-15

    Behavioral and physiological sex differences in emotional reactivity are well documented, yet comparatively few neural differences have been identified. Here we apply quantitative activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis across functional brain imaging studies that each reported clusters of activity differentiating men and women as they participated in emotion-evoking tasks in the visual modality. This approach requires the experimental paradigm to be balanced across the sexes, and thus may provide greater clarity than previous efforts. Results across 56 emotion-eliciting studies (n=1907) reveal distinct activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal pole, and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus in men relative to women. Women show distinct activation in bilateral amygdala, hippocampus, and regions of the dorsal midbrain including the periaqueductal gray/superior colliculus and locus coeruleus. While some clusters are consistent with prevailing perspectives on the foundations of sex differences in emotional reactivity, thalamic and brainstem regions have not previously been highlighted as sexually divergent. These data strongly support the need to include sex as a factor in functional brain imaging studies of emotion, and to extend our investigative focus beyond the cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Novel divergent nidovirus in a python with pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Lempp, Charlotte; Schürch, Anita C; Habierski, Andre; Hahn, Kerstin; Lamers, Mart; von Dörnberg, Katja; Wohlsein, Peter; Drexler, Jan Felix; Haagmans, Bart L; Smits, Saskia L; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert D M E

    2014-11-01

    The order Nidovirales contains large, enveloped viruses with a non-segmented positive-stranded RNA genome. Nidoviruses have been detected in man and various animal species, but, to date, there have been no reports of nidovirus in reptiles. In the present study, we describe the detection, characterization, phylogenetic analyses and disease association of a novel divergent nidovirus in the lung of an Indian python (Python molurus) with necrotizing pneumonia. Characterization of the partial genome (>33 000 nt) of this virus revealed several genetic features that are distinct from other nidoviruses, including a very large polyprotein 1a, a putative ribosomal frameshift signal that was identical to the frameshift signal of astroviruses and retroviruses and an accessory ORF that showed some similarity with the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase of paramyxoviruses. Analysis of genome organization and phylogenetic analysis of polyprotein 1ab suggests that this virus belongs to the subfamily Torovirinae. Results of this study provide novel insights into the genetic diversity within the order Nidovirales. © 2014 The Authors.

  14. Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blažica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model ALADIN with horizontal resolution 4.4 km are split into divergent and rotational components which are then compared at horizontal scales below 300 km and various vertical levels. It is shown that about 50% of kinetic energy in the free troposphere in ALADIN is divergent energy. The percentage increases towards 70% near the surface and in the upper troposphere towards 100 hPa. The maximal percentage of divergent energy is found at stratospheric levels around 100 hPa and at scales below 100 km which are not represented by the global models. At all levels, the divergent energy spectra are characterised by shallower slopes than the rotational energy spectra, and the difference increases as horizontal scales become larger. A very similar vertical distribution of divergent energy is obtained by using the standard ALADIN approach for the computation of spectra based on the extension zone and by applying detrending approach commonly used in mesoscale NWP community.

  15. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T

    2015-08-25

    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  16. Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while decreasing conventional convergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuypers, K P C; Riba, J; de la Fuente Revenga, M; Barker, S; Theunissen, E L; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Ayahuasca is a South American psychotropic plant tea traditionally used in Amazonian shamanism. The tea contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine oxidase-inhibiting properties. Increasing evidence from anecdotal reports and open-label studies indicates that ayahuasca may have therapeutic effects in treatment of substance use disorders and depression. A recent study on the psychological effects of ayahuasca found that the tea reduces judgmental processing and inner reactivity, classic goals of mindfulness psychotherapy. Another psychological facet that could potentially be targeted by ayahuasca is creative divergent thinking. This mode of thinking can enhance and strengthen psychological flexibility by allowing individuals to generate new and effective cognitive, emotional, and behavioral strategies. The present study aimed to assess the potential effects of ayahuasca on creative thinking. We visited two spiritual ayahuasca workshops and invited participants to conduct creativity tests before and during the acute effects of ayahuasca. In total, 26 participants consented. Creativity tests included the "pattern/line meanings test" (PLMT) and the "picture concept test" (PCT), both assessing divergent thinking and the latter also assessing convergent thinking. While no significant effects were found for the PLMT, ayahuasca intake significantly modified divergent and convergent thinking as measured by the PCT. While convergent thinking decreased after intake, divergent thinking increased. The present data indicate that ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking. They suggest that ayahuasca increases psychological flexibility, which may facilitate psychotherapeutic interventions and support clinical trial initiatives.

  17. Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

  18. A reduced set of gyrofluid equations for plasma flow in a diverging magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Plasmas are often generated in a small diameter source with a strong magnetic field and subsequently flow into a region with greater diameter and smaller field. The magnetic mirror force that accelerates plasma in a diverging magnetic field appears in the gyrofluid equations developed for applications to toroidal devices, but this force is often absent from fluid equations. A set of gyrofluid equations with reduced complexity is developed in which drifts are assumed negligible and the mirror force is retained. The Chew–Goldberger–Low equations of state are used for a simple closure. These reduced gyrofluid equations are applied to plasma equilibrium in a magnetic mirror, to acceleration of plasma in a magnetic nozzle, and to space charge neutralization of an ion beam by electrons in a diverging magnetic field. The results from gyrofluid theory are compared with results from drift kinetic theory to find the accuracy of the gyrofluid approximation in these applications.

  19. Everywhere divergent Fourier series with respect to the Walsh system and with respect to multiplicative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, S V

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a new construction of everywhere divergent Fourier-Walsh series is presented. This construction enables one to halve the gap in the Lebesgue-Orlicz classes between the Schipp-Moon lower bound established by using Kolmogorov's construction and the Sjoelin upper bound obtained by using Carleson's method. Fourier series which are everywhere divergent after a rearrangement are constructed with respect to the Walsh system (and to more general systems of characters) with the best lower bound for the Weyl factor. Some results related to an upper bound of the majorant for partial sums of series with respect to rearranged multiplicative systems are established. The results thus obtained show certain merits of harmonic analysis on the dyadic group in clarifying and overcoming fundamental difficulties in the solution of the main problems of Fourier analysis

  20. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy