Ashley S. Chaffin
Full Text Available Hexaploid oat ( L., 2 = 6 = 42 is a member of the Poaceae family and has a large genome (∼12.5 Gb containing 21 chromosome pairs from three ancestral genomes. Physical rearrangements among parental genomes have hindered the development of linkage maps in this species. The objective of this work was to develop a single high-density consensus linkage map that is representative of the majority of commonly grown oat varieties. Data from a cDNA-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS were collected from the progeny of 12 biparental recombinant inbred line populations derived from 19 parents representing oat germplasm cultivated primarily in North America. Linkage groups from all mapping populations were compared to identify 21 clusters of conserved collinearity. Linkage groups within each cluster were then merged into 21 consensus chromosomes, generating a framework consensus map of 7202 markers spanning 2843 cM. An additional 9678 markers were placed on this map with a lower degree of certainty. Assignment to physical chromosomes with high confidence was made for nine chromosomes. Comparison of homeologous regions among oat chromosomes and matches to orthologous regions of rice ( L. reveal that the hexaploid oat genome has been highly rearranged relative to its ancestral diploid genomes as a result of frequent translocations among chromosomes. Heterogeneous chromosome rearrangements among populations were also evident, probably accounting for the failure of some linkage groups to match the consensus. This work contributes to a further understanding of the organization and evolution of hexaploid grass genomes.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass and grain supplement (oats vs. barley on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk production. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four 28-d experimental periods and 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments. Using red clover-containing (40% silage rather than pure grass silage had minor effects on rumen fermentation or diet digestion but increased non-ammonia nitrogen (N flow in terms of increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering to the small intestine. This was reflected as a reduced ruminal N degradability on grass-red clover diets. Furthermore, grass-red clover diets in comparison to grass silage diets increased milk lactose concentration and yields of milk, protein and lactose. Feeding oats in replacement for barley had minor effects on rumen fermentation or post-ruminal non-ammonia N flows but reduced digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre in the diet. Using oats rather than barley increased yields of milk and lactose but reduced milk protein concentration. Oats also increased proportions of C18:0 and C18:1 in milk fat and reduced those of C10:0 to C16:0. It is concluded that inclusion of red clover and replacement of barley with oats in grass silage based diets have beneficial effects in dairy cow production.;
Stratton-Phelps, Meri; House, John K
To determine whether feeding a commercial anionic dietary supplement as a urinary acidifier to male goats may be useful for management of urolithiasis. 8 adult sexually intact male Toggenburg, Saanen, and Nubian goats. Goats were randomly assigned by age-, breed-, and weight-matched pairs to an oat or grass hay diet that was fed for 12 days. On days 13 to 14 (early sample collection time before supplementation), measurements were made of blood and urine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations; blood and urine pH; urine production; and water consumption. During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were analyzed during dietary supplementation on days 12 to 13 (middle sample collection time) and 27 to 28 (late sample collection time). Blood bicarbonate, pH, and urine pH of goats fed grass hay and goats fed oat hay were significantly decreased during the middle and late sample collection times, compared with the early sample collection time. Water consumption and urine production in all goats increased significantly during the late sample collection time, compared with the early sample collection time. The anionic dietary supplement used in our study increases urine volume, alters urine ion concentrations, and is an efficacious urinary acidifier in goats. Goats treated with prolonged anionic dietary supplementation should be monitored for secondary osteoporosis from chronic urinary calcium loss.
Danton Camacho Garcia
Full Text Available A viabilidade da aplicação e da padronização do teste de envelhecimento precoce em sementes de azevém, aveia preta e milheto foi verificada em três lotes, para cada espécie, com valores iniciais de germinação semelhantes. As sementes de cada lote foram submetidas ao teste por períodos de 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas, à temperatura de 41°C e 100% de umidade relativa do ar. Em aveia preta, o período de 24 horas estratifica lotes de sementes pelo vigor. Para milheto e azevém, o período de envelhecimento para estratificar lotes de sementes pelo vigor pode ser de 24 a 48 horas. Períodos de 72 a 120 horas são muito drásticos para as três espécies e impedem a estratificação de lotes de sementes pelo vigor.Accelerated aging test standardization for seeds of ryegrass, black oat grass and pearl millet was cheked in three lots, of each specie, with similar initial values of germination. The seeds of each lot were submited to periods of 24, 48, 96 and 120 hours of temperature of 41°C and air relative humidity of 100%. In black oat grass the 24h period stratifies seed vigor among lots. However, for pearl millet and ryegrass the period can be of 24 to 48h. Periods of 72 to 120 hours are very severe to the three species and prevent the seed vigor lots stratification.
Elayne Esther Santana Hernández
Full Text Available El síndrome de Parry-Romberg, también conocido como hemiatrofia facial progresiva, es un síndrome neurocutáneo raro de etiología desconocida. Las principales características son la atrofia de los tejidos blandos, y algunas veces del hueso, en una mitad de la cara o parte frontal de la cabeza, sin debilitamiento facial. Estudios recientes plantean la posibilidad hereditaria de esta patología, ya que se recogen afectados en una misma familia. En este trabajo se describe un sujeto afectado que viene con su hija con una asimetría facial. Es importante el seguimiento de estos pacientes y su familia para realizar un diagnóstico que permita actuar precozmente.
Full Text Available Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder of unknown origin. It is characterized by progressive facial hemiatrophy and frequently overlaps with a condition known as linear scleroderma ‘en coup de sabre’. Neurological involvement is frequently described in these patients, including migraine, facial pain and epilepsy, which represent the commonest neurological conditions, sometimes associated with brain abnormalities ipsilaterally to the skin lesions. We present a case of Parry-Romberg syndrome with neurological involvement in a patient with diagnosed localized scleroderma (morphea.
Maletic, Jelena; Tsirka, Vassiliki; Ioannides, Panos; Karacostas, Dimitrios; Taskos, Nikolaos
Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous disorder of unknown origin. It is characterized by progressive facial hemiatrophy and frequently overlaps with a condition known as linear scleroderma ‘en coup de sabre’. Neurological involvement is frequently described in these patients, including migraine, facial pain and epilepsy, which represent the commonest neurological conditions, sometimes associated with brain abnormalities ipsilaterally to the skin lesions. We present a case of Parry-Romberg syndrome with neurological involvement in a patient with diagnosed localized scleroderma (morphea). PMID:20671858
Height of grazing of oats and rye grass crops and physical quality of an Oxisol under farming-livestock integration / Altura de pastejo de aveia e azevém e qualidade física de um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico sob integração lavoura-pecuária
Sérgio José Alves
Full Text Available The intensity of animal trampling during forage-plant grazing can promote deleterious modifications in the physical quality of soils in farming-livestock integrated systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of height of grazing of oats and rye grass crops on the physical quality of the soil under farming-livestock integrated systems. The experiment was carried in 2002 in the county of Campo Mourão, Paraná State, Brazil in an Oxisol (Typic Paleudult, with very clayey texture, with the direct sowing of soy bean in the summer and of oats and rye grass crops in the winter. The treatments of grazing of oats and rye grass crops were maintained to 7, 14, 21 and 28cm, compared to a control treatment without grazing. In November of 2005, undisturbed soil samples were collected in the layers of 0-7.5 and 7.5-15cm of depth. Ten indicators of physical quality of the soil were evaluated. To maintain the physical quality of a very clayey Oxisol, in the depth of 0-15 cm, under grazing of oats and rye grass crops in the winter, the grazing height should be maintained to 21cm.A intensidade do pisoteio dos animais durante o pastejo das forrageiras pode comprometer a qualidade física do solo no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da altura de pastejo de aveia e azevém na qualidade física do solo sob integração lavoura-pecuária. O experimento foi implantado em 2002, no município de Campo Mourão (PR, em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico textura muito argilosa, com a semeadura direta de soja no verão e de aveia e azevém no inverno. Foram avaliados os tratamentos de alturas de pastejo de aveia e azevém mantidos a 7, 14, 21 e 28cm, comparados a um tratamento testemunha sem pastejo de aveia e azevém. Em novembro de 2005, foram coletadas amostras indeformadas de solo nas camadas de 0-7,5 e 7,5-15cm de profundidade. Determinaram-se 10 indicadores de qualidade física do
Juan J. Gutierrez-Gonzalez
Full Text Available Genome research on oat ( L. has received less attention than wheat ( L. and barley ( L. because it is a less prominent component of the human food system. To assess the potential of the model grass (L P. Beauv. as a surrogate for oat genome research, the whole genome sequence (WGS of was employed for comparative analysis with oat genetic linkage maps. Sequences of mapped molecular markers from one diploid spp. and two hexaploid oat maps were aligned to the WGS to infer syntenic relationships. Diploid and exhibit a high degree of synteny with 18 syntenic blocks covering 87% of the oat genome, which permitted postulation of an ancestral spp. chromosome structure. Synteny between oat and was also prevalent, with 50 syntenic blocks covering 76.6% of the ‘Kanota’ × ‘Ogle’ linkage map. Coalignment of diploid and hexaploid maps to helped resolve homeologous relationships between different oat linkage groups but also revealed many major rearrangements in oat subgenomes. Extending the analysis to a second oat linkage map (Ogle × ‘TAM O-301’ allowed identification of several putative homologous linkage groups across the two oat populations. These results indicate that the genome sequence will be a useful resource to assist genetics and genomics research in oat. The analytical strategy employed here should be applicable for genome research in other temperate grass crops with modest amounts of genomic data.
Ruminal degradability of oat (Avena sativum L., Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., and Esmeralda grass (Joysia japonica hay pellet or not/ Degradabilidade ruminal dos fenos de aveia (Avena sativum L, Coast cross (Cynodon dactilon L., e grama Esmeralda (Joysia japonica peletizado ou não
Teresa Cristina Alves
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of the oat hay (OH, Coast cross hay (CCH, pellet Esmeralda grass hay (PEH and Esmeralda grass hay (EH. The in situ technique was used, with four bovines, castrated, rumen fistulated, distributed in an Latin square 4x4 experimental design. The material was incubated in the rumen in the times 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 144 hours. There was no difference between hays on the degradation rate (c, %/h for the CP, NDF and ADF. For the DM, the OH and PEH presented higher degradation rate. There was difference on the effective degradability (ED, % of the hays, and the observed values were: OH, 48.74%; PEH, 42.44%; EH, 35.13%; CCH, 30.24%. It can be concluded that oat hay presented the highest values for the soluble fraction and for the ED of all nutrients evaluated. The pellet process of the Esmeralda grass resulted in higher ED of the DM and of the fiber, with no alteration on the CP ED.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA do feno de aveia (FA, feno de Coast cross (FCC, feno de grama Esmeralda peletizado (FEP e feno de grama Esmeralda (FE. Foi utilizada a técnica in situ com quatro bovinos machos, castrados, fistulados no rúmen, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4x4. O material foi incubado no rúmen nos tempos de 0, 6, 24, 48, 72 e 144 horas. Não houve diferença entre os fenos na taxa de degradação (c, %/h para a PB, FDN e FDA. Para a MS, o FA e FEP apresentaram maior taxa de degradação. Houve diferença na degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS dos fenos sendo os valores observados: FA, 48,74%; FEP, 42,44%; FE, 35,13%; FCC, 30,24%. Conclui-se que o feno de aveia obteve maiores valores para a fração solúvel e maior
Semmes, Laurie R.
In this article, the author describes how an experiment in a class she taught called Minority Musics of North America developed into a surprisingly successful and flexible teaching tool known as "Shaker Oats," created to encourage the concepts of ensemble and community. Most music educators in the United States today are familiar with…
Mugundhan, K; Selvakumar, C J; Gunasekaran, K; Thiruvarutchelvan, K; Sivakumar, S; Anguraj, M; Arun, S
Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare clinical entity characterised by progressive hemifacial atrophy with appearance of 'saber'. Various neurological and otorhinolaryngological disorders are associated with this syndrome. The association of Parry -Romberg syndrome with Spasmodic dysphonia has rarely been reported. A 37 year old female presented with progressive atrophy of tissues of left side of face for 10 years and change in voice for 1 year. On examination, wasting and atrophy of tissues including tongue was noted on left side of the face. ENT examination revealed adductor spasmodic dysphonia. We report the rare association of Parry -Romberg syndrome with spasmodic dysphonia.
Full Text Available Parry-Romberg syndrome or progressive hemifacial atrophy is a craniofacial disorder characterized by slow and progressive atrophy, generally unilateral, of facial tissues including muscles, bones and skin. The coup de sabre is a clear line of demarcation seen between the normal and abnormal structures. The severity of the facial deformity is dependent on the age of onset of the disease. Cosmetic management is the only available treatment and has to be delayed until facial growth is completed. The present case report deals with a 43-year-old woman with progressive hemifacial atrophy which started from the age of 10 months. Despite almost complete involvement of the right paramedian area and the early age of onset, she had neither eye changes nor any dental malformations.
Frey, K.J.; Browning, J.A.; Simons, M.D.
Attempts have been made to test the relative effectiveness of EMS treatment for inducing tolerance to crown rust among oat strains Clintland-60 of different ploidy levels. One strain of diploid and one of tetraploid oats were treated with EMS. These two strains are as susceptible to damage from crown rust as are cultivars of hexaploid oats. Multiline cultivars of oats have been shown to provide adequate protection from economic loss due to crown-rust disease in Iowa. Since 1968, eleven multiline cultivars of oats have been released from the Iowa station for use in commercial production in the midwestern USA. During the past two winter seasons, the effectiveness of multiline oat cultivars against crown-rust disease has been researched in Texas, USA, which has a ''long rust season'' of about four months, not an Iowa ''short rust season''. The protection against crown rust afforded by the multiline cultivars appeared equally good in Texas and Iowa. The seasonal productions of crown-rust spores relative to completely resistant and susceptible checks were nearly identical in both environments. Fifteen new isolines of oats have been developed for use in multiline varieties, with seed supplies sufficiently large for immediate use
Herrera-Ponce, A; Nevárez-Morillón, G; Ortega-Rívas, E; Pérez-Vega, S; Salmerón, I
Functional foods targeting the improvement of gastrointestinal health are widely recognized; of these, dairy-based probiotics are the most popular. Thus, the design of nondairy probiotics applying fruits, vegetables and cereals has raised great interest in the healthy food sector. The objective of this work was to assess the potential of germinated and malted oat substrates to support the growth of the probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Fermentations were carried out with distinctive oat substrates at inoculum levels of 3, 5 and 7% v/v, substrate concentrations of 3, 5 and 7% w/v and with sucrose addition 1·5% w/v. Lag phase profiles, maximum growth rates and maximal growths were evaluated; protein and sugar contents were also quantified. There was no significant effect (P > 0·05) of the inoculum size on the fermentation kinetics; however, oat media significantly affected the growth kinetics. In simple oat media, Lact. acidophilus exhibited biphasic growth patterns. Lactobacillus growth patterns were significantly affected (P viability of the probiotic lactobacilli; Lactobacillus casei exhibited better growth adaptability. The results also highlight that different weight in volume oat substrate concentrations has particular effects on Lact. casei growth kinetics. Our results contribute to a better understanding of oat-based media formulations as substrates for probiotic cultures. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Londono, D.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Visser, R.G.F.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Hamer, R.J.
B-glucan is one of the components that differentiate oats from other cereals and that contribute to the health-related value of oats. However, so far oats cannot easily be applied in bread-like products without loss of product quality. Here we have studied how the content and viscosity of oat
Teff-oat composites were developed using gluten free teff flour containing essential amino acids and minerals along with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol. Teff-oat composites were evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid Visco Analyzer (R...
...) Irrigation and water quality; (5) Weed control; (6) Pest and disease control; (7) Rodent and wildlife control... a region or controlled environment conducive to successful production, as determined by CCC; and (2...
Górecka, Danuta; Stachowiak, Jadwiga
We determined copper, zinc and cobalt sorption by oat and its products under variable pH conditions as well as the content of neutral dietary fiber (NDF) and its fractional composition. Adsorbents in a model sorption system were: oat, dehulled oat, oats bran and oats flakes. Three various buffers (pH 1.8, 6.6 and 8.7) were used as dispersing solutions. Results collected during this study indicate that copper, zinc and cobalt sorption is significantly affected by the type of cereal raw material. Zinc and copper ions are subjected to higher sorption than cobalt ions. Examined metal ions were subjected to high sorption under conditions corresponding to the duodenum environment (pH 8.7), regardless of the kind of adsorbent. A little lower sorption capacity is observed under conditions close to the neutral environment, while the lowest one is found in environment reflecting conditions of stomach juice (pH 1.8). Zinc ions are bound intensively by dehulled oat, while oats flakes bound mostly copper and cobalt, independently on environmental conditions. Contents of dietary fiber in oat, dehulled oat, oat bran and oat flakes were: 40.1, 19.3, 20.3 and 14.3%, respectively. The dominating fraction in all oat products was the fraction of hemicelluloses. The content of remaining fractions varies in dependence on the product.
Full Text Available Oats are predominantly a European and North American crop, as they have cool moist climate; Russia, Canada, the United States, Finland, and Poland are leading oat producing countries. Oats have been used as livestock and human foods since ancient times. Oats (Avena sativa is a class of cereal grain essentially grown for human consumption as well as for livestock fodder. Food industry fundamentally alter agricultural commodities into foods making it edible, palatable as well as appealing; by innumerable physical and chemical operations increasing shelf-life, bioavailability of the nutrients, stabilizing colour, flavour along with increase in the economic value of the grain. Recent observational and human interventional studies indicate that oats can have an impact on various non-communicable diseases like cardiovascular disease, diabetes; obesity and hypertension etc. Therefore it is important to increase awareness of oats and its health benefits among individuals thereby encouraging them to increase the frequency of oats in the diet. In the year 1997, USFDA approved the use of a health claim "3g/day of oat Beta- glucan may help lower blood total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C cholesterol". Over all consumption of oats has increased in the recent years due to its nutritional benefits; presence of Beta-glucan, antioxidants like Avenanthramides, vitamin E (tocotrienols and tocopherols.
María Elena González Espíndola
Full Text Available El síndrome de Parry-Romberg o atrofia hemifacial progresiva, enfermedad de Romberg o también denominada trofoneurosis facial, fue descrito por Parry en 1925 y por Romberg en 1946. Se considera una malformación craneofacial poco frecuente en la práctica diaria y en edades tempranas, ya que es una enfermedad progresiva que suele empezar en la adolescencia. Se caracteriza por presentar la atrofia del tejido graso (celular subcutáneo, piel, músculos faciales y en algunos casos pueden estar afectados también los huesos y cartílagos de un lado de la cara; su evolución dura de 2 a 12 años, pero puede detenerse en cualquier momento. Su diagnóstico temprano, así como un adecuado plan de tratamiento, resultan importantes y se deben ejecutar por un equipo multidisciplinario para lograr un buen desarrollo funcional y psicológico, así como el establecimiento de una buena relación de oclusión que mejore la armonía facial, que eleve la calidad de vida de estos pacientes. El objetivo del presente trabajo es mostrar un caso que ha sido tratado por el equipo multidisciplinario de Cirugía Maxilofacial del Hospital Pediátrico de Centro Habana.Parry-Romberg's syndrome or progressive hemifacial atrophy, Romberg's disease, or facial trophoneurosis as it is also called, was described by Parry in 1925 and by Romberg in 1926. It is considered an uncommon craniofacial malformation in the daily practice and at early ages, since it is a progressive disease that usually appears in adolescence. It is characterized by the atrophy of the fatty tissue (cellular subcutaneous, skin, facial muscles and in some cases the bones and cartilages of a side of the face may be affected. Its evolution lasts from 2 to 12 years, but it may stop at any time. Its early diagnosis, as well as an adequate treatment plan are important and they should be made by a multidisciplinary team to achieve a good functional and psychological development and the establishment of a good
Ferguson, Thomas Macaulay
This book aids in the rehabilitation of the wrongfully deprecated work of William Parry, and is the only full-length investigation into Parry-type propositional logics. A central tenet of the monograph is that the sheer diversity of the contexts in which the mereological analogy emerges – its effervescence with respect to fields ranging from metaphysics to computer programming – provides compelling evidence that the study of logics of analytic implication can be instrumental in identifying connections between topics that would otherwise remain hidden. More concretely, the book identifies and discusses a host of cases in which analytic implication can play an important role in revealing distinct problems to be facets of a larger, cross-disciplinary problem. It introduces an element of constancy and cohesion that has previously been absent in a regrettably fractured field, shoring up those who are sympathetic to the worth of mereological analogy. Moreover, it generates new interest in the field by illustrat...
Paula, Rafael Alfenas de; Ribeiro, Bruno Niemeyer de Freitas, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho; Bahia, Paulo Roberto Valle [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de radiologia; Ribeiro, Renato Niemeyer de Freitas [Hospital de Clinica de Jacarepagua, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, Lais Balbi de [Universidade Presidente Antonio Carlos (Unipac), Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare disease characterized by progressive hemifacial atrophy associated with other systemic changes, including neurological symptoms. Currently, there are few studies exploring the utilization of advanced magnetic resonance sequences in the investigation of this disease. The authors report the case of a 45-year-old patient and describe the findings at structural magnetic resonance imaging and at advanced sequences, correlating them with pathophysiological data. (author)
Taylor, Greig; Culshaw, Shauna; Armas, Jose; Savarrio, Lee; Goodall, Christine
Parry Romberg Syndrome (PRS) is a rare disorder of progressive hemifacial atrophy, involving soft tissues, fat and occasionally bone. It can co-exist with presentations of Morphea. We describe an unusual case of persistent periodontal and alveolar destruction associated with PRS. A 56-year-old African female initially presented with persistent periodontal destruction, which showed minimal response to conventional periodontal treatment. After non-surgical treatment, surgical debridement follow...
Yanko Castro-Govea; Oscar De La Garza-Pineda; Jorge Lara-Arias; Hernán Chacón-Martínez; Gabriel Mecott-Rivera; Abel Salazar-Lozano; Everardo Valdes-Flores
Progressive facial hemiatrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg syndrome, is a progressive and self-limited deformation of the subcutaneous tissue volume on one side of the face that creates craniofacial asymmetry. We present the case of a patient with a five-year history of progressive right facial hemiatrophy, who underwent facial volumetric restoration using cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL), which consists of an autologous fat graft enriched with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) extracted fro...
Full Text Available The Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare degenerative disease of unknown etiology that has dental implications. It is characterized by a progressive hemifacial atrophy that appears in the early stages of life. It causes aesthetic, functional and psychological alterations, and has social implications for the patient. There is no definitive treatment for the Parry-Romberg syndrome. Systemic and immune alterations produce oral and maxillofacial manifestations, which need to be managed by specialized dental professionals. The aim of this paper is to do a literature review of the Parry-Romberg syndrome and describe the oral and clinical characteristics of this condition in a 12-year-old male pediatric patient, who had a history of neurological disorders and facial asymmetry on the left side. Dentists require an adequate knowledge of the clinical and dental characteristics of this syndrome. With early diagnosis and appropriate surgical and orthodontic treatment at an early age, they can improve the quality of life of patients and minimize invasive long-term effects.
... Joint and tendon disorders. Kidney conditions. Nerve disorders. Opium and nicotine withdrawal. Preventing gallstones. Skin diseases. Stress. ... cause intestinal gas and bloating. To minimize side effects, start with a low dose and increase slowly ...
Hsueh, Chia-Hsiang; Yoshida, Kenta; Zhao, Ping; Meyer, Timothy W; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Shiew-Mei; Giacomini, Kathleen M
One of the characteristics of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the accumulation of uremic solutes in the plasma. Less is known about the effects of uremic solutes on transporters that may play critical roles in pharmacokinetics. We evaluated the effect of 72 uremic solutes on organic anion transporter 1 and 3 (OAT1 and OAT3) using a fluorescent probe substrate, 6-carboxyfluorescein. A total of 12 and 13 solutes were identified as inhibitors of OAT1 and OAT3, respectively. Several of them inhibited OAT1 or OAT3 at clinically relevant concentrations and reduced the transport of other OAT1/3 substrates in vitro. Review of clinical studies showed that the active secretion of most drugs that are known substrates of OAT1/3 deteriorated faster than the renal filtration in CKD. Collectively, these data suggest that through inhibition of OAT1 and OAT3, uremic solutes contribute to the decline in renal drug clearance in patients with CKD.
Langille, W M; Mahoney, J F
Boron was applied at the rate of 35 pounds per acre of borax to a field of oats. With the first noticeable growth there appeared a definite chlorotic condition of the oat seedlings on plots receiving boron treatments. Analysis of chlorotic tissue at 3 weeks after seeding indicated 110 ppm boron, while apparently healthy tissue contained 6.1 ppm boron at the same stage of growth. There was a rapid decline in the boron content of the oat tissue as the crop grew older. At maturity the oat tissue from the boron-treated plots contained an average of 14.15 ppm boron as compared with 4.10 boron from untreated areas. Boron toxicity had no harmful effect so far as yields were concerned, under the conditions of this experiment. 3 references.
protein and 30 to 35% dry matter. ... environment interaction, hence not much dependable but ... Principal coordinate (3D) analysis was .... Relationships among 20 genotypes of oat visualized by principal component analysis (PCoA) of rainfed ...
Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya
For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...
Ceretta Carlos Alberto
Full Text Available The studies of fertilization splitting are necessary specially for the grass succession black oat-corn where N immobilization is very common. Four experiments were carried out in commercial farms under no-tillage, in four counties - Itaara, Santo Ângelo, Júlio de Castilhos and Tupanciretã, all of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the splitting of N application in a corn/black oat crop rotation, during the 97/98 and 98/99 cropping seasons. The N was applied at three times -- pre-planted, starter and sidedressed. The pre-planted applied N for corn, corresponding to total or partial rates that would be sidedressed presented similar results in relation to the sidedress application, however, years of above average rainfall presented N deficiency for corn, reducing yield, which indicates that N application as starter or sidedress is recommended.
Castro-Govea, Yanko; De La Garza-Pineda, Oscar; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Chacón-Martínez, Hernán; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel; Salazar-Lozano, Abel; Valdes-Flores, Everardo
Progressive facial hemiatrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg syndrome, is a progressive and self-limited deformation of the subcutaneous tissue volume on one side of the face that creates craniofacial asymmetry. We present the case of a patient with a five-year history of progressive right facial hemiatrophy, who underwent facial volumetric restoration using cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL), which consists of an autologous fat graft enriched with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) extracted from the same patient. ASCs have the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes. They also promote angiogenesis, release angiogenic growth factors, and some can survive as stem cells. The use of autologous fat as a filler in soft tissue atrophy has been satisfactory in patients with mild and moderate Parry-Romberg syndrome. Currently, CAL has showed promising results in the long term by decreasing the rate of fat reabsorption. The permanence and stability of the graft in all the injected areas has showed that autologous fat grafts enriched with stem cells could be a promising technique for the correction of defects caused by this syndrome.
Full Text Available Progressive facial hemiatrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg syndrome, is a progressive and self-limited deformation of the subcutaneous tissue volume on one side of the face that creates craniofacial asymmetry. We present the case of a patient with a five-year history of progressive right facial hemiatrophy, who underwent facial volumetric restoration using cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL, which consists of an autologous fat graft enriched with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs extracted from the same patient. ASCs have the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes. They also promote angiogenesis, release angiogenic growth factors, and some can survive as stem cells. The use of autologous fat as a filler in soft tissue atrophy has been satisfactory in patients with mild and moderate Parry-Romberg syndrome. Currently, CAL has showed promising results in the long term by decreasing the rate of fat reabsorption. The permanence and stability of the graft in all the injected areas has showed that autologous fat grafts enriched with stem cells could be a promising technique for the correction of defects caused by this syndrome.
Full Text Available Progressive facial hemiatrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg syndrome, is a progressive andself-limited deformation of the subcutaneous tissue volume on one side of the face thatcreates craniofacial asymmetry. We present the case of a patient with a five-year historyof progressive right facial hemiatrophy, who underwent facial volumetric restoration usingcell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL, which consists of an autologous fat graft enriched withadipose-derived stem cells (ASCs extracted from the same patient. ASCs have the capacityto differentiate into adipocytes. They also promote angiogenesis, release angiogenic growthfactors, and some can survive as stem cells. The use of autologous fat as a filler in soft tissueatrophy has been satisfactory in patients with mild and moderate Parry-Romberg syndrome.Currently, CAL has showed promising results in the long term by decreasing the rate of fatreabsorption. The permanence and stability of the graft in all the injected areas has showedthat autologous fat grafts enriched with stem cells could be a promising technique for thecorrection of defects caused by this syndrome.
Yu, Q; Ahmad-Hamdani, M S; Han, H; Christoffers, M J; Powles, S B
Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but far too little about the evolution of resistance mutations in polyploids is understood. Hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua) is a global crop weed and many populations have evolved herbicide resistance. We studied plastidic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide resistance in hexaploid wild oat and revealed that resistant individuals can express one, two or three different plastidic ACCase gene resistance mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg). Using ACCase resistance mutations as molecular markers, combined with genetic, molecular and biochemical approaches, we found in individual resistant wild-oat plants that (1) up to three unlinked ACCase gene loci assort independently following Mendelian laws for disomic inheritance, (2) all three of these homoeologous ACCase genes were transcribed, with each able to carry its own mutation and (3) in a hexaploid background, each individual ACCase resistance mutation confers relatively low-level herbicide resistance, in contrast to high-level resistance conferred by the same mutations in unrelated diploid weed species of the Poaceae (grass) family. Low resistance conferred by individual ACCase resistance mutations is likely due to a dilution effect by susceptible ACCase expressed by homoeologs in hexaploid wild oat and/or differential expression of homoeologous ACCase gene copies. Thus, polyploidy in hexaploid wild oat may slow resistance evolution. Evidence of coexisting non-target-site resistance mechanisms among wild-oat populations was also revealed. In all, these results demonstrate that herbicide resistance and its evolution can be more complex in hexaploid wild oat than in unrelated diploid grass weeds. Our data provide a starting point for the daunting task of understanding resistance evolution in polyploids. PMID:23047200
Miller, S. Shea; Frégeau-Reid, Judith
Oats have long been recognized as having superior quality among cereals with respect to protein and lipid composition as well as soluble dietary fibre (β-glucan). The microstructure and chemistry of oats influence oat quality, and thus are determinants of the end products derived from oats. Light and scanning electron microscopies have been used to elucidate microstructure and nutrient distribution in oats. The influence of variation in these parameters on oat quality can be demonstrated, from milling through to oat products for consumption. Milling quality is determined in part by hull architecture. SEM examination of oat hulls can help predict ease of dehulling, which affects the efficiency and economics of oat milling. In addition to protein and lipid, β-glucan is an important nutritional component of oats. Fluorescence microscopy can reveal both the relative amount and distribution of β-glucan in oat kernels. Consumption of oats or oat products containing β-glucan has been shown to have beneficial effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These health benefits have generated a demand for new and palatable ways to incorporate oats into the diet as consumer demand increases. To help meet this need, we have been investigating the use of micronized naked oats as a whole grain to be cooked and consumed as a rice alternative. Different varieties of naked oats had dramatically different acceptance levels from a sensory panel. SEM of the pericarp, light microscopy of the endosperm, and analyses of starch properties of the different varieties revealed differences that corresponded with sensory data.
Full Text Available The naked oat variety Novosadski golozrni was developed from a cross between the variety Adam and a spring-type naked oat line from Canada. The variety is early, medium tall, with excellent resistance to lodging. The yield of Novosadski golozrni is 30-40% lower than that of the hulled standard and it is to the largest measure dependent on the interaction variety x year x location. The variety has high contents of proteins and fats (19.2% DM and 6.2% DM, respectively and a low cellulose content (2.8% DM. .
Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.
Nicholas A. Tinker
Full Text Available Recognizing a need in cultivated hexaploid oat ( L. for a reliable set of reference single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, we have developed a 6000 (6K BeadChip design containing 257 Infinium I and 5486 Infinium II designs corresponding to 5743 SNPs. Of those, 4975 SNPs yielded successful assays after array manufacturing. These SNPs were discovered based on a variety of bioinformatics pipelines in complementary DNA (cDNA and genomic DNA originating from 20 or more diverse oat cultivars. The array was validated in 1100 samples from six recombinant inbred line (RIL mapping populations and sets of diverse oat cultivars and breeding lines, and provided approximately 3500 discernible Mendelian polymorphisms. Here, we present an annotation of these SNPs, including methods of discovery, gene identification and orthology, population-genetic characteristics, and tentative positions on an oat consensus map. We also evaluate a new cluster-based method of calling SNPs. The SNP design sequences are made publicly available, and the full SNP genotyping platform is available for commercial purchase from an independent third party.
C-Trim 30, an oat hydrocolloid was added to milk such that fermented yogurt had 0, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25, and 3 g ß-glucan per serving. The fermentation rate and physical characteristics of yogurt were studied. Lactose fermentation was not inhibited by the addition of C-Trim. All yogurt mix reached the...
The QTLs identified are stable for these characters and are located on ... number of seeds per ear, with better thousand kernel weight and grain yield ... to determine environmentally friendly way of barley lines to withstand oat .... The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was done .... yield components, multiple QTL mapping or.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of kefir production using cow-oat milk mixture. Therefore kefir samples with 20, 40 and 60 % of oat milk were produced. The effect of oat-milk ratio on physicochemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the kefir samples was studied during 21 days storage at refrigerated conditions. Increasing oat milk concentration affected the whey-off and apparent viscosity by higher whey off and lower viscosity results. Also the proteolytic activity of the samples was decreased by raising the oat milk concentrations. Increase of the oat milk concentration leaded to a decrease of pH of the samples. Statistical analysis showed that the lactococci and lactobacilli viable cell counts differed among the samples while the highest count was detected in sample with the highest amount of oat milk. The control sample (without oat milk had higher yeast count during the storage period. The final product with 20 % of oat-milk and without addition of flavour was found to be the most acceptable by the sensory panellists. The results indicate the possibility for a new cow/oat milk based kefir.
Dunwell, Jim M.
Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.
Full Text Available This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC, 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC, 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC, 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC, NaCl SRC (SCSRC, CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC, FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC, sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC, NaOH (pH 10 SRC (SHSRC, Na2CO3 (pH 10 SRC (SCABSRC and SDS (pH 10 SRC (SDSSRC values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl to acidic (5% lactic acid or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3, and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3 increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**, CCSRC (0.82**, SCHSRC (0.80** and FCSRC (0.78*. SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64* but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.
Harder, D.E.; McKenzie, R.I.H.; Martens, J.W.; Brown, P.D.
During the history of breeding oats for rust resistance in Canada the known sources of resistance proved inadequate to counter the virulence potential of both stem rust (Puccinia graminis avenae) and crown rust (P. coronata avenae). A major programme to overcome the rust problem was undertaken at Winnipeg, involving four alternate approaches: (1) A search for new resistance in wild oat species, particularly Avena sterilis, has provided a wealth of good resistance to crown rust, but less to stem rust. Much of the A. sterilis-derived crown rust resistance is now being used world-wide; (2) Efforts at synthesizing new resistance by mutation breeding methods have not been successful. Of about seven million plants examined, only one showed significant new resistance, but this was associated with poor plant type; (3) Resistance with low levels of expression but which appears broadly effective has been observed against both stem and crown rusts. It appears that numbers of these low-level genes exist, and that they can be accumulated to provide increasingly effective resistance. Problems in using this type of resistance in a practical way are discussed; (4) Excellent rust resistance has been found in lower ploidy species such as A. barbata, but it was not previously possible to stabilize this resistance in hexaploid species. By using mutagenic treatments attempts have been made to translocate smaller portions of the A. barbata chromosome carrying the resistance to the hexaploid cultivar Rodney. In conclusion, mutation breeding methods at present appear to have limited application in synthesizing new rust-resistant genotypes in oats. The search for already existing genetic resistance and its synthesis into multi-genic resistant lines appears to be the most effective way at present of resolving the rust problem in oats. (author)
Feldman, Ilan; Sheptulin, Vladimir A; Grusha, Yaroslav O; Malhotra, Raman
The authors present a consecutive series of deep orbital Sub-Q injections to treat enophthalmic sighted eyes in Parry-Romberg syndrome patients. Retrospective, interventional case series in 2 centers. Data were collected on patient demographics, Parry-Romberg syndrome onset age, previous orbital and eyelid surgeries, diplopia, ocular movement restriction before and after the injection, number of injections, interval between injections, indication for any top-up or dissolution of filler, and any other complications. In all cases, the hyaluronic acid gel used was Restylane Sub-Q + Lidocaine. A total of 8 injections on 3 patients with Parry-Romberg syndrome, and significant enophthalmos is reported. All injections were with deep orbital Sub-Q filler. All patients were females, aged 32, 24, and 52 years old while their symptoms started at 15, 16, and 30 years old, respectively. None had orbital surgery prior to the injection. Follow up period was 2, 7, and 5 years respectively. All presented a significant enophthalmos of 4 mm which reduced to 1 mm after the injection, and duration effect was 18, 24, and 20 months, respectively. We observed a significant improvement in enophthalmos, lagophthalmos, exposure keratopathy, and even ocular motility. Lagophthalmos improved from 1, 4, and 7 mm to 0, 1, and 2 mm post injection. Ocular motility improved with no onset of new limitation or diplopia. Lower eyelid retraction increased in 1 patient after orbital injection. No other complications occurred. Deep orbital Sub-Q hyaluronic injection for treatment of enophthalmos in Parry-Romberg syndrome is an useful option in sighted eyes.
Ali Zohair Nomani
Full Text Available The dilemma of facing a facial cosmetic issue at a young age is the most troublesome symptom hampering social well-being. Beginning in the teen ages and progressing to variable extents, Parry Romberg Syndrome (PRS leads to facial asymmetry in the form of hemiatrophy secondary to loss of subcutaneous tissues, often fat but sometimes the underlying muscles and bones. It is indistinctly associated with seizure disorders at times or with other neurological sequelae. The first case was an 18 year old Pakistani male who presented with progressive wasting of the left side of the face for the past two and a half years. The second case was an 18-year-old Pakistani girl who presented to the neurology OPD with primary complaints of a seizure disorder for 3 years. In addition, she had progressive subtle asymmetry of her face. Over the course of time, a faint curvilinear grooved line showed up towards the right side of her forehead reaching on to her head up to the vertex. She also had hair loss ipsilateral to the line. The presentation of above cases depicts that although some features of PRS like facial asymmetry is characteristic, the presentation of a patient primarily with seizures should ideally include a thorough search for a secondary cause or of possible associations so that prognosis can be defined and appropriate interventions planned.
Rubia D. Mantai
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The simulation of oat development cycle can be used in the planning of agricultural practices. The aim of the study was to simulate and validate the duration of oat development cycle by photoperiod, temperature and coefficients of development of wheat for use in the WE-Streck model, considering different doses of N-fertilizer and systems of succession of high and low C/N ratio. The study was conducted in 2015 in a randomized block design with four replicates in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to N rates (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 and oat cultivars (Barbarasul and Brisasul, respectively, in the soybean/oat and maize/oat systems. The duration of the stages from emergence to anthesis and from anthesis to maturation of oats was simulated in the WE-Streck model. The minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures that effectively simulate the oat development cycle were 4, 22 and 30 °C from emergence to anthesis and 15, 25 and 35 °C from anthesis to maturation, respectively. The intermediate-cycle oat development was efficiently simulated by the WE-Streck model using coefficients developed for wheat, with vegetative and reproductive cycles estimated at 89 and 43 days, respectively.
The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably
Tetyana V. Zelenchuk
Full Text Available Background. Development of technology for obtaining peracetic pulp from oat straw and its use in the production of one of the paper mass types. Objective. Determination of peracetic cooking technological parameters’ optimal values for oat straw peracetic cellulose quality indicators. Methods. The oat straw cooking was carried out with peracetic acid at 95 ± 1 °C from 90 to 180 min for hydromodulus 8:1 and 7:1, using a sodium tungstate catalyst. To determine the oat straw peracetic cellulose mechanical indexes, laboratory samples of paper weighing 70 g/m2 were made. Results. Technological parameters’ optimum values (temperature, cooking duration, hydromodulus, hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid concentration for the oat straw delignification process were established. It is shown that the sodium tungstate catalyst addition to the cooking solution at a rate of up to 1 % of the plant raw material weight helps to reduce the lignin content in cellulose to 15 %. A diagram of the cellulose yield dependence on its residual lignin content for various methods of non-wood plant material species delignification is constructed. The high efficiency of the peracetic method for obtaining cellulose from non-wood plant raw materials, in particular from oat straw, has been confirmed. It is determined that the obtained peracetic cellulose from oat straw has high mechanical indexes. Conclusions. Oat straw peracetic cellulose can be used for the production of paper and cardboard mass types, in particular wrapping paper.
Genetic variability among 15 oat genotypes comprising fodder and dual purpose oat varieties from different geographical regions was analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker method in Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Pant University of Agriculture and Technology ...
Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...
Pike, C.; Kopeck, K.; Sceppa, E.
We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with 32 P-γ-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of 35 S-adenosine thiotriphosphate
McKenzie, R.I.H.; Martens, J.W.; Harder, D.E.; Brown, P.D.
In 1972 a two million M 2 plants were grown at Morden, Manitoba. Thirteen plants which were thought to have possible resistance to race CI0 of oat stem rust were harvested. After extensive seedling and adult plant rust tests the best of the selected plant progenies was crossed and backcrossed to Rodney 0, a stem rust susceptible oat. The resistance in this line M-72-6 was found to be controlled by a single gene. In 1973 another two million M 2 plants were examined for rust resistance at Morden and 38 were harvested. None of the M 2 plants selected in 1973 appeared to have any seedling or adult resistance when examined more thoroughly in the greenhouse and again in the field in 1974. In 1974 one million M 2 plants were examined for resistance and 73 selected. None appeared to have any resistance when tested further. The strain CI3034 which was good adult plant stem rust resistance associated with weak straw and a light green plant colour was treated with gamma radiation and EMS in 1973 and the M 2 grown in the C10 rust nursery at Morden in 1974. A considerable number of dark green plants were present in all treatments but unfortunately all were found to be stem rust susceptible. Thus it would appear to be difficult if not impossible to separate the rust resistance in CI3034 from the undesirable characters, weak straw and light green plant colour. (author)
Velikovsky, V [Vyzkumny a Slechtitelsky Ustav Obilnarsky, Kromeriz (Czechoslovakia)
Five oat varieties were studied for the effect of X-rays on the degree of survival, on the occurrence rate of mutations, and on the possibility of obtaining improved forms for further breeding work. Oats were treated with doses of 20,000 and 40,000 R and the latter dose was found to be highly lethal. For this reason, further studies were performed with doses of 15,000 and 25,000 R. The 'Diadem' variety (CSSR) showed the highest sensitivity to irradiation. The varieties 'Tiger' (West Germany) and 'Diane' (Belgium) showed medium susceptibility and the 'Permit' and 'Pollux' varieties (both W. Germany) were the least sensitive. In selection oriented mainly to stalk shortening and to higher resistance to lodging, the greatest number of useful macromutations was obtained from the 'Permit' variety after exposure of dry seeds to a dose of 20,000 R. The most promising mutant forms obtained in this variety were sent to some breeding stations of the Plant-Breeding and Seed-Production Enterprise Oseva for further breeding use.
Bischoff, Ariane; Bucher, Michael; Gekle, Michael; Sauvant, Christoph
Determination of renal plasma flow (RPF) by para-aminohippurate (PAH) clearance leads to gross underestimation of this respective parameter due to impaired renal extraction of PAH after renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, no mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is available. Based on our own previous studies we hypothesized that this may be due to impairment of expression of the basolateral rate limiting organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Thus, we investigated this phenomenon in a rat model of renal ischemia and reperfusion by determining PAH clearance, PAH extraction, PAH net secretion, and the expression of rOat1 and rOat3. PAH extraction was seriously impaired after ischemia and reperfusion which led to a threefold underestimation of RPF when PAH extraction ratio was not considered. PAH extraction directly correlated with the expression of basolateral Oat1 and Oat3. Tubular PAH secretion directly correlated with PAH extraction. Consequently, our data offer an explanation for impaired renal PAH extraction by reduced expression of the rate limiting basolateral organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Moreover, we show that determination of PAH net secretion is suitable to correct PAH clearance for impaired extraction after ischemia and reperfusion in order to get valid results for RPF.
Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.
Luud J. W. J. Gilissen
Full Text Available The water-insoluble storage proteins of cereals (prolamins are called “gluten” in wheat, barley, and rye, and “avenins” in oat. Gluten can provoke celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals (those with human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 serotypes. Avenins are present at a lower concentration (10%–15% of total protein content in oat as compared to gluten in wheat (80%–85%. The avenins in the genus Avena (cultivated oat as well as various wild species of which gene bank accessions were analyzed are free of the known CD immunogenic epitopes from wheat, barley, and rye. T cells that recognize avenin-specific epitopes have been found very rarely in CD patients. CD patients that consume oats daily do not show significantly increased levels of intraepithelial lymphocyte (EIL cells. The safety and the positive health effects of the long-term inclusion of oats in the gluten-free diet have been confirmed in long-term studies. Since 2009 (EC 41/2009 and 2013 (FDA oat products may be sold as gluten-free in several countries provided a gluten contamination level below 20 ppm. Introduction of oats in the gluten-free diet of celiac patients is advised after the recovery of the intestine. Health effects of oat consumption are reflected in European Food Safety Authority (EFSA- and Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved health claims. Oats can form a healthy, nutritious, fiber-rich, and safe complement to the gluten-free diet.
Elizabeth A. Kellogg
Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.
Full Text Available In many of her short stories and novels, Joyce Carol Oates depicts an unhealthy relationship with food. The range of these unhealthy relationships is wide, from overeating to the point of suicide, in Expensive People, to starving oneself in an attempt to deny one’s physical nature, in “Orange” and them. Overindulgence is a means for attempting to fill that space where the soul should be; undereating is often an attempt to deny one’s place in the social world. The eating disorders she portrays are rooted in both personal and social causes. While these depictions are unique to each character, over all Oates’s depictions of food develop a critique of American values. An understanding of Oates’s theme of food must include psychological, cultural and poetic approaches.
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.
Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.
Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.
Renchuan ZHU; Guoping MIAO; Ju FAN; Hua LIU
Green energy sources and ocean wind power are plentiful in deep sea. More and more o?shore wind power plants are constructed in the deep water over hundred meters below the surface. While o?shore ?oating wind turbine system is working, wind turbine, ?oating foundation, and mooring system a?ect each other with wind, waves, and currents acting on them. Various o?shore ?oating wind turbine systems and the encoun-tered environmental loads are brie?y reviewed and discussed. It is di?cult and crucial to comprehensively analyze the aerodynamic-hydrodynamic-service system-structure un-der the coupling e?ect of o?shore ?oating wind turbine system. The environmental ?ow ?eld, structure scale, and rational applications of theories and approaches should be well considered in advance.
Full Text Available Oat is rich in valuable nutrients. In comparison to other cereals, oat contains more total proteins, carbohydrate, fat, non-starch fibre, as well as unique antioxidants (one of them - avenanthramides, vitamins, and minerals. One of the most often studied components of oats is β-glucan - a type of soluble dietary fibre located throughout the starch endosperm, but with highest concentration in the bran. Many studies have shown the beneficial health effects of oat β-glucan as a soluble dietary fibre. Until now, most of the studies on this nutrient have been conducted in the cardiovascular and diabetology field. This article aimed to review the literature on studies that investigated the effects of oat-based products on human gastrointestinal tract - gastrointestinal microflora, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease as well as prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer. A literature search was conducted using PubMed database. More than 80 potential articles were identified, which were selected afterwards according to aims of our study. Studies done on human were preferred. A long-term dietary intake of oat-based products improves human intestinal microflora, could have benefits in irritable bowel syndrome, and probable effects were seen in patients with ulcerative colitis, but this remains to be proven. There are few studies regarding prevention/treatment of colorectal cancer and they do not show clear benefit nor provide recommendations.
A new highly effective resistance to oat crown rust (Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae) was identified in the diploid oat Avena strigosa PI 258731 and introgressed into hexaploid cultivated oat. Young plants with this resistance show moderate susceptibility, whereas older plant tissues and adult plant...
Jul 20, 2011 ... lipid peroxidation and proline in leaves was found during the period of intensive leaf growth. These ..... in cytoplasmic structure and negative feedback by reduced sink .... Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley ...
Perlman, Janice E.
Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)
Jia, Yongming [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Liu, Zhihao; Wang, Changyuan; Meng, Qiang; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Qi; Sun, Huijun [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Sun, Pengyuan; Yang, Xiaobo; Ma, Xiaodong [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Liu, Kexin, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China)
The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol (Res) on altering methotrexate (MTX) pharmacokinetics and clarify the related molecular mechanism. Res significantly increased rat intestinal absorption of MTX in vivo and in vitro. Simultaneously, Res inhibited MTX efflux transport in MDR1-MDCK and MRP2-MDCK cell monolayers, suggesting that the target of drug interaction was MDR1 and MRP2 in the intestine during the absorption process. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in renal clearance of MTX after simultaneous intravenous administration. Similarly, MTX uptake was markedly inhibited by Res in rat kidney slices and hOAT1/3-HEK293 cell, indicating that OAT1 and OAT3 were involved in the drug interaction in the kidney. Additionally, concomitant administration of Res decreased cytotoxic effects of MTX in hOAT1/3-HEK293 cells, and ameliorated nephrotoxicity caused by MTX in rats. Conversely, intestinal damage caused by MTX was not exacerbated after Res treatment. In conclusion, Res enhanced MTX absorption in intestine and decreased MTX renal elimination by inhibiting P-gp, MRP2, OAT1 and OAT3 in vivo and in vitro. Res improved MTX-induced renal damage without increasing intestinal toxicity. - Highlights: • DDI between MTX and Res will occur when they are co-administered. • The first targets of the DDI are P-gp and MRP2 located in intestine. • The second targets of the DDI are OAT1 and OAT3 in kidney. • Res improved MTX-induced renal damage without increasing intestinal toxicity.
Bischoff, Ariane; Bucher, Michael; Gekle, Michael; Sauvant, Christoph
Abstract Determination of renal plasma flow (RPF) by para‐aminohippurate (PAH) clearance leads to gross underestimation of this respective parameter due to impaired renal extraction of PAH after renal ischemia and reperfusion injury. However, no mechanistic explanation for this phenomenon is available. Based on our own previous studies we hypothesized that this may be due to impairment of expression of the basolateral rate limiting organic anion transporters Oat1 and Oat3. Thus, we investigat...
Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the alternatives for achieving sustainable agriculture and a reduction in production costs, especially with phosphate fertilisers, is to inoculate seeds with bacteria of the genus Azospirillum. The aim of this study therefore, was to evaluate residual phosphate fertilisation and Azospirillum brasilense, together with the contribution of straw from maize intercropped with Marandu grass, on leaf nutritional content, yield components and winter bean yield. The experiment was carried out on the Teaching and Research Farm, of the School of Engineering at UNESP, located in Selvíria in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, in a typic clayey dystrophic Red Latosol. The experimental design was of randomised blocks with four replications in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme. The treatments consisted of beans sown on straw from maize intercropped with Marandu grass on areas that had received five levels of P2O5 in the form of MAP, applied during an initial cultivation of black oats (0, 30, 60, 120 and 240 kg ha-1, both with and without inoculation of the oat and maize which preceded the beans with Azospirillum brasilense. Leaf nutrient content, leaf chlorophyll index (ICF, yield components and bean productivity were all evaluated. Inoculation with Azospirillum brasilense of the black oat and maize seeds improved the nutritional status of the plants, but had a negative effect on grain yield. Fertilisation of the oat crop with phosphorus had a positive residual effect on the beans, with increases in yield components and grain yield.
Klimiec, Elzbieta; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra
Neurologic involvement is well recognized in Systemic Scleroderma and increasingly reported in Localized Scleroderma. MRI brain abnormalities are often associated with symptoms such as seizures or headaches. In some cases they may be clinically silent. We describe a 23 years old female with head, trunk and limbs scleroderma who developed Parry-Romberg Syndrome. Brain MRI showed ipsilateral temporal lobe atrophy without any prominent neurologic symptoms. Neuropsychological examination revealed Mild Cognitive Impairment. During the 7 years of follow up we have noticed progression of face atrophy but no progression of brain atrophy. Cognitive functions have been stable. This case highlight that major MRI brain abnormalities in LS may occur with only subtle clinical manifestation such as Mild Cognitive Impairment. Copyright © 2016 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
José A. G. da Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N is the nutrient most absorbed by the oat crop. Unfavorable climate conditions decrease its efficiency, generating instability and reduction in yield. The objective of this study was to improve N use efficiency in oat grain yield by the economic value of the product and of the input and by models that scale the stability, considering systems of succession of high and reduced residual-N release in favorable and unfavorable years for cultivation. The study was conducted in the years 2013, 2014 and 2015 in two systems of succession (soybean/oat, maize/oat in randomized blocks with eight replicates, using the N-fertilizer doses of 0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1. The N-fertilizer dose for maximum economic efficiency in oats should be considered based on the meteorological trends of the cultivation year. N use optimization by models that determine the stability is an innovative proposal to increase fertilization efficiency on the yield. The N-fertilizer dose of 60 kg ha-1 promotes greater efficiency with predictability and yield, regardless of the agricultural year and the system of succession.
Park, Y. H.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, S. Y.
Growth of oat cell carcinoma tends to be invasive and extends rapidly through the bronchial lymphatics to the hilus and mediastinum, where bulky mass of tumor develop. Authors have analysed roentgenologic manifestations of 22 cases of histologically proven oat cell carcinoma of the lung seen during the period of 3 years from Jan, 1980 to May. 1983. The results 18 males and 4 females. Incidence was the most common in 7th decade as 45%. 2. Chief complaints are cough, sputum and dyspnea. Metastatic symptoms are hoarseness, SVC syndrome and back pain. 3. The radiographic findings of oat cell carcinoma were as follows. 1) hilar and perihilar mass 73% 2) Mediastinal mass 64% 3) Bronchial obstruction sign 55% 4) Peripheral mass 18% 5) Pleural effusion 18%
Giovanni B. Paschoal
Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to investigate the microstructure, crystallinity and thermal stability of nanofibrillated cellulose obtained from oat hulls using bleaching and acid hydrolysis at a mild temperature (45 ºC followed by ultrasonication. The oat hulls were bleached with peracetic acid, and after bleaching, the compact structure around the cellulosic fibers was removed, and the bundles became individualized. The extraction time (30 or 60 min did not affect the properties of the nanofibrillated cellulose, which presented a higher crystallinity index and thermal stability than the raw material (oat hulls. The nanocellulose formed interconnected webs of tiny fibers with diameters of 70-100 nm and lengths of several micrometers, producing nanofibers with a relatively high aspect ratio, thus indicating that these materials are suitable for polymer reinforcement.
Guo, Xinjin [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Meng, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning (China); Kaku, Taiichi [Japan Bioproducts Industry Co. Ltd., Tomigaya, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Liu, Kexin, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Dalian Medical University, Liaoning (China)
We investigated the effects of JBP485 (an anti-inflammatory dipeptide and a substrate of OAT) on regulation of the expression and function of renal Oat1 and Oat3, which can accelerate the excretion of accumulated uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate) in the kidney to improve gentamicin-induced ARF in rats. JBP485 caused a significant decrease in the accumulation of endogenous substances (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and indoxyl sulfate) in vivo, an increase in the excretion of exogenous compounds (lisinopril and inulin) into urine, and up-regulation of the expressions of renal Oat1 and Oat3 in the kidney tissues and slices via substrate induction. To determine the effect of JBP485 on the accelerated excretion of uremic toxins mediated by Oat1 and Oat3, the mRNA and protein expression levels of renal basolateral Oats were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, immunohistochemical analysis and an immunofluorescence method. Gentamicin down-regulated the expression of Oats mRNA and protein in rat kidney, and these effects were reversed after administration of JBP485. In addition, JBP485 caused a significant decrease in MPO and MDA levels in the kidney, and improved the pathological condition of rat kidney. These results indicated that JBP485 improved acute renal failure by increasing the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3, and by decreasing overoxidation of the kidney in gentamicin-induced ARF rats. - Highlights: • JBP485 could up-regulate function and expression of Oat1 and Oat3 in kidney. • Effects of JBP485 on ARF are mediated by stimulating excretion of uremic toxins. • JBP485 protected against gentamicin-induced ARF by decreasing MPO and MDA.
Shen, Hong; Nelson, David M; Oliveira, Regina V; Zhang, Yueping; Mcnaney, Colleen A; Gu, Xiaomei; Chen, Weiqi; Su, Ching; Reily, Michael D; Shipkova, Petia A; Gan, Jinping; Lai, Yurong; Marathe, Punit; Humphreys, W Griffith
Perturbation of organic anion transporter (OAT) 1- and OAT3-mediated transport can alter the exposure, efficacy, and safety of drugs. Although there have been reports of the endogenous biomarkers for OAT1/3, none of these have all of the characteristics required for a clinical useful biomarker. Cynomolgus monkeys were treated with intravenous probenecid (PROB) at a dose of 40 mg/kg in this study. As expected, PROB increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of coadministered furosemide, a known substrate of OAT1 and OAT3, by 4.1-fold, consistent with the values reported in humans (3.1- to 3.7-fold). Of the 233 plasma metabolites analyzed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based metabolomics method, 29 metabolites, including pyridoxic acid (PDA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), were significantly increased after either 1 or 3 hours in plasma from the monkeys pretreated with PROB compared with the treated animals. The plasma of animals was then subjected to targeted LC-MS/MS analysis, which confirmed that the PDA and HVA AUCs increased by approximately 2- to 3-fold by PROB pretreatments. PROB also increased the plasma concentrations of hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) and tetradecanedioic acid (TDA), although the increases were not statistically significant. Moreover, transporter profiling assessed using stable cell lines constitutively expressing transporters demonstrated that PDA and HVA are substrates for human OAT1, OAT3, OAT2 (HVA), and OAT4 (PDA), but not OCT2, MATE1, MATE2K, OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide. Collectively, these findings suggest that PDA and HVA might serve as blood-based endogenous probes of cynomolgus monkey OAT1 and OAT3, and investigation of PDA and HVA as circulating endogenous biomarkers of human OAT1 and OAT3 function is warranted. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.
Eraly, Satish A.; Rao, Satish Ramachandra; Gerasimova, Maria; Rose, Michael; Nagle, Megha; Anzai, Naohiko; Smith, Travis; Sharma, Kumar; Nigam, Sanjay K.; Rieg, Timo
Tubular secretion of the organic cation, creatinine, limits its value as a marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) but the molecular determinants of this pathway are unclear. The organic anion transporters, OAT1 and OAT3, are expressed on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule and transport organic anions but also neutral compounds and cations. Here, we demonstrate specific uptake of creatinine into mouse mOat1- and mOat3-microinjected Xenopus laevis oocytes at a concentration of 10 μM (i.e., similar to physiological plasma levels), which was inhibited by both probenecid and cimetidine, prototypical competitive inhibitors of organic anion and cation transporters, respectively. Renal creatinine clearance was consistently greater than inulin clearance (as a measure of GFR) in wild-type (WT) mice but not in mice lacking OAT1 (Oat1−/−) and OAT3 (Oat3−/−). WT mice presented renal creatinine net secretion (0.23 ± 0.03 μg/min) which represented 45 ± 6% of total renal creatinine excretion. Mean values for renal creatinine net secretion and renal creatinine secretion fraction were not different from zero in Oat1−/− (−0.03 ± 0.10 μg/min; −3 ± 18%) and Oat3−/− (0.01 ± 0.06 μg/min; −6 ± 19%), with greater variability in Oat1−/−. Expression of OAT3 protein in the renal membranes of Oat1−/− mice was reduced to ∼6% of WT levels, and that of OAT1 in Oat3−/− mice to ∼60%, possibly as a consequence of the genes for Oat1 and Oat3 having adjacent chromosomal locations. Plasma creatinine concentrations of Oat3−/− were elevated in clearance studies under anesthesia but not following brief isoflurane anesthesia, indicating that the former condition enhanced the quantitative contribution of OAT3 for renal creatinine secretion. The results are consistent with a contribution of OAT3 and possibly OAT1 to renal creatinine secretion in mice. PMID:22338083
An, Guohua; Wang, Xiaodong
Organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) has been reported to be involved in the nephrotoxicity of many anionic xenobiotics. As current clinically used OAT1 inhibitors are often associated with safety issues, identifying potent OAT1 inhibitors with little toxicity is of great value in reducing OAT1-mediated drug nephrotoxicity. Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic compounds with exceptional safety records. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of 18 naturally occurring flavonoids, and some of their glycosides, on the uptake of para-aminohippuric acid (PAH) in both OAT1-expressing and OAT1-negative LLC-PK1 cells. Most flavonoid aglycones produced substantial decreases in PAH uptake in OAT1-expressing cells. Among the flavonoids screened, fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin exhibited the strongest effect and produced complete inhibition of OAT1-mediated PAH uptake at a concentration of 50 μM. Further concentration-dependent studies revealed that both morin and luteolin are potent OAT1 inhibitors, with IC50 values of flavonoid aglycones, all flavonoid glycosides had negligible or small effects on OAT1. In addition, the role of OAT1 in the uptake of fisetin, luteolin, morin, and quercetin was investigated and fisetin was found to be a substrate of OAT1. Taken together, our results indicate that flavonoids are a novel class of OAT1 modulators. Considering the high consumption of flavonoids in the diet and in herbal products, OAT1-mediated flavonoid-drug interactions may be clinically relevant. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the nephroprotective role of flavonoids in relation to drug-induced nephrotoxicity mediated by the OAT1 pathway. PMID:25002746
Bakhiya, Nadiya; Arlt, Volker M.; Bahn, Andrew; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Phillips, David H.; Glatt, Hansruedi
Aristolochic acid (AA), present in Aristolochia species, is the major causative agent in the development of severe renal failure and urothelial cancers in patients with AA nephropathy. It may also be a cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule are the primary cellular target of AA. To study whether organic anion transporters (OATs) expressed in proximal tubule cells are involved in uptake of AA, we used human epithelial kidney (HEK293) cells stably expressing human (h) OAT1, OAT3 or OAT4. AA potently inhibited the uptake of characteristic substrates, p-aminohippurate for hOAT1 and estrone sulfate for hOAT3 and hOAT4. Aristolochic acid I (AAI), the more cytotoxic and genotoxic AA congener, exhibited high affinity for hOAT1 (K i = 0.6 μM) as well as hOAT3 (K i = 0.5 μM), and lower affinity for hOAT4 (K i = 20.6 μM). Subsequently, AAI-DNA adduct formation (investigated by 32 P-postlabelling) was used as a measure of AAI uptake. Significantly higher levels of adducts occurred in hOAT-expressing cells than in control cells: this effect was abolished in the presence of the OAT inhibitor probenecid. In Xenopus laevis oocytes hOAT-mediated efflux of p-aminohippurate was trans-stimulated by extracellular AA, providing further molecular evidence for AA translocation by hOATs. Our study indicates that OATs can mediate the uptake of AA into proximal tubule cells and thereby participate in kidney cell damage by this toxin.
Mar 5, 2007 ... location on productivity and nutritive values of oat are still scarce. According to ... water according to their supply and requirement balance. All the .... progressively increased with the growing stages (Table. 2). ... at its heading and blooming, the middle time of its life. Table 4 .... Work done by Deinum et al.
Full Text Available This study is a part of a larger project aiming to produce new, healthy, and tasty food ingredients from oat. Germination and different heating processes can be used to improve the texture and flavour of cereals. In this study effects of germination and wet and dry heating on the microstructure, instrumental structure and sensory properties of two oat varieties were assessed. The microstructure of native, germinated, autoclaved and extruded grains of the hulled cv. Veli and hull-less cv. Lisbeth was examined by light microscopy, the texture was measured by determining the milling energy and hardness of the grains and sensory characteristics were evaluated with descriptive sensory profile analysis. In cv. Veli the cells of the starchy endosperm were smaller than in cv. Lisbeth and ß-glucan was concentrated in the subaleurone layer. In cv. Lisbeth ß-glucan was evenly distributed in the starchy endosperm. The grains of cv. Lisbeth were more extensively modified in the germination process than the grains of cv. Veli, otherwise the effects of processing on the grains of the two cultivars were similar. Germination caused cell wall degradation, autoclaving and extrusion cooking caused starch gelatinization. Autoclaving resulted in the hardest perceived texture in oat. Gelatinization of starch appeared to contribute more to the hardness of oat groats than the cell wall structure. Of the instrumental methods used in this study the milling energy measurement appeared to be the most useful method for the analysis of the effects of processing on grain structure.;
Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.
The water-insoluble storage proteins of cereals (prolamins) are called “gluten” in wheat, barley, and rye, and “avenins” in oat. Gluten can provoke celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals (those with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 serotypes). Avenins are present at a
Jul 11, 2014 ... 10 Judyma Street, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland. (Received 1 ... Increasing interest in oat utilization for human consumption has been stimulated by the need for ... Helium was used as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 1.4 cm3/min.
Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.
Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm.
Bedi, D.G.; Shaw, M.T.
Primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus is a very rare tumour. The radiographic appearance of the three cases described in this paper are unusual because they resemble benign lesions such as leiomyoma, fibrous polyp and candidiasis. It would be interesting to investigate whether such an unusual appearance is common for this neoplasm. (orig.)
Edwards, S G
Every year between 2002 and 2005 approximately 100 samples of oats from fields of known agronomy were analysed by GC/MS for 10 trichothecenes: deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, 3-acetylDON, 15-acetylDON, fusarenone X, T-2 toxin (T2), HT-2 toxin (HT2), diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol and T-2 triol. Samples were also analysed for moniliformin and zearalenone by HPLC. Of the 10 trichothecenes analysed from 458 harvest samples of oat only three, 15-acetylDON, fusarenone X and diacetoxyscirpenol, were not detected. Moniliformin and zearalenone were absent or rarely detected, respectively. HT2 and T2 were the most frequently detected fusarium mycotoxins, present above the limit of quantification (10 microg kg(-1)) in 92 and 84% of samples, respectively, and were usually present at the highest concentrations. The combined mean and median for HT2 and T2 (HT2 + T2) was 570 and 213 microg kg(-1), respectively. There were good correlations between concentrations of HT2 and all other type A trichothecenes detected (T2, T2 triol and neosolaniol). Year and region had a significant effect on HT2 + T2 concentration. There was also a highly significant difference between HT2 + T2 content in organic and conventional samples, with the predicted mean for organic samples five times lower than that of conventional samples. This is the largest difference reported for any mycotoxin level in organic and conventional cereals. No samples exceeded the legal limits for DON or zearalenone in oats intended for human consumption. Legislative limits for HT2 and T2 are currently under consideration by the European Commission. Depending on the limits set for unprocessed oats intended for human consumption, the levels detected here could have serious consequences for the UK oat-processing industry.
Doolittle, Derrick A; Lehman, Vance T; Schwartz, Kara M; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C; Lehman, Julia S; Tollefson, Megha M
Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) and en coup de sabre (ECS) are variants of morphea. Although numerous findings on central nervous system (CNS) imaging of PRS and ECS have been reported, the spectrum and frequency of CNS imaging findings and relation to cutaneous and neurologic abnormalities have not been fully characterized. We retrospectively reviewed patients younger than 50 years at our institution over a 16-year interval who had clinical diagnosis of PRS and ECS by a skin or facial subspecialist. Two neuroradiologists evaluated available imaging and characterized CNS imaging findings. Eighty-eight patients with PRS or ECS were identified (62 women [70.4 %]; mean age 28.8 years). Of the 43 patients with CNS imaging, 19 (44 %) had abnormal findings. The only finding in 1 of these 19 patients was lateral ventricle asymmetry; of the other 18, findings were bilateral in 11 (61 %), ipsilateral to the side of facial involvement in 6 (33 %), and contralateral in 1 (6 %). Sixteen patients had serial imaging examinations over an average of 632 days; 13 (81 %) had stable imaging findings, and 3 (19 %) had change over time. Of six patients with progressive cutaneous findings, five (83 %) had stable imaging findings over time. Among the 23 patients with clinical neurologic abnormality and imaging, 12 (52 %) had abnormal imaging findings. All seven patients with seizures (100 %) had abnormal imaging studies. In PRS and ECS, imaging findings often are bilateral and often do not progress, regardless of cutaneous disease activity. Findings are inconsistently associated with clinical abnormalities.
Bourgeois, Solveig; Witte, Ursula; Harrison, Ailish M.; Makela, Anni; Kazanidis, Georgios; Archambault, Philippe
Ongoing climate change in the Arctic is causing drastic alteration of the Arctic marine ecosystem functioning, such as shifts in patterns of primary production, and modifying the present tight pelagic-benthic coupling. Subsequently benthic communities, which rely upon organic matter produced in the top layers of the Ocean, will also be affected by these changes. The benthic megafaunal communities play a significant role in ecological processes and ecosystem functioning (i.e. organic matter recycling, bioturbation, food source for the higher trophic levels…). Yet, information is scarce regarding the main food sources for dominant benthic organisms, and therefore the impact of the ongoing changes is difficult to assess. The goal of this study is to investigate the preferential feeding of different carbon sources by megabenthic organisms in the Canadian High Arctic and to identify environmental drivers which explain the observed trends. In summer 2013, benthic megafauna was collected at 9 stations spread along latitudinal (58 to 81°N) and longitudinal (62 to 114°W) transects in the Baffin Bay and Parry Channel, respectively. Carbon and nitrogen bulk stable isotope analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were performed on several species divided into groups according to their feeding type. This study highlights distinct trends in δ13C values of benthic organisms suggesting the importance of both phytoplankton and ice algae as carbon sources for megafauna in the Canadian High Arctic. The importance of physical and biological parameters as drivers of food web structure will be furthermore discussed.
Clement, Stephen L; Hu, Jinguo; Stewart, Alan V; Wang, Bingrui; Elberson, Leslie R
Seed-borne Epichloë/Neotyphodium Glenn, Bacon, Hanlin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) fungal endophytes in temperate grasses can provide protection against insect attack with the degree of host resistance related to the grass-endophyte symbiotum and the insect species involved in an interaction. Few experimental studies with wild grass-endophyte symbiota, compared to endophyte-infected agricultural grasses, have tested for anti-insect benefits, let alone for resistance against more than one insect species. This study quantified the preference and performance of the bird cherry oat-aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), two important pests of forage and cereal grasses, on Neotyphodium-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of the wild grass Alpine timothy, Phleum alpinum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The experiments tested for both constitutive and wound-induced resistance in E+ plants to characterize possible plasticity of defense responses by a wild E+ grass. The aphid, R. padi preferred E- over E+ test plants in choice experiments and E+ undamaged test plants constitutively expressed antibiosis resistance to this aphid by suppressing population growth. Prior damage of E+ test plants did not induce higher levels of resistance to R. padi. By contrast, the beetle, O. melanopus showed no preference for E+ or E- test plants and endophyte infection did not adversely affect the survival and development of larvae. These results extend the phenomenon of variable effects of E+ wild grasses on the preference and performance of phytophagous insects. The wild grass- Neotyphodium symbiotum in this study broadens the number of wild E+ grasses available for expanded explorations into the effects of endophyte metabolites on insect herbivory.
Full Text Available The most common cereals for faba bean (Vicia faba L. used in intercrops is conventional oat (Avena sativa L. An alternative to oat may be naked oat (Avena nuda L., whose oil content and quality is double. Here, intercropping of naked oat with two different faba bean cultivars (determinate-high tannin and indeterminate-low tannin was compared with sole crops of each species in 2006-2008. The treatments were: sole naked oat at 500 kernels m², indeterminate sole faba bean at 50 seeds m², determinate sole faba bean at 70 seeds m², and an additive series of 25%, 50%, and 75% of faba bean seeding rate mixed with the naked oat seeding rate. Our results demonstrated that intercropping increased the Land Equivalent Ratio by +3% to +9% over sole cropping. Raising the faba bean seeding rate in a mixture from 25% to 75% reduced oat grain yield from 630 (determinate cultivar to 760 kg ha-1 (indeterminate cultivar but increased faba bean grain yield from 760 kg ha-1. Higher yield and leaf area index (LAI and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR values show that the indeterminate cultivar of faba bean is more suitable in mixture with naked oat. The high value of competition index (CR > 1 indicates domination and aggressiveness of faba bean towards naked oat. Regardless of cultivar type, mixture of faba bean with naked oat is less productive than pure sowing.
Zhuang, Shiwen; Shetty, Radhakrishna; Hansen, Mikkel
of fermentable wort carbohydrates were observed in the worts (all at ca. 12°P), and in particular oat wort had lower concentration of maltose compared to the others, resulting in the lowest concentration of alcohol in final beer. Moreover, wort made from unmalted grains also showed lower free amino nitrogen......Whilst beers have been produced using various levels of unmalted grains as adjuncts along with malt, brewing with 100 % unmalted grains in combination with added mashing enzymes remains mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the brewing potential of 100 % unmalted barley, wheat......, oat and rye in comparison with 100 % malt. To address this, identical brewing methods were adopted at 10-L scale for each grain type by applying a commercial mashing enzyme blend (Ondea® Pro), and selected quality attributes were assessed for respective worts and beers. Different compositions...
Rose, V.L.; Keppen, M.D.; Eichner, E.R.; Pitha, J.V.; Murray, J.L.
A report of acute myelomonocytic leukemia following successful therapy for oat cell carcinoma is presented. The patient had been treated with extensive cytotoxic and radiation therapy, and was without clinical evidence of disease at one year follow-up. Eighteen months later, a peripheral smear revealed numerous blasts with monocytoid characteristics. This unusual presentation is discussed and compared with several other cases appearing in the recent literature
Simons, M.D.; Frey, K.J.
Seeds of three oat (Avena sativa and A. abyssinica) strains were treated with ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), and crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata var. avenae) tolerance ratios of M 5 -derived lines were compared with untreated checks. Tolerance ratios of mutant lines tended to be distributed in both plus and minus directions. No mutant oat line had a significant increase in grain yield, but many showed significantly depressed yields. With C.I. 6665, only five of 130 mutagen-derived lines were not significantly below the check for grain yield; one of these had significantly improved tolerance. Re-treatment of selected strains from a previous EMS treatment (original cultivar was Clintland-60) gave one M 5 -derived oat line (of 100 tested) that was equal to Clintland-60 in grain yield and sustained no damage from crown rust (i.e. it had a tolerance ratio of 100). EMS treatment of the highly susceptible tetraploid C.I. 2110 resulted in both significantly increased and reduced tolerance. (author)
Full Text Available Oat it is known as a cereal which provides numerous health benefits due to its composition. Likewise, hemp, flax and olive oils are rich in compounds required for the wellness maintenance and in prevention and treatment of various diseases. Thanks to advances of last decades in the food industry, it can be said that the rheological measurements have become indispensable in order to obtain a quality product. The aim of this work was to develop and optimize a technology for obtaining unfermented dough, respectively, to obtain oat based unleavened bread. The characterization of the final product from a sensorial point of view was performed, analysis very important for assessing the consumers acceptance. In the meantime the texture properties of all samples were instrumentally determined. Textural profile showed that samples containing higher percent of oil content had a lower hardness than those with reduced percent of oil. The most appreciated unleavened oat bread was dried at 150˚C and had a low content of oil.
Mizrahi, Y.; Applewhite, P. B.; Galston, A. W.
Previous work (A Apelbaum et al.  Plant Physiol 88: 996-998) has demonstrated binding of labeled spermidine (Spd) to a developmentally regulated 18 kilodalton protein in tobacco tissue cultures derived from thin surface layer explants. To assess the general importance of such Spd-protein complexes, we attempted bulk isolation from protoplasts of Petunia and oat (Avena sativa). In Petunia, as in tobacco, fed radioactive Spd is bound to protein, but in oat, Spd is first converted to 1,3,-diaminopropane (DAP), probably by polyamine oxidase action. In oat, binding of DAP to protein depends on age of donor leaf and conditions of illumination and temperature, and the extraction of the DAP-protein complex depends upon buffer and pH. The yield of the DAP-protein complex was maximized by extraction of frozen-thawed protoplasts with a pH 8.8 carbonate buffer containing SDS. Its molecular size, based on Sephacryl column fractionation of ammonium sulfate precipitated material, exceeded 45 kilodaltons. Bound Spd or DAP can be released from their complexes by the action of Pronase, but not DNAse, RNAse, or strong salt solutions, indicating covalent attachment to protein.
Hansen, Lars Monrad
The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...
Full Text Available Instant fried noodles have become one of the food products regularly consumed among people of all socioeconomic levels in both urban and rural areas. Oat bran is rich in β-glucan, a soluble fiber in oat. The objective of this study was to utilize oat bran, produced from dehulled oats by dry milling and cooking extrusion to improve the nutritional quality of wheat noodle and to evaluate the noodle quality. Three types of oat bran concentrate (OBC: OBCXF, OBCXEF, OBC native were used to replace wheat flour in noodle production, each type at the levels of 5, 10, and 15% (w/w. The experimental design was 3×3 factorial randomized complete block design. The flours and products were analyzed for moisture, protein, fat, β- glucan, RVA and color. The texture of the products was determined using texture analyzer and sensory test. Protein contents of OBCXF, XEF, native and wheat flour were 22.05, 23.21, 22.00 and 13.16%, respectively. OBC β-glucan content was 16-17%. Increasing the amount of various OBC in the mixes caused the increase in protein content and β-glucan in the products. The texture of the noodles with 5% replacement with OBC was not significantly different from that of wheat noodle. The tensile force was in the range of 17.10-17.96 g. The sensory acceptability of the noodles replaced with 5-10% OBC was not significantly different from wheat noodle (p<0.05. Noodle with 10% OBC-XEF had the highest scores in texture, elasticity and accept- ability. Thus, instant fried noodle having its wheat partially replaced with 10-15% OBC contained β-glucan in the range of 0.80-1.27 g/serving (50 g, which met the FDA approved health claim which requires 0.75 g/ serving, and contained dietary fiber in the range of 3.0-4.5 g/serving. By using 10-15% OBC in the formulation, it was possible to satisfactorily make instant fried noodles.
Tanya L. Tromble
Full Text Available Throughout her career, Joyce Carol Oates has resisted the urge of others to label her a feminist writer, insisting that she be considered a writer, independent of biological gender. As America’s “chronicler of the middle class,” she has given voice to countless invisible female character types, but this is only one concern among many. Oates is incredibly active, but rather than to actively incite, she uses her prolific pen to create testimonies to contemporary American life, seeking particularly to give voice to the voiceless among us. In spite of the notions of crime and justice being central to her fiction since her first published story in the late 60s, “In The Old World,” any incarceration alluded to in her writing has tended towards the metaphorical as Oates has often chosen to focus on the detrimental effects of crime on victims. However, two works published in 2014 – a novel, Carthage; and an edited story collection, Prison Noir – combine to create testimonies to prison life in the United States and raise questions about the nature of the system that puts people there. In her introduction to the collection, Oates writes: “hardly to our credit, the United States locks up nearly 25 percent of the world’s prison population, while having only 5 percent of the world’s overall population. Or, in other terms, the United States incarcerates more than 2.2 million individuals, a far higher rate per capita than any other nation.” This is at once a statement of fact and a critique seeking to combat feelings of indifference on the part of the general public from a writer who has engaged with prison populations throughout her life by exchanging correspondance with inmates and even teaching a prison writing workshop in 2011. This paper will discuss the depiction of incarceration experiences and prison visits by outsiders in several Oates stories – “How I Contemplated the World,” “San Quentin,” “High,” “Dear Joyce
Antonio Augusto Cortiana Tambara
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the edible biomass and chemical composition of forages grown on pure form, as a grass mix, and in grass-legume consortia. The following species were tested: white oats (Avena sativa, black oats (Avena strigosa, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, white clover (Trifolium repens, and red clover (Trifolium pratense. The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments arranged in a completely randomized design. The parameters measured were total dry matter (PMST, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and crude protein (CP. No significant differences in PMST were found among the consortia (p > 0.05. Only the pure cultivated white clover (p > 0.05 was comparable to the consortia in terms of biomass production. The three legumes had the lowest average NDF values (p > 0.05, based on their contributions to the total NDF content of the consortia along the cuts. The ADF content increased for all treatments during the cuts. The results indicate that in pasture, legumes increase protein content, and forage consortia increase both the pasture production and the grazing period. Their chemical composition is adequate for boosting livestock production in pastures.
Ngo, J T; Bateman, J B; Spence, M A; Cortessis, V; Sparkes, R S; Kivlin, J D; Mohandas, T; Inana, G
A human ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) locus has been mapped to the Xp11.2, as has the Norrie disease locus. We used a cDNA probe to investigate a 3-generation UCLA family with Norrie disease; a 4.2-kb RFLP was detected and a maximum lod score of 0.602 at zero recombination fraction was calculated. We used the same probe to study a second multigeneration family with Norrie disease from Utah. A different RFLP of 7.5 kb in size was identified and a recombinational event between the OAT locus represented by this RFLP and the disease loci was observed. Linkage analysis of these two loci in this family revealed a maximum load score of 1.88 at a recombination fraction of 0.10. Although both families have affected members with the same disease, the lod scores are reported separately because the 4.2- and 7.5-kb RFLPs may represent two different loci for the X-linked OAT.
Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian
The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.
Ciro Antonio Rosolem
Full Text Available Crop species with the C4 photosynthetic pathway are more efficient in assimilating N than C3 plants, which results in different N amounts prone to be washed from its straw by rain water. Such differences may affect N recycling in agricultural systems where these species are grown as cover crops. In this experiment, phytomass production and N leaching from the straw of grasses with different photosynthetic pathways were studied in response to N application. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum and congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis with the C4 photosynthetic pathway, and black oat (Avena Strigosa and triticale (X Triticosecale, with the C3 photosynthetic pathway, were grown for 47 days. After determining dry matter yields and N and C contents, a 30 mm rainfall was simulated over 8 t ha-1 of dry matter of each plant residue and the leached amounts of ammonium and nitrate were determined. C4 grasses responded to higher fertilizer rates, whereas N contents in plant tissue were lower. The amount of N leached from C4 grass residues was lower, probably because the C/N ratio is higher and N is more tightly bound to organic compounds. When planning a crop rotation system it is important to take into account the difference in N release of different plant residues which may affect N nutrition of the subsequent crop.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celiac disease is a small intestinal inflammatory disorder characterized by malabsorption, nutrient deficiency, and a range of clinical manifestations. It is caused by an inappropriate immune response to dietary gluten and is treated with a gluten-free diet. Recent feeding studies have indicated oats to be safe for celiac disease patients, and oats are now often included in the celiac disease diet. This study aimed to investigate whether oat intolerance exists in celiac disease and to characterize the cells and processes underlying this intolerance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We selected for study nine adults with celiac disease who had a history of oats exposure. Four of the patients had clinical symptoms on an oats-containing diet, and three of these four patients had intestinal inflammation typical of celiac disease at the time of oats exposure. We established oats-avenin-specific and -reactive intestinal T-cell lines from these three patients, as well as from two other patients who appeared to tolerate oats. The avenin-reactive T-cell lines recognized avenin peptides in the context of HLA-DQ2. These peptides have sequences rich in proline and glutamine residues closely resembling wheat gluten epitopes. Deamidation (glutamine-->glutamic acid conversion by tissue transglutaminase was involved in the avenin epitope formation. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that some celiac disease patients have avenin-reactive mucosal T-cells that can cause mucosal inflammation. Oat intolerance may be a reason for villous atrophy and inflammation in patients with celiac disease who are eating oats but otherwise are adhering to a strict gluten-free diet. Clinical follow-up of celiac disease patients eating oats is advisable.
Ярослав Ростиславович Андрійчук
Full Text Available One of the main goals of domestic pharmaceutical science is development of new medicines. Thus, new tablet drug was created based on dry oat extract and quercetin. Investigation of antineoplastic activity was performed. Antineoplastic activity of investigational drug based on dry oat extract and quercetin was experimentally proved.
Here we report the screening of 338 new accessions of 11 different wild oat species (Avena) from the USDA Small Grains Collection for resistance to crown rust (Puccinia coronata). Wild oat species were originally collected in Morocco by C. Al Faiz, INRAT Rabat: Avena agadiriana, A. atlantica, A. bar...
Oat (Avena sativa) is grown to provide feed in winter for livestock production in the alpine area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The effect of early cutting (T1), late cutting (T2) as well as once cutting and twice cutting (T3) on forage yields and qualities were investigated for five oat varieties (YTA, CNC, B3, Q473 and Q444).
Itamar C. Nava
Full Text Available The oat cultivar URS Altiva, developed from the simple cross ‘UFRGS 995090-2 x URS 21’, and released by the Oat Breeding Program of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS in 2015, presents high grain yield, high grain quality, desirable agronomic performance, and partial resistance to crown rust.
E-mail addresses: 1 email@example.com, 2 firstname.lastname@example.org, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.
Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno
Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....
Pilot-Scale Demonstration of In-Situ Chemical Oxidation Involving Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds - Design and Deployment Guidelines (Parris Island, SC, U.S. Marine Corp Recruit Depot, Site 45 Pilot Study)
A pilot-scale in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) demonstration, involving subsurface injections of sodium permanganate (NaMnO4), was performed at the US Marine Corp Recruit Depot (MCRD), site 45 (Parris Island (PI), SC). The ground water was originally contaminated with perchloroe...
Liu, Tao; Meng, Qiang; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Guo, Xinjin; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the effect of cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP485) on acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cisplatin is related to change in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in rats. JBP485 reduced creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) in plasma and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney, and recovered the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cisplatin-treated rats. The plasma concentration of PAH (para-aminohippurate) determined by LC–MS/MS was increased markedly after intravenous administration of cisplatin, whereas cumulative urinary excretion of PAH and the uptake of PAH in kidney slices were significantly decreased. qRT-PCR and Western-blot showed a decrease in mRNA and protein of Oat1 and Oat3, an increase in mRNA and protein of Mrp2 in cisplatin-treated rats, and an increase in IS (a uremic toxin) after co-treatment with JBP485. It indicated that JBP485 promoted urinary excretion of toxins by upregulating renal Mrp2. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which JBP485 improves ARF induced by cisplatin in rats. -- Highlights: ► Cisplatin induces acute renal failure (ARF). ► The expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 were changed during ARF. ► The regulated expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 is an adaptive protected response. ► JBP485 could facilitate the adaptive protective action.
Liu, Tao, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Meng, Qiang, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Wang, Changyuan, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Liu, Qi, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Guo, Xinjin, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Sun, Huijun, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); Peng, Jinyong, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, 9 West Section, Lvshun South Road, Lvshunkou District, Dalian 116044 (China); Provincial Key Laboratory for Pharmacokinetics and Transport, Liaoning, Dalian Medical University (China); and others
The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the effect of cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP485) on acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cisplatin is related to change in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in rats. JBP485 reduced creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) in plasma and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney, and recovered the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cisplatin-treated rats. The plasma concentration of PAH (para-aminohippurate) determined by LC–MS/MS was increased markedly after intravenous administration of cisplatin, whereas cumulative urinary excretion of PAH and the uptake of PAH in kidney slices were significantly decreased. qRT-PCR and Western-blot showed a decrease in mRNA and protein of Oat1 and Oat3, an increase in mRNA and protein of Mrp2 in cisplatin-treated rats, and an increase in IS (a uremic toxin) after co-treatment with JBP485. It indicated that JBP485 promoted urinary excretion of toxins by upregulating renal Mrp2. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which JBP485 improves ARF induced by cisplatin in rats. -- Highlights: ► Cisplatin induces acute renal failure (ARF). ► The expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 were changed during ARF. ► The regulated expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 is an adaptive protected response. ► JBP485 could facilitate the adaptive protective action.
Amaranth-oat composites were developed using gluten free amaranth flour containing essential amino acids and minerals with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol. Amaranth flour and oat bran concentrate (OBC) composites (1:4) were processed using different technologie...
C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani
Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...
José Edgar Zapata M.
Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms of oat flakes were determined at temperatures of 5, 25 and 37°C, using a gravimetric technique in an a w range of between 0.107 and 0.855. These curves were modeled using six equations commonly applied in food. The quality of the fit was assessed with the regression coefficient (r² and the mean relative percentage error (MRPE. The best fit were obtained with the Caurie model with r² of 0.996, 0.901 and 0.870, and MRPE of 7.190, 17.878 and 16.206, at 5, 25 and 37°C, respectively. The equilibrium moisture presented a dependence on temperature in the studied a w range, as did the security moisture (X S. These results suggest that the recommended storage conditions of oat flakes include: a relative air humidity of 50% between 5 and 25°C and of 38% up to 37°C.
... is affected. In mild cases, the disorder usually causes no disability other than cosmetic effects. Clinical Trials Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Related Information Patient Organizations Epilepsy Foundation March of Dimes See all related organizations ...
Massucati, Luiz Felipe Perrone
Full Text Available Under conditions of Organic Farming, we investigated whether direct seeding of faba bean (Vicia faba L. into straw mulch from residues of precrop oats used for weed control enables at least occasional/opportunistic direct seeding in Organic Agriculture. Eight field trials were carried out at different study sites in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Direct seeding (DS was performed into mulch layers of 0,4 and 6 t ha-1 of straw residues applied to the remaining stubble, simulating different yield levels of the precrop oats. LBS was used as a reference treatment, where straw was harvested, stubble tillage performed and seedbed prepared in fall and oil radish (Raphanus sativus grown as winter cover crop. Mouldboard ploughing combined with conventional seedbed preparation was performed in early spring to V. faba. Compared with LBS, straw mulch with subsequent direct seeding suppressed especially dicotyledonous annuals significantly. DS treatments with straw reduced the abundance of this group by 81 and 85% compared with LBS. Straw mulch resulted in effective suppression of photosensitive weeds such as Matricaria spp. and late germinating Chenopodium album. Grasses and perennial species occurred independent of the amount of straw. Compared with DS, the abundance of these weeds was reduced by 64 and 82% in LBS treatment. The shoot dry matter production of faba bean was retarded by DS compared with LBS, but significant yield losses could be avoided with straw residues of at least 4 t ha-1. Sufficient amount of straw of from the previous crop is a key criterion to facilitate organic no-till farming of faba bean in a suitable crop sequence when pressure of perennials and grasses is low.
Liu, Henry C; Goldenberg, Anne; Chen, Yuchen; Lun, Christina; Wu, Wei; Bush, Kevin T; Balac, Natasha; Rodriguez, Paul; Abagyan, Ruben; Nigam, Sanjay K
Statistical analysis was performed on physicochemical descriptors of ∼250 drugs known to interact with one or more SLC22 "drug" transporters (i.e., SLC22A6 or OAT1, SLC22A8 or OAT3, SLC22A1 or OCT1, and SLC22A2 or OCT2), followed by application of machine-learning methods and wet laboratory testing of novel predictions. In addition to molecular charge, organic anion transporters (OATs) were found to prefer interacting with planar structures, whereas organic cation transporters (OCTs) interact with more three-dimensional structures (i.e., greater SP3 character). Moreover, compared with OAT1 ligands, OAT3 ligands possess more acyclic tetravalent bonds and have a more zwitterionic/cationic character. In contrast, OCT1 and OCT2 ligands were not clearly distinquishable form one another by the methods employed. Multiple pharmacophore models were generated on the basis of the drugs and, consistent with the machine-learning analyses, one unique pharmacophore created from ligands of OAT3 possessed cationic properties similar to OCT ligands; this was confirmed by quantitative atomic property field analysis. Virtual screening with this pharmacophore, followed by transport assays, identified several cationic drugs that selectively interact with OAT3 but not OAT1. Although the present analysis may be somewhat limited by the need to rely largely on inhibition data for modeling, wet laboratory/in vitro transport studies, as well as analysis of drug/metabolite handling in Oat and Oct knockout animals, support the general validity of the approach-which can also be applied to other SLC and ATP binding cassette drug transporters. This may make it possible to predict the molecular properties of a drug or metabolite necessary for interaction with the transporter(s), thereby enabling better prediction of drug-drug interactions and drug-metabolite interactions. Furthermore, understanding the overlapping specificities of OATs and OCTs in the context of dynamic transporter tissue
Fan, Shihe; Grossnickle, S.C. [British Columbia Research Corp., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Forest Biotechnology Centre
Variation in physiological response during autumn acclimation was investigated in somatic seedlings of 10 interior spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) clones from five full-sib families. Experiments were conducted on 2-yr-old seedlings through simulation in a growth chamber. Throughout the experimental period, gas-exchange parameters (net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance to water vapour and instantaneous water-use efficiency) were measured weekly and freezing tolerance was determined five times. Results showed that as seedlings acclimated to decreasing air temperature and photoperiod, stomatal conductance decreased linearly, photosynthesis was unchanged until air temperature and photoperiod were below 10 deg C and 11 h, respectively, water-use efficiency nearly doubled and freezing tolerance increased in a curvilinear fashion. There was significant between- and within-family clonal variation in all of these physiological parameters. 47 refs, 7 figs
Full Text Available We describe a case of Parry Romberg syndrome/ en coupe de sabre in a woman whose disease started as seizures at age 8 but was diagnosed at the age 39. During these 31 years she got married, completed a first degree at university, had two successful pregnancies and has been gainfully employed. The features of generalized tonic-clonic seizures, autoimmune abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, morphea en coup de sabre and brain imaging abnormalities were present. Areas of parietal lobe cerebral calcification were encountered on the computed tomographic scan and bilateral periventricular white matter changes on the magnetic resonance imaging with frontal, temporal and parietal lobe brain atrophy ipsilateral to the facial hemiatrophy. Clinical, immunologic and neuroradiological abnormalities are discussed. In some cases, this illness can run a benign and stable course.
Ben Halima, Nihed; Ben Saad, Rania; Khemakhem, Bassem; Fendri, Imen; Abdelkafi, Slim
Oat is a promising plant for the future. It is edible and beneficial thanks to its nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses and, hence, recognized to be useful for a healthier world. The assessment of the vital functions of oat components is important for industries requiring correct health labelling, valid during the shelf life of any product. Oil, enzymes and other biomolecules of nutraceutic or dietary usage from oats would be valorized for this purpose. Although oats have a unique and versatile composition including antioxidants and biomolecules indispensable for health, they are undervalued in comparison with other staple cereals such as wheat, barley and rice. Furthermore, oats, apart from maize, comprise a high oil content used for a wide range of beneficial purposes. In addition, they contain beta glucan that has proven to be very helpful in reducing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular diseases risks. In fact, there is diversity in the composition and content of the beneficial oat components within their genotypes and the different environmental conditions and, thus, oats are amenable to be enhanced by agronomic practices and genetic approaches.
Mahmood, K.; Khaliq, A.; Cheema, Z.A.; Arshad, M.
Wheat allelopathy can be manipulated for sustainable weed management in wheat based cropping systems. Bioassays were conducted to quantify the allelopathic potential of 35 indigenous wheat genotypes against germination and seedling growth of wild oat (Avena fatua L.). Foliar application of aqueous extracts of wheat straw, surface mulching and incorporation of wheat straw of different genotypes were employed for bioassays study. Results revealed the suppressive allelopathic activity of different wheat genotypes manifested in the form of impaired germination and retarded seedling growth of wild oat. A highly significant genotypic variation in allelopathic potential was observed for different traits. Germination of wild oat was decreased by 10-84% over control by different wheat genotypes. Likewise, over 70% reductions in seedling root and shoot dry weight of wild oat was also observed in V6007. Wheat genotypes viz. V6007, AS 2000, V6111, V6034, V4611, V7189, Uqa b 2000, Chanab 2000, Bhakkar 2002, Pak 81 and Rohtas 90 showed strongly inhibitory allelopathic activity against seedling growth of wild oat. V6007 exhibited highest suppression of wild oat. These studies confirm the suppressive allelopathic potential of indigenous wheat genotypes against wild oat that needs further to be explored under natural conditions. (author)
Thomas F Gallegos
Full Text Available Proper physiological function in the pre- and post-natal proximal tubule of the kidney depends upon the acquisition of selective permeability, apical-basolateral epithelial polarity and the expression of key transporters, including those involved in metabolite, toxin and drug handling. Particularly important are the SLC22 family of transporters, including the organic anion transporters Oat1 (originally identified as NKT and Oat3 as well as the organic cation transporter Oct1. In ex vivo cultures of metanephric mesenchyme (MM; the embryonic progenitor tissue of the nephron Oat function was evident before completion of nephron segmentation and corresponded with the maturation of tight junctions as measured biochemically by detergent extractability of the tight junction protein, ZO-1. Examination of available time series microarray data sets in the context of development and differentiation of the proximal tubule (derived from both in vivo and in vitro/ex vivo developing nephrons allowed for correlation of gene expression data to biochemically and functionally defined states of development. This bioinformatic analysis yielded a network of genes with connectivity biased toward Hnf4α (but including Hnf1α, hyaluronic acid-CD44, and notch pathways. Intriguingly, the Oat1 and Oat3 genes were found to have strong temporal co-expression with Hnf4α in the cultured MM supporting the notion of some connection between the transporters and this transcription factor. Taken together with the ChIP-qPCR finding that Hnf4α occupies Oat1, Oat3, and Oct1 proximal promoters in the in vivo differentiating rat kidney, the data suggest a network of genes with Hnf4α at its center plays a role in regulating the terminal differentiation and capacity for drug and toxin handling by the nascent proximal tubule of the kidney.
Andersen, M. S.; Dengsøe, N.
A national Baumol–Oates tax on waste in Denmark helped achieve a reduction of 26% in net solid waste from 1987 to 1998. The tax, which is levied per ton of waste, was particularly effective as regards the heavier waste streams such as construction waste and garden waste. When it comes to industrial...... and commercial waste, there are indications that the waste tax is not sufficiently significant to induce changes in behavior, and that except for very waste-intensive enterprises, companies do not seem to be very price sensitive. For household waste, the impact of the tax can be improved where tariffs...... for garbage collection are weight based, rather than per unit. However, the waste sector is an area in which the price signals are modified and filtered by institutionalized practices in municipal administration, and in which true-cost pricing is not easy to achieve. Hence, the rational choice assumption...
Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.
Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.
Melicia Cintia Galdeano
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.
Mickowska, Barbara; Litwinek, Dorota; Gambuś, Halina
The aim of this study was to compare the biochemical and immunochemical properties of avenins in some special oat raw materials and additionally the possibility of using them as a raw material for the gluten-free bakery products. The compared oat raw materials were - oat flakes, commercial oat flours (including gluten-free oat flour) and residual oat flour, which is by-product of β-glucan preparation. Biochemical characteristic included amino acid compositions and SDS-PAGE profiles of extracted avenins. The immunochemical reactivity with polyclonal anti-gluten and monoclonal anti-gliadin antibodies was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by immunoblotting and ELISA methods. Additionally, experimental bakery products made of examined raw materials were assessed according to their suitability for the celiac patients' diet. The highest protein content was measured in the β-glucan preparation "Betaven" and gluten-free oat flour. Proteins of all materials are rich in glutamic and aspartic acid, leucine and arginine. Proportions of amino acids in avenins extracted from most of oat raw materials are similar, excluding gluten-free oat flour, which has a very low avenin content and proportions of individual amino acids are different. The SDS-PAGE protein pattern consisted of proteins with molecular weight of about 25-35 kDa. Polyclonal anti-gluten anti-body recognized all protein fractions of molecular weight higher than 20 kDa. Quantitative ELISA analysis shows that the majority of samples has a gliadin-like protein content within the range of 80-260 mg/kg, excluding gluten-free flours and corresponding bakery products. Altogether, β-glucan preparation has extremely high level of gliadin-like proteins. In the examined oat raw materials and foods the contents of immunoreactive amino acid sequences exceeded the limit of 20 mg/kg (considered as gluten-free) except for gluten-free flours (oat and the prepared mixture) and the bakery products based on gluten
Renata Sabat; KrzysztofBuksa; Barbara Mickowska; Rafał Ziobro; Halina Gambuś; Dorota Pastuszka
The aim of this study was to investigate possibilities and advisability of the use of oats insoluble protein preparation for the production of wheat bread, in order to increase the amount of protein and biological value of protein in this kind of bakery. Research material consisted of the preparation of insoluble oats protein, wheat flour and wheat bread made with the share of oat protein: 5%, 7.5% and 10%, by weight of wheat flour. AOAC methods (2006) were used to determine protein, β-D-gluc...
Poley, J Rainer
Objective and Conclusion: Uncertainty still exists about the use of oats and wheat starch as part of a gluten-free diet in patients with celiac disease (CD). This review should help to clarify the issues at hand. Whereas uncontaminated (from gluten/gliadin) oats and oats from cultivars not containing celiac-activating sequences of proline and glutamine can be used without risk of intestinal damage, wheat starch should not be used, unless it is free of gluten-that is, deglutinized-because even small amounts of gluten over time are able to induce small intestinal mucosal damage.
Mueller, F.; Sanad, A.
The uptake, distribution, and catabolism of Bentazon (3-isopropyl-2,1,3-benzo-thiadiazinon-(4)-2,2-dioxide) in winter wheat (variety Jubilar), maize (variety Inra 258), and several varieties of oat was investigated in the hothouse and under outside conditions in large culture vessels. Bentazon is decomposed fairly rapidly in wheat, maize, and oat. In the experiments with cultures in vessels under outside conditions, the metabolic fate of the 14 C-labelled pesticide was investigated in three varieties of oat after a vegetation period. (GSE/AK) [de
Full Text Available The traditional production of mineral N and P fertilisers is unsustainable due its reliance on fossil fuels in the case of N, and on limited mineral resource stocks in the case of P. The use of alternative or complementary fertilisers that originate from organic waste materials is gaining interest. Organic farms, especially arable organic farms without livestock, need usable sources of plant nutrients. Meat bone meal (MBM, a potential organic fertiliser for agricultural crops, contains considerable amounts of nutrients (on average 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. In EU countries, Commission regulation (EC No 181/2006 authorised the use of MBM as an organic fertiliser. In this study, MBM was compared to conventional mineral NPK fertiliser. Two randomised complete block split-plot field experiments were conducted: one with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare in two years; and another with oat (Avena sativa for three years, including a fourth year of testing for residual effect. Compared to mineral fertiliser (20% N, 3% P and 9% K, MBM was applied at three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1. The grain yield of both cereal species supported by MBM, did not differ from the yield obtained with the mineral fertiliser at any N level. At 120 kg N ha-1, the grain yield level with either type was ca. 4500 kg ha-1 of barley and 5000 kg ha-1 of oat, representing fair averages for Finnish conditions. Moreover, MBM and mineral fertilisation showed no differences in quality in terms of 1000-grain weight, test-weight, protein content and protein yield. Since MBM has a low N/P ratio, P was applied in surplus to attain comparable N levels. Therefore MBM fertilisation should be fitted for crop rotation and for meeting environmental requirements.;
Oliveira, Jean Paulo de; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Lima, Karina Oliveira; Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello El; Rosa, Gabriela Silveira da; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa
The commercial cellulose fibers and cellulose fibers extracted from rice and oat husks were analyzed by chemical composition, morphology, functional groups, crystallinity and thermal properties. The cellulose fibers from rice and oat husks were used to produce hydrogels with poly (vinyl alcohol). The fibers presented different structural, crystallinity, and thermal properties, depending on the cellulose source. The hydrogel from rice cellulose fibers had a network structure with a similar agglomeration sponge, with more homogeneous pores compared to the hydrogel from oat cellulose fibers. The hydrogels prepared from the cellulose extracted from rice and oat husks showed water absorption capacity of 141.6-392.1% and high opacity. The highest water absorption capacity and maximum stress the compression were presented by rice cellulose hydrogel at 25°C. These results show that the use of agro-industrial residues is promising for the biomaterial field, especially in the preparation of hydrogels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Decker, Eric A; Rose, Devin J; Stewart, Derek
Oats are a uniquely nutritious food as they contain an excellent lipid profile and high amounts of soluble fibre. However, an oat kernel is largely non-digestible and thus must be utilised in milled form to reap its nutritional benefits. Milling is made up of numerous steps, the most important being dehulling to expose the digestible groat, heat processing to inactivate enzymes that cause rancidity, and cutting, rolling or grinding to convert the groat into a product that can be used directly in oatmeal or can be used as a food ingredient in products such as bread, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and snack bars. Oats can also be processed into oat bran and fibre to obtain high-fibre-containing fractions that can be used in a variety of food products.
Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo
This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...
Yan, Lin; Johnson, LuAnn K
This study determined the bioavailability of selenium (Se) from yellow peas and oats harvested from the high-Se soil of South Dakota, United States. The Se concentrations were 13.5 ± 0.2 and 2.5 ± 0.1 mg/kg (dry weight) for peas and oats, respectively. Male weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were depleted of Se by feeding them a 30% Torula yeast-based diet (4.1 μg Se/kg) for 56 days, and then they were replenished with Se for an additional 50 days by feeding them the same diet supplemented with 20, 30, or 40 μg Se/kg from peas or oats, respectively. Selenium bioavailability was determined on the basis of the restoration of Se-dependent enzyme activities and tissue Se concentrations in Se-depleted rats, comparing those responses for yellow peas and oats to those for l-selenomethionine (SeMet; used as a reference) by using a slope-ratio method. Dietary supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in glutathione peroxidase activities in blood and liver and in thioredoxin reductase activity in liver. Supplementation with peas or oats resulted in linear or log-linear, dose-dependent increases in Se concentrations of plasma, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and kidneys. The overall bioavailability was approximately 88% for Se from yellow peas and 92% from oats, compared to SeMet. It was concluded that Se from naturally produced high-Se yellow peas or oats is highly bioavailable in this model and that these high-Se foods may be a good dietary source of Se.
Chawade, Aakash; Lindén, Pernilla; Bräutigam, Marcus; Jonsson, Rickard; Jonsson, Anders; Moritz, Thomas; Olsson, Olof
Our long-term goal is to develop a Swedish winter oat (Avena sativa). To identify molecular differences that correlate with winter hardiness, a winter oat model comprising of both non-hardy spring lines and winter hardy lines is needed. To achieve this, we selected 294 oat breeding lines, originating from various Russian, German, and American winter oat breeding programs and tested them in the field in south- and western Sweden. By assaying for winter survival and agricultural properties during four consecutive seasons, we identified 14 breeding lines of different origins that not only survived the winter but also were agronomically better than the rest. Laboratory tests including electrolytic leakage, controlled crown freezing assay, expression analysis of the AsVrn1 gene and monitoring of flowering time suggested that the American lines had the highest freezing tolerance, although the German lines performed better in the field. Finally, six lines constituting the two most freezing tolerant lines, two intermediate lines and two spring cultivars were chosen to build a winter oat model system. Metabolic profiling of non-acclimated and cold acclimated leaf tissue samples isolated from the six selected lines revealed differential expression patterns of 245 metabolites including several sugars, amino acids, organic acids and 181 hitherto unknown metabolites. The expression patterns of 107 metabolites showed significant interactions with either a cultivar or a time-point. Further identification, characterisation and validation of these metabolites will lead to an increased understanding of the cold acclimation process in oats. Furthermore, by using the winter oat model system, differential sequencing of crown mRNA populations would lead to identification of various biomarkers to facilitate winter oat breeding.
Full Text Available Oat is a cereal crop of global importance used for food, feed, and forage. Understanding salinity stress tolerance mechanisms in plants is an important step towards generating crop varieties that can cope with environmental stresses. To date, little is known about the salt tolerance of oat at the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in oat, we investigated the transcriptomes of control and salt-treated oat using RNA-Seq.Using Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform, we generated 72,291,032 and 356,891,432 reads from non-stressed control and salt-stressed oat, respectively. Assembly of 64 Gb raw sequence data yielded 128,414 putative unique transcripts with an average length of 1,189 bp. Analysis of the assembled unigenes from the salt stressed and control libraries indicated that about 65,000 unigenes were differentially expressed at different stages. Functional annotation showed that ABC transporters, plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interactions, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and other secondary metabolite pathways were enriched under salt stress. Based on the RPKM values of assembled unigenes, 24 differentially expressed genes under salt stress were selected for quantitative RT-PCR validation, which successfully confirmed the results of RNA-Seq. Furthermore, we identified 18,039 simple sequence repeats, which may help further elucidate salt tolerance mechanisms in oat.Our global survey of transcriptome profiles of oat plants in response to salt stress provides useful insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying salt tolerance in this crop. These findings also represent a rich resource for further analysis of salt tolerance and for breeding oat with improved salt tolerance through the use of salt-related genes.
Full Text Available It is assumed that the biomass is one of the basic non-conventional energy sources in Poland. Among the cereals cultivated in Poland grain oats appears to be the most useful to be used for energy purposes, as it is less important for consumption and feed, cultivation technology is well known to farmers and the energy value of approx. 17 MJ kg-1. The aim of the study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and environmental impact of the use of oats for direct combustion, as compared with conventional fuel ie. the fine coal. In the economic part a simplified calculation of the cost of oats production was carried out and next it was compared with the cost of the purchase of oats and fine coal. The impact of oats to the environment was also analyzed and the natural emission of gases and dust during grain combustion. The results were compared with the impact on the environment taking into account the production of fine coal mining, transport and combustion of the fuel. It was found that the use of oats for energy purposes is cost-effective, especially if the grain is produced on their own farm using low-cost technology. It also provides environmental benefits, as it allows to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and reduce the emission of noxious gases and dust into the atmosphere
Parsons, J. G.; Armendariz, V.; Lopez, M. L.; Jose-Yacaman, M.; Gardea-Torresdey, J. L.
The reduction kinetics of gold(III) to gold(0), the growth of gold nanoparticles with time, and the activation energy of the nanoparticle formation were investigated using oat and wheat biomasses at pH 4. Both the gold reduction and the nanoparticle growth were found to follow first-order kinetics with nanoscale size ranges in the growth period of 1-6 h of 4.54-19 nm for oat biomass and 8.0-51.8 nm for wheat biomass. The formation of gold(0) on oat and wheat biomasses was determined to occur at rates of 0.040 and 0.049 mM/min, respectively. The rate of nanoparticles growth was determined to be 0.0052 and 0.0035 nm/min for wheat and oat, respectively, whereas the activation energy for the reduction of gold(III) on oat and wheat biomasses was 4.8 ± 0.5 and 0.66 ± 0.07 kJ/mol, respectively. However, the activation energy for the growth of the produced nanoparticles was determined to be 12.0 ± 1.2 and 17.0 ± 1.7 kJ/mol for oat and wheat, respectively. The lower activation energy for the wheat indicates that the reduction process is much more favorable on the wheat biomass.
Afonso Aurélio de Carvalho Peres
Full Text Available Production and quality of milk from dairy cows grazing exclusively on Mombasa grass pasture, during the spring-summer period and fed roughage supplementations, during the autumn-winter, were evaluated in two consecutive years. The pasture of 11.4 ha was divided into 57 paddocks of 2,000 m² each, including three replications with 19 paddocks each. The pasture was managed with two occupation days and 36 resting days. During the spring-summer period, cows received only grass pasture. In the autumn-winter period, they had access to Mombasa grass pasture and received roughage supplementations (black oat pasture; sorghum silage or sugarcane + urea and pasture every 28 days, alternately. The animals had access to mineral mix and water and received 500 g of concentrated in each of the two milking times. The experimental design used was for response to continuous flow in rotational trial, similar to the Latin square model. In the spring-summer period, the average milk production was 12.2±2.2 and 14.0±3.8 kg/cow per day; for the autumn-winter period, the milk production was 13.5±2.9 and 12.1±2.5 kg/cow per day in the black oat pasture; 11.8±2.5 and 10.9±2.3 kg/cow per day in the sorghum silage and 11.3±1.8 and 8.4±1.5 kg/cow per day in the sugarcane + urea, for 1st and 2nd years evaluated, respectively. The black oat was the roughage supplementation that yielded the highest average daily milk production. There were no differences in the milk chemical composition between roughage supplementations.
Yılmaz, İsmail; Dağlıoğlu, Orhan
Oat bran was used as a fat substitute in the production of meatballs. The effect of oat bran addition on the fatty acid composition, trans fatty acids, total fat, some physicochemical and sensory properties of the samples was studied. Meatballs were produced with four different formulations; the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% oat bran. Control samples were formulated with 25% fat addition as in commercial production. The major fatty acids were cis-oleic, palmitic and stearic acid in all the meatball samples, those with oat bran added as well as the control. Meatballs containing oat bran had lower concentrations of total fat and total trans fatty acids than the control samples. Meatballs made with 20% oat bran had the highest protein, salt and ash contents, L value (lightness), b value (yellowness), and the lowest moisture content and a value (redness). There was no significant difference among the meatball samples with respect to sensory properties, and all samples had high acceptability.
Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)
Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.
Barriga T, O.; Echegaray, A.; Barriga T, L.; Mayer Z, T.
96 clinical histories of patients with non-oat cell lung cancer treated with Rt or Rt post surgery from 1988 to 1990 in the National Institute of Neoplasmic Diseases were revised. most of the patients were in their is 60 and the range was between 30 and 91 years; 776 were male and 20 female. Epidermoid carcinoma was found in 53 cases, adenocarcinoma in 37, others in 4 and 2 have no histological data. Most were advanced cases with following distribution by clinical stages: I:0, II:3, IIIA: 21, IIIB:37, IV:33 and 2 no determined. In the present evaluation patients treated with systemic therapy had not been considered. All patients have been treated with external radiotherapy with Co-60 with different fractionation schedules. The present study evaluates the completion and the results about the clinical response making an intent to establish the best schedule because most of the patients have advanced illness with short hope of life. The clinical improvement was obtained in 53.12% with similar over life for the different fractionation schedules being only 4 patients alive. (authors). 9 refs., 9 tabs
Dorota Litwinek; Halina Gambuś; Gabriela Zięć; Renata Sabat; Anna Wywrocka-Gurgul; Wiktor Berski
The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation) to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb tex...
de Souza, M Cristina P; Deschênes, Marie-Eve; Laurencelle, Suzanne; Godet, Patrick; Roy, Claude C; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss
The question about recommending pure, noncontaminated oats as part of the gluten-free diet of patients with celiac disease remains controversial. This might be due to gluten cross contamination and to the possible immunogenicity of some oat cultivars. In view of this controversy, a review of the scientific literature was conducted to highlight the latest findings published between 2008 and 2014 to examine the current knowledge on oats safety and celiac disease in Europe and North America. Results showed that regular oats consumed in Canada are largely contaminated. Overall, the consumption of pure oats has been generally considered to be safe for adults and children. However, it appears that some oat cultivars may trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. Therefore, further long-term studies on the impact of consumption of oats identifying the cultivar(s) constitute an important step forward for drawing final recommendations. Furthermore, a closer and more accurate monitoring of the dietary intake of noncontaminated oats would be paramount to better determine what its actual contribution in the gluten-free diet of adults and children with celiac disease are in order to draw sound recommendations on the safety of pure oats as part of the gluten-free diet.
Maria Anita Gonçalves Silva
Full Text Available The time, dose and applied nutrients in corn have a direct effect on its productivity. Therefore, the objective was to study the application of N and S in corn as ammonium sulfate, in succession to wheat and oats and evaluate different forms of fertilizer management. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design in Oxisol (Hapludox. The five treatments with N, at a dose of 120 kg ha-1 were applied in 20 plots (5x4, according to the management of fertilizer: T1-N (120 kg ha-1 full at sowing, T2-N (120 kg ha-1 total coverage; T3 –N (40 kg ha-1 at sowing and N (80 kg ha-1 in coverage; T4-N advance in wheat sowing and sowing oats (120 kg ha-1, T5- (control. The S doses were corresponding to their concentrations in the fertilizer. Only wheat received a dose of 24 kg N ha-1 at sowing all plots and oats received 24 kg N ha- 1 at sowing only the portions related to treatment with anticipation of corn N ( T4 . We evaluated the biomass production of winter crops (oats and wheat, according to the fertilization at sowing, and also the influence of winter crops and management of ammonium sulfate, the corn yield. The oats produced more dry matter in relation to wheat, positively influencing the corn yield, regardless of fertilizer management. The anticipation of ammonium sulfate, the sowing of oats, was favorable to corn yield, equating to other forms of management of fertilizer. Rotation corn and oats, forms management, ammonium sulphate, at seeding, topdressing or applied in split were equally efficient in corn yields.
Full Text Available Introducción y Objetivo. El síndrome de Parry Romberg se caracteriza por atrofia hemifacial progresiva; afecta piel y tejidos blandos y en ocasiones provoca también atrofia de músculos, cartílago y estructuras óseas subyacentes. Su diagnóstico diferencial incluye: esclerodermia generalizada, morfea y síndrome de CREST. Las alteraciones en piel se asocian con variantes alélicas (polimórficas del sistema HLA (antígeno leucocitario humano. La esclerodermia se ha asociado con HLA DR11, el CREST con DR1 y DR3, en tanto que la morfea no parece asociarse a genes del HLA en población mexicana. El propósito de este trabajo es explorar la posibilidad de asociación del síndrome de Parry Romberg con algún alelo del sistema HLA con el fin de entender el mecanismo fisiopatogénico y el probable papel de la etnicidad en la prevalencia e incidencia de esta enfermedad en individuos mestizos mexicanos. Material y método. Estudiamos 24 pacientes con Parry Romberg, de la consulta externa de Cirugía Plástica y Reconstructiva del Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González" de la Ciudad de México. El diagnóstico se basó en hallazgos clínicos, imagenología e histopatología de las lesiones dérmicas. Establecimos las frecuencias génicas y haplotípicas de los antígenos del sistema HLA en los 24 pacientes (48 haplotipos. El estudio incluyó los loci HLA A, B, DR, DQ. Comparamos los resultados con las frecuencias presentes en un grupo de 99 controles mestizos mexicanos sin antecedentes de enfermedades autoinmunes y/o metabólicas. Analizamos las diferencias en las frecuencias génicas mediante estadística no paramétrica que incluyó prueba de Chi cuadrado y exacta de Fisher, además de determinación de RM (razón de momios e intervalos de confianza de 95%. Resultados. Encontramos en los pacientes con Parry Romberg aumento significativo del HLA DRB1*16 (frecuencia génica: 14% en SPR vs 1% en normales. p=0.002, OR: 6.5, IC 95%: 1.9-21.7 y
Gutiérrez-Gómez, Claudia; Godínez-Hana, Ana L; García-Hernández, Marisela; Suárez-Roa, María de Lourdes; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Vega-Memije, Elisa; Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Daniela; Pérez-Dosal, Marcia; Medina-De la Garza, Carlos E
Progressive hemifacial atrophy or Parry-Romberg Syndrome (PRS) is a rare, acquired, progressive dysplasia of subcutaneous tissue and bone characterized by unilateral facial involvement. Its etiology is unknown, but theories about its pathogenesis include infectious, degenerative, autoimmune, and traumatic causes among others. The causal relationship of PRS and linear morphea en coup de sabre (LMCS) with Borrelia burgdorferi infection remains controversial. Our goal was to serologically determine anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies in patients diagnosed with PRS and LMCS to establish a possible association as a causative agent. We conducted a serology study with patients belonging to a group of 21 individuals diagnosed with PRS, six with LMCS, and 21 matched controls. Anti-Borrelia IgG antibodies were determined by ELISA. A descriptive statistical analysis and Fischer's exact test were done. In serological tests, only two cases had borderline values and were further analyzed by Western blot with non-confirmatory results. For both the PRS and LMCS group, the association test was not significant, suggesting a lack of association between PRS or LMCS and the presence of anti-Borrelia antibodies. In Mexico there are no previous studies on Borrelia infection and its relationship between PRS or LMCS. Our result showed a lack of association of either clinical entities with anti-Borrelia-antibodies. Former reports of this association may suggest coincidental findings without causal relationship. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.
Maqbool, Shahina B.; Zhong, Heng; Oraby, Hesham F.; Sticklen, Mariam B.
Oat (Avena sativa L.), a worldwide temperate cereal crop, is deficient in tolerance to osmotic stress due to drought and/or salinity. To genetically transform the available commercial oat cultivars, a genotype-independent and efficient regeneration system from shoot apical meristems was developed using four oat cultivars: Prairie, Porter, Ogle, and Pacer. All these oat cultivars generated a genotype-independent in vitro differentiated multiple shoots from shoot apical meristems at a high frequency. Using this system, three oat cultivars were genetically co-transformed with pBY520 (containing hva1 and bar) and pAct1-D (containing gus) using biolistic™ bombardment. Transgenic plants were selected and regenerated using herbicide resistance and GUS as a marker. Molecular and biochemical analyses of putative transgenic plants confirmed the co-integration of hva1 and bar genes with a frequency of 100%, and 61.6% of the transgenic plants carried all three genes (hva1, bar and gus). Further analyses of R0, R1, and R2 progenies confirmed stable integration, expression, and Mendalian inheritance for all transgenes. Histochemical analysis of GUS protein in transgenic plants showed a high level of GUS expression in vascular tissues and in the pollen grains of mature flowers. Immunochemical analysis of transgenic plants indicated a constitutive expression of hva1 at all developmental stages. However, the level of HVA1 was higher during the early seedling stages.
Klos, Kathy Esvelt; Yimer, Belayneh A; Babiker, Ebrahiem M; Beattie, Aaron D; Bonman, J Michael; Carson, Martin L; Chong, James; Harrison, Stephen A; Ibrahim, Amir M H; Kolb, Frederic L; McCartney, Curt A; McMullen, Michael; Fetch, Jennifer Mitchell; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Murphy, J Paul; Tinker, Nicholas A
Oat crown rust, caused by f. sp. , is a major constraint to oat ( L.) production in many parts of the world. In this first comprehensive multienvironment genome-wide association map of oat crown rust, we used 2972 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on 631 oat lines for association mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Seedling reaction to crown rust in these lines was assessed as infection type (IT) with each of 10 crown rust isolates. Adult plant reaction was assessed in the field in a total of 10 location-years as percentage severity (SV) and as infection reaction (IR) in a 0-to-1 scale. Overall, 29 SNPs on 12 linkage groups were predictive of crown rust reaction in at least one experiment at a genome-wide level of statistical significance. The QTL identified here include those in regions previously shown to be linked with seedling resistance genes , , , , , and and also with adult-plant resistance and adaptation-related QTL. In addition, QTL on linkage groups Mrg03, Mrg08, and Mrg23 were identified in regions not previously associated with crown rust resistance. Evaluation of marker genotypes in a set of crown rust differential lines supported as the identity of . The SNPs with rare alleles associated with lower disease scores may be suitable for use in marker-assisted selection of oat lines for crown rust resistance. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.
Harlow, Brittany E; Lawrence, Laurie M; Harris, Patricia A; Aiken, Glen E; Flythe, Michael D
Cereal grains are often included in equine diets. When starch intake exceeds foregut digestion starch will reach the hindgut, impacting microbial ecology. Probiotics (e.g., lactobacilli) are reported to mitigate GI dysbioses in other species. This study was conducted to determine the effect of exogenous lactobacilli on pH and the growth of amylolytic and lactate-utilizing bacteria. Feces were collected from 3 mature geldings fed grass hay with access to pasture. Fecal microbes were harvested by differential centrifugation, washed, and re-suspended in anaerobic media containing ground corn, wheat, or oats at 1.6% (w/v) starch and one of five treatments: Control (substrate only), L. acidophilus, L. buchneri, L. reuteri, or an equal mixture of all three (107 cells/mL, final concentration). After 24 h of incubation (37°C, 160 rpm), samples were collected for pH and enumerations of total amylolytics, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC; Enterococci, Streptococci), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria. Enumeration data were log transformed prior to ANOVA (SAS, v. 9.3). Lactobacilli inhibited pH decline in corn and wheat fermentations (P Exogenous lactobacilli decreased amylolytics, while increasing lactate-utilizers in corn and wheat fermentations (P Exogenous lactobacilli decreased the initial (first 8 h) rate of starch catalysis when wheat was the substrate, but did not decrease total (24 h) starch utilization in any case. These results indicate that exogenous lactobacilli can impact the microbial community and pH of cereal grain fermentations by equine fecal microflora ex vivo. Additionally, dead (autoclaved) exogenous lactobacilli had similar effects as live lactobacilli on fermentation. This latter result indicates that the mechanism by which lactobacilli impact other amylolytic bacteria is not simple resource competition.
Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria
Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761
Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria
We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.
Ying, DanYang; Hlaing, Mya Myintzu; Lerisson, Julie; Pitts, Keith; Cheng, Lijiang; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann
Olive pomace, a waste stream from olive oil processing, was fractionated by centrifugation to obtain a supernatant and a flesh-enriched fraction, and freeze dried to obtain a powder. The dried supernatant contained 5.8% moisture, 4.8% protein, 3.5% fat, 3.5% ash, 82.4% carbohydrate (including 17.2% dietary fiber) and polyphenols (2970mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g). The dried flesh-enriched fraction, contained 5.9% moisture, 13.4% protein, 14.2% fat, 3.5% ash, 63.1% carbohydrate (including 42.7% dietary fiber) and polyphenols (1960mg GAE/100g). The extruded products using rice-oat flour or maize-oat flour mixtures as the base were formulated to contain 5% or 10% olive pomace fractions (dry basis). The extruded products with added olive pomace fractions has higher fiber (2-7g/100g) and polyphenol contents (67-161mg GAE/100g) compared to the corresponding mixtures of rice-oat flour base (0.92g/100g fiber, 20mg GAE/100g) or maize-oat flour base (3.2g/100g fiber, 20mg GAE/100g) without olive pomace fractions. Addition of olive pomace fractions reduced the die pressure and specific mechanical energy during extrusion and resulted in lower radial expansion in the extruded product. The impact of the addition of olive pomace fraction on physical characteristics of the extruded product is higher for rice-oat flour base than maize-oat flour base. The underlining mechanism was explained by FTIR analysis. FTIR showed that there were significant changes in the carbohydrate components and the structure of the proteins on extrusion, with consequent effects on the expansion and density of the extruded product. This study showed the feasibility of preparing fiber and polyphenol enriched extruded products by incorporation of olive pomace. This shows the potential of recovery and diversion of edible components from waste streams of olive oil processing for formulation of extruded products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paulo Fortes Neto
Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to ensure the quality and impact of the application of treated sewage wastewater on the chemical properties of Dystrophic Yellow Argisol and on biomass and grain production of white oat (Avena sativa, L. After the wastewater was chemically characterized, it was applied to the soil in concentrations of 0, 30, 60 and 90 m3 ha-1 in plots of 200 m2. Doses of water were compared with mineral fertilizer doses recommended for oat. The experimental design was a split plot with four randomized blocks. The wastewater had chemical qualities useful for grain cultivation. The values of calcium, CTC, V, pH increased and acidity potential decreased in the soil after the wastewater was applied. Doses of the wastewater provided increments in biomass production and oat grains similar to that obtained with chemical fertilizers. We conclude that wastewater can be used to correct soil acidity and replace or supplement chemical fertilizers.
Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.
A little over two months ago, the U.S. Federal Trade Commissionââ‚¬â„¢s (FTC) challenge of the acquisition by natural and organic foods retailer Whole Foods of its rival Wild Oats seemed all but dead in the water. of the Whole Foods-Wild Oats merger.
Yu, Xiao; Yang, Mei; Dong, Jilin; Shen, Ruiling
This study aimed to explore the dynamic changes in the antioxidant activities and phenolic acid profiles of oat and buckwheat vinegars during different production stages. The results showed that both oat and buckwheat vinegar products comparably attenuated D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in mice serum and liver, indicating no obvious dose dependence within the tested concentrations. However, oat vinegar product revealed more favorable in vitro antioxidant activities than those in buckwheat vinegar product as evaluated by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging abilities. Moreover, the alcoholic fermentation, acetic acid fermentation and fumigating induced successive increase in DPPH radical scavenging abilities and phenolic acid contents of the fermentation substrates of oat and buckwheat vinegars. Importantly, the different fermentation processes of oat and buckwheat vinegars were accompanied by the dynamic migration and transformation of specific phenolic acids across bound, esterified and free fractions. Thus, the antioxidant activities of oat and buckwheat vinegars could be improved through targeted modulation of the generation of specific phenolic acid fractions during production processes. We had evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities and phenolic acid contents of oat and buckwheat vinegars, and further explored the dynamic changes of bound, esterified and free phenolic acid fractions during successive fermentation processes of oat and buckwheat vinegars. This study provided the theoretical guidance for obtaining minor grain vinegar with the optimal antioxidant activities through targeted modulation of fermentation processes. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the most destructive diseases of cereal crops worldwide. Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) are responsible for BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.). Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-t...
Background: The consumption of oats reduces plasma cholesterol, a major risk factor for heart disease. Oats, in addition to cholesterol lowering properties through its beta-glucan content, are a good source of several antioxidants including Avenanthramides (Avns), a unique group of polyphenols prese...
Doherty, M.A.; McIntyre, M.; Arnott, S.J.
This paper presents 6 British patients with a diagnosis of oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Sixty-six patients have previously been reported in the literature, the majority (30) being British. Approximately two-thirds of these tumors have been reported as pure oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Four other histological patterns have been described: oat cell carcinoma with squamous carcinoma in situ; oat cell carcinoma with squamous carcinoma; oat cell carcinoma with adenocarcinoma; and oat cell carcinoma with carcinoid differentiation. A preponderance of males has also been noted, although this series shows a 2:1 female:male ratio. The tumor arises most commonly in the mid or lower esophagus. The cell of origin of these tumors is considered to be the Kulchitsky or APUD cell of neuroectodermal derivation. They may show neurosecretory granules on electron microsopy. Polypeptides have been identified within the tumor cells. One previous report describes a patient with primary oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus and hypercalcemia. A patient with the syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion is described in this paper. Survival is poor following radiotherapy, with a median survival of 3 months in this series. On reviewing the records of the Radiation Oncology Unit in Edinburgh, no patient with oat cell carcinoma of the esophagus was reported before 1972. This suggests that awareness of this tumor is increasing and, although rare, its incidence is greater than previously reported
Gao, F.; Cai, S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Li, Y.; Ji, B.
Many studies have reported that oats could effectively reduce the serum cholesterol levels in humans, and the ß-glucan in oat is believed to be responsible for this physiologic effect. Probiotics are live microorganisms that can confer a healthy benefit on the host when administered in adequate
Maqbool, Shahina B; Zhong, Heng; Oraby, Hesham F; Sticklen, Mariam B
Oat (Avena sativa L.), a worldwide temperate cereal crop, is deficient in tolerance to osmotic stress due to drought and/or salinity. To genetically transform the available commercial oat cultivars, a genotype-independent and efficient regeneration system from shoot apical meristems was developed using four oat cultivars: Prairie, Porter, Ogle, and Pacer. All these oat cultivars generated a genotype-independent in vitro differentiated multiple shoots from shoot apical meristems at a high frequency. Using this system, three oat cultivars were genetically co-transformed with pBY520 (containing hva1 and bar) and pAct1-D (containing gus) using biolistic trade mark bombardment. Transgenic plants were selected and regenerated using herbicide resistance and GUS as a marker. Molecular and biochemical analyses of putative transgenic plants confirmed the co-integration of hva1 and bar genes with a frequency of 100%, and 61.6% of the transgenic plants carried all three genes (hva1, bar and gus). Further analyses of R0, R1, and R2 progenies confirmed stable integration, expression, and Mendalian inheritance for all transgenes. Histochemical analysis of GUS protein in transgenic plants showed a high level of GUS expression in vascular tissues and in the pollen grains of mature flowers. Immunochemical analysis of transgenic plants indicated a constitutive expression of hva1 at all developmental stages. However, the level of HVA1 was higher during the early seedling stages. The characteristic of HVA1 expression for osmotic tolerance in transgenic oat progeny was analyzed in vitro as well as in vivo. Transgenic plants exhibited significantly (Pplants. The symptoms of wilting or death of leaves as observed in 80% of non-transgenic plants due to osmotic stress was delayed and detected only in less than 10% of trans-genic plants. These observations confirmed the characteristic of HVA1 protein as providing or enhancing the osmotic tolerance in transgenic plants against salinity and
Hodson, D.I.; Malaker, K.; Meikle, A.L.; Levitt, M.
There are sound radiobiologic and suggestive clinical rationale for superfractionating the radiotherapeutic regimens employed for the therapy of rapidly growing malignancies. Oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus is such a tumor. The authors report their experience combining aggressive systemic combination chemotherapy with supperfractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of limited oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus. Overall, patient tolerance was satisfactory and a complete remission rate of 74% was achieved. It remains to be proven, in a prospective randomized fashion, whether this approach is superior to current conventional management
Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)
Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.
Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))
Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.
Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann
Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...
Full Text Available Background: Recently, we gained evidence that impairment of rOat1 and rOat3 expression induced by ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI is mediated by COX metabolites and this suppression might be critically involved in renal damage. Methods: (i Basolateral organic anion uptake into proximal tubular cells after model ischemia and reperfusion (I/R was investigated by fluorescein uptake. The putative promoter sequences from hOAT1 (SLC22A6 and hOAT3 (SCL22A8 were cloned into a reporter plasmid, transfected into HEK cells and (ii transcriptional activity was determined after model ischemia and reperfusion as a SEAP reporter gen assay. Inhibitors or antagonists were applied with the beginning of reperfusion. Results: By using inhibitors of PKA (H89 and PLC (U73122, antagonists of E prostanoid receptor type 2 (AH6809 and type 4 (L161,982, we gained evidence that I/R induced down regulation of organic anion transport is mediated by COX1 metabolites via E prostanoid receptor type 4. The latter signaling was confirmed by application of butaprost (EP2 agonist or TCS2510 (EP4 agonist to control cells. In brief, the latter signaling was verified for the transcriptional activity in the reporter gen assay established. Therein, selective inhibitors for COX1 (SC58125 and COX2 (SC560 were also applied. Conclusion: Our data show (a that COX1 metabolites are involved in the regulation of renal organic anion transport(ers after I/R via the EP4 receptor and (b that this is due to transcriptional regulation of the respective transporters. As the promoter sequences cloned were of human origin and expressed in a human renal epithelial cell line we (c hypothesize that the regulatory mechanisms described after I/R is meaningful for humans as well.
Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques
BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...
Jianhui, Zhao; Chenggang, Yi; Binglun, Lu; Yan, Han; Li, Yang; Xianjie, Ma; Yingjun, Su; Shuzhong, Guo
Progressive facial hemiatrophy, also called Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS), is characterized by slowly progressive atrophy of one side of the face and primarily involves the subcutaneous tissue and fat. The restoration of facial contour and symmetry in patients affected by PRS still remains a challenge clinically. Fat graft is a promising treatment but has some shortcomings, such as unpredictability and low rate of graft survival due to partial necrosis. To obviate these disadvantages, fat graft assisted by bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) was used to treat PRS patients and the outcome was evaluated in comparison with the conventional treatment by autologous fat graft. Autologous fat graft was harvested by tumescent liposuction. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were then isolated by human Lymphocytes Separation Medium through density gradient centrifugation. Twenty-six patients were treated with autologous fat graft only (group A), whereas 10 other patients were treated with BMSC-assisted fat graft (group B). The Coleman technique was applied in all fat graft injections. The follow-up period was 6 to 12 months in this study, In group A, satisfactory outcome judged by symmetrical appearances was obtained with 1 injection in 12 patients, 2 injections in 8 patients, and 3 injections in 4 patients. However, the result of 1 patient was not satisfactory and 1 patient was overcorrected. In group B, 10 patients obtained satisfactory outcomes and almost reached symmetry by 1 injection. No complications (infection, hematoma, or subcutaneous mass) were observed. The results suggest that BMSC-assisted fat graft is effective and safe for soft tissue augmentation and may be superior to conventional lipoinjection. Additional study is necessary to further evaluate the efficacy of this technique.
Louisa R. Winkler
Full Text Available US organic poultry producers are under pressure to find feed alternatives to corn and wheat. Hulless oats offer advantages such as wide geographic adaptation of the plant and high concentrations of protein and oil in the grain. They have shown considerable potential in experimental work as a feed grain for poultry, but more research is needed into their influence on the sensory and nutritional properties of eggs. In this study, hulless oats were substituted for corn or wheat at 200 g kg−1 in diets fed to Hy-Line Brown hens and eggs were sampled for sensory evaluation after 8 weeks. Discrimination tests of blended and baked egg samples found evidence of difference between eggs from oat-based diets and those from the oat-free control (p < 0.05 for eggs from an oat-corn diet, p < 0.01 for eggs from an oat-wheat diet. Acceptance tests of similar samples showed that eggs from the oat-wheat diet were significantly less liked than control eggs for their texture (p < 0.01 and response to cooking (p < 0.01, while eggs from the oat-corn diet were somewhat less liked. Yolk weight was greater (p < 0.05 in control eggs (34.1 g than eggs from oat-corn (31.6 g or oat-wheat (31.2 g diets, leading to smaller yolk proportion in the oat-fed eggs. Fatty acid profile differences across treatments were not of nutritional significance, and no evidence was found that the feeding of hulless oats improved storage properties of eggs. In this study, modifying the carbohydrate source in layer diets was shown to change textural properties of cooked eggs in a way that was perceptible to untrained consumers, probably by reducing the yolk proportion. This finding was not commercially relevant owing to small effect size, and results overall add to existing evidence that hulless oats can be fed to poultry at a moderate proportion of the diet with no negative effect on consumer acceptability of eggs. Regardless of the small effect size, however
Palafox, Damián; Gutiérrez-Gómez, Claudia; Granados, Julio; Barquera, Rodrigo; Ortega-Hernández, Esteban; Hernández-Zaragoza, Diana I.; Pérez-Dosal, Marcia; Pacheco-Ubaldo, Hanna R.; Lona-Sánchez, Abraham
Introducción y Objetivo. El síndrome de Parry Romberg se caracteriza por atrofia hemifacial progresiva; afecta piel y tejidos blandos y en ocasiones provoca también atrofia de músculos, cartílago y estructuras óseas subyacentes. Su diagnóstico diferencial incluye: esclerodermia generalizada, morfea y síndrome de CREST. Las alteraciones en piel se asocian con variantes alélicas (polimórficas) del sistema HLA (antígeno leucocitario humano). La esclerodermia se ha asociado con HLA DR11, el CREST...
Clinical application of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells in progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg disease) with microfat grafting techniques using 3-dimensional computed tomography and 3-dimensional camera.
Koh, Kyung Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Kim, Hoon; Chung, In Wook; Lee, Kang Woo; Lee, Hyo Bo; Park, Eun Jung; Jung, Jae Seob; Shin, Il Seob; Ra, Jeong Chan; Choi, Jong Woo
Parry-Romberg disease is a rare condition that results in progressive hemifacial atrophy, involving the skin, dermis, subcutaneous fat, muscle, and, finally, cartilage and bone. Patients have been treated with dermofat or fat grafts or by microvascular free flap transfer. We hypothesized that adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) may improve the results of microfat grafting through enhancing angiogenesis. We evaluated the utility of ASC in microfat grafting of patients with Parry-Romberg disease by measuring the change in the hemifacial volumes after injection of ASCs with microfat grafts or microfat grafts alone. In April 2008, this investigation was approved by the Korean Food and Drug Administration and the institutional review board of the Asan Medical Center (Seoul, Korea) that monitor investigator-initiated trials. Between May 2008 and January 2009, 10 volunteers with Parry-Romberg disease (5 men and 5 women; mean age, 28 y) were recruited; 5 received ASC and microfat grafts and 5 received microfat grafts only. The mean follow-up period was 15 months. Adipose-derived stem cells were obtained from abdominal fat by liposuction and were cultured for 2 weeks. On day 14, patients were injected with fat grafts alone or plus (in the test group) 1 × 10 ASCs. Patients were evaluated postoperatively using a 3-dimensional camera and 3-dimensional CT scans, and grafted fat volumes were objectively calculated. Successful outcomes were evident in all 5 patients receiving microfat grafts and ASCs, and the survival of grafted fat was better than in patients receiving microfat grafts alone. Before surgery, the mean difference between ipsilateral and contralateral hemiface volume in patients receiving microfat grafts and ASCs was 21.71 mL decreasing to 4.47 mL after surgery. Overall resorption in this ASC group was 20.59%. The mean preoperative difference in hemiface volume in those receiving microfat grafts alone was 8.32 mL decreasing to 3.89 mL after surgery. Overall
Full Text Available The potential modifying effect of the synthetic growth regulators Tidiazuron and poliamine diethilentriamine, applied after gamma-irradiation stress on oats and triticale plants, was studied. Pot vegetative experiments with spring oats, cultivar Hanza 152, and triticale, cultivar 7251, were carried out. The plants were grown under controlled conditions and in the phase of stem extension they were irradiated with Cesium- 137 gamma rays, at a dose rate of 6 Gy (oats, and 4 Gy (triticale, and dose intensity of 2 Gy/min. On the day after the irradiation the plants were sprayed with a radioprotector for the purpose of decreasing the radiation damage. Two types of protectors were tested: tidiazuron and diethilenthriamine. The irradiation of oats and triticale plants in the phase of stem extension caused stress, which was detected by the disorganization of the cardinal physiological processes. The tested synthetic plant growth regulators reduced the negative effect of the irradiation. The peroxidase activity and the lipid peroxidation were reduced, while the plant productivity and the photosynthetic pigments were increased, both photosynthesis and transpiration activation were increased. Independently of the similar effect of both of the substances, polyamine DETA was characterized with a better modifying effect.
Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) are particularly rich in vitamin E, an essential liposoluble vitamin that maintains membrane stability and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To date, no gene sequences involved in vitamin E biosynthesis have been reporte...
Jan 25, 2010 ... The effects of harvest treatment, variety and their interaction on hay yield (HY), crude protein yields (CPY), stem/leaf ratio (S/L ratio), fresh/dry ratio(F/D ratio), crude protein content. (CP), crude fat content (CF), crude ash content (CA) and acid detergent fibre content (ADF) of oat forage were analyzed with ...
Ibrügger, Sabine; Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Poulsen, Malene Wibe
for β-glucan functionality. This study investigates the effects of 3 different β-glucan sources, incorporated into a beverage and yogurt, on blood lipids and fecal endpoints. Fourteen participants completed this randomized, crossover, single-blinded study with four 3-wk periods: control and 3.3 g/d oat...
Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was blended with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. These composites improved nutritional value, water holding capacity and the pasting properties along with their gluten fr...
Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was blended with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. These composites improved nutritional value, water holding capacity and the pasting properties along with their gluten fr...
Mikkelsen, Mette Skau
-functionality relationship of β-glucans, the exact functional principle remain elusive. The overall aim of this project was to provide new knowledge into the relation between β-glucan and health at a molecular level. For the first time two barley and one oat fractions of well-defined and structurally different β...
Londono Cardona, D.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Hamer, R.J.
Bread is consumed all over the world. However, so far, production of large volume bread is only possible with wheat. Alternatives, such as oats, are less suitable but this is partly due to the lack of knowledge about their functionality for other purposes than porridge, which is their most common
Antônio Costa de Oliveira
Full Text Available The white oat cultivar FAEM Carlasul was developed at the Plant Genomics and Breeding Center, Faculty of Agronomy Eliseu Maciel, Federal University of Pelotas, as a result of the cross between UFRGS 10 and 90SAT-28 (Coronado2/Cortez3/Pendek/ME 1563. It is characterized by high yield and grain quality.
Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt
Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)
Full Text Available A strict gluten-free diet (GFD is the only currently available therapeutic treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Traditionally, treatment with a GFD has excluded wheat, barley and rye, while the presence of oats is a subject of debate. The most-recent research indicates that some cultivars of oats can be a safe part of a GFD. In order to elucidate the toxicity of the prolamins from oat varieties with low, medium, and high CD toxicity, the avenin genes of these varieties were cloned and sequenced, and their expression quantified throughout the grain development. At the protein level, we have accomplished an exhaustive characterization and quantification of avenins by RP-HPLC and an analysis of immunogenicity of peptides present in prolamins of different oat cultivars. Avenin sequences were classified into three different groups, which have homology with S-rich prolamins of Triticeae. Avenin proteins presented a lower proline content than that of wheat gliadin; this may contribute to the low toxicity shown by oat avenins. The expression of avenin genes throughout the development stages has shown a pattern similar to that of prolamins of wheat and barley. RP-HPLC chromatograms showed protein peaks in the alcohol-soluble and reduced-soluble fractions. Therefore, oat grains had both monomeric and polymeric avenins, termed in this paper gliadin- and glutenin-like avenins. We found a direct correlation between the immunogenicity of the different oat varieties and the presence of the specific peptides with a higher/lower potential immunotoxicity. The specific peptides from the oat variety with the highest toxicity have shown a higher potential immunotoxicity. These results suggest that there is wide range of variation of potential immunotoxicity of oat cultivars that could be due to differences in the degree of immunogenicity in their sequences.
Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.
have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...
Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops
Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.
California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...
Full Text Available Savannas occur where trees and grasses interact to create a biome that is neither grassland nor forest. Woody and gramineous plants interact by many mechanisms, some negative (competition) and some positive (facilitation). The strength and sign...
Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. ... to education, printing, publishing and ... technical form, paper is an aqueous deposit ..... Period of. Soaking. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight.
This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.
Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification
The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for
Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.
Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Esser, N M; Cavadini, J S
Fall-grown oat has shown promise for extending the grazing season in Wisconsin, but the optimum date for initiating grazing has not been evaluated. Our objectives for this project were (1) to assess the pasture productivity and nutritive value of 2 oat cultivars [Ogle and ForagePlus (OG and FP, respectively)] with late-September (EG) or mid-October (LG) grazing initiation dates; and (2) to evaluate growth performance by heifers grazing these oat forages compared with heifers reared in confinement (CON). A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were assigned to 10 research groups (8 heifers/group). Mean initial body weight was 509±40.5 kg in 2013 and 517±30.2 kg in 2014. Heifer groups were assigned to specific pastures arranged as a 2×2 factorial of oat cultivars and grazing initiation dates. Grazing heifer groups were allowed to strip-graze oat pastures for 6 h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Main effects of oat cultivar and sampling date interacted for forage characteristics in 2013, but not in 2014. During 2013, oat forage mass increased until early November before declining in response to freezing weather conditions, thereby exhibiting linear and quadratic effects of sampling date, regardless of oat cultivar. Similar trends over time were observed in 2014. For 2013, the maximum forage mass was 5,329 and 5,046 kg/ha for FP and OG, respectively, whereas the mean maximum forage mass for 2014 was 4,806 kg/ha. ForagePlus did not reach the boot stage of growth during either year of the trial; OG matured more rapidly, reaching the late-heading stage during 2013, but exhibited only minor maturity differences from FP in 2014. For 2013, average daily gain for CON did not differ from grazing heifer groups (overall mean=0.63 kg/d); however, average daily gain from FP was greater than OG (0.68 vs. 0.57 kg/d), and greater from EG compared with LG (0.82 vs. 0.43 kg/d). For 2013, advantages in
Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.
Viral determinants involved in systemic infection of hosts by monocot-infecting plant viruses are poorly understood. Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) exclusively infects monocotyledonous crops such as wheat, oat, barley, maize, triticale, and rye. Previously, ...
Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.
Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P
Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Full Text Available Annual forage crops have great importance for sustaining animal production in southern Italy. Knowledge of the performance of legume-grass associations under management similar to systems encountered in farm practice is essential for their effective exploitation of the available environmental resources. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the effects of five cutting managements on the productivity and botanical composition of ten annual fodder crop mixtures in two Mediterranean environments. Ten ternary combinations of one grass (Avena sativa L., oat and Lolium multiflorum Lam., Italian ryegrass, one clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L., berseem; Trifolium incarnatum L., crimson and Trifolium squarrosum L., squarrosum or burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. were compared in a field trial (split-plot design, 3 replicates in two locations (Cagliari and Foggia, Italy during the 2000-2001 growing season. The cutting treatments included a winter grazing simulation (G, a cutting only regime at early (EF or late flowering (F of legumes and a combination of treatments (GEF and GF. Plant density (no. m-2 prior to cutting, dry matter yield (g m-2 and botanical composition (% were evaluated. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable dry matter yields of mixtures among cutting treatments in both localities, with treatment F showing the higher values (787.1 and 415.7 g m-2 for Cagliari and Foggia, respectively. The forage species were able to compete and establish good growth during their initial phase in both localities. However, the botanical composition between the two sites differed considerably after the winter period. Particularly, at Foggia, grass dominance was a permanent feature of all treatments, and all the mixtures contained about 84% of grass. Italian ryegrass was the most representative species under all treatments in both sites. Mixtures with Italian ryegrass, crimson or berseem
Aaltonen, Katri; Laurikka, Pilvi; Huhtala, Heini; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle
A strict gluten-free diet (GFD) can be diversified by non-contaminated oats, but there is a shortage of long-term studies concerning its safety. We compared long-term treatment outcomes and factors associated with the introduction of oats between celiac patients on a GFD with or without oats. Eight hundred sixty-nine previously diagnosed celiac patients were interviewed. The validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), Psychological General Well-Being (PGWB), and Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires were used to assess symptoms and quality of life, serological tests were performed, and results of histology were confirmed from patient records. We found the median duration of GFD to be 10 years and 82% using oats. Factors predicting the consumption of oats were diagnosis after the year 2000, advice from a dietitian, detection by screening, and mild clinical presentation. Oat consumers and non-consumers did not differ in dietary adherence (96.5% vs. 97.4%, p = 0.746), the prevalence of symptoms (22.9% vs. 22.5%, p = 0.931), positivity for endomysial antibodies (8.8% vs. 6.0%, p = 0.237), histological recovery after one year (63.1% vs. 60.0%, p = 0.773), malignancy (4.8% vs. 3.3%, p = 0.420), osteoporosis/osteopenia (9.2% vs. 11.0%, p = 0.489), or fractures (26.9% vs. 27.9%, p = 0.791). The oat consumers had better SF-36 physical role limitations and general health scores. Based on our results, the long-term consumption of oats in celiac disease patients is safe and may improve quality of life. PMID:28617328
Hussain, Peerzada R.; Rather, Sarver A.; Suradkar, Prashant P.
Oat β-D-glucan after extraction was degraded at doses of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy. The average molecular weight decreased to 45 kDa at dose of 15 kGy from an initial value of 200 kDa in native sample. XRD analysis revealed no significant change in diffraction pattern of irradiated samples when compared with control, except a decrease in intensity of x-ray diffraction. The results of the antioxidant activity revealed decrease in EC50 values and corresponding increase in antioxidant activity of radiation degraded oat β-D-glucan. Results of the anticancer studies indicated that cytotoxicity of gamma irradiated oat β-D-glucan in cancer cell lines was highest against colo-205 and MCF7 cancer cells compared to T47D cell and no cytotoxicity was observed in normal cell lines at all concentrations used. Evaluation of hypoglycemic activity showed highest inhibition in α-glucosidase activity compared to α-amylase activity due to gamma irradiation of oat β-D-glucan. Comparison of the EC50 values of known standards and gamma irradiated oat beta-glucan samples indicates that radiation treatment significantly modified the biological activity of the beta-glucan samples. Therefore, it is suggested that gamma irradiation can be used for producing low molecular weight oat β-D-glucan; which can help in modifying the biological activities.
Prates, Luciana Louzada; Refat, Basim; Lei, Yaogeng; Louzada-Prates, Mariana; Yu, Peiqiang
The objectives of this study were to quantify the chemical profile and the magnitude of differences in the oat and barley grain varieties developed by Crop Development Centre (CDC) in terms of Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System (CNCPS) carbohydrate sub-fractions: CA4 (sugars), CB1 (starch), CB2 (soluble fibre), CB3 (available neutral detergent fibre - NDF), and CC (unavailable carbohydrate); to estimate the energy values; to detect the lignin and carbohydrate (CHO) molecular structure profiles in CDC Nasser and CDC Seabiscuit oat and CDC Meredith barley grains by using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR); to develop a model to predict nutrient supply based on CHO molecular profile. Results showed that NDF, ADF and CHO were greater (P 0.05) for oat and barley grains as well as non-structural CHO. However, cellulosic compounds peak area and height were greater (P < 0.05) in oat than barley grains. Multiple regressions were determined to predict nutrient supply by using lignin and CHO molecular profiles. It was concluded that although there were some differences between oat and barley grains, CDC Nasser and CDC Meredith presented similarities related to chemical and molecular profiles, indicating that CDC Meredith barley could be replaced for CDC Nasser as ruminant feed. The FTIR was able to identify functional groups related to CHO molecular spectral in oat and barley grains and FTIR-ATR results could be used to predict nutrient supply in ruminant livestock systems.
Carver, T.L.W.; Roberts, P.C.; Thomas, B.J.
Germination by Blumeria graminis. DC Speer ff. spp. avenae, hordei and tritici, was greatly suppressed when conidia fell within colonies of ff. spp. avenae or hordei established on susceptible oat or barley, respectively. On healthy oat or barley, and when distant from powdery mildew, colonies. all...... ff. spp. formed normal appressoria. This was also true When conidia germinated within established barley mildew colonies. Within barley mildew colonies, appressoria of f. sp. hordei penetrated epidermal cells formed haustoria more frequently than appressoria distant from colonies. Similarly, ff. spp....... avenae and tritici, normally unable to infect barley. frequently penetrated epidermal cells subtending established barley mildew colonies. Thus, colony, establishment induced barley epidermal cell accessibility, even to non-pathogenic ff. spp, In contrast. when all three ff. spp. germinated within...
Einhorn, L.; Krause, M.; Hornback, N.; Furnas, B.
In a recently completed study, combination chemotherapy consisting of bleomycin, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine was given to 29 patients with oat cell lung cancer. There were no cases of pulmonary fibrosis in these 29 patients. Although several of these patients had prior radiotherapy, none had concomitant radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This same four-drug chemotherapy regimen was combined with concomitant radiotherapy in 13 patients with oat cell lung cancer. There were three cases of fatal pulmonary fibrosis and two other cases of clinically significant pulmonary fibrosis. All five cases of pulmonary fibrosis occurred several weeks after completion of a six-week course of bleomycin (total dosage 90 units). It is concluded that bleomycin cannot be safely administered while patients are receiving radiotherapy of the lung
Full Text Available Calcium carbonate, obtained as a waste in the industrial manufacture of magnesium carbonate and magnesium oxide from dolomites, can be applied in agriculture. The appreciable amounts of calcium and magnesium in this waste, together with impurities such as iron, zinc, manganese, chromium and copper compounds can be useful in soil amendment and plant nutrition. This paper presents preliminary results of the testing of several waste doses on soil, pursuing their effect on the uptake of cations by green oat (Avena sativa L.. The obtained results show an increase in the amount of calcium, magnesium, zinc and copper found in green oat plants, as well as a decrease of the content of iron and manganese with increasing waste dose. These results may be explained by lower absorptions of iron andmanganese because of the antagonistic effect created by high amounts of calcium and magnesium, as well as by the presence of copper and zinc.
Luo, Xiaomei; Zhang, Haiqin; Kang, Houyang; Fan, Xing; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Zhou, Yonghong
Further understanding of the origin of cultivated oat would accelerate its genetic improvement. In particular, it would be useful to clarify which diploid progenitor contributed the D genome of this allohexaploid species. In this study, we demonstrate that the landmarks produced by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of species of Avena using probes derived from Avena sativa can be used to explore the origin of the D genome. Selected sets of probes were hybridized in several sequential experiments performed on exactly the same chromosome spreads, with multiple probes of cytological preparations. Probes pITS and A3-19 showed there might be a similar distribution of pITS between the Ac and D genomes. These results indicated that the Ac genome is closely related to the D genome, and that Avena canariensis (AcAc) could be the D-genome donor of cultivated oat.
The results of a long-term investigations for experimental mutagenesis of oats and barley are reported in the article. It was found the problem of modification of a mutant process to spread spectrum and increase the general induction frequency and display of macro- and micro mutations. Application as modificators of salts the heavy metals, inhibitors of nuclein, protein synthesis and energy returned processes and also doses spectrum and its strength of gamma-radiation and ultrasound allowed to increase the general frequency of mutant induction of barley and oats on 1-2 order. On the base of evaluation of correlative links between the attributes variability in M1 and M2 generations it was formulated a conception of guarantied creation of mutant forms of the grain crops. (authors)
Hodenberg, A V; Finck, A
Toxicity limiting values of Zn, Cu and Pb are determined in order to investigate the causes of growth damages in certain fields. Since the true toxicity limit is difficult to estimate, a somewhat higher content is called the toxicity limiting value resulting after the subtraction of a significant yield difference. The pot experiments with increasing fertilization of Zn, Cu and Pb in soil cultures gave the following results. For Zn, the toxicity limit is 410 ppm in oats at the beginning of tilling. In red clover six weeks of age, it is only 290 ppm of Zn and therefore much lower. For Cu, the toxicity limit is 20 ppm in oats at the beginning of tilling and 18 ppm in six weeks old red clover. For Pb, a toxic effect could be observed above 50 ppm, but this does not seem to be the true limit because of disturbing salt effects.
Hejgaard, Jørn; Hauge, S.
Most proteinase inhibitors from plant seeds are assumed to contribute to broad-spectrum protection against pests and pathogens. In oat (Avena sativa L.) grain the main serine proteinase inhibitors were found to be serpins, which utilize a unique mechanism of irreversible inhibition. Four distinct...... inhibitors of the serpin superfamily were detected by native PAGE as major seed albumins and purified by thiophilic adsorption and anion exchange chromatography. The four serpins OSZa-d are the first proteinase inhibitors characterized from this cereal. An amino acid sequence close to the blocked N...... by chymotrypsin at the putative reactive centre bond P-1 -P-1 ' Tyrdown arrowSer, and no inhibition was detected. Together the oat grain serpins have a broader inhibitory specificity against digestive serine proteinases than represented by the major serpins of wheat, rye or barley grain. Presumably the serpins...
Full Text Available Naked oat is a unique health food crop in China. Using 202 F2 individuals derived from a hybrid between the variety 578 and the landrace Sanfensan, we constructed a genetic linkage map consisting of 22 linkage groups covering 2070.50 cM and including 208 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The minimum distance between adjacent markers was 0.01 cM and the average was 9.95 cM. Each linkage group contained 2–22 markers. The largest linkage group covered 174.40 cM and the shortest one covered 36.80 cM, with an average of 94.11 cM. Thirty-six markers (17.3% showing distorted segregation were distributed across linkage groups LG5 to LG22. This map complements published oat genetic maps and is applicable for quantitative trait locus analysis, gene cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection.
and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.
Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.
Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.
Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and
Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.
The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil
Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.
Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein
Jannink, J.L.; Liebman, M.; Merrick, L.C.
Interest in the use of green manures has revived because of their role in improving soil quality and their beneficial N and non-N rotation effects. This study evaluated biomass production, N content, radiation interception (RI), and radiation use efficiency (RUE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) mixtures. Treatments were a three-way factorial of pea genotype ('Century' vs 'Tipu'), pea planting density (90 vs 224 kg ha -1 ), and cropping mixture (solecropped pea vs pea planted with a mixture of oat and hairy vetch). A mixture of oat and vetch without pea was also planted. Treatments were planted in early June on a Caribou gravelly loam (coarse-loamy, mixed, frigid Typic Haplorthods) in Presque Isle, ME, in 1993 and 1994. Biomass production and radiation interception were measured by repeated sampling. Mixture biomass was affected by a year x pea density interaction: respective yields for mixtures containing low-density and high-density pea were 770 and 880 g m -2 in 1993 vs 820 and 730 g m -2 in 1994. Mixture N content paralleled biomass production and averaged 209 g m -2 across all treatments. While pea sole crops did not consistently produce biomass or N equal to three-species mixtures the two-species mixture of oat and vetch did, yielding 820 g m -2 of biomass and 21.7 g m -2 of N, averaged over the 2 yr. Multiple regression showed that 61% of the variability in mixture biomass production was accounted for by a combination of early-season pea RI and midseason total mixture RUE. Economic analyses showed that rotation including these green manures may be economically competitive with a conventional rotation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) undersown with clover (Trifolium spp.) in a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production system
Corbineau, F.; Rudnicki, R.M.; Goszczynska, D.M.; Come, D.
The effect of UV, blue, green, red, far-red and white fluorescent lights at a fluence of 1.5–20 μmol m −2 s −1 photon flux density (PFD) on endogenous and ACC-dependent ethylene production by etiolated and green apical oat-leaf segments was investigated. It was found that endogenous ethylene production in light-irradiated green and etiolated oat leaves depends upon light quality and its fluence. All light of the visible spectrum (400–700 nm) at PFD 5–20 μmol m −2 s −1 reduced conversion of ACC to ethylene in green oat leaves incubated in 10 −3 M ACC. Blue light was most effective in the inhibition of ACC-dependent ethylene production at 5–10 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, and endogenous ethylene formation at 10 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD. At 20 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, all visible light wavebands substantially reduced endogenous ethylene production but blue and red light were most effective. In etiolated leaves UV at 1.5 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD, enhanced endogenous ethylene production and other lights at 20 μmol m −2 s −1 PFD decreased evolution of ethylene, whereas ACC-dependent ethylene formation was stimulated by UV, red and far-red wavebands. Growth of 10-day old seedlings was reduced by 40% under continuous blue light irradiation relative to that obtained with white light. Irradiation of etiolated and green leaf segments for 18 hr with blue light reduced ACC oxidase activity when compared to dark-treated ones. The influence of light quality and its fluence rate on the control of ethylene biosynthesis in oat leaves is discussed. (author). (author)
Volkmar, K. M.
The effect of Heterodera avenae infestation on early seminal and lateral root growth was examined in four oat genotypes differing in tolerance to H. avenae. Recently emerged seminal roots were inoculated with a range of H. avenae larval densities, then transferred a hydroponic system to remove the effect of later nematode penetration on root development. Intolerance to H. avenae was assessed in terms of impairment of seminal root extension resulting in fewer primary lateral roots emerging fro...
Perez-Milan, H.; Schuack, J.; Fromageot, P.
An aqueous extract of oat leaves catalyses a transamination between cysteine-sulfinic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid. Under the conditions utilized pyruvic acid is not an acceptor of the amino group. Neither cysteic nor aspartic acid are a substrate for the transaminase of cysteine-sulfinic acid. Reprint of a paper published in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Vol. 36, 1959, p. 73-83 [fr
Hugo M Arelovich
Full Text Available This study intended to contrast dietary effects of whole grain oats versus corn included in rations with moderate roughage content on animal performance, beef ultrasound measurements, rumen and blood parameters. Ten Aberdeen Angus steers (203 kg in individual pens were fed twice daily on either whole oats (OD or corn (CD based diets. Measurements were: DM intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed to gain ratio (F/G; back fat (BF and rib eye area (RA; blood parameters. Four cannulated steers were used to study rumen pH, NH3-N and grain degradability. Rations dietary components were 55% grain, 30.1% barley straw, and 10.6% whole soybeans. Despite calculated higher ME supply (P = 0.0887 no differences were found for DMI, ADG, or F/G. Metabolizable protein intake (19.4% was larger and degradable protein intake (43.3% smaller for CD compared with OD (P < 0.01. The growth rate (cm² d-1 for RA was 40% grater for OD, but larger BF deposition (P = 0.0787 was found for CD. Blood Mg was higher for OD (p = 0.0564, nevertheless other blood parameters remained unaffected. Rumen pH and NH3-N were not influenced by diet, variations were only observed within time periods. Rumen pH decreased linearly from 7.05 to 6.13 and 7.11 to 6.37 for OD and CD respectively (P < 0.05. Minimum NH3-N concentrations (mg dL-1 were reached 12 and 18 h after morning meal for OD (7.10 and CD (5.82 respectively. Rumen degradation was larger for oats than corn. Whole oats rather than corn fed up to 55% of total DM seems to improve protein deposition, without significant changes in animal performance, rumen environment or blood parameters.
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the pattern of dry matter (DM accumulation and the evolution of phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil from tillering to the ripe seed stages of wild oat (Avena fatua L., a widespread annual grassy weed. Plants were grown under controlled conditions and harvested 13 times during the growing season. At each harvest, shoot and root DM and phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil were determined. The maximum DM production (12.6 g/plant was recorded at 122 days after sowing (DAS; kernel hard stage. The increase in total aerial DM with age coincided with reductions in the leaf/stem and source/sink ratios, and an increase in the shoot/root ratio. HPLC analysis shows production of seven phenolic compounds in the rhizosphere soil of wild oat, in order of their decreasing levels: syringic acid, vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringaldehyde, ferulic acid, p-cumaric acid and vanillic acid. The seasonal distribution for the total phenolic compounds showed two peaks of maximum concentrations, at the stem elongation stage (0.71 μg/kg; 82 DAS and at the heading stage (0.70 μg/kg; 98 DAS. Thus wild oat roots exude allelopathic compounds, and the levels of these phenolics in the rhizosphere soil vary according to plant maturity.
Full Text Available Effects of added gluten and transglutaminase on microstructure, instrumental texture and sensory characteristics of bread baked with 51% wholemeal oat flour were compared in order to determine how changes in the state of macromolecules protein and starch correlate with changes in sensory and instrumental structure. Light microscopy, instrumental texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory analysis were used to analyse the test breads. Addition of gluten and transglutaminase affected the structure of the protein network and distribution of water between the protein and starch phases. The differences in microstructure were quantified by determining the areas of starch and protein in the micrographs by image analysis. Breads baked with added gluten and water were softer and less gummy than the oat and wheat reference breads in the texture profile analysis. Addition of transglutaminase made the breads harder and gummier than the breads baked without the added enzyme. In the descriptive sensory analysis breads baked with added gluten or added gluten and water were evaluated as more soft and springy than the reference oat bread. Sensory characteristics of bread texture correlated well with the texture and microstructure measured instrumentally.;
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possibilities and advisability of the use of oats insoluble protein preparation for the production of wheat bread, in order to increase the amount of protein and biological value of protein in this kind of bakery. Research material consisted of the preparation of insoluble oats protein, wheat flour and wheat bread made with the share of oat protein: 5%, 7.5% and 10%, by weight of wheat flour. AOAC methods (2006 were used to determine protein, β-D-glucan and dietary fiber in raw materials and final products. Amino acid composition was measured with the help of amino acid analyzer AAA 400 and used to calculate chemical score (CS and the integrated index of essential amino acids (EAAI, according to FAO/WHO/UNU, 2007. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss, and organoleptic assessment. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus.
Maria José de Oliveira Sichonany
Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the ingestive behavior, displacement patterns and meal dynamics of beef heifers in Alexandergrass pasture (Urochloa plantaginea (Link. Hitch receiving different amounts of oat grain: 0, 0.80 and 1.12% of body weight (BW. The grazing method was continuous with put-and-take stocking. The experimental design was completely randomized following a repeated measure arrangement. The grazing time decreased and the idling time increased when beef heifers were supplemented, independently of supplement amount, while the rumination time was similar across supplement amounts. The number of feeding stations per minute and the number of steps taken between each feeding station were similar regardless of supplementation. When receiving 1.12% of BW of oat grain, heifers remained longer in each feeding station and took fewer steps per minute. The number of meals decreased and the duration of breaks between meals increased when heifers received oat grain. The duration of each meal was similar for heifers receiving supplement than for those that did not. Understanding how animals adjust their grazing behavior and cope with changing environmental dynamics is essential for the development of management strategies designed to optimize animal production.
Roč. 566, FEB (2015), s. 26-38 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Abelian complexity * finite automata * recurrent word * balance function Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2015
Alda Lúcia Gomes Monteiro
Full Text Available The experiment was realized in Campo Largo, PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by preference and ingestion rate. The averages of pastures height was higher (p>0.05 in ryegrass and mixture, and in other pastures evaluations ryegrass was superior (p<0.05 to the others treatments. The grazing time of goats in ryegrass and black oat was superior (p<0.05 to the mixture. The bite rate per minute was higher (p<0.05 in black oat. The goats demonstrated preference for ryegrass and black oat in pure culture.
KEY WORDS: Avena strigosa Schreb, bite, goats, Lolium multiflorum Lam, preference. The experiment was realized in Campo Largo – PR, where the ingestive behavior of goats was evaluated under ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb pastures in pure or mixture culture, in the period of 04/07/2004 to 05/08/2004. The grasses were applied in poles of 630 m² each, and the experimental design was placed in randomized blocks with three treatments and three repetitions. Twelve female goats were distributed in three experimental poles with four goats each for grazing evaluations. Previously to the evaluations of the animals the measurements of the pasture were obtained, which included height, total mass of forage and of the compounds leaf and steam. The goats were evaluated by
Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.
Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.
Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian
An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...
Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.
Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)
Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G
Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle
Full Text Available Until now, peptidoglycan O-acetyl transferases (Oat were only described for their peptidoglycan O-acetylating activity and for their implication in the control of peptidoglycan hydrolases. In this study, we show that a Lactobacillus plantarum mutant lacking OatA is unable to uncouple cell elongation and septation. Wild-type cells showed an elongation arrest during septation while oatA mutant cells continued to elongate at a constant rate without any observable pause during the cell division process. Remarkably, this defect does not result from a default in peptidoglycan O-acetylation, since it can be rescued by wild-type OatA as well as by a catalytic mutant or a truncated variant containing only the transmembrane domain of the protein. Consistent with a potential involvement in division, OatA preferentially localizes at mid-cell before membrane invagination and remains at this position until the end of septation. Overexpression of oatA or its inactive variants induces septation-specific aberrations, including asymmetrical and dual septum formation. Overproduction of the division inhibitors, MinC or MinD, leads to cell filamentation in the wild type while curved and branched cells are observed in the oatA mutant, suggesting that the Min system acts differently on the division process in the absence of OatA. Altogether, the results suggest that OatA plays a key role in the spatio-temporal control of septation, irrespective of its catalytic activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers are pivotal to modern genomics research; however, discovery and genotyping of molecular markers in oat has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, and by a scarcity of sequence data. The purpose of this study was to generate oat expressed sequence tag (EST information, develop a bioinformatics pipeline for SNP discovery, and establish a method for rapid, cost-effective, and straightforward genotyping of SNP markers in complex polyploid genomes such as oat. Results Based on cDNA libraries of four cultivated oat genotypes, approximately 127,000 contigs were assembled from approximately one million Roche 454 sequence reads. Contigs were filtered through a novel bioinformatics pipeline to eliminate ambiguous polymorphism caused by subgenome homology, and 96 in silico SNPs were selected from 9,448 candidate loci for validation using high-resolution melting (HRM analysis. Of these, 52 (54% were polymorphic between parents of the Ogle1040 × TAM O-301 (OT mapping population, with 48 segregating as single Mendelian loci, and 44 being placed on the existing OT linkage map. Ogle and TAM amplicons from 12 primers were sequenced for SNP validation, revealing complex polymorphism in seven amplicons but general sequence conservation within SNP loci. Whole-amplicon interrogation with HRM revealed insertions, deletions, and heterozygotes in secondary oat germplasm pools, generating multiple alleles at some primer targets. To validate marker utility, 36 SNP assays were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 34 diverse oat genotypes. Dendrogram clusters corresponded generally to known genome composition and genetic ancestry. Conclusions The high-throughput SNP discovery pipeline presented here is a rapid and effective method for identification of polymorphic SNP alleles in the oat genome. The current-generation HRM system is a simple and highly-informative platform for SNP genotyping. These techniques provide
Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.
Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...
, guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...
Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N
Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost. We analyzed the in situ DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance of the alternative forages versus corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Sorghum was grown in the summer and harvested in the milk stage. Oats were grown in the fall and harvested in the boot stage. Compared with corn silage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations were higher in the alternative forages. Lignin content was highest for sorghum silage and similar for corn silage and oat silage. The alternative forages had less than 1% starch compared with the approximately 35% starch in the corn silage. Ruminal in situ DM effective degradability was similar, although statistically different, for corn silage and oat silage, but lower for sorghum silage. Diets with the alternative forages were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods and 12 Holstein cows. The control diet contained 44% (DM basis) corn silage. In the other 2 diets, sorghum or oat silages were included at 10% of dietary DM, replacing corn silage. Sorghum silage inclusion decreased DM intake, MY, and milk protein content but increased milk fat and maintained energy-corrected MY similar to the control. Oat silage had no effect on DM intake, MY, or milk components compared to the control. The oat silage diet increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, except starch, whereas the sorghum diet slightly
Fulcher R Gary
Full Text Available Abstract Background Soluble fibers lower serum lipids, but are difficult to incorporate into products acceptable to consumers. We investigated the physiological effects of a concentrated oat β-glucan on cardiovascular disease (CVD endpoints in human subjects. We also compared the fermentability of concentrated oat β-glucan with inulin and guar gum in a model intestinal fermentation system. Methods Seventy-five hypercholesterolemic men and women were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: 6 grams/day concentrated oat β-glucan or 6 grams/day dextrose (control. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, week 3, and week 6 and analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP. To estimate colonic fermentability, 0.5 g concentrated oat β-glucan was incubated in a batch model intestinal fermentation system, using human fecal inoculum to provide representative microflora. Fecal donors were not involved with the β-glucan feeding trial. Inulin and guar gum were also incubated in separate serum bottles for comparison. Results Oat β-glucan produced significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L and LDL cholesterol (-0.3 ± 0.1 mmol/L, and the reduction in LDL cholesterol were significantly greater than in the control group (p = 0.03. Concentrated oat β-glucan was a fermentable fiber and produced total SCFA and acetate concentrations similar to inulin and guar gum. Concentrated oat β-glucan produced the highest concentrations of butyrate at 4, 8, and 12 hours. Conclusion Six grams concentrated oat β-glucan per day for six weeks significantly reduced total and LDL cholesterol in subjects with elevated cholesterol, and the LDL cholesterol reduction was greater than the change in the control group. Based on a model intestinal fermentation, this oat β-glucan was fermentable, producing higher amounts of butyrate than other
Đukić Nevena H.
Full Text Available In grain of ten genetically divergent oat cultivars (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flaming-Kurz, Nuptiele, Prode, Pellerva, Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Simo the variability β-glucan content were investigated. The different value of content of β-glucan was found. Among analyzed oat cultivars, the highest β- glucan contents had Pellerva (6.597%, while the least had Simo (2.971%. The contents of β-glucans were determined by ICC standard Method No 168. The value of β-glucans varied and indicated the differences and similarities between analysed cultivars. The degree of cultivar similarity was determined by dendrogram on which was discriminated two clusters of similar cultivars toward to contents of β-glucan . Within cluster 1, a small group of oats, are five cultivars with small distance (Merkur, Minor Abed, Flamings-Kurz, Nuptiele and Prode. The highest similarity in the range of 88 or the least distance in the range of 12. Within cluster 2 was four oat cultivars (Emperor, Astor, Osmo, Pellerva in which the least differences was between Emperor and Astor with average distance in range 27. Cluster 1 and cluster 2 differed with an average distance of 63. The cultivar Simo expressed the greatest distance to all analysed oat cultivars grouped in two clusters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31092
Full Text Available The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c (MD, −0.42%; 95% CI, −0.61% to −0.23%, fasting blood glucose (FBG (MD, −0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.58 to −0.19 mmol/L, total cholesterol (TC (MD, −0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.86 to −0.12 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (MD, −0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.48 to −0.09 mmol/L. Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required.
Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.
In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The
Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.
Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013
Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.
Full Text Available The relationship between grass production and the quantity of trees in mixed tree-grass ecosystems (savannas) is convex for all or most of its range. In other words, the grass production declines more steeply per unit increase in tree quantity...
The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...
Peräaho, M; Kaukinen, K; Mustalahti, K; Vuolteenaho, N; Mäki, M; Laippala, P; Collin, P
Evidence suggests the acceptability of oats in a gluten-free diet in coeliac disease. We investigated the impact of an oats-containing diet on quality of life and gastrointestinal symptoms. Thirty-nine coeliac disease patients on a gluten-free diet were randomized to take either 50 g of oats-containing gluten-free products daily or to continue without oats for 1 year. Quality of life was assessed using the Psychological General Well-Being questionnaire and gastrointestinal symptoms using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Small-bowel mucosal villous architecture, CD3+, alphabeta+, gammadelta+ intraepithelial lymphocytes, serum endomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies were investigated. Twenty-three subjects were randomized to the oats-containing diet and 16 to the traditional gluten-free diet. All adhered strictly to their respective diet. Quality of life did not differ between the groups. In general, there were more gastrointestinal symptoms in the oats-consuming group. Patients taking oats suffered significantly more often from diarrhoea, but there was a simultaneous trend towards a more severe average constipation symptom score. The villous structure did not differ between the groups, but the density of intraepithelial lymphocytes was slightly but significantly higher in the oats group. The severity of symptoms was not dependent on the degree of inflammation. Antibody levels did not increase during the study period. The oats-containing gluten-free diet caused more intestinal symptoms than the traditional diet. Mucosal integrity was not disturbed, but more inflammation was evident in the oats group. Oats provide an alternative in the gluten-free diet, but coeliac patients should be aware of the possible increase in intestinal symptoms.
V.H. Artigiani Filho
Full Text Available O fungo Helminthosporium oryzae é um patógeno do arroz. Devido a sua variabilidade patogênica, foi investigada a possibilidade deste fungo infectar outras gramíneas. Através de inoculação artificial, ficou demonstrada a capacidade deste patógeno provocar infecção em aveia, cana, centeio, sorgo, trigo, Brachiaria decumbens e Panicum maximum. Assim, estas espécies vegetais podem ser consideradas potenciais hospedeiros do fungo na natureza.Helminthosporium oryzae is a rice pathogen. Due to its variability in pathogenicity, the possibility of this fungus Infecting other grasses was investigated. The capacity of this pathogen was demonstrated to be able to infect oat, sugar-cane, rye, sorghum, wheat, Brachiaria decumbens and Panicum maximum through artificial inoculations. Therefore, those plant species can be considered potencial hosts for the fungus in nature.
Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.
Louisa Rosemarie Winkler
Full Text Available Population structure and genetic architecture of phenotypic traits in oat (Avena sativa L. remain relatively under-researched compared to other small grain species. This study explores the historic context of current elite germplasm, including phenotypic and genetic characterization, with a particular focus on identifying under-utilized areas. A diverse panel of cultivated oat accessions was assembled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection to represent a gene pool relatively unaffected by twentieth century breeding activity and unlikely to have been included in recent molecular studies. The panel was genotyped using an oat iSelect 6K beadchip SNP array. The final dataset included 759 unique individuals and 2,715 polymorphic markers. Some population structure was apparent; with the first three principal components accounting for 38.8% of variation and 73% of individuals belonging to one of three clusters. One cluster with high genetic distinctness appears to have been largely overlooked in twentieth century breeding. Classification and phenotype data provided by the Germplasm Resources Information Network were evaluated for their relationship to population structure. Of the structuring variables evaluated, improvement status (cultivar or landrace was relatively unimportant, indicating that landraces and cultivars included in the panel were all sampled from a similar underlying population. Instead, lemma color and region of origin showed the strongest explanatory power. An exploratory association mapping study of the panel using a subset of 2,588 mapped markers generated novel indications of genomic regions associated with awn frequency, kernels per spikelet, lemma color and panicle type. Further results supported previous findings of loci associated with barley yellow dwarf virus tolerance, crown rust (caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae resistance, days to anthesis and growth habit (winter/spring. In addition, two novel loci were
E. I. Ponomareva
Full Text Available Currently, relevant is the production of food not only meets human needs but also has a certain nutritional value and mineral and vitamin composition, thereby providing a physiologically significant positive effect on the human body. Among bakery products, aimed at improvement of health, leads the bread produced with the goal of weight control, then it should be bread, stimulating the digestive functions of the body. The priority of increasing the nutritional value of bakery products is the inclusion in their formulation non-traditional types of flour from wholemeal grains of cereals and legumes seeds: wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, peas, chickpeas and others. Their use in the diet improves the balance of vitamins, amino acids, macro - and microelements, food fibers and has a positive effect on human health. The use of flour from oat bran in the production of bakery products will increase the content of protein, dietary fiber, minerals, will allow to produce a comprehensive enrichment product. The paper presents research on the influence of the moisture content of the dough of wheat flour of first grade flour from oat bran, obtained by disintegration-wave grinding on the organoleptic, physico-chemical characteristics properties of dough and finished bread. The results revealed rational moisture content of the dough of wheat bread – 46% at a dosage of fortifier – 7%, ensuring the best indicators of quality of semi-finished and products. The data obtained will contribute to the expansion of the range of breads of high nutritional value to give the product a functional orientation, to intensify the process of production.
Gupta, Vibha; Jatav, Pradeep Kumar; Verma, Raini; Kothari, Shanker Lal; Kachhwaha, Sumita
With the boom in industrialization, there is an increase in the level of heavy metals in the soil which drastically affect the growth and development of plants. Nickel is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, but elevated level of Ni causes stunted growth, chlorosis, nutrient imbalance, and alterations in the defense mechanism of plants in terms of accumulation of osmolytes or change in enzyme activities like guiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Ni-induced toxic response was studied in seedlings of finger millet, pearl millet, and oats in terms of seedling growth, lipid peroxidation, total chlorophyll, proline content, and enzymatic activities. On the basis of germination and growth parameters of the seedling, finger millet was found to be the most tolerant. Nickel accumulation was markedly lower in the shoots as compared to the roots, which was the highest in finger millet and the lowest in shoots of oats. Plants treated with a high concentration of Ni showed significant reduction in chlorophyll and increase in proline content. Considerable difference in level of malondialdehyde (MDA) content and activity of antioxidative enzymes indicates generation of redox imbalance in plants due to Ni-induced stress. Elevated activities of POD and SOD were observed with high concentrations of Ni while CAT activity was found to be reduced. It was observed that finger millet has higher capability to maintain homeostasis by keeping the balance between accumulation and ROS scavenging system than pearl millet and oats. The data provide insight into the physiological and biochemical changes in plants adapted to survive in Ni-rich environment. This study will help in selecting the more suitable crop species to be grown on Ni-rich soils.
Caleigh M. Sawicki
Full Text Available While dietary fiber plays an important role in the health benefits associated with whole grain consumption, other ingredients concentrated in the outer bran layer, including alkylresorcinols, lignans, phenolic acids, phytosterols, and tocols, may also contribute to these outcomes. To determine the acute bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of the major phytochemicals found in barley and oats, we conducted a randomized, three-way crossover trial in 13 healthy subjects, aged 40–70 years with a body mass index (BMI of 27–35.9 kg/m2. After a two-day run-in period following a diet low in phytochemicals, subjects were randomized to receive muffins made with either 48 g whole oat flour, whole barley flour, or refined wheat flour plus cellulose (control, with a one-week washout period between each intervention. At the same time, an oral glucose tolerance test was administered. In addition to plasma phytochemical concentrations, glucose and insulin responses, biomarkers of antioxidant activity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, and vascular remodeling were determined over a 24-h period. There was no significant effect on acute bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of major phytochemicals. Administered concurrently with a glucose bolus, the source of whole grains did not attenuate the post-prandial response of markers of glucoregulation and insulin sensitivity, inflammation, nor vascular remodeling compared to the refined grain control. No significant differences were observed in the bioavailability or postprandial effects between whole-oat and whole-barley compared to a refined wheat control when administered with a glucose challenge. These null results may be due, in part, to the inclusion criteria for the subjects, dose of the whole grains, and concurrent acute administration of the whole grains with the glucose bolus.
Full Text Available The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues' normally pairing.
Lee, Hyun Jung; Dahal, Samjhana; Perez, Enrique Garcia; Kowalski, Ryan Joseph; Ganjyal, Girish M; Ryu, Dojin
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most important mycotoxins owing to its widespread occurrence and toxicity, including nephrotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity to humans. OTA has been detected in a wide range of agricultural commodities, including cereal grains and their processed products. In particular, oat-based products show a higher incidence and level of contamination. Extrusion cooking is widely used in the manufacturing of breakfast cereals and snacks and may reduce mycotoxins to varying degrees. Hence, the effects of extrusion cooking on the stability of OTA in spiked (100 μg/kg) oat flake was investigated by using a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder with a central composite design. Factors examined were moisture content (20, 25, and 30% dry weight basis), temperature (140, 160, and 180°C), screw speed (150, 200, and 250 rpm), and die size (1.5, 2, and 3 mm). Both nonextruded and extruded samples were analyzed for reductions of OTA by high-performance liquid chromatography, coupled with fluorescence detection. The percentage of reductions in OTA in the contaminated oat flakes upon extrusion processing were in the range of 0 to 28%. OTA was partially stable during extrusion, with only screw speed and die size having significant effect on reduction (P < 0.005). The highest reduction of 28% was achieved at 180°C, 20% moisture, 250 rpm screw speed, and a 3-mm die with 193 kJ/kg specific mechanical energy. According to the central composite design analyses, up to 28% of OTA can be reduced by a combination of 162°C, 30% moisture, and 221 rpm, with a 3-mm die.
van Ree, R.; Brewczyński, P. Z.; Tan, K. Y.; Mulder-Willems, H. J.; Widjaja, P.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kroon, A. M.
Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis
Full Text Available Mitochondria are the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS in plant cells and play a central role in the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycles; however, ROS production and regulation for seed germination, seedling growth, as well as mitochondrial responses to abiotic stress, are not clear. This study was conducted to obtain basic information on seed germination, embryo mitochondrial antioxidant responses, and protein profile changes in artificial aging in oat seeds (Avena sativa L. exposed to exogenous nitric oxide (NO treatment. The results showed that the accumulation of H2O2 in mitochondria increased significantly in aged seeds. Artificial aging can lead to a loss of seed vigor, which was shown by a decline in seed germination and the extension of mean germination time (MGT. Seedling growth was also inhibited. Some enzymes, including catalase (CAT, glutathione reductase (GR, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, and monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR, maintained a lower level in the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH scavenging system. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of some proteins related to the TCA cycle were down-regulated and several enzymes related to mitochondrial ETC were up-regulated. With the application of 0.05 mM NO in aged oat seeds, a protective effect was observed, demonstrated by an improvement in seed vigor and increased H2O2 scavenging ability in mitochondria. There were also higher activities of CAT, GR, MDHAR, and DHAR in the AsA-GSH scavenging system, enhanced TCA cycle-related enzymes (malate dehydrogenase, succinate-CoA ligase, fumarate hydratase, and activated alternative pathways, as the cytochrome pathway was inhibited. Therefore, our results indicated that seedling growth and seed germinability could retain a certain level in aged oat seeds, predominantly depending on the lower NO regulation of the TCA cycle and AsA-GSH. Thus, it could be concluded that the
Joshi, Anjali; Nayyar, Harsh; Dharamvir, Keya; Verma, Gaurav
Nanostructures have recently been reported by various research groups to induce growth enhancement in variety of crops. In this report 30-40 nm size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at two concentrations were found to enhance the total biomass yield of wheat and oats. Treating plants with up to 100 µl /mL and 200 µl /mL of AuNPs shows an increased growth and germination rate. The noticeable difference in fresh weight and relative leaf water content were recorded. The fluorescence and UV-Vis spectroscopy detected the gold nanoparticles inside the seedling.
Josephene T.M. Kealey
Full Text Available Joyce Carol Oates’s Preface to the Franklin Library 1st Edition of her 1986 novel Marya: A Life is a theoretical reading guide. In her explanations for the possible autobiographical components discernible in her book, Oates challenges readers to question their ability to know a character, to know an author’s intentions, even to know the self. Oates’s ideas about the fluidity of identity and the dangers of claiming “to know” an other or the self are explored in this story.
Paulo Ademar Avelar Ferreira
Full Text Available A significant quantity of nutrients in vineyards may return to the soil each year through decomposition of residues from cover plants. This study aimed to evaluate biomass decomposition and nutrient release from residues of black oats and hairy vetch deposited in the vines rows, with and without plastic shelter, and in the between-row areas throughout the vegetative and productive cycle of the plants. The study was conducted in a commercial vineyard in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil, from October 2008 to February 2009. Black oat (Avena strigosa and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa residues were collected, subjected to chemical (C, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg and biochemical (cellulose - Cel, hemicellulose - Hem, and lignin - Lig content analyses, and placed in litter bags, which were deposited in vines rows without plastic shelter (VPRWS, in vines rows with plastic shelter (VPRS, and in the between-row areas (BR. We collected the residues at 0, 33, 58, 76, and 110 days after deposition of the litter bags, prepared the material, and subjected it to analysis of total N, P, K, Ca, and Mg content. The VPRS contained the largest quantities and percentages of dry matter and residual nutrients (except for Ca in black oat residues from October to February, which coincides with the period from flowering up to grape harvest. This practice led to greater protection of the soil surface, avoiding surface runoff of the solution derived from between the rows, but it retarded nutrient cycling. The rate of biomass decomposition and nutrient release from hairy vetch residues from October to February was not affected by the position of deposition of the residues in the vineyard, which may especially be attributed to the lower values of the C/N and Lig/N ratios. Regardless of the type of residue, black oat or hairy vetch, the greatest decomposition and nutrient release mainly occurred up to 33 days after deposition of the residues on the soil surface, which coincided with the
Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai L K
Powdery mildew is a prevalent fungal disease affecting oat (Avena sativa L.) production in Europe. Common oat cultivar Rollo was previously shown to carry the powdery mildew resistance gene Eg-3 in common with cultivar Mostyn. The resistance gene was mapped with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers from Triticeae group-1 chromosomes using a population of F(3) lines from a cross between A. byzantina cv. Kanota and A. sativa cv. Rollo. This comparative mapping approach positioned Eg-3 between cDNA-RFLP marker loci cmwg706 and cmwg733. Since both marker loci were derived from the long arm of barley chromosome 1H, the subchromosomal location of Eg-3 was assumed to be on the long arm of oat chromosome 17. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker technology featured as an efficient means for obtaining markers closely linked to Eg-3.
J. W. Tomala-Bednarek
Full Text Available It was established that the mycelium of Ustilago perennans does not grow into the pericarp and seed coat of Arrhenatherum elatius caryopses. The main source of seedling infection at this year .seeds sowing were mycelium and gemmes present in hull tissues whereas ait last-year seeds sowing-the spores wintering on the hull and caryopsis surfaces, as they proved to be more survived. The ability of the fungus to seedling infection was decreasing gradually with the seed ageing.
Vitamin E is essential for humans and thus must be a component of a healthy diet. Among the cereal grains, hexaploid oats (Avena sativa L.) have high vitamin E content. To date, no gene sequences in the vitamin E biosynthesis pathway have been reported for oats. Using deep sequencing and orthology-g...
Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae (Pca), is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle Pca is dikaryotic with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotypes, which highlights the importance of understan...
Marisa E. Miller; Ying Zhang; Vahid Omidvar; Jana Sperschneider; Benjamin Schwessinger; Castle Raley; Jonathan M. Palmer; Diana Garnica; Narayana Upadhyaya; John Rathjen; Jennifer M. Taylor; Robert F. Park; Peter N. Dodds; Cory D. Hirsch; Shahryar F. Kianian; Melania. Figueroa
Oat crown rust, caused by the fungus Pucinnia coronata f. sp. avenae, is a devastating disease that impacts worldwide oat production. For much of its life cycle, P. coronata f. sp. avenae is dikaryotic, with two separate haploid nuclei that may vary in virulence genotype, highlighting...
Incorporating exogenous proteins into food production is a common practice for improving processing characteristics. In the present study, oat dough containing 15% (w/w, blends of protein-oat flour basis [POB]) vital wheat gluten (VWG) or 15% (w/w, POB) egg albumin (EA) were used to produce noodles ...
Savage, M. J.
Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass
Johnson, C. F.; Brown, C. S.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Chapman, D. K.; Deitzer, G. F.
Oat (Avena sativa cv Seger) seedlings were irradiated with IR light-emitting diode (LED) radiation passed through a visible-light-blocking filter. Infrared LED irradiated seedlings exhibited differences in growth and gravitropic response when compared to seedlings grown in darkness at the same temperature. Thus, the oat seedlings in this study were able to detect IR LED radiation. These findings call into question the use of IR LED as a safe-light for some photosensitive plant response experiments. These findings also expand the defined range of wavelengths involved in radiation-gravity (light-gravity) interactions to include wavelengths in the IR region of the spectrum.
Full Text Available During conservation, the probiotic bacteria currently used in food industry have been shown to have less viability in the matter of fermented products microbiota and also to present lower levels of colonization and survival in vivo. This study describes a new way of improving the behavior and functionality of Lactobacillus acidophilus - LA 5® commercial strain by using buckwheat flour (Fagopyrum esculentum and oat bran (Avena sativa as fermentation ingredients, in view of their high content of bioactive compounds that have a great impact both on fermentation microorganisms and consumers’ health. The effect of these two raw vegetal products on LA 5® strain was studied by cultivation on MRS broth and on milk. The supplementation of the fermentation medium with 4.0% - 6.0% of buckwheat flour or oat bran, respectively, had a positive effect on metabolic activity and viability of lactic acid bacteria. Thus, the rapid decrease of the pH and the increase of the multiplication rate were observed after 6 hours of lactic acid fermentation. Furthermore, the presence of the vegetal substrates substantially improved the cells survival during the storage of the fermented products for 28 days at 4 °C, comparing to samples without supplementation used as control.
Full Text Available An extraction method for mixed-linkage β-glucan from oat and barley was developed in order to minimize the effect of extraction on the β-glucan structure. β-Glucan were characterized in terms of molecular size and molar mass distributions using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4 coupled to multiangle light scattering (MALS, differential refractive index (dRI and fluorescence (FL detection. The carbohydrate composition of the extracts was analysed using polysaccharide analysis by carbohydrate gel electrophoresis (PACE and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC. Whether there were any proteinaceous moieties linked to β-glucan was also examined. Purified extracts contained 65% and 53% β-glucan for oats and barley, respectively. The main impurities were degradation products of starch. The extracts contained high molecular weight β-glucan (105-108 g/mol and large sizes (root-mean-square radii from 20 to 140 nm. No proteins covalently bound to β-glucan were detected; therefore, any suggested functionality of proteins regarding the health benefits of β-glucan can be discounted.
Simons, M.D.; Browning, J.A.; Frey, K.J.
Seeds of crown rust (Puccinia coronata) susceptible cultivated oats (Avena sativa) were treated with the mutagenic chemical ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), and pure lines derived from these treated seeds were tested in later generations for the relative amount of reduction in yield and seed weight caused by crown rust infection. In the absence of crown rust, the yield of most of the treated lines was greatly reduced. The overall means of the treated lines for both yield and seed weight response to infection were significantly lower than the control, but 10 lines significantly exceeded the control for yield response and 15 exceeded it for seed weight response. Recurrent EMS treatment of once-treated lines rated as tolerant resulted in groups of lines that were more tolerant, on the average, than groups of lines from recurrently treated lines rated as susceptible. A few of the recurrently treated individual lines derived from tolerant parents had a higher degree of tolerance than their parental lines. EMS treatment of diploid (A. strigosa) and tetraploid (A. abyssinica) oats resulted in groups of lines showing significant genetic variance for response to crown rust, indicating that treatment had induced real genetic change. A few diploid lines were a little more tolerant than their control, but none of the tetraploid lines showed any consistent improvement. (author)
Fabbrocini, G; Saint Aroman, M
Recent evidence suggests that acne vulgaris begins as an inflammation in and around the sebaceous gland and alterations in the lipid content of sebum, which drive hyperproliferation and increased desquamation of keratinocytes within sebaceous follicles. This prevents sebum drainage, causing the formation of microcomedones, which spontaneously regress or become acne lesions when the pilosebaceous unit is further blocked by the accumulation of corneocytes. These conditions are favourable for the proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, which further aggravates acne by enhancing abnormal desquamation, sebum production and inflammation. Also, skin fragility due to inflammation or irritation by anti-comedogenic agents can worsen the situation. Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract (Pierre Fabre Dermo Cosmetique) soothes and restores fragile skin in acne by reducing inflammation and inhibits bacterial adhesion of Propionibacterium acnes. Cosmeceuticals combining Rhealba(®) Oat plantlet extract and hydro-compensating actives, which are available with or without anti-comedogenic hydroxy acids, provide a balanced, multifaceted approach for acne patients. © 2014 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Full Text Available This study used polysaccharide degrading enzymes and protein precipitation to extract polyphenols from oats and to determine their bioactivity. Duplicate oat brans were treated with viscozyme (Vis, cellulase (Cel or no enzyme (control, CTL then, proteins were removed in one set (Vis1, Cel1, CTL1 and not in the other (Vis2, Cel2, CTL2. HPLC analyses showed that for cellulase treated brans, precipitation of proteins increased phenolic acids and avenanthramides by 14%. Meanwhile, a decreased of 67% and 20% respectively was found for viscozyme and control brans. The effect of protein precipitation on soluble polyphenols is therefore dependent of the carbohydrase, as proteins with different compositions will interact differently with other molecules. Radical scavenging data showed that Cel1 and Vis1 had higher quenching effects on ROO• radicals with activities of 22.1 ± 0.8 and 23.5 ± 1.2 μM Trolox Equivalents/g defatted brans. Meanwhile, CTL2 had the highest HO• radicals inhibition (49.4 ± 2.8% compared to 10.8–32.3% for others. Samples that highly inhibited lipoxygenase (LOX, an enzyme involved in lipid oxidation were Cel1 (23.4 ± 2.3% and CTL1 (18 ± 0.4%.
Urošević Miroslav I.
Full Text Available Reports concerning mycotoxins in horse feed are very rare and are typically restricted to fumonisins. As a non-ruminant monogastric species, horses may be more sensitive to adverse effects of mycotoxins, but the most severe effect of fumonisin B1 (FB1 in equines is that it causes fatal leucoencephalomalacia. In recent years, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA has evaluated several mycotoxins as “undesirable substances in animal feed” with the aim of establishing guidance values for the feed industry. In its evaluation of deoxynivalenol (DON, EFSA concluded that this toxin exhibited toxic effects in all species, but that horses were more tolerant towards this toxin than pigs. According to the available data, a systematic survey on mycotoxins in horse feed in Serbia has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of mycotoxins in horse feed in Vojvodina. Samples of oats for horse consumption, collected in 2010, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays (ELISA for deoxynivalenol contamination. Twelve samples of oats were taken from twelve horse studs, with sport, school and hobby horses.
variations within a species are essential for seedling establishment at different habitats (Grundy et al., 1996. Germination of various plants has a different response to nanoparticles. Application of nanoparticles that have a positive effect on germination and growth of crop and a negative effect on weed can be useful in weed control. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of different concentrations of ZnO on germination characteristics of wild oat and two genotypes of wheat, an experiment was conducted with a factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with four replications in research laboratory of Ilam University. The experimental treatments were plant genotypes (wild oat and Behrang and Sivand genotypes of wheat and different concentrations of ZnO (0, 10, 100 and 500 ppm. Germination of seeds was determined by placing 30 seed in a 9-cm-diam Petri dish containing two layers of Whatman No. 1 filter paper, moistened with 5 ml of distilled water or a treatment solution. The treatments of ZnO were applied in Agar complex. After treatment, the dishes were sealed with paraffin tape, and placed in the dark in an incubator at 25 °C. The number of seeds germinated was counted every day. Seedling and radicle length, seedling and radicle dry weight and germination rate were measured. Data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and the difference between treatment means was separated using Duncan test. A significance level of 95% was applied by SAS 9.2. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the simple and interaction effects of genotype and ZnO had a significant effect (P ≤ 0.01 on all studied traits. The plumule length of both wheat genotypes was increased to 100 ppm ZnO concentration and then was decreased. The plumule length of oat wild was increased by increasing ZnO concentration. Increase in ZnO concentration to 10 ppm caused a significant increment in the radical length of sivand genotype and wild oat, and the trait
Marlo Adriano Bison Pinto
Full Text Available The swine production in southern Brazil is concentrated in small farms that use residues as a nutrient source for crops of economic interest. This study aimed to evaluate the use of swine slurry associated with tillage systems on double-cropped oat/maize. The experiment was carried out in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons, in Taquaruçu do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a factorial scheme, with four replications. Treatments consisted of the interaction of four swine slurry doses (no swine slurry, 20 m3 ha-1, 40 m3 ha-1 and 80 m3 ha-1 and mineral fertilization, in three tillage systems (no-tillage, chiseling and chiseling + disking. The swine slurry application on doublecropped oat/maize increased the dry matter and grain yield. The 80 m3 ha-1 dose provided a response statistically similar to the mineral fertilization recommended for maize. The interaction between the 80 m3 ha-1 dose and the immediate incorporation of slurry into the soil reduced N losses by ammonia volatilization, promoting a significant increase in maize grain yield, when grown on a clayish soil.
Full Text Available The most of important crops cultivated for production of foods and feeds could be considered as plants possessing nutraceutical or medically interesting compounds, especially if can be eaten without processing. Chemical and biological parameters that were evaluated in 100 oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes were others than those that are important in food and feed production. Contents of polyphenols and flavonoids, radical scavenging activity (DPPH, and inhibitory activities against five proteases (trypsin, thrombin, urokinase, elastase, cathepsin B were analyzed in extracts from mature grains. The antioxidant activity (DPPH correlated to the content of total polyphenols. Only a minority (15 from 100 of analyzed genotypes created separate subgroup with a high content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and high antioxidant activity. The best in these parameters were genotypes CDC-SOL-FI, Saul, and Avesta, respectively. Fifteen other genotypes assembled another minority subgroup (also 15 from 100 on the basis of their high inhibitory activities against tested proteases. The highest trypsin-, urokinase-, and elastase-inhibitory activities were in genotype Racoon, the best in thrombin-, and cathepsin B-inhibitory activities were genotypes Expression and SW Kerstin, respectively. Three oats genotypes – Rhea, AC Percy, and Detvan appeared in both subgroups.
Full Text Available Zearalenone is a mycotoxin that poses a risk to human health due to its oestrogenic, immunotoxigenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. This study was undertaken to determine the concentration of zearolenone in different types of bread consumed in Isfahan. In a descriptive study, a total of 60 samples consisting of wheat, oat and maize breads was obtained from Isfahan retails from October 2011 to December 2012. Using ELISA method the samples were surveyed for the presence of zearalenone. According to the results, concentration of zearalenone in positive samples ranged between 0.35 and 45.38 ng/g. Moreover, the mean and standard deviation of zearalenone concentration in wheat, oat and maize breads were estimated as 3.94 ± 6.21, 8.52 ±12.81 and 9.53 ±10.35 ng/g, respectively. Any positive sample contained zearalenone concentration more than the maximum level of 50 ng/g set by the European Regulation for zearalenone in cereals and bread. However, it is essential to continuously monitor the zearalenone contamination level in cereals and particularly in wheat.
Will, M E; Sylvia, D M
Plants must be established quickly on replenished beaches in order to stabilize the sand and begin the dune-building process. The objective of this research was to determine whether inoculation of sea oats (Uniola paniculata L.) with bacteria (indigenous rhizosphere bacteria and N(2) fixers) alone or in combination with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi would enhance plant growth in beach sand. At two fertilizer-N levels, Klebsiella pneumoniae and two Azospirillum spp. did not provide the plants with fixed atmospheric N; however, K. pneumoniae increased root and shoot growth. When a sparingly soluble P source (CaHPO(4)) was added to two sands, K. pneumoniae increased plant growth in sand with a high P content. The phosphorus content of shoots was not affected by bacterial inoculation, indicating that a mechanism other than bacterially enhanced P availability to plants was responsible for the growth increases. When sea oats were inoculated with either K. pneumoniae or Acaligenes denitrificans and a mixed Glomus inoculum, there was no consistent evidence of a synergistic effect on plant growth. Nonetheless, bacterial inoculation increased root colonization by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi when the fungal inoculum consisted of colonized roots but had no effect on colonization when the inoculum consisted of spores alone. K. pneumoniae was found to increase spore germination and hyphal growth of Glomus deserticola compared with the control. The use of bacterial inoculants to enhance establishment of pioneer dune plants warrants further study.
Yalpani, N.; Schulz, M.; Balke, N.E.
Phytotoxicity of salicylic acid (SA), a phenolic acid that inhibits ion absorption in plant roots, is reduced in oat roots by the action of a UDP-glucose:SA glucosyltransferase (GTase). GTase activity, extracted from oat roots and assayed with [ 14 C]SA, was present at low constitutive levels but increased within 1.5 h of incubation of roots in 0.5 mM SA at pH 6.5. This induction was the result of de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Induction was highly specific towards SA as the inducer. The partially purified, soluble enzyme has a M t of about 50,000 and high specificity towards UDP-glucose as the sugar donor (K m = 0.28 mM) and SA as the glucose acceptor (K m = 0.11 mM). 2-D PAGE of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled proteins extracted from induced and uninduced roots revealed a candidate peptide representing the GTase. This peptide was also present on gels of partially purified GTase
Hill, C R
It appears that an important contribution to the observed ..cap alpha..-activity of grass may be provided by a process of natural fall-out in which lead-210 resulting from decay of atmospheric radon, together with a fraction of the equilibrium amount of its descendant polonium-210 are deposited by rainfall directly on to foliage. Metabolic uptake of part of this activity by sheep is indicated by the presence in the kidney of polonium-210. 6 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.
While it is generally accepted that dense stands of plants exacerbate epidemics caused by foliar pathogens, there is little experimental evidence to support this view. We grew model plant communities consisting of wheat and wild oats at different densities and proportions and exp...
Aims: The goal was to determine the effect of starch source (corn, oats and wheat) and concentration on: 1) total amylolytic bacteria, Group D Gram-positive cocci (GPC), lactobacilli, and lactate-utilizing bacteria, and 2) fermentation by equine microflora. Methods and Results: When fecal washed cel...
Lyly, Marika; Ohls, Nora; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
at different dietary fibre (DF) concentrations, energy levels and viscosity levels. Design: A total of 29 healthy volunteers, age 1939, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m2 participated in this study. Measurement of subjective perceptions (satiety, fullness, hunger, desire to eat something/the sample food and thirst......) was performed during a 180-min period after ingestion of the sample. There were altogether six samples: two beverages without fibre at energy levels 700 and 1,400 kJ; two beverages containing 5 or 10 g oat DF (2.5 and 5 g oat b-glucan, respectively) at energy level 700 kJ, one beverage containing 10 g oat DF/1......,400 kJ and one beverage containing 10 g enzymatically treated oat DF with low viscosity at energy level 700 kJ. Each beverage portion weighted 300 g. The order of the samples was randomised for each subject and evaluated during six separate days. The results are reported in three sets of samples: 'fibre...
Pacak, Andrzej; Geisler, Katrin; Jørgensen, Bodil
-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created...
Sanz, M.J.; Loarce, Y.; Fominaya, A.; Vossen, J.H.; Ferrer, E.
Two of the domains most widely shared among R genes are the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and protein kinase (PK) domains. The present study describes and maps a number of new oat resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with two purposes in mind: (1) to identify genetic regions that contain R genes and (2)
Whole oat has been described as an important healthy food for humans due to its beneficial nutritional components. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a powerful, fast, accurate and non-destructive analytical tool that can be substituted for some traditional chemical analysis. A total o...
Bae, Woo Kyun; Lee, JongUn; Park, Jeong Woo; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Suhn Hee
The present study was aimed to determine whether there is an altered regulation of tubular transporters in gentamicin-induced nephropathy. Sprague-Dawley male rats (200~250 g) were subcutaneously injected with gentamicin (100 mg/kg per day) for 7 days, and the expression of tubular transporters was determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The mRNA and protein expression of OAT was also determined. Gentamicin-treated rats exhibited significantly decreased creatinine clearance along with increased plasma creatinine levels. Accordingly, the fractional excretion of sodium increased. Urine volume was increased, while urine osmolality and free water reabsorption were decreased. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, NHE3, NBC1, and AQP1 in the kidney of gentamicin-treated rats. The expression of OAT1 and OAT3 was also decreased. Gentamicin-induced nephropathy may at least in part be causally related with a decreased expression of Na+/K+-ATPase, NHE3, NBC1, AQP1 and OAT. PMID:19967075
Bradley J Foresman
Full Text Available Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs are responsible for the disease barley yellow dwarf (BYD and affect many cereals including oat (Avena sativa L.. Until recently, the molecular marker technology in oat has not allowed for many marker-trait association studies to determine the genetic mechanisms for tolerance. A genome-wide association study (GWAS was performed on 428 spring oat lines using a recently developed high-density oat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array as well as a SNP-based consensus map. Marker-trait associations were performed using a Q-K mixed model approach to control for population structure and relatedness. Six significant SNP-trait associations representing two QTL were found on chromosomes 3C (Mrg17 and 18D (Mrg04. This is the first report of BYDV tolerance QTL on chromosome 3C (Mrg17 and 18D (Mrg04. Haplotypes using the two QTL were evaluated and distinct classes for tolerance were identified based on the number of favorable alleles. A large number of lines carrying both favorable alleles were observed in the panel.
Valk, van der H.C.P.M.
The loss of chlorophyll during the senescence of leaves is preceded by a decrease in protein content. Proteases responsible for the degradation of the proteins have been implicated in the regulation of the senescence process. The first leaf of the seedling of oats ( Avena
Full Text Available Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N and carbon (C in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S or intercropped (I with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp and at maturity (Im and Sm. More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp, 9.2% (Ip, 20.1% (Sm, and 21.2% (Im of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp, 42.0% (Ip, 15.4% (Sm, and 22.6% (Im of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4-83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N and 58.4-85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops.
Hussain Basha, M.; Mehta, A.K.; Gour, V.K.
The seeds of three oat varieties viz., Kent, JO 03-91 and JO-1 were exposed to different doses of gamma rays i.e. 200 Gy, 250 Gy, 300 Gy, 350 Gy, 400 Gy, 450 Gy and 500 Gy at Nuclear Research Laboratory, IARI, New Delhi. The present investigation aims to study biological effects of gamma irradiation on oat (Avena sativa L.) in the M 1 generation. After irradiation, 10 seeds were sown from each dose on paper towel by using distilled water. Germination, root and shoot length were recorded after seven days. 100 seeds of each irradiated dose along with control were sown in the field at Regional station, IARI, Wellington, Tamil Nadu. Seedling emergence and height under field conditions was recorded after 7 and 14 days. An observation for plant height and plant survival percentage was reordered at maturity stage. Seed germination (%), root length and shoot length decreased not in a linear fashion with the increase in irradiation doses. In contrast, the gamma rays had some stimulatory effects on shoot length in comparison to root length. Seedling emergence, plant height and plant survival (%) decreased with increase in radiation dose not in a linear fashion in all three varieties. Seedling emergence was recorded less in 7 DAS in comparison to 14 DAS in all three varieties. The coefficient of correlation between radiation dose and emergence and plant survival under field conditions were found to be significant and negative in all three varieties. Radiation dose of 500 Gy proved most lethal and reduced the percentage of survived plants in oat varieties JO-1 (37.36%) and JO 03-91 (43.57%) followed by 450 Gy in JO 03-91 (54.07 %) and 400 Gy in all three varieties (<68.5%). Only in the variety JO 03-91 has three morphological mutations were found at different doses i.e. 250 Gy, 350 Gy and 450 Gy and two chlorophyll mutations namely i.e. chlorina and yellow viridis was found in JO-1 (450 Gy) and Kent (250 Gy) in M 1 generation respectively. (author)
Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024
Christian, D.G.; Riche, A.B.
The work reported here is part of an ongoing project that aims to evaluate the yields of three perennial rhizomatous grasses and determine their suitability as bio-energy crops. The work began in 1993, and the grasses have been monitored continuously since that time. This report covers the period 1999/2000, and includes: the performance of plots of the energy grasses Miscanthus grass, switchgrass and reed canary grass seven years after they were planted; assessment of the yield of 15 genotypes of Miscanthus planted in 1997; monitoring all the species throughout the growing period for the presence of pests, weeds and diseases; measurement of the amount of nitrate leached from below Miscanthus grass; investigating the occurrence of lodging in switchgrass. (Author)
Applications of soil amendments containing N are part of routine forage management strategies for grasses, with a primary goal of increasing forage yield. However, the effects of N fertilization on forage nutritive value, estimates of energy density, and in-vitro DM or NDF disappearance often have b...
Full Text Available The O-acetylation of the essential cell wall polymer peptidoglycan occurs in most Gram-positive bacterial pathogens, including species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Enterococcus. This modification to peptidoglycan protects these pathogens from the lytic action of the lysozymes of innate immunity systems and, as such, is recognized as a virulence factor. The key enzyme involved, peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase A (OatA represents a particular challenge to biochemical study since it is a membrane associated protein whose substrate is the insoluble peptidoglycan cell wall polymer. OatA is predicted to be bimodular, being comprised of an N-terminal integral membrane domain linked to a C-terminal extracytoplasmic domain. We present herein the first biochemical and kinetic characterization of the C-terminal catalytic domain of OatA from two important human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Using both pseudosubstrates and novel biosynthetically-prepared peptidoglycan polymers, we characterized distinct substrate specificities for the two enzymes. In addition, the high resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal domain reveals an SGNH/GDSL-like hydrolase fold with a catalytic triad of amino acids but with a non-canonical oxyanion hole structure. Site-specific replacements confirmed the identity of the catalytic and oxyanion hole residues. A model is presented for the O-acetylation of peptidoglycan whereby the translocation of acetyl groups from a cytoplasmic source across the cytoplasmic membrane is catalyzed by the N-terminal domain of OatA for their transfer to peptidoglycan by its C-terminal domain. This study on the structure-function relationship of OatA provides a molecular and mechanistic understanding of this bacterial resistance mechanism opening the prospect for novel chemotherapeutic exploration to enhance innate immunity protection against Gram-positive pathogens.
Yang, Ya Dong; Feng, Xiao Min; Hu, Yue Gao; Ren, Chang Zhong; Zeng, Zhao Hai
In this study, real-time PCR and high-throughput sequencing approaches were employed to investigate the abundance and community structure of N 2 -fixing bacteria in a field experiment with three planting patterns (Oat monoculture, O; Soybean-oat intercropping, OSO; Mung bean-oat intercropping, OMO). The results showed that soil chemical properties varied significantly in different soil samples (P＜0.05). The abundance of nifH gene varied from 1.75×10 10 to 7.37×10 10 copies·g -1 dry soil in all soil samples. The copy numbers of nifH gene in OSO and OMO were 2.18, 2.64, and 1.92, 2.57 times as much as that in O at jointing and mature stages, with a significant decline from jointing to mature stage for all treatments (P＜0.05). Rarefaction curve and cove-rage results proved the nifH gene sequencing results were reliable, and the diversity index showed that the N 2 -fixing bacteria diversity of OSO was much higher than that of O. Azohydromonas, Azotobacter, Bradyrhizobium, Skermanella and other groups that could not be classified are the dominant genera, with significant differences in proportion of these dominant groups observed among all soil samples (P＜0.05). Venn and PCA analysis indicated that there were greater differences of nifH gene communities between jointing and mature stages; however, the OSO and OMO had similar communities in both stages. All these results confirmed that legume-oat intercropping significantly increased the abundance and changed the community composition of N 2 -fixing bacteria in oat soils.
Smyth, Beatrice M.; Smyth, Henry; Murphy, Jerry D.
Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr -1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.
Full Text Available Crop growth models could stimulate growth and development based on science principles and mathematical equations. They also able to evaluate effects of climate, soil, water and agronomic management practices on crop yield. In the present study, an eco-physiological simulation model developed to assess wild oat damage to winter wheat growth and yield. The general structure of this model is derived from LINTUL1 model which modified to wild oat competition against winter wheat. LINTUL1 model was developed for simulation of spring wheat potential production level. In this study, first, we added development stage (DVS and vernalization to LINTUL1 for simulation of winter wheat growth and development and then the model calibrated for potential production level. Finally, we incorporate harmful effects of wild oat to winter wheat growth and yield. Weather data used as input were average daily minimum and maximum temperature (°C and daily global radiation (MJ m-2 in Mashhad, Iran. Parameter values were derived from the literature. The model is written in Fortran Simulation Translator (FST programming language and then validated based on an experiment data. For these purposes different wild oat plant densities were arranged. The data of this experiment does not use for calibration. The results showed that this model was in general able to simulate the temporal changes in DVS of winter wheat and wild oat, total dry matter (TDM of winter wheat and wild oat and yield loss of wheat due to wild oat competition in all treatments, satisfactorily. Root mean square error (RMSE for winter wheat DVS, wild oat DVS, average winter wheat TDM, average wild oat TDM, and yield loss of winter wheat was 10.4, 14.5, 5.8, 7.6 and 7.5, respectively.
Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Mortazavi Najafabadi, Mojgan; Surkan, Pamela J; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Feizi, Awat; Azadbakht, Leila
Animal studies report that oat (Avena sativa L) intake has favorable effects on kidney function. However, the effects of oat consumption have not been assessed in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of oat intake on biomarkers of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Fifty-two patients with CKD were randomly assigned to a control group (recommended to reduce intake of dietary protein, phosphorus, sodium and potassium) or an oat consumption group (given nutritional recommendations for controls +50 g/day oats). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), urine creatinine, serum albumin, serum potassium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum klotho and urine protein concentration were measured at baseline and after an eight-week intervention. Creatinine clearance was calculated using urine creatinine concentration. Within group analysis showed a significant increase in BUN (P = 0.02) and serum potassium (P = 0.01) and a marginally significant increment in SCr (P = 0.08) among controls. However, changes in the oat group were not significant. In a multivariate adjusted model, we observed a significant difference in change of serum potassium (-0.03 mEq/L for oat group and 0.13 mEq/L for control group; P = 0.01) and a marginally significant difference in change of serum albumin (0.01 g/dl for oat group and -0.08 for control group; P = 0.08) between the two groups. There was no change in PTH concentration. Intake of oats may have a beneficial effect on serum albumin and serum potassium in patients with CKD. Present study registered under IRCT.ir identifier no. IRCT2015050414551N2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.
Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.
Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is
Moreno, A.J.; Colin, C.A.; Gomeztagle, M.M.; Frias, P.H.
The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)
Thomas, H.; Taing Aung
Some of the best sources of resistance to mildew, which is the most important disease of the oat crop in the United Kingdom, occur in related weed species. The mildew resistance found in a genotype of the tetraploid species Avena barbata has been transferred into the germ plasm of the cultivated hexaploid species A. sativa by means of an induced translocation. The procedures adopted to isolate the desirable translocation and to determine its breeding behaviour are described. A number of alien genes have been transferred into wheat by means of induced translocations and genetic induction, but their successful introduction into commercial varieties has been limited. In this paper, the use and limitations of alien transfers as breeding material are discussed. (author)
Full Text Available Bio-pretreatment using a fungal consortium to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored. A fungal consortium comprised of T. viride and P. chrysosporium as microbial inoculum was compared with untreated and single-species-inoculated samples. Fungal bio-pretreatment was carried out at atmospheric conditions with limited external energy input. The effectiveness of the pretreatment is evaluated according to its lignin removal and digestibility. Enhancement of biohydrogen production is observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Fungal consortium pretreatment effectively degraded oat straw lignin (by >47% in 7 days leading to decomposition of cell-wall structure as revealed in SEM images, increasing biohydrogen yield. The hydrogen produced from the fungal consortium pretreated straw increased by 165% 6 days later, and was more than produced from either a single fungi species of T. viride or P. chrysosponium pretreated straw (94% and 106%, respectively. No inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed.
Sajad Ahmad Wani
Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fenugreek seed powder (FSP and oat flour (OF on the physical and functional properties of extruded snack product such as bulk density (BD, hardness (HD, lateral expansion (LE, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI using response surface methodology. All the properties were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 affected by proportion of FSP and OF. Results indicated that with the increase in the FSP content, an increase in the values of BD, HD, WAI and WSI was noticed, whereas negative effect of FSP on LE was observed. Results showed negative effect of OF on HD and WSI and an increased effect on BD, LE and WAI of the extruded product. Numerical optimization results showed that a mixture of 2% FSP and 6% OF had higher preference levels for parameters of physical and functional characteristics and could be extruded to produce acceptable quality extrudates.
Total mandibular subapical osteotomy and Le Fort I osteotomy using piezosurgery and computer-aided designed and manufactured surgical splints: a favorable combination of three techniques in the management of severe mouth asymmetry in Parry-Romberg syndrome.
Scolozzi, Paolo; Herzog, Georges
Although its pathogenesis remains obscure, Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) has been associated with the linear scleroderma en coup de sabre. PRS is characterized by unilateral facial atrophy of the skin, subcutaneous tissue, muscles, and bones with at least 1 dermatome supplied by the trigeminal nerve. Facial asymmetry represents the most common sequela and can involve the soft tissues, craniomaxillofacial skeleton, dentoalveolar area, and temporomandibular joint. Although orthognathic procedures have been reported for skeletal reconstruction, treatment of facial asymmetry has been directed to augmentation of the soft tissue volume on the atrophic side using different recontouring or volumetric augmentation techniques. Total mandibular subapical osteotomy has been used in the management of dentofacial deformities, such as open bite and mandibular dentoalveolar retrusion or protrusion associated with an imbalance between the lower lip and the chin. Management of orthognathic procedures has been improved by the recent introduction of stereolithographic surgical splints using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology and piezosurgery. Piezosurgery has increased security during surgery, especially for delicate procedures associated with a high risk of nerve injury. The present report describes a combined total mandibular subapical osteotomy and Le Fort I osteotomy using piezosurgery and surgical splints fabricated using CAD and CAM for the correction of severe mouth asymmetry related to vertical dentoalveolar disharmony in a patient with PRS. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available La Hemiatrofia Facial Progresiva, comúnmente conocida como Síndrome de Parry-Romberg (SPR, es una enfermedad idiopática, progresiva y autolimitada, que afecta de manera variable y unilateral en la mayor parte de los casos a la piel, tejido celular subcutáneo, grasa, músculo y, con menor frecuencia, a las estructuras osteocartilaginosas faciales produciendo asimetría craneofacial. En el manejo quirúrgico del SPR en estadios medios y moderados se ha empleado desde hace años la infiltración de injertos grasos; sin embargo, se trataba de una técnica de resultados impredecibles dada su tendencia a la reabsorción. Gracias a los avances en biología molecular se ampliaron nuestros horizontes ante la posibilidad de usar las células madre propias del tejido adiposo con el fin de asegurar la viabilidad y permanencia del implante graso a través del tiempo. En este trabajo presentamos nuestra experiencia de los últimos 3 años en el tratamiento del SPR en pacientes pediátricos, consiguiendo la restauración de la volumetría y la simetría faciales mediante el uso de injertos grasos enriquecidos con células madre extraídas del propio paciente y en el mismo acto quirúrgico.
V. N. Bubenchikova
Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the
Singh, Mukti; Kim, Sanghoon; Liu, Sean X
Effect of oat β-glucan on the fermentation of set-style yogurt was investigated by incorporating 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% of purified oat β-glucan into the yogurt mix. It was found that levels up to 0.3% resulted in yogurts with quality characteristics similar to the control yogurt. Higher levels of β-glucan however retarded the fermentation process with noticeable difference in the characteristics of the yogurt. Examination of the morphologies of yogurt with and without β-glucan revealed that β-glucan formed aggregates with casein micelle and did not form phase-separated domains. This research demonstrated that β-glucan could be added to yogurt up to 0.3%, which meets the nutrient guidelines, to have added nutritional benefits. Yogurt is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Yogurt production and consumption is increasing in the United States every year. However, it is lacking in β-glucans, which are recognized for their nutritional importance as functional bioactive ingredients. The main objective was to develop and characterize low-fat yogurts with added β-glucan. This research demonstrated that β-glucan could be added to yogurt up to 0.3%, which meets the nutrient guidelines for added nutritional benefits, without affecting the characteristics of yogurt significantly. This study will benefit the dairy industry by generating new products offering healthy alternatives. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.
Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.
Full Text Available Ganoderma applanatum (G. applanatum dispels wind to eliminate dampness and exhibited nephron- and liver-protective effects as noted in Chinese herbal classic literature; it might also affect hyperuricemia. Therefore, we examined the hypouricemia effects and mechanisms underlying G. applanatum on chemical-induced hyperuricemia in mice. Ethanol (GAE and water (GAW extracts were prepared by extracting G. applanatum in ethanol (GAE, followed by bathing the remains in water to yield GAW. GAE and GAW were administered orally at different doses to hyperuricemia mice, while allopurinol and benzbromarone served as positive controls. Both GAE and GAW showed remarkable hypouricemia activities, rendering a substantial decline in the SUA (serum uric acid level in hyperuricemia control (P < 0.01. Moreover, the urine uric acid (UUA levels were enhanced by GAE and GAW. In contrast to the evident renal toxicity of allopurinol, GAE and GAW did not show a distinct renal toxicity. Almost no suppressing effect was observed on the XOD activities. However, compared to the hyperuricemia control, OAT1 was elevated remarkably in mice drugged with GAE and GAW, while GLUT9 was significantly decreased. Similar to benzbromarone, GAE decreased the URAT1 protein levels significantly (P < 0.01, while GAW did not display a similar effect. GAE and GAW downregulated the level of CNT2 proteins in the gastrointestinal tract of hyperuricemia mice. Thus, G. applanatum produced outstanding hypouricemic effects, mediated by renal OAT1, GLUT9, and URAT1 and gastrointestinal CNT2 that might elevate urine uric secretions and decline in the absorption of purine in the gastrointestinal tracts. G. applanatum showed little negative influence on inner organs. By docking screening, four top-ranked compounds were identified that necessitated further investigation.Compounds: potassium oxonate, hypoxanthine, allopurinol, benzbromarone.
Full Text Available Joyce Carol Oates’s short story “My Warszawa: 1980” follows the journey of well-respected academician Judith Horne as she travels to and within Poland to participate in an international conference on American culture. She has a vague connection to Poland, with remote family members who were killed in Auschwitz and a Jewish ancestry that can be seen in her features, but she considers these facts unimportant to who she is at the moment. She travels with her lover, who is as remote emotionally as her dead forbears are physically. The emotional connections she makes with the people and land begin to affect her well-ordered and controlled life, including her relationship with him. As they sit side by side on the plane to Poland, he attends to his work as journalist, typewriter on his lap, and Judith gazes at the landscape, an opened book on hers. It is Henry James’s The Awkward Age, unread, chosen by Judith with a logic she cannot recall. Why does Oates give James to Judith, and why does she choose this novel in particular to influence her? Nanda’s story is a warning to Judith, a red flag that unfolds as the younger girl’s ruin proceeds before her eyes, and Judith realizes that the man she loves will never marry her, just as Vanderbank refuses to propose to Nanda. Neither man is comfortable with a woman who is corrupted by knowledge that might undermine his need for authority in the relationship. Nanda understands her position too late, but Judith has time to reflect on her situation, and Oates leaves the story unfinished, with Judith on a plane home with Carl but not definitively resigned to the relationship.
Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)
Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project
Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula
, we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...
Three aboveground treatments (full light competition, no light competition and clipping to simulate grazing), and two belowground treatments (full belowground competition and belowground competition excluded by a root tube), were used. On all soil depths the three grass species differed in mean mass, with E. racemosa ...
Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131 I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131 I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131 I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131 I in milk were also presented. (author)
Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)
Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)
Rosana Marta Kolb
Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.
Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos
Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.
Das, Srabani; Teuffer, Karin; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Walter, Michael F.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Richards, Brian K.
The control of soil moisture, vegetation type, and prior land use on soil health parameters of perennial grass cropping systems on marginal lands is not well known. A fallow wetness-prone marginal site in New York (USA) was converted to perennial grass bioenergy feedstock production. Quadruplicate
Erika L. Geiger; Guy R. McPherson
Semi-desert grasslands flank the âSky Islandâ mountains in southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. Many of these grasslands are dominated by nonnative grasses, which potentially alter native biotic communities. One specific concern is the potential for a predicted feedback between nonnative grasses and fire. In a large-scale experiment in southern Arizona we investigated...
Snijders, CHA; Samson, RA; Hoekstra, ES; Ouellet, T; Miller, JD; deRooijvanderGoes, PCEM; Baar, AJM; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF
In the European coastal dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is planted in order to control sand erosion. In the years 1986 to 1991, workers on the Wadden islands in the Netherlands planting marram grass showed lesions of skin and mucous membranes, suggesting a toxic reaction. Fusarium culmorum
Verhagen, H.J.; ComCoast
A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing
Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those ...
Although an adequate knowledge of growth patterns and defoliation effects in perennial grasses is a prerequisite for the rational use of veld and pastures for animal production, our knowledge of this subject is far from adequate. The results of various physiological and clipping studies on tropical and sub-tropical grasses are ...
Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.
management decisions for a given landscape based on ecological principles. Take a look at our video " Grass Management How much could prevention save you? Guidelines to Implement EBIPM Weed Prevention Areas Grass Facts/ID The EBIPM Model Crooked River Weed Management Area Guide Tools for Educators EBIPM High
Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...
Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....
Abstract. The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) .... Felina were evaluated in the present study. The grass was harvested from the primary growth of monocultured grasses on 19 and 26 May of 2004 and 27 May and 10 ...... Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.
Maged Ikram Nosshi; Jack Butler; M. J. Trlica
Species N use traits was evaluated as a mechanism whereby Bromus inermis (Bromus), an established invasive, might alter soil N supply in a Northern mixed-grass prairie. We compared soils under stands of Bromus with those from three representative native grasses of different litter C/N: Andropogon...
Dale C. Darris
It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...
The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...
The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...
Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura
How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950â2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...
Bumbieris Junior, Valter Harry; Jobim, Cloves Cabreira; Emile, Jean Claude; Rossi, Robson; Calixto Junior, Moyses; Branco, Antonio Ferriani
It was aimed to evaluate the ruminal degradability, and the fractioning of carbohydrates, as well as of the nitrogen fractions of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The treatments had been: triticale silage (X. Triticosecale Wittimack) (ST); triticale silage + forage pea (Pisum arvense) (STE); triticale silage + oats (Avena strigosa Scheb) + forage pea + vetch (Vicia sativa) (STAE). Three castrated bovine Prim’Holstein males had been used, with aver...
Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL
Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.
Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry
The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.
Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.
The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat
Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Mosenthin, Rainer; Gänzle, Michael G
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of oat β-glucan in combination with low- and high-dietary calcium phosphate (CaP) content on gastrointestinal bacterial microbiota, prevalence of butyrate-production pathway genes and fermentation end-products in 32 weaned pigs allocated to four diets: a cornstarch-casein-based diet with low [65% of the calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) requirement] and high CaP content (125% and 115% of the Ca and P requirement, respectively); and low and high CaP diets supplemented with 8.95% of oat β-glucan concentrate. Pigs were slaughtered after 14 days, and digesta were collected for quantitative PCR analysis, and quantification of short-chain fatty acids and lactate. The high CaP content reduced gastric lactate and streptococci and propionate in the large intestine. Oat β-glucan distinctly raised gastric bacterial numbers, and colonic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. Although not reflected by gene copies of butyrate-production pathway genes, oat β-glucan also increased gastric, caecal and colonic butyrate concentrations, which may be favourable for intestinal development in weaned pigs. Thus, a high CaP content negatively affected the intestinal abundance of certain fermentation end-products, whereas oat β-glucan generally enhanced bacterial numbers and activity. The results emphasize the importance of the stomach for bacterial metabolism of oat β-glucan in weaned pigs. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joshi, Anjali; Kaur, Simranjeet; Singh, Pargat; Dharamvir, Keya; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav
Our findings show that oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) having serpent-like morphology and smaller sizes (diameter of 35 nm and lengths of 200-300 nm) are compatible with oat plant tissues. Applied by seed-priming method as 90 µg/ml concentration, these serpentine MWCNT (having open-end caps) enter the oat plant and traverse the cells. Tracking of MWCNT inside sections and tissues during growth of oat plant has been done using special sample preparation. We present clear images of MWCNT inside the primed seeds and vascular bundles, the conducting tissues of root and shoot of oat. A dye fluorescein isothiocyanate non-covalently bonded to MWCNT also helped in detecting the path through circumferential perimeters of the oat channels, using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. The presence of MWCNT inside oat enhanced the growth of xylem cells by about 1.85-fold in vasculature of shoots. Compared to controls, the chlorophyll content increased by 57%, while photosynthetic activity enhanced by 15% for the same sample in MWCNT-primed plants. Overall, the growth factors were also augmented leading to significant increase in yield components. No toxic effects of MWCNT were observed in the DNA of the primed plants, and in the human cell lines treated with grains harvested from the MWCNT-primed plants. Our study provides some new insights about the role of MWCNT in plants and their potential benefits in agriculture.
Robert E. Steinert
Full Text Available Background: Viscous dietary fibers including oat β-glucan are one of the most effective classes of functional food ingredients for reducing postprandial blood glucose. The mechanism of action is thought to be via an increase in viscosity of the stomach contents that delays gastric emptying and reduces mixing of food with digestive enzymes, which, in turn, retards glucose absorption. Previous studies suggest that taking viscous fibers separate from a meal may not be effective in reducing postprandial glycemia. Methods: We aimed to re-assess the effect of consuming a preload of a commercially available oat-bran (4.5, 13.6 or 27.3 g containing 22% of high molecular weight oat β-glucan (O22 (OatWell®22 mixed in water before a test-meal of white bread on glycemic responses in 10 healthy humans. Results: We found a significant effect of dose on blood glucose area under the curve (AUC (p = 0.006 with AUC after 27.3 g of O22 being significantly lower than white bread only. Linear regression analysis showed that each gram of oat β-glucan reduced glucose AUC by 4.35% ± 1.20% (r = 0.507, p = 0.0008, n = 40 and peak rise by 6.57% ± 1.49% (r = 0.582, p < 0.0001. Conclusion: These data suggest the use of oat bran as nutritional preload strategy in the management of postprandial glycemia.
Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.
Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for six grasses and 16 grass silages using a nylon bag technique and an in vitro technique using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation observed between
Verhagen, H.J.; Verheij, H.J.; Cao, T.M.; Dassanayake, D.; Roelvink, D.; Piontkowitz, T.
A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical
Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky
Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...
Agu, Obiora S; Tabil, Lope G; Dumonceaux, Tim
The effects of microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment on pellets' characteristics and enzymatic saccharification for bioethanol production using lignocellulosic biomass of canola straw and oat hull were investigated. The ground canola straw and oat hull were immersed in distilled water, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide solutions at two concentrations (0.75% and 1.5% w/v) and exposed to microwave radiation at power level 713 W and three residence times (6, 12 and 18 min). Bulk and particle densities of ground biomass samples were determined. Alkaline-microwave pre-treated and untreated samples were subjected to single pelleting test in an Instron universal machine, pre-set to a load of 4000 N. The measured parameters, pellet density, tensile strength and dimensional stability were evaluated and the results showed that the microwave-assisted alkali pre-treated pellets had a significantly higher density and tensile strength compared to samples that were untreated or pre-treated by microwave alone. The chemical composition analysis showed that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment was able to disrupt and break down the lignocellulosic structure of the samples, creating an area of cellulose accessible to cellulase reactivity. The best enzymatic saccharification results gave a high glucose yield of 110.05 mg/g dry sample for canola straw ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 1.5% NaOH for 18 min, and a 99.10 mg/g dry sample for oat hull ground in a 1.6 mm screen hammer mill and pre-treated with 0.75% NaOH for 18 min microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatments. The effects of pre-treatment results were supported by SEM analysis. Overall, it was found that microwave-assisted alkali pre-treatment of canola straw and oat hull at a short residence time enhanced glucose yield.
Rebekah E Oliver
Full Text Available A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42 has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.
Lyly, Marika; Ohls, Nora; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Karhunen, Leila; Poutanen, Kaisa
Background: Soluble fibre has been proposed to suppress appetite-related perceptions and it could thus contribute favourably to the regulation of energy intake and the increasing obesity problem. Objective: To investigate the effect of an oat ingredient rich in b-glucan on perceived satiety at different dietary fibre (DF) concentrations, energy levels and viscosity levels. Design: A total of 29 healthy volunteers, age 1939, mean BMI 23.2 kg/m2 participated in this study. Measurement of subjec...
Gibeaut, David M.; Karuppiah, Nadarajah; Chang, S.-R.; Brock, Thomas G.; Vadlamudi, Babu; Kim, Donghern; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Rayle, David L.; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Kaufman, Peter B.
The graviresponse of the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa) involves an asymmetric growth response and asymmetric processes involving degradation of starch and cell wall synthesis. Cellular and biochemical events were studied by investigation of the activities of related enzymes and changes in cell walls and their constituents. It is suggested that an osmotic potential gradient acts as the driving factor for growth, while wall extensibility is a limiting factor in pulvinus growth.
Tosh, S M
Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage β-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find clinical trials with acute glycaemic response as an end point using oat or barley products. Of the 76 human studies identified, 34 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose response and ratio of β-glucan to available carbohydrate as predictors of glycaemic response were assessed. Meals provided 0.3-12.1 g oat or barley β-glucan, and reduced glycaemic response by an average of 48 ± 33 mmol · min/l compared to a suitable control. Regression analysis on 119 treatments indicated that change in glycaemic response (expressed as incremental area under the post-prandial blood-glucose curve) was greater for intact grains than for processed foods. For processed foods, glycaemic response was more strongly related to the β-glucan dose alone (r(2)=0.48, Pfoods containing 4 g of β-glucan, the linear model predicted a decrease in glycaemic response of 27 ± 3 mmol · min/l, and 76% of treatments significantly reduced glycaemic response. Thus, intact grains as well as a variety of processed oat and barley foods containing at least 4 g of β-glucan and 30-80 g available carbohydrate can significantly reduce post-prandial blood glucose.
Wergowske, G.; Chang, J.C.; Marger, D.
Two male patients developed muscular pseudotumor of the breast following combined treatment of radiation and chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methotrexate and procarbazine for oat cell carcinoma of the lung. The pathologic findings of the biopsy specimens revealed muscle and capillary changes similar to previously reported myocardiotoxicity from doxorubicin and radiation therapy. Discussed is a possible additive or synergistic toxic effect of doxorubicin and radiation therapy in the development of muscular pseudotumor of the breast
Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik
reduction goals for agriculture. Denmark has an especially vulnerable aquatic environment due to sandy soils, a long coast line, and high precipitation. Thus, fulfilling the WFD means some areas must halve their nitrate leaching, and radical changes are required to reduce losses while maintaining profitable...... crop production. National scenarios show that up to ten million tonnes of additional biomass can be sourced in Denmark without reducing food production or increasing the area under cultivation if a biorefinery industry is established. In one of the scenarios optimized for additional environmental...... in the “environment” scenario. This scenario was achieved by converting approx. 9 % of agricultural land from annual crops into perennial grass. New experimental results support the anticipated increase in total biomass yield and reduction in nitrate leaching, when converting land currently used for grain crop...
Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel
The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in
Luana, Nionelli; Rossana, Coda; Curiel, José Antonio; Kaisa, Poutanen; Marco, Gobbetti; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe
This study aimed at investigating the suitability of oat flakes for making functional beverages. Different technological options were assayed, including the amount of flakes, the inoculum of the starter and the addition of enzyme preparations. The beverage containing 25% (wt/wt) of oat flakes and fermented with L. plantarum LP09 was considered optimal on the basis of sensory and technological properties. The enzyme addition favored the growth of the starter, shortened the time needed to reach pH4.2 to ca. 8h, and favored a decrease of the quotient of fermentation. Fermentation increased the polyphenols availability and the antioxidant activity (25 and 70% higher, respectively) and decreased the hydrolysis index in vitro. Sensory analyses showed that fermented oat flakes beverage had the typical features of a yogurt-like beverage, enhancing the overall intensity of odor and flavor compared to the non-fermented control. Selection of proper processing and fermentation condition allowed the obtainment of a beverage with better nutritional and sensory properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Methods: This study sought to evaluate the impact of oat beta-glucan on insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet with fructose (10%, w/v added in drinking water for 10 weeks. Results: The results showed that supplementation with oat beta-glucan could significantly reduce the insulin resistance both in low-dose (200 mg/kg−1 body weight and high-dose (500 mg/kg−1 body weight groups, but the high-dose group showed a more significant improvement in insulin resistance (P<0.01 compared with model control (MC group along with significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level, oral glucose, and insulin tolerance. Moreover, hepatic glucokinase activity was markedly enhanced both in low-dose and high-dose groups compared with that of MC group (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results suggested that supplementation of oat beta-glucan alleviated insulin resistance and the effect was dose dependent.
FÁBIO PALCZEWSKI PACHECO
Full Text Available The rate of swine wastewater application (SW in agricultural production could result in the replacement of chemical fertilizers. However, SW destroys soil physical properties by decreasing pore bulk, which negatively affects both crop yield and development. In this context, this study aimed at monitoring the influence of swine wastewater as a cover fertilizer in maize and black oats in sequence on soil physical properties. Five application rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 537 m3ha - 1 equivalent to 0, 11.2, 22.3, 33.5 and 60 kg ha-1 N, respectively, based on the average nitrogen concentration in SW were tested with four replications each. In the studied area, soil porosity, density, and water content, before maize sowing and at the end of the cycles of maize and black oats, were determined by the volumetric ring method. Data were submitted for regression analyses. There was a reduction in the macroporosity and total porosity of the soil when the SW application rate, before maize cultivation, was higher. The introduction of black oats helped to improve the physical quality of the soil and reduced the compaction of the surface layer from 0 to 15 cm and 100 to 300 m3 ha-1 SW rates.
H Piraste Anoshe
Full Text Available Ecosystem pollution and weed resistance to herbicides have led researchers to pay more attention to natural herbicides. To examine allelopathic effects of liquorice, rosemary, chamomile and eucalypt on germination characteristics and early growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and wild oat (Avena fatua L., a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with 20 treatments and four replicates was conducted at Cereal Laboratory of College of Agricultural, Shiraz University, Iran in 2010. The results showed that rosemary essential oil had most negative effect on germination percentage (G%, seedling length (SL, radicle length (RL, shoot to root length ratio (S/R, relative water content (RWC and total water content (TWC. The lowest negative effect on G%, SL, RL and TWC was obtained from eucalypt essential oil and the least effect on RWC was observed from liquorice essential oil treatments. Most reduction on S/R was obtained from chamomile essential oil. The effect of stem essential oil on all measured traits, except G%, was more than leaf essential oil. Also wild oat was found to be more responsive than wheat to rosemary and chamomile essential oils. Considering these results, it appeared that control of wild oat by using such essential oil as rosemary and chamomile might be possible under some conditions with appropriate cautions.
Soong, Yean Yean; Tan, Seow Peng; Leong, Lai Peng; Henry, Jeya Kumar
Muffins are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. Increased glycemic load has been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes. This study examined the starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, corn, oat and barley flour. Rapidly digested starch (RDS) was greatest in rice (445 mg/g) and wheat (444 mg/g) muffins, followed by oat (416 mg/g), corn (402 mg/g) and barley (387 mg/g). Total phenolic content was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidative capacity and inversely related to the RDS of muffins. The phenolic content was highest in muffin baked with barley flour (1,687 μg/g), followed by corn (1,454 μg/g), oat (945 μg/g), wheat (705 μg/g), and rice (675 μg/g) flour. Browning was shown not to correlate with free radical scavenging capacity and digestibility of muffins. The presence of high phenolic content and low RDS makes barley muffin an ideal snack to modulate glycemic response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Damiran, D.; Yu, P.
Recently, a new 'super' genotype of oats (CDC SO-I or SO-I) has been developed. The objectives of this study were to determine structural makeup (features) of oat grain in endosperm and pericarp regions and to reveal and identify differences in protein amide I and II and carbohydrate structural makeup (conformation) between SO-I and two conventional oats (CDC Dancer and Derby) grown in western Canada in 2006, using advanced synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM). The SRFTIRM experiments were conducted at National Synchrotron Light Sources, Brookhaven National Laboratory (NSLS, BNL, U.S. Department of Energy). From the results, it was observed that comparison between the new genotype oats and conventional oats showed (1) differences in basic chemical and protein subfraction profiles and energy values with the new SO-I oats containing lower lignin (21 g/kg of DM) and higher soluble crude protein (530 g/kg CP), crude fat (59 g/kg of DM), and energy values (TDN, 820 g/kg of DM; NE L3x , 7.8 MJ/kg of DM); (2) significant differences in rumen biodegradation kinetics of dry matter, starch, and protein with the new SO-I oats containing lower EDDM (638 g/kg of DM) and higher EDCP (103 g/kg of DM); (3) significant differences in nutrient supply with highest truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP, 23 g/kg of DM) and total metabolizable protein supply (MP, 81 g/kg of DM) from the new SO-I oats; and (4) significant differences in structural makeup in terms of protein amide I in the endosperm region (with amide I peak height from 0.13 to 0.22 IR absorbance unit) and cellulosic compounds to carbohydrate ratio in the pericarp region (ratio from 0.02 to 0.06). The results suggest that with the SRFTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between the new genotype oats (SO-I) and two conventional oats (Dancer and Derby) could be revealed.
Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang
Recently, a new "super" genotype of oats (CDC SO-I or SO-I) has been developed. The objectives of this study were to determine structural makeup (features) of oat grain in endosperm and pericarp regions and to reveal and identify differences in protein amide I and II and carbohydrate structural makeup (conformation) between SO-I and two conventional oats (CDC Dancer and Derby) grown in western Canada in 2006, using advanced synchrotron radiation based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SRFTIRM). The SRFTIRM experiments were conducted at National Synchrotron Light Sources, Brookhaven National Laboratory (NSLS, BNL, U.S. Department of Energy). From the results, it was observed that comparison between the new genotype oats and conventional oats showed (1) differences in basic chemical and protein subfraction profiles and energy values with the new SO-I oats containing lower lignin (21 g/kg of DM) and higher soluble crude protein (530 g/kg CP), crude fat (59 g/kg of DM), and energy values (TDN, 820 g/kg of DM; NE(L3x), 7.8 MJ/kg of DM); (2) significant differences in rumen biodegradation kinetics of dry matter, starch, and protein with the new SO-I oats containing lower EDDM (638 g/kg of DM) and higher EDCP (103 g/kg of DM); (3) significant differences in nutrient supply with highest truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP, 23 g/kg of DM) and total metabolizable protein supply (MP, 81 g/kg of DM) from the new SO-I oats; and (4) significant differences in structural makeup in terms of protein amide I in the endosperm region (with amide I peak height from 0.13 to 0.22 IR absorbance unit) and cellulosic compounds to carbohydrate ratio in the pericarp region (ratio from 0.02 to 0.06). The results suggest that with the SRFTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between the new genotype oats (SO-I) and two conventional oats (Dancer and Derby) could be revealed.
Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Bigelow, Patrick; Trębicki, Piotr; Busch, Anna K; Friel, Colleen; Cole, Ellen; Abdel-Azim, Heba; Phillippo, Colin; Alexander, Helen M
As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus). The yellow dwarf virus (YDV) species in these two genera share genetic similarities in their 3'-ends, but diverge in the 5'-regions. Most notably, CYDVs encode a P0 viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) absent in BYDV-PAV. Because BYDV-PAV has been reported more frequently in annual cereals and CYDVs in perennial non-crop grasses, we examine the hypothesis that the viruses' genetic differences reflect different affinities for crop and non-crop hosts. Specifically, we ask (i) whether CYDVs might persist within and affect a native non-crop grass more strongly than BYDV-PAV, on the grounds that the polerovirus VSR could better moderate the defenses of a well-defended perennial, and (ii) whether the opposite pattern of effects might occur in a less defended annual crop. Because previous work found that the VSR of CYDV-RPS possessed greater silencing suppressor efficiency than that of CYDV-RPV, we further explored (iii) whether a novel grass-associated CYDV-RPS isolate would influence a native non-crop grass more strongly than a comparable CYDV-RPV isolate. In growth chamber studies, we found support for this hypothesis: only grass-associated CYDV-RPS stunted the shoots and crowns of Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), a perennial native North American prairie grass, whereas crop-associated BYDV-PAV (and coinfection with BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPS) most
Alston, A M
Oats grown in a pot experiment on two sandy loams were sampled at four stages of growth. Neither KCl nor MgSO/sub 4/. 7H/sub 2/O had any effect on yield but % Mg and total Mg uptake were consistently decreased by applying K and increased by applying Mg. Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ increased % Mg more than did (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, but yield and total Mg uptake were higher where (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ was applied. The effects of fertilizers were similar on both soils. The effects of applying (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and NaNO/sub 2/ to the soil on % Mg in barley were compared in a field experiment on an acid loam to which several rates of limestone had been applied. Treatments had no effect on the % Mg in grain or straw at maturity. At four earlier stages of growth (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO)/sub 4/ increased % Mg in the plants more than did NaNO/sub 2/. Limestone slightly increased % Mg. Nitrification of NH/sub 4/ in the soil was rapid.
Franco G. Asoro
Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is a method to estimate the breeding values of individuals by using markers throughout the genome. We evaluated the accuracies of GS using data from five traits on 446 oat ( L. lines genotyped with 1005 Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers and two GS methods (ridge regression–best linear unbiased prediction [RR-BLUP] and BayesCπ under various training designs. Our objectives were to (i determine accuracy under increasing marker density and training population size, (ii assess accuracies when data is divided over time, and (iii examine accuracy in the presence of population structure. Accuracy increased as the number of markers and training size become larger. Including older lines in the training population increased or maintained accuracy, indicating that older generations retained information useful for predicting validation populations. The presence of population structure affected accuracy: when training and validation subpopulations were closely related accuracy was greater than when they were distantly related, implying that linkage disequilibrium (LD relationships changed across subpopulations. Across many scenarios involving large training populations, the accuracy of BayesCπ and RR-BLUP did not differ. This empirical study provided evidence regarding the application of GS to hasten the delivery of cultivars through the use of inexpensive and abundant molecular markers available to the public sector.
Regand, Alejandra; Tosh, Susan M; Wolever, Thomas M S; Wood, Peter J
To assess the effect of food processing on the capacity of oat beta-glucan to attenuate postprandial glycemia, isocaloric crisp bread, granola, porridge, and pasta containing 4 g of beta-glucan as well as control products with low beta-glucan content were prepared. The physicochemical properties (viscosity, peak molecular weight (M(p)), and concentration (C)) of beta-glucan in in-vitro-digestion extracts were evaluated, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose concentrations were measured in human subjects. Porridge and granola had the highest efficacy in attenuating the peak blood glucose response (PBGR) because of their high M(p) and viscosity. beta-Glucan depolymerization in bread and pasta reduced beta-glucan bioactivity. Pastas, known to have low glycemic responses, showed the lowest PBGR. The analyses of these products with previously reported data indicated that 73% of the bioactivity in reducing PBGR can be explained by M(p) x C. Characterizing the physicochemical properties of beta-glucan in bioactive foods aids functional food development.
Agbenorhevi, Jacob K; Kontogiorgos, Vassilis; Kasapis, Stefan
The isothermal phase behaviour at 5 °C of mixtures of sodium caseinate and oat β-glucan isolates varying in molecular weight (MW) was investigated by means of phase diagram construction, rheometry, fluorescence microscopy and electrophoresis. Phase diagrams indicated that the compatibility of the β-glucan/sodium caseinate system increases as β-glucan MW decreases. Images of mixtures taken at various biopolymer concentrations revealed phase separated domains. Results also revealed that at the state of thermodynamic equilibrium, lower MW samples yielded considerable viscosity in the mixture. At equivalent hydrodynamic volume of β-glucan in the mixtures, samples varying in molecular weight exhibited similar flow behaviour. A deviation dependent on the protein concentration was observed for the high MW sample in the concentrated regime due to the size of β-glucan aggregates formed. Results demonstrate that by controlling the structural features of β-glucan in mixtures with sodium caseinate, informed manipulation of rheological properties in these systems can be achieved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ibrahim, M. N. G.; Selezneva, I. S.
The β-Glucan exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activity, for example it is highly active against many chronic diseases such as diabetes millets, cancer and improper digestion. The β-Glucan is a polysaccharide of D-glucose. It has many different sources of extraction such as yeasts, cereals, fungus and some bacteria. The extraction of the β-Glucan has become so important in our days, because the β-Glucan is a natural substance which can be used in pharmaceutical products for prevention and treatment of many chronic diseases. As well, many food producers have interest to introduce the β-Glucan in many food products, like dairy, meat and bakery products. Taking into consideration the foregoing, we tried to isolate the β-Glucan from oat bran using the acid method of extraction. Some modifications were offered to increase the β-Glucan concentration in the final extract and increase the total extract yield. As a result, the extracts with two different concentrations 72 % and 90 % were obtained with the yields 3.14 % and 4.4 % respectively. It should be noted that the β-Glucan addition into food products can improve their quality and physical properties. Thus, the β-Glucan is now of great importance for maintaining the consumers health by functional food products.
de Boer, A. H.; Watson, B. A.; Cleland, R. E.
Fusicoccin (FC), a fungal phytotoxin, stimulates the H(+) -ATPase located in the plasma membrane (PM) of higher plants. The first event in the reaction chain leading to enhanced H(+) -efflux seems to be the binding of FC to a FC-binding protein (FCBP) in the PM. We solubilized 90% of the FCBP from oat (Avena sativa L. cv Victory) root PM in an active form with 1% octyl-glucoside. The FCBP was stabilized by the presence of protease inhibitors. The FCBP was purified by affinity chromatography using FC-linked adipic acid dihydrazide agarose (FC-AADA). Upon elution with 8 molar urea, two major protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyaerylamide gel electrophoresis with molecular weights of 29,700 and 31,000 were obtained. Successive chromatography on BBAB Bio-Gel A, hexyl agarose, and FC-AADA resulted in the same two bands when the FC-AADA was eluted with sodium dodecyl sulfate. A direct correlation was made between 3H-FC-binding activity and the presence of the two protein bands. The stoichiometry of the 29,700 and 31,000 molecular weight bands was 1:2. This suggests that the FCBP occurs in the native form as a heterotrimer with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 92,000.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine pepsin hydrolysis conditions to produce digested oat bran proteins with higher radical scavenging activities and separate and identify peptides. Isolated proteins were then digested with different concentrations of pepsin and incubation times. Hydrolysates produced with 1 : 30 enzyme substrate (E/S ratio and 2 h possessed the highest peroxyl radical scavenging activity, 608 ± 17 µM TE/g (compared to 456–474 µM TE/g for other digests, and was therefore subsequently fractionated into eight fractions (F1–F8 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. F1 and F2 had little activity because of their low protein contents. Activities of F3–F8 were 447–874 µM TE/g, 20–36%, and 10–14% in the peroxyl, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical tests, respectively. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS was used to identify a total of fifty peptides that may have contributed to the activity of F3, a fraction that better scavenged radicals.
Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne
equivalence. This idea provides the quantitative indicators involving the resource use and the percent renewability of the systems. For the proposed biorefinery model, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in Thailand was used as lignocellulosic feedstock. An emergy assessment was performed in two parts...... cultivation and biorefinery stages. For Napier grass cultivation, most of the emergy support came from local resources in term of evapotranspiration of Napier grass (33%) and the diesel consumption during the cultivation process (21%). The emergy sustainability indicator of the cultivation was 0...
Semere, T; Slater, F
The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.
Semere, T.; Slater, F.
The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI
Tapsas, Dimitrios; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Högberg, Lotta; Hammersjö, Jan-Åke; Hollén, Elisabet
The only known treatment for celiac disease is a gluten-free diet (GFD), which initially meant abstention from wheat, rye, barley, and oats. Recently, oats free from contamination with wheat have been accepted in the GFD. Yet, reports indicate that all celiac disease patients may not tolerate oats. We hypothesized that celiac children comply well with a GFD and that most have included oats in their diet. A food questionnaire was used to check our patients; 316 questionnaires were returned. Mean time on the GFD was 6.9 years, and 96.8% of the children reported that they were trying to keep a strict GFD. However, accidental transgressions occurred in 263 children (83.2%). In 2 of 3 cases, mistakes took place when the patients were not at home. Symptoms after incidental gluten intake were experienced by 162 (61.6%) patients, mostly (87.5%) from the gastrointestinal tract. Small amounts of gluten (gluten consumption. Oats were included in the diet of 89.4% of the children for a mean of 3.4 years. Most (81.9%) ate purified oats, and 45.3% consumed oats less than once a week. Among those who did not consume oats, only 5.9% refrained because of symptoms. General compliance with the GFD was good. Only the duration of the GFD appeared to influence adherence to the diet. Most patients did not report adverse effects after long-term consumption of oats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen
A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...... N2 fixation and 15N labeling technique to determine the fate of pea and oat residue N recovery in the subsequent crop. The subsequent spring wheat and winter triticale crop yields were not significantly affected by the previous main crop, but a significant effect of catch crop undersowing...
Soong, Yean Yean; Quek, Rina Yu Chin; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
Muffins made with wheat flour are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. This study aimed to examine the content of amylose, glycemic response (GR) and glycemic index (GI) of muffins baked with refined wheat and rice flours, as well as wholegrain corn, oat and barley flours. This study adopted a randomized, controlled, crossover, non-blind design. Twelve healthy participants consumed wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley muffins once and the reference glucose solution three times in a random order on non-consecutive day. Capillary blood samples were taken every 15 min in the first 60 min and every 30 min for the remaining 60 min for blood glucose analysis. The Megazyme amylose/amylopectin assay procedure was employed to measure amylose content. The GR elicited from the consumption of wheat, rice and corn muffins was comparable between these samples but significantly greater when compared with oat and barley muffins. Consumption of wholegrain muffins, apart from corn muffin, blunted postprandial GR when compared with muffins baked with refined cereal flours. Muffins baked with wheat, rice, corn, oat and barley flours gave rise to GI values of 74, 79, 74, 53 and 55, respectively. The content of amylose was significantly higher in corn, oat and barley muffins than wheat and rice muffins. The greater content of amylose and fibre may play a part in the reduced glycemic potency of oat and barley muffins. Wheat flour can be substituted with oat and barley flours for healthier muffins and other bakery products.
Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.
The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded
Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.
Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian
Effect of machinery wheel load on grass Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1 1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk Abstract Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...
Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas
the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...
Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang
GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)
Full Text Available The paper deals with a design of a new raster sub-system intended for modern GIS systems open for client and server operation, database connection and strong application interface (API. Motivation for such a design comes from the current state of API working in GRASS 6. If found attractive, the here presented design and its implementation (referred as RG7 may be integrated to the future new generation of the GRASS Geographical Information System version 7-8. The paper describes in details the concept of raster tiling, computer storage of rasters and basic raster access procedures. Finally, the paper gives a simple benchmarking experiment of random read access to raster files imported from the Spearfish dataset. The experiment compares the early implementation of RG7 with the current implementation of rasters in GRASS 6. As the result, the experiment shows the RG7 to be significantly faster than GRASS in random read access to large raster files.
Grasses are members of the plant family Poaceae, and are primar- ily known for their ... Madagascar Conservation & Development is the journal of. Indian Ocean .... cording to the classification by Kellogg (2015). With 64 ..... Flowering plants.
Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.
Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with
BRUNO, LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS; ANTONIO, RAFAELA PRISCILA; ASSIS, JOSÉ GERALDO DE AQUINO; MOREIRA, JOSÉ NILTON; LIRA, IRLANE CRISTINE DE SOUZA ANDRADE
ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi-Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty-five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterizatio...
BRUNO, L. R. G. P.; ANTONIO, R. P.; ASSIS, J. G. de A.; MOREIRA, J. N.; LIRA, I. C. de S. A.
his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each ...
Thomas Serensits; Matthew Cutulle; Jeffrey F. Derr
Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual) ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass di...
Simić, Aleksandar; Čolić, Vladislava; Vučković, Savo; Dželetović, Željko; Bijelić, Zorica; Mandić, Violeta
During grass seed production, a large amount of low forage quality biomass has been produced. Tall growing perennial grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production as they can be grown in less cultivated areas, their residues in seed production could be valuable energy source and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). In this research, potentials o...
Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.
Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.
This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.
Pinto-Sánchez, María Inés; Causada-Calo, Natalia; Bercik, Premysl; Ford, Alexander C; Murray, Joseph A; Armstrong, David; Semrad, Carol; Kupfer, Sonia S; Alaedini, Armin; Moayyedi, Paul; Leffler, Daniel A; Verdú, Elena F; Green, Peter
Patients with celiac disease should maintain a gluten-free diet (GFD), excluding wheat, rye, and barley. Oats might increase the nutritional value of a GFD, but their inclusion is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety of oats as part of a GFD in patients with celiac disease. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for clinical trials and observational studies of the effects of including oats in GFD of patients with celiac disease. The studies reported patients' symptoms, results from serology tests, and findings from histologic analyses. We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. We identified 433 studies; 28 were eligible for analysis. Of these, 6 were randomized and 2 were not randomized controlled trials comprising a total of 661 patients-the remaining studies were observational. All randomized controlled trials used pure/uncontaminated oats. Oat consumption for 12 months did not affect symptoms (standardized mean difference: reduction in symptom scores in patients who did and did not consume oats, -0.22; 95% CI, -0.56 to 0.13; P = .22), histologic scores (relative risk for histologic findings in patients who consumed oats, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.01-4.8; P = .35), intraepithelial lymphocyte counts (standardized mean difference, 0.21; 95% CI, reduction of 1.44 to increase in 1.86), or results from serologic tests. Subgroup analyses of adults vs children did not reveal differences. The overall quality of evidence was low. In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found no evidence that addition of oats to a GFD affects symptoms, histology, immunity, or serologic features of patients with celiac disease. However, there were few studies for many endpoints, as well as limited geographic distribution and low quality of evidence. Rigorous double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trials, using commonly available oats sourced from
Full Text Available Abstract Background Oat, Avena sativa is the sixth most important cereal in the world. Presently oat is mostly used as feed for animals. However, oat also has special properties that make it beneficial for human consumption and has seen a growing importance as a food crop in recent decades. Increased demand for novel oat products has also put pressure on oat breeders to produce new oat varieties with specific properties such as increased or improved β-glucan-, antioxidant- and omega-3 fatty acid levels, as well as modified starch and protein content. To facilitate this development we have produced a TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes population of the spring oat cultivar SW Belinda. Results Here a population of 2600 mutagenised M2 lines, producing 2550 M3 seed lots were obtained. The M2 population was initially evaluated by visual inspection and a number of different phenotypes were seen ranging from dwarfs to giants, early flowering to late flowering, leaf morphology and chlorosis. Phloroglucinol/HCl staining of M3 seeds, obtained from 1824 different M2 lines, revealed a number of potential lignin mutants. These were later confirmed by quantitative analysis. Genomic DNA was prepared from the M2 population and the mutation frequency was determined. The estimated mutation frequency was one mutation per 20 kb by RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, one mutation per 38 kb by MALDI-TOF analysis and one mutation per 22.4 kb by DNA sequencing. Thus, the overall mutation frequency in the population is estimated to be one mutation per 20-40 kb, depending on if the method used addressed the whole genome or specific genes. During the investigation, 6 different mutations in the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AsPAL1 gene and 10 different mutations in the cellulose synthase-like (AsCslF6 β-glucan biosynthesis gene were identified. Conclusion The oat TILLING population produced in this work carries, on average, hundreds of mutations in every individual
Markee, E. H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)
A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)
Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole
Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of traffic intensity. Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass...... to fulfill the aim http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm...
Mauricio Marini Kopp
Full Text Available The occurrence of anaerobic conditions in hydromorphic soils favors the development of anaerobic microorganisms that produce phytotoxic substances representing primarily by organic acids. The selection of promising oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes for use in those situations requires field evaluations that can be cumbersome, making hydroponics a viable alternative. The objective of this work was to adjust a methodology to use in studies of tolerance to organic acids in oat under hydroponic systems. For such goal, the best germination system was determined in order to reduce the seedling initial establishment effects under hydroponics, the ideal concentration for screening genotypes and the best variable for stress evaluation. It was found that the most efficient germination system was "pleated germination paper" with small and husked seeds. The best concentration for studying organic acid tolerance ranged from 2.3 to 6.2 mM and the most suitable variable for the evaluation was root length.A ocorrência de condições anaeróbias nos solos hidromórficos favorece o desenvolvimento de microrganismos anaeróbios que produzem substâncias fitotóxicas representadas principalmente pelos ácidos orgânicos. A seleção de constituições genéticas de aveia (Avena sativa L. promissoras para utilização nestas situações requer avaliações de difícil execução no campo, tornando a utilização de sistemas hidropônicos mais vantajosa. O objetivo deste trabalho foi ajustar uma metodologia para ser utilizada em estudos de tolerância a ácidos orgânicos em aveia através de sistemas hidropônicos. Para tal fim foi determinada uma forma adequada de promover a germinação das sementes de maneira a reduzir os efeitos do estabelecimento inicial das plântulas na hidroponia, uma faixa de concentração ideal para discriminação dos genótipos e as variáveis de maior interesse para avaliação. O sistema de germinação mais eficiente é através de
Gangopadhyay, Nirupama; Hossain, Mohammad B; Rai, Dilip K; Brunton, Nigel P
Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and cancer. Whilst there is no absolute consensus, some of these benefits may be linked to presence of compounds such as phenolics, vitamin E and β-glucan in these cereals. A number of benefits have also been linked to the lipid component (sterols, fatty acids) and the proteins and bioactive peptides in oats and barley. Since the available evidence is pointing toward the possible health benefits of oat and barley components, a number of authors have examined techniques for recovering them from their native sources. In the present review, we summarise and examine the range of conventional techniques that have been used for the purpose of extraction and detection of these bioactives. In addition, the recent advances in use of novel food processing technologies as a substitute to conventional processes for extraction of bioactives from oats and barley, has been discussed.
Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann
This study aims to investigate how intercropping of oat (Avena sativa L.) with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) affects the mobile fractions of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Th, U, Sc, La, Nd, Ge) in soil solution. Oat and white lupin were cultivated in monocultures and mixed cultures with differing oat/white lupin ratios (11% and 33% lupin, respectively). Temporal variation of soil solution chemistry was compared with the mobilization of elements in the rhizosphere of white lupin and concentrations in plant tissues. Relative to the monocrops, intercropping of oat with 11% white lupin significantly increased the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, La and Nd in soil solution as well as the concentrations of Fe, Pb, Th, Sc, La and Nd in tissues of oat. Enhanced mobility of the mentioned elements corresponded to a depletion of elements in the rhizosphere soil of white lupin. In mixed cultures with 33% lupin, concentrations in soil solution only slightly increased. We conclude that intercropping with 11% white lupin might be a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research enhancing mobility of essential trace metals as well as elements with relevance for phytoremediation (Pb, Th) and phytomining (La, Nd, Sc) in soil.
Meshalkina, J. L.; Yaroslavtsev, A. M.; Vasenev, I. I.; Andreeva, I. V.; Tihonova, M. V.
The carbon balance for the agroecosystems with potato plants and oats & vetch mixture on sod-podzolics soils was evaluated using the eddy covariance approach. Absorption of carbon was recorded only during the growing season; maximum values were detected for all crops in July. The number of days during the vegetation period, when the carbon stocked in the fields with potatoes and oats & vetch mixture was about the same and accounted for 53-55 days. During this period, the increase in gross primary production (GPP) is well correlated with the crop yields. The curve of the gross primary productivity is closely linked to the phases of development of plants; for potatoes, this graph differs significantly for all phases. Form of oats & vetch mixture biomass curve shown linear increases. Carbon losses were observed for all the studied agroecosystems: for fields with an oats & vetch mixture they were 254 g C m-2 y-1, while for fields with potato plants they were 307 g C m-2 y-1. Values about 250-300 g C m-2 per year may be considered as estimated values for the total carbon uptake for agroecosystems with potato plants and oats & vetch mixture on sod-podzolic soils.
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted during 1996-1997 growing season in Mashhad, NE of Iran to evaluate the genetic improvement in ecophysiological traits that enhance the competitiveness of Iranian winter wheat (Triticum aestivuml against wild oat ( Avena ludovicianal. Six Iranian winter wheat cultivars which have been released during the past 40 years were used for this experiment. A factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Each cultivar was planted at its own optimum seeding rate with and without competition with wild oat. Wild oat was planted at a constant density of 80 plants per square meter. The results showed that more recent cultivars had much higher competitive ability compared to earlier cultivars. Alvand (the most recent cultivar had higher dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area index (LAI and relative leaf area growth rate (RLGR compared to Bezostaya. Alvand had a higher proportion of its leaf area in higher canopy layer. Wild oat was also shorter in height when it was competing with Alvand compared to Bezostaya. It was found that following characteristics were the most important criteria in competitive ability of winter wheat against wild oats: 1 leaf area at the end of tillering stage. 2 final leaf area index. 3 relative leaf area index, and 4 the canopy layer where the higher leaf area was measured
Full Text Available Oat and barely are cereal crops mainly used as animal feed and for the purposes of malting and brewing, respectively. Some studies have indicated that consumption of oat and barley rich foods may reduce the risk of some chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease, type II diabetes and cancer. Whilst there is no absolute consensus, some of these benefits may be linked to presence of compounds such as phenolics, vitamin E and β-glucan in these cereals. A number of benefits have also been linked to the lipid component (sterols, fatty acids and the proteins and bioactive peptides in oats and barley. Since the available evidence is pointing toward the possible health benefits of oat and barley components, a number of authors have examined techniques for recovering them from their native sources. In the present review, we summarise and examine the range of conventional techniques that have been used for the purpose of extraction and detection of these bioactives. In addition, the recent advances in use of novel food processing technologies as a substitute to conventional processes for extraction of bioactives from oats and barley, has been discussed.
Muhrez, Kienana; Benz-de Bretagne, Isabelle; Nadal-Desbarats, Lydie; Blasco, Hélène; Gyan, Emmanuel; Choquet, Sylvain; Montigny, Frédéric; Emond, Patrick; Barin-Le Guellec, Chantal
Variable pharmacokinetics of high-dose-methotrexate (MTX) is responsible for severe toxicities. Unpredictable overexposure still occurs during some courses despite having controlled the main factors known to play a role in its elimination. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the urine metabolomic profile measured at the time of MTX administration is predictive of the drug's clearance and/or of treatment-related toxicity. We analyzed the urine content of endogenous metabolites before MTX administration in a cohort of adult patients treated for lymphoid malignancies. Individual MTX clearance (MTX CL ) was estimated from population pharmacokinetic analyses of therapeutic drug monitoring data. We determined the urine metabolite content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and applied Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis to assess the relationship between the urine metabolome and MTX CL . External validation was applied to evaluate the performances of the PLS model. We used orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to distinguish patients with normal or delayed elimination, and patients with or without toxicity. Sixty-two patients were studied. We obtained a very good prediction of individual MTX clearance using a set of 28 metabolites present in patient urine at baseline. The mean prediction error and precision were -0.36% and 21.4%, respectively, for patients not included in the model. The model included a set of endogenous organic anions, of which the tubular secretion depends on organic anion transporter (OAT) function. Our analyses did not allow us to discriminate between patients with or without delayed elimination or those who did or did not experience toxicity. Urinary metabolomics can be informative about an individual's ability to clear MTX. More broadly, it paves the way for the development of a biomarker of tubular secretion, easily measurable from endogenous substances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel
Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.......Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....
Full Text Available A cultura do milho implantada em semeadura direta em sucessão a gramíneas, geralmente, apresenta deficiência inicial de nitrogênio (N. Ela é atribuída à imobilização microbiana de N durante o processo de decomposição da palha com alta razão C/N. Com a finalidade de diminuir esta deficiência, recomenda-se, para qualquer situação, a aplicação de 20 a 30kg/ha de N na semeadura. Porém, será que este manejo se aplica para todas as situações? O objetivo desta revisão é questionar a recomendação de aplicação de nitrogênio na semeadura do milho em sucessão à aveia preta e discutir a eficiência de outras três estratégias que têm sido utilizadas para diminuir a deficiência inicial de N nesta cultura. A disponibilidade de N para as culturas em sucessão é controlada pela intensidade dos processos opostos e simultâneos de imobilização e mineralização do N durante a decomposição de resíduos culturais pela população microbiana do solo. Ela é influenciada pela quantidade, tipo (razão C/N e manejo de resíduos, temperatura do solo, regime de água/aeração, pH e pelo teor de N no solo. Assim, a resposta do milho ao manejo do N está muito relacionada ao ambiente. Outras estratégias têm sido propostas com a finalidade de diminuir a deficiência inicial de N no milho quando implantado em sucessão à aveia preta. Pode-se destacar o atraso da época de semeadura após a dessecação da aveia, a aplicação de N nos estádios iniciais de desenvolvimento da aveia e a aplicação de N no manejo da aveia, ou seja, em pré-semeadura do milho. Portanto, a recomendação do manejo do N deve resultar de uma avaliação caso a caso, evitando-se generalizações.Maize crop sowed in no-tillage in succession to grasses, generally, presents initial deficiency of N. This is attributed to the microbial immobilization of N during the decomposition process of straw with high C/N ratio. With the objective of reducing this
Anders K. Mortensen
Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .
Burgos, María José Grande; Aguayo, M Carmen López; Pulido, Rubén Pérez; Gálvez, Antonio; López, Rosario Lucas
The presence of toxicogenic Staphylococcus aureus in foods and the dissemination of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in the food chain are matters of concern. In the present study, the circular bacteriocin enterocin AS-48, applied singly or in combination with phenolic compounds (carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, and citral) or with 2-nitro-1-propanol (2NPOH), was investigated in the control of a cocktail made from 1 methicillin-sensitive and 1 MRSA strains inoculated on commercial oat and soya drinks. Enterocin AS-48 exhibited low bactericidal activity against staphylococci in the drinks investigated when applied singly. The combinations of sub-inhibitory concentrations of enterocin AS-48 (25 μg/mL) and phenolic compounds or 2NPOH caused complete inactivation of staphylococci in the drinks within 24 h of incubation at 22 °C. When tested in oat and soya drinks stored for 7 d at 10 °C, enterocin AS-48 (25 μg/mL) in combination with 2NPOH (5.5 mM) reduced viable counts rapidly in the case of oat drink (4.2 log cycles after 12 h) or slowly in soya drink (3.8 log cycles after 3 d). The same combined treatment applied on drinks stored at 22 °C achieved a fast inactivation of staphylococci within 12 to 24 h in both drinks, and no viable staphylococci were detected for up to 7 d of storage. Results from the study highlight the potential of enterocin AS-48 in combination with 2NPOH for inactivation of staphylococci. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®
Heiskanen, V P
The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper
The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper
Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas
GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS  library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management
Hofgaard, Ingerd S.; Seehusen, Till; Aamot, Heidi U.; Riley, Hugh; Razzaghian, Jafar; Le, Vinh H.; Hjelkrem, Anne-Grete R.; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Brodal, Guro
The increased occurrence of Fusarium-mycotoxins in Norwegian cereals over the last decade, is thought to be caused by increased inoculum resulting from more cereal residues at the soil surface as a result of reduced tillage practices. In addition, weather conditions have increasingly promoted inoculum development and infection by Fusarium species. The objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of different tillage regimes (autumn plowing; autumn harrowing; spring plowing; spring harrowing) on the inoculum potential (IP) and dispersal of Fusarium spp. in spring oats. Tillage trials were conducted at two different locations in southeast Norway from 2010 to 2012. Oat residues from the previous year’s crop were collected within a week after sowing for evaluation. IP was calculated as the percentage of residues infested with Fusarium spp. multiplied by the proportion of the soil surface covered with residues. Fusarium avenaceum and F. graminearum were the most common Fusarium species recovered from oat residues. The IP of Fusarium spp. was significantly lower in plowed plots compared to those that were harrowed. Plowing in either the autumn or spring resulted in a low IP. Harrowing in autumn was more effective in reducing IP than the spring harrowing, and IP levels for the spring harrowed treatments were generally higher than all other tillage treatments examined. Surprisingly low levels of F. langsethiae were detected in the residues, although this species is a common pathogen of oat in Norway. The percentage of the residues infested with F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. langsethiae generally related to the quantity of DNA of the respective Fusarium species determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR). Fusarium dispersal, quantified by qPCR analysis of spore trap samples collected at and after heading, generally corresponded to the IP. Fusarium dispersal was also observed to increase after rainy periods. Our findings are in line with the
Ingerd Skow Hofgaard
Full Text Available The increased occurrence of Fusarium-mycotoxins in Norwegian cereals over the last decade, is thought to be caused by increased inoculum resulting from more cereal residues at the soil surface as a result of reduced tillage practices. In addition, weather conditions have increasingly promoted inoculum development and infection by Fusarium species. The objective of this work was to elucidate the influence of different tillage regimes (autumn plowing; autumn harrowing; spring plowing; spring harrowing on the inoculum potential (IP and dispersal of Fusarium spp. in spring oats. Tillage trials were conducted at two different locations in southeast Norway from 2010 to 2012. Oat residues from the previous year’s crop were collected within a week after sowing for evaluation. IP was calculated as the percentage of residues infested with Fusarium spp. multiplied by the proportion of the soil surface covered with residues. F. avenaceum and F. graminearum were the most common Fusarium species recovered from oat residues. The IP of Fusarium spp. was significantly lower in plowed plots compared to those that were harrowed. Plowing in either the autumn or spring resulted in a low IP. Harrowing in autumn was more effective in reducing IP than the spring harrowing, and IP levels for the spring harrowed treatments were generally higher than all other tillage treatments examined. Surprisingly low levels of F. langsethiae were detected in the residues, although this species is a common pathogen of oat in Norway. The percentage of the residues infested with F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. culmorum and F. langsethiae generally related to the quantity of DNA of the respective Fusarium species determined using qPCR. Fusarium dispersal, quantified by quantitative PCR analysis of spore trap samples collected at and after heading, generally corresponded to IP. Fusarium dispersal was also observed to increase after rainy periods. Our findings are in line with the
Makowska, Agnieszka; Polcyn, Anna; Chudy, Sylwia; Michniewicz, Jan
Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such products as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*). In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desirability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. In the production of corn extruded snacks an addition of oat, wheat and rye bran
Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.
Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan
The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability.
E. R. Baseggio
Full Text Available The use of bioprotectors in the coating of seeds is increasing, and these become an alternative for the use of chemical fungicides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of Trichoderma spp., with or without polymerization, in the control of pathogens associated with black oats (Avena strigosa and barley (Hordeum vulgare seeds of the cultivars 'Comum' (black oats and BRS Cauê (barley, 2014 crop. After asepsis and dried of the seeds, the treatments were applied, using a dose of 5 mL of Trichoderma spp. kg-1 and 10 mL of seed polymer kg-1 of seeds. Sanity tests; germination; germination and emergency rate index; length of seedling (shoot and root; and fresh and dry weight were performed. The coating of oat and barley seeds with Trichoderma spp. was efficient in the control of pathogens, as well as increased the germination and development of the seedlings for both cultures evaluated.
Nizami, A.S.; Orozco, A.; Groom, E.; Dieterich, B.; Murphy, J.D.
Highlights: ► We highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. ► The results indicated that methane potential varied from 350 to 493 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. ► We compare two distinct digestion systems using the same grass. ► A two stage wet system achieved 451 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. ► A two phase system achieved 341 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added at a 30 day retention time. -- Abstract: Grass biomethane has been shown to be a sustainable gaseous transport biofuel, with a good energy balance, and significant potential for economic viability. Of issue for the designer is the variation in characteristics of the grass depending on location of source, time of cut and species. Further confusion arises from the biomethane potential tests (BMP) which have a tendency to give varying results. This paper has dual ambitions. One of these is to highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. The results indicated that methane potential from the same grass silage varied from 350 to 493 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. The second ambition is to attempt to compare two distinct digestion systems again using the same grass: a two stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR); and a sequentially fed leach bed reactor connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR–UASB). The two engineered systems were designed, fabricated, commissioned and operated at small pilot scale until stable optimal operating conditions were reached. The CSTR system achieved 451 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. The SLBR–UASB achieved 341 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added at a 30 day retention time.
Vosatka, M; Cudlin, P; Mejstrik, V
Spruce stands in Northern Bohemia forests, damaged to various degrees by industrial pollution, have shown establishment of grass cover following tree defoliation. Populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were studied under this grass cover in four permanent plots with spruce under different levels of pollution stress. Soil and root samples were collected in April and June within each plot as follows: (1) sites without grass, (2) sites with initial stages of grass invasion, and (3) sites with fully developed grass cover. In all plots, the highest number of propagules were recovered from samples taken from sites having full grass cover. Mycorrhizal infection of grass was highest in the plot with the severest pollution damage and lowest in the least damaged plot. The development of grass cover and VAM infection of grass increased with tree defoliation caused by air pollution.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased lipid profile after each meal can disturb the endothelial function. The present study assessed the effects of bread supplemented with oat bran on serum lipids and endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: This clinical trial was conducted on 60 isolated hypercholesterolemic patients. The subjects were randomly allocated to either intervention (consuming at least five daily servings of oat bread with 6 g beta-glucan or control (receiving at least five servings of wheat bread. Anthropometric indicators, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles ere measured at baseline and after 6 weeks (in the end of the intervention. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD. Within the group and between group differences were investigated using paired t-test and Student’s t-test, respectively. RESULTS: Oat bread consumption could significantly reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.029. A significant increase in baseline and after ischemia brachial artery diameters at the end of the study was seen. However, it did not have a significant effect on FMD (P = 0.825. In the control group, none of the measured indices had changed significantly at the end of the study. Finally, only the mean change of brachial artery diameter after ischemia and baseline brachial artery diameter were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012 respectively. CONCLUSION: Oat bread with beta-glucan could successfully reduce cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in this study oat bread did not reduce FMD more than wheat bread. Since hypercholesterolemia is a proven risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, hypercholesterolemic patients can hence be advised to eat oat bread. Keywords: Bread, Diet, Flow-Mediated Dilation, Hypercholesterolemia
Momenizadeh, Amir; Heidari, Ramin; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Tabesh, Faezeh; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Haghighatian, Zahra; Golshahi, Jafar; Baseri, Mehdi
Increased lipid profile after each meal can disturb the endothelial function. The present study assessed the effects of bread supplemented with oat bran on serum lipids and endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypercholesterolemia. This clinical trial was conducted on 60 isolated hypercholesterolemic patients. The subjects were randomly allocated to either intervention (consuming at least five daily servings of oat bread with 6 g beta-glucan) or control (receiving at least five servings of wheat bread). Anthropometric indicators, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles ere measured at baseline and after 6 weeks (in the end of the intervention). Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Within the group and between group differences were investigated using paired t-test and Student's t-test, respectively. Oat bread consumption could significantly reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.029). A significant increase in baseline and after ischemia brachial artery diameters at the end of the study was seen. However, it did not have a significant effect on FMD (P = 0.825). In the control group, none of the measured indices had changed significantly at the end of the study. Finally, only the mean change of brachial artery diameter after ischemia and baseline brachial artery diameter were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012 respectively). Oat bread with beta-glucan could successfully reduce cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in this study oat bread did not reduce FMD more than wheat bread. Since hypercholesterolemia is a proven risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, hypercholesterolemic patients can hence be advised to eat oat bread.
Full Text Available Introduction Cereals are the main agricultural production. Wheat is an annual crop, which plays an important role in human’s source of food. Wheat grains have various nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and various amino acids. The annual per capita consumption of wheat is about 232 in Iran, which is about double time of the world capita consumption. Weed interference decrease the quality and quantity of wheat production. Weed management in wheat farms is one of the main cost and time-consuming practices. Wheat yield decrease significantly by weed competition. Therefore, effective weed management dependents on knowledge about the effect of competition on yield and yield components. Response of the yield and yield components to weeds competition is different in crop species during the growth period. Yield components in development stages show the maximum sensitivity to weed competition. Wild Oat is the most important weed in wheat fields. Synchrony in development stages of wild oat with development stages of wheat is much more important reason in reducing of wheat yield and yield component. On the other hand, wild oat damage on wheat yield and yield components depends on several factors including species, plant density, wheat cultivars, nutrients consumption, sowing date, row spacing, and other ecological conditions. Moreover, leaf area index, plant height, leaf area density in canopy determine competitiveness of wild oat among wheat. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of wild oat competition in different plant densities and levels of Nitrogen fertilizer consumption on yield and yield components of wheat under Kermanshah climate. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to evaluate the competition of wild oat and winter wheat at the Research Farm of Campus of Agricultural and Natural Resources of Razi University during 2014-2015. The experiment was arranged in a split plots based on randomized
Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Lyly, Marika
types and amounts of DF exert are still poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated the effects of wheat and oat brans alone and as combination in semisolid food matrix on postprandial appetite profile and gastrointestinal (GI) hormonal responses. Twenty healthy, normal-weight subjects (5...... including 5 g wheat bran DF + 5 g oat bran DF. Blood samples were drawn before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after the test meals to determine plasma glucose, ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and serum insulin concentrations. Subjective profiles of appetite were assessed using visual analogue scales (VAS...
Pfaar, O; Hohlfeld, J M; Al-Kadah, B; Hauswald, B; Homey, B; Hunzelmann, N; Schliemann, S; Velling, P; Worm, M; Klimek, L
Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Based on the extensive cross-reactivity among Pooideae species, it has been suggested that grass pollen extracts could be prepared from a single species, rather than from a multiple species mixture. To find the optimal dose of a Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergoid preparation and compare its efficacy and safety to a 6-grass pollen allergoid preparation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study (EudraCT: 2011-000674-58), three doses of P. pratense allergoid (1800 therapeutic units (TU), standard-dose 6000 TU and 18 000 TU) were compared with placebo and the marketed 6-grass pollen allergoid (6000 TU). In a pre-seasonal dosing regimen, 102 patients were randomized to five treatment groups and received nine subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in weal size (late-phase reaction [LPR]) in response to the intracutaneous testing (ICT) before and after treatment, comparing the active allergoids to placebo. Secondary outcomes were the change in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) assessed in the allergen exposure chamber (AEC), the changes in P. pratense-serum-specific IgG 4 and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). All three doses of the P. pratense and the 6-grass pollen allergoid preparations were significantly superior to placebo for the primary outcome, whereas there were no significant differences in the change in TNSS. Compared to the standard-dose, the high-dose of P. pratense did not produce any additional significant benefit, but showed a slight increase in AEs. Yet this increase in AEs was lower than for the 6-grass pollen preparation. The standard-dose of the new P. pratense allergoid was comparable to the marketed 6-grass pollen preparation at equal dose for the parameters measured. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John
Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih
Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dabney, Clemon; Ostergaard, Jason; Watkins, Eric; Chen, Changbin
The deposition of silicon into epidermal cells of grass species is thought to be an important mechanism that plants use as a defense against pests and environmental stresses. There are a number of techniques available to study the size, density and distribution pattern of silica bodies in grass leaves. However, none of those techniques can provide a high-throughput analysis, especially for a great number of samples. We developed a method utilizing the autofluorescence of silica bodies to investigate their size and distribution, along with the number of carbon inclusions within the silica bodies of perennial grass species Koeleria macrantha. Fluorescence images were analyzed by image software Adobe Photoshop CS5 or ImageJ that remarkably facilitated the quantification of silica bodies in the dry ash. We observed three types of silica bodies or silica body related mineral structures. Silica bodies were detected on both abaxial and adaxial epidermis of K. macrantha leaves, although their sizes, density, and distribution patterns were different. No auto-fluorescence was detected from carbon inclusions. The combination of fluorescence microscopy and image processing software displayed efficient utilization in the identification and quantification of silica bodies in K. macrantha leaf tissues, which should applicable to biological, ecological and geological studies of grasses including forage, turf grasses and cereal crops.
Kung, Chun-Fei; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou
In this study, we show that a compact silicon grass surface can be generated by utilizing the induced coupled plasma method with suitably chosen fabrication parameters. This super-hydrophobic structure suspends deionized water on top of the grass and keeps the contact angle at around 153°. The silicon grass is used to improve the driving efficiency of a capillary pumping micro-duct (without sidewalls), which is completely defined by a bottom hydrophilic stripe (adjacent to a Teflon substrate) and a fully top-covered hydrophobic Teflon surface which is coated on a glass substrate. The channel has a height of 3 µm and a width of 100 µm. In this work, the Teflon substrate is replaced with the silicon grass surface. When the fluid is flowing through the micro-duct on the stripe, the interface between the silicon grass and the hydrophilic stripe forms a stable air cushion barrier to the fluid, thus effectively reducing the frictional force. By changing only the interface with this replacement, we demonstrate that the average measured velocities of the new design show improvements of 21% and 17% in the driving efficiency over the original design for transporting deionized water and human blood, respectively. It is also shown that the measured data of the present design are closer to the values predicted by a theoretical analysis which relates the flow velocity to the contact angles, surface tension and fluid viscosity
MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.
Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.
Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice
Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.
Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095
Full Text Available An account is given of two pot experiments, of which one has included all combinations of 5 heavy metals (cadmium, cobalt, lead, mercury and nickel, 3 rates of each metal, 2 rates of lime, and 3 types of soil (clay soil, peat soil and sandy soil. The experiment has run for 4 years (1973 —1976. Two parallels have been used for each treatment. A third parallel without crop has been used for soil sampling only. The second experiment has run for 3 years (1974 —1976, and has included the same soil types and lime rates, but only cadmium and mercury of the metals. The crop grown in all years has been oats. 250 mg/pot of all metals except lead have had a distinct yield reducing effect. In the case of mercury, the reducing effect ceases from the third year. It decreases gradually after nickel throughout the experimental period, but not after cadmium and cobalt. Heavy liming (pH 6—7 has almost eliminated the yield reduction after nickel, and has considerably reduced it after cobalt. The contents of cadmium, nickel, cobalt, and mercury in the yield have been multiplied with the application of 250 mg/pot of the metals mentioned. Application of even 0.5 mg/pot of cadmium resulted in a distinct increase of content both in grain and straw. 0.5 and 5 mg mercury, however, had only slight effect. The content of the metals decreased throughout the experimental period. The effect of mercury in the fourth year has been minimal, even after the highest application rate. Lead application led to only moderate increase in the content of the yield. Roughly 45—55 percent of the added rates of cadmium, nickel and cobalt, as a mean value for the soil series, has been recovered as AL-soluble at light liming with pH approximately 5. Heavy liming has reduced the uptake by 3—7 percent for cadmium, by 16—20 percent for nickel, and by 22—24 percent for cobalt. Generally, the amounts of AL-soluble metal in soils have decreased in the order: series peat > sand > clay.
M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.
Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these
Odle, W. C.
Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.
Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Suthar, Vishandas; Ahmad, Rizwan; Yousra, Munazza
The abilities of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) to take up heavy metals from soils amended with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were assessed under greenhouse conditions. Both plants were grown in two soils contaminated with heavy metals (Gujranwala-silty loam and Pacca-clay loam). The soils were treated with 0, 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mM EDTA kg -1 soil applied at both 45 and 60 days after sowing (DAS); the experiment was terminated at 75 DAS. Addition of EDTA significantly increased concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Pb in roots and shoots, and bio-concentration factors and phytoextraction rates were also increased. Post-harvest soil analysis showed that soluble fractions of metals were also increased significantly. The increase in Cd was ≈ 3-fold and Pb was ≈ 15-fold at the highest addition of EDTA in Gujranwala soil; in the Pacca soil, the increase was less. Similarly, other phytoremediation factors, such as metal translocation, bio-concentration factor, and phytoextraction, efficiency were also maximum when soils were treated with 2.5 mM EDTA kg -1 soil. The study demonstrated that sorghum was better than oat for phytoremediation.
Ndou, S P; Tun, H M; Kiarie, E; Walsh, M C; Khafipour, E; Nyachoti, C M
The establishment of a healthy gastrointestinal milieu may not only offer an opportunity to reduce swine production costs but could also open the way for a lifetime of human health improvement. This study investigates the effects of feeding soluble fibre from flaxseed meal-containing diet (FM) and insoluble fibre from oat hulls-containing diet (OH) on histomorphological characteristics, digesta- and mucosa-associated microbiota and their associations with metabolites in pig intestines. In comparison with the control (CON) and OH diets, the consumption of FM increased (P PERMANOVA analyses showed distinct (P < 0.05) microbial communities in ileal digesta and mucosa, and caecal mucosa in CON and FM-diets fed pigs compared to the OH diet-fed pigs. The predicted functional metagenomes indicated that amino acids and butanoate metabolism, lysine degradation, bile acids biosynthesis, and apoptosis were selectively enhanced at more than 2.2 log-folds in intestinal microbiota of pigs fed the FM diet. Taken together, flaxseed meal and oat hulls supplementation in growing pigs' diets altered the gastrointestinal development, as well as the composition and function of microbial communities, depending on the intestinal segment and physicochemical property of the dietary fibre source.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to characterize and identify powdery mildew resistance genes in Polish common oat cultivars using host-pathogen tests. A differential set of six Blumeria graminis f.sp. avenae isolates virulent or avirulent to four cultivars and one line that has known resistance to powdery mildew were used. Among the investigated cultivars, only four of them (13.3% had resistance patterns similar to genotypes belonging to the differential set. The resistance of OMR group 1 was found in the cultivar ‘Dragon’, while that of OMR2 in the cultivar ‘Skrzat’. The cultivars ‘Deresz’ and ‘Hetman’ showed a resistance pattern that corresponded with OMR group 3. The resistance corresponding to OMR4 was not found, which suggests that until now this gene has not been used in Polish oat breeding programmes. The cultivar ‘Canyon’ had a different pat- tern of resistance than the genotypes that have already known OMR genes, which indicates that the resistance of this cultivar is determined by a new gene or a combination of known genes.
Mauro Santos Silva
Full Text Available This text presents and comments on the classic proposals of Oates and Musgrave, relative to the effort of conforming the profile of the federative system and the possibilities of optimizing the tax policy, to the recent contributions presented by Shah and Ter-Minassian, focused on the improvement of the fiscal federative relations in the context of a guided economic policy concentrated primarily on reaching the objectives related to stabilization. The objective of this article is to present and comment on the theoretical contributions of Oates, Musgrave, Shah and Ter-Minassian, referring to the core themes of the federative issue: autonomy, fiscal functions, taxing authorities, fiscal transfers and the relevance of the coordinating action conducted by the federal government. The text demonstrates the complexity involved in the theoretical treatment and the related issues on federative policies, and shows the need for continuous improvement of the institutions that preside over fiscal relations in the federative context, based on the coordinating action led by the federal government.
Full Text Available A severe disease occurred in the field plots of naked (cv. Salomon, dwarf (cv. Pal, and conventional oat (cvs. Jalostettu maatiainen and Salo at the Viikki Experimental Farm of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in 1994 and 1995. Symptoms were expressed as grayish-brown necrotic areas on the lower leaves which killed plants from the seedling to heading stage, the effect being cultivar dependent. The proportion of plants killed plants from the seedling to heading stage, the effect being cultivar dependent. The proportion of plants killed contributed to the yield losses. The infection also resulted in less grains per panicle and lower weight of both panicle and vegetative above-ground biomass. From a total of 57 fungal isolates obtained from infected leaves, Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Sm. Sacc. and F. sambucinum Fuck. Dominated and subsequently caused infection (particularly foot and root rot in oat in laboratory tests. These two Fusarium spp. Were considered to be the primary causal agents of the symptoms observed in the field, although other pathogens may have been present. The disease was probably soil-borne. The results of this study suggested that the unusually dry and warm weather during late June and in July was the principal factor behind the severe disease outbreak. ;
Deise Dalazen Castagnara
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fertilization with zinc or boron on the growth and dry matter production, nutritional value and accumulation of nutrients in white oats. The study comprised two experiments conducted in glasshouses, the first consisting of the application of four doses of zinc (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of zinc sulphate (20% Zn, and the second consisting of the application of four doses of boron (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/dm³ in the form of Borax (11% B. The experimental design in each case was a randomized block design, with five replicates. Fertilization with zinc and boron increased the growth of white oats, but had no significant effect on the nutritional value of the forage. Higher levels of absorption and accumulation of nutrients in plant tissues were observed following the application of boron and zinc at rates of up to 0.60 mg/dm³ of soil.
Adams, C.J.; Roland, N.W.
The majority of the Oates Coast, northern Victoria Land granitoids, typified by those at Drake Head and Kartografov Island (Harald Bay), are monzogranites with lesser granodiorites and minor quartz-monzodiorite and syenogranite. All are plagioclase-K-feldspar-biotite granitoids with additional muscovite, garnet and/or hornblende, and are subalkaline and peraluminous. Berg Granite typifies the early Ordovician, Granite Harbour Instrusive (GHI) suite of the Ross Orogen at the Oates Coast. Granitoids from Kartografov Island have higher amounts of Fe+Mg+Ti and an ambiguous Rb-Sr geochronology: they could be either pre-Ross Orogeny in age, or syn-Ross Orogeny and representing a lower structural level of GHI. The Drake Head granite gneiss has a fractionated leuco-granite composition similar to Berg Granite, and is intruded by granite and granodiorite. Rb-Sr ages indicate that all are Neoproterozoic, although the granite gneiss result is probably an errorchron age, reflecting its less uniform nature (granodiorite:649 ± 30 Ma, initial ratio 0.7065 +/- 6; granite gneiss: 682 ± 140 Ma, initial ratio 0.7107 ± 50). These late Neoproterozoic granitoids provide a source for distinctive detrital zircon age components in extensive early Paleozoic turbidites of Australia-New Zealand-Antarctica. (author). 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab
Meyer, Susan E; Merrill, Katherine T; Allen, Phil S; Beckstead, Julie; Norte, Anna S
Invasive plants exhibit both direct and indirect negative effects on recruitment of natives following invasion. We examined indirect effects of the invader Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) on seed fates of two native grass species, Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata, by removing B. tectorum and by adding inoculum of the shared seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in factorial experiments at xeric and mesic field sites. We also included a supplemental watering treatment to increase emergence and also the potential for pathogen escape. We recorded emergence and survival of native seedlings and also determined the fate of unemerged seeds. At the xeric site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was high (34%), and effects of other pathogens and failed emergence of germinants were smaller. Cheatgrass removal negatively affected both emergence (35 vs. 25%) and spring survival (69 vs. 42%). Pyrenophora-caused seed mortality increased with inoculum augmentation for both species (22 vs. 47% overall), but emergence was negatively impacted only for P. spicata (20 vs. 34%). At the mesic site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was low (6%). Cheatgrass removal doubled emergence (26 vs. 14%). Seed mortality increased significantly with inoculum augmentation for P. spicata (12 vs. 5%) but not E. elymoides, while emergence was not significantly affected in either species. A large fraction of seeds produced germinants that failed to emerge (37%), while another large fraction (35%) was killed by other pathogens. We conclude that facilitation by cheatgrass at the xeric site but interference at the mesic site was probably mediated through litter effects that could be ameliorative or suppressive. Apparent competition between cheatgrass and native grasses could occur through Pyrenophora, especially in a xeric environment, but effects were weak or absent at emergence. This was probably because Pyrenophora attacks the same slow-germinating fraction that is subject to pre-emergence mortality from
Casal, J.J.; Clough, R.C.; Vierstra, R.D.
The occurrence of phytochrome-mediated high irradiance responses (HIR), previously characterised largely in dicotyledonous plants, was investigated in Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L., Lolium multiflorum Lam. and in both wild-type Oryza sativa L. and in transgenic plants overexpressing oat phytochrome A under the control of a 35S promoter. Coleoptile growth was promoted (maize, ryegrass) or inhibited (wild-type rice) by continuous far-red light (FRc). However, at equal fluences, hourly pulses of far-red light (FRp) were equally effective, indicating that the growth responses to FRc were not true HIR. In contrast, in maize and rice, FRc increased anthocyanin content in the coleoptile in a fluence-rate dependent manner. This response was a true HIR as FRp had reduced effects. In maize, anthocyanin levels were significantly higher under FRc than under continuous red light. In rice, overexpression of phytochrome A increased the inhibition of coleoptile growth and the levels of anthocyanin under FRc but not under FRp or under continuous red light. The effect of FRc was fluence-rate dependent. In light-grown rice, overexpression of phytochrome A reduced leaf-sheath length, impaired the response to supplementary far-red light, but did not affect the response to canopy shade-light. In grasses, typical HIR, i.e. fluence-rate dependent responses showing reciprocity failure, can be induced by FRc. Under FRc, overexpressed phytochrome A operates through this action mode in transgenic rice. (author)
El-khoukhi, T.; Fidah, M.; Oublaid, B.
Be-7 is one of the radionuclides produced by the nuclear reactions of protons and alpha particulates of galactic and solar cosmic rays as well as the secondary neutrons produced during those reactions. it is submitted, as soon as it is produced, to the physical and chemical laws of the environment, such as air motions or the fixing to the atmospheric aerosols. In the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring programme of Maamora site (Morocco), samples of grass were collected, prepared and analyzed using gamma spectrometry. The preparation consists of drying and ashing the grass. The detector used is coaxial Ge HP with 20% efficiency. Samples were counted for more than 50000 s. The activity of Be-7 calculated for samples collected in 10 km around Maamora site varies between 4 and 20 Bq/g of ashed grass. 3 refs. (author)
for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project...... conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can...... act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however...
Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation's electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study's methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared
Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten
In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygro......In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate...
Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily
Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait...
Bajo, S.; Keil, R.
A radiochemical method for the determination of 90 Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90 Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs
Chughtai, F.A.; Shah, M.H.
Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)
Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Barlianti, Vera; Anggraini, Irni Fitria; Hendarsyah, Hendris
Experiments on the potential of Cogon grass (lmperata cylindrica), a weed harmful to other plants, for use as a low-cost and biodegradable oil sorbent were carried out under various spill conditions. Flowers of Cogon grass adsorbed much larger amount of high-viscosity lubricating oil (57.9 g-oil/g-sorbent) than that adsorbed by Peat Sorb (7.7 g-oil/g-sorbent), a commercial oilsorbent based on peat. However, the flowers adsorbed only 27.9 g of low-viscosity crude oillgsorbent. In an oil-water ...
Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa
BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...
Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...
Full Text Available Regional maps of grass nutrients are important to inform decision making regarding the management of savanna ecosystems. Grass nutrients plays a crucial role in understanding the distribution, densities and feeding patterns of both wild herbivores...
Full Text Available Information about the distribution of grass nitrogen (N) concentration is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. A challenge in estimating grass N concentration using remote...
Full Text Available Information on the distribution of grass quality (nutrient concentration) is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. The spatial distribution of grass nutrient concentration occurs...
In this study, we evaluated the capacity of recombinant industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae YRH 396 and YRH 400 strains to ferment sugars from oat hull and soybean hull hydrolysates into ethanol and xylitol. The strains were genetically modified by chromosomal integration of Pichia stipitis XYLI/XYL...
Full Text Available This paper developed a rapid and nondestructive method for quantitative analysis of a cheaper adulterant (wheat flour in oat flour by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Reflectance FT-NIR spectra in the range of 4000 to 12000 cm−1 of 300 oat flour objects adulterated with wheat flour were measured. The doping levels of wheat flour ranged from 5% to 50% (w/w. To ensure the generalization performance of the method, both the oat and the wheat flour samples were collected from different producing areas and an incomplete unbalanced randomized block (IURB design was performed to include the significant variations that may be encountered in future samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was used to develop calibration models for predicting the levels of wheat flour. Different preprocessing methods including smoothing, taking second-order derivative (D2, and standard normal variate (SNV transformation were investigated to improve the model accuracy of PLS. The root mean squared error of Monte Carlo cross-validation (RMSEMCCV and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP were 1.921 and 1.975 (%, w/w by D2-PLS, respectively. The results indicate that NIR and chemometrics can provide a rapid method for quantitative analysis of wheat flour in oat flour.
Full Text Available A gluten-free diet (GFD is currently the only available treatment for patients with celiac disease (CD. Several clinical trials have demonstrated that most celiac patients can tolerate a medium-high quantity of oats without any negative clinical effects; however, the inclusion of oats in GFD is still a matter of debate. In this study, Italian children with CD were enrolled in a 15-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Participants were randomized in two groups following either A-B treatment (6 months of diet “A”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “B”, or B-A treatment (6 months of diet “B”, 3 months of standard GFD, 6 months of diet “A”. A and B diets included gluten-free (GF products (flour, pasta, biscuits, cakes and crisp toasts with either purified oats or placebo. Clinical data (Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rate Scale [GSRS] score and intestinal permeability tests (IPT, were measured through the study period. Although the study is still blinded, no significant differences were found in GSRS score or the urinary lactulose/mannitol (L/M ratio between the two groups after 6 months of treatment. These preliminary results suggest that the addition of non-contaminated oats from selected varieties in the treatment of children with CD does not determine changes in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Full Text Available Introduction. Oats are high in soluble fibers and effective in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD. We assessed the effects of beta-glucan from oat bran on serum nitric oxide (NO endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Method. Sixty hypercholesterolemic patients were randomly divided to receive an experimental bread rich in beta-glucan from oat bran (intervention or bread rich in wheat fiber (control for four weeks. All subjects had the same diet for two-week baseline period and hypocaloric diet for four weeks of intervention. Serum NO concentration and flow-mediated dilation (FMD were determined before and after the experiment. Results. Mean age of the participants was 51.1 ± 9.3 years and 65% (n=39 were female. After intervention, serum NO concentration increased by 50.2 ± 19.8 μmol/lit in the intervention group (P=0.017, but no change was observed in the control group (17.5 ± 27.5 μmol/lit; P=0.530. No change of FMD was observed in the intervention (0.48 ± 0.78%; P=0.546 or in the control group (0.59 ± 0.92%; P=0.533. Conclusion. Consumption of oat bread for four weeks increases serum NO concentration but has no effect on FMD. Further studies are warranted in this regard.
Volman, Julia J.; Mensink, Ronald P.; Ramakers, Julian D.; de Winther, Menno P.; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Rune; Buurman, Wim A.; Plat, Jogchum
Dietary components, like beta-glucans, can modulate the intestinal immune response. We previously showed that fecal water enriched with oat beta-glucan stimulated the cytokine-induced immune response of enterocytes. It is, however, unclear whether beta-glucans activate nuclear factor-kappaB
Multari, Salvatore; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Ollennu-Chuasam, Priscilla; Hietaniemi, Veli; Yang, Baoru; Suomela, Jukka-Pekka
Finland is the second largest oat producer in Europe. Despite the existing knowledge of phenolics in oat, there is little information on the phenolic composition of oats from Finland. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of free and bound phenolic acids, as well as avenanthramides in eight Finnish cultivars of husked oat ( Avena sativa L.). Seven phenolic acids and one phenolic aldehyde were identified, including, in decreasing order of abundance: p-coumaric, ferulic, cinnamic, syringic, vanillic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic, and o-coumaric acids and syringaldehyde. Phenolic acids were mostly found as bound compounds. Significant varietal differences ( p phenolic acids, with the lowest level found in cv. 'Viviana' (1202 ± 52.9 mg kg -1 ) and the highest in cv. 'Akseli' (1687 ± 80.2 mg kg -1 ). Avenanthramides (AVNs) 2a, 2p, and 2f were the most abundant. Total AVNs levels ranged from 26.7 ± 1.44 to 185 ± 12.5 mg kg -1 in cv. 'Avetron' and 'Viviana', respectively.
Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...
Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Yusof, M.A. Wahab; Ibrahim, M.Z.
A preliminary study of the uptake of 226 Ra and 228 Ra by grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps was carried out. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in grass and shrubs were measured using gamma spectrometry. The result showed that grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps contained elevated levels of radium compared to grass and shrubs grown on normal soils. Thus, these plants might be used for phytoremediation of radium contaminated soil. (author)
Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.
The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...
Jaya Shankar Tumuluru
Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial
Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin. 2Département de ..... size, floret per tiller (Hare and Rolston, 1990) seed per head and .... grasses and legumes cultivated as ley pastures in the ... Grassl., 35: 43-47. Clua AA ...
Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies. Keywords: lemon grass; essential oil; antifungal activity; anti-inflammatory effect; citral; aromatherapy ...
A literature survey of autecological studies on southern African grass species was undertaken. Results revealed that there is a comparative lack of autecological versus community studies. Where autecological studies have been conducted, most of the attention was focused on 'pasture' or 'desirable' species with ...
Evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (WUE) were determined for each of seven grass species during the 1986/87 seasons. The highest and lowest mean daily Et of 2, 39 and 1, 66 mm were recorded respectively for Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus. Between species, the average Et for the two ...
Nuclear power plants experiencing personnel recruitment problems are trying a grass-roots approach to increase the manpower pool. The Philadelphia Electric Co. and the Toledo Edison Co. are working with local educational institutions to offer nuclear-technology training specific to the needs of nuclear plants. The utilities' investment covers much of the cost of instruction as well as continued training for employees
Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...
Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.
This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial
Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.
This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial
Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt
In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...
Alexandre Magno Brighenti
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.
Grass cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) is cherished by many people but, its conservation status is at risk hence, the quest for domestication. An investigation into the domestication process of this rodent in four farms in Oyo and Osun States was carried out. Sixty structured questionnaires were administered to fifteen ...
Herbaceous species preference was studied during autumn and winter periods of occupation, on rotationally-grazed Dohne Sourveld, at four different stocking rates. Reports on species selection by cattle and sheep grazing together. Illustrates with graphsLanguage: English. Keywords: Grass species; Herbage availibility; ...
Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...
A new species of grass frog of lhe genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs In advertisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that ...
Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria include a diverse group of soil bacteria thought to stimulate plant growth by various mechanisms. Brachiaria forage grasses, of African origin, are perennials that often grow under low-input conditions and are likely to harbour unique populations of PGP bacteria. Three bacterial strains ...
Ide, Janet L.
Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)
E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan
Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...
To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...
... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... with the endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from...
W. Lopushinsky; G.O. Klock
Seasonal trends of soil water content in plots of snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L), and pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubes- cens Buckl.) and in bare plots were measured on a burned-over forest watershed in north-central Washington. A comparison of soil water contents at depths of 12, 24,...
Vuuren, van A.M.
Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand
Oct 16, 2006 ... stored at –20° C in a deep freezer immediately after collection. At the end of each collection period, the samples were bulked for each animal for proximate analysis according to AOAC (1980) procedures. Compositions of the concentrates, Rhodes grass, groundnut haulms, sweet potato forage and soybean ...
Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.
Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing
fed on napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) which has been adopted owing to its high dry matter. (DM) yields and palatability (Anindo ... high nutrient yields and therefore high animal output are likely to be achieved. Unfortunately, farm- ers lack specific ..... This consequently led to higher nutrient intake and weight gains.
Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...
Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn
Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...
Laffer, S.; Vrtala, S.; Duchêne, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Valenta, R.
A panel of 60 cDNA clones coding for IgE-binding proteins from timothy grass pollen was immunocharacterized with sera from 30 patients allergic to grass pollen and antibodies raised against natural grass pollen allergens. In the cases of five representative patients in whom the IgE reactivity
Os, van M.
In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products
Jacobs, A.A.A.; Scheper, J.A.; Benvenutti, M.A.; Gordon, I.J.; Poppi, D.P.; Elgersma, A.
The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and
An isolate of loose kernel smut obtained from Johnson grass was inoculated unto six BTx643 sorghum plants in the greenhouse to determine its aggressiveness. All the BTx643 sorghum plants inoculated with the Johnson grass isolate were infected. Mean size of the teliospores from the Johnson grass, i...
Chen, L; Guo, G; Yuan, X J; Zhang, J; Wen, A Y; Sun, X H; Shao, T
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ensiling different ratios of whole crop oat to lucerne on fermentation quality, aerobic stability and in vitro digestibility of silage on the Tibetan plateau. Four experimental treatments were produced varying in the ratio of forages on a fresh matter (FM) basis: 1) 100% oat (control, dry matter (DM) content: 317 g/kg), 2) 90% oat + 10% lucerne (OL10, DM content: 316 g/kg), 3) 80% oat+ 20% lucerne (OL20, DM content: 317 g/kg) and 4) 70% oat+ 30% lucerne (OL30, DM content: 318 g/kg). All treatments were packed into laboratory-scale silos and ensiled for 60 days and then subjected to an aerobic stability test for 15 days. Further, the four experimental treatments were incubated in vitro with buffered rumen fluid to study the nutrient digestibility. All silages were well preserved with low pH and NH 3 -N contents, and high lactic acid contents and V-scores (evaluation of silage quality). Increasing the lucerne proportion increased (p aerobic conditions, the control silage showed higher (p 10 5 cfu/g FM) followed by OL10 silage, and OL10 silage improved aerobic stability for 74 h. OL20 and OL30 silages showed fewer (p aerobic stability (>360 h). After 48-h incubation, OL30 silage increased (p aerobic stability IVDMD and IVNDFD. OL30 silage was the best among the three mixed silages. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the
Adubação nitrogenada na aveia preta. I - Influência na produção de matéria seca e ciclagem de nutrientes sob sistema plantio direto Black oat biomass and nutrient cycling as affected by nitrogen fertilization in soil under no-tillage
ção nitrogenada. A relação C/N dos resíduos produzidos diminuiu, aproximadamente, em uma unidade a cada 10 kg ha-1 de N aplicados na aveia. Portanto, a adubação nitrogenada, além de proporcionar maior ciclagem de nutrientes, foi uma eficiente estratégia para melhorar a quantidade e a qualidade dos resíduos de aveia preta aportados ao solo no sistema plantio direto.The performance of no-tillage systems depends, among other factors, on the quantity and quality of residues added to the soil. In Southern Brazil, the main cover crop anteceding summer crops is black oat (Avena strigosa, Schieb. The growth of this grass is often limited by N deficiency. In this situation, nitrogen fertilization is a possible option to increase the efficiency of this cover crop in no-tillage systems. Main goal of this study was the evaluation of effects of N rates applied on black oat and biomass production, the amount of nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg, as well as the C/N ratio in the produced residues. The experiment was carried out during 1998, 1999, and 2000 at the Federal University of Santa Maria, on the experimental area of the Soil Science Department, Santa Maria county, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, on a typic Hapludalf with a sandy loam A horizon and 19 g kg-1 organic matter. The experimental layout was a completely randomized block design in four replicates, with treatments that consisted in seven N rates (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, and 240 kg ha-1 applied to the black oat. Urea, used as N source, was spread out manually and in up to four split applications. Lime, P and K fertilization, based on crop needs, was applied at constant rates in all treatments. Nitrogen fertilization of black oat gave rise to a quadratic response in biomass production and nutrient contents stored in the oat shoots, while N responded linearly. The plant N recovery was low (around 33 % of the total N applied in a three year average. Under the highest N dose, the amounts of recycled P and K was 70 and 88
Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of
Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike
Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.
Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J
The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.